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Sample records for body exercise performance

  1. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  2. Upper Body Aerobic Exercise as a Possible Predictor of Lower Body Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, Carl J; Broxterman, Ryan M; Craig, Jesse C; Schlup, Susanna J; Wilcox, Samuel L; Barstow, Thomas J

    2015-07-01

    Aerobic exercise capacity provides information regarding cardiorespiratory health and physical capacity. However, in many populations the ability to measure whole-body or leg aerobic exercise capacity is limited due to physical disability or lack of appropriate equipment. Clinically there is a need to evaluate aerobic capacity in individuals who cannot use their legs for locomotion. In astronauts the habitable space for exercise testing in the next generation of space exploration systems may be restricted and may not support the traditional lower body testing. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if upper body physical performance could estimate lower body aerobic capacity. Maximal O₂uptake (Vo(2max)), gas exchange threshold (GET), and the highest sustainable rate of aerobic metabolism [arm cranking critical power ((A)CP) and lower body critical speed ((L)CS)] were determined in 55 conditioned men and women during arm-cranking and treadmill running. Vo(2max) and GET (48.6 ± 7.6 and 29.0 ± 4.8 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹, respectively) were significantly lower during arm-cranking exercise compared to running (27.1 ± 7.6 and 13.5 ± 2.6 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹, respectively). The Vo₂at ACP was significantly lower than the Vo₂at the (L)CS (18.4 ± 5.01 vs. 39.5 ± 8.1 ml · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹, respectively). There was a significant correlation between arm-cranking and lower body Vo2max, GET, and the Vo₂at (L)CS and ACP. Backward stepwise regression analyses revealed that arm-cranking physical fitness could explain 67%, 40%, and 49% of the variance in lower body Vo(2max), GET, and (L)CS, respectively. Results suggest arm-cranking exercise can be used to obtain an approximation of lower body aerobic capacity.

  3. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks o...

  4. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players.

  5. Resistance exercise dosage in older adults: single- versus multiset effects on physical performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether variation in resistance exercise volume affects muscle function and physical performance response in older adults. A randomized trial with subjects assigned to a single-set (1-SET) or three-set (3-SET) exercise group. An exercise facility at the University of Queensland. Twenty-eight community-dwelling men and women aged 65 to 78. Progressive resistance training consisting of seven exercises targeting the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body performed on exercise machines twice weekly for 20 weeks at eight-repetition maximum (RM) intensity. Muscle function included isotonic muscle strength (1-RM) of the seven exercises, isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength, and muscle endurance for the chest press and leg press exercises. Physical performance included timed chair rise, usual and fast 6-m walk, 6-m backwards walk, 400-m walk, floor rise to standing, and stair climbing ability. In addition, body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Isotonic muscle strength increased in both exercise groups for all seven exercises (P<.01), with the gain in the 3-SET group greater (P<.05) for the seated row, triceps extension, and knee extension (analysis of covariance). Similarly, muscle endurance gains were greater for the 3-SET than the 1-SET group (P<.01), with no significant difference between groups for isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength. Both groups improved (P<.05) in the chair rise (1-SET, 10.1%; 3-SET, 13.6%), 6-m backwards walk (1-SET, 14.3%; 3-SET, 14.8%), 400-m walk (1-SET, 3.8%; 3-SET, 7.4%), and stair climbing test (1-SET, 7.7%; 3-SET, 6.4%), with the only difference between groups for the 400-m walk (P<.05). There was no difference between groups for change in body composition. Resistance training consisting of only single-set exercises is sufficient to significantly enhance muscle function and physical performance, although muscle strength and endurance gains are greater with higher

  6. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  7. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  8. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea; Tolomio, Silvia; Berton, Linda; Sergi, Giuseppe; Zaccaria, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG), land group (LG), and control group (CG). AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C) while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG -19.3%, P decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P decreased by 9.2% (P flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly.

  9. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  10. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergamin M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Bergamin,1 Andrea Ermolao,1 Silvia Tolomio,1 Linda Berton,2 Giuseppe Sergi,2 Marco Zaccaria1 1Sports Medicine Division, 2Geriatrics Division, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG, land group (LG, and control group (CG. AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG −19.3%, P < 0.05; LG −12.6%, P < 0.05, with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05, while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05, and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05. In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05. In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly. Keywords: aging, multimodality exercise, performance, muscle mass

  11. Keto-adaptation enhances exercise performance and body composition responses to training in endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Fionn T; Wardrop, Bruce; Hyde, Parker N; Lafountain, Richard A; Volek, Jeff S; Doyle, Lorna

    2018-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have recently grown in popularity among endurance athletes, yet little is known about the long-term (>4wk) performance implications of consuming a low-carbohydrate high fat ketogenic diet (LCKD) in well-trained athletes. Twenty male endurance-trained athletes (age 33±11y, body mass 80±11kg; BMI 24.7±3.1kg/m 2 ) who habitually consumed a carbohydrate-based diet, self-selected into a high-carbohydrate (HC) group (n=11, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=65:14:20), or a LCKD group (n=9, 6:17:77). Both groups performed the same training intervention (endurance, strength and high intensity interval training (HIIT)). Prior to and following successful completion of 12-weeks of diet and training, participants had their body composition assessed, and completed a 100km time trial (TT), six second (SS) sprint, and a critical power test (CPT). During post-intervention testing the HC group consumed 30-60g/h carbohydrate, whereas the LCKD group consumed water, and electrolytes. The LCKD group experienced a significantly greater decrease in body mass (HC -0.8kg, LCKD -5.9kg; P=0.006, effect size (ES): 0.338) and percentage body fat percentage (HC -0.7%, LCKD -5.2%; P=0.008, ES: 0.346). Fasting serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) significantly increased from 0.1 at baseline to 0.5mmol/L in the LCKD group (P=0.011, ES: 0.403) in week 12. There was no significant change in performance of the 100km TT between groups (HC -1.13min·s, LCKD -4.07min·s, P=0.057, ES: 0.196). SS sprint peak power increased by 0.8 watts per kilogram bodyweight (w/kg) in the LCKD group, versus a -0.1w/kg reduction in the HC group (P=0.025, ES: 0.263). CPT peak power decreased by -0.7w/kg in the HC group, and increased by 1.4w/kg in the LCKD group (P=0.047, ES: 0.212). Fat oxidation in the LCKD group was significantly greater throughout the 100km TT. Compared to a HC comparison group, a 12-week period of keto-adaptation and exercise training, enhanced body composition, fat oxidation during

  12. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  13. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  14. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  15. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2013-01-01

    Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO 2max increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.

  16. Effect of body composition, aerobic performance and physical activity on exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Więcek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Wiecha, Szczepan; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be the result of an increase in ATP resynthesis during exercise. The aim of the study was to compare prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) disturbances induced by exercise at maximal intensity in young men with differing body compositions. Thirty-nine subjects were selected from 1549 volunteers aged 18-30, based on lean body mass (LBM) and body fat percentage (%BF), and then assigned into one of the following groups: control group (CON), including subjects with average LBM (59.0-64.3 kg) and average %BF (14.0-18.5%); high body fat (HBF) group, including subjects with high %BF (>21.5%) and average LBM; and high lean body mass (HLBM) group, including subjects with high LBM (>66.3 kg) and average %BF. Participants' physical activity was determined. A running test with a gradually increased load was used. Before and 3 minutes after exercise, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in the plasma, and the Oxidative Stress Index (OSI = TOS/TAC) was calculated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was comparable in the HBF and HLBM groups (53.12±1.51 mL/kg and 50.25±1.27 mL/kg, respectively) and significantly lower compared to the CON group (58.23±1.62 mL/kg). The CON, HBF and HLBM groups showed similar significant (P0.05). There was significant negative correlation between OSI, measured before and after exercise, and participants' physical activity. There was no correlation between OSI and VO2max, BM, LBM, %BF and BMI. Exercise at maximal intensity causes a similar increase in TOS and in TAC in subjects with increased %BF and elevated content of LBM and regardless of body composition, the ratios of TOS/TAC concentrations before and after maximal-intensity exercise, have lower values in people with higher physical activity levels and are not dependent on aerobic performance (VO2max).

  17. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

  18. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koundourakis, Nikolaos E; Androulakis, Nikolaos E; Malliaraki, Niki; Tsatsanis, Christos; Venihaki, Maria; Margioris, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week off-season detraining period on exercise performance, body composition, and on circulating sex steroid levels in soccer players. Fifty-five professional male soccer players, members of two Greek Superleague Teams (Team A, n = 23; Team B, n = 22), participated in the study. The first two weeks of the detraining period the players abstained from any physical activity. The following four weeks, players performed low-intensity (50%-60% of VO2max) aerobic running of 20 to 30 minutes duration three times per week. Exercise performance testing, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before and after the six-week experimental period. Our data showed that in both teams A and B the six-week detraining period resulted in significant reductions in maximal oxygen consumption (60,31±2,52 vs 57,67±2,54; pperiod resulted in a rapid loss of exercise performance adaptations and optimal body composition status, but did not affect sex steroid resting levels. The insignificant changes in sex steroid concentration indicate that these hormones were a non-contributing parameter for the observed negative effects of detraining on exercise performance and body composition.

  19. The effects of 8 weeks of whey or rice protein supplementation on body composition and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Wilson, Jacob M; Purpura, Martin; De Souza, Eduardo O; Wilson, Stephanie Mc; Kalman, Douglas S; Dudeck, Joshua E; Jäger, Ralf

    2013-06-20

    Consumption of moderate amounts of animal-derived protein has been shown to differently influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy during resistance training when compared with nitrogenous and isoenergetic amounts of plant-based protein administered in small to moderate doses. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine if the post-exercise consumption of rice protein isolate could increase recovery and elicit adequate changes in body composition compared to equally dosed whey protein isolate if given in large, isocaloric doses.

  20. Does acute exercise affect the performance of whole-body, psychomotor skills in an inverted-U fashion? A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I

    2015-03-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Brain temperature and exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    temperature in exercising goats indicate that excessive brain hyperthermia will directly affect motor performance. However, several homeostatic changes arise in parallel with hyperthermia including factors that may influence both peripheral and central fatigue and it is likely that these changes interact......Events arising within the central nervous system seem to play a major factor in the aetiology of hyperthermia-induced fatigue. Thus, various studies with superimposed electrical nerve stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation have shown that both passive and exercise-induced hyperthermia...... will impair voluntary motor activation during sustained maximal contractions. In humans the brain temperature increases in parallel with that of the body core making it very difficult to evaluate the independent effect of the cerebral temperature. Experiments with separate manipulation of the brain...

  2. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  3. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. ... Participants then performed two different exercises: standing calf raises and prone bridging, without and with WBV.

  4. Discrepancy between exercise performance, body composition, and sex steroid response after a six-week detraining period in professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos E Koundourakis

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a six-week off-season detraining period on exercise performance, body composition, and on circulating sex steroid levels in soccer players. METHODS: Fifty-five professional male soccer players, members of two Greek Superleague Teams (Team A, n = 23; Team B, n = 22, participated in the study. The first two weeks of the detraining period the players abstained from any physical activity. The following four weeks, players performed low-intensity (50%-60% of VO2max aerobic running of 20 to 30 minutes duration three times per week. Exercise performance testing, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before and after the six-week experimental period. RESULTS: Our data showed that in both teams A and B the six-week detraining period resulted in significant reductions in maximal oxygen consumption (60,31±2,52 vs 57,67±2,54; p<0.001, and 60,47±4,13 vs 58,30±3,88; p<0.001 respectively, squat-jump (39,70±3,32 vs 37,30±3,08; p<0.001, and 41,05±3,34 vs 38,18±3,03; p<0.001 respectively, and countermovement-jump (41,04±3,99 vs 39,13±3,26; p<0.001 and 42,82±3,60 vs 40,09±2,79; p<0.001 respectively, and significant increases in 10-meters sprint (1,74±0,063 vs 1,79±0,064; p<0.001, and 1,73±0,065 vs 1,78±0,072; p<0.001 respectively, 20-meters sprint (3,02±0,05 vs 3,06±0,06; p<0.001, and 3,01±0,066 vs 3,06±0,063; p<0.001 respectively, body fat percentage (Team A; p<0.001, Team B; p<0.001, and body weight (Team A; p<0.001, Team B; p<0.001. Neither team displayed any significant changes in the resting concentrations of total-testosterone, free-testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, Δ4-androstenedione, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and prolactin. Furthermore, sex steroids levels did not correlate with exercise performance parameters. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the six-week detraining period resulted in a rapid loss of

  5. Cardiovascular control during whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Secher, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    It has been considered whether during whole body exercise the increase in cardiac output is large enough to support skeletal muscle blood flow. This review addresses four lines of evidence for a flow limitation to skeletal muscles during whole body exercise. First, even though during exercise...... the blood flow achieved by the arms is lower than that achieved by the legs (=160 vs. 385 mlmin1100 g1), the muscle mass that can be perfused with such flow is limited by the capacity to increase cardiac output (42 l/min, highest recorded value). Secondly, activation of the exercise pressor reflex during...... fatiguing work with one muscle group limits flow to other muscle groups. Another line of evidence comes from evaluation of regional blood flow during exercise where there is a discrepancy between flow to a muscle group when it is working exclusively and when it works together with other muscles. Finally...

  6. The Effects of Pre- and Post-Exercise Whey vs. Casein Protein Consumption on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Female Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin D; Taylor, Lem W; Outlaw, Jordan; Williams, Laura; Campbell, Bill; Foster, Cliffa A; Smith-Ryan, Abbie; Urbina, Stacie; Hayward, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Two of the most popular forms of protein on the market are whey and casein. Both proteins are derived from milk but each protein differs in absorption rate and bioavailability, thus it is possible that each type of protein may contribute differently to the adaptations elicited through resistance training. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effects of ingestion of two types of protein in conjunction with a controlled resistance training program in collegiate female basketball players. Sixteen NCAA Division III female basketball players were matched according to body mass and randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to consume 24 g whey protein (WP) (N = 8, 20.0 ± 1.9 years, 1.58 ± 0.27 m, 66. 0 ± 4.9 kg, 27.0 ± 4.9 %BF) or 24 g casein protein (CP) (N = 8, 21.0 ± 2.8 years, 1.53 ± 0.29 m, 68.0 ± 2.9 kg, 25.0 ± 5.7 %BF) immediately pre- and post-exercise for eight weeks. Subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week undulating periodized training program. At 0 and 8 weeks, subjects underwent DXA body composition analysis, and at 0 and 8 weeks underwent one repetition maximum (1RM) strength, muscle endurance, vertical jump, 5-10-5 agility run, and broad jump testing sessions. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, and presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 60 days. No significant group x time interaction effects were observed among groups in changes in any variable (p > 0.05). A significant time effect was observed for body fat (WP: -2.0 ± 1.1 %BF; CP: -1.0 ± 1.6 %BF, p training program with pre- and post-exercise protein supplementation is capable of inducing significant changes in performance and body composition. There does not appear to be a difference in the performance- enhancing effects between whey and casein proteins. Key pointsFemales can experience and increase in performance makers from consuming protein after resistance training.Females can have a decreased body fat composition

  7. Comparison between whole-body vibration, light-emitting diode, and cycling warm-up on high-intensity physical performance during sprint bicycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Maria C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Martins, Jeanne B; de Carvalho, Marielle M; Xavier, Murilo; Costa, Sidney J; de Avelar, Núbia C P; Ribeiro, Vanessa G C; Salvador, Fabiano S; Augusto, Leonardo; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Lacerda, Ana C R

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation and whole-body vibration (WBV) delivered either in isolation or combination (LED + WBV), warm-up (WU), and a control (C) treatment on performance during a sprint bicycle exercise. Ten cyclists performed a 30-second sprint cycle test under these conditions. The LED light was applied at 4 points bilaterally. Whole-body vibration consisted of 5 minutes of squats associated with WBV. LED + WBV consisted of WBV followed by LED therapy. Warm-up consisted of 17 minutes of moderate-intensity bicycle exercise. Control consisted of 10 minutes at rest. Blood lactate (BL) and ammonia (BA) levels and skin temperature (ST) were determined. Peak power (842 ± 117 vs. 800 ± 106 vs. 809 ± 128 W [p = 0.02 and p = 0.01]), relative power (12.1 ± 1.0 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 vs. 11.6 ± 1.0 W·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.02]), and relative work (277 ± 23 vs. 263 ± 24 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02 and p = 0.003]) were higher in the WU group compared with the control and LED groups. In the LED + WBV group, peak (833 ± 115 vs. 800 ± 106 W [p = 0.02]) and relative (11.9 ± 0.9 vs. 11.5 ± 0.9 W·kg [p = 0.02]) power were higher than those in the control group, and relative work (272 ± 22 vs. 260 ± 23 J·kg [p = 0.02]) were improved compared with the LED group. There were no differences for BL, BA, and ST. The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of a warm-up as a preparatory activity and demonstrated that LED + WBV and WBV were as effective as WU in improving cyclist performance during a sprint bicycle exercise.

  8. Exercise, performance and temperature control: temperature regulation during exercise and implications for sports performance and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, S M; Vroman, N B

    1985-01-01

    Thermoregulation is an important consideration not only for athletic performance but also for the safety of the athlete. This article presents a broad overview of the mechanisms by which body heat is dissipated in an individual exercising in a hot environment. Particularly emphasised are more recent views of body heat loss mechanisms and the influences of non-thermal inputs, such as effects due to changing blood volume or blood flow distribution. During exercise in a hot environment, metabolic heat produced by the exercising muscles is transported by the circulating blood to the surface of the body where it is released to the environment, either by radiation and convection or by evaporation of sweat. The primary drives for both the increased skin blood flow and increased body sweating are the thermal inputs which are sensed by receptors in the deep body core, with a lesser drive from skin receptors. These thermal signals are integrated in the hypothalamus and proper heat loss responses are effected. When exercise is prolonged, however, and body rehydration is not adequate, the total blood volume may be compromised. In addition, as the core temperature increases during exercise, larger proportions of the blood volume are distributed to the cutaneous vessels, thus effectively reducing cardiac return and central blood volume. During severe exercise, a reduction in cardiac filling may result in a fall in central venous pressure and stimulate baroreceptor vasoconstrictor reflexes. As discussed below, the outputs from these baroreceptors compete with and modify the thermal drives for both the control of the skin blood flow and control of the sweat glands. The effect of high ambient temperatures on exercise performance is most evident in prolonged submaximal exercise. Normally, maximal exercise performance is not altered by high temperatures unless the individual has an elevated deep body temperature before the start of the exercise task. However, submaximal exercise

  9. Comparing the effectiveness of whole body vibration and local vibration exercise on counter-movement jump performance and its residual characteristics in well-trained athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlbilge ÖZSU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV and local vibration (LV exercise on counter-movement jump performance (CMJ and its residual characteristics in well-trained athletes. Material and Methods: Thirty-two male athletes (age: 22.3±3.2 years visited the laboratory twice, 48 hours apart, and performed WBV and LV in two sessions of equal duration. Each test day had two parts (sham [0 Hz, 0 mm] and vibration treatment [50 Hz, 4 mm], 20 min apart. LV or WBV were applied for 6×15 sec with 1 min passive rest between repetitions. During the LV, participants were asked to lie supine (2×15 sec and then lie laterally (2×2×15 sec such that the quadriceps muscles connected to the WBV device. WBV was applied in the squatting position at 135º knee angle. After each session, the participants were tested for CMJ for 8 min at the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th,6th, and 8th min. Results: The results of two-factor repeated measures ANOVA test revealed that both WBV (p = 0.27; np2 = 0.04 and LV (p = 0.57; np2 = 0.03 and their sham conditions decreased CMJ height to a similar extent. Further, there was no statistically significant difference between WBV and LV at any measurement time point (p>0.05. Conclusion: WBV and LV were not effective methods to enhance the CMJ performance of well-trained athletes. However, WBV platform can be safely used as LV exercise equipment since no adverse effect was observed.

  10. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  11. THE EFFECTS OF PRE-AND POST-EXERCISE WHEY VS. CASEIN PROTEIN CONSUMPTION ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN COLLEGIATE FEMALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    olin D. Wilborn

    2013-03-01

    .4 ± 6.6 cm; CP: 12. 9 ± 7.1 cm, p < 0.001. The combination of a controlled undulating resistance training program with pre- and post-exercise protein supplementation is capable of inducing significant changes in performance and body composition. There does not appear to be a difference in the performance- enhancing effects between whey and casein proteins

  12. Full Body Loading for Small Exercise Devices Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan; Hanson, Andrea; Newby, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Protecting astronauts' spine, hip, and lower body musculoskeletal strength will be critical to safely and efficiently perform physically demanding vehicle egress, exploration, and habitat building activities necessary to expand human presence in the solar system. Functionally limiting decrements in musculoskeletal health are likely during Mars proving-ground and Earth-independent missions given extended transit times and the vehicle limitations for exercise devices (low-mass, small volume). Most small exercise device concepts are designed with single-cable loading, which inhibits the ability to perform full body exercises requiring two-point loading at the shoulders. Shoulder loading is critical to protect spine, hip, and lower body musculoskeletal strength. We propose a novel low-mass, low-maintenance, and rapid deploy pulley-based system that can attach to a single-cable small exercise device to enable two-point loading at the shoulders. This attachment could protect astronauts' health and save cost, space, and energy during all phases of the Journey to Mars.

  13. Effect of sixteen weeks of combined exercise on body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , including 40min of resistance exercise, 40min of aerobic exercise and10min warm-up and cool-down. The CG did not participate in any exercise or physical activity. Body composition variables (weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, percent ...

  14. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics. PMID:25379174

  15. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Pete J; Clarke, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics.

  16. Upper Body Exercise: 'Jarming' Instead of Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cindy Christian

    1986-01-01

    The virtues of "armchair exercise" and "jarming" (jogging with the arms) are being extolled far and wide. The relative merits of arm and leg exercise are discussed. People who could benefit from arm exercise are described. (MT)

  17. SYMPOSIUM - MACRONUTRIENT UTILIZATION DURING EXERCISE: IMPLICATIONS FOR PERFORMANCE AND SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The review articles constitute a mini-symposium entitled "Macronutrient Utilization During Exercise: Implications for Performance and Supplementation" that were recently presented at the 2004 annual conference of the International Society of Sports Nutrition in Las Vegas, NV. Much controversy often surrounds macronutrient intake, utilization, and subsequent metabolism regarding exercise and athletic performance. Furthermore, the role of macronutrient supplementation with the specificintent of improving body composition and exercise performance by way of nutrient timing is also an important issue. As such, the articles provide a comprehensive overview of metabolic and performance-enhancing implications regarding carbohydrate, fat, and protein.

  18. Body talk among undergraduate women: why conversations about exercise and weight loss differentially predict body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A

    2014-08-01

    Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Effect of Rest Interval Length on the Volume Completed During Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Humberto; Simão, Roberto; Moreira, Leonardo Marmo; de Souza, Renato Aparecido; de Souza, João Antônio Alves; de Salles, Belmiro Freitas; Willardson, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown) performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05). These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined. Key points The length of the rest interval between sets is an important variable when designing a resistance exercise program and may vary depending on the characteristic being emphasized (i.e. maximal strength, hypertrophy, localized muscular endurance, power). Although acknowledged, this variable is rarely monitored precisely in field settings. Previous studies that examined rest interval lengths from 1 to 5 minutes between sets for single exercises demonstrated significant differences in repetition performance and the exercise volume completed. There is a need for further research to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set) completed over an entire resistance exercise session with different rest intervals between sets. The results of the current study indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and

  20. Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canale Robert E

    2010-05-01

    than finished products containing multiple ingredients, and 2 while we do not have data in relation to post-exercise recovery parameters, the tested products are ineffective in terms of increasing blood flow and improving acute upper body exercise performance.

  1. Heavy Resistance Training and Peri-Exercise Ingestion of a Multi-Ingredient Ergogenic Nutritional Supplement in Males: Effects on Body Composition, Muscle Performance and Markers of Muscle Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spillane, Neil Schwarz, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ergogenic multi-ingredient nutritional supplement ingestion on blood and skeletal markers of muscle protein synthesis (MPS, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty-four college-age males were randomly assigned to either a multi-ingredient SizeOn Maximum Performance (SIZE or protein/carbohydrate/creatine (PCC comparator supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05. Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were not differentially affected (p > 0.05. However, fat-free mass was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p = 0.037. Lower-body muscle strength (p = 0.029 and endurance (p = 0.027 were significantly increased with resistance training, but not supplementation (p > 0.05. Serum insulin, IGF-1, GH, and cortisol were not differentially affected (p > 0.05. Muscle creatine content was significantly increased in both groups from supplementation (p = 0.044. Total muscle protein (p = 0.038, MHC 1 (p = 0.041, MHC 2A, (p = 0.029, total IRS- (p = 0.041, and total Akt (p = 0.011 were increased from resistance training, but not supplementation. In response to heavy resistance training when compared to PCC, the peri-exercise ingestion of SIZE did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS.

  2. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  3. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Atan, T.

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-...

  4. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P changes in body mass, fat mass (FM), and BMI. Changes in BC were different (P changes in FM, %FM, and %LM. The gain in LM was not different among groups. In addition, MetS indexes were not influenced by TPro and CTPro. In conjunction with exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Cannabis: Exercise performance and sport. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Michael C

    2017-09-01

    To review the evidence relating to the effect of cannabis on exercise performance. A systematic review of published literature METHODS: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. A search was conducted using PUB med, Medline and Embase searching for cannabis, marijuana, cannabinoids and THC, in sport and exercise; the contents of sports medicine journals for the last 10 years; as well as cross references from journals and a personal collection of reprints. Only English language literature was reviewed and only articles that specified the details of a formal exercise program or protocol. Individuals in rehabilitation or health screening programs involving exercise were included as the study may have identified adverse reactions in the marijuana group. Review articles, opinion pieces, policy statements by sporting bodies and regulatory agencies were excluded. Only 15 published studies have investigated the effects of THC in association with exercise protocols. Of these studies, none showed any improvement in aerobic performance. Exercise induced asthma was shown to be inhibited. In terms of detrimental effects, two studies found that marijuana precipitated angina at a lower work-load (100% of subjects) and strength is probably reduced. Some subjects could not complete an exercise protocol because adverse reactions caused by cannabis. An important finding relevant to drug testing was that aerobic exercise was shown to cause only very small rises (exercise or strength. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB on exercise performance and body composition across varying levels of age, sex, and training experience: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jacob M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB has been extensively used as an ergogenic aid; particularly among bodybuilders and strength/power athletes, who use it to promote exercise performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. While numerous studies have supported the efficacy of HMB in exercise and clinical conditions, there have been a number of conflicting results. Therefore, the first purpose of this paper will be to provide an in depth and objective analysis of HMB research. Special care is taken to present critical details of each study in an attempt to both examine the effectiveness of HMB as well as explain possible reasons for conflicting results seen in the literature. Within this analysis, moderator variables such as age, training experience, various states of muscle catabolism, and optimal dosages of HMB are discussed. The validity of dependent measurements, clustering of data, and a conflict of interest bias will also be analyzed. A second purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive discussion on possible mechanisms, which HMB may operate through. Currently, the most readily discussed mechanism has been attributed to HMB as a precursor to the rate limiting enzyme to cholesterol synthesis HMG-coenzyme A reductase. However, an increase in research has been directed towards possible proteolytic pathways HMB may operate through. Evidence from cachectic cancer studies suggests that HMB may inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway responsible for the specific degradation of intracellular proteins. HMB may also directly stimulate protein synthesis, through an mTOR dependent mechanism. Finally, special care has been taken to provide future research implications.

  7. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  8. Effects of repeated snowboard exercise in virtual reality with time lags of visual scene behind body rotation on head stability and subjective slalom run performance in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Nishiike, Suetaka; Kitahara, Tadashi; Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Imai, Takao; Ito, Taeko; Sato, Go; Matsuda, Kazunori; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    After repeated snowboard exercises in the virtual reality (VR) world with increasing time lags in trials 3-8, it is suggested that the adaptation to repeated visual-vestibulosomatosensory conflict in the VR world improved dynamic posture control and motor performance in the real world without the development of motion sickness. The VR technology was used and the effects of repeated snowboard exercise examined in the VR world with time lags between visual scene and body rotation on the head stability and slalom run performance during exercise in healthy subjects. Forty-two healthy young subjects participated in the study. After trials 1 and 2 of snowboard exercise in the VR world without time lag, trials 3-8 were conducted with 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 s time lags of the visual scene that the computer creates behind board rotation, respectively. Finally, trial 9 was conducted without time lag. Head linear accelerations and subjective slalom run performance were evaluated. The standard deviations of head linear accelerations in inter-aural direction were significantly increased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly decreased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. The subjective scores of slalom run performance were significantly decreased in trial 8, with a time lag of 0.6 s, but significantly increased in trial 9 without a time lag, compared with those in trial 2 without a time lag. Motion sickness was not induced in any subjects.

  9. Heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ingestion of a multi-ingredient ergogenic nutritional supplement in males: effects on body composition, muscle performance and markers of muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2014-12-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ergogenic multi-ingredient nutritional supplement ingestion on blood and skeletal markers of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty-four college-age males were randomly assigned to either a multi-ingredient SizeOn Maximum Performance (SIZE) or protein/carbohydrate/creatine (PCC) comparator supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were not differentially affected (p > 0.05). However, fat-free mass was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p = 0.037). Lower-body muscle strength (p = 0.029) and endurance (p = 0.027) were significantly increased with resistance training, but not supplementation (p > 0.05). Serum insulin, IGF-1, GH, and cortisol were not differentially affected (p > 0.05). Muscle creatine content was significantly increased in both groups from supplementation (p = 0.044). Total muscle protein (p = 0.038), MHC 1 (p = 0.041), MHC 2A, (p = 0.029), total IRS- (p = 0.041), and total Akt (p = 0.011) were increased from resistance training, but not supplementation. In response to heavy resistance training when compared to PCC, the peri-exercise ingestion of SIZE did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS. Key pointsIn response to 42 days of heavy resistance training and either SizeOn Maximum Performance or protein/carbohydrate/creatine supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of SizeOn Maximum Performance had no preferential effect on augmenting

  10. Effect of physical exercise interventions on musculoskeletal pain in all body regions among office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Christensen, Karl Bang; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated effects of physical exercise on musculoskeletal pain symptoms in all regions of the body, as well as on other musculoskeletal pain in association with neck pain. A single blind randomized controlled trial testing a one-year exercise intervention was performed among 549...... office workers; specific neck/shoulder resistance training, all-round physical exercise, or a reference intervention. Pain symptoms were determined by questionnaire screening of twelve selected body regions. Case individuals were identified for each body region as those reporting pain intensities...... group (Pphysical...

  11. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  12. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, Maxi; Havinga, Rick; Boverhof, Renze; Kema, Ido; Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    MEISSNER, M., R. HAVINGA, R. BOVERHOF, I. KEMA, A. K. GROEN, and F. KUIPERS. Exercise Enhances Whole-Body Cholesterol Turnover in Mice. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 8, pp. 1460-1468, 2010. Purpose: Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular risk in humans by reducing cholesterol levels, but

  13. Chair rising exercise is more effective than one-leg standing exercise in improving dynamic body balance: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, F; Iwamoto, J; Osugi, T; Yamazaki, M; Takakuwa, M

    2012-06-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare the effect of a one-leg standing exercise and a chair-rising exercise on body balance in patients with locomotive disorders. Thirty ambulatory patients (mean age: 66.6 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=15 in each group): a one-leg standing exercise group and a chair-rising exercise group. All the participants performed calisthenics of the major muscles, a tandem gait exercise, and a stepping exercise. The exercises were performed 3 days per week, and the study period was 5 months. Physical function was evaluated at baseline and at one-month intervals. No significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups. After the 5-month exercise program, the timed up and go, one-leg standing time, and tandem gait time improved significantly in the one-leg standing exercise group, while the walking time and chair-rising time in addition to above parameters improved significantly in the chair-rising exercise group. The improvements in the walking time, chair-rising time, and tandem gait time were significantly greater in the chair-rising exercise group than in the one-leg standing exercise group. The present study showed that the chair-rising exercise was more effective than the one-leg standing exercise for improving walking velocity and dynamic body balance.

  14. Efficiency of tax bodies' performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorovskaya, M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of assessment of tax bodies' activities efficiency which tax administration faces are touched upon. Suggestions made provide an opportunity for bodies of legislative and executive power to take specific measures aimed at enhancing the system of tax administration in the country. Suggested criteria for assessing tax bodies' performance can be put into practice by tax authorities. A new approach to aspects of solving tasks of control over tax compliance, preventing and excluding ta...

  15. EFFECT OF REST INTERVAL LENGTH ON THE VOLUME COMPLETED DURING UPPER BODY RESISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Miranda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to compare the workout volume (sets x resistance x repetitions per set completed during two upper body resistance exercise sessions that incorporated 1 minute versus 3 minute rest intervals between sets and exercises. Twelve trained men completed two experimental sessions that consisted of 5 upper body exercises (i.e. barbell bench press, incline barbell bench press, pec deck flye, barbell lying triceps extension, triceps pushdown performed for three sets with an 8-RM load. The two experimental sessions differed only in the length of the rest interval between sets and exercises; one session with a 1-minute and the other session with a 3-minute rest interval. The results demonstrated that for each exercise, significantly greater workout volume was completed when resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises (p < 0.05. These results indicate that during a resistance exercise session, if sufficient time is available, resting 3 minutes between sets and exercises allows greater workout volume for the upper body exercises examined

  16. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  17. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  18. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E; Egan, Brendan

    2017-05-01

    Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post-exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise-trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti-lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  19. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  20. Influence of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Catherine; Mueller, Mackenzie; Zuniga, Krystle E

    2017-06-01

    Diet composition can affect systemic pH and acid-base regulation, which may in turn influence exercise performance. An acidic environment in the muscle impairs performance and contributes to fatigue; therefore, current trends in sports nutrition place importance on maximizing the alkalinity of the body with ergogenic aids and dietary strategies. This review examines the evidence on the effects of dietary manipulations on acid load and exercise performance. Ten studies that investigated the effect of high versus low dietary acid loads on athletic performance generally identified that low dietary acid loads increased plasma pH, but did not consistently improve exercise performance at maximal or submaximal exercise intensities. In addition, the few studies conducted have several limitations including lack of female subjects and use of exercise tests exclusive to cycling or treadmill running. Although the research does not strongly support a performance benefit from low dietary acid loads, a more alkaline dietary pattern may be beneficial for overall health, as dietary induced acidosis has been associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and bone disease. The review includes dietary recommendations for athletes to reduce dietary acid load while still meeting sports nutrition recommendations.

  1. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  2. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  3. Clinical evaluation of exercise thallium-201 whole body scintigraphy in ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Kenzo; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Takeshi

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate whole body distribution and kinetics of Thallium-201 at exercise and redistribution, whole body scintigraphy (WB-S) was performed on 12 normal subjects (N), 19 patients with angina pectoris (AP) and 18 patients with old myocardial infarction (MI). WB-S was obtained using a gamma camera OMEGA 500 and analized by ADAC System IV. We estimated the following parameters from WB-S; 1) %Distribution (%D): the ratio of whole body counts to organ counts 2) washout rate (WR) in each organ. %D of the heart in N, AP and MI was similar at rest and exercise. At exercise, %D of the lung and the liver decreased and %D of thighs increased remarkably than at rest. At supine exercise, the lung indicated high %D and thinghs indicated low %D compared with at upright exercise. WR of the heart in AP and MI was significantly lower than in N (p<0.005, p<0.01) and further decreased proportionally to the number of stenotic coronary arteries and related to the ischemic ST depression of exercise ECG. WR of the heart was not correlation with pressure rate product and this finding suggested that WR of the heart was not prescribed by the tolerance of exercise but related to coronary flow at exercise a certain degree. WR of the lung in MI was significantly higher (p<0.025) and WR of thighs in AP and MI was significantly lower (p<0.025, p<0.05) compared with N. (author)

  4. Peak Performance Through Nutrition and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    activity, there is a greater reliance on one system over the other. Exercises lasting less than 5 minutes rely most on the anaerobic energy system...running program, such as managing your body weight, increasing your cardiovasclar fitness, and building your self - esteem . Running Form Regardless of your...metabolism. Increased coordination and greater protection against injury. Increased self - esteem and less perceived stress. Better

  5. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  6. The impact of post-exercise hydration with deep-ocean mineral water on rehydration and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Douglas A; Constantopoulos, Eleni; Konhilas, John P

    2016-01-01

    Dehydration caused by prolonged exercise impairs thermoregulation, endurance and exercise performance. Evidence from animal and human studies validates the potential of desalinated deep-ocean mineral water to positively impact physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we hypothesize that deep-ocean mineral water drawn from a depth of 915 m off the Kona, HI coast enhances recovery of hydration and exercise performance following a dehydrating exercise protocol compared to mountain spring water and a carbohydrate-based sports drink. Subjects (n = 8) were exposed to an exercise-dehydration protocol (stationary biking) under warm conditions (30 °C) to achieve a body mass loss of 3 % (93.4 ± 21.7 total exercise time). During the post-exercise recovery period, subjects received deep-ocean mineral water (Kona), mountain spring water (Spring) or a carbohydrate-based sports drink (Sports) at a volume (in L) equivalent to body mass loss (in Kg). Salivary samples were collected at regular intervals during exercise and post-exercise rehydration. Additionally, each participant performed peak torque knee extension as a measure of lower body muscle performance. Subjects who received Kona during the rehydrating period showed a significantly more rapid return to pre-exercise (baseline) hydration state, measured as the rate of decline in peak to baseline salivary osmolality, compared to Sports and Spring groups. In addition, subjects demonstrated significantly improved recovery of lower body muscle performance following rehydration with Kona versus Sports or Spring groups. Deep-ocean mineral water shows promise as an optimal rehydrating source over spring water and/or sports drink.

  7. Morning Exercise: Enhancement of Afternoon Sprint-Swimming Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Courtney J; Pyne, David B; Thompson, Kevin G; Raglin, John S; Rattray, Ben

    2017-05-01

    An exercise bout completed several hours prior to an event may improve competitive performance later that same day. To examine the influence of morning exercise on afternoon sprint-swimming performance. Thirteen competitive swimmers (7 male, mean age 19 ± 3 y; 6 female, mean age 17 ± 3 y) completed a morning session of 1200 m of variedintensity swimming (SwimOnly), a combination of varied-intensity swimming and a resistance-exercise routine (SwimDry), or no morning exercise (NoEx). After a 6-h break, swimmers completed a 100-m time trial. Time-trial performance was faster in SwimOnly (1.6% ± 0.6, mean ± 90% confidence limit, P confidence limit], P = .04), body (0.2°C ± 0.1°C, P = .02), and skin temperatures (0.3°C ± 0.3°C, P = .02) were higher in SwimDry than in NoEx. Completion of a morning swimming session alone or together with resistance exercise can substantially enhance sprint-swimming performance completed later the same day.

  8. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-02-20

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  9. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  10. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  12. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. These interviews should be held in the period from 15 November 2004 to 15 February 2005 [see Administrative Circular No 26 (Rev. 5) Annex II, § 3. For this exercise, the paper MAPS form has been replaced by an electronic form in the EDH system, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  13. Impact of exercise on quality of life and body-self perception of patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, Esra; Topsakal, Nuri; Atilgan, Oya Erkut; Alcalar, Nilufer; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Niyazoglu, Mutlu; Cotuk, Hasan Birol; Kadioglu, Pinar

    2014-02-01

    In acromegaly the impact of therapy on well-being and self-perception of patients is not clearly defined. The data existing on the effect of treatment on health-related quality of life in patients with acromegaly is inconclusive. In this study we addressed the effect of exercise on health-related quality of life, symptoms of depression and perception of body image in patients with acromegaly. Patients with acromegaly were stratified into two groups according to their participation in a prescheduled program of exercise. Participants in the study group performed exercise for 75 min a day for 3 days a week during cosecutive 3 months. Warming, cardio, strength, balance and stretching moves applied in every course. Both the exercise group and control group were asked to complete a questionnaire on quality of life, symptoms of depression and self-perception of body image. Each questionnaire was answered by both groups before the beginning of the exercise program (at month-0) and after the completion of the program (at month-3). In exercise group after the completion of exercise period there was a tendency towards decreament in body mass index and IGF-I, although not statistically significant (p = 0.08 and p = 0.09). Self-assessment of body image improved significantly after participation in the exercise program (p = 0.01). Present findings support that exercise may be an adjunctive method for patients with acromegaly to improve self esteem and perception.

  14. Aerobic exercise: bioenergetics, physiological adjustments, fatigue and performance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Caputo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present relevant updated information regarding the physiological determinants of aerobic training and performance. In contrast to common concepts, the aerobic metabolism rapidly responds to energy requirements,with the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems equally contributing to total energy production during maximal exercise lasting about 75 s. However, in the case of longer exercise duration the possible mechanisms of fatigue related to anaerobic metabolism are still the main determinants of exercise tolerance. Prolonged exercise (more than one hour can be limited by several factors such as substrate depletion, water and electrolyte disturbance, or problems related to thermoregulation leading to an increase in body temperature. The most important variables of endurance performance have been organizedinto a model that integrates factors such as maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max, blood lactate thresholds, and muscle efficiency. For highly trained athletes, in addition to a high VO2max, success in endurance events also requires the ability to exercise forprolonged periods at a high percentage of VO2max, as well as to efficiently convert the energy produced into muscle work. Depending on the duration of the aerobic event, the training sessions should be aimed at improving VO2max, anaerobic lactate capacity andacidosis tolerance in the case of short-lasting events and aerobic capacity for events of intermediate duration, and at increasing muscle glycogen content and fat utilization in the case of long-lasting events.

  15. Hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebben, William P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein. A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise. Main effects were found for the H (P ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises. Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.

  16. Glucocorticoids improve high-intensity exercise performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Melskens, Lars; Bruhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise.......It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise....

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise on the atherogenic index of plasma in middle-aged Chinese men with various body weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shiwei; Lu, Yun; Dang, Yingjie; Qi, Huajin; Shen, Zhenhai; Wu, Liuxin; Li, Feng; Yang, Chengjian; Qiang, Dongchang; Yang, Yan; Shui, Kedong; Bao, Yanying

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between aerobic exercise and the atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in middle-aged Chinese men stratified by body weight. A cross-sectional study, which recruited 26,701 middle-aged Chinese men undergoing health examinations in our hospital from 1st January 2014 to 30th June 2015 was performed, and the associations between body weight and AIP, and aerobic exercise and AIP were evaluated. The mean AIP levels were -0.016±0.305, 0.138±0.3171 and 0.211±0.3243 in normal weight, overweight and obese subjects, respectively, and appeared to rise with body weight. Significantly higher AIP levels were observed in subjects with a weekly aerobic exercise period ≥90min than in those with a weekly aerobic exercise period aerobic exercise period ≥90min and aerobic exercise significantly reduced AIP after adjustment for age, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose and uric acid. Lowering body weight and/or increasing aerobic exercise time may reduce AIP, and lowering body weight results in a greater reduction in AIP than aerobic exercise. Weight control combined with increased aerobic exercise time may cause a synergistic effect on the reduction of AIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Upper-Body Exercise on the Fatigability of Human Respiratory Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    TILLER, NICHOLAS B.; CAMPBELL, IAN G.; ROMER, LEE M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Diaphragm and abdominal muscles are susceptible to contractile fatigue in response to high-intensity, whole-body exercise. This study assessed whether the ventilatory and mechanical loads imposed by high-intensity, upper-body exercise would be sufficient to elicit respiratory muscle fatigue. Methods Seven healthy men (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 4 yr, peak O2 uptake [V˙O2peak] = 31.9 ± 5.3 mL·kg−1·min−1) performed asynchronous arm-crank exercise to exhaustion at work rates equivalent to 30% (heavy) and 60% (severe) of the difference between gas exchange threshold and V˙O2peak. Contractile fatigue of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles was assessed by measuring pre- to postexercise changes in potentiated transdiaphragmatic and gastric twitch pressures (Pdi,tw and Pga,tw) evoked by supramaximal magnetic stimulation of the cervical and thoracic nerves, respectively. Results Exercise time was 24.5 ± 5.8 min for heavy exercise and 9.8 ± 1.8 min for severe exercise. Ventilation over the final minute of heavy exercise was 73 ± 20 L·min−1 (39% ± 11% maximum voluntary ventilation) and 99 ± 19 L·min−1 (53% ± 11% maximum voluntary ventilation) for severe exercise. Mean Pdi,tw did not differ pre- to postexercise at either intensity (P > 0.05). Immediately (5–15 min) after severe exercise, mean Pga,tw was significantly lower than pre-exercise values (41 ± 13 vs 53 ± 15 cm H2O, P < 0.05), with the difference no longer significant after 25–35 min. Abdominal muscle fatigue (defined as ≥15% reduction in Pga,tw) occurred in 1/7 subjects after heavy exercise and 5/7 subjects after severe exercise. Conclusions High-intensity, upper-body exercise elicits significant abdominal, but not diaphragm, muscle fatigue in healthy men. The increased magnitude and prevalence of fatigue during severe-intensity exercise is likely due to additional (nonrespiratory) loading of the thorax. PMID:28288012

  19. A Data Set of Human Body Movements for Physical Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Jun, Hyung-Pil; Paul, David; Baker, Russell

    2018-03-01

    The article presents University of Idaho - Physical Rehabilitation Movement Data (UI-PRMD) - a publically available data set of movements related to common exercises performed by patients in physical rehabilitation programs. For the data collection, 10 healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of different physical therapy movements, with a Vicon optical tracker and a Microsoft Kinect sensor used for the motion capturing. The data are in a format that includes positions and angles of full-body joints. The objective of the data set is to provide a basis for mathematical modeling of therapy movements, as well as for establishing performance metrics for evaluation of patient consistency in executing the prescribed rehabilitation exercises.

  20. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...

  1. Can Handgrip Strength Improve Following Body Mass-Based Lower Body Exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yaginuma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Knee extension strength (KES improves following body mass-based lower body exercise training; however, it is unknown whether this type of exercise increases handgrip strength (HGS as a result of a cross-education effect in older individuals. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a body mass-based exercise intervention on HGS and KES in older adults. At baseline, 166 subjects started a 12-week intervention program, and 160 (108 women and 52 men subjects completed the study. A self-selected group of 37 older adults (21 women and 16 men served as a control group. HGS, KES, and ultrasound-derived anterior thigh muscle thickness (anterior thigh MT were measured at baseline and post-testing, and relative strength of the knee extensor (KES/anterior thigh MT was calculated. A linear regression model controlling for baseline values of body–mass index, % body fat, fat-free mass, HGS, chair stand time, anterior thigh MT, and KES/body mass ratio found a significant difference between control and training groups for KES post-testing values (p = 0.001 and anterior thigh MT post-testing values (p = 0.012, but not for HGS post-testing values (p = 0.287. Our results suggest that increases in lower body strength and muscle size following a 12-week lower body mass-based exercise intervention fail to translate into improvements in HGS.

  2. Aging and exercise: Perceptions of the active lived-body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougner, Marit; Bergland, Astrid; Lund, Anne; Debesay, Jonas

    2018-03-30

    Exploring older people's evocation of their positive experiences of aging has been proposed as a counterweight to the Western stereotype of aging as a process of decline. The aim of this article is to explore how aging women, who participate regularly in group exercise classes, perceive their own bodies and the bodies of others. This article reports on the findings from interviews with 16 women between the age of 70 and 85. We analyzed the data using qualitative content analysis. Two overarching and interrelated themes concerning body perception emerged from the interviews: "The aging body and appearance" and "The body as subject and object." The binary discourse of old age, as either a decline or a success appears in our findings. The training contributes to a sense of well-being experienced through perceived increased physical abilities, self- image and self-esteem. Physical ability was perceived as being more important than appearance by the participants in this study, considering their preconception of an association between declining health, abilities, and older age. Involvement in physical activity appears to play a significant role in the perception of the women's own aging. Although physical attractiveness is a desirable outcome, the most important positive impact of the group exercise was related to increased social belonging and well-being, physical abilities, and capabilities. Thus implications for practice suggests that an intensive group training contributes to the opinion that an aging body is not necessarily a barrier to positive and successful aging.

  3. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. Effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Kavouras, Stavros A; Koutsari, Christina; Georgakakis, Charalambos; Skenderi, Katerina; Beer, Michael; Sidossis, Labros S

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Ten subjects completed 4 trials. Each trial consisted of a glycogen depletion protocol, followed by a 15-min refueling, after which subjects performed an 1-h performance test while consuming one of the experimental drinks (HGlu, glucose; HMal, maltose; MalMix, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin; Plac, placebo). Drinks provided 0.65 g/kg body weight carbohydrates during refueling and 0.2 g/kg every 15 min during the performance test. Although no significant differences were found in performance (HGlu: 67.2 +/- 2.0; HMal: 68.6 +/- 1.7; MalMix: 66.7 +/- 2.0; Plac: 69.4 +/- 3.0 min, P> 0.05), subjects completed the MalMix trial 3.9%; faster than the Plac. Carbohydrate drinks caused comparable plasma glucose values that were significantly higher during refueling and at the end of exercise, compared to Plac. The data suggest that although carbohydrate drinks help to maintain plasma glucose at a higher level, no differences in performance could be detected after glycogen-depleting exercise.

  5. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used 'postmenopausal osteoporosis' and 'whole-body vibration exercise'.

  6. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inskip

    Full Text Available Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD, which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD.A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002 is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s, exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants.Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms

  7. The Feasibility of performing resistance exercise with acutely ill hospitalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockwood Kenneth

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For older adults, hospitalization frequently results in deterioration of mobility and function. Nevertheless, there are little data about how older adults exercise in the hospital and definitive studies are not yet available to determine what type of physical activity will prevent hospital related decline. Strengthening exercise may prevent deconditioning and Pilates exercise, which focuses on proper body mechanics and posture, may promote safety. Methods A hospital-based resistance exercise program, which incorporates principles of resistance training and Pilates exercise, was developed and administered to intervention subjects to determine whether acutely-ill older patients can perform resistance exercise while in the hospital. Exercises were designed to be reproducible and easily performed in bed. The primary outcome measures were adherence and participation. Results Thirty-nine ill patients, recently admitted to an acute care hospital, who were over age 70 [mean age of 82.0 (SD= 7.3] and ambulatory prior to admission, were randomized to the resistance exercise group (19 or passive range of motion (ROM group (20. For the resistance exercise group, participation was 71% (p = 0.004 and adherence was 63% (p = 0.020. Participation and adherence for ROM exercises was 96% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Using a standardized and simple exercise regimen, selected, ill, older adults in the hospital are able to comply with resistance exercise. Further studies are needed to determine if resistance exercise can prevent or treat hospital-related deterioration in mobility and function.

  8. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osugi T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Osugi,1 Jun Iwamoto,2 Michio Yamazaki,1 Masayuki Takakuwa3 1Department of Rehabilitation, Takakuwa Orthopaedic Nagayama Clinic, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, 2Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Takakuwa Orthopaedic Nagayama Clinic, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan Abstract: A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group, ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly. Keywords: whole body vibration exercise, squat training, body balance, walking velocity, muscle power

  9. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  10. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  11. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Method Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Results Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Conclusions Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise. PMID:28141870

  12. Autophagy Is a Promoter for Aerobic Exercise Performance during High Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear. In this narrative review article, we will summarize current research advances in the improvement of exercise performance through high altitude training and its reasonable molecular mechanisms associated with autophagy, which will provide a new field to explore the molecular mechanisms of adaptive response to high altitude training.

  13. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  14. The Prospective Association between Different Types of Exercise and Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A; Sagner, Michael; Shook, Robin P; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N

    2015-12-01

    Despite the widely accepted benefits of exercise on chronic disease risk, controversy remains on the role of exercise in weight loss. This study examined the effect of different exercise types on measures of adiposity across different fat categories. A total of 348 young adults (49% male; 28 ± 4 yr), participating in an ongoing observational study provided valid data over a period of 12 months. Fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry every 3 months. Percent body fat was calculated and used to differentiate between normal-fat, "overfat," and obese participants. At each measurement time point, participants reported engagement (min·wk) in aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and other forms of exercise. Most participants (93%) reported some exercise participation during the observation period. Total exercise or specific exercise types did not significantly affect subsequent body mass index after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, age, and baseline values of adiposity and exercise. Resistance exercise affected LM (P participants (P participants, FM was reduced with increasing resistance exercise (P ≤ 0.02) but not with aerobic exercise (P ≥ 0.09). Additionally adjusting for objectively assessed total physical activity level did not change these results. Despite the limited effects on body mass index, exercise was associated with beneficial changes in body composition. Exercise increased LM in normal-fat participants and reduced FM in overfat and obese adults. Adults with excess body fat may benefit particularly from resistance exercise.

  15. The effects of visual control whole body vibration exercise on balance and gait function of stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Eon-Tak; Kim, Yong-Nam; Cho, Woon-Soo; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aims to verify the effects of visual control whole body vibration exercise on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 22 stroke patients were randomly assigned to two groups; 11 to the experimental group and 11 to the control group. Both groups received 30 minutes of Neuro-developmental treatment 5 times per week for 4 weeks. The experimental group additionally performed 10 minutes of visual control whole body vibration exercise 5 t...

  16. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  17. Incremental exercise test performance with and without a respiratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. Despite their widespread use in exercise testing, few data are available on the effect of wearing respiratory gas collection (RGC) systems on exercise test performance. Industrial- type mask wear is thought to impair exercise performance through increased respiratory dead space, flow resistance and/or discomfort ...

  18. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  19. Caffeine: Can it Improve My Performance in Endurance Exercise?

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Jason

    1998-01-01

    With the great interest in exercising, competing, and winning in today's world, it is an interesting question to ask if caffeine, the most popular stimulant in the world, can help to improve performance in endurance exercise activities. This study looks to see if caffeine is an ergogenic aid in exercise activities requiring greater than 20 minutes to complete. We find that caffeine has, in fact, been shown, during this decade, to increase exercise performance in events that take greater than ...

  20. Endurance exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Cameron J.; Murray, Andrew J.; Knight, Nicholas S.; Carter, Emma E.; Kemp, Graham J.; Thompson, Campbell H.; Tyler, Damian J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Robbins, Peter A.; Clarke, Kieran

    2011-01-01

    We recently showed that a week-long, high-fat diet reduced whole body exercise efficiency in sedentary men by >10% (Edwards LM, Murray AJ, Holloway CJ, Carter EE, Kemp GJ, Codreanu I, Brooker H, Tyler DJ, Robbins PA, Clarke K. FASEB J 25: 1088–1096, 2011). To test if a similar dietary regime would blunt whole body efficiency in endurance-trained men and, as a consequence, hinder aerobic exercise performance, 16 endurance-trained men were given a short-term, high-fat (70% kcal from fat) and a moderate carbohydrate (50% kcal from carbohydrate) diet, in random order. Efficiency was assessed during a standardized exercise task on a cycle ergometer, with aerobic performance assessed during a 1-h time trial and mitochondrial function later measured using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The subjects then underwent a 2-wk wash-out period, before the study was repeated with the diets crossed over. Muscle biopsies, for mitochondrial protein analysis, were taken at the start of the study and on the 5th day of each diet. Plasma fatty acids were 60% higher on the high-fat diet compared with moderate carbohydrate diet (P < 0.05). However, there was no change in whole body efficiency and no change in mitochondrial function. Endurance exercise performance was significantly reduced (P < 0.01), most probably due to glycogen depletion. Neither diet led to changes in citrate synthase, ATP synthase, or mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3. We conclude that prior exercise training blunts the deleterious effect of short-term, high-fat feeding on whole body efficiency. PMID:21632846

  1. Similar metabolic response to lower- versus upper-body interval exercise or endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Graham, Matthew J; Parr, Evelyn B; Rehrer, Nancy J; Lucas, Samuel J E; Stavrianeas, Stasinos; Cotter, James D

    2017-03-01

    To compare energy use and substrate partitioning arising from repeated lower- versus upper-body sprints, or endurance exercise, across a 24-h period. Twelve untrained males (24±4 y) completed three trials in randomized order: (1) repeated sprints (five 30-s Wingate, 4.5-min recovery) on a cycle ergometer (SIT Legs ); (2) 50-min continuous cycling at 65% V̇O 2 max (END); (3) repeated sprints on an arm-crank ergometer (SIT Arms ). Respiratory gas exchange was assessed before and during exercise, and at eight points across 22h of recovery. Metabolic rate was elevated to greater extent in the first 8h after SIT Legs than SIT Arms (by 0.8±1.1kJ/min, p=0.03), and tended to be greater than END (by 0.7±1.3kJ/min, p=0.08). Total 24-h energy use (exercise+recovery) was equivalent between SIT Legs and END (p = 0.55), and SIT Legs and SIT Arms (p=0.13), but 24-h fat use was higher with SIT Legs than END (by 26±38g, p=0.04) and SIT Arms (by 27±43g, p=0.05), whereas carbohydrate use was higher with SIT Arms than SIT Legs (by 32±51g, p=0.05). Plasma volume-corrected post-exercise and fasting glucose and lipid concentrations were unchanged. Despite much lower energy use during five sprints than 50-min continuous exercise, 24-h energy use was not reliably different. However, (i) fat metabolism was greater after sprints, and (ii) carbohydrate metabolism was greater in the hours after sprints with arms than legs, while 24-h energy usage was comparable. Thus, sprints using arms or legs may be an important adjunct exercise mode for metabolic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 31 March 2006. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisal are currently under study. Administrative Circular No 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  3. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006 (Rev)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 15 March 2006*. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisals are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures Governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. * Instead of 31 March, as indicated in the electronic Bulletin No. 47 of 21 November 2005 Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  4. Exercise performed at hypoxia influences mood state and anxiety symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fernando Tavares de Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available During hypoxia conditions, psychological states can be worsened. However, little information is available regarding the effect of physical exercise performed in hypoxia conditions on mood state and anxiety symptoms. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the acute effect of moderate physical exercise performed at hypoxia on mood states and anxiety symptoms in healthy young subjects. Ten volunteers were subjected to the following conditions: a normoxic condition (NC and a hypoxic condition (HC. They performed 45 min of physical exercise. Their anxiety symptoms and mood states were evaluated at the initial time point as well as immediately following and 30 and 60 min after the exercise session. Our results showed a significant increase in post-exercise anxiety symptoms and a significant decrease in mood scores immediately after and 30 min after exercise performed in the HC. Moderate physical activity performed at hypoxia condition increased post-exercise anxiety and worsened mood state.

  5. Importance of Intercomparison Exercises in Assessment of Internal Exposure by Whole-Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Basic requirement for any kind of measurement is to check and prove the reliability and correctness of the measured results. Quality assurance programmes require several activities among which the participation in intercomparison exercises plays an important role. Since the determination of radioactive materials in the human body by whole-body counting technique implies many sources of uncertainties the reliability of calibration data and consequently the measured results have to be checked by participation in intercomparison quality control programmes. In these programmes mostly different kinds of phantoms simulating the human body are circulated among the participating laboratories, however sometimes contaminated persons are also subjects of intercomparison measurements. There are guidelines in several countries laid down concerning the requirements of whole-body counter measurements where the performance criteria for the relative bias, precision and minimum detectable amounts are formulated. These quantities are mostly the subject of intercomparison programmes. The whole body counter laboratory of the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute participated in intercomparison exercises several times in the last few years. The lessons learned during these activities helped in checking the capabilities of applied methods and measuring geometry as well as contributed in improving the accuracy of the measured results. A short overview on the previous international intercomparison exercises their main characteristics the results obtained and conclusions drawn are discussed in the paper with special attention to those in which also our laboratory participated. (author)

  6. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  7. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery.

  8. Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart; Andersen, Jordan; Cannon, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined anterior chain whole body linkage exercises, namely the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Investigation of these exercises focused on which particular muscles were challenged and the magnitude of the resulting spine load. Fourteen males performed the exercises while muscle activity, external force and 3D body segment motion were recorded. A sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, and thus sensitivity to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics were observed across tasks. On average, the hanging straight leg raise created approximately 3000 N of spine compression while the body saw created less than 2500 N. The hanging straight leg raise created the highest challenge to the abdominal wall (>130% MVC in rectus abdominis, 88% MVC in external oblique). The body saw resulted in almost 140% MVC activation of the serratus anterior. All other exercises produced substantial abdominal challenge, although the body saw did so in the most spine conserving way. These findings, along with consideration of an individual's injury history, training goals and current fitness level, should assist in exercise choice and programme design.

  9. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances performance and dampens muscle pain following resistance exercise to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M J; Oxford, S W

    2012-06-01

    This double-blind, within-subjects experiment examined the effects of acute caffeine ingestion on perceptions of muscle pain following a bout of high-intensity, upper-body resistance exercise to failure. Moderately trained males (N.=18) ingested a dose of caffeine (5 mg · kg-1) or placebo in a randomised and counterbalanced order and 1 hour later completed bench press exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Repetitions completed was taken as a measure of performance, peak heart rate was determined via heart rate telemetry during the exercise bout, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and upper body muscle pain was recorded immediately upon failure of the exercise task and peak blood lactate concentration was determined post-exercise. Caffeine resulted in improved repetitions to failure (t [17]=3.119, P=0.006), greater peak blood lactate (t [17] =5.080, P=0.0001) and lower RPE (t 17=-3.431, P=0.003) compared to placebo. Muscle pain perception was also significantly lower in the caffeine condition compared to placebo (t [17]=-2.567, P=0.04). These results support prior studies using aerobic based exercise modes in suggesting that caffeine ingestion can dampen exercise-induced muscle pain. Specifically, caffeine ingestion enhances muscular strength performance and reduces upper body muscle pain perception immediately following a bout of high-intensity resistance exercise to failure.

  10. Acute Effect on Arterial Stiffness after Performing Resistance Exercise by Using the Valsalva Manoeuvre during Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Yip Vincent Mak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Performing resistance exercise could lead to an increase in arterial stiffness. Objective. We investigate the acute effect on arterial stiffness by performing Valsalva manoeuvre during resistance exercise. Materials and Methods. Eighteen healthy young men were assigned to perform bicep curls by using two breathing techniques (exhalation and Valsalva manoeuvre during muscle contraction on two separate study days. Carotid pulsed wave velocity (cPWV was measured as an indicator to reflect the body central arterial stiffness using a high-resolution ultrasound system, and its value was monitored repeatedly at three predefined time intervals: before resistance exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15 minutes after exercise. Results. At the 0th minute after resistance exercise was performed using the Valsalva manoeuvre during exertion, a significant increase in cPWV (4.91 m/s ± 0.52 compared with the baseline value (4.67 m/s ± 0.32, P=0.008 was observed, and then it nearly returned to its baseline value at the 15th minute after exercise (4.66 m/s ± 0.44, P=0.010. These findings persisted after adjusting for age, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Conclusion. Our result suggests short duration of resistance exercise may provoke a transient increase in central arterial stiffness in healthy young men.

  11. Effects of quadriceps strength after static and dynamic whole-body vibration exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jill A; Blog, Gabriel L; Kang, Jie; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ratamess, Nicholas A

    2015-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown performance benefits including whole-body vibration (WBV) as a training modality or an acute exercise protocol when used as a component of the resistance training program. Some studies have indicated that performing dynamic exercises as compared with static position exercises while exposed to WBV might be beneficial; however, evidence is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if an acute bout of dynamic versus static squats performed during WBV results in increase in quadriceps force production by means of dynamic isokinetic knee extension and flexion exercise. Nonresistance-trained healthy young men and women (N = 21) of 18-25 years participated in 4 protocols with 2-week rest in-between. Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats without vibration; Protocol 2: 5 sets of 30-second static squats without vibration; Protocol 3: 5 sets of 10 dynamic squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes; and Protocol 4: 5 sets of 30-second static squats with 30-Hz WBV for a total of 2.5 minutes. Prestrength tests (1 set of 4 repetitions at 100° · s(-1) for the knee extension exercise) was performed within 5 minutes of starting each protocol, and poststrength testing was performed within 1 minute of completing each protocol. Strength outcomes were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance with a significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. A significant decrease in strength was observed after dynamic and static squats without WBV (p = 0.002); an increase in strength after dynamic squats with WBV (p = 0.003); and a decrease in strength after static squats with WBV (p = 0.003). The inclusion of WBV to dynamic resistance exercise can be an added modality to increase strength. Whole-body vibration can have varied effects in altering muscle strength in untrained individuals according to the type of resistance training performed. As a dynamic squat with WBV seems to immediately potentiate neuromuscular functioning, the

  12. Effects of Four-Month Exercise Program on Correction of Body Posture of Persons with Different Visual Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damira Vranesic-Hadzimehmedovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a four-month specific exercise program on correcting the posture of persons with different visual impairment. The sample consisted of 20 elementary students with visual impairment diagnosis, 11 boys and 9 girls aged 9-14 (12±0.6. The classification of the examinees was performed according to the established degree of visual impairment, 10 blind persons and 10 partially sighted persons. The pupils voluntarily participated in the exercise program. The exercise program was structured of two phases: exercise on dryland and exercise in water. A total of 36 exercise units were completed during four months period. Seven tests were used to evaluate the body posture, based on the determination of segmental dimensions and the visual projection of the marked points. The contents of the program were performed with the aim of preventing and correcting the observed irregularities of the body posture. The t-test scores indicated statistically significant differences between two measurements (p<0.05, p<0.01. It can be concluded that elementary movements, performed through dryland and especially water exercises, had a good effect on correcting the body's posture of blind and partially sighted persons.

  13. The prospective association between different types of exercise and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Hand, Gregory A.; Sagner, Michael; Shook, Robin P.; Burgess, Stephanie; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite the widely accepted benefits of exercise on chronic disease risk, there remains controversy on the role of exercise in weight loss. This study examined the effect of different exercise types on measures of adiposity across different fat categories. Methods A total of 348 young adults (49% male; 28±4 years), participating in an ongoing observational study, provided valid data over a period of 12 months. Fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) were measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry every 3 months. Percent body fat (BF) was calculated and used to differentiate between normal fat, over fat and obese participants. At each measurement time point participants reported engagement (min/week) in aerobic exercise, resistance exercise and other exercise. Results Most participants (93%) reported some exercise participation during the observation period. Total exercise or specific exercise types did not significantly affect subsequent BMI after adjusting for sex, ethnicity, age and baseline values of adiposity and exercise. Resistance exercise affected lean mass (pexercise only affected fat mass (pexercise type positively affected lean mass in normal fat participants (pexercise (p≤0.02) but not with aerobic exercise (p≥0.09). Additionally adjusting for objectively assessed total physical activity level did not change these results. Conclusion Despite the limited effects on BMI, exercise was associated with beneficial changes in body composition. Exercise increased lean mass in normal fat participants and reduced fat mass in overfat and obese adults. Adults with excess body fat may benefit particularly from resistance exercise. PMID:25970664

  14. The Effect of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Power Output for the Upper Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine and measure high intensity, intermittent upper body performance, in addition to identifying areas of the body that affect the variance in total work done during the 5 × 6 s sprint test. Fifteen males completed an upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test on a modified electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer, which consisted of five maximal effort sprints, each 6 s in duration, separated by 24 s of passive recovery. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% of the participants’ body weight was used as the implemented resistance level. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Percent (% decrement was calculated as 100 − (Total work/ideal work × 100. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found between sprints for both absolute and relative (W, W·kg−1, W·kg−1 Lean body mass (LBM and W·kg−1 Upper body lean body mass (UBLBM peak (PP and mean (MP power. The % decrement in total work done over the five sprints was 11.4%. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that UBLBM accounts for 87% of the variance in total work done during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test. These results provide a descriptive analysis of upper body, high intensity intermittent exercise, demonstrating that PP and MP output decreased significantly during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test.

  15. Exercise and Sport Performance with Low Doses of Caffeine

    OpenAIRE

    Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5–13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (

  16. Advances in Exercise, Fitness, and Performance Genomics in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzynski, Mark A; Loos, Ruth J F; Lucia, Alejandro; Pérusse, Louis; Roth, Stephen M; Wolfarth, Bernd; Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-10-01

    This review of the exercise genomics literature encompasses the highest-quality articles published in 2015 across seven broad topics: physical activity behavior, muscular strength and power, cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance, body weight and adiposity, insulin and glucose metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, and hemodynamic traits. One study used a quantitative trait locus for wheel running in mice to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in humans associated with physical activity levels. Two studies examined the association of candidate gene ACTN3 R577X genotype on muscular performance. Several studies examined gene-physical activity interactions on cardiometabolic traits. One study showed that physical inactivity exacerbated the body mass index (BMI)-increasing effect of an FTO SNP but only in individuals of European ancestry, whereas another showed that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) SNPs from genome-wide association studies exerted a smaller effect in active individuals. Increased levels of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were associated with higher Matsuda insulin sensitivity index in PPARG Ala12 carriers but not Pro12 homozygotes. One study combined genome-wide and transcriptome-wide profiling to identify genes and SNPs associated with the response of triglycerides (TG) to exercise training. The genome-wide association study results showed that four SNPs accounted for all of the heritability of △TG, whereas the baseline expression of 11 genes predicted 27% of △TG. A composite SNP score based on the top eight SNPs derived from the genomic and transcriptomic analyses was the strongest predictor of ΔTG, explaining 14% of the variance. The review concludes with a discussion of a conceptual framework defining some of the critical conditions for exercise genomics studies and highlights the importance of the recently launched National Institutes of Health Common Fund program titled "Molecular

  17. Postactivation potentiation of sprint acceleration performance using plyometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony P; Bellhouse, Sam; Kilduff, Liam P; Russell, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP), an acute and temporary enhancement of muscular performance resulting from previous muscular contraction, commonly occurs after heavy resistance exercise. However, this method of inducing PAP has limited application to the precompetition practices (e.g., warm-up) of many athletes. Very few studies have examined the influence of plyometric activity on subsequent performance; therefore, we aimed to examine the influence of alternate-leg bounding on sprint acceleration performance. In a randomized crossover manner, plyometric-trained men (n = 23) performed seven 20-m sprints (with 10-m splits) at baseline, ∼15 seconds, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 minutes after a walking control (C) or 3 sets of 10 repetitions of alternate-leg bounding using body mass (plyometric, P) and body mass plus 10% (weighted plyometric, WP). Mean sprint velocities over 10 and 20 m were similar between trials at baseline. At ∼15 seconds, WP impaired 20-m sprint velocity by 1.4 ± 2.5% when compared with C (p = 0.039). Thereafter, 10- and 20-m sprint velocities improved in WP at 4 minutes (10 m: 2.2 ± 3.1%, p = 0.009; 20 m: 2.3 ± 2.6%, p = 0.001) and 8 minutes (10 m: 2.9 ± 3.6%, p = 0.002; 20 m: 2.6 ± 2.8%, p = 0.001) compared with C. Improved 10-m sprint acceleration performance occurred in P at 4 minutes (1.8 ± 3.3%, p = 0.047) relative to C. Therefore, sprint acceleration performance is enhanced after plyometric exercise providing adequate recovery is given between these activities; however, the effects may differ according to whether additional load is applied. This finding presents a practical method to enhance the precompetition practices of athletes.

  18. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  19. The Limits of Exercise Physiology: From Performance to Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Brendan M; Zierath, Juleen R

    2017-05-02

    Many of the established positive health benefits of exercise have been documented by historical discoveries in the field of exercise physiology. These investigations often assess limits: the limits of performance, or the limits of exercise-induced health benefits. Indeed, several key findings have been informed by studying highly trained athletes, in addition to healthy or unhealthy people. Recent progress has been made in regard to skeletal muscle metabolism and personalized exercise regimes. In this perspective, we review some of the historical milestones of exercise physiology, discuss how these inform contemporary knowledge, and speculate on future questions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A Data Set of Human Body Movements for Physical Rehabilitation Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Vakanski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents University of Idaho-Physical Rehabilitation Movement Data (UI-PRMD, a publically available data set of movements related to common exercises performed by patients in physical rehabilitation programs. For the data collection, 10 healthy subjects performed 10 repetitions of different physical therapy movements with a Vicon optical tracker and a Microsoft Kinect sensor used for the motion capturing. The data are in a format that includes positions and angles of full-body joints. The objective of the data set is to provide a basis for mathematical modeling of therapy movements, as well as for establishing performance metrics for evaluation of patient consistency in executing the prescribed rehabilitation exercises.

  1. The role of body awareness and mindfulness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rachel; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the potential mediating roles of mindfulness and body awareness in the relationship between exercise and eating behavior. Female exercisers (N = 159) recruited from fitness centers, yoga centers, and the community completed a questionnaire incorporating measures of exercise behavior, body awareness, trait mindfulness, mindful eating, dietary intake, and disordered eating symptoms. Participation in yoga was associated with significantly lower disordered eating (mediated by body awareness), whereas the amount of time spent participating in cardio-based exercise was associated with greater eating disturbance. The relationships between amount of exercise and actual food intake were not mediated by trait mindfulness or body awareness. The differential findings for dietary intake and disordered eating indicate that the body awareness cultivated in different forms of exercise may be more beneficial for clinical populations or those at risk for eating disorders than for modifying actual dietary intake in the general population.

  2. Interleukin-6 release is higher across arm than leg muscles during whole-body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Klein, Ditte K; Andersen, Thor Munch

    2011-01-01

    ± 7 and 47 ± 7 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) were lower, glucose uptake similar (51 ± 12 and 41 ± 8 mmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) and lactate release higher (82 ± 32 and -2 ± 12 µmol min(-1) (kg lean limb mass)(-1)) in arms than legs, respectively, during exercise (P ....05). No correlations were present between IL-6 release and exogenous substrate uptakes. Muscle glycogen was similar in arms and legs before exercise (388 ± 22 and 428 ± 25 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)), but after exercise it was only significantly lower in the leg (219 ± 29 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1)). The novel finding......Exercising muscle releases interleukin-6 (IL-6), but the mechanisms controlling this process are poorly understood. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that the IL-6 release differs in arm and leg muscle during whole-body exercise, owing to differences in muscle metabolism. Sixteen...

  3. Relevance of whole body vibration exercise in sport: a short review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) has been used as a safe and accessible exercise and important reviews have been published about the use of this exercise to manage diseases and to improve physical conditions of athletes The aim of this paper is to highlight the relevance of WBVE to soccer players, ...

  4. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  5. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  6. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  7. Central dopaminergic neurotransmission plays an important role in thermoregulation and performance during endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) has been widely investigated for its potential role in determining exercise performance. It was originally thought that DA's ergogenic effect was by mediating psychological responses. Recently, some studies have also suggested that DA may regulate physiological responses, such as thermoregulation. Hyperthermia has been demonstrated as an important limiting factor during endurance exercise. DA is prominent in the thermoregulatory centre, and changes in DA concentration have been shown to affect core temperature regulation during exercise. Some studies have proposed that DA or DA/noradrenaline (NA) reuptake inhibitors can improve exercise performance, despite hyperthermia during exercise in the heat. DA/NA reuptake inhibitors also increase catecholamine release in the thermoregulatory centre. Intracerebroventricularly injected DA has been shown to improve exercise performance through inhibiting hyperthermia-induced fatigue, even at normal ambient temperatures. Further, caffeine has been reported to increase DA release in the thermoregulatory centre and improves endurance exercise performance despite increased core body temperature. Taken together, DA has been shown to have ergogenic effects and increase heat storage and hyperthermia tolerance. The mechanisms underlying these effects seem to involve limiting/overriding the inhibitory signals from the central nervous system that result in cessation of exercise due to hyperthermia.

  8. Physical exercise performed before bedtime improves the sleep pattern of healthy young good sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flausino, Noler Heyden; Da Silva Prado, Juliana Martuscelli; de Queiroz, Sandra Souza; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the influence of different intensities and durations of exercise before bedtime on the sleep pattern and core body temperature of individuals considered good sleepers, we selected 17 healthy males and all underwent 5 nonconsecutive days of study. Measurements of polysomnographic parameters and core body temperature were taken at baseline and after each experimental protocol, performed at night. We found increased sleep efficiency (p = .016) among all protocols compared with baseline data and increase in REM sleep latency (p = .047) between two experiments; there was decrease in the percentage of stage 1 sleep (p = .046) and wake after sleep onset (p = .003). Core body temperature did not change significantly during the nights following exercise. Exercise performed before sleep does not impair sleep quality; rather, its practice improves sleep in good sleepers who are nonathletes, and may be considered to improve sleep pattern. Copyright © 2011 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  9. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  10. Effects of social comparisons with peers on women's body satisfaction and exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilenko, Kari A; Kulik, James A; Wanic, Rebekah A

    2007-12-01

    Although exposure to thin-ideal females in the media has been shown to increase women's body dissatisfaction, only a few studies have examined the effects of comparisons with peers, and no prior work has studied the effects of peer comparisons in a naturalistic setting or on objective behavior. Female undergraduates (n = 45) in a campus gym who exercised on a target apparatus were assigned to have a fit-peer, unfit-peer, or no-peer (control) exercise within their view on a nearby apparatus. Objective time spent exercising and body satisfaction reports were collected. Exposure to a fit peer had undermining effects on women's body satisfaction and exercise duration, whereas an unfit peer produced no compensating greater body satisfaction but did elicit longer exercise duration relative to controls. Incidental comparisons with fit versus unfit peers can affect women's body satisfaction and fitness-related behavior in a naturalistic setting. (c) 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tranchina Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pre-exercise high energy drink on reaction time and anaerobic power in competitive strength/power athletes. In addition, the effect of the pre-exercise drink on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus was also explored. Methods Twelve male strength/power athletes (21.1 ± 1.3 y; 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; 88.6 ± 12.1 kg; 17.6 ± 3.3% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory and were provided with either 120 ml of a high energy drink (SUP, commercially marketed as Redline Extreme® or 120 ml of a placebo (PL that was similar in taste and appearance but contained no active ingredients. Following consumption of the supplement or placebo subjects rested quietly for 10-minutes prior to completing a survey and commencing exercise. The survey consisted of 4 questions asking each subject to describe their feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus for that moment. Following the completion of the questionnaire subjects performed a 2-minute quickness and reaction test on the Makoto testing device (Makoto USA, Centennial CO and a 20-second Wingate Anaerobic Power test. Following a 10-minute rest subjects repeated the testing sequence and after a similar rest period a third and final testing sequence was performed. The Makoto testing device consisted of subjects reacting to both a visual and auditory stimulus and striking one out of 30 potential targets on three towers. Results Significant difference in reaction performance was seen between SUP and PL in both average number of targets struck (55.8 ± 7.4 versus 51.9 ± 7.4, respectively and percent of targets struck (71.9 ± 10.5% versus 66.8 ± 10.9%, respectively. No significant differences between trials were seen in any anaerobic power measure. Subjective feelings of energy (3.5 ± 0

  12. The effects of strength exercise and walking on lumbar function, pain level, and body composition in chronic back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Kang, Suh-Jung

    2016-10-01

    The beneficial effects of a strength exercise program and a combined exercise program of strength training plus walking were examined in overweight with chronic back pain patients. The participants were randomly placed in the strength exercise group (SEG, n=15), combined exercise group (CEG, n=15), and control group (CG, n=6). All subjects performed exercise twice per week, 50 min per session with a professional instructors for 12 weeks. In order to evaluate exercise intervention effects, lumbar function was measured by back strength and flexibility. Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to evaluate pain level. Fat and muscle mass were measured to compare body composition changes. All measurements were performed before and after 12 weeks of exercise program. Lumbar function: Back strength was significantly different over time, and significant time×group differences were found between SEG and CG and, CEG and CG. Pain disorder degree: VAS showed a significant group difference, and significant time×group differences were shown between SEG and CG, and CEG and CG. Also, RMDG showed a significant difference between CEG and CG. Body composition: Fat mass was significantly different over time×group between SEG and CG. In conclusion, participating in strength and walking exercises were beneficial to improve lumbar function. Also, the combined exercise program was more effective for reducing pain levels than the strength exercise. Finally, fat mass was reduced in this study and this may play a possible role in the improvement of lumbar function and reduction in low back pain.

  13. Perceptions of masculinity and body image in men with prostate cancer: the role of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langelier, David Michael; Cormie, Prue; Bridel, William; Grant, Christopher; Albinati, Natalia; Shank, Jena; Daun, Julia Teresa; Fung, Tak S; Davey, Colin; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2018-04-13

    The goal of this study was to explore the association between levels of exercise and patterns of masculinity, body image, and quality of life in men undergoing diverse treatment protocols for prostate cancer. Fifty men with prostate cancer (aged 42-86) completed self-report measures. Self-reported measures included the following: the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ), Masculine Self-esteem Scale (MSES), Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ), Body Image Scale (BIS), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P). Masculinity, body image, and quality of life scores were compared between men obtaining recommended levels of exercise (aerobic or resistance) and those not obtaining recommended level of exercise. Secondary outcomes included the association between masculinity, body image, and quality of life scores as they relate to exercise levels. There were significantly higher scores of masculinity (p aerobic exercise. In the 48% of men who had never received androgen deprivation therapy, significantly higher levels of masculinity, body image, and quality of life were observed in those meeting aerobic guidelines. Whether treatment includes androgen deprivation or not, men who participate in higher levels of aerobic exercises report higher levels of masculinity, improved body image, and quality of life than those who are inactive. Future longitudinal research is required evaluating exercise level and its effect on masculinity and body image.

  14. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A.; Thomas, Bijoy J.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Miller, Karen K. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Neuroendocrine Unit, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-10-15

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ({sup 31}P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 {+-} 3.9 from 30.4 {+-} 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 {+-} 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 {+-} 4.7 from 6.5 {+-} 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 {+-} 0.14 from 7.17 {+-} 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles. (orig.)

  15. Modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for whole-body scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Ghomi, Reza; Bredella, Miriam A; Thomas, Bijoy J; Miller, Karen K; Torriani, Martin

    2011-10-01

    To develop a modular MR-compatible lower leg exercise device for muscle testing using a clinical 3 T MR scanner. An exercise device to provide isotonic resistance to plantar- or dorsiflexion was constructed from nonferrous materials and designed for easy setup and use in a clinical environment. Validation tests were performed during dynamic MR acquisitions. For this purpose, the device was tested on the posterior lower leg musculature of five subjects during 3 min of exercise at 30% of maximum voluntary plantarflexion during 31-phosphorus MR spectroscopy ((31)P-MRS). Measures of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), and pH were obtained before, during, and after the exercise protocol. At the end of exercise regimen, muscle PCr showed a 28% decrease from resting levels (to 21.8 ± 3.9 from 30.4 ± 3.0 mM) and the average PCr recovery rate was 35.3 ± 8.3 s. Muscle Pi concentrations increased 123% (to 14.6 ± 4.7 from 6.5 ± 3.3 mM) and pH decreased 1.5% (to 7.06 ± 0.14 from 7.17 ± 0.07) from resting levels. The described MR-compatible lower leg exercise was an effective tool for data acquisition during dynamic MR acquisitions of the calf muscles. The modular design allows for adaptation to other whole-body MR scanners and incorporation of custom-built mechanical or electronic interfaces and can be used for any MR protocol requiring dynamic evaluation of calf muscles.

  16. Body armour: the effect of load, exercise and distraction on landing forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Paddy C; Handcock, Phil J; Rehrer, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of added load and intense exercise on jump and landing performance and ground reaction force (GRF) during landings where attentional demand was varied. Fifty-two males (37 ± 9.2 years, 180.7 ± 6.1 cm, 90.2 ± 11.6 kg, maximal aerobic fitness (VO(₂max)) 50 ± 8.5 ml (.) kg(-1 .) min(-1), BMI 27.6 ± 3.1, mean ± s) completed a VO(₂max) test. Experimental sessions were completed (≥4 days in between) in a randomised counterbalanced order, one while wearing body armour and appointments (loaded) and one without load (unloaded). A vertical jump, a drop landing concentrating on safe touchdown, a drop jump and a drop landing with an attentional distraction were performed. These were repeated 1 min after a 5-min treadmill run. Mean jump height decreased by 12% (P < 0.001) with loading and a further by 6% following the running task. Peak GRFs were increased by 13-19% with loading (P < 0.001) depending on the landing task demands and a further by 4-9% following intense exercise. The distracted drop landing had significantly higher GRFs compared to all other landings. Results demonstrate that added load impacts on jumping and landing performance, an effect that is amplified by prior intense exercise, and distraction during landing. Such increases in GRF apply to police officer performance in their duties and may increase the risk of injury.

  17. Exercise Preserves Lean Mass and Performance during Severe Energy Deficit: The Role of Exercise Volume and Dietary Protein Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. L. Calbet

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The loss of fat-free mass (FFM caused by very-low-calorie diets (VLCD can be attenuated by exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the role played by exercise and dietary protein content in preserving the lean mass and performance of exercised and non-exercised muscles, during a short period of extreme energy deficit (~23 MJ deficit/day. Fifteen overweight men underwent three consecutive experimental phases: baseline assessment (PRE, followed by 4 days of caloric restriction and exercise (CRE and then 3 days on a control diet combined with reduced exercise (CD. During CRE, the participants ingested a VLCD and performed 45 min of one-arm cranking followed by 8 h walking each day. The VLCD consisted of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day of either whey protein (PRO, n = 8 or sucrose (SU, n = 7. FFM was reduced after CRE (P < 0.001, with the legs and the exercised arm losing proportionally less FFM than the control arm [57% (P < 0.05 and 29% (P = 0.05, respectively]. Performance during leg pedaling, as reflected by the peak oxygen uptake and power output (Wpeak, was reduced after CRE by 15 and 12%, respectively (P < 0.05, and recovered only partially after CD. The deterioration of cycling performance was more pronounced in the whey protein than sucrose group (P < 0.05. Wpeak during arm cranking was unchanged in the control arm, but improved in the contralateral arm by arm cranking. There was a linear relationship between the reduction in whole-body FFM between PRE and CRE and the changes in the cortisol/free testosterone ratio (C/FT, serum isoleucine, leucine, tryptophan, valine, BCAA, and EAA (r = −0.54 to −0.71, respectively, P < 0.05. C/FT tended to be higher in the PRO than the SU group following CRE (P = 0.06. In conclusion, concomitant low-intensity exercise such as walking or arm cranking even during an extreme energy deficit results in remarkable preservation of lean mass. The intake of proteins alone may be associated with greater

  18. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  19. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  20. Caffeine improves physical and cognitive performance during exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Eef; Bandelow, Stephan; Schmitt, Jeroen; Jentjens, Roy; Oliveira, Marta; Allgrove, Judith; Carter, Tom; Gleeson, Michael

    2008-10-01

    Caffeine is thought to act as a central stimulant and to have effects on physical, cognitive, and psychomotor functioning. To examine the effects of ingesting a performance bar, containing caffeine, before and during cycling exercise on physical and cognitive performance. Twenty-four well-trained cyclists consumed the products [a performance bar containing 45 g of carbohydrate and 100 mg of caffeine (CAF), an isocaloric noncaffeine performance bar (CHO), or 300 mL of placebo beverage (BEV)] immediately before performing a 2.5-h exercise at 60% VO2max followed by a time to exhaustion trial (T2EX) at 75% VO2max. Additional products were taken after 55 and 115 min of exercise. Cognitive function measures (computerized Stroop and Rapid Visual Information Processing tests) were performed before exercise and while cycling after 70 and 140 min of exercise and again 5 min after completing the T2EX ride. Participants were significantly faster after CAF when compared with CHO on both the computerized complex information processing tests, particularly after 140 min and after the T2EX ride (P performance was significantly slower than after both other treatments (P 0.10). T2EX was longer after CAF consumption compared with both CHO and BEV trials (P 0.05). Caffeine in a performance bar can significantly improve endurance performance and complex cognitive ability during and after exercise. These effects may be salient for sports performance in which concentration plays a major role.

  1. The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside decreases exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtzidis, Ioannis A; Stoupas, Andreas T; Gioris, Ioannis S; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Margaritelis, Nikos V; Tsantarliotou, Maria; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its phosphorylated form (NADP(+)) are key molecules in ubiquitous bioenergetic and cellular signaling pathways, regulating cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Thus, supplementation with NAD(+) and NADP(+) precursors emerged as a promising strategy to gain many and multifaceted health benefits. In this proof-of-concept study, we sought to investigate whether chronic nicotinamide riboside administration (an NAD(+) precursor) affects exercise performance. Eighteen Wistar rats were equally divided in two groups that received either saline vehicle or nicotinamide riboside at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days via gavage. At the end of the 21-day administration protocol, both groups performed an incremental swimming performance test. The nicotinamide riboside group showed a tendency towards worse physical performance by 35 % compared to the control group at the final 10 % load (94 ± 53 s for the nicotinamide riboside group and 145 ± 59 s for the control group; P = 0.071). Our results do not confirm the previously reported ergogenic effect of nicotinamide riboside. The potentially negative effect of nicotinamide riboside administration on physical performance may be attributed to the pleiotropic metabolic and redox properties of NAD(+) and NADP(+).

  2. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  3. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  4. Effects of exercise on fluid exchange and body composition in man during 14-day bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.; Morse, J. T.; Staley, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    A description is presented of an investigation in which body composition, fluid intake, and fluid and electrolyte losses were measured in seven normal, healthy men during three 2-wk bed-rest periods, separated by two 3-wk recovery periods. During bed rest the subjects remained in the horizontal position continuously. During the dietary control periods, body mass decreased significantly with all three regimens, including no exercise, isometric exercise, and isotonic excercise. During bed rest, body mass was essentially unchanged with no exercise, but decreased significantly with isotonic and isometric exercise. With one exception, there were no statistically significant changes in body density, lean body mass, or body fat content by the end of each of the three bed-rest periods.

  5. Effects of light resistance exercise using dumbbells and rubber band with mild energy restriction on body composition and physical fitness in obese Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyung-Sook; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Suzuki, Masashige

    2004-01-01

    The effects of light resistance exercise using dumbbells and rubber band with mild energy restriction on body composition and physical fitness were studied in 11 mildly obese Korean women aged 38-59 years. The subjects performed dumbbell exercises with pairs of 0.5-1 kg dumbbells and rubber band exercise 3 days per week for approximately 40 min. Subjects were restricted to approximately 80% of energy intake RDA for Korean women for 12 weeks. Subjects were measured for body composition, physical fitness, and blood and serum biochemical data before commencing the experiment and again at 12 weeks while still dieting. During the 12-week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly without reducing fat free mass. Grip and back strength increased significantly during the experimental period. These results suggest that combination of dumbbell and rubber band exercises decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM while increasing physical fitness.

  6. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal ...

  7. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk-Sanchez NJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neva J Kirk-Sanchez,1 Ellen L McGough21Department of Physical Therapy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.Keywords: aging, neurodegeneration, dementia, brain, physical activity

  8. Exercise echocardiography or exercise SPECT imaging? - A meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleischmann, KE; Hunink, MGM; Kuntz, KM; Douglas, PS

    1998-01-01

    Context.-Cardiac imaging has advanced rapidly, providing clinicians with several choices for evaluating patients with suspected coronary artery disease, but few studies compare modalities directly. .-To review the contemporary literature and to compare the diagnostic performance of exercise

  9. The effects of exercise and body armor on cognitive function in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Aaron P J; Cole, Jon C

    2013-05-01

    Police officers routinely wear body armor to protect themselves against the threat posed by firearms and edged weapons, yet little is known of the cognitive effects of doing so. Two studies investigated the effects of exercise and body armor on working memory function in healthy volunteers. In study 1, male undergraduates were assigned to one of four groups: (i) brief exercise, (ii) brief exercise wearing body armor, (iii) extended exercise, and (iv) extended exercise wearing body armor. In study 2, university gym members were assigned to one of two groups: (i) wearing body armor and (ii) not wearing body armor. In both studies, heart rate and oral temperature were measured before, immediately after, and 5 minutes after exercise. The phonemic verbal fluency task and digits backward test were administered at the same time points. In both studies, a mixed analysis of variance revealed statistically significant changes to the cognitive functioning of participants. A change in cognitive strategy was observed, reflected by a decrease in executive function (switches) and an increase in nonexecutive function (cluster size). These data suggest that the cognitive effects of exercise and body armor may have profound implications for police officers' ability to make tactical decisions. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  10. Exercise body surface potential mapping in single and multiple coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montague, T.J.; Witkowski, F.X.; Miller, R.M.; Johnstone, D.E.; MacKenzie, R.B.; Spencer, C.A.; Horacek, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    Body surface ST integral maps were recorded in 36 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients at: rest; peak, angina-limited exercise; and, 1 and 5 min of recovery. They were compared to maps of 15 CAD patients who exercised to fatigue, without angina, and eight normal subjects. Peak exercise heart rates were similar (NS) in all groups. With exercise angina, patients with two and three vessel CAD had significantly (p less than 0.05) greater decrease in the body surface sum of ST integral values than patients with single vessel CAD. CAD patients with exercise fatigue, in the absence of angina, had decreased ST integrals similar (NS) to patients with single vessel CAD who manifested angina and the normal control subjects. There was, however, considerable overlap among individuals; some patients with single vessel CAD had as much exercise ST integral decrease as patients with three vessel CAD. All CAD patients had persistent ST integral decreases at 5 min of recovery and there was a direct correlation of the recovery and peak exercise ST changes. Exercise ST changes correlated, as well, with quantitative CAD angiographic scores, but not with thallium perfusion scores. These data suggest exercise ST integral body surface mapping allows quantitation of myocardium at ischemic risk in patients with CAD, irrespective of the presence or absence of ischemic symptoms during exercise. A major potential application of this technique is selection of CAD therapy guided by quantitative assessment of ischemic myocardial risk

  11. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  12. Effect of Linear and Non-linear Resistance Exercise on Anaerobic Performance among Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Esmaeili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of strength training are improving muscle strength, power and muscle endurance. The objective of the current study is to compare two popular linear and nonlinear resistance exercises interventions on the anaerobic power.  Previous research has shown differences intervention by the linear and non-linear resistance exercise in performance and strength in male athletes. By the way there are not enough data regarding female subjects. Eighteen young women subjects participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided in two linear (n=8 and nonlinear (n=10 groups. An 11-week exercise protocol was applied in both groups. The anaerobic power and the body composition variables were measured in the pre and posttests. The results of this research substantiated that there was no difference in the peak anaerobic power between the linear and nonlinear models of the resistance exercise. The results of the current study proved greater improvement in the nonlinear model in contrast to the linear one in two groups at the final phase of the exercise [F(1,16=6.270 , p=0.023]. Greater improvement of the anaerobic power in the undulating group may have been influenced by less overtraining risk in the nonlinear model. The increase of the muscle and lean body mass (LBM directly improved the anaerobic power by increasing the Atp-pc energy system. It was also observed that the nonlinear model of the resistance exercise experienced noticeable improvement in the body composition.  Both linear and non-linear models of resistance exercise improve anaerobic power, but at difference's situation coach and researcher should choose the best method according to type of sport and competition's season. Keywords: Anaerobic power, Energy system, resistance exercise, performance

  13. Dietary creatine supplementation and exercise performance: why inconsistent results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Peter W R

    2002-12-01

    Over the past few years there has been considerable interest in both the use of creatine (Cr) supplementation by athletes and the documentation of its effects by scientists. Some believe that this nitrogen-containing compound found in meat and fish has a performance-enhancing capability as important for brief intense exercise efforts as dietary carbohydrate is for activities where glycogen supplies limit performance. The mechanisms thought to be responsible for any ergogenic effect of acute (few d) Cr supplementation include: increased stores of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr), faster regeneration of PCr during exercise recovery, enhanced adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production from glycolysis secondary to increased hydrogen ion buffering, and/or possible shortened post contraction muscle relaxation time. With chronic (wk mo) supplementation when combined with strength training, Cr may alter muscle protein metabolism directly (via decreasing protein breakdown or increasing synthesis) and/or indirectly as a result of a greater training load made possible by its acute ergogenic effects on strength and power. Cr supplementation is not banned by the International Olympic Committee and, with the exception of a small increase in body mass (approximately 1 kg) over the initial 36 d, does not appear to have any adverse side effects, at least with short-term use. Few scientific data are available for more prolonged use (mo or y) but considering the large numbers of athletes using Cr over the past 6+ y and the absence of reported problems, it may be that the often discussed somewhat nebulous long term adverse effects are presently being overestimated. Intakes of 285-300 mg Cr/kg body mass 1 over 36 d or 3050 mg/kg body mass 1 over approximately 4 wk are sufficient to produce benefits (muscle mass and high intensity power gains); however, not all study results are consistent. The focus of this review is to outline some possible explanations for the inconsistent observations

  14. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  15. Effect of hydration state on strength, power, and resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, Daniel A; Maresh, Carl M; Farrell, Mark J; Yamamoto, Linda M; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Kraemer, William J; Volek, Jeff S; Spiering, Barry A; Casa, Douglas J; Anderson, Jeffrey M

    2007-10-01

    Although many studies have attempted to examine the effect of hypohydration on strength, power, and high-intensity endurance, few have successfully isolated changes in total body water from other variables that alter performance (e.g., increased core temperature), and none have documented the influence of hypohydration on an isotonic, multiset, multirepetition exercise bout typical of resistance exercise training. Further, no investigations document the effect of hypohydration on the ability of the central nervous system to stimulate the musculature, despite numerous scientists suggesting this possibility. The purposes of this study were to examine the isolated effect of hydration state on 1) strength, power, and the performance of acute resistance exercise, and 2) central activation ratio (CAR). Seven healthy resistance-trained males (age = 23 +/- 4 yr, body mass = 87.8 +/- 6.8 kg, body fat = 11.5 +/- 5.2%) completed three resistance exercise bouts in different hydration states: euhydrated (EU), hypohydrated by approximately 2.5% body mass (HY25), and hypohydrated by approximately 5.0% body mass (HY50). Investigators manipulated hydration status via exercise-heat stress and controlled fluid intake 1 d preceding testing. Body mass decreased 2.4 +/- 0.4 and 4.8 +/- 0.4% during HY25 and HY50, respectively. No significant differences existed among trials in vertical jump height, peak lower-body power (assessed via jump squat), or peak lower-body force (assessed via isometric back squat). CAR tended to decrease as hypohydration increased (EU = 95.6 +/- 4.9%, HY25 = 94.0 +/- 3.1%, HY50 = 92.5 +/- 5.1%; P = 0.075, eta(p)(2) = 0.41). When evaluated as a function of the percentage of total work completed during a six-set back squat protocol, hypohydration significantly decreased resistance exercise performance during sets 2-3 and 2-5 for HY25 and HY50, respectively. These data indicate that hypohydration attenuates resistance exercise performance; the role of central drive

  16. Effects of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Metabolism and Anaerobic Exercise Performance

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    Susan L. Caciano, Cynthia L. Inman, Elizabeth E. Gockel-Blessing, Edward P. Weiss

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037. The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044 and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060. Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance.

  17. Electromyographical Comparison of Muscle Activation Patterns Across Three Commonly Performed Kettlebell Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brian C; Mayo, Jerry J; Tucker, W Steven; Wax, Ben; Hendrix, Russell C

    2017-09-01

    Lyons, BC, Mayo, JJ, Tucker, WS, Wax, B, and Hendrix, RC. Electromyographical comparison of muscle activation patterns across 3 commonly performed kettlebell exercises. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2363-2370, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activation patterns of 3 different kettlebell (KB) exercises using electromyography (EMG). Fourteen resistance-trained subjects completed a 1-arm swing (Swing), 1-arm swing style snatch (Snatch), and a 1-arm clean (Clean) using a self-selected 8 to 10 repetition maximum load for each exercise. Trial sessions consisted of subjects performing 5 repetitions of each KB exercise. Mean EMG was used to assess the muscle activation of the biceps brachii, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, erector spinae (ES), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris, contralateral external oblique (EO), and gluteus maximus during each lift using surface electrodes. The mean EMG was normalized using maximal voluntary contractions obtained from manual muscle testing. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in the muscle activation patterns of the ES (Swing > Snatch), EO (Snatch, Clean > Swing), and VL (Swing > Clean) across the 3 KB exercises. We conclude that although the KB Swing, Snatch, and Clean are total body exercises, they place different demands on the ES, contralateral EO, and the VL. Therefore, KBs represent an authentic alternative for lifters, and the Swing, Snatch, and Clean are not redundant exercises.

  18. Eating and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performance. Kenney WL, et al. Body composition and nutrition for sport. In: Physiology of Sport and Exercise. 6th ed. ... Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. ...

  19. Comparative effects of horse exercise versus traditional exercise programs on gait, muscle strength, and body balance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda-García, Silvia; Iricibar, Albert; Planas, Antoni; Prat-Subiran, Joan A; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the separate effect and retention of 12-week traditional (TE) and horse (HE) exercise programs on physical function in healthy older participants (61 to 87 years old). Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three groups: TE (n = 17), HE (n = 10), and control group (n = 11). TE and HE underwent a supervised exercise program (3 day/week). Maximal gait speed, muscle strength, and body balance were assessed at weeks 0, 12, and 16. Only TE and HE displayed significant improvements (P strength, and only HE had faster gait speed. Marginal balance improvements were found only in HE in the medial-lateral direction. However, TE showed larger improvements in handgrip than HE. The largest retention was in knee extensor strength but most of the exercise effects were lost in the follow-up. Besides TE, exercise with a horse may be an alternative option to older adults, provided that they want to interact with the animal.

  20. Associations between Thermal and Physiological Responses of Human Body during Exercise

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    Suleyman Zora

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, thermal behaviours of the athletes were investigated with respect to thermal comfort and exercise intensity. The relationship between an index for analysing thermal comfort (Predicted Mean Vote: PMV and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE which shows exercise intensity and exhaustion level was evaluated. Eleven moderately trained male athletes ( V ˙ O2max 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min−1∙kg−1 had volunteered for the study (age: 22.2 ± 3.7 years; body mass: 73.8 ± 6.9 kg; height: 181 ± 6.3 cm; Body surface area (BSA: 1.93 ± 0.1 m2; body fat: 12.6% ± 4.2%; V ˙ O2max: 54 ± 9.9 mL∙min−1∙kg−1. Experiments were carried out by using a cycle ergometer in an air-conditioned test chamber which provided fresh air and had the ability to control the temperature and relative humidity. The study cohort was divided into two groups according to maximal oxygen consumption levels of the participants. Statistical analyses were conducted with the whole study cohort as well as the two separated groups. There was a moderate correlation between PMV and RPE for whole cohort (r: −0.51. When the whole cohort divided as low and high aerobic power groups, an average correlation coefficient at high oxygen consumption cohort decreased to r: −0.21, while the average correlation coefficient at low oxygen consumption cohort increased to r: −0.77. In conclusion, PMV and RPE have a high correlation in less trained participants, but not in the more trained ones. The case may bring to mind that thermal distribution may be better in high aerobic power group in spite of high RPE and thus the relation between PMV and RPE is affected by exercise performance status.

  1. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Chin A Paw, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. Methods. A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design—(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither— was

  2. Astaxanthin in Exercise Metabolism, Performance and Recovery: A Review

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    Daniel R. Brown

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During periods of heavy exercise training and competition, lipid, protein, and nucleic molecules can become damaged due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS within the exercising organism. As antioxidants can prevent and delay cellular oxidative damage through removing, deactivating, and preventing the formation of RONS, supplementation with exogenous antioxidant compounds has become a commercialized nutritional strategy commonly adopted by recreationally active individuals and athletes. The following review is written as a critical appraisal of the current literature surrounding astaxanthin and its potential application as a dietary supplement in exercising humans. Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble antioxidant carotenoid available to supplement through the intake of Haematococcus pluvialis-derived antioxidant products. Based upon in vitro and in vivo research conducted in mice exercise models, evidence would suggest that astaxanthin supplementation could potentially improve indices of exercise metabolism, performance, and recovery because of its potent antioxidant capacity. In exercising humans, however, these observations have yet to be consistently realized, with equivocal data reported. Implicated, in part, by the scarcity of well-controlled, scientifically rigorous research, future investigation is necessary to enable a more robust conclusion in regard to the efficacy of astaxanthin supplementation and its potential role in substrate utilization, endurance performance, and acute recovery in exercising humans.

  3. High-intensity intermittent exercise training with chlorella intake accelerates exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Uchida, Masataka; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tabata, Izumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic chlorella intake alone or in combination with high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the four groups: sedentary control, chlorella intake (0.5% chlorella powder in normal feed), HIIE training, and combination of HIIE training and chlorella intake for 6 wk ( n = 10 each group). HIIE training comprised 14 repeats of a 20-s swimming session with a 10-s pause between sessions, while bearing a weight equivalent to 16% of body weight, 4 days/week. Exercise performance was tested after the interventions by measuring the maximal number of HIIE sessions that could be completed. Chlorella intake and HIIE training significantly increased the maximal number of HIIE sessions and enhanced the expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1, MCT4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α concomitantly with the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome- c oxidase (COX) in the red region of the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the combination further augmented the increased exercise performance and the enhanced expressions and activities. By contrast, in the white region of the muscle, MCT1 expression and LDH, CS, and COX activities did not change. These results showed that compared with only chlorella intake and only HIIE training, chlorella intake combined with HIIE training has a more pronounced effect on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, in particular, lactate metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Hammes, Daniel; Coutts, Aaron J; Meyer, Tim

    2015-02-01

    Although its true function remains unclear, sleep is considered critical to human physiological and cognitive function. Equally, since sleep loss is a common occurrence prior to competition in athletes, this could significantly impact upon their athletic performance. Much of the previous research has reported that exercise performance is negatively affected following sleep loss; however, conflicting findings mean that the extent, influence, and mechanisms of sleep loss affecting exercise performance remain uncertain. For instance, research indicates some maximal physical efforts and gross motor performances can be maintained. In comparison, the few published studies investigating the effect of sleep loss on performance in athletes report a reduction in sport-specific performance. The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction. Of further concern, numerous studies investigating the effects of sleep loss on cognitive function report slower and less accurate cognitive performance. Based on this context, this review aims to evaluate the importance and prevalence of sleep in athletes and summarises the effects of sleep loss (restriction and deprivation) on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Given the equivocal understanding of sleep and athletic performance outcomes, further research and consideration is required to obtain a greater knowledge of the interaction between sleep and performance.

  5. Dynamic Leg Exercise Improves Tolerance to Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Ballard, R. E.; Stout, M. S.; Murthy, G.; Whalen, R. T.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    These results clearly demonstrate that dynamic leg exercise against the footward force produced by LBNP substantially improves tolerance to LBNP, and that even cyclic ankle flexion without load bearing also increases tolerance. This exercise-induced increase of tolerance was actually an underestimate, because subjects who completed the tolerance test while exercising could have continued for longer periods. Exercise probably increases LBNP tolerance by multiple mechanisms. Tolerance was increased in part by skeletal muscle pumping venous blood from the legs. Rosenhamer and Linnarsson and Rosenhamer also deduced this for subjects cycling during centrifugation, although no measurements of leg volume were made in those studies: they found that male subjects cycling at 98 W could endure 3 Gz centrifugation longer than when they remained relaxed during centrifugation. Skeletal muscle pumping helps maintain cardiac filling pressure by opposing gravity-, centrifugation-, or LBNP-induced accumulation of blood and extravascular fluid in the legs.

  6. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

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    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130∘C prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise, and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise. The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P<0.001. After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P<0.001 than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  7. Effects of two programs of exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome

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    Bruna Barboza Seron

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of a 12 week aerobic and resistance exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with 41 adolescents with Down syndrome, aged 15.5±2.7 years, divided into three groups: Aerobic Training Group (ATG; n=16, Resisted Training Group (RTG; n=15 and Control Group (CG; n=10. There were two types of training: aerobic, with intensity of 50-70% of the heart rate reserve 3 times/week, and resisted, with intensity of 12 maximum repetitions 2 times week. Both trainings were applied during a 12-week period. The percentage of fat evaluation was performed using plethysmography with Bod Pod(r equipment. Waist circumference (WC, body weight and height were also measured. Paired t-test was used to compare variables before and after the exercise program. Results: The percentage of body fat did not change significantly for both groups that participated in the training intervention. However, CG showed a significant increase in this variable (31.3±7.2 versus 34.0±7.9. On the other hand, body mass index (BMI and WC were significantly reduced for ATG (BMI: 27.0±4.4 and 26.5±4.2; WC: 87.3±11.1 and 86.2±9.7, while RTG and GC showed no differences in these variables. Conclusions: The aerobic and resisted training programs maintained body fat levels. ATG significantly reduced BMI and WC measures. Individuals who did not attend the training intervention increased their percentage of fat.

  8. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Lawrence L

    2014-11-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5-13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (caffeine doses (1) do not alter the peripheral whole-body responses to exercise; (2) improve vigilance, alertness, and mood and cognitive processes during and after exercise; and (3) are associated with few, if any, side effects. Therefore, the ergogenic effect of low caffeine doses appears to result from alterations in the central nervous system. However, several aspects of consuming low doses of caffeine remain unresolved and suffer from a paucity of research, including the potential effects on high-intensity sprint and burst activities. The responses to low doses of caffeine are also variable and athletes need to determine whether the ingestion of ~200 mg of caffeine before and/or during training and competitions is ergogenic on an individual basis.

  9. Polyphenol supplementation: benefits for exercise performance or oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2014-05-01

    Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition. The purpose of this review is to present background information on groups of polyphenols and their derivatives because their differing chemical structures influence mechanisms of action; to discuss the potential of plant, fruit and vegetable-based biological supplements, high in polyphenol content, to affect exercise performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress and exercise-induced muscle damage; and to critically discuss the exercise studies and biomarkers used. Subjects in the studies reviewed were either sedentary, healthy individuals, or active, recreationally trained or well-trained athletes. Polyphenol supplementation in exercise studies included mainly extracts (multicomponent or purified), juices, infusions or an increased intake of polyphenol-rich foods. This review includes details of supplement doses and exercise test protocols. Many studies considered only the performance or one or two selected biomarkers of antioxidant capacity instead of a comprehensive choice of biomarkers to assess damage to lipids or proteins. Evidence is insufficient to make recommendations for or against the use of polyphenol supplementation (neither specific polyphenols nor specific doses) for either recreational, competitive or elite athletes. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies must be designed appropriately and specifically to determine physiological interactions between exercise and the selected supplement, rather than considering performance alone.

  10. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Danúbia da Cunha Sá-Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS.

  11. How do you define body image? Exploring conceptual gaps in understandings of body image at an exercise facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Gammage, Kimberley L; van Ingen, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The definition of body image has evolved within research; however, less is known about the layperson's understanding of the construct. This study explored how members and student trainees of an exercise facility (designed for older adults, people with physical disability, and those with cardiac complications) defined body image. Nineteen participants completed a one-on-one interview, and seven of those participants took part in six additional focus group meetings. The following main themes were found: stereotypical assumptions about body image (e.g., it is solely a person's weight or merely a woman's issue), body image continua for positive and negative body image, degree of complexity of body image dimensions, broad considerations of body image (e.g., it is self-esteem), and limited knowledge about body image. These findings suggest a need for knowledge translation between researchers and the general public which informs future body image program design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A study of passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise effects on local muscles and whole body oxidative metabolism: a comparison with simulated horse riding, bicycle, and walking exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Kohsuke; Murase, Norio; Osada, Takuya; Kime, Ryotaro; Anjo, Mikiko; Esaki, Kazuki; Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2009-11-10

    We have developed an exercise machine prototype for increasing exercise intensity by means of passively exercising lower limb muscles. The purpose of the present study was to compare the passive exercise intensity of our newly-developed machine with the intensities of different types of exercises. We also attempted to measure muscle activity to study how these forms of exercise affected individual parts of the body. Subjects were 14 healthy men with the following demographics: age 30 years, height 171.5 cm, weight 68.3 kg. They performed 4 types of exercise: Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise (PWLLE), Simulated horse riding exercise (SHRE), Bicycle exercise, and Walking exercise, as described below at an interval of one week or longer. Oxygen uptake, blood pressure, heart rate, and electromyogram (EMG) were measured or recorded during exercise. At rest prior to exercise and immediately after the end of each exercise intensity, the oxygenated hemoglobin levels of the lower limb muscles were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy to calculate the rate of decline. This rate of decline was obtained immediately after exercise as well as at rest to calculate oxygen consumption of the lower limb muscles as expressed as a ratio of a post-exercise rate of decline to a resting one. The heart rate and oxygen uptake observed in PWLLE during maximal intensity were comparable to that of a 20-watt bicycle exercise or 2 km/hr walking exercise. Maximal intensity PWLLE was found to provoke muscle activity comparable to an 80-watt bicycle or 6 km/hr walking exercise. As was the case with the EMG results, during maximal intensity PWLLE, the rectus femoris muscle consumed oxygen in amounts identical to that of an 80-watt bicycle or a 6 km/hr walking exercise. Passive weight-bearing lower limb exercise using our trial machine could provide approximately 3 MET of exercise and the thigh exhibited muscle activity equivalent to that of 80-watt bicycle or 6 km/hr walking exercise

  13. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO₂, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, pcaffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy David Noakes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late 19th century proposed that fatigue that at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvellous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the organism so that muscular fatigue also is at bottom an exhaustion of the nervous system.It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso’s idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex regulation, the goal of which is to protect the body from harm. Mosso’s ideas were supplanted in the English literature by those of A.V. Hill who believed that fatigue was the result of biochemical changes in the exercising limb muscles - peripheral fatigue - to which the central nervous system makes no contribution. The past decade has witnessed the growing realization that this brainless model cannot explain exercise performance. This article traces the evolution of our modern understanding of how the CNS regulates exercise specifically to insure that each exercise bout terminates whilst homeostasis is retained in all bodily systems. The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops. These sensations of fatigue are unique to each individual and are illusionary since their generation is largely independent of the real biological state of the athlete at the time they develop. The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.

  15. Acute effects of whole-body vibration with resistance exercise on postexercise blood pressure and oxygen consumption in prehypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Zachary S; Swan, Pamela Diane

    2016-06-01

    Research on the acute health effects of whole-body vibration with resistance exercise (WBV + RE) for clinical populations is limited. This randomized crossover trial evaluated postexercise hypotension and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in response to three conditions: WBV + RE, RE alone, and control (CON) in 11 prehypertensive (systolic/diastolic blood pressure: 120-139/80-89 mmHg) adults. Following a 12-hour fast with no exercise for the previous 24 hours, resting VO 2 and blood pressure (BP) were measured. WBV + RE was performed while standing barefoot on a vibration platform (Pneumex Pro-Vibe) and lifting a bar of 10% body weight. Fifteen repetitions of nine exercises were performed using a 1-minute-to-30-second exercise:rest ratio. RE was identical to WBV + RE but without vibration. During CON, participants remained seated for 15 minutes. Following exercise, VO 2 was measured continuously and BP every 15 minutes for 3 hours. Postexercise hypotension and EPOC were significantly different for WBV + RE compared with RE and CON ( p EPOC was significantly ( p  EPOC.

  16. Whey protein precludes lipid and protein oxidation and improves body weight gain in resistance-exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, Fabiano Kenji; Silva, Marcelo Eustáquio; Neves, Leandro Xavier; dos Santos, Rinaldo Cardoso; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia

    2011-08-01

    Resistance exercise such as weight-lifting (WL) increases oxidation products in plasma, but less is known regarding the effect of WL on oxidative damage to tissues. Dietary compounds are known to improve antioxidant defences. Whey protein (WP) is a source of protein in a variety of sport supplements and can enhance physical performance. To evaluate the effect of WL on biomarkers of lipid and protein oxidation, on liver antioxidants and on muscle growth in the absence or presence of WP in rats. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed with control or WP diets. The WL programme consisted of inducing the animals to perform sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After 8 weeks, arteriovenous blood samples, abdominal fat, liver and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for analysis. WP precludes WL-mediated increases in muscle protein carbonyl content and maintains low levels of TBARS in exercised and sedentary animals. WL reduced liver CAT activity, whereas WP increased hepatic glutathione content. In addition, WL plus WP generated higher body and muscle weight than exercise without WP. These data suggest that WP improves antioxidant defences, which contribute to the reduction of lipid and protein oxidation as well as body and muscle weight gain in resistance-exercised rats.

  17. Exergy performance of human body under physical activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian; Albuquerque, Cyro; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Yanagihara, Jurandir Itizo; Oliveira, Silvio de

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply performance indicators for individuals under physical activity based on the concepts of exergy destroyed and exergy efficiency. The cardiopulmonary exercise test is one of the most used tests to assess the functional capacity of individuals with varying degrees of physical training. To perform the exergy analysis during the test, it is necessary to calculate heat and mass flow rates, associated with radiation, convection, vaporization and respiration, determined from the measurements and some relations found in the literature. The energy balance allowed the determination of the internal temperature over time and the exergy variation of the body along the experiment. Eventually, it was possible to calculate the destroyed exergy and the exergy efficiency from the exergy analysis. The exergy rates and flow rates are dependent of the exercise level and the body metabolism. The results show that the relation between the destroyed exergy and the metabolism is almost constant during the test, furthermore its value has a great dependence of the subject age. From the exergy analysis it was possible to divide the subjects according to their training level, for the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis was applied to the human body under physical activities. • Concept of maximum available work from ATP hydrolysis was compared with exergy analysis results. • For the same destroyed exergy, subjects with higher lactate threshold can perform more work. • Runners during physical activities tend to a state of minimum destroyed exergy and maximum exergy efficiency

  18. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T E

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also been shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects. The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by

  19. Effects of dietary Acid load on exercise metabolism and anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caciano, Susan L; Inman, Cynthia L; Gockel-Blessing, Elizabeth E; Weiss, Edward P

    2015-06-01

    Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL) of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet) is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization) and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT) to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037). The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044) and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060). Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting) diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance. Key pointsShort-term (4-9 days) changes in

  20. Supine Treadmill Exercise in Lower Body Negative Pressure Combined with Resistive Exercise Counteracts Bone Loss, Reduced Aerobic Upright Exercise Capacity and Reduced Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuche, Sabine; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Macias, B. R.; Smith, S. M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to weightlessness leads to cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning. In this report, the effectiveness of combined supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (LBNPex) and flywheel resistive exercise (Rex) countermeasures was determined to prevent bone loss, reduced aerobic upright exercise capacity and reduced muscle strength. We hypothesized that exercise subjects would show less decrease in bone mineral density (BMD), peak oxygen consumption (VO2pk) and knee extensor strength (KES) than control subjects. Sixteen healthy female subjects participated in a 60-d 6(sup 0) head-down tilt bed rest (BR) study after providing written informed consent. Subjects were assigned to one of two groups: a non-exercising control group CON or an exercise group EX performing LBNPex 2-4 d/wk and Rex every 3rd-d. VO2pk was measured with a maximal, graded, upright treadmill test performed pre-BR and on 3-d after BR. BMD was assessed before and 3-d after BR. Isokinetic KES was measured before and 5-d after BR. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Statistical significance was set at p less than 0.05. CON experienced a significant decrease in BMD in the trochanter (PRE: 0.670 plus or minus 0.045; POST: 0.646 plus or minus 0.352 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and in the whole hip (PRE=0.894 plus or minus 0.059; POST: 0.858 plus or minus 0.057 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD also decreased significantly in EX in the trochanter (PRE: 0.753 plus or minus 0.0617; POST: 0.741 plus or minus 0.061 g (raised dot) per square centimeter) and whole hip (PRE: 0.954 plus or minus 0.067; POST: 0.935 plus or minus 0.069 g (raised dot) per square centimeter). BMD losses were significantly less in EX than in CON subjects. VO2pk was significantly decreased in the CON after BR (PRE: 38.0 plus or minus 4.8; POST: 29.9 plus or minus 4.2 ml (raised dot) per kilogram per minute), but not in the EX (PRE: 39.0 plus or minus 2.0; POST

  1. LOCALISED MUSCLE TISSUE OXYGENATION DURING DYNAMIC EXERCISE WITH WHOLE BODY VIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Robbins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS. Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration. Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001 depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings

  2. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Basic Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 15 terminal objectives for a basic automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (2 hours daily) course for organized classroom and shop experiences designed to enable the student to develop…

  3. Automotive Body Repair. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 10 terminal objectives for an intermediate automotive body repair and refinishing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course for specialized classrooms, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the…

  4. Extracellular hyperosmolality and body temperature during physical exercise in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, S.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Turlejska, E.; Nazar, K.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that thermoregulation during exercise can be affected by extracellular fluid hyperosmolality without changing the plasma Na(+) concentration. The effects of preexercise venous infusions of hypertonic mannitol and NaCl solutions on rectal temperature responses were compared in dogs running at moderate intensity for 60 min on a treadmill. Plasma Na(+) concentration was increased by 12 meq after NaCl infusion, and decreased by 9 meq after mannitol infusion. Both infusions increased plasma by 15 mosmol/kg. After both infusions, rectal temperature was essentially constant during 60 min rest. However, compared with the noninfusion exercise increase in osmolality of 1.3 C, rectal temperature increased by 1.9 C after both postinfusion exercise experiments. It was concluded that inducing extracellular hyperosmolality, without elevating plasma, can induce excessive increases in rectal temperature during exericse but not at rest.

  5. Beneficial effects of exercise: shifting the focus from body weight to other markers of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N A; Hopkins, M; Caudwell, P; Stubbs, R J; Blundell, J E

    2009-12-01

    Exercise is widely promoted as a method of weight management, while the other health benefits are often ignored. The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise-induced improvements in health are influenced by changes in body weight. Fifty-eight sedentary overweight/obese men and women (BMI 31.8 (SD 4.5) kg/m(2)) participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise intervention (70% heart rate max, five times a week, 500 kcal per session). Body composition, anthropometric parameters, aerobic capacity, blood pressure and acute psychological response to exercise were measured at weeks 0 and 12. The mean reduction in body weight was -3.3 (3.63) kg (pweight loss estimated from individuals' exercise-induced energy expenditure. Their mean weight loss was only -0.9 (1.8) kg (pweight reduction, these individuals experienced significant increases in aerobic capacity (6.3 (6.0) ml/kg/min; pweight loss. A less successful reduction in body weight does not undermine the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise. From a public health perspective, exercise should be encouraged and the emphasis on weight loss reduced.

  6. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Sareh Zar-Shenas; Ashraf Karbalaaei-Nouri; Seyyed-Ali Hosseini; Mahdi Rahgozar; Reza Seyed-Nour; Nahaleh Moshtagh

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and qu...

  7. Music enhances performance and perceived enjoyment of sprint interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Matthew J; Kwan, Matthew Y W; Gibala, Martin J; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A

    2015-05-01

    Interval exercise training can elicit physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training, but with reduced time. However, the intense nature of specific protocols, particularly the "all-out" efforts characteristic of sprint interval training (SIT), may be perceived as being aversive. The purpose of this study was to determine whether listening to self-selected music can reduce the potential aversiveness of an acute session of SIT by improving affect, motivation, and enjoyment, and to examine the effects of music on performance. Twenty moderately active adults (22 ± 4 yr) unfamiliar with interval exercise completed an acute session of SIT under two different conditions: music and no music. The exercise consisted of four 30-s "all-out" Wingate Anaerobic Test bouts on a cycle ergometer, separated by 4 min of rest. Peak and mean power output, RPE, affect, task motivation, and perceived enjoyment of the exercise were measured. Mixed-effects models were used to evaluate changes in dependent measures over time and between the two conditions. Peak and mean power over the course of the exercise session were higher in the music condition (coefficient = 49.72 [SE = 13.55] and coefficient = 23.65 [SE = 11.30]; P music condition (coefficient = 7.00 [SE = 3.05]; P Music enhances in-task performance and enjoyment of an acute bout of SIT. Listening to music during intense interval exercise may be an effective strategy for facilitating participation in, and adherence to, this form of training.

  8. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  9. , 1584), increase in lean body mass (ID 1579, 1582, 1583), increase in muscle strength (ID 1578, 1583, 1587), increase in endurance performance (ID 1580, 1581), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 1586) and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 1576, 1585) pursuant to Article 13, EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise (ID 1577

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise, increase in lean body mass, increase in muscle strength, increase in endurance performance, skeletal muscle tissue repair...... and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent...

  10. Effects of Warm-Up Stretching Exercises on Sprint Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaruk, Hubert; Makaruk, Beata; Kedra, Stanislaw

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess direct effects of warm-up consisting of static and dynamic stretching exercises on sprint results attained by students differing in sprint performance. Material and methods: A group of 24 male and 19 female physical education students, including 12 and 9 sprinters, respectively. They performed warm-ups consisting of dynamic…

  11. The impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction on athletic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Oliver J; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    of this review is to provide a systematic appraisal of the current status of knowledge regarding EIB and exercise performance and to highlight potential mechanisms by which performance may be compromised by EIB. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: PubMed/Medline and EBSCO databases were searched up to May 2014...

  12. The Effect of Short-Term Aerobic Exercise on Depression and Body Image in Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zarshenas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term aerobic exercise on depression symptoms and body image attitudes among Iranian women. In this quasiexperimental study, 82 females were assigned to experimental group (aerobic exercise group, or control group (waiting list, and evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire (MBSRQ, respectively. The experimental group received four-week aerobic exercise program, and control group had been asked to wait for the next four weeks. Results of this study confirmed the significant decrease in depression symptoms at the experimental group compared to control group . For the body image dependent variables, significant improvement was also found in appearance evaluation, appearance orientation, health orientation, and illness orientation in aerobic exercise group .

  13. Personality traits and appearance-ideal internalization: Differential associations with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shelby J; Racine, Sarah E

    2017-12-01

    Thin-ideal internalization is a robust risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. Conversely, athletic-ideal internalization is often unrelated to body dissatisfaction, but predicts compulsive exercise (i.e., rigid, rule-driven exercise that is continued despite adverse consequences). Distinct personality traits could relate to internalization of different appearance ideals, which may be associated with divergent eating disorder outcomes. Past research has shown that neuroticism is related to body dissatisfaction, whereas extraversion and conscientiousness have been associated with regular and problematic exercise. The current study examined associations among personality traits (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, conscientiousness), appearance-ideal internalization (i.e., thin- and athletic-ideal), and eating disorder cognitions/behaviors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, compulsive exercise) among 531 college men and women. Moreover, we tested whether appearance-ideal internalization mediated the relationships between personality traits with body dissatisfaction and compulsive exercise. As expected, body dissatisfaction was positively related to neuroticism, and compulsive exercise was positively associated with extraversion. Thin-ideal internalization positively correlated with neuroticism, athletic-ideal internalization positively correlated with conscientiousness, and both thin- and athletic-ideal internalization were positively related to extraversion. After controlling for gender, body mass index, the other appearance-ideal internalization, and the remaining personality traits, the indirect effects of both neuroticism and extraversion on body dissatisfaction through thin-ideal internalization were significant. Extraversion and conscientiousness were indirectly related to compulsive exercise through athletic-ideal internalization, whereas the indirect effect of neuroticism was dependent on covariates. As such, personality traits may be related to

  14. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  15. Whole-body vibration exercise improves functional parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have abnormal bone modelling and resorption. The bone tissue adaptation and responsivity to dynamic and mechanical loading may be of therapeutic use under controlled circumstances. Improvements due to the wholebody vibration (WBV) exercises have been ...

  16. Exercise left ventricular performance in patients with chest pain, ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiograms, and angiographically normal coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Sands, M.J.; Davies, R.A.; Wackers, F.J.; Alexander, J.; Lachman, A.S.; Williams, B.W.; Zaret, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was evaluated using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in 31 patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and angiographically normal coronary arteries at rest and during maximal upright bicycle exercise. 201 Tl imaging was done in all patients after treadmill exercise and in selected patients after ergonovine provocation. Resting left ventricular performance was normal in all patients. An abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise was detected in 12 of 31 patients. Regional dysfunction was present during exercise in four patients, all of whom also had abnormal global responses. Three of these 12 patients and two additional patients had exercise-induced 201 Tl perfusion defects. In all nine patients who underwent ergonovine testing, there was no suggestion of coronary arterial spasm. Thus, left ventricular dysfunction during exercise, in the presence of normal resting performance, was found in a substantial number of patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and normal coronary arteries

  17. heat storage in upper and lower body during high-intensity exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work at 80% of peak heart rate (HR) in room temperature . However, upper-body skin .... exercise (ACE) test to determine VO2 peak with gas exchange in- .... Lower-body heat storage was calculated using ∆Trec and ∆Tsk, which was calculated using the mean skin temperature (thigh 70% and calf 30%) from the formula of ...

  18. Body image dissatisfaction: gender differences in eating attitudes, self-esteem, and reasons for exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Badmin, Nicola; Sneade, Ian

    2002-11-01

    Two hundred and thirty-five adolescents completed a questionnaire on the subject of eating attitudes, self-esteem, reasons for exercise, and their ideal versus current body size and shape. As predicted, boys were as likely to want to be heavier as lighter, whereas very few girls desired to be heavier. Only girls associated body dissatisfaction with the concept of self-esteem. Male self-esteem was not affected by body dissatisfaction. Specific reasons for exercise were found to correlate with low self-esteem and disordered eating, regardless of sex. The results are discussed in relation to burgeoning published research in this area.

  19. Comparison of three types of full-body compression garments on throwing and repeat-sprint performance in cricket players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Portus, Marc

    2007-07-01

    To compare the effects of three types of full-body compression garments (Skins, Adidas and Under Armour) on repeat-sprint and throwing performance in cricket players. Following familiarisation, 10 male cricket players performed four randomised exercise sessions (3 garments and a control). Each session involved a 30 min repeat-sprint exercise protocol comprising 20 m sprints every minute, separated by submaximal exercise. Throwing tests included a pre-exercise and a postexercise maximal distance test and accuracy throwing tests. During each session, measures of heart rate, skin temperature, change in body mass, rate of perceived exertion and perceived muscle soreness were recorded. Capillary blood samples were analysed before and after exercise for lactate, pH, O(2) saturation and O(2) partial pressure, and 24 h after exercise for creatine kinase (CK). Ratings of perceived muscle soreness were also obtained 24 h after exercise. No significant differences (p>0.05) were evident in repeat-sprint performance (10 m, 20 m time or total submaximal distance covered) or throwing performance (maximum distance or accuracy). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in heart rate, body mass change or blood measures during exercise. Significant differences (p0.05). No benefit was noted when wearing compression garments for repeat-sprint or throwing performance; however, the use of the garments as a recovery tool, when worn after exercise, may be beneficial to reduce postexercise trauma and perceived muscle soreness.

  20. Exercise Test Performance Reveals Evidence of the Cardiorespiratory Fitness Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Sandra A; Vidoni, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Positive physiologic and cognitive responses to aerobic exercise have resulted in a proposed cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness hypothesis in which fitness gains drive changes leading to cognitive benefit. The purpose of this study was to directly assess the CR fitness hypothesis. Using data from an aerobic exercise trial, we examined individuals who completed cardiopulmonary and cognitive testing at baseline and 26 weeks. Change in cognitive test performance was not related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .06, p = .06). However, in the subset of individuals who gave excellent effort during exercise testing, change in cognitive test performance was related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .33, p fitness hypothesis and mechanisms by which physiologic adaptation may drive cognitive change.

  1. The association between physical function and lifestyle activity and exercise in the health, aging and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Jennifer S; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether older adults who exercise demonstrate higher levels of physical function than those who do not exercise but are physically active throughout the day. Cross-sectional examination of baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Health ABC field centers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Three thousand seventy-five well-functioning black and white men and women aged 70 to 79. Physical activity and exercise were assessed using a modified leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Participants were classified as inactive (reporting exercise activity and physical activity), lifestyle active (reporting exercise activity and >2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity), or exerciser (reporting> or =1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity). Physical function measures included the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) battery, the Health ABC battery, a 400-m walk test, and isokinetic strength testing of the knee extensors. The lifestyle active and exerciser groups had similar total activity levels (men: 6,135 kcal/wk and 6,734 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.108; women: 5,695 kcal/wk and 5,854 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.335). When examining lower extremity performance in relation to physical activity, a progressive trend was evident, with the inactive individuals most likely to have impaired performance on the EPESE battery (men: 33.7%, 24.3%, and 19.1%, Pexerciser, respectively). Progressive trends of similar magnitude were present for the Health ABC battery, time to walk 400 m, and knee extensor strength. In multivariate linear regression, those in the inactive and lifestyle active groups had poorer scores on the Health ABC performance battery than individuals in the exercise group after controlling for demographic factors and prevalent disease (men: inactive beta=-0.27, Pexercisers had similar proportions of functionally limited older persons (scoring exercise on most days

  2. Disordered eating attitudes and body shame among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskiene, R; Pajaujiene, S

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the disordered eating attitudes and sociocultural body ideals internalization among university athletes (N.=98), exercisers (N.=125) and sedentary (N.=81) undergraduate female students. The mean age (SD) of the sample was 20.17 (2.00). The students completed Eating Attitude Test - 26, Body Areas Satisfaction subscale of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, Body Shame subscale from the Objectified Body Consciousness Scale, Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale, Appearance subscale from the Motives for Physical Activity Measure--Revised, reported their physical activity and fluid manipulation-related behaviour. We observed no significant differences in disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem and fluid manipulation-related behaviour among athletes, exercisers and sedentary female students. Body shame predicted disordered eating in all groups of women. Students high in body shame reported higher levels of disordered eating, body dissatisfaction, appearance-related exercise motives, fluid manipulation-related behaviour and lower self-esteem, regardless of their physical activity level. The results show that internalization of the sociocultural body standards provide a mechanism through which different physical activity levels are associated with negative eating and physical activity-related outcomes in college-aged women.

  3. Advances in exercise, fitness, and performance genomics in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérusse, Louis; Rankinen, Tuomo; Hagberg, James M; Loos, Ruth J F; Roth, Stephen M; Sarzynski, Mark A; Wolfarth, Bernd; Bouchard, Claude

    2013-05-01

    A small number of excellent articles on exercise genomics issues were published in 2012. A new PYGM knock-in mouse model will provide opportunities to investigate the exercise intolerance and very low activity level of people with McArdle disease. New reports on variants in ACTN3 and ACE have increased the level of uncertainty regarding their true role in skeletal muscle metabolism and strength traits. The evidence continues to accumulate on the positive effects of regular physical activity on body mass index or adiposity in individuals at risk of obesity as assessed by their FTO genotype or by the number of risk alleles they carry at multiple obesity-susceptibility loci. The serum levels of triglycerides and the risk of hypertriglyceridemia were shown to be influenced by the interactions between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the NOS3 gene and physical activity level. Allelic variation at nine SNPs was shown to account for the heritable component of the changes in submaximal exercise heart rate induced by the HERITAGE Family Study exercise program. SNPs at the RBPMS, YWHAQ, and CREB1 loci were found to be particularly strong predictors of the changes in submaximal exercise heart rate. The 2012 review ends with comments on the importance of relying more on experimental data, the urgency of identifying panels of genomic predictors of the response to regular exercise and particularly of adverse responses, and the exciting opportunities offered by recent advances in our understanding of the global architecture of the human genome as reported by the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project.

  4. The Effects Combining Cryocompression Therapy following an Acute Bout of Resistance Exercise on Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. DuPont, Brek J. Meuris, Vincent H. Hardesty, Emily C. Barnhart, Landon H. Tompkins, Morricia J.P. Golden, Clayton J. Usher, Paul A. Spence, Lydia K. Caldwell, Emily M. Post, Matthew K. Beeler, William J. Kraemer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Compression and cold therapy used separately have shown to reduce negative effects of tissue damage. The combining compression and cold therapy (cryocompression as a single recovery modality has yet to be fully examined. To examine the effects of cryocompression on recovery following a bout of heavy resistance exercise, recreationally resistance trained men (n =16 were recruited, matched, and randomly assigned to either a cryocompression group (CRC or control group (CON. Testing was performed before and then immediately after exercise, 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours after a heavy resistance exercise workout (barbell back squats for 4 sets of 6 reps at 80% 1RM, 90 sec rest between sets, stiff legged deadlifts for 4 sets of 8 reps at 1.0 X body mass with 60 sec rest between sets, 4 sets of 10 eccentric Nordic hamstring curls, 45 sec rest between sets. The CRC group used the CRC system for 20-mins of cryocompression treatment immediately after exercise, 24 hours, and 48 hours after exercise. CON sat quietly for 20-mins at the same time points. Muscle damage [creatine kinase], soreness (visual analog scale, 0-100, pain (McGill Pain Q, 0-5, fatigue, sleep quality, and jump power were significantly (p < 0.05 improved for CRC compared to CON at 24 and 48 hours after exercise. Pain was also significantly lower for CRC compared to CON at 60-mins post exercise. These findings show that cryocompression can enhance recovery and performance following a heavy resistance exercise workout.

  5. Muscle activity during knee-extension strengthening exercise performed with elastic tubing and isotonic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    contraction phase of a knee extension exercise performed with elastic tubing and in training machine and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) EMG (nEMG). Knee joint angle was measured during the exercises using electronic inclinometers (range of motion 0-90°). RESULTS: When comparing...... tubing induces similar high (>70% nEMG) quadriceps muscle activity during the concentric contraction phase, but slightly lower during the eccentric contraction phase, as knee extensions performed using an isotonic training machine. During the concentric contraction phase the two different conditions......BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: While elastic resistance training, targeting the upper body is effective for strength training, the effect of elastic resistance training on lower body muscle activity remains questionable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the EMG-angle relationship of the quadriceps...

  6. Differences for gender, weight and exercise in body image disturbance and eating disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Horton, R; Savoy, S

    2006-09-01

    Differences for gender, weight, exercise frequency and type for eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance were examined. Further understanding of male body image disturbance was the primary goal. Males (n=200) and females (n=233) completed measures to assess eating disorder symptoms and multiple components of body image disturbance. Measures were modified to be more appropriate for males. Females endorsed higher levels of eating and body concerns. Males were divided between a desire to maintain, increase or decrease their size. Higher weight and exercise frequency was associated with increased body image concern and eating disorder symptoms, particularly for males. Exercise frequency was also linked to higher self-esteem for males. Males who used muscle-enhancing supplements indicated increased social pressures and concern for appearance, and a desire to increase their size. The findings support that weight and exercise frequency affect eating disorder symptoms and body image disturbance. Males appear to exhibit body image disturbance, which is related to their current weight status. Results support the call for further development of measures that more adequately address male concerns.

  7. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Augustyńska, Beata; Woźniak, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130°C) prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise), and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise). The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC. PMID:24489985

  8. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  9. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F; Panissa, Valéria L G; Lira, Fábio S; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H M

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk(-1)): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance.

  10. Body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic exercise in adolescents: are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if boys and girls who practice exercises with aesthetic propose report higher levels of body dissatisfaction compared to their inactive peers. A total of 199 adolescents (89 boys, mean age 16.1 years, completed measures of body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise. Results demonstrated that active boys presented lower dissatisfaction than their inactive peers; and active girls were significantly more dissatisfied than inactive ones. Active boys were more satisfied than active girls. The majority of active girls reported a desire for a slimmer silhouette; while active boys were equally divided between those who desired a heavier silhouette and those who were satisfied. Psychological commitment to exercise did not differ between satisfied and dissatisfied active adolescents. Thus, girls who practice aesthetic exercises must be looked at as a high risk population to the development of health harmful behaviors and eating disorders.

  11. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index. PMID:28878460

  12. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index.

  13. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large impairments in exercise performance have been reported in individuals with CP, as well as large improvements following the implementation of training interventions. The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP were also reviewed, and grouped into categories, namely: motor impairments ...

  14. A serious game for COPD patients to perform physiotherapeutic exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Monique; Marin Perianu, Raluca; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    The goal of this research was 1) to investigate the usability of the Orange Submarine game, and 2) to explore the changes in saturation and pulse rate in COPD patients while playing the game. The game was positively received by the patients and could provide a new fun way for performing exercises,

  15. Regular moist snuff dipping does not affect endurance exercise performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Björkman

    Full Text Available Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG. A control group (CO of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1.4 ± 1.7 kg. Total cholesterol increased from 4.12 ± 0.54 (95% CI 3.89-4.35 to 4.46 ± 0.70 (95% CI 4.16-4.75 mM L-1 in SCG, due to increased LDL, and this change was significantly different from CO. Resting values of HDL, C-reactive protein, and free fatty acids (FFA remained unchanged in both groups. In SCG group, both HR and BP were reduced during a four-stage incremental cycling test (from 50 to 80% of VO2max and a prolonged cycling test (60 min at 50% of VO2max. Oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate (bLa and blood glucose (bGlu concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE were unchanged. In CO group, all measurements were unchanged. During the prolonged cycling test, FFA was reduced, but with no significant difference between groups. During the maximal treadmill running test peak values of VO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE, time to exhaustion and bLa were unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, endurance exercise performance (VO2max and maximal endurance time does not seem to be affected by prolonged snuff use, while effects on cardiovascular risk factors are contradictory. HR and BP during rest and submaximal exercise are reduced after cessation of regular use of snuff. Evidently, the long-time adrenergic stress on circulation is reversible.

  16. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F. Hülya Aşçı

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI. 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification.

  17. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2004-01-01

    (VO(2,max)) 5.1 +/- 0.1 l min(-1) participated in the study. Femoral and subclavian vein blood flows, intra-arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, as well as blood gases in the femoral and subclavian vein, right atrium and femoral artery were determined during skiing (roller skis) at approximately...... 76% of VO(2,max) and at VO(2,max) with different techniques: diagonal stride (combined arm and leg exercise), double poling (predominantly arm exercise) and leg skiing (predominantly leg exercise). During submaximal exercise cardiac output (26-27 l min(-1)), mean blood pressure (MAP) (approximately......That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...

  18. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  19. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Body Image Attitudes in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Zar-Shenas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sociocultural emphasis and increased interest in physical attractiveness and current attitudes body structure have increased body image dissatisfaction among women. The prevalence of body image dissatisfaction is linked with various psychological disorders and disturbances such as low self-esteem, depression and other disorders. The present study investigated the short program aerobic exercise effects on body image among women. Materials & Methods: In this interventional and quasi experimental study, 82 females among 150 women (18-45 years old referred to Enghelab and Gol sports clubs in Tehran were selected by convenient and simple sampling based on inclusive and exclusive criteria and randomly divided into two intervention and control groups. They did not participate in any exercise in last 3 months and also they did not have any physical disease and meet criteria for deficit of body image attitudes. Data collection was done by using demographic and Multidimensional Body Self-Relation Questionnaire. The intervention group participated in aerobic exercise program. These sessions lasted 3 hours per week for 4 weeks. Data were analyzed by Chi–Square, Paired T and Independent T tests. Results: There were significant differences between two groups after intervention in sub items of body image including: self-appearance evaluation (P<0.001, self-appearance orientation (P<0.001, health orientation (P=0.003, illness orientation (P=0.002, but their fitness evaluation (P=0.141, self-fitness orientation (P=0.888, health evaluation (P=0.072, self-body satisfaction (P=0.082, overweight preoccupations (P=0.167 and self-assesed weight (P=0.156 did not change clearly. Conclusion: Short periods of aerobic exercise can effectively promote body image attitudes among women, and exercise can be used as a method of treatment in occupational therapy of the disorder.

  20. Strength training improves double-poling performance after prolonged submaximal exercise in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øfsteng, S; Sandbakk, Ø; van Beekvelt, M; Hammarström, D; Kristoffersen, R; Hansen, J; Paulsen, G; Rønnestad, B R

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training with or without vibration to cross-country (XC) skiers' endurance training on double-poling (DP) performance, physiological, and kinematic adaptations. Twenty-one well-trained male XC-skiers combined endurance- and upper-body strength training three times per week, either with (n = 11) or without (n = 10) superimposed vibrations for 8 weeks, whereas eight skiers performed endurance training only (CON). Testing included 1RM in upper-body exercises, work economy, neural activation, oxygen saturation in muscle, and DP kinematics during a prolonged submaximal DP roller ski test which was directly followed by a time to exhaustion (TTE) test. TTE was also performed in rested state, and the difference between the two TTE tests (TTE diff ) determined the ability to maintain DP performance after prolonged exercise. Vibration induced no additional effect on strength or endurance gains. Therefore, the two strength training groups were pooled (STR, n = 21). 1RM in STR increased more than in CON (P strength, DP performance following prolonged submaximal DP and TTE diff , indicating a specific effect of improved strength on the ability to maintain performance after long-lasting exercise. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, R J H M; Maessen, M F H; Green, D J; Hermus, A R M M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D H T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P training, diet caused a larger weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2)  = 0.737, P weight loss, exercise is related to 6.1% decrease in VAT, whilst diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions. © 2016 World Obesity.

  2. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  3. A Scott bench with ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad improves body posture during preacher arm curl exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano

    2016-05-01

    We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.

  4. The relationship between body esteem, exercise motivations, depression, and social support among female free clinic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Al-Obaydi, Sarah; Solis, Silvia Patricia; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem in women's health. This study examined relationship between body esteem, exercise motivations, depression, and social support among female free clinic patients. Low-income women who are at risk for obesity and other health concerns would benefit from health education efforts. We compared 299 female and 164 male free clinic patients 18 years or older using assessments for body esteem, motivation to exercise, depression, and social support. Although female participants reported lower levels of body esteem and higher levels of depression compared with male participants (p depression lowers levels of body esteem (p body image and physical activity. It is important for health educators to engage a myriad of physical activity motives to increase the likelihood that clients will experience enjoyment and sustained adoption of exercise into their lifestyle. Future practice and research should warrant the implementation of body image and physical activity programs and the potential impact of using exercise to reducing depression among female patients at free clinics. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of oxygen uptake during and after the execution of resistance exercises and exercises performed on ergometers, matched for intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaça-Alves José

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the values of oxygen uptake (VO2 during and after strength training exercises (STe and ergometer exercises (Ee, matched for intensity and exercise time. Eight men (24 ± 2.33 years performed upper and lower body cycling Ee at the individual’s ventilatory threshold (VE/VCO2. The STe session included half squats and the bench press which were performed with a load at the individual blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l. Both sessions lasted 30 minutes, alternating 50 seconds of effort with a 10 second transition time between upper and lower body work. The averaged overall VO2 between sessions was significantly higher for Ee (24.96 ± 3.6 ml·kg·min-1 compared to STe (21.66 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1 (p = 0.035, but this difference was only seen for the first 20 minutes of exercise. Absolute VO2 values between sessions did not reveal differences. There were more statistically greater values in Ee compared to STe, regarding VO2 of lower limbs (25.44 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.83 ± 2·24 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.038 and upper limbs (24.49 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.54 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.047. There were further significant differences regarding the moment effect (p<0.0001 of both STe and Ee sessions. With respect to the moment × session effect, only VO2 5 minutes into recovery showed significant differences (p = 0.017. In conclusion, although significant increases in VO2 were seen following Ee compared to STe, it appears that the load/intensity, and not the material/equipment used for the execution of an exercise, are variables that best influence oxygen uptake.

  6. Standardized Kaempferia parviflora Extract Enhances Exercise Performance Through Activation of Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Bo; Kim, Taeyoon; Kim, Changhee; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

    2018-01-01

    Exercise enhances mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. Increased mitochondrial function and content can contribute to the improvement in skeletal muscle function and the benefits of exercise by increasing the response to energy demands. The effect of standardized Kaempferia parviflora extract (KPE) on exercise performance was accessed in L6 myotubes and C57BL/6J mice. KPE significantly activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and increased mitochondrial density in L6 myotubes. KPE also upregulated the expression of transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis (estrogen-related receptor-α [ERRα], nuclear respiratory factor-1 [NRF-1], and mitochondrial transcription factor A [Tfam]) through activation of PGC-1α in L6 myotubes. In vivo models including normal diet mice and high-fat diet obese mice showed that KPE effectively enhanced running endurance and increased the skeletal muscle weight/body weight ratio. Furthermore, these observations were associated with a significant upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis regulatory genes in skeletal muscle tissue. KPE enhanced the protein expression of the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)/adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/PGC-1α/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) signaling pathway components in vitro and in vivo, acting as an exercise metabolism regulator. These results suggest that KPE has the potential to enhance exercise performance through mitochondrial biogenesis and the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARδ signaling pathways.

  7. Deleterious effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on endurance and sprint exercise performance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, N D; Williams, D A; Lynch, G S

    2000-03-01

    The beta(2)-adrenergic agonist, clenbuterol, has powerful muscle anabolic and lipolytic effects and is used by athletes to improve exercise performance; however, its use in conjunction with different forms of exercise training has received limited attention. Since previous studies have reported that chronic use of other beta(2)-adrenergic agonists has deleterious effects on cardiac muscle structure and function, the aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic clenbuterol administration would reduce the exercise capabilities of rats subjected to long-term treadmill sprint running, endurance swimming or voluntary wheel running training. The effect of clenbuterol treatment on exercise performance in rats was evaluated in three separate studies. Different groups of male rats were assigned to an endurance swimming (2 h/day, 5/7 days, 18 weeks) group, a treadmill sprint running (8x1 min bouts, 1.05 m/s, 20 weeks) group, or a voluntary wheel running (16 weeks) group. In each study, rats were allocated into either a treated group that received clenbuterol (2 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) in their drinking water or an untreated control group. In each of the three studies, treated rats exhibited a reduction in exercise performance compared with untreated rats. Treated rats ran approximately 57% less total distance than untreated rats in the voluntary running programme and were unable to complete the swimming and sprinting protocols performed by the untreated rats. In each of the studies, the treated rats exhibited cardiac hypertrophy, with absolute heart mass increased by approximately 19% and heart mass relative to body mass increased by approximately 20%. The hearts of sedentary rats treated with clenbuterol exhibited extensive collagen infiltration surrounding blood vessels and in the wall of the left ventricle. The results indicate strongly that chronic clenbuterol administration deleteriously affects exercise performance in rats, potentially due to alterations in

  8. The effects of compression garments on intermittent exercise performance and recovery on consecutive days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Edge, Johann; Merrells, Robert; Hawke, Emma; Barnes, Matt; Simcock, David; Gill, Nicholas

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether compression garments improve intermittent-sprint performance and aid performance or self-reported recovery from high-intensity efforts on consecutive days. Following familiarization, 14 male rugby players performed two randomized testing conditions (with or without garments) involving consecutive days of a simulated team sport exercise protocol, separated by 24 h of recovery within each condition and 2 weeks between conditions. Each day involved an 80-min high-intensity exercise circuit, with exercise performance determined by repeated 20-m sprints and peak power on a cart dynamometer (single-man scrum machine). Measures of nude mass, heart rate, skin and tympanic temperature, and blood lactate (La-) were recorded throughout each day; also, creatine kinase (CK) and muscle soreness were recorded each day and 48 h following exercise. No differences (P=.20 to 0.40) were present between conditions on either day of the exercise protocol for repeated 20-m sprint efforts or peak power on a cart dynamometer. Heart rate, tympanic temperature, and body mass did not significantly differ between conditions; however, skin temperature was higher under the compression garments. Although no differences (P=.50) in La- or CK were present, participants felt reduced levels of perceived muscle soreness in the ensuing 48 h postexercise when wearing the garments (2.5+/-1.7 vs 3.5+/-2.1 for garment and control; P=.01). The use of compression garments did not improve or hamper simulated team-sport activity on consecutive days. Despite benefits of reduced self-reported muscle soreness when wearing garments during and following exercise each day, no improvements in performance or recovery were apparent.

  9. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S. Anderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  10. Do different groups have different risk factors for dieting and exercise as body management strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim – Body change strategies are activities that could be potentially harmful. Individuals may use different methods for achieving advertised ideal body. Some of demographic and psychosocial contributing factors could be affect decision regarding body management activities. In Iran there is a few research about this matter, therefore the aim of this study was exploring risk factors in body management. Materials and Methods – In this cross sectional study, 400 people participated that including general population, university students and body building clubs attainders. The self administrated questionnaire based on reliable sources of body image that evaluated its validity and validity. Statistical analysis was done by using central indexes and distribution and logistic regression. Data analysis was done by software of SPSS 16. Results – Marital status, education, economic status, age and BMI had no relation with body management strategies. Birthplace effects on choose of diet and exercise. Gender is only had effect on exercise choosing. Use of Western TV had effect on doing exercise. Pressure of relatives was an important factor in decision about dieting. Self steam and compare of appearance with others affected choosing of dieting. There were no differences between selected groups. Conclusion – In spite of similarities between body dissatisfaction and its management strategies with other studies in Iran, there is necessity for future studies.

  11. Acute Effect of Lower-Body Vibration as a Recovery Method After Fatiguing Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Nepocatych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare three recovery methods: control (CON, lower-body vibration (LBV and LBV+ local muscle cooling (LBVC on lower-body performance, perceived recovery, and muscle soreness. Physically active male volunteers (n=8 in a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design, completed three sets of squats to fatigue, each recovery treatment, and two Wingate Anaerobic Tests. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and heart rate (HR were measured after fatiguing exercise, recovery treatment and Wingate Anaerobic tests. Peak and mean power, fatigue index, Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS, and comfort levels were compared between each treatment. In Wingate 1, no significant differences (p=0.42 were found among CON, LBV, or LBVC regarding peak power (1119±239, 1097±225, and 1146±260 W, respectively, mean power (p=0.32, or fatigue index (p=0.47. In Wingate 2, no significant (p=0.17 differences were found among CON, LBV, or LBVC regarding peak power (1042±228, 1078±233, and 1110±268 W, respectively, mean power (p=0.38, or fatigue index (p=0.15. A significantly better (p=0.01 perceived recovery was observed after LBV (6±1 and LBVC (6±1 compared to CON (4±1. The study findings support psychological but not performance enhancing benefits after the use of LBV and LBVC as recovery methods.

  12. Whole body counters: types, performance and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jales, R.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The present monograph deals with Whole Counters, since its definition, evolution, performance, clinical indications and results. Scintillation crystals detection systems were described as well as scintillant solutions, plastic scintillations, and gaseous detectors, including its interplay forms and basal characteristics. Geometric arrangements of standard chair, arc and hammock, arrangements with scintillant solutions and plastic scintillations, as well as special geometric arrangements were equally commented. Clinic and experimental studies were also dealt with Whole Body Counters, giving examples with potassium, iron vitamin B 12 and albumin. (author)

  13. Creatine loading, resistance exercise performance, and muscle mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, S W; Dudley, G A

    2001-11-01

    We tested the null hypothesis that creatine monohydrate loading (20 g per day for 7 days, n = 18) would not alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with loading with placebo (n = 13) in resistance-trained subjects. For the entire study group, the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and 5-set performance (the number of repetitions) for unilateral, dynamic knee extension increased slightly (2% and 5%, respectively) after dietary supplementation, and these responses did not differ by condition. Maximal voluntary isometric torque and the rate of torque development did not change. During electromyostimulation, torque development and relaxation time were also unaffected. Our data suggest that creatine loading does not augment unilateral strength or multiset resistance exercise performance for knee extensions compared with placebo loading.

  14. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Painelli Vitor

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance.

  15. Pre-cooling for endurance exercise performance in the heat: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Paul R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endurance exercise capacity diminishes under hot environmental conditions. Time to exhaustion can be increased by lowering body temperature prior to exercise (pre-cooling. This systematic literature review synthesizes the current findings of the effects of pre-cooling on endurance exercise performance, providing guidance for clinical practice and further research. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus databases were searched in May 2012 for studies evaluating the effectiveness of pre-cooling to enhance endurance exercise performance in hot environmental conditions (≥ 28°C. Studies involving participants with increased susceptibility to heat strain, cooling during or between bouts of exercise, and protocols where aerobic endurance was not the principle performance outcome were excluded. Potential publications were assessed by two independent reviewers for inclusion and quality. Means and standard deviations of exercise performance variables were extracted or sought from original authors to enable effect size calculations. Results In all, 13 studies were identified. The majority of studies contained low participant numbers and/or absence of sample size calculations. Six studies used cold water immersion, four crushed ice ingestion and three cooling garments. The remaining study utilized mixed methods. Large heterogeneity in methodological design and exercise protocols was identified. Effect size calculations indicated moderate evidence that cold water immersion effectively improved endurance performance, and limited evidence that ice slurry ingestion improved performance. Cooling garments were ineffective. Most studies failed to document or report adverse events. Low participant numbers in each study limited the statistical power of certain reported trends and lack of blinding could potentially have introduced either participant or researcher bias in some studies. Conclusions Current evidence

  16. Neuroenhancement of memory for children with autism by a mind-body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S eChan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind-body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR training, or no training for one month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the sLORETA method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind-body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism.

  17. The Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Gaming on Cognitive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douris Peter C.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of video gaming, aerobic exercise (biking, and the combination of these two activities on the domains of cognitive performance: selective attention, processing speed, and executive functioning. The study was a randomized clinical trial with 40 subjects (mean age 23.7 ± 1.8 years randomized to one of four thirty-minute conditions: video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking, and a control condition. Cognitive performance was measured pre and post condition using the Stroop test and Trails B test. A mixed design was utilized. While video gaming, biking, simultaneous gaming and biking conditions improved selective attention and processing speed (p < 0.05, only the bike condition improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function (p < 0.01. There were no changes in cognitive performance for the control condition. Previous studies have shown that if tasks approach the limits of attentional capacity there is an increase in the overall chance for errors, known as the dual-task deficit. Simultaneous biking and gaming may have surpassed attentional capacity limits, ultimately increasing errors during the executive function tests of our cognitive performance battery. The results suggest that the fatiguing effects of a combined physically and mentally challenging task that extends after the exercise cessation may overcome the eventual beneficial cognitive effects derived from the physical exercise.

  18. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... did not participate in any special kind of physical activity. In addition to administering the Body Image Satisfaction Questionnaire and the Self-efficacy Scale, anthropometric variables were assessed before the commencement of the study and again immediately afterwards. The data were analysed by a one-way ANCOVA.

  19. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  20. The effect of 8 weeks deep-aquatic exercises on static balance and lower body strength among elderly men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Seyed jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deep aquatic exercises on lower body strength and balance among elderly men. Methods: Thirty elderly men over 65 years old were randomly divided into two equal groups including experimental and control groups. Experimental group participated in a deep aquatic exercise program that consisted of 60-minute sessions three times a week for 8 weeks while control group had no plan of exercise.  Muscle strength and balance was assessed before and after the program as pre and post-test by HHD (Hand-Held Dynamometer and BBS (Biodex Balance System respectively. Repeated measures two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed on outcome variables.(p≥0.05.  Results: deep aquatic exercises promoted significant increases in the elderly men's muscle strength and balance, as assessed using HHD (p< 0.001 and the BBS (p< 0.001. Conclusion: The present deep-aquatic exercise training for the elderly are able to improve the muscle strength and static balance.

  1. Effect of whole-body vibration therapy on performance recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Ross, Jenny J; Manimmanakorn, Apiwan; Lucas, Samuel J; Hamlin, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    To compare whole-body vibration (WBV) with traditional recovery protocols after a high-intensity training bout. In a randomized crossover study, 16 athletes performed 6 × 30-s Wingate sprints before completing either an active recovery (10 min of cycling and stretching) or WBV for 10 min in a series of exercises on a vibration platform. Muscle hemodynamics (assessed via near-infrared spectroscopy) were measured before and during exercise and into the 10-min recovery period. Blood lactate concentration, vertical jump, quadriceps strength, flexibility, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), muscle soreness, and performance during a single 30-s Wingate test were assessed at baseline and 30 and 60 min postexercise. A subset of participants (n = 6) completed a 3rd identical trial (1 wk later) using a passive 10-min recovery period (sitting). There were no clear effects between the recovery protocols for blood lactate concentration, quadriceps strength, jump height, flexibility, RPE, muscle soreness, or single Wingate performance across all measured recovery time points. However, the WBV recovery protocol substantially increased the tissue-oxygenation index compared with the active (11.2% ± 2.4% [mean ± 95% CI], effect size [ES] = 3.1, and -7.3% ± 4.1%, ES = -2.1 for the 10 min postexercise and postrecovery, respectively) and passive recovery conditions (4.1% ± 2.2%, ES = 1.3, 10 min postexercise only). Although WBV during recovery increased muscle oxygenation, it had little effect in improving subsequent performance compared with a normal active recovery.

  2. Evaluation of the body bearing of high performance female volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stech M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of the study of body bearing in 12 high performance female volleyball players of polish team (TPS Rumia are presented. To estimate body bearing the New-York's test of the body bearing classification was used. The results of the study have shown that asymmetrical positions of volleyball players in the time of services and attacks are contributed to formed some asymmetrical disturbances of body bearing. At the majority of sportsmen it is exhibited in omitting the left brachium and the left blade, in a right-hand scoliosis, in the tendency to a platypodia. It requires use of special preventive and adjusting exercises.

  3. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with 3 H 2 O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of 3 H 2 O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed

  4. Effect of exercise and feed restriction on body weight and lipogenesis in the male Wistar rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellwo, M.; Wright, D.L.; Beauchene, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    Male Wistar rats were swum for either 1.5 or 3.0 hours per day from 6 through 32 weeks of age. At 32 weeks of age, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with /sup 3/H/sub 2/O and sacrificed 1 hour later. Liver activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and malic enzyme (MF) were also measured. Feed intakes of exercised rats were slightly higher, whereas their body weights were slightly lower when compared to those of non-exercised ad libitum-fed rats (controls). Liver ME and G6PD activities of exercised rats were 30% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of control rats. Non-exercised rats, whose body weights were controlled by feed restriction to match those of exercised rats, also showed increases in liver ME and G6PD activities (30%). The relationship between rates of incorporation of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O into liver fat and activities of liver ME and G6PD as affected by exercise and feed restriction will be discussed.

  5. Superficial cooling does not decrease core body temperature before, during, or after exercise in an American football uniform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rebecca M; Eberman, Lindsey E; Cleary, Michelle A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of superficial cooling on thermoregulatory responses while exercising in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform. Nine male and female subjects wore a superficial cooling garment while in a cooling (CS) experimental condition or a no cooling (NCS) control condition during an exercise task consisting of warm-up (WU), exercise (EX), and recovery (R). The exercise task simulated an American football conditioning session with subjects wearing a full American football uniform and performing anaerobic and aerobic exercises in a hot humid environment. Subjects were allowed to drink water ad libitum during rest breaks. During the WU, EX, and R periods, core body temperature (T(c)) was measured to assess the effect of the cooling garment. Neither baseline resting before warm-up T(c) nor after warm-up T(c) was significantly different between trials. No significant differences in exercise T(c) between conditions were found. Time to return to baseline T(c) revealed no significant differences between the experimental and control conditions. The authors found that the volume of fluid consumed was 34% less in the experimental condition (711.1 ± 188.0 ml) compared with the control condition (1,077.8 ± 204.8 ml). The findings indicate that the cooling garment was not effective in blunting the rise in T(c) during warm-up, attenuating a rise in T(c) during intermittent exercise, or in increasing a return to baseline T(c) during a resting recovery period in a hot humid environment while wearing an American football uniform.

  6. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Veeneman, Dineke; Bongers, Coen C C W; Netea, Mihai G; van der Meer, Jos W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-05-01

    Exercise increases core body temperature (T C ) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in T C by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated whether the exercise-induced increase in T C is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature set point. Fifteen healthy, active men age 36 ± 14 y were recruited. Subjects performed submaximal treadmill exercise in 3 randomized test conditions: (1) 400 mg ibuprofen and 1000 mg acetaminophen (IBU/APAP), (2) 1000 mg acetaminophen (APAP), and (3) a control condition (CTRL). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were used to block the effect of IL-6 at a central and peripheral level, respectively. T C , skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously during the submaximal exercise tests. Baseline values of T C , skin temperature, and heart rate did not differ across conditions. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased in all 3 conditions. A significantly lower peak T C was observed in IBU/APAP (38.8°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL (39.2°C ± 0.5°C, P = .02) but not in APAP (38.9°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL. Similarly, a lower ΔT C was observed in IBU/APAP (1.7°C ± 0.3°C) vs CTRL (2.0°C ± 0.5°C, P exercise compared with a CTRL. This observation suggests that a prostaglandin-E2-induced elevated hypothalamic temperature set point may contribute to the exercise-induced rise in T C .

  7. Acute exercise performed close to the anaerobic threshold improves cognitive performance in elderly females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Córdova

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of acute exercise performed at different intensities in relation to the anaerobic threshold (AT on abilities requiring control of executive functions or alertness in physically active elderly females. Forty-eight physically active elderly females (63.8 ± 4.6 years old were assigned to one of four groups by drawing lots: control group without exercise or trial groups with exercise performed at 60, 90, or 110% of AT (watts and submitted to 5 cognitive tests before and after exercise. Following cognitive pretesting, an incremental cycle ergometer test was conducted to determine AT using a fixed blood lactate concentration of 3.5 mmol/L as cutoff. Acute exercise executed at 90% of AT resulted in significant (P < 0.05, ANOVA improvement in the performance of executive functions when compared to control in 3 of 5 tests (verbal fluency, Tower of Hanoi test (number of movements, and Trail Making test B. Exercising at 60% of AT did not improve results of any tests for executive functions, whereas exercise executed at 110% of AT only improved the performance in one of these tests (verbal fluency compared to control. Women from all trial groups exhibited a remarkable reduction in the Simple Response Time (alertness test (P = 0.001. Thus, physical exercise performed close to AT is more effective to improve cognitive processing of older women even if conducted acutely, and using a customized exercise prescription based on the anaerobic threshold should optimize the beneficial effects.

  8. Effects of once-weekly shallow water aerobic exercise on functional performance in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kramperová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 24-week shallow-water aerobic exercise on functional performance in postmenopausal women. Thirty-seven women aged 60+ (mean age 67.2 ± 4.8 years were self-selected to a water exercise group (n = 21 or to a comparison group (n = 16. The training consisted of a 24-week (60 min.day−1, 1 d.wk−1 supervised and guided exercise programme that included aerobic and strength training using an aquatic noodle in shallow water (1.2 m. Outcome measures were 30-s chair stand and 30-s arm curl tests, assessed at baseline and 24 weeks. Significant differences between groups were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. At 24 weeks there was a significantly (p < 0.05 greater improvement in measure of upper-body strength in the water exercise group. Arm curling improved by 15.8 versus 14.3% in the water exercise and comparison groups, respectively.

  9. Conducting Midterm Performance Reviews: An Exercise for Teaching Performance Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull Schaefer, Rebecca A.

    2018-01-01

    Although the annual performance review has received much criticism from practitioners and researchers alike, organizations continue to use coaching and/or reviews to maximize employee effectiveness and minimize liabilities. A semester class is a great context to practice skills relating to tracking and reviewing performance. This article describes…

  10. Advances in Exercise, Fitness, and Performance Genomics in 2010 (Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, James M.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Pérusse, Louis; Roth, Stephen M.; Wolfarth, Bernd; Bouchard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    This review of the exercise genomics literature emphasizes the strongest papers published in 2010 as defined by sample size, quality of phenotype measurements, quality of the exercise program or physical activity exposure, study design, adjustment for multiple testing, quality of genotyping, and other related study characteristics. One study on voluntary running wheel behavior was performed in 448 mice from 41 inbred strains. Several quantitative trait loci for running distance, speed, and duration were identified. Several studies on the alpha-3 actinin (ACTN3) R577X nonsense polymorphism and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) I/D polymorphism were reported with no clear evidence for a joint effect, but the studies were generally underpowered. Skeletal muscle RNA abundance at baseline for 29 transcripts and 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were both found to be predictive of the VO2max response to exercise training in one report from multiple laboratories. None of the 50 loci associated with adiposity traits is known to influence physical activity behavior. However, physical activity appears to reduce the obesity-promoting effects of at least 12 of these loci. Evidence continues to be strong for a role of gene-exercise interaction effects on the improvement in insulin sensitivity following exposure to regular exercise. SNPs in the cAMP responsive element binding position 1 (CREB1) gene were associated with training-induced heart rate response, in the C-reactive protein (CRP) gene with training-induced changes in left ventricular mass, and in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with carotid stiffness in low-fit individuals. We conclude that progress is being made but that high-quality research designs and replication studies with large sample sizes are urgently needed. PMID:21499051

  11. Coinciding exercise with peak serum caffeine does not improve cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Tina L; Jenkins, David G; Taaffe, Dennis R; Leveritt, Michael D; Coombes, Jeff S

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether coinciding peak serum caffeine concentration with the onset of exercise enhances subsequent endurance performance. Randomised, double-blind, crossover. In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study, 14 male trained cyclists and triathletes (age 31±5year, body mass 75.4±5.7 kg, VO₂max 69.5±6.1 mL kg⁻¹ min⁻¹ and peak power output 417±35W, mean±SD) consumed 6 mg kg(-1) caffeine or a placebo either 1h (C(1h)) prior to completing a 40 km time trial or when the start of exercise coincided with individual peak serum caffeine concentrations (C(peak)). C(peak) was determined from a separate 'caffeine profiling' session that involved monitoring caffeine concentrations in the blood every 30 min over a 4h period. Following caffeine ingestion, peak serum caffeine occurred 120 min in 12 participants and 150 min in 2 participants. Time to complete the 40 km time trial was significantly faster (2.0%; p=0.002) in C(1h) compared to placebo. No statistically significant improvement in performance was noted in the C(peak) trial versus placebo (1.1%; p=0.240). Whilst no differences in metabolic markers were found between C(peak) and placebo conditions, plasma concentrations of glucose (p=0.005), norepinephrine and epinephrine (p≤0.002) were higher in the C(1h) trial 6 min post-exercise versus placebo. In contrast to coinciding peak serum caffeine concentration with exercise onset, caffeine consumed 60 min prior to exercise resulted in significant improvements in 40 km time trial performance. The ergogenic effect of caffeine was not found to be related to peak caffeine concentration in the blood at the onset of endurance exercise. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking Status and Body Composition, Exercise, Dietary Intake, and Alcohol/Caffeine Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    cholesterol , cigarette smoking, and body weight. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 200, 470-485. Hodgdon, J.A., Beckett, M.B. (1984a). Prediction of percent body...Cigarette smoking, exercise, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol . Atherosclerosis, 52, 73-83. Stamford, B.A., Matter, S., Fell, R.D...milk, cream, cheeses, ice cream) 6. eat low-fat dairy products (e.g., low-fat milk or cottage cheere, yogurt ) 7. eat (or cook with) butter, lard, or

  13. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  14. Quality of Life and Breast Cancer: How Can Mind–Body Exercise Therapies Help? An Overview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Lunde Husebø

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors experience extensive treatments, threatening their quality of life. Complementary therapies used as a supplement to cancer treatment may control symptoms, enhance quality of life, and contribute to overall patient care. Mind–body exercise therapies might motivate cancer survivors to exercise, and assist them in regaining health. The purpose of this overview study is to study benefits from mind–body exercise of yoga, tai chi chuan and qigong upon quality of life in breast cancer populations. A systematic overview of reviews was applied. Literature search in five electronic databases and in reference lists was performed during April 2017. In addition, experts in the field were consulted. Of 38 identified titles, 11 review articles, including six meta-analyses were found eligible for review. Methodological quality was high for the majority of quality domains. Yoga, the most studied mind–body therapy, was found to benefit breast cancer patients’ psychological quality of life, while less support was established concerning physical quality of life elements. The evidence of improvements of quality of life from tai chi chuan and qigong remains unclear. Breast cancer survivors’ experiences of psychological and social well-being may be enhanced by practicing yoga.

  15. The effects of breathing exercise types on respiratory muscle activity and body function in patients with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Fragmentary studies on characteristics of respiratory muscles are being done to increase respiratory capacity by classifying exercises into voluntary respiratory exercise which relieves symptoms and prevents COPD and exercise using breathing exercise equipment. But this study found changes on respiratory pattern through changes on the activity pattern of agonist and synergist respiratory muscles and studied what effect they can have on body function improvement. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects in experimental group I that respiratory exercise of diaphragm and 15 subjects in experimental group II that feedback respiratory exercise were randomly selected among COPD patients to find the effective intervention method for COPD patients. And intervention program was conducted for 5 weeks, three times a week, once a day and 30 minutes a session. They were measured with BODE index using respiratory muscle activity, pulmonary function, the six-minute walking test, dyspnea criteria and BMI Then the results obtained were compared and analyzed. [Results] There was a significant difference in sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalene muscle and in 6-minute walk and BODE index for body function. Thus the group performing feedback respiratory had more effective results for mild COPD patients. [Conclusion] Therefore, the improvement was significant regarding the activity of respiratory muscles synergists when breathing before doing breathing exercise. Although, it is valuable to reduce too much mobilization of respiratory muscles synergists through the proper intervention it is necessary to study body function regarding improvement of respiratory function for patients with COPD.

  16. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  17. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chicken essence (CE is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.

  18. Exercise program affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  19. Potential effects of whole-body vibration exercises on blood flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feasible clinical strategies such as whole-body vibration exercise (WBVE) are being used without a clear understanding of its effects. The aim of the present study is to review the effects of the WBVE on blood flow kinetics and its feasibility in different populations. Material and Methods: The level of evidence (LE) of selected ...

  20. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  1. The effect of body awareness therapy and aerobic exercises on pain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of body awareness therapy and aerobic exercises on pain and quality of life in the patients with tension type headache. ... Pain severity of the individuals was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and pain diary, disability with ache; by Pain Disability Index (PDI) and Headache Impact Tests (HIT) and quality of ...

  2. Whole-body vibration exercise is well tolerated in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a defective gene located on the X-chromosome, responsible for the production of the dystrophin protein. Complications in the musculoskeletal system have been previously described in DMD patients. Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) is a treatment that ...

  3. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...

  4. Using Bench Press Load to Predict Upper Body Exercise Loads in Physically Active Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A.; Smith, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key points The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations. 6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. PMID:24149723

  5. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T; Fraser, Steve F; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E; Dixon, John B; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  6. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  7. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  8. Exercise and physical therapy help restore body and self in clients with severe anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolnes, Liv-Jorunn

    2017-07-01

    Exercise in the context of anorexia nervosa is a multifaceted endeavour surrounded by controversy and uncertainty. A broader comprehension of this poorly understood phenomenon is required. Informed by the findings of a body examination of six individuals with anorexia nervosa, as well as exercise science, phenomenology and neurocognition, the purpose of this article is to elaborate on the potential role of exercise and physical therapy in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. The findings of the body assessment include constriction of posture, muscles and pattern of breathing. These bodily restraints are not necessarily merely associated with high levels of exercise, they may also reflect psychological strain accompanying the illness. The restricted breathing in particular is assumed to be associated with difficult thoughts and suppressed feelings. Based on the results of the body examination, as well as medical and psychological considerations accompanying the illness, it is suggested that interventions should focus on improving postural stability and restoring related muscular function. Integral to engaging in these activities, the potential to integrate proprioceptive information in this process may generate a more coherent experience of the body, as well as of the self, in these clients. Accordingly, constrictions of the body may have a vital role in constraining the experience of the self. As such, addressing bodily restraints in these clients may facilitate the experience of being the subject causing and controlling the movements. This is in marked contrast to clients' previous exercise experiences, which were associated with compulsion, rigidity and the absence of coherence and control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ingestion of an Amino Acid Electrolyte Beverage during Resistance Exercise Does Not Impact Fluid Shifts into Muscle or Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JohnEric W. Smith

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of ingesting an amino acid-electrolyte (AAE beverage during upper body resistance exercise on transient muscle hypertrophy, exercise performance, markers of muscle damage, and recovery. Participants (n = 15 performed three sets of six repetitions—bench press, lat pull down, incline press, and seated row—followed by three sets of eight repetitions at 75% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum—triceps kickback, hammer curl, triceps push down, and preacher curl—with 90 s of rest between sets. The final set of the push down/preacher curl was performed to failure. Prior to and immediately post-exercise, as well as 24, 48, and 72 h post exercise, cross-sectional muscle thickness was measured. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, as well as 24, 48, and 72 h post-exercise for serum creatine kinase (CK analysis. No treatment effect was found for muscle cross-sectional area, repetitions to failure, or serum CK. A main effect (p < 0.001 was observed in the change in serum CK levels in the days following the resistance exercise session. The findings of this study suggest that the acute ingestion of a AAE beverage does not alter acute muscle thickness, performance, perceived soreness and weakness, or markers of muscle damage.

  10. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. However, despite suggestions that caffeine may enhance resistance exercise performance, research is equivocal on the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. It has also been suggested that dampened perception of perceived exertion and pain perception might be an explanation for any possible enhancement of resistance exercise performance due to caffeine ingestion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on repetitions to failure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise to failure. Eleven resistance trained individuals (9 males, 2 females, mean age±SD=26.4±6.4 years), took part in this double-blind, randomised cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Resistance exercise sessions consisted of bench press, deadlift, prone row and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Results indicated that participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the presence of caffeine (p=0.0001). Mean±S.D of repetitions to failure was 19.6±3.7 and 18.5±4.1 in caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively. There were no differences in peak heart rate or peak blood lactate values across conditions (both p >0.05). RPE was significantly lower in the caffeine compared to the placebo condition (p=0.03) and was significantly higher during lower body exercises compared to upper body exercises irrespective of substance ingested (p=0.0001). For muscle pain perception, a significant condition by exercise interaction (p=0.027) revealed that muscle pain perception was lower in the caffeine condition, irrespective of exercise

  11. Evaluation of Exercise Performance, Cardiac Function, and Quality of Life in Children After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Coomans, Ilse; De Bruyne, Elke; De Groote, Katya; Panzer, Joseph; De Wolf, Daniel; Boone, Jan; De Bruyne, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    In children, after having liver transplantation (LT), it is important to assess the quality of life (QOL). Physical fitness is an important determinant of QOL, and because cardiac function can influence exercise performance, it is the purpose of the present study to assess these factors. Children in stable follow-up for more than 6 months post-LT were invited to participate in a case control study. Patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and echocardiography to assess systolic and diastolic function, and left ventricular wall dimensions. Health-related QOL was evaluated using child- and adolescent-reported PedsQL questionnaire. Twenty-eight of 31 included patients performed a maximal exercise test (15 boys, 11.6 ± 2.9 years, weight, 40.9 ± 13.1 kg; length, 148.6 ± 17.3 cm; body mass index, 17.6 ± 2.3). Liver transplantation patients had lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max/kg) (37.5 ± 9.3 mL/kg per minute vs 44.1 ± 8.8 mL/kg per minute), shorter exercise duration (9.3 ± 2.8 minutes vs 13.3 ± 3 minutes) and lower load (71 ± 14 vs 85 ± 20%). They reached the ventilatory anaerobic threshold earlier (81.4 ± 9.5 vs 88.3 ± 11.9%). Echocardiography demonstrated increased interventricular septal wall thickness (interventricular septum in diastole Z value, +0.45 ± 0.49, P exercise testing. Health-related QOL showed lower overall, emotional, psychosocial, and school functioning scores. Children on antihypertensive medication had impaired physical functioning compared with other LT patients. Lower physical fitness level, more deconditioning and lower health-related QOL in children after LT emphasize the importance of exercise stimulation and fitness programs. Patients on antihypertensive medication seem to be the most vulnerable group suffering from decreased physical fitness.

  12. Body dissatisfaction, psychological commitment to exercise and eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of inadequate eating behavior is high in athletes. However, little is known about the factors that affect this phenomenon in this population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of body dissatisfaction and level of psychological commitment to exercise (LPCE with inadequate eating behavior in young athletes from aesthetic sports. Forty-seven female athletes practicing aesthetic sports (artistic gymnastics, synchronized swimming and high diving, ranging in age from 12 to 16 years, participated in the study. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and Commitment to Exercise Scale (CES were used to evaluate the risk behavior for eating disorders, body dissatisfaction and LPCE, respectively. Skinfold thickness was measured to calculate body fat percentage of the athletes. The results revealed a significant association between body dissatisfaction and eating behavior and between LPCE and risk behavior for eating disorders. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that all variables, except for fat percentage, influenced the eating behavior of young athletes. This analysis also indicated an influence of body fat percentage and body dissatisfaction on CES scores. It was concluded that body dissatisfaction and LPCE are factors that predispose to risky eating behaviors in athletes from aesthetic sports.

  13. Comparison of rectal and aural core body temperature thermometry in hyperthermic, exercising individuals: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert; Glaviano, Neal; Negishi, Naoki; Casa, Douglas J; Hertel, Jay

    2012-01-01

    To compare mean differences in core body temperature (T(core)) as assessed via rectal thermometry (T(re)) and aural thermometry (T(au)) in hyperthermic exercising individuals. PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Library in English from the earliest entry points to August 2009 using the search terms aural, core body temperature, core temperature, exercise, rectal, temperature, thermistor, thermometer, thermometry, and tympanic. Study Selection: Original research articles that met these criteria were included: (1) concurrent measurement of T(re) and T(au) in participants during exercise, (2) minimum mean temperature that reached 38°C by at least 1 technique during or after exercise, and (3) report of means, standard deviations, and sample sizes. Nine articles were included, and 3 independent reviewers scored these articles using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale (mean = 5.1 ± 0.4). Data were divided into time periods pre-exercise, during exercise (30 to 180 minutes), and postexercise, as well as T(re) ranges 39.00°C. Means and standard deviations for both measurement techniques were provided at all time intervals reported. Meta-analysis was performed to determine pooled and weighted mean differences between T(re) and T(au). The T(re) was conclusively higher than the T(au) pre-exercise (mean difference [MD] = 0.27°C, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15°C, 0.39°C), during exercise (MD = 0.96°C, 95% CI = 0.84°C, 1.08°C), and postexercise (MD = 0.71°C, 95% CI = 0.65°C, 0.78°C). As T(re) measures increased, the magnitude of difference between the techniques also increased with an MD of 0.59°C (95% CI = 0.53°C, 0.65°C) when T(re) was 39.0°C. The T(re) was consistently greater than T(au) when T(core) was measured in hyperthermic individuals before, during, and postexercise. As T(core) increased, T(au) appeared to underestimate T(core) as determined by T(re). Clinicians should be aware of this critical difference in

  14. Effects of Respiratory Muscle Warm-up on High-Intensity Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor S. Thurston

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise performance is partially limited by the functionality of the respiratory musculature. Training these muscles improves steady-state exercise performance. However, less is known about the efficacy of executing a respiratory muscle warm-up (RWU immediately prior to high-intensity exercise. Our study purpose was to use a practitioner-friendly airflow restriction device to investigate the effects of a high, medium, or low intensity RWU on short, high-intensity exercise and pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic function. Eleven recreationally active, males (24.9 ± 4.2 y, 178.8 ± 9.0 cm, 78.5 ± 10.4 kg, 13.4% ± 4.2% body fat cycled at 85% peak power to exhaustion (TTE following four different RWU conditions (separate days, in random order: (1 high; (2 medium; (3 low airflow inspiration restriction, or no RWU. When analyzed as a group, TTE did not improve following any RWU (4.73 ± 0.33 min. However, 10 of the 11 participants improved ≥25 s in one of the three RWU conditions (average = 47.6 ± 13.2 s, which was significantly better than (p < 0.05 the control trial (CON. Neither blood lactate nor perceived difficulty was altered by condition. In general, respiratory exchange ratios were significantly lower during the early stages of TTE in all RWU conditions. Our findings suggest RWU efficacy is predicated on identifying optimal inspiration intensity, which clearly differs between individuals.

  15. Effects of performing an abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during curl-up exercise on an unstable surface

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the abdominal hollowing exercise on trunk muscle activity during the curl-up exercise on an unstable surface by measuring electromyography (EMG) activity. [Subjects] Fourteen young healthy adults (nine male, five female) voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] Each subject was asked to perform a curl-up exercise on two supporting surfaces (stable and unstable surfaces) combined with the abdominal hollowing exercis...

  16. The Distribution of Body Weight Force on Toe and Heel before and after Exercise Therapy in Children with Spastic Diplegia Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Sharif-Moradi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of body weight force on toe and heel before and after exercise therapy and its effects on relaxation of children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Materials & Methods: Ten children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy between 8 to15 years of age participated in this study. Their mean weight and height were (30.8kg ± 5.7kg and (1.35m±0.09m respectively. Subjects underwent a 12 weeks of exercise therapy. A dynamic stability platform system (BIODEX was used to measure the mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. The balance tests were repeated on stable, almost stable and unstable base of support as well as with and without shoes. Results: Showed that the mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal after exercise therapy was not significant (p>0.05. The mean percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal was significantly decrease after exercise therapy in both with and without shoes (p<0.05. The greatest improvement achieved on almost stable and unstable conditions. Wearing shoes resulted in a balance percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal on stable situation of stability platform the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal has no difference before and after exercise therapy. After exercise therapy strengthening the muscle of the ankle joint balance the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. Wearing shoes decrease the muscle stretch and therefore balance the percentage of body weight pressure on toe and heal. Conclusion: The flexibility of spastic muscle and strengthening of the relax muscle must be perform. This result provides good information for physician in recognizing and therapy impacts on cerebral palsy children.

  17. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....

  18. Is athletic really ideal? An examination of the mediating role of body dissatisfaction in predicting disordered eating and compulsive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Hayley S; Donovan, Caroline L; Ramme, Robin

    2016-04-01

    Investigations into female body image have suggested that rather than thinness, preference is now being given to a female "athletic ideal" characterised by a toned abdomen, firmer lower body and muscular upper body. This study sought to investigate a) whether greater internalization of the athletic-ideal is associated with higher body dissatisfaction, dieting, bulimic symptoms and compulsive exercise, and b) whether body dissatisfaction mediates the relationship between athletic-ideal internalization and the disordered eating and exercise behaviours of dieting, bulimic symptoms and compulsive exercise. Participants were 388 females aged between 17 and 35years. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires measuring athletic-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, compulsive exercise and bulimic symptoms. Athletic-ideal internalization was not found to be associated with body dissatisfaction, but was found to predict dieting, bulimic symptoms and compulsive exercise directly. Body dissatisfaction did not mediate the relationship between athletic-ideal internalization and any of the disordered eating and exercise behaviours. The study was limited by its cross sectional design which precluded conclusions being drawn about the direction of causality and temporal associations. Athletic-ideal internalization, while not associated with body dissatisfaction, was associated with a range of disordered eating and exercise behaviours. Results from the study suggest that the female athletic-ideal is an equally unrealistic and problematic ideal for women to strive towards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Chocolate milk and endurance exercise recovery: protein balance, glycogen, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, William R; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Colletto, Megan R; Karfonta, Kirstin E; Carbone, John W; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Rodriguez, Nancy R

    2012-04-01

    This study examined effects of fat-free chocolate milk (MILK) consumption on kinetic and cellular markers of protein turnover, muscle glycogen, and performance during recovery from endurance exercise. Male runners participated in two trials separated by 1 wk and consumed either MILK or a nonnitrogenous isocaloric carbohydrate (CHO) control beverage (CON) after a 45-min run at 65% of V˙O(2peak). Postexercise muscle protein fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and whole-body protein turnover were determined during 3 h of recovery using muscle biopsies and primed constant infusions of L-[ring-²H₅]phenylalanine and L-[1-¹³C]leucine, respectively. Phosphorylation of translational signaling proteins and activity of proteolytic molecules were determined using Western blotting and enzymatic activity assays. Muscle glycogen was quantified, and treadmill time to exhaustion was determined after the recovery period. Consuming MILK after exercise resulted in higher mixed muscle FSR with lower whole-body proteolysis and synthesis compared with CON (P ≤ 0.05). Phosphorylation of eIF4E-BP1 and FOXO3a was higher for MILK (P glycogen was not affected by either dietary treatment; however, time to exhaustion was greater for MILK than for CON (P < 0.05). The effects of consumption of MILK after endurance exercise on FSR, signaling molecules of skeletal muscle protein turnover, leucine kinetics, and performance measures suggest unique benefits of milk compared with a CHO-only beverage.

  20. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Angela S; Good, Deborah J

    2017-03-01

    For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan-May 2013 and Jan-May 2014) were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male) consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs) and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t -tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades ( P  = 0.001 Pearson's r = - 0.190) and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades ( P  academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  1. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  2. Perceived body weight, eating and exercise problems of different groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Elise; Telfer, James; Abraham, Suzanne

    2012-10-01

    To compare prevalence of problems with body weight, eating and exercise (past or present) of female psychiatric inpatients with routine care, gynaecological and obstetric female outpatients, and eating disorder inpatients. One thousand and thirty-eight females aged 18-55 years from routine care (n=99), gynaecological (n=263) and obstetric (n=271) outpatient clinics, and eating disorder (n=223) and general psychiatric units (n=182) participated. Participants self-reported past or current problems with weight, eating and exercise using a short survey. A sub-sample of women completed the Eating and Exercise Examination (EEE) which includes the Quality of Life for Eating Disorders (QOL ED). The prevalence of self-reported problems controlling weight (52%), disordered eating and eating disorders (43%) for the psychiatric patients was significantly greater than for the routine care and gynaecological and obstetrics outpatients. The psychiatric group had a significantly higher mean body mass index (BMI) of 27.3 kg/m(2) (standard deviation (SD)=6.7) and prevalence of self-reported obesity (28%) than the other groups. Treatment of women with psychiatric problems should include assessment and concurrent attention to body weight, eating disorder and exercise problems in association with appropriate medical, psychiatric, psychological and medication treatment of their presenting disorder.

  3. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary

  4. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huelva (Spain); Rivera de los Santos, Francisco [University of Seville, Area of Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, Seville (Spain); Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos [University of Huelva, Department of Environmental and Public Health, Huelva (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    Regadenoson, an A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO{sub 2}), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  5. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos; Rivera de los Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Regadenoson, an A 2A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO 2 ), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  6. The effects of regular physical exercise on the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrić Fahrudin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical activities should be an integral part of an active lifestyle and the proper use of one's time. Programs including such activities are more effectively being applied in the prevention and elimination of health problems, especially those that are the result of decreased movement, inadequate nutrition and excessive nervous tension. Numerous studies have revealed new information about the link between physical activity and quality of life. Each person would have to be involved in physical activity of moderate intensity most days for 30 to 60 minutes, because active people are more healthier and have higher endurance levels, have a positive attitude towards work and cope with everyday stress better. Activity helps you look better, makes you happier and more vital. Studies have clearly shown that physical activity affects health and reduces the risk of many diseases. An active life increases energy, vitality, helps change bad habits, improves health, and strengthens one's energy and desire for life. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of regular physical activity on the human body. The subject matter of this study is the collection and analysis of results which the authors of various studies have obtained. The reviewed literature was collected using a web browser, and consisted of research work available in the Kobson database, through Google Scholar and in journals available in the field of sports science. The method of treatment is descriptive because the studies involved a variety of training programs, people of different ages, and tests carried out by different measuring instruments, so there is no possibility of a comparison of the results by other means.

  7. The Effect of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Body Composition of Overweight Young Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P0.05 occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  8. Repeated prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise: effects on insulin sensitivity and limb muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Mikael; Overgaard, Kristian; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of prolonged whole-body low-intensity exercise on insulin sensitivity and the limb muscle adaptive response. Seven male subjects (weight, 90.2 ± 3.2 kg; age, 35 ± 3 years) completed a 32-day unsupported crossing of the Greenland icecap on cross-country skies...... was performed to establish maximal oxygen uptake. During the crossing, subjects skied for 342 ± 41 min/d. Peak oxygen uptake (4.6 ± 0.2 L/min) was decreased (P fat mass and 2.7 ± 0.2 kg lean body mass...... arbitrary units) than in the arm (54 ± 9 arbitrary units) and was not changed in the leg, but was increased (P loss of lean body mass...

  9. The influence of Pilates exercises on body balance in the standing position of hearing impaired people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowska, Jagoda; Bolach, Bartosz; Bolach, Eugeniusz

    2017-11-13

    Hearing impairment may affect the body posture maintenance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of modified Pilates exercise program on the body posture maintenance in hearing impaired people. Eighty students (aged 13-24) were enrolled and randomly allocated into two groups: test group (n = 41) which attended an original program based on modified Pilates exercises and control group (n = 39) which attended standard physical education classes. Stabilographic tests were conducted at baseline and after 6-week training program. Both groups showed improved control of body balance in a standing position manifested in reductions of the length of path, surface area, and speed of deflection. Modified Pilates program was significantly more effective in improving body balance control in relaxed posture and with feet together than standard physical education classes. The greater efficiency of the modified Pilates program was expressed in a significant improvement in balance control parameters, i.e., path length, surface area, and speed of deflection. The modified Pilates program was more effective in improving body balance control in the hearing impaired people than standard physical education classes. Modification of physical activity recommendations for hearing impaired students may be considered; however, further research is required. Implications for Rehabilitation Hearing impairment impacts the mental, social and, physical spheres of life as well as deteriorates equivalent reactions and the way body posture is maintained. In hearing impaired people, control of body balance and muscle coordination is often disturbed, thus more attention should be paid to exercises associated with balance which may improve the ability to learn and develop motor skills. Modified Pilates program was significantly more effective in improving body balance control than standard physical education classes in hearing impaired people.

  10. EFFECT OF ADDING AN EXERCISE REGIMEN TO DIET THERAPY IN DECREASING BODY FAT PERCENTAGE AND BODY MASS INDEX AMONG OBESE FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeena Haneefa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obesity is one among the leading health problems in many developing countries including India. Lifestyle modifications, which include diet therapy and regular exercises are considered as the mainstay in the management of this health issue. Brisk walking is the preferred socially and economically acceptable mode of exercise. This randomised controlled trial tries to evaluate the efficacy of adding an exercise regimen to diet therapy in reducing body fat percentage and Body Mass Index (BMI among obese females. MATERIALS AND METHODS One hundred female patients aged between 20 and 60 years with BMI greater than 25 were recruited for this study of 6 months duration. Participants were randomised into either diet therapy alone group or diet therapy with exercise group. All participants were prescribed a low-calorie diet of 1500 kcal per day. The exercise intervention group was subjected to a home-based exercise regimen; walking for 30 minutes 5 days a week. Outcomes were measured by BMI and body fat percentage, documented every month. RESULTS Both groups showed significant reduction in body fat percentage and BMI, but the reduction was more in the exercise with diet therapy group (p value <0.001. CONCLUSION Adding a simple exercise like walking to other lifestyle modification measures can more efficiently bring down BMI and body fat percentage in turn significantly reducing the cardiovascular risk, morbidity and mortality in women.

  11. Carbohydrate and exercise performance: the role of multiple transportable carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2010-07-01

    Carbohydrate feeding has been shown to be ergogenic, but recently substantial advances have been made in optimizing the guidelines for carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise. It was found that limitations to carbohydrate oxidation were in the absorptive process most likely because of a saturation of carbohydrate transporters. By using a combination of carbohydrates that use different intestinal transporters for absorption it was shown that carbohydrate delivery and oxidation could be increased. Studies demonstrated increases in exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates of up to 65% of glucose: fructose compared with glucose only. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates reach values of 1.75 g/min whereas previously it was thought that 1 g/min was the absolute maximum. The increased carbohydrate oxidation with multiple transportable carbohydrates was accompanied by increased fluid delivery and improved oxidation efficiency, and thus the likelihood of gastrointestinal distress may be diminished. Studies also demonstrated reduced fatigue and improved exercise performance with multiple transportable carbohydrates compared with a single carbohydrate. Multiple transportable carbohydrates, ingested at high rates, can be beneficial during endurance sports in which the duration of exercise is 3 h or more.

  12. Relationship of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and body fat to concentrations of plasma lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merians, D R; Haskell, W L; Vranizan, K M; Phelps, J; Woods, P D; Superko, R

    1985-06-01

    To investigate the relationship of exercise and oral contraceptive use to plasma lipids and lipoproteins, a cross-sectional study was designed to compare lipid levels in 96 exercising and non-exercising women who used or did not use oral contraceptives. Exercisers had significantly lower plasma triglyceride concentrations and low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios than non-exercisers after adjustment for differences in pill type distribution between groups. Women using progestin-dominant pills had significantly lower plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein concentrations and significantly higher low-density/high-density lipoprotein ratios compared with women using estrogen/progestin-balanced pills. As body fat was significantly associated with both pill type and physical activity, it is unclear how much of these lipoprotein differences were due to body fat, exercise, or pill use. Regular physical activity together with reduced body fat partially compensated for plasma lipoprotein differences associated with oral contraceptive use.

  13. Comparison of Exercise Performance in Recreationally Active and Masters Athlete Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew S; Glenn, Jordan M; Vincenzo, Jennifer L; Gray, Michelle

    2018-02-01

    Stone, MS, Glenn, JM, Vincenzo, JL, and Gray, M. Comparison of exercise performance in recreationally active and masters athlete women. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 565-571, 2018-Master athletes (MA) are an understudied, ever-growing cohort. As such, it is important to examine how age affects muscular power and fatigability. Of particular interest is muscular power maintenance and fatigue mitigation of MA compared with young, healthy adults. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the differences in peak power, average power, total work (WRK), and fatigue index (FI) between recreationally active (RA) younger adults and female MA during anaerobic cycling exercise. Two groups, RA (n = 15; 20.6 ± 0.8 years) and MA (n = 17; 50.5 ± 8.6 years), participated in this study. Peak power, APWR, WRK, and FI were measured during a 30-second Wingate maximum anaerobic cycling protocol at a predetermined resistance of 7.5% body mass. Peak power (p = 0.92; RA: 654.1 ± 114.5 W; MA: 658.6 ± 147.6 W), APWR (p = 0.09; RA: 429.8 ± 73.3 W; MA: 384 ± 73.8 W), WRK (p = 0.09; RA: 12,894.3 ± 2,198.3 J; MA: 18,044.3 ± 27,184.9 J), and FI (p = 0.30; RA: 11.8 ± 4.1 W·s; MA: 14 ± 5.2 W·s) were not significantly different between groups. Master athletes produce power and WRK comparable to rates of fatigue among RA. This suggests that MA can maintain physical ability similar to RA in multiple parameters of high-intensity exercise while mitigating fatigue comparably. These data allow for advancements in exercise training and performance outcomes in MA populations. Further research within the MA population is warranted regarding other aspects of exercise and sport performance.

  14. Comparison of body composition, exercise and nutritional profiles of female and male body builders at competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, W M; Heyward, V H; Lyons, T M

    1989-03-01

    Limited research information is available on the training programs and dietary practices of competitive male and female body builders. Information on body composition, training programs, and nutritional profiles of eleven competitive male and female body builders were obtained 48 hours prior to competition. Body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing. Skinfold data were obtained to assess the distribution of subcutaneous fat. Questionnaires concerning training programs and a three day food intake record were collected. The female body builders achieved a degree of leanness similar to the males. The relative training volumes for the women were greater than those of the men for all body regions. Gender differences were found in regional deposition of subcutaneous fat between males and females, with the males showing a more uniform distribution of subcutaneous fat. The nutritional profiles of male and female body builders were similar. The pre-competitive diets were low in kilocalories, and the relative energy intakes for men and women were 28.6 kcal/kg and 29.2 kcal/kg respectively. Both men and women consumed low fat and high protein foods. All of the vitamin/mineral intakes of the body builders exceeded the RDA's with the exceptions of calcium for men and women and iron for women only.

  15. The effects of elevated pain inhibition on endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Flood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min, the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance. It was hypothesised that HD-tDCS would enhance the efficiency of the endogenous pain inhibitory response and improve endurance exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy males between 18 and 40 years of age (M = 24.42 ± 3.85 were recruited for participation. Endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and exercise performance were assessed before and after both active and sham (placebo stimulation. The conditioned pain modulation protocol was used for the measurement of pain inhibition. Exercise performance assessment consisted of both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and submaximal muscular endurance performance trials using isometric contractions of the non-dominant leg extensors. Results Active HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.32 ± 1.33 kg; post-tDCS, −1.23 ± 1.21 kg significantly increased pain inhibitory responses relative to the effects of sham HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.91 ± .92 kg; post-tDCS, −.26 ± .92 kg; p = .046. Irrespective of condition, peak MVC force and muscular endurance was reduced from pre- to post-stimulation. HD-tDCS did not significantly influence this reduction in maximal force (active: pre-tDCS, 264.89 ± 66.87 Nm; post-tDCS, 236.33 ± 66.51 Nm; sham: pre-tDCS, 249.25 ± 88.56 Nm; post-tDCS, 239.63 ± 67.53 Nm or muscular endurance (active: pre-tDCS, 104.65 ± 42.36 s; post-tDCS, 93.07 ± 33.73 s; sham: pre-tDCS, 123.42 ± 72.48 s; post

  16. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holmes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Method: Common methods of cryotherapy include cold water immersion (CWI, ice packs, ice massages, and gel or cooling creams. CWI is the most common method among athletes; however, a new form of cryotherapy, known as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, has recently emerged.  Since its introduction, WBC has grown in popularity among practitioners and athletes. WBC involves short exposures (generally between 2-4 minutes to very cold air (-100o C to -140o C in a controlled room and setting. Furthermore, many of the studies on WBC were observational and did not contain a control group. Conclusion: Despite its growing popularity, the alleged benefits of WBC are largely based on anecdotal evidence as randomized, clinically-controlled studies regarding its efficacy are limited.  Keywords: cryotherapy, cold water immersion, exercise, recovery, muscle damage, inflammation

  17. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  18. Effects of sleep deprivation and exercise on cognitive, motor performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathon P R; McNaughton, Lars R; Polman, Remco C J

    2006-02-28

    This study examined the effect of 30 h of sleep deprivation and intermittent physical exercise, on both cognitive and psychomotor function as well subjective ratings of mood. Six subjects with the following physical characteristics participated in the study (Mean +/- S.D.): age 22 +/- 0.3 years, height 180 +/- 5 cm, body mass: 77 +/- 5 kg, VO2peak 44 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1). Three subjects engaged in normal sedentary activities while three others cycled on a cycle ergometer at 50% VO2peak for 20 min out of every 2 h during 30 h of sleep deprivation. One week later sleep deprivation was repeated with a cross over of subjects. Every 4 h, subjects completed simple and two-choice reaction time tasks at both rest and during exercise, a computerized tracking task, a number cancellation task, and an assessment of subjective mood state as measured by the POMS questionnaire. A 3 x 4 repeated measures ANOVA revealed that resting but not exercising reaction times were significantly slower with sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was also associated with significantly greater negative disturbances to subjective vigour, fatigue and depression assessed by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire. Compared to those who have been deprived of sleep alone, individuals that performed 5 h of intermittent moderate exercise during 30 h of sleep deprivation appeared to be more vulnerable to negative mood disturbances and impairment in reaction times. This could result in greater risk of accident due to a reduced capacity to respond quickly.

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute whole-body exercise on motor processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Davranche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.

  20. A comparison of hydration effect on body fluid and temperature regulation between Malaysian and Japanese males exercising at mild dehydration in humid heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hitoshi; Wijayanto, Titis; Lee, Joo-Young; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Saat, Mohamed; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2014-02-04

    This study investigated the effect of hydration differences on body fluid and temperature regulation between tropical and temperate indigenes exercising in the heat. Ten Japanese and ten Malaysian males with matched physical characteristics (height, body weight, and peak oxygen consumption) participated in this study. Participants performed exercise for 60 min at 55% peak oxygen uptake followed by a 30-min recovery at 32°C and 70% relative air humidity with hydration (4 times each, 3 mL per kg body weight, 37°C) or without hydration. Rectal temperature, skin temperature, heart rate, skin blood flow, and blood pressure were measured continuously. The percentage of body weight loss and total sweat loss were calculated from body weight measurements. The percentage change in plasma volume was estimated from hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. Malaysian participants had a significantly lower rectal temperature, a smaller reduction in plasma volume, and a lower heart rate in the hydrated condition than in the non-hydrated condition at the end of exercise (P hydration conditions. Hydration induced a greater total sweat loss in both groups (P hydrated Malaysians was significantly less than in hydrated Japanese (P hydration conditions was observed for the percentage of mean cutaneous vascular conductance during exercise relative to baseline (P hydrated Malaysians indicated an advantage in body fluid regulation. This may enable Malaysians to reserve more blood for circulation and heat dissipation and thereby maintain lower rectal temperatures in a hydrated condition.

  1. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Effects of aquatic exercise and nutritional guidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Eisfeld Milano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of aquatic exercise and nutritionalguidance on the body composition of obese children and adolescents. Thirty obese childrenaged 10 to 16 years, with a body mass index (BMI above the 95th percentile according to theclassification proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2000, weredivided into two groups: the first group started learning to swim (GSwim, n = 10 and the secondgroup underwent a deep water running program (GDeep, n = 20. Weight, height, BMI, BMIZ-scores, relative and absolute fat, and relative and absolute lean body mass were evaluated atbaseline and after 12 weeks. The program consisted of 12 meetings for nutritional guidance (oncea week and 36 sessions of exercise (three times per week. MANOVA and Fisher’s exact testwere used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. After 12 weeks,GDeep showed a significant reduction in BMI, BMI Z-scores and relative and absolute fat,and an increase in relative and absolute lean body mass. Significant differences were observedbetween GDeep and GSwim in terms of the reduction in body fat (p = 0.014 and the increasein lean mass (p = 0.006. A program of deep water running together with nutritional guidancemay promote significant changes in the body composition of obese children and adolescents dueto the cyclic characteristic of this physical activity.

  3. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 children were enrolled in the program; they were between the ages of 8 and 11 with a body mass index (BMI of 26.59 ± 4.2 (kg/m2. They were evaluated before and after the physical activity intervention by means of a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS Test. The results with significant changes (p ≤ 0.05 between the pre-test and post-test are in weight and height. There are also significant changes observed in self-image in 15 parts of evaluated body segments, mainly in the abdomen, chest, thighs, buttocks, waist, and hips in all children from the experimental group. The results conclude that physical exercise, in spite of not producing significant changes in BMI, can positively modify body image perception.

  4. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease......- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...

  5. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  6. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR HORMONAL AND MUSCULAR ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Teo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all physiological and biochemical processes within the human body follow a circadian rhythm (CR. In humans, the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep- wake cycle and other daily biorhythms in line with solar time. Due to such daily physiological fluctuations, several investigations on neuromuscular performance have reported a distinct CR during exercise. Generally, peak performances have been found to occur in the early evening, at approximately the peak of core body temperature. The increase in core body temperature has been found to increase energy metabolism, improve muscle compliance and facilitate actin-myosin crossbridging. In addition, steroidal hormones such as testosterone (T and cortisol (C also display a clear CR. The role of T within the body is to maintain anabolism through the process of protein synthesis. By contrast, C plays a catabolic function and is involved in the response of stress. Due to the anabolic and catabolic nature of both T and C, it has been postulated that a causal relationship may exist between the CR of T and C and muscular performance. This review will therefore discuss the effects of CR on physical performance and its implications for training. Furthermore, this review will examine the impact of muscular performance on CR in hormonal responses and whether could variations in T and C be potentially beneficial for muscular adaptation

  7. The Gravity-Loading countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) and its effect upon aerobic exercise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Julia; Philip, A. T. Carvil; Waldie, James; Russomano, Thais; Simon, N. Evetts; David, A. Green

    2017-03-01

    The Russian Pingvin suit is employed as a countermeasure to musculoskeletal atrophy in microgravity, though its 2-stage loading regime is poorly tolerated. The Gravity-Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) has been devised to comfortably compress the body via incrementally increasing longitudinal elastic-fibre tensions from the shoulders to the feet. We tested whether the Mk III GLCS was a feasible adjunct to sub-maximal aerobic exercise and resulting VO2Max predictions. Eight healthy subjects (5♂, 28±6 yr) performed cycle ergometry at 75% VO2Max (derived from an Astrand-Rhyming protocol) whilst wearing a GLCS and gym clothing (GYM). Ventilatory parameters, heart rate (HR), core temperature (TC), and blood lactate (BL) were recorded along with subjective perceived exertion, thermal comfort, movement discomfort and body control. Physiological and subjective responses were compared over TIME and between GYM and GLCS (ATTIRE) with 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests respectively. Resultant VO2Max predictions were compared with paired t-tests between ATTIRE. The GLCS induced greater initial exercise ventilatory responses which stabilised by 20 min. HR and TC continued to rise from 5 min irrespective of ATTIRE, whereas BL was greater in the GLCS at 20 min. Predicted V O2Max did not differ with ATTIRE, though some observed differences in HR were noteworthy. All subjective ratings were exacerbated in the GLCS. Despite increased perception of workload and initial ventilatory augmentations, submaximal exercise performance was not impeded. Whilst predicted VO2Max did not differ, determination of actual VO2Max in the GLCS is warranted due to apparent modulation of the linear HR-VO2 relationship. The GLCS may be a feasible adjunct to exercise and potential countermeasure to unloaded-induced physiological deconditioning on Earth or in space.

  8. The majority are not performing home-exercises correctly two weeks after their initial instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mathilde; Andersen, Malene H.; Sevel, Claus

    2015-01-01

    . The participants were instructed in performing an exercise with a predefined TUT (3 s concentric; 2 s isometric; 3 s eccentric; 2 s break) corresponding to a total of 240 s of TUT during three sets of 10 repetitions. After completing two weeks of unsupervised home exercises, they returned for a follow....... Results. Fourteen of the 29 participants trained with the instructed TUT at follow-up (predefined target: 240 s ±8%). Thirteen of the 29 participants performed the shoulder abduction exercise with a correct exercise form. Seven of the 29 participants trained with the instructed TUT and exercise form...... at followup. Conclusion. The majority of participants did not use the instructed TUT and exercise form at followup after two weeks of unsupervised exercises. These findings emphasize the importance of clear and specific home exercise instructions if participants are to follow the given exercise prescription...

  9. Low and moderate doses of caffeine late in exercise improve performance in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talanian, Jason L; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess if low and moderate doses of caffeine delivered in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) late in exercise improved time-trial (TT) performance. Fifteen (11 male, 4 female) cyclists (age, 22.5 ± 0.9 years; body mass, 69.3 ± 2.6 kg; peak oxygen consumption, 64.6 ± 1.9 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) completed 4 double-blinded randomized trials. Subjects completed 120 min of cycling at ∼60% peak oxygen consumption with 5 interspersed 120-s intervals at ∼82% peak oxygen consumption, immediately followed by 40-s intervals at 50 W. Following 80 min of cycling, subjects either ingested a 6% CES (PL), a CES with 100 mg (low dose, 1.5 ± 0.1 mg·kg body mass(-1)) of caffeine (CAF1), or a CES with 200 mg (moderate dose, 2.9 ± 0.1 mg·kg body mass(-1)) of caffeine (CAF2). Following the 120-min cycling challenge, cyclists completed a 6-kJ·kg body mass(-1) TT. There was no difference between respiratory, heart rate, glucose, free fatty acid, body mass, hematocrit, or urine specific gravity measurements between treatments. The CAF2 (26:36 ± 0:22 min:s) TT was completed faster than CAF1 (27:36 ± 0:32 min:s, p caffeine delivered late in exercise improved TT performance over the PL trial and the moderate dose (CAF2) improved performance to a greater extent than the low dose (CAF1).

  10. Associations between depressive symptoms, self-efficacy, eating styles, exercise and body mass index in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clum, Gretchen A; Rice, Janet C; Broussard, Marsha; Johnson, Carolyn C; Webber, Larry S

    2014-08-01

    This article explores cross-sectional associations between depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) in women working in schools in the Greater New Orleans area. Self-efficacy for eating and exercise, eating styles, and exercise are examined as potential pathways. This is a secondary data analysis of 743 women who were participating in a workplace wellness randomized controlled trial to address environmental factors influencing eating and exercise behaviors using baseline data prior to the intervention. BMI was the primary outcome examined. Path analysis suggested that increased depressive symptoms were associated with increased BMI in women. Indirect effects of depressive symptoms on BMI were found for increased healthy eating self-efficacy, increased emotional eating, and decreased exercise self-efficacy. The association between greater healthy eating self efficacy and BMI was unexpected, and may indicate a suppressor effect of eating self-efficacy in the relationship between depressive symptoms and BMI in women. The findings suggest the importance of depressive symptoms to BMI in women. Targets for interventions to reduce BMI include targeting depressive symptoms and related sequelae including self-efficacy for exercise, and emotional eating. Further investigation of eating self-efficacy and BMI are recommended with particular attention to both efficacy for health eating and avoidance of unhealthy foods.

  11. Body Temperatures During Exercise in Deconditioned Dogs: Effect of NACL and Glucose Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Usciko, H.

    2000-01-01

    Infusion of glucose (Glu) into normal exercising dogs attenuates the rise in rectal temperature (Delta-Tre) when compared with delta-Tre during FFA infusion or no infusion. Rates of rise and delta-=Tre levels are higher during exercise after confinement. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if Glu infusion would attenuate the exercise-induced excess hyperthermia after deconditioning. Rectal and quadricep femoris muscle temperatures (Tmu) were measured in 7 male, mongrel dogs dogs (19.6 +/- SD 3.0 kg) during 90 minutes of treadmill exercise (3.1 +/-SD 0.2 W/kg) with infusion (30ml/min/kg) of 40% Glu or 0.9% NaCL before BC) and after confinement (AC) in cages (40 x 110 x 80 cm) for 8 wk. Mean (+/-SE body wt. were 19.6 +/- 1.1 kg BC and 19.5 +/- 1.1kg AC, exercise VO2 were not different (40.0 - 42.0 mi/min/kg-1). With NaCl AC, NaCl BC, GluAC, and GluBC: Delta-Tre were, 1.8, 1.4, 1.3 and 0.9C respectively; and Delta-Tmu were 2.3, 1.9, 1.6, and 1.4C. respectively (Pbody temperature with Glu infusion must affect avenues of heat dissipation.

  12. My mother told me: the roles of maternal messages, body image, and disordered eating in maladaptive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lease, Haidee J; Doley, Joanna R; Bond, Malcolm J

    2016-09-01

    The current study examined the relevance of familial environment (negative maternal messages) to the phenomenon of maladaptive (obligatory) exercise, defined as exercise fixation. Weight/shape concerns and exercise frequency were examined as potential mediators, evaluated both with and without eating disorder symptoms as a covariate. Self-report data comprising sociodemographic details and measures of parental weight messages, body image, obligatory exercise, and disordered eating symptoms were completed by 298 young female attendees of health and fitness centres. The frequency of negative maternal messages demonstrated significant associations with all of weight/shape concerns, exercise frequency, exercise fixation, and eating disorder symptoms. In the initial model, partial mediation of maternal messages to exercise fixation was evident as negative maternal messages continued to have a direct effect on exercise fixation. In the second model, with the inclusion of eating disorder symptoms as a covariate, this direct effect was maintained while mediation was no longer evident. The data provide further support for the association between disordered eating symptoms and maladaptive exercise, as defined by exercise fixation. Nevertheless, the importance of negative maternal messages as a key environmental enabler of exercise fixation has been demonstrated, even after the effects of weight/shape concerns and exercise frequency were accounted for. Clinically, addressing weight-related talk in the family home may reduce the incidence of problematic cognitions and behaviours associated with both maladaptive exercise and disordered eating symptoms.

  13. Evaluation of static and dynamic balance in elderly women performing aquatic exercise and gymnastics

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Almeida; Renato Peixoto Veras; Leonice Aparecida Doimo

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated static and dynamic balance and related motor valences in elderly women who had been undergone gymnastics or aquatic exercise training for at least 6 months, three times a week. Thirty-one women performed water gymnastics (mean age: 69.32 ± 6.57 years) and 28 gymnastics (65.57 ± 7.67 years). Height (cm), weight (kg) and waist, hip and abdominal circumference (cm) were measured and the body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Physical fitness was mea...

  14. Effect of caffeine as an ergogenic aid during anaerobic exercise performance in caffeine naïve collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Kathleen; Bidwell, Wendy K; Carlson, Amanda G

    2009-08-01

    Research suggests that caffeine may improve performance in aerobic exercise; the evidence for anaerobic performance is mixed. This study examined the effect of caffeine (5 mg/kg body weight [BW]) vs. placebo on performance-based anaerobic exercise tests used during the National Football League (NFL) Combine. Collegiate football athletes (n = 17; 20 +/- 2 yr; body mass index 29.4 +/- 3.6 kg/m) completed 2 study visits, 1 week apart. Participants were low caffeine users with a reported average intake of 16 +/- 20 mg/day. On the day of testing, participants ingested a caffeinated (5 mg/kg BW caffeine + 0.125 g/kg BW carbohydrate) or placebo (0.125 g/kg BW carbohydrate) beverage, ate a light meal, and completed 3 exercise tests (40-yard dash, 20-yard shuttle, and a bench press) 60 minutes later. Borg's rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded after each exercise test. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were monitored (pre-exercise and postexercise). Data were analyzed using paired t-tests, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and repeated measures analysis of variance. No significant differences were found between treatments for the exercise tests (40-yard dash: 5.01 +/- 0.25 vs. 5.03 +/- 0.26 s, p = 0.43; 20-yard shuttle: 4.64 +/- 0.19 vs. 4.66 +/- 0.24 s, p = 0.51; bench press: 17 +/- 8 vs. 17 +/- 8 reps, p = 0.51; caffeine vs. placebo, respectively). However, 59% of the participants improved in performance with the caffeine during the bench press and the 40-yard dash. No differences were found between treatments for RPE, HR, and BP. Caffeine did not improve performance for anaerobic exercise tests used at the NFL Combine in caffeine naïve male football athletes.

  15. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Body composition and reproductive function exert unique influences on indices of bone health in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Rebecca J; Williams, Nancy I; Hill, Brenna R; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2013-09-01

    Reproductive function, metabolic hormones, and lean mass have been observed to influence bone metabolism and bone mass. It is unclear, however, if reproductive, metabolic and body composition factors play unique roles in the clinical measures of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone geometry in exercising women. This study compares lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and estimates of femoral neck cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI) and cross-sectional area (CSA) between exercising ovulatory (Ov) and amenorrheic (Amen) women. It also explores the respective roles of reproductive function, metabolic status, and body composition on aBMD, lumbar spine BMAD and femoral neck CSMI and CSA, which are surrogate measures of bone strength. Among exercising women aged 18-30 years, body composition, aBMD, and estimates of femoral neck CSMI and CSA were assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Lumbar spine BMAD was calculated from bone mineral content and area. Estrone-1-glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide were measured in daily urine samples collected for one cycle or monitoring period. Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of leptin and total triiodothyronine. Ov (n = 37) and Amen (n = 45) women aged 22.3 ± 0.5 years did not differ in body mass, body mass index, and lean mass; however, Ov women had significantly higher percent body fat than Amen women. Lumbar spine aBMD and BMAD were significantly lower in Amen women compared to Ov women (p bone mass at a site composed of primarily trabecular bone. However, lean mass is one of the most influential predictors of bone mass and bone geometry at weight-bearing sites, such as the hip. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of three types of full‐body compression garments on throwing and repeat‐sprint performance in cricket players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Portus, Marc

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of three types of full‐body compression garments (Skins, Adidas and Under Armour) on repeat‐sprint and throwing performance in cricket players. Methods Following familiarisation, 10 male cricket players performed four randomised exercise sessions (3 garments and a control). Each session involved a 30 min repeat‐sprint exercise protocol comprising 20 m sprints every minute, separated by submaximal exercise. Throwing tests included a pre‐exercise and a postexercise maximal distance test and accuracy throwing tests. During each session, measures of heart rate, skin temperature, change in body mass, rate of perceived exertion and perceived muscle soreness were recorded. Capillary blood samples were analysed before and after exercise for lactate, pH, O2 saturation and O2 partial pressure, and 24 h after exercise for creatine kinase (CK). Ratings of perceived muscle soreness were also obtained 24 h after exercise. Results No significant differences (p>0.05) were evident in repeat‐sprint performance (10 m, 20 m time or total submaximal distance covered) or throwing performance (maximum distance or accuracy). No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed in heart rate, body mass change or blood measures during exercise. Significant differences (p0.05). Conclusions No benefit was noted when wearing compression garments for repeat‐sprint or throwing performance; however, the use of the garments as a recovery tool, when worn after exercise, may be beneficial to reduce postexercise trauma and perceived muscle soreness. PMID:17341589

  18. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin ePageaux

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CT were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET consisting of six minutes of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE was measured during ET. Both CT did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque (p=0.194. During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (self-regulation 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p=0.044. ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (self-regulation -17 ± 15 %, control -15 ± 11 %, p=0.001, maximal voluntary activation level (self-regulation -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p=0.013 and resting twitch (self-regulation -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, P<0.001 in both conditions. These findings reject our hypothesis and confirm previous findings that mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception

  19. Current hydration guidelines are erroneous: dehydration does not impair exercise performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Bradley A; Watson, Greig; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Abbiss, Chris R; Siegel, Rodney; Laursen, Paul B

    2015-08-01

    Laboratory studies that support the hydration guidelines of leading governing bodies have shown that dehydration to only -2% of body mass can lead to increase in body temperature and heart rate during exercise, and decrease in performance. These studies, however, have been conducted in relatively windless environments (ie, wind speed hydration status. To investigate the effect of blinded hydration status on cycling time-trial performance in the heat with ecologically valid facing wind speed conditions. During three experimental trials, 10 cyclists were dehydrated to -3% body mass by performing 2 h of submaximal exercise (walking and cycling) in the heat, before being reinfused with saline to replace 100%, 33% or 0% of fluid losses, leaving them 0%, -2% or -3% hypohydrated, respectively. Participants then completed a 25 km time trial in the heat (33°C, 40% relative humidity; wind speed 32 km/h) during which their starting hydration status was maintained by infusing saline at a rate equal to their sweat rate. The treatment was participant-blinded and the order was randomised. Completion time, power output, heart rate, rectal temperature and perceptual variables were measured. While rectal temperature was higher beyond 17 km of the time trial in the -3% vs 0% conditions (38.9±0.3°C vs 38.6±0.3°C; phydration status, performance, physiological and perceptual variables were not different between trials. These data do not support the residing basis behind many of the current hydration guidelines. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Do whole body vibration exercises affect lower limbs neuromuscular activity in populations with a medical condition? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionello, Carla Fontoura; de Souza, Patrícia Lopes; Sá-Caputo, Danubia; Morel, Danielle Soares; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Frederico, Eric Heleno Freire Ferreira; Guedes-Aguiar, Eliane; Paiva, Patricia de Castro; Taiar, Redha; Chiementin, Xavier; Marín, Pedro J; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The use of surface electromyography (sEMG) to evaluate muscle activation when executing whole body vibration exercises (WBVE) in studies provide neuromuscular findings, in healthy and diseased populations. Perform a systematic review of the effects of WBVE by sEMG of lower limbs in non-healthy populations. The search using the defined keywords was performed in PubMed, PEDRo and EMBASE databases by three independent researchers. Applying the PRISMA statement several studies were selected according to eligibility criteria and organized for the review. Full papers were included if they described effects of WBVE for the treatment of illnesses, evaluated by sEMG of lower limbs independently on the year of the publication; in comparison or associated with other treatment and evaluation techniques. Seven publications were selected; two in spinal cord injury patients, one in Friedreich's ataxia patients, three in stroke patients and one study in breast cancer survivors. Reported effects of WBV in were muscle activation by sEMG and also on strength, blood flow and exercise resistance; even in paretic limbs. By the use of sEMG it was verified that WBVE elicits muscle activation in diseased population. These results may lead to the definition of exercise protocols to maintain or increase muscular activation. However, due to the heterogeneity of methods among studies, there is currently no consensus on the sEMG signal processing. These strategies might also induce effects on muscle strength, balance and flexibility in these and other illnesses.

  1. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  2. Thermoregulation in boys and men exercising at the same heat production per unit body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leites, Gabriela T; Cunha, Giovani S; Obeid, Joyce; Wilk, Boguslaw; Meyer, Flavia; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-07-01

    Child-adult thermoregulatory comparisons may be biased by differences in metabolic heat production ([Formula: see text]). We compared thermoregulatory responses of boys and men exercising at two intensities prescribed to elicit either a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit body mass (BM) or a fixed absolute [Formula: see text]. Ten boys (10-12 years) and 10 men (19-25 years) performed 4 × 20-min cycling at a fixed [Formula: see text] per BM (W kg(-1)) at 35 °C and 35 % relative humidity (MENREL). Men also cycled (MENABS) at the same absolute [Formula: see text] (in W) as the boys. [Formula: see text] was lower in boys compared with MENREL, but similar to MENABS (mean ± SD, 233.6 ± 38.4, 396.5 ± 72.3, 233.6 ± 34.1 W, respectively, P < 0.001). Conversely, [Formula: see text] per unit BM was similar between boys and MENREL, and lower in MENABS (5.7 ± 1.0, 5.6 ± 0.8 and 3.3 ± 0.3 W kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.001). The change in rectal temperature was similar between boys and MENREL (0.6 ± 0.2 vs. 0.7 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.92) but was lower in MENABS (0.3 ± 0.2 °C, P = 0.004). Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to MENABS (500 ± 173 vs. 710 ± 150 mL; P = 0.041), despite the same evaporative heat balance requirement (E req) (199.1 ± 34.2 vs. 201.0 ± 32.7 W, P = 0.87). Boys and men demonstrated similar thermoregulatory responses to 80 min of exercise in the heat performed at a fixed [Formula: see text] per unit BM. Sweat volume was lower in boys compared to men, despite similarities in absolute [Formula: see text] and E req.

  3. Effects of Krankcycle Training on Performance and Body Composition in Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čichoň Rostislav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in training equipment is important for increasing training effectiveness, performance and changes in body composition, especially in wheelchair users with paraplegia. The main objective of a workout session is to induce an adaptation stimulus, which requires overload of involved muscles by voluntary effort, yet this overload may be highly influenced by the size of the spinal cord lesion. Krancykl construction is designed to allow exercise on any wheelchair and with adjustable height or width of crank handles, where even the grip handle may be altered. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in body composition, performance and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE in paraplegics with a different level of paralyses after a 12 week training programme of a unilateral regime on Krankcycle equipment (a crank machine. The study sample included four men and one women at a different spine lesion level. The 12 weeks programme was successfully completed by four participants, while one subject got injured during the intervention process. Three participants were paraplegics and one was quadriplegic with innervation of the biceps humeri, triceps humeri and deltoideus. The Krankcycle 30 min programme was followed by four other exercises, which were performed after themselves rather than in a circuit training manner as the latter would result in much longer rest periods between exercises, because paraplegics have to be fixed by straps during exercise on hydraulic machines. The RPE after the workout decreased following the twelve week adaptation period.

  4. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  6. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  7. Distraction versus Intensity: The Importance of Exercise Classes for Cognitive Performance in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollseiffen, Petra; Vogt, Tobias; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the influence of a class of aerobic exercise and an art class on brain cortical activity and possible effects on cognitive performance. Electroencephalography was used to record the electrocortical activity of 16 schoolchildren (8-10 years old) before and after an aerobic exercise class and an art class. Performance in a standardized test of educational attainment (VERA-3) was assessed following both classes. A significant decrease in cortical activity was detected in all 4 lobes after exercise but not after art classes (p performance were observed after exercise and art classes. In this study, cortical activity was reduced after an exercise class but no effect on cognitive performance was observed. Hence, the neurophysiological effect of exercise should be further evaluated regarding different kinds of cognitive performance: creativity, knowledge acquisition as well as the outlasting effects of exercise on academic achievement. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly.

  9. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert; Naclerio, Fernando; Allgrove, Judith; Jimenez, Alfonso

    2012-07-20

    Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly).

  10. Carbohydrates and physical/mental performance during intermittent exercise to fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ralph S; Davis, J Mark; Burke, Jean R; Williams, Harriet G

    2002-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte ingestion on physical and mental function associated with the performance of intermittent high-intensity (IHI) exercise similar to many common competitive sporting events. Physically active men (N = 5) and women (N = 5), experienced in competitive soccer or basketball, completed three practice sessions and two experimental trials of an IHI shuttle running protocol designed to closely stimulate the demands of an actual competitive sporting event such as basketball. The experimental trials consisted of four 15-min quarters (QTR) of intermittent shuttle running at various percentages of .VO(2max) (walking, jogging, running, sprinting and jumping), separated by a 20-min halftime rest period (HALF) and followed by a shuttle run to fatigue. Various tests of physical and mental function (shuttle run to fatigue, 20-m maximal sprint, 10-repetition maximal vertical jumping, whole body motor skill test (MS-Test), profile of mood states (POMS), and Stroop Color-Word Test) were performed throughout the experimental trial. Carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO) or placebo (P) drinks were consumed before exercise (5 mL.kg(-1); 6% solution) and at halftime (5 mL.kg(-1); 18% solution). Smaller volumes (3 mL.kg(-1); 6% solution) were given after QTR-1, HALF, QTR-3, and QTR-4. CHO ingestion resulted in a 37% longer run time to fatigue and faster 20-m sprint time during QTR-4 (P intermittent exercise similar to that of many competitive team sports.

  11. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  12. EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE ON EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN SEDENTARY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Wallman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on total work, average power, oxygen consumption (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, heart rate (HR and energy expenditure (kJ during stationary cycling at a standardised power output, as well as during a set time period where participants were required to cycle as fast as they could. Ten healthy, sedentary, female, non- regular caffeine users completed 15 min of stationary cycling at a standardised power output equating to 65% HRmax (Phase A, followed by 10 min of stationary cycling where they were required to cycled as fast as they could (Phase B after ingesting 6.0 mg·kg-1 of caffeine or placebo 60 min prior to exercise. VO2 and energy expenditure were significantly higher at the end of Phase A (p = 0.008 and p = 0.011, respectively. All other variables examined in Phase A were similar between trials. In Phase B, there were no significant differences found for any variable assessed. While caffeine ingestion resulted in significant increases in VO2 and energy expenditure during steady-state exercise, it did not improve cycling performance during a 10 min trial where participants were required to cycle as fast as they could

  13. Effects of the cycloergometer exercises on power and jumping ability measured during jumps performed on a dynamometric platform

    OpenAIRE

    A Mastalerz; A Madej; K Buśko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was the determination of the cycloergometer exercises influence on the lower limbs power changes and height of rise of the body mass centre, measured in CMJ (counter movement jump) and performed on a dynamometric platform. Forty-three students of the University of Physical Education took part in the study. They were divided into 4 groups. The cycloergometer training encompassed 5 intermittent efforts parted by 2min intervals. Students performed: group M10 – maximal effort...

  14. Does side dominance affect the symmetry of barbell end kinematics during lower-body resistance exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A; Smith, Neal A

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether ground kinetic asymmetries significantly affected measures of bar end power output during bilateral lower-body resistance exercise. Vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) from both feet and power outputs from both ends of the bar were recorded using force platforms and high-speed cameras simultaneously during the back squat performance of 10 experienced male volunteers with 30, 60, and 90% of their 1 repetition maximum. Side dominance was determined according to perceived left- and right-side handedness, dominant left- and right-side GRFs, and barbell power output side dominance. The dominant and nondominant side average concentric phase GRFs and barbell end power outputs were compared at each loading condition using 2-way analysis of variance. Pearson product-moment correlations were also performed to assess the relationship between average GRF and bar end differences. The results showed that although differences between the dominant and nondominant side GRFs reached 21% in some cases, there were no significant differences between the left- and right-side bar end power outputs, which did not exceed 3.4%. There were no consistent correlations between the dominant and nondominant side average GRFs and average bar end power differences. In addition to this, progressive loading did not significantly affect differences between the dominant and nondominant side GRFs or bar end power output differences. It was concluded that although apparently healthy individuals demonstrate considerable side dominance at the foot-floor interface, these tend not to be reflected in the symmetry of bar end power output.

  15. The Effect of Exercise on Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem as a Function of Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Williamson, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between amount of exercise and psychological wellbeing, surveying people age 16-60 years. Women had lower body satisfaction and self-esteem than men. While there was generally a positive relationship between exercise and wellbeing, for women age 16-21 years, there was a significant negative relationship. Women…

  16. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Veeneman, D.; Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated

  17. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocalini DS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Sales Bocalini,1 Lucas S Lima,3 Socrates de Andrade,4 Angelo Madureira,4 Roberta L Rica,4,5 Rodrigo Nolasco dos Santos,4 Andrey Jorge Serra,1,2 Jose Antonio Silva Jr,2 Daniel Rodriguez,6 Aylton Figueira Jr,6 Francisco Luciano Pontes Jr31Departamenteo de Educação Física e, 2Ciências da Reabilitação da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Curso de Gerontologia, Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades da Universidade de São Paulo (EACH, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 4Universidade Gama Filho (UGF, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil; 5Departamento de Educação Física, Colegio Arbos, São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil; 6Departamento de Educação Física. Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT, São Paulo, SP, BrazilAim: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW gain control in older people.Methods: Seventy older women (>60 years old voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI: appropriate weight (AW control (AWC and trained (AWT groups, overweight (OW control (OWC and trained (OWT groups, and obesity (O control (OC and trained (OT groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work. The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m, body weight (BW, kg, body fat (BF, %, fat mass (FM, kg, lean mass (LM, kg, and BMI (kg/m2.Results: The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD] of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%, BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%, LM (3.0% ± 0.3%, and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0% to the OT group were higher

  18. The relationship between biventricular myocardial performance and metabolic parameters during incremental exercise and recovery in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieles, Guido E; Gowing, Lucy; Forsey, Jonathan; Ramanujam, Paramanantham; Miller, Felicity; Stuart, A Graham; Williams, Craig A

    2015-12-15

    Background left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial reserve during exercise in adolescents has not been directly characterized. The aim of this study was to quantify myocardial performance response to exercise by using two-dimensional (2-D) speckle tracking echocardiography and describe the relationship between myocardial reserve, respiratory, and metabolic exercise parameters. A total of 23 healthy boys and girls (mean age 13.2 ± 2.7 yr; stature 159.1 ± 16.4 cm; body mass 49.5 ± 16.6 kg; BSA 1.47 ± 0.33 m(2)) completed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (25 W · 3 min increments) with simultaneous acquisition of 2-D transthoracic echocardiography at rest, each exercise stage up to 100 W, and in recovery at 2 min and 10 min. Two-dimensional LV (LV Sl) and RV (RV Sl) longitudinal strain and LV circumferential strain (LV Sc) were analyzed to define the relationship between myocardial performance reserve and metabolic exercise parameters. Participants achieved a peak oxygen uptake (V̇o 2peak) of 40.6 ± 8.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) and a work rate of 154 ± 42 W. LV Sl and LV Sc and RV Sl increased significantly across work rates (P exercise was significantly correlated to resting strain, V̇o 2peak, oxygen pulse, and work rate (0.530 ≤ r ≤ 0.784, P exercise by using a novel methodology. Relationships detected present novel data directly describing myocardial adaptation at different stages of exercise and recovery that in the future can help directly assess cardiac reserve in patients with cardiac pathology. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Departments Clinical Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) COPD: Overview COPD: Lifestyle Management COPD: Exercises COPD: Exercises Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a Question Reviewed by Barry J. Make, ...

  20. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...

  1. Metrics for Performance Evaluation of Patient Exercises during Physical Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, Aleksandar; Ferguson, Jake M; Lee, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    The article proposes a set of metrics for evaluation of patient performance in physical therapy exercises. Taxonomy is employed that classifies the metrics into quantitative and qualitative categories, based on the level of abstraction of the captured motion sequences. Further, the quantitative metrics are classified into model-less and model-based metrics, in reference to whether the evaluation employs the raw measurements of patient performed motions, or whether the evaluation is based on a mathematical model of the motions. The reviewed metrics include root-mean square distance, Kullback Leibler divergence, log-likelihood, heuristic consistency, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and similar. The metrics are evaluated for a set of five human motions captured with a Kinect sensor. The metrics can potentially be integrated into a system that employs machine learning for modelling and assessment of the consistency of patient performance in home-based therapy setting. Automated performance evaluation can overcome the inherent subjectivity in human performed therapy assessment, and it can increase the adherence to prescribed therapy plans, and reduce healthcare costs.

  2. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Treatment Reduces Exercise Performance in Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, K.; Doessing, S.; Nielsen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    between the groups in terms of changes in serum free fatty acids, glycerol, (V) over dotO(2), or relative fat oxidation. Conclusion: GH might be an important determinant of exercise capacity during prolonged exercise, but GHR antagonist did not alter fat metabolism during exercise. (J Clin Endocrinol......Context: The effects of GH on exercise performance remain unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of GH receptor (GHR) antagonist treatment on exercise performance. Design: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant or placebo for 16 d. After the treatment...... period, they exercised to determine exercise performance and hormonal and metabolic responses. Participants: Twenty healthy males participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist (n = 10; 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 10). After the treatment period, they performed...

  3. Vitamin D and exercise performance in professional soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos E Koundourakis

    Full Text Available The current study had two aims. The primary purpose was to examine the association between serum vitamin D levels and the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and speed in professional soccer players. The secondary aim was to evaluate the effects of the soccer off-season period on serum vitamin D levels.Sixty-seven Caucasian male soccer players (age 25.6 ± 6.2 and height 1.81 ± 0.08 m, members of two Greek Superleague Soccer teams and one Football-league championship team participated in this study. Exercise performance testing for the determination of squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, 10 (10 m and 20 meters (20 m sprint performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, anthropometry, and blood sampling were performed before (pre and after (post the six-week off-season period.Analysis of our results showed the following: (a a significant correlations between serum vitamin D levels and performance parameters in both pre (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, VO2max; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 and post (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P<0.001, VO2max; P = 0.006, 10 m; P < 0.001, and 20 m; P < 0.001 experimental sessions. (b Vitamin D concentration increased significantly (P < 0.001 following the six-week off-season period compared to baseline, while at the same time all measured performance parameters decreased (SJ; P < 0.001, CMJ; P < 0.001, 10 m; P < 0.001, 20 m; P < 0.001, VO2max; P<0.001.Our findings suggest that vitamin D levels are associated with the ergometric evaluation of muscle strength, as expressed by SJ and CMJ, sprinting capacity, and VO2max in professional soccer players, irrespective the levels of performance. Furthermore, our data reaffirm the importance of UVB on serum vitamin D levels. Moreover, reductions in exercise training stress may also have beneficial effects on vitamin D levels, suggesting a possible association of its levels and the training-induced stress. Our results indicate a

  4. Exercise body surface mapping in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy; Comparison with stress thallium scans (SPECT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hidenori; Hagiwara, Hidenori; Ihara, Keiko; Shiraki, Teruo; Yamanari, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Katashi; Saito, Daiji; Tsuji, Takao; Haraoka, Shoichi (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-09-01

    To evaluate exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in patients with electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), including ST{center dot}T changes, body surface maps (QRST area maps) were recorded using 87 lead points before and after exercise. The patterns of the subtraction QRST area maps (S-maps) were compared with the findings of stress thallium (Tl) scans in 31 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and in five with essential hypertension. All 18 patients whose S-maps revealed changes less than -40 {mu}VS or only an increase over the anterior chest region showed no positive findings on the stress Tl scans. However, there were clearly positive findings on stress Tl scans in eight (89%) of nine patients whose S-maps revealed changes greater than -40 {mu}VS over a wide precordial region or in six (67%) of nine patients whose S-maps revealed increases over the anterior chest region and had accompanying changes greater than -40 {mu}VS somewhere over the precordial region. These results suggested that exercise QRST area maps could differentiate exercise-induced myocardial ischemia from LVH with ST{center dot}T changes. (author).

  5. The effects of milk intake and whole-body vibration exercise on bone mineral density in elderly women in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So Min; Kim, Sungchul; Lim, Chae-Gil

    2017-07-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed to investigate the effects of lactose-free milk intake and whole-body vibration exercises on bone density in elderly female nursing home residents who had difficulty exercising outdoors and had not consumed milk. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty seven elderly women aged 70 or older from 3 nursing homes located in Incheon, Korea participated in the study. The experimental group (n=13) carried out whole-body vibration exercises and drank lactose-free milk, while the control group (n=14) continued to live their ordinary nursing home lives. Weight, BMI, T-scores, and Z-scores were compared between the experimental and control groups after 12 weeks. [Results] The comparison of changes in weight and BMI in the control group before and after the 12-week experiment found no statistically significant differences. However, bone mineral density was significantly different, with the T-score significantly decreasing from -2.99 to -3.48 and the Z-score decreasing from -1.87 to -2.58. The other comparisons of physical changes in the control group before and after the 12-week experiment found no statistical significance. [Conclusion] The results indicate that regular consumption of lactose-free milk and performing whole-body vibration exercises can delay the progression of bone density loss in older adults in nursing homes; adequate exercise and calcium intake could eventually help prevent fractures.

  6. Exercise performance, core temperature, and metabolism after prolonged restricted activity and retraining in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, K.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Pohoska, E.; Turlejska, E.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Kozlowski, S.

    1992-01-01

    Physiological effects of restricted activity (RA) and subsequent retraining have been studied. Ten male mongrel dogs performed a submaximal exercise endurance test on a treadmill during kennel control, after 8 weeks of cage confinement and after eight weeks of retraining using the same treadmill protocol 1 h/d for 6 d/week. Data obtained show that RA reduces exercise endurance, the effectiveness of exercise thermoregulation, muscle glycogen stores, and the lipolytic response to exercise and to noradrenaline stimulation.

  7. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition. PMID:29312007

  8. Effect of a moderate caffeine dose on endurance cycle performance and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Ross E; James, Lewis J

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of a moderate caffeine dose on endurance cycle performance and thermoregulation during prolonged exercise in high ambient temperature. Double-blind cross-over study. Eight healthy, recreationally active males (mean±SD; age: 22±1 years; body mass: 71.1±8.5kg; VO 2peak : 55.9±5.8mLkg -1 min -1 ; W max : 318±37W) completed one VO 2peak test, one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. After an overnight fast, participants ingested a placebo or a 6mgkg -1 caffeine dose 60min before exercise. The exercise protocol consisted of 60min of cycle exercise at 55% W max , followed by a 30min performance task (total kJ produced) in 30°C and 50% RH. Performance was enhanced (Cohen's d effect size=0.22) in the caffeine trial (363.8±47.6kJ) compared with placebo (353.0±49.0kJ; p=0.004). Caffeine did not influence core (p=0.188) or skin temperature (p=0.577) during exercise. Circulating prolactin (p=0.572), cortisol (p=0.842) and the estimated rates of fat (p=0.722) and carbohydrate oxidation (p=0.454) were also similar between trial conditions. Caffeine attenuated perceived exertion during the initial 60min of exercise (p=0.033), with no difference in thermal stress across trials (p=0.911). Supplementation with 6mgkg -1 caffeine improved endurance cycle performance in a warm environment, without differentially influencing thermoregulation during prolonged exercise at a fixed work-rate versus placebo. Therefore, moderate caffeine doses which typically enhance performance in temperate environmental conditions also appear to benefit endurance performance in the heat. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tai chi chuan: mind-body practice or exercise intervention? Studying the benefit for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansky, Patrick; Sannes, Tim; Wallerstedt, Dawn; Ge, Adeline; Ryan, Mary; Johnson, Laura Lee; Chesney, Margaret; Gerber, Lynn

    2006-09-01

    Tai chi chuan (TCC) has been used as a mind-body practice in Asian culture for centuries to improve wellness and reduce stress and has recently received attention by researchers as an exercise intervention. A review of the English literature on research in TCC published from 1989 to 2006 identified 20 prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials in a number of populations, including elderly participants (7 studies), patients with cardiovascular complications (3 studies), patients with chronic disease (6 studies), and patients who might gain psychological benefit from TCC practice (2 studies). However, only the studies of TCC in the elderly and 2 studies of TCC for cardiovascular disease had adequate designs and size to allow conclusions about the efficacy of TCC. Most (11 studies) were small and provided limited information on the benefit of TCC in the settings tested. There is growing awareness that cancer survivors represent a population with multiple needs related to physical deconditioning, cardiovascular disease risk, and psychological stress. TCC as an intervention may provide benefit to cancer survivors in these multiple areas of need based on its characteristics of combining aspects of meditation and aerobic exercise. However, little research has been conducted to date to determine the benefit of TCC in this population. We propose a model to study the unique characteristics of TCC compared to physical exercise that may highlight characteristic features of this mind-body intervention in cancer survivors.

  10. Hypohydration impairs endurance exercise performance in temperate but not cold air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Carter, Robert; Castellani, John W; Sawka, Michael N

    2005-11-01

    This study compared the effects of hypohydration (HYP) on endurance exercise performance in temperate and cold air environments. On four occasions, six men and two women (age = 24 +/- 6 yr, height = 170 +/- 6 cm, weight = 72.9 +/- 11.1 kg, peak O2 consumption = 48 +/- 9 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) were exposed to 3 h of passive heat stress (45 degrees C) in the early morning with [euhydration (EUH)] or without (HYP; 3% body mass) fluid replacement. Later in the day, subjects sat in a cold (2 degrees C) or temperate (20 degrees C) environment with minimal clothing for 1 h before performing 30 min of cycle ergometry at 50% peak O2 consumption followed immediately by a 30-min performance time trial. Rectal and mean skin temperatures, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion measurements were made at regular intervals. Performance was assessed by the total amount of work (kJ) completed in the 30-min time trial. Skin temperature was significantly lower in the cold compared with the temperate trial, but there was no independent effect of hydration. Rectal temperature in both HYP trials was higher than EUH after 60 min of exercise, but the difference was only significant within the temperate trials (P EUH) and at 60 min within the cold trial (HYP > EUH) (P differences among trials. Total work performed during the 30-min time trial was not influenced by environment but was less (P stress per se does not.

  11. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight–Supported Treadmill Training

    OpenAIRE

    Pilutti, Lara A.; Paulseth, John E.; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P.; Hicks, Audrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight–supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on ...

  12. Incongruent changes in heart rate variability and body weight after discontinuing aerobic exercise in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Chih; Liang, Chih-Sung; Tai, Yueh-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Li

    2016-11-01

    A bidirectional connection exists between obesity and altered heart rate variability (HRV). Schizophrenia has been associated with a high risk of obesity and decreased vagal modulation. Few studies have examined the link between obesity and HRV in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on body weight and HRV, and if so, whether these effects could be sustained after discontinuation of exercise training. A total of 18 overweight patients with schizophrenia completed an 8-week moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program conducted twice weekly for 50min. Body weight and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, week 8, and 4weeks after discontinuation of exercise training. Compared with the control group (15 overweight patients with schizophrenia without exercise training), the exercise group had reduced 2.3kg at week 8. Furthermore, the exercise program increased the low frequency, high frequency, and low frequency plus high frequency of HRV. However, after discontinuation of the exercise program for 4weeks, the changes in body weight and the HRV parameters diverged. All of the HRV parameters returned to their baseline values, but no change was seen in the reduced body weight. This suggests that HRV analysis is a more sensitive tool to detect health conditions in patients with schizophrenia. Although exercise is an easy and effective way to prevent and improve health problems, mental health providers might have underestimated the benefits of exercise in daily clinical practice. A regular exercise program should be considered as an essential part of treatment strategies for patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationships between physical exercise practice, dietary behaviour and body composition in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, E; Di Blasio, A; Di Donato, F; Di Gregorio, S; Di Renzo, D; Ripari, P

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between female body composition, total energy expenditure and physical exercise energy expenditure is not very strong because women can compensate by increasing their energy intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total minutes of exercise per week, dietary habits and body composition in female university students using physical activity and the habit to cook as covariates. Fifty-one female university students were investigated for body composition, dietary habits, aerobic fitness, physical activity and physical exercise practice. Participants were grouped in three sub-samples (1, 2 and 3) according to the 33rd and 66th percentiles of weekly minutes (min/wk) of training. Group 1 had 0.00 min/wk, group 2 had 95±35.59 min/wk and group 3 had 231.66±85.97 min/wk of training. Sub-samples did not differ for IPAQ parameters while differed for aerobic fitness (P=0.001). Group 3 had a higher energy intake (EI) (P=0.008), a higher intake of lipids (P=0.017), saturated (P=0.042) and monounsaturated fat (P=0.024) and a lower intake of carbohydrates (P=0.007). Group 3 maintained the higher EI and the worse composition of lipid intake considering the habit to cook as covariate. Group 3 also had higher muscle mass. In order to positively affect body composition, in the sedentary women it is enough to control the energy balance, whereas in those that trained regularly it is necessary to control both energy balance and composition of daily meals.

  14. Barbell kinematics should not be used to estimate power output applied to the Barbell-and-body system center of mass during lower-body resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A; Smith, Neal A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare measures of power output applied to the center of mass of the barbell and body system (CM) obtained by multiplying ground reaction force (GRF) by (a) the velocity of the barbell; (b) the velocity of the CM derived from three-dimensional (3D) whole-body motion analysis, and (c) the velocity of the CM derived from GRF during lower-body resistance exercise. Ten resistance-trained men performed 3 maximal-effort single back squats with 60% 1 repetition maximum while GRF and whole-body motion were captured using synchronized Kistler force platforms and a Vicon Motus motion analysis system. Repeated measures analysis of variance of time-normalized kinematic and kinetic data obtained using the different methods showed that the barbell was displaced 13.4% (p barbell was 16.1% (p barbell was 18.7% (p barbell was significantly greater than the velocity of the trunk, upper leg, lower leg, and foot (p barbell (using inverse dynamics) or CM (GRF or 3D motion analysis). Failure to apply these suggestions could result in continued overestimation of CM power, compromising methodological integrity.

  15. Dietary Tyrosine Benefits Cognitive and Psychomotor Performance During Body Cooling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Catherine; Mahoney, Caroline; Tharion, William J; Sils, Ingrid V; Castellani, John W

    2007-01-01

    ... examined. This study evaluated the effect of tyrosine supplementation on cognitive, psychomotor, and physical performance following a cold water immersion protocol that lowered body core temperature...

  16. Benefits of different intensity of aerobic exercise in modulating body composition among obese young adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Hui; Ko, Ming-Chen; Wu, Long-Shan; Yeh, Ding-Peng; Kan, Nai-Wen; Lee, Po-Fu; Hsieh, Jenn-Woei; Tseng, Ching-Yu; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-08-24

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of different aerobic exercise intensities and energy expenditures on the body composition of sedentary obese college students in Taiwan. Forty-eight obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥ 27 kg/m 2 , age 18-26 years] were randomized into four equal groups (n = 12): light-intensity training group (LITG), 40%-50% heart rate reserve (HRR); middle-intensity training group (MITG), 50%-70% HRR; high-intensity training group (HITG), 70%-80% HRR; and control group (CG). The aerobic exercise training program was conducted for 60 min per day on a treadmill 3 days per week for 12 weeks. All participant anthropometric data, blood biochemical parameters, and health-related physical fitness components were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. At baseline, the anthropometric indices did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). After 12-week exercise intervention, the HITG and MITG had significantly more changes in body weight, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) than the LITG. The changes in BMI and body fat percentage differed among all four groups (p exercise intervention with high energy expenditure can considerably reduce body weight, body fat, WC, WHR, and WHtR, whereas a light-intensity exercise intervention can significantly reduce body weight and body fat. Current Controlled Trials TPECTR09831410900 , registered on 24 th Dec 2009.

  17. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  18. Metabolic and performance responses to constant-load vs variable-intensity exercise in trained cyclists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Palmer; J.A. Hawley; dr. Lars B. Borghouts; T.D. Noakes

    1999-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that whole body metabolic and cardiovascular responses to 140 min of either steady state or variable intensity exercise at the same average intensity are similar, despite differences in skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism and recruitment

  19. SOCS3 expression in SF1 cells regulates adrenal differentiation and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, João A B; de Mendonca, Pedro O R; Fortes, Marco A S; Tomaz, Igor; Pecorali, Vitor L; Auricino, Thais B; Costa, Ismael C; Lima, Leandro B; Furigo, Isadora C; Bueno, Debora N; Ramos-Lobo, Angela M; Lotfi, Claudimara F P; Donato, Jose

    2017-12-01

    Many hormones/cytokines are secreted in response to exercise and cytokine signaling may play a pivotal role in the training adaptations. To investigate the importance of cytokine signaling during vertical ladder climbing, a resistance exercise model, we produced mice lacking SOCS3 protein exclusively in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF1) cells (SF1 Socs3 KO mice). SF1 expression is found in steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and gonads, as well as in neurons of the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus. Histological markers of the fetal adrenal zone (or X-zone in rodents) were still present in adult males and postpartum SF1 Socs3 KO females, suggesting a previously unrecognized effect of SOCS3 on the terminal differentiation of the adrenal gland. This change led to a distinct distribution of lipid droplets along the adrenal cortex. Under basal conditions, adult SF1 Socs3 KO mice exhibited similar adrenal weight, and plasma ACTH and corticosterone concentrations. Nonetheless, SF1 Socs3 KO mice exhibited a blunted ACTH-induced corticosterone secretion. The overall metabolic responses induced by resistance training remained unaffected in SF1 Socs3 KO mice, including changes in body adiposity, glucose tolerance and energy expenditure. However, training performance and glucose control during intense resistance exercise were impaired in SF1 Socs3 KO mice. Furthermore, a reduced counter-regulatory response to 2-deoxy-d-glucose was observed in mutant mice. These findings revealed a novel participation of SOCS3 regulating several endocrine and metabolic aspects. Therefore, cytokine signaling in SF1 cells exerts an important role to sustain training performance possibly by promoting the necessary metabolic adjustments during exercise. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    -ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval......OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...

  1. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  2. Effect of Permissive Dehydration on Induction and Decay of Heat Acclimation, and Temperate Exercise Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Neal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: It has been suggested that dehydration is an independent stimulus for heat acclimation (HA, possibly through influencing fluid-regulation mechanisms and increasing plasma volume (PV expansion. There is also some evidence that HA may be ergogenic in temperate conditions and that this may be linked to PV expansion. We investigated: i the influence of dehydration on the time-course of acquisition and decay of HA; ii whether dehydration augmented any ergogenic benefits in temperate conditions, particularly those related to PV expansion. Methods: Eight males (VO2max: 56.9(7.2 mL·kg-1·min-1 undertook two HA programmes (balanced cross-over design, once drinking to maintain euhydration (HAEu and once with restricted fluid-intake (HADe. Days 1, 6, 11 and 18 were 60 min exercise-heat stress tests (HST [40°C; 50%RH], days 2-5 and 7-10 were 90 min, isothermal-strain (Tre~38.5°C, exercise-heat sessions. Performance parameters (VO2max, lactate threshold, efficiency, peak power output [PPO] were determined pre and post HA by graded exercise test (22°C; 55 %RH. Results: During isothermal-strain sessions hypohydration was achieved in HADe and euhydration maintained in HAEu (average body mass loss -2.71(0.82% vs. -0.56(0.73%, P5 days to optimise HA.

  3. Plasma steroids, body composition, and fat distribution: effects of age, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihong; Rankinen, Tuomo; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Tchernof, André; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-03-05

    Plasma steroid hormone levels vary between men and women, but their associations with BMI and adiposity are controversial. Furthermore, little is known about the role of exercise programs on the relationship between steroid hormones and adiposity. This report evaluates these relationships for plasma levels of adrenal, gonadal, and conjugated steroids with body composition and fat distribution in sedentary men and women, aged 17-65 years, and their responses to an exercise program. In the sedentary state, 270 men (29% Blacks) and 304 women (34% Blacks) from the HERITAGE Family Study were available. Among them, 242 men and 238 women completed a 20-week fully standardized exercise program. Fourteen steroid hormones and SHBG concentrations were assayed in a fasted state and were compared for their associations with adiposity in men and women and in response to the exercise program. Covariates adjusted for in partial correlation analysis were age, ancestry, menopause status (women), and oral contraceptives/hormone replacement treatment status (women) at baseline, as well as baseline value of the trait for the training response. Differences among normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects were also considered. Statistical significance was set at P testosterone (TESTO) were negatively associated with fat mass and abdominal fat (P fat-free mass in men or women, but was significantly associated with % fat-free mass in men. No association was detected between baseline steroid hormone levels and changes in adiposity traits in response to 20 weeks of exercise. In men, low DHT, OHPROG, SHBG, and TESTO were associated with higher adiposity and abdominal and visceral fat. A similar adiposity profile was observed in women with low SHBG.

  4. Relation between heart rate recovery after exercise testing and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lins, Tereza Cristina; Valente, Lucila Maria; Sobral Filho, Dário Celestino; Barbosa e Silva, Odwaldo

    2015-01-01

    Impaired heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise testing is considered a predictor of cardiovascular mortality as it reflects vagus nerve dysfunction. To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and HR recovery after exercise. We analyzed the records of 2443 patients of both sexes, aged between 20 and 59 years, in sinus rhythm, not using negative chronotropic agents and with no myocardial ischemic response to exercise testing carried out at a specialist clinic, between 2005 and 2011. BMI was categorized as normal (18.5-30 kg/m(2)). The different BMI groups were compared in terms of HR recovery after exercise, which was calculated as the difference between maximum HR during exercise and in the first minute of recovery. Recovery was considered impaired when the difference was ≤12 bpm. Eighty-seven (3.6%) patients presented impaired recovery, which was three times more prevalent in the obese group and twice as prevalent in the overweight group compared with the normal group (p<0.001 and p=0.010, respectively). Obese patients presented higher basal HR and lower maximum HR, as well as reduced chronotropic reserve (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, impaired HR recovery was associated with overweight (relative risk [RR]=1.8; p=0.035), obesity (RR=2; p=0.016), number of metabolic equivalents (RR=0.82; p<0.001) and resting HR (RR=1.05; p<0.001). The hazard ratio for hypertension was 2 (p=0.083, NS). Impaired HR recovery was associated with higher BMI, demonstrating that obese individuals present vagus nerve dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes

  6. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  7. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  8. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  9. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Sparre Geertsen

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the

  10. Myocardial performance and perfusion during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease caused by Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paridon, S.M.; Ross, R.D.; Kuhns, L.R.; Pinsky, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    For a study of the natural history of coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease and their effect on myocardial blood flow reserve with exercise, five such patients underwent exercise testing on a bicycle. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute ventilation, and electrocardiograms were monitored continuously. Thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed for all patients. One patient stopped exercise before exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve but had no evidence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities. Four patients terminated exercise because of exhaustion of cardiovascular reserve; one had normal cardiovascular reserve and thallium scintiscans, but the remaining patients had diminished cardiovascular reserve. Thallium scintigrams showed myocardial ischemia in two and infarction in one. No patient had exercise-induced electrocardiographic changes. These results indicate that patients with residual coronary artery lesions after Kawasaki disease frequently have reduced cardiovascular reserve during exercise. The addition of thallium scintigraphy and metabolic measurements to exercise testing improved the detection of exercise-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion

  11. Combined whole-body vibration, resistance exercise, and sustained vascular occlusion increases PGC-1α and VEGF mRNA abundances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Item, Flurin; Nocito, Antonio; Thöny, Sandra; Bächler, Thomas; Boutellier, Urs; Wenger, Roland H; Toigo, Marco

    2013-04-01

    We previously reported that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion (vibroX) markedly improves cycling endurance capacity, increases capillary-to-fibre ratio and skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity in untrained young women. These findings are intriguing, since increases in oxidative muscle phenotype and endurance capacity are typically induced by endurance but not heavy resistance exercise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that vibroX activates genes associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis. Eight healthy, recreationally resistance-trained young men performed either vibroX or resistance exercise (RES) in a randomised, cross-over design. Needle biopsies (M. vastus lateralis) were obtained at rest and 3 h post-exercise. Changes in relative gene expression levels were assessed by real-time quantitative PCR. After vibroX, vascular endothelial growth factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α mRNA abundances increased to 2- and 4.4-fold, respectively, but did not significantly change above resting values after RES. Other genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were not affected by either exercise modality. While vibroX increased the expression of hexokinase II, xanthine dehydrogenase, and manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA, there were no changes in these transcripts after RES. This study demonstrates that high load resistance exercise with superimposed whole-body vibration and sustained vascular occlusion activates metabolic and angiogenic gene programs, which are usually activated after endurance but not resistance exercise. Thus, targeted modification of high load resistance exercise by vibration and vascular occlusion might represent a novel strategy to induce endurance-type muscle adaptations.

  12. PROGRAMMED CORRECTIVE EXERCISES IN PCYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES AND LORDOTIC BAD BODY POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Bogdanović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research was the influence of specially program medphysical education instruction with specific complexes of exercises of corrective gymnastics at the 5th grade pupils at those with lordotic bad body position established by measuring. The aims were to define the number of children with lordotic bad body position and to eliminate or alleviate the existing disturbance until the end of the experimental programme. The experimental programme was carried out among the 5th grade pupils. Total number of pupils included in this experiment was 434. The methods that were used for the estimation of lordotic bad body position are somatoscopy and somatometry. The plumb, ruler and dermograph were necessary instruments. For the estimation of the states of bad body position, the average value of mild criterion is applied. It can be concluded that during experimental programme even 85.93% of the subjects successfully corrected their bad body position; more exactly completely corrected lordotic bad body position. That percentage is certificate of justification and necessity of application of experimental programme of corrective gymnastics with all his organizational characteristics (the setting, the scope of work, load intensity, directing and controlling the experiment. Muscular-bone system of boys shows the high level of adaptation on the applied experimental factor of corrective gymnastics.

  13. Relationship between alertness, performance, and body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth P Jr; Hull, Joseph T.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature has been reported to influence human performance. Performance is reported to be better when body temperature is high/near its circadian peak and worse when body temperature is low/near its circadian minimum. We assessed whether this relationship between performance and body temperature reflects the regulation of both the internal biological timekeeping system and/or the influence of body temperature on performance independent of circadian phase. Fourteen subjects participated in a forced desynchrony protocol allowing assessment of the relationship between body temperature and performance while controlling for circadian phase and hours awake. Most neurobehavioral measures varied as a function of internal biological time and duration of wakefulness. A number of performance measures were better when body temperature was elevated, including working memory, subjective alertness, visual attention, and the slowest 10% of reaction times. These findings demonstrate that an increased body temperature, associated with and independent of internal biological time, is correlated with improved performance and alertness. These results support the hypothesis that body temperature modulates neurobehavioral function in humans.

  14. Special Physical Preparation of High Schoolers for Performing Parkour Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. М. Кравчук

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to ground and develop a methodology of special physical preparation of high schoolers for performing parkour elements, and to experimentally verify its effectiveness. Materials and methods: Kharkiv secondary school No. 84 served as the grounds for the study. The participants in the study were boys aged 15-17: 10 persons – in the reference group, and 10 persons – in the experimental group. The methods of the study: theoretical analysis and collation of scientific and methodological literature; pedagogical observation; video recording; biomechanical analysis; talks with experts; pedagogical experiment; mathematical and statistical methods of research materials processing. Results: The experimental group showed positive improvement in the balancing technique from 3.5 points before the experiment to 6.3 after the experiment (p < 0.05; a considerable increase in points in the jumping technique, including jumps onto the wall bars hand-gripping its edge, jumps into landing with a roll, and jumps over obstacle – from 2.9, 4.2 and 4.6 points respectively at the beginning of the experiment to 5.9, 6.7 and 7.8 points respectively after the experiment (p < 0.05; positive significant improvement in the wall bars running results – from 3.2 points at the beginning of the experiment to 6.7 after the experiment (p < 0.05. Conclusions: special sets of exercises have been designed to develop and improve these abilities in parkour, and the effectiveness of the designed methodology has been experimentally verified. The study has proved that, when used in physical training of high schoolers, the special sets of exercises intended to develop parkourists’ speed, strength and coordination abilities contribute to a significant increase in the level of the technique of execution of the main parkour elements.

  15. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  16. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  17. Longitudinal changes in body composition and metabolic profile between exercise clinical trials in men with chronic spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Martin, Heather; Metz, Alyse; Khalil, Refka E.; Dolbow, David R.; Gater, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Longitudinal design. Objectives The study was undertaken to determine the effects of cessation of exercise interventions on body composition and metabolic profiles in men with chronic SCI. Settings Clinical trials within a Medical Center. Methods Eleven men with motor complete SCI were followed on average over a period of 2.5 years. Six men were involved in two different exercise interventions (functional electrical stimulation cycling versus arm cycling ergometer), 5 days/week for 16 weeks (exercise group), and five men served as a control (control group). Anthropometrics and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were captured to measure changes in lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percentage FM before, immediately after exercise, and after a period of 2.5 years. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and lipid panel were also measured. Results Thigh circumference increased by 8.5% following exercise (P = 0.042) and remained 6.4% greater than baseline measurements (P = 0.012). Leg LM increased by 9% following the exercise intervention (P = 0.03) and decreased by 16% in the follow-up visit (P = 0.02). Percentage trunk and total body FM increased by 4.5% (P = 0.008) and 3.5% (P = 0.019) in the follow-up visit, respectively, and whole body LM increased by 8.4% and decreased back by 5.4% following a 2.5 year-period. BMR significantly decreased by 15.5% following the exercise (P = 0.029) interventions. Conclusion Exercise training is accompanied with positive changes in body composition as well as compensatory decrease in BMR, that regressed back following 2.5 years of exercise cessation. Participation in an exercise trial is unlikely to confound the measurements of a follow-up trial. PMID:27077574

  18. Effects of vigorous walking exercise on core body temperature and inhibitory control in thermosensitive persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Davis, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Acute, moderate intensity aerobic exercise might improve cognition in multiple sclerosis (MS), but it is unknown if increases in core body temperature (Ctemp) that negates those effects in thermosensitive persons with MS. Fourteen fully ambulatory, thermosensitive persons with MS completed 20-min bouts of vigorous intensity treadmill walking exercise and seated quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Ctemp was measured throughout each experimental condition. Inhibitory control (i.e., an executive function) was measured immediately prior to and following each condition. Ctemp was elevated (~0.6 °C) with vigorous exercise versus quiet rest (p control for vigorous exercise versus quiet rest (ηp(2) = 0.29). Exercise-related increases in Ctemp do not nullify the potential acute exercise benefits on inhibitory control in MS.

  19. EFFECTS OF MAXIMAL SQUAT EXERCISE TESTING ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximal strength and power testing are common assessments that are used to evaluate strength/power athletes. The validity and reliability of these tests have been well established (Hoffman, 2006, however the order of testing may have a profound effect on test performance outcome. It is generally recommended that the least fatiguing and highly-skilled tests are performed first, while highly fatiguing tests are performed last (Hoffman, 2006. Recent research has demonstrated that maximal isometric contractions and maximal or near- maximal dynamic exercise can augment the rate of force development, increase jump height and enhance sprint cycle performance (Chiu et al., 2003; French et al., 2003. The use of a maximal or near-maximal activity to enhance strength and power performance has been termed "muscle postactivation potentiation", and appears to be more common in the experienced resistance-trained athletes than in the recreationally-trained population (Chiu et al., 2003. It is believed that postactivation potentiation can enhance muscle performance by increasing the neural signal that activates the muscle (Hamada et al., 2000. Since heavy loading in a similar movement pattern of exercise appears to enhance maximal strength and power performance in the experienced resistance-trained athlete, it may be hypothesized that the postactivation potentiation associated with heavy loading has the potential to augment subsequent performance of tests utilizing similar motion. Therefore, consideration of an appropriate sequence of athletic performance testing in strength and power athletes is warranted. We would like to share our experience on the effect of performing a maximal lower body strength test on vertical jump performance in experienced resistance-trained strength/power athletes.We examined 64 NCAA Division III American collegiate football players (age = 20.1 ± 1.9 yr; body mass = 97.5 ± 17.8 kg; height = 1.80 ± 0.12 m. All testing was performed

  20. Influence of body composition on physiological responses to post-exercise hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jessica M; Halson, Shona L; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J; Askew, Christopher D

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the influence of body composition on temperature and blood flow responses to post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI) and control (CON). Twenty-seven male participants were stratified into three groups: 1) low mass and low fat (LM-LF); 2) high mass and low fat (HM-LF); or 3) high mass and high fat (HM-HF). Experimental trials involved a standardised bout of cycling, maintained until core temperature reached 38.5°C. Participants subsequently completed one of three 15-min recovery interventions (CWI, HWI, or CON). Core, skin and muscle temperatures, and limb blood flow were recorded at baseline, post-exercise, and every 30 min following recovery for 240 min. During CON and HWI there were no differences in core or muscle temperature between body composition groups. The rate of fall in core temperature following CWI was greater in the LM-LF (0.03 ± 0.01°C/min) group compared to the HM-HF (0.01 ± 0.001°C/min) group (P = 0.002). Muscle temperature decreased to a greater extent during CWI in the LM-LF and HM-LF groups (8.6 ± 3.0°C) compared with HM-HF (5.1 ± 2.0°C, P < 0.05). Blood flow responses did not differ between groups. Differences in body composition alter the thermal response to post-exercise CWI, which may explain some of the variance in the responses to CWI recovery.

  1. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72......: Sixty-five non-diabetic, overweight patients with stable CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) above 35 % were recruited. A 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate glucose metabolism. Peak aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) was assessed...

  2. Effect of Post-Exercise Whole Body Vibration with Stretching on Mood State, Fatigue, and Soreness in Collegiate Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin J. Merrigan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Static stretching (SS during whole body vibration (WBV has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT, mood state (BAM, soreness (SOR, and perceived exertion (RPE between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ± SD: 19.3 ± 1.3 year, 171 ± 5.7 cm, 67.6 ± 7.2 kg, 26.6 ± 4.1 %body fat (%BF; 10 men, mean ± SD: 19.7 ± 1.0 year, 183 ± 5.5 cm, 77.1 ± 4.2 kg, 13.1 ± 2.2 %BF. Athletes were divided by sex, event (sprint, distance, and assigned to SS or WBV+SS. Both conditions consisted of SS performed on the WBV platform with or without WBV (50 Hz, 6 mm. Sessions consisted of: pre and post measures of BAM, FAT, SOR; the condition; and RPE. Mixed factorial ANOVA were run. A significant condition by pre/post interaction was observed (p = 0.035. Post hoc analyses showed WBV+SS elicited lower post-exercise ratings of FAT (p = 0.002 and the BAM affective states, of tension (p = 0.031, and fatigue (p = 0.087. RPE did not differ between conditions. Of interest is the decrease in tension and fatigue noted by the BAM. Mood state can be indicative of how athletes adapt to training volume and intensity.

  3. Effects of montelukast on physical performance and exercise economy in adult asthmatics with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinshamn, Sigurd; Sandsund, M; Sue-Chu, M; Bjermer, L

    2002-08-01

    Leukotriene antagonists are effective in the treatment of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Montelukast is a specific cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor1 antagonist without known effects on the pulmonary vessels, which in theory should be advantageous with respect to gas exchange. In addition to lung function, we investigated the effects of montelukast on parameters of gas exchange and physical performance in 16 asthmatics with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in a double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled study. Subjects were tested at an ambient temperature of -15 degrees C with a tread mill exercise protocol consisting of consecutive workloads of 80% V'O(2max) (6 min), rest (4 min), 60% V'O(2max) (6 min) and step increments of exercise until exhaustion. Montelukast reduced the maximum post-exercise fall in FEV1 (P exchange ratio, heart rate and oxygen pulse were not significantly different after montelukast and placebo. We conclude that montelukast has a beneficial effect on physical performance in most adults with exercise-induced asthma without any observed effect on gas-exchange parameters.

  4. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amilton Vieira,1 Martim Bottaro,1 Joao B Ferreira-Junior,1,4 Carlos Vieira,1 Vitor A Cleto,1 Eduardo L Cadore,2 Herbert G Simões,3 Jake Do Carmo,1 Lee E Brown5 1College of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, 2College of Physical Education, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 3College of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Brasília, 4Federal Institute of Triângulo Mineiro, Paracatu, Brazil; 5Department of Kinesiology, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA Abstract: Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1 WBC (3 minutes of WBC at −110°C immediately after the HIE and 2 control (CON; no WBC after the HIE. The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s−1 concentric and 180° · s−1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1 and 30 minutes after (T2 the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes following HIE. Keywords: functional performance, muscular recovery, countermovement jump

  5. Effects of Tribulus terrestris saponins on exercise performance in overtraining rats and the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang; Wang, Qian; Wang, Xiaohui; Song, Liang-Nian

    2016-06-22

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of Tribulus terrestris L. (TT) saponins on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms. A rat overtraining model was established and animals were treated with TT extracts (120 mg/kg body mass) 30 min before each training session. Serum levels of testosterone and corticosterone and levels of androgen receptor (AR) and insulin growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) in the liver, gastrocnemius, and soleus were determined by ELISA and Western blot. Treatment of rats with TT saponins significantly improved the performance of the overtraining rats, reflected by the extension of time to exhaustion, with a concomitant increase in body mass, relative mass, and protein levels of gastrocnemius. Overtraining alone induced a significant decrease in the serum level of testosterone. In contrast, treatment with TT saponins dramatically increased the serum level of testosterone in overtraining rats to about 150% of control and 216% of overtraining groups, respectively. In addition, TT saponins resulted in a further significant increase in AR in gastrocnemius and significantly suppressed the overtraining-induced increase in IGF-1R in the liver. These results indicated that TT saponins increased performance, body mass, and gastrocnemius mass of rats undergoing overtraining, which might be attributed to the changes in androgen-AR axis and IGF-1R signaling.

  6. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  7. Limiting factors of exercise performance 1 year after lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinsma, G. D.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Grevink, R. G.; van der Bij, W.; Koer, G. H.; van Weert, E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: After lung transplantation (LTx). exercise capacity frequently remains limited, despite significantly improved pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to evaluate maximal exercise capacity and peripheral muscle force before and 1 year after LTx, and to determine whether peripheral

  8. Element nodes of sports equipment double back flip factions and double back flip hunched performed gymnast in floor exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Potop

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the node elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. To compare the two types of nodes for double somersault. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts (age 12 - 14 years. All finalists in the competition floor exercise - reserve team Romania. The method of video - computer research and method of postural orientation movements. Results : identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. In the preparatory phase of motor actions - launcher body posture for reaching is repulsive to flip. In the phase of basic motor action - animation body postures (double back somersault tuck and bent (bent double back flip. Exercises are performed on the ascending and descending parts of the flight path of the demonstration of individual maximum lift height common center of mass. In the final phase of motor actions - final body posture - steady landing. Conclusions : indicators of key elements of sports equipment acrobatic exercises contain new scientific facts kinematic and dynamic structures of motor actions. They are necessary for the development of modern training programs acrobatic exercises in step specialized base preparation.

  9. Influence of prior intense exercise and cold water immersion in recovery for performance and physiological response during subsequent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    ) and the influence from prior intense exercise on subsequent performance and physiological response to moderate and maximal exercise with and without the use of cold water immersion (CWI) in recovery (part B). In part A, performance times during eight World championships for male track cyclists were extracted from...... the qualifying and final races in 4000-m individual pursuit. In part B, twelve trained cyclists with an average (±SD) ⩒O2-peak of 67 ± 5 mL/min/kg performed a protocol mimicking a qualifying race (QUAL) followed 3 h later by a performance test (PT) with each exercise period encompassing intense exercise for ~4......, mean power in PT was not different in CWI relative to CON (406 ± 43 vs. 405 ± 38 W). Peak ⩒O2 (5.04 ± 0.50 vs. 5.00 ± 0.49 L/min) and blood lactate (13 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 3 mmol/L) did not differ between QUAL and PT and cycling economy and potassium handling was not impaired by prior intense exercise...

  10. Ectopic catalase expression in mitochondria by adeno-associated virus enhances exercise performance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejia Li

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is thought to compromise muscle contractility. However, administration of generic antioxidants has failed to convincingly improve performance during exhaustive exercise. One possible explanation may relate to the inability of the supplemented antioxidants to effectively eliminate excessive free radicals at the site of generation. Here, we tested whether delivering catalase to the mitochondria, a site of free radical production in contracting muscle, could improve treadmill performance in C57Bl/6 mice. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AV.RSV.MCAT was generated to express a mitochondria-targeted catalase gene. AV.RSV.MCAT was delivered to newborn C57Bl/6 mouse circulation at the dose of 10(12 vector genome particles per mouse. Three months later, we observed a approximately 2 to 10-fold increase of catalase protein and activity in skeletal muscle and the heart. Subcellular fractionation western blot and double immunofluorescence staining confirmed ectopic catalase expression in the mitochondria. Compared with untreated control mice, absolute running distance and body weight normalized running distance were significantly improved in AV.RSV.MCAT infected mice during exhaustive treadmill running. Interestingly, ex vivo contractility of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was not altered. Taken together, we have demonstrated that forced catalase expression in the mitochondria enhances exercise performance. Our result provides a framework for further elucidating the underlying mechanism. It also raises the hope of applying similar strategies to remove excessive, pathogenic free radicals in certain muscle diseases (such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and ameliorate muscle disease.

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, N A; Hoffmann, K; Frederiksen, K S

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about the feasibility and effects of exercise programs to persons with Alzheimer's disease is lacking. This study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in community-dwelling persons with mild Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The single blinded...... multi-center RCT (ADEX) included 200 patients, median age 71 yrs (50-89). The intervention group received supervised moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise 1 hour × 3/week for 16 weeks. Assessments included cardiorespiratory fitness, single-task physical performance, dual-task performance...... of ≥66.6% resulted in significant positive effects on single-task physical performance and dual-task performance. DISCUSSION: Aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, single-task physical performance, dual-task performance and exercise self-efficacy in community...

  12. Effect of Caffeine Supplementation on Quadriceps Performance Following Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael S; Martin, Tyler D; Corona, Benjamin T

    2018-02-22

    Caffeine use is common among athletes seeking to capitalize on its potential ergogenic effects. Limited research has examined caffeine's effects when utilized following activities that resulted in exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). This study examined the effect of caffeine supplementation on uninjured and injured muscle. Eight male and female (N = 16) physically active individuals participated (age: 24.3 ± 4.3 y; height: 173.0 ± 7.0 cm, mass: 75.2 ± 11.5 kg; body fat: 18.2 ± 15.9 %). One leg was assessed under uninjured and injured (100 eccentric quadriceps contractions) conditions following caffeine supplementation (6 mg/kg), with the other leg assessed under both conditions following placebo supplementation. Compared to placebo, caffeine increased peak isokinetic torque by 6.8 ± 2.3 and 9.4 ± 2.5 % in uninjured and injured muscle, respectively, but had no effect on maximal voluntary isometric torque or fatigue index in uninjured or injured muscle, with treatments exhibiting similar (p > 0.05) alterations in isometric torque (-11.9 ± 2.2%), fatigue index (-13.9 ± 3.4%), and soreness (+44.0 ± 4.7) following eccentric contractions. The results of this study suggest caffeine possesses a similar ergogenic effect on isokinetic torque in both uninjured and injured states, but no effect on the production of isometric torque, perception of soreness, or degree of relative fatigue. Athletes should consider the potential caffeine supplementation possesses during recovery from activities that resulted in EIMD.

  13. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (Pbody temperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  14. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. In this study, we tested the effect of music on sub maximal exercise performance time duration in young adults. 25 Male and 25 females were subjected to standard submaximal exercise with and without music. Resting HR and Max. HR during exercise and the exercise time duration was recorded. Total exercise duration in whole group with music (37.12 ± 16.26** min) was significantly greater than exercise duration without music (22.48 ± 10.26 min). Males (42.4 ± 15.6** min) outperformed significantly better than females (31.84 ± 15.48 min). Also, we observed statistically significant higher values of Maximal heart rate with music than without music. But there was no significant correlation between duration of exercise, music and change in Heart rate. We can conclude that Music increases duration of exercise in both sexes and hence endurance.

  15. What can isolated skeletal muscle experiments tell us about the effects of caffeine on exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Duncan, Michael J; James, Rob S

    2015-08-01

    Caffeine is an increasingly popular nutritional supplement due to the legal, significant improvements in sporting performance that it has been documented to elicit, with minimal side effects. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on human performance continue to be a popular area of research as we strive to improve our understanding of this drug and make more precise recommendations for its use in sport. Although variations in exercise intensity seems to affect its ergogenic benefits, it is largely thought that caffeine can induce significant improvements in endurance, power and strength-based activities. There are a number of limitations to testing caffeine-induced effects on human performance that can be better controlled when investigating its effects on isolated muscles under in vitro conditions. The hydrophobic nature of caffeine results in a post-digestion distribution to all tissues of the body making it difficult to accurately quantify its key mechanism of action. This review considers the contribution of evidence from isolated muscle studies to our understating of the direct effects of caffeine on muscle during human performance. The body of in vitro evidence presented suggests that caffeine can directly potentiate skeletal muscle force, work and power, which may be important contributors to the performance-enhancing effects seen in humans. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. What can isolated skeletal muscle experiments tell us about the effects of caffeine on exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Jason; Duncan, Michael J; James, Rob S

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is an increasingly popular nutritional supplement due to the legal, significant improvements in sporting performance that it has been documented to elicit, with minimal side effects. Therefore, the effects of caffeine on human performance continue to be a popular area of research as we strive to improve our understanding of this drug and make more precise recommendations for its use in sport. Although variations in exercise intensity seems to affect its ergogenic benefits, it is largely thought that caffeine can induce significant improvements in endurance, power and strength-based activities. There are a number of limitations to testing caffeine-induced effects on human performance that can be better controlled when investigating its effects on isolated muscles under in vitro conditions. The hydrophobic nature of caffeine results in a post-digestion distribution to all tissues of the body making it difficult to accurately quantify its key mechanism of action. This review considers the contribution of evidence from isolated muscle studies to our understating of the direct effects of caffeine on muscle during human performance. The body of in vitro evidence presented suggests that caffeine can directly potentiate skeletal muscle force, work and power, which may be important contributors to the performance-enhancing effects seen in humans. PMID:25988508

  17. The Comparison of Traditional Exercises & Body Weight Supported Training (BWST Exercises on Sensory-Motor Function, Quality and Quantity of Walking in Paraplegic Spinal Cord Injured Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Raeisi-dehkordi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the comparison of traditional exercises & body weight supported training (BWST exercises on sensory-motor function, quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons. Materials & Methods: 17 voluntary paraplegic spinal cord injured persons (Asia B,C, age 32.53±1.793 years, height 175.71±1.658 cm, weight 71.59±2.442 kg, and body mass index (BMI 23.18 ± 0.828 kg/m2 availability. The subjects were randomly assigned to BWSTT group (N=10 and Traditional exercises group (N=7 according to sensory and motor score. The subjects trained for 12 weeks, four times per week and 60 min per session. BWSTT include 15 min warm-up on fixed gear bike, 45 min BWSTT with 50% body weight and 10 min cold-down finally. 10% load was added each week. Traditional exercises included 15 min warm-up plus 45 min stretch exercise and resistance training. Results: The data showed that there were significant differences in changes of sensory function Pin score (P=0.002 and Light Score (P=0.002 sensory function, motor function (P=0.000, Walking index Spinal cord injury (WISCI (P=0.002, 6 min walking test (P=0.001 and 10 meter walking (P=0.001 between BWSTT and traditional exercise. Conclusion: BWSTT in comparison with traditional exercise can improve sensory-motor function and quality and quantity of walking in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons.

  18. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  19. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-27

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  20. Myocardial functional responses do not contribute to maximal exercise performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; DeBlois, Jacob P; Wharton, Margaret; Rowland, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Both the extent and means by which maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) is depressed by elevated ambient temperature are uncertain. Particularly, information is currently unavailable regarding the possible influence of alterations in myocardial function on [Formula: see text] and performance during exercise in the heat. This study investigated the effects of environmental heat on [Formula: see text], peak work capacity, and myocardial function during a standard, progressive cycle test to exhaustion. Twelve euhydrated men (aged 20.7 ± 1.7 years) performed a maximal cycle test in an environmental chamber in both heat stress [35°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and temperate (20°C, 30% RH) conditions with measurement of standard gas exchange variables, core temperature, and echocardiographic measures of cardiac function. A small but statistically significant reduction of peak work capacity was observed in the heat stress versus temperate conditions (253 ± 30 and 259 ± 30 W, respectively, p = 0.02). Mean [Formula: see text] was not statistically different in the two conditions (p = 0.16) but values were 3.4% lower in the heat, and 9 of 12 participants demonstrated lower values in the heat stress trial. No differences in responses of heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, core temperature, hydration status, or myocardial systolic or diastolic function were observed between the two conditions, but perceived body temperature was higher in the heat. The small, negative impact of heat on exercise performance and [Formula: see text] could not be explained by disturbances in myocardial functional responses to exercise in young adult males.

  1. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.

  2. [Effects of a exercise program on body composition, physical fitness and lipid metabolism for middle-aged obese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Ja

    2005-12-01

    This study was to examine the effects of an exercise program for middle-aged obese women. The exercise program combined folk dance and resistance training. The subjects group consisted of 85 middle-aged obese women between 40 and 60 years of age. Three 8 week sessions consisted of a 55-80% maximum heart rate (MHR) exercise for 60-90 minutes a day and 3 times a week from March to November, 2004. Data was collected through a pre- and post-exercise test before and after each session. Data was collected with Inbody, dynamometer and blood. This data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, and a paired t-test with an SPSS/PC (10.0 version) program. There were significant positive changes in body weight, body fat mass, body mass index, percent body fat, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, and balance quality, but no significant positive changes in skeletal mass, fat free mass, percent abdominal fat (waist-hip ratio), visceral fat area, agility, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglycerides. This study showed that an exercise program has partially positive effects for middle-aged obese women. The results of this study show that exercise at community health centers should continue for middle-aged obese women's health.

  3. Polyphenols in Exercise Performance and Prevention of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Malaguti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate physical exercise is considered an essential component of a healthy lifestyle that leads the organism to adapt itself to different stresses, exercise, especially when exhaustive, is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle damage. Many efforts have been carried out to identify dietary strategies or micronutrients able to prevent or at least attenuate the exercise-induced muscle damage and stress. Unfortunately most studies have failed to show protection, and at the present time data supporting the protective effect of micronutrients, as antioxidant vitamins, are weak and trivial. This review focuses on those polyphenols, present in the plant kingdom, that have been recently suggested to exert some positive effects on exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress. In the last decade flavonoids as quercetin, catechins, and other polyphenols as resveratrol have caught the scientists attention. However, at the present time drawing a clear and definitive conclusion seems to be untimely.

  4. Influence of breathing exercises using method of Body Flex by Greer Childers on to the selected somatic traits of women with overweight and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Radziejowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Overweight and obesity are without any doubts an epidemic of our times, resulting from a change in the living style of the people. Majority of the people reduces the physical activity to the minimum, because of the lack of time they have after the work. That is why we are attacked from time to time by various publications about miraculous methods how to throw away an excessive body weight. In this work is made a close investigation of the method of Greer Childers “Body Flex”, which has become very popular among other in the United States and in Russia, because of the simplicity of exercises to be done and the short time necessary to perform them. The essence of exercises of „‘Body Flex’’ type are the breathing exercises connected with isometric and stretching exercising. The main stress is applied to the lower breathing path with keeping the abdominal muscles tone as well as adding the posture muscles operations, what is as consequence to reduce the body weight, selected body circumferences and to strengthen the muscles exercised. Purpose: The aim of presented work was the comparative assessment of the selected somatic traits of the persons making regularly exercises, at least 5 times a week, using the modified „‘Body Flex’’ method as well as the assessment of effectiveness of the application of those exercises. Material and methods: The examination has covered a group of 25 persons, which was women in the age range 36 – 63, average age amounted to 58,45 +- 8,92 years, including 16 persons of them constituting the tested group and 9 persons being a control group, which has not made regular exercises. In the tested group was separated: 4 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating their obesity, 8 persons’ group of women with BMI indicating overweight and 4 persons’ group of women with BMI within the limits of the norm. Before and after 1 month’s, and for 9 persons – after 2 months’ therapy, their

  5. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  6. Long-term Tai Chi exercise increases body stability of the elderly during stair ascent under high and low illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qipeng; Wang, Shen; Wong, Del P; Zhou, Jingyi; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Cui; Gu, Houxin; Mao, Dewei

    2017-09-07

    The effects of long-term Tai Chi exercise on body stability of the elderly during stair ascent under high and low illumination were investigated. Forty-five healthy elderly women were divided into three groups, namely, Tai Chi exercise group, brisk walking group and no-exercise control group. All the participants ascended a staircase, during which force platforms and a motion capture system collected the data. Under the high illumination, Tai Chi exercise participants exhibited higher loading rate and anteroposterior centre of pressure (COP ap ) displacement as well as a lower braking impulse than no-exercise group. Under the low illumination, Tai Chi exercise participants demonstrated higher COP ap and mediolateral centre of pressure (COP ml ) displacements as well as lower braking and lateral impulses compared with no-exercise participants. The centre of mass (COM) ml sway in Tai Chi and no exercise participants were higher, the loading rates in Tai Chi and walking participants were higher, and the lateral impulse in no exercise participants was higher under low illumination than under high illumination. Thus, low illumination increases the risk of falling. Tai Chi participants increased their foot clearance, head inclination angle and COP ap displacement under low illumination to increase their stability during stair ascent.

  7. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy ...

  8. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  9. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Suzana; Kamaruddin, Norshafarina Shari; Badrasawi, Manal; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Abd Manaf, Zahara; Yassin, Zaitun; Joseph, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG), protein supplementation group (PrG), or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI) was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI) showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5%) and an increase in fat-free mass (kg) (+5.7%) in the ExG after 12 weeks (P Malaysia.

  10. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATHÁLIA M. RESENDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group, G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm. The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Vogel, Asmus; Vestergaard, Karsten; Brændgaard, Hans; Gottrup, Hanne; Lolk, Annette; Wermuth, Lene; Jakobsen, Søren; Laugesen, Lars; Gergelyffy, Robert; Høgh, Peter; Bjerregaard, Eva; Siersma, Volkert; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Johannsen, Peter; Waldemar, Gunhild; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers; Beyer, Nina

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge about the feasibility and effects of exercise programs to persons with Alzheimer's disease is lacking. This study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in community-dwelling persons with mild Alzheimer's disease. The single blinded multi-center RCT (ADEX) included 200 patients, median age 71 yrs (50-89). The intervention group received supervised moderate-to-high intensity aerobic exercise 1 hour × 3/week for 16 weeks. Assessments included cardiorespiratory fitness, single-task physical performance, dual-task performance and exercise self-efficacy. Significant between-group differences in change from baseline (mean [95%CI]) favored the intervention group for cardiorespiratory fitness (4.0 [2.3-5.8] ml/kg/min, P exercise self-efficacy (1.7 [0.5-2.8] points, P =0.004). Furthermore, an exercise attendance of ≥66.6% resulted in significant positive effects on single-task physical performance and dual-task performance. Aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, single-task physical performance, dual-task performance and exercise self-efficacy in community-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2016 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nutritional ketone salts increase fat oxidation but impair high-intensity exercise performance in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Trevor; Myette-Cote, Etienne; Durrer, Cody; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of raising plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) through ingestion of ketone salts on substrate oxidation and performance during cycling exercise. Ten healthy adult males (age, 23 ± 3 years; body mass index, 25 ± 3 kg/m 2 , peak oxygen uptake, 45 ± 10 mL/(kg·min) -1 ) were recruited to complete 2 experimental trials. Before enrollment in the experimental conditions, baseline anthropometrics and cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) were assessed and familiarization to the study protocol was provided. On experimental days, participants reported to the laboratory in the fasted state and consumed either 0.3 g/kg β-OHB ketone salts or a flavour-matched placebo at 30 min prior to engaging in cycling exercise. Subjects completed steady-state exercise at 30%, 60%, and 90% ventilatory threshold (VT) followed by a 150-kJ cycling time-trial. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and total substrate oxidation were derived from indirect calorimetry. Plasma glucose, lactate, and ketones were measured at baseline, 30 min post-supplement, post-steady-state exercise, and immediately following the time-trial. Plasma β-OHB was elevated from baseline and throughout the entire protocol in the ketone condition (p < 0.05). RER was lower at 30% and 60% VT in the ketone compared with control condition. Total fat oxidation was greater in the ketone versus control (p = 0.05). Average time-trial power output was ∼7% lower (-16 W, p = 0.029) in the ketone condition. Ingestion of ketone salts prior to exercise increases fat oxidation during steady-state exercise but impairs high-intensity exercise performance.

  13. Comparison of Two Exercise Methods on Motor Performance and Balance in Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ebrahimi-A'tri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of two exercise methods on improving balance and motor performance in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Materials & Methods: In this semi-experimental study 21 children aged 7–12 years, with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy, who were independent ambulators, were recruited. Children were randomly assigned into a control group (n=7, home exercise group (n=7 and clinic exercise group (n=7. The control group received regular daily activities, the home exercise group performed regular daily activities plus a sit-to-stand and step-up exercise programmes for six weeks at home and the clinic exercise group was given the same exercise programmes in clinic. Gross motor ability was tested by gross motor function measure (GMFM test. Timed Up and Go Test and Functional Reach Test were used to measure functional balance. Walking performance was assessed using the 10-m walking test. Results: At the end of the intervention period, a statistically significant increase in the mean Functional Reach Test in two exercise groups and a reduction in the mean of Timed Up and Go Test were noted (P<0.05. No statistically significant changes were recorded in the control group. In all other assessed no outcomes significant differences were noted between the groups. Conclusion: A sit-to-stand and step-up exercise programmes can improve balance performance in children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy in clinic and home.

  14. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  15. Aerobic and anaerobic performance before and after a short-term body mass reduction program in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorio, A; Narici, M V; Fumagalli, E; Faglia, G; Lafortuna, C L

    2001-02-01

    The cardiovascular response to an aerobic cycloergometer exercise test (ACET, 15 min at 60 W, 60 rpm) and the maximally attainable muscle power output, assessed by a stair climbing test (SCT), were evaluated in 60 obese patients (41 females and 19 males; age: 18-68 yr; body mass index, BMI: 40.8+/-4.8 kg/m2) before and after a 3-week body mass reduction (BMR) program, entailing integrated energy-restricted diet (1200-1500 kcal/day), low-grade aerobic exercise conditioning and individual and/or group psychological therapy. The daily conditioning protocol (5 days/week) consisted of: 1) 30 min of indoor jogging and dynamic aerobic standing and floor exercises performed with arms and legs, under the guidance of a therapist; 2) 30 min of cycloergometer exercise at 60 W; and/or 3) 4-km outdoor leisure walking on flat terrain. Three weeks of BMR program induced a significant weight loss (-4.5 %; paerobic exercise and psychological counselling appears to significantly improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance in morbidly obese subjects. Different factors (ie, reduction of body mass, shift in the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, a weight-loss dependent shift toward a more favourable region of the muscle power-velocity curve, acquisition of a certain degree of motor skillfulness during the conditioning program, improvement of self-esteem and motivation) might be responsible, alone or in combination, for these short-term positive effects of BMR program.

  16. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  17. Body size, performance and fitness in galapagos marine iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael

    2003-07-01

    Complex organismal traits such as body size are influenced by innumerable selective pressures, making the prediction of evolutionary trajectories for those traits difficult. A potentially powerful way to predict fitness in natural systems is to study the composite response of individuals in terms of performance measures, such as foraging or reproductive performance. Once key performance measures are identified in this top-down approach, we can determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and gain predictive power over long-term evolutionary processes. Here we use marine iguanas as a model system where body size differs by more than one order of magnitude between island populations. We identified foraging efficiency as the main performance measure that constrains body size. Mechanistically, foraging performance is determined by food pasture height and the thermal environment, influencing intake and digestion. Stress hormones may be a flexible way of influencing an individual's response to low-food situations that may be caused by high population density, famines, or anthropogenic disturbances like oil spills. Reproductive performance, on the other hand, increases with body size and is mediated by higher survival of larger hatchlings from larger females and increased mating success of larger males. Reproductive performance of males may be adjusted via plastic hormonal feedback mechanisms that allow individuals to assess their social rank annually within the current population size structure. When integrated, these data suggest that reproductive performance favors increased body size (influenced by reproductive hormones), with an overall limit imposed by foraging performance (influenced by stress hormones). Based on our mechanistic understanding of individual performances we predicted an evolutionary increase in maximum body size caused by global warming trends. We support this prediction using specimens collected during 1905. We also show in a common

  18. Markers of muscle damage and performance recovery following exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Girard, Olivier; Mohr, Magni

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether competitive intermittent exercise in the heat affects recovery, aggravates markers of muscle fiber damage, and delay the recovery of performance and muscle glycogen stores. METHODS: Plasma creatine kinase, serum myoglobin, muscle glycogen and performance parameters...

  19. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise Performance of Sea-Level Residents at 4300 m After 6 Days at 2200 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    REFERENCES 1. Balady GJ, Berra KA, Golding LA, Gordon NF, Mahler DA, et al. ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription...and large reduc- tions in endurance exercise performance that would oth- erwise occur with rapid, non-staged ascent ( 8 , 10 ). Broad guidelines exist...were determined at the end of ev- ery stage of the V o 2peak tests , at 25 min during cycle maintenance training, at 15 min during SS exercise

  1. Effects of montelukast and salmeterol on physical performance and exercise economy in adult asthmatics with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinshamn, Sigurd; Sandsund, Mariann; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; Bjermer, Leif

    2004-10-01

    To compare the effect of montelukast and the long-acting beta(2)-agonist salmeterol on cardiopulmonary exercise economy and physical performance in adult patients with asthma during exercise. Asthmatic patients (n = 18), aged 18 to 35 years with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), using a double-blind, double-dummy cross-over design. Montelukast, 10 mg/d, was compared to inhaled salmeterol, 50 microg bid. The study medication was administered for at least 5 days prior to testing, with a washout period of at least 5 days. Treadmill exercise tests (5.3% inclination, -15 degrees C ambient temperature) were performed at work loads of 80% of maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) [6 min], rest (4 min), 60% of Vo(2)max (6 min), and finally step increments until exhaustion. We investigated parameters of gas exchange, physical performance, and lung function. After montelukast, the oxygen pulse was higher than after salmeterol, at 80% of Vo(2)max (p = 0.035), and 6 min at 60% of Vo(2)max (p = 0.011). Lung function during exercise, running time to exhaustion, Borg score, lactate levels, Vo(2)max, carbon dioxide elimination, minute ventilation, ventilatory equivalents, respiratory exchange ratio, and heart rate were not significantly different between the two treatments. The maximal postexercise fall in FEV(1) from baseline occurred 2 min after run to exhaustion, and was greater after salmeterol than after montelukast: mean, 16.2% (SD, 11.0) vs 10.0% (SD, 12.2) [p exchange during exercise.

  2. The effects of wearing lower body compression garments during a cycling performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driller, Matthew W; Halson, Shona L

    2013-05-01

    Compression garments have been commonly used in a medical setting as a method to promote blood flow. Increases in blood flow during exercise may aid in the delivery of oxygen to the exercising muscles and, subsequently, enhance performance. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of wearing lower body compression garments during a cycling test. Twelve highly trained cyclists (mean ± SD age 30 ± 6 y, mass 75.6 ± 5.8 kg, VO2peak 66.6 ± 3.4 mL · kg-1 · min-1) performed two 30-min cycling bouts on a cycle ergometer in a randomized, crossover design. During exercise, either full-length lower body compression garments (COMP) or above-knee cycling shorts (CON) were worn. Cycling bouts involved 15 min at a fixed workload (70% of VO2max power) followed by a 15-min time trial. Heart rate (HR) and blood lactate (BL) were measured during the fixed-intensity component of the cycling bout to determine the physiological effect of the garments. Calf girth (CG), thigh girth (TG) and perceived soreness (PS) were measured preexercise and postexercise. COMP produced a trivial effect on mean power output (ES = .14) compared with CON (mean ± 95% CI 1.3 ±1.0). COMP was also associated with a lower HR during the fixed-workload section of the test (-2.6% ± 2.3%, ES = -.38). There were no differences between groups for BL, CG, TG, and PS. Wearing compression garments during cycling may result in trivial performance improvements of ~1% and may enhance oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles.

  3. Body Segment Contributions to Sport Skill Performance: Two Contrasting Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Doris I.

    1980-01-01

    Two methods for approaching the problems of body segment contributions to motor performance are joint immobilization with restraint and resultant muscle torque pattern. Although the second approach is preferred, researchers face major challenges when using it. (CJ)

  4. Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and certain body measurements of ostrich chicks as affected by dietary protein levels during 2–9 weeks of age. Kh M Mahrose, AI Attia, IE Ismail, DE Abou-Kassem, ME Abd El-Hack ...

  5. The effect of programmed exercise on body compositions and heart rate of 11-13 years-old male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Dashti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different forms of physical activities can play a very important role in improving health and physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the programmed exercise on students’ body compositions and heart rate at rest.Materials and Method: Two groups each consisting of 15students, aged averagely 12.6 years were the subjects of this experimental study. The experimental group in each session took part in an exercise program consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic activity (running, 10 minutes of aerobic exercise, 30 minutes of local training and 5 minutes of free exercise. The experiment last for 24 sessions. Control group didn’t do any special practice. In both groups, weight, fat mass, fat percentage, lean body mass and heart rate were measured during rest period before and after the experiment. Results: Results showed that the fat percentage, weight, fat mass and heart rate had decreased after 8 weeks of programmed exercise in the experimental group unlike the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in lean body mass.Conclusion: The exercise program used in this study may help loosing weight and make the heart stronger

  6. The effect of different training exercises on the performance outcome on the da Vinci Skills Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Schmitt, M; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Ecke, A; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Güldner, C

    2017-06-01

    Increasing usage of robotic surgery presents surgeons with the question of how to acquire the special skills required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different exercises on their performance outcomes. This prospective study was conducted on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 till August 2015. Sixty robotic novices were included and randomized to three groups of 20 participants each. Each group performed three different exercises with comparable difficulty levels. The exercises were performed three times in a row within two training sessions, with an interval of 1 week in between. On the final training day, two new exercises were added and a questionnaire was completed. Technical metrics of performance (overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master work space range, drops, missed targets, misapplied energy time, blood loss and broken vessels) were recorded by the simulator software for further analysis. Training with different exercises led to comparable results in performance metrics for the final exercises among the three groups. A significant skills gain was recorded between the first and last exercises, with improved performance in overall score, time to complete and economy of motion for all exercises in all three groups. As training with different exercises led to comparable results in robotic training, the type of exercise seems to play a minor role in the outcome. For a robotic training curriculum, it might be important to choose exercises with comparable difficulty levels. In addition, it seems to be advantageous to limit the duration of the training to maintain the concentration throughout the entire session.

  7. Validity of Devices That Assess Body Temperature During Outdoor Exercise in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casa, Douglas J; Becker, Shannon M; Ganio, Matthew S; Brown, Christopher M; Yeargin, Susan W; Roti, Melissa W; Siegler, Jason; Blowers, Julie A; Glaviano, Neal R; Huggins, Robert A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2007-01-01

    Context: Rectal temperature is recommended by the National Athletic Trainers' Association as the criterion standard for recognizing exertional heat stroke, but other body sites commonly are used to measure temperature. Few authors have assessed the validity of the thermometers that measure body temperature at these sites in athletic settings. Objective: To assess the validity of commonly used temperature devices at various body sites during outdoor exercise in the heat. Design: Observational field study. Setting: Outdoor athletic facilities. Patients or Other Participants: Fifteen men and 10 women (age = 26.5 ± 5.3 years, height = 174.3 ± 11.1 cm, mass = 72.73 ± 15.95 kg, body fat = 16.2 ± 5.5%). Intervention(s): We simultaneously tested inexpensive and expensive devices orally and in the axillary region, along with measures of aural, gastrointestinal, forehead, temporal, and rectal temperatures. Temporal temperature was measured according to the instruction manual and a modified method observed in medical tents at local road races. We also measured forehead temperatures directly on the athletic field (other measures occurred in a covered pavilion) where solar radiation was greater. Rectal temperature was the criterion standard used to assess the validity of all other devices. Subjects' temperatures were measured before exercise, every 60 minutes during 180 minutes of exercise, and every 20 minutes for 60 minutes of postexercise recovery. Temperature devices were considered invalid if the mean bias (average difference between rectal temperature and device temperature) was greater than ±0.27°C (±0.5°F). Main Outcome Measure(s): Temperature from each device at each site and time point. Results: Mean bias for the following temperatures was greater than the allowed limit of ±0.27°C (±0.5°F): temperature obtained via expensive oral device (−1.20°C [−2.17°F]), inexpensive oral device (−1.67°C [−3.00°F]), expensive axillary device (−2.58°C [−4

  8. Association of Trans-theoretical Model (TTM based Exercise Behavior Change with Body Image Evaluation among Female Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Rostami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBody image is a determinant of individual attractiveness and physical activity among the young people. This study was aimed to assess the association of Trans-theoretical model based exercise behavior change with body image evaluation among the female Iranian students.Materials and MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted in Sanandaj city, Iran in 2016. Using multistage sampling method, a total of 816 high school female students were included in the study. They completed a three-section questionnaire, including demographic information, Trans-theoretical model constructs and body image evaluation. The obtained data were fed into SPSS version 21.0.  ResultsThe results showed more than 60% of participants were in the pre-contemplation and contemplation stages of exercise behavior. The means of perceived self-efficacy, barriers and benefits were found to have a statistically significant difference during the stages of exercise behavior change (P

  9. Performing better nuclear emergency management exercises in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohier, A.

    2006-01-01

    The recently revised Royal Decree of 17 October 2003 (the Belgian Monitor of 22 November 2003) stipulating the nuclear emergency plan for radiological risks on the Belgian territory aims at reducing the impact of a radiological or nuclear accident to the population. It describes the organisation, tasks and necessary interactions between the different participating entities at the federal, provincial and communal level. It also foresees that each major nuclear installation holds regularly exercises with the different off-site entities to test and improve the response procedures. Under contract with the Ministry of Interior, and in consortium with AVN and IRE, SCK-CEN has been assigned as co-ordinator for the improvement of the methodology for emergency exercises, and to apply this for the 2005 exercises of the nuclear installations of Doel and Tihange. The main objective of this project is to define a methodology allowing to conduct exercises in a more efficient way. The methodology is based on the IAEA EPR-EXERCISE (2005) publication. This should in turn (1) allow the principal actors to train the different aspects of a nuclear crisis, (2) allow easier detection of deficiencies in the emergency plan and its application, and (3) result in the necessary corrective actions to improve future responses to crises

  10. Aquatic Exercise Training is Effective in Maintaining Exercise Performance in Trained Heart Failure Patients: A Randomised Crossover Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsett, Julie; Morris, Norman; Kuys, Suzanne; Hwang, Rita; Mullins, Robert; Khatun, Mohsina; Paratz, Jennifer; Mudge, Alison

    2017-06-01

    Providing flexible models and a variety of exercise options are fundamental to supporting long-term exercise participation for patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of aquatic exercise training during a maintenance phase for a clinical heart failure population. In this 2 x 2 crossover design trial, individuals who had previously completed HF rehabilitation were randomised into either a land-based or aquatic training program once per week for six weeks, after which time they changed to the alternate exercise training protocol for an additional six weeks. Six-minute walk test (6MWT), grip strength, walk speed, and measures of balance were compared for the two training protocols. Fifty-one participants (43 males, mean age 69.2 yrs) contributed data for the analysis. Both groups maintained function during the follow-up period, however improvements in 6MWT were greater in the land-based training group (95% CI: 0.7, 22.5; p=0.038), by a mean difference of 10.8 metres. No significant difference was observed for other parameters when the two training protocols were compared. Attending an aquatic exercise program once per week is feasible for patients with stable HF and may provide a suitable option to maintain functional performance in select patients. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Black Performance and Body Dramaturgy in the Batuque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Lima Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of what can be considered as a scene, show or performance is a major contribution of Ethnoscenology and Performance Studies to the field of the Performing Arts, breaking borders that are based on the colonialism of knowledge, which radically separated art from grassroots culture, putting creation and tradition in different poles. This shift of paradigm opens the possibility of thinking the body dramaturgy of the African-Brazilian rituals as a construct of the relationship between body and ancestry. It is in this perspective that this paper presents a discussion on the black performance of batuque, more specifically the Suça, from Natividade (TO/Brazil.

  12. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX) on factors related to maximal aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Allyn; Keith, Susan; Simpson, Warren; Mooneyhan, Andy; Greenwood, Mike

    2010-03-11

    Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX) are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM.PACT) from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water) and placebo (PL) 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR), time to exhaustion (Time), and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA) during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA) during graded exercise testing.

  13. Mechanisms governing the health and performance benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Bailey, D

    2013-11-01

    Humans are considered among the greatest if not the greatest endurance land animals. Over the last 50 years, as the population has become more sedentary, rates of cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension have all increased. Aerobic fitness is considered protective for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, a variety of cancers, joint disease and depression. Here, I will review the emerging mechanisms that underlie the response to exercise, focusing on the major target organ the skeletal muscle system. Understanding the mechanisms of action of exercise will allow us to develop new therapies that mimic the protective actions of exercise. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit extract improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Yi; Huang, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Chung; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ho, Chin-Shan; Huang, Wen-Pei; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-09

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME) on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test) were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen) and release (as blood glucose), and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  15. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P = 0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44 ± 0.01 vs 7.32 ± 0.01 and 33.7 ± 3.2 vs 27.3 ± 0.6 mmol · l−1, respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 mmol · l−1 at baseline...

  16. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  17. Adjusting powerlifting performances for differences in body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleather, Daniel John

    2006-05-01

    It has been established that, in the sports of Olympic weightlifting (OL) and powerlifting (PL), the relationship between lifting performance and body mass is not linear. This relationship has been frequently studied in OL, but the literature on PL is less extensive. In this study, PL performance and body mass, for both men and women, was examined by using data from the International Powerlifting Federation World Championships during 1995-2004. Nonlinear regression was used to apply 7 models (including allometric, polynomial, and power models) to the data. The results of this study indicate that the relationship between PL performance and body mass can be best modeled by the equation y = a - bx(-c), where y is the weight lifted (in kg) in the squat, bench press, or deadlift, x is the body mass of the lifter (in kg), and a, b, and c are constants. The constants a, b, and c are determined by the type of lift (squat, bench press, or deadlift) and the gender of the lifter and were obtained from the regression analysis. Inspection of the plots of raw residuals (actual performance minus predicted performance) vs. body mass revealed no body mass bias to this formula in contrast to research into other handicapping formulas. This study supports previous research that found a bias toward lifters in the intermediate weight categories in allometric fits to PL data.

  18. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose...... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X......-ray absorptiometry; (4) an exercise test with gas exchange analysis; and (5) investigation of composition of usual diet by diet registration for 5 days. RESULTS: The 24-h diastolic blood pressure was higher in subjects predisposed to hypertension compared with the controls: 78.1 versus 74.0 mmHg (confidence interval...

  19. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in preventing falls and fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Thomsen, Katja; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    of retrieved publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials examining the effect of WBV on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. The primary outcomes were fractures, fall rates and the proportion of participants who fell. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis calculating relative risk ratios, fall rate ratio and absolute weighted mean difference using random effects models. Heterogeneity...... (BMD), bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers and calcaneal broadband attenuation (BUA). RESULTS: 15 papers (14 trials) met the inclusion criteria. Only one study had fracture data reporting a non-significant fracture reduction (risk ratio (RR)=0.47, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.57, P=0.22) (moderate...

  20. Effect of whole-body vibration exercise in preventing falls and fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ditte Beck; Thomsen, Katja; Hansen, Stinus

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of whole-body vibration exercise (WBV) on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis calculating relative risk ratios, fall rate ratio and absolute weighted mean difference using random effects models. Heterogeneity...... of retrieved publications. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Randomised controlled trials examining the effect of WBV on fracture risk in adults ≥50 years of age. The primary outcomes were fractures, fall rates and the proportion of participants who fell. Secondary outcomes were bone mineral density...... was estimated using I2statistics, and the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool and the GRADE approach were used to evaluate quality of evidence and summarise conclusions. DATA SOURCES: The databases PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register from inception to April 2016 and reference lists...

  1. Exercise performance, red blood cell deformability, and lipid peroxidation: effects of fish oil and vitamin E

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostenbrug, G. S.; Mensink, R. P.; Hardeman, M. R.; de Vries, T.; Brouns, F.; Hornstra, G.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell (RBC) deformability, which may improve exercise performance. Exercise alone, or in combination with an increase in fatty acid unsaturation, however, may enhance lipid peroxidation. Effects of a bicycle time trial

  2. Effect of Hypohydration and Altitude Exposure on Aerobic Exercise Performance and Acute Mountain Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Castellani JW, Sawka MN. Hypohydration impairs endurance exercise performance in temperate but not cold air. J Appl Physiol 99: 1972–1976, 2005. 12...naire. Mil Psych 6: 215–233, 1994. 36. Sawka MN. Physiological consequences of hydration: exercise perfor- mance and thermoregulation . Med Sci Sports

  3. Effects of Performance Versus Game-Based Mobile Applications on Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Arielle S; Bryan, Angela D

    2016-02-01

    Given the popularity of mobile applications (apps) designed to increase exercise participation, it is important to understand their effects on psychological predictors of exercise behavior. This study tested a performance feedback-based app compared to a game-based app to examine their effects on aspects of immediate response to an exercise bout. Twenty-eight participants completed a 30-min treadmill run while using one of two randomly assigned mobile running apps: Nike + Running, a performance-monitoring app which theoretically induces an associative, goal-driven state, or Zombies Run!, an app which turns the experience of running into a virtual reality game, theoretically inducing dissociation from primary exercise goals. The two conditions did not differ on primary motivational state outcomes; however, participants reported more associative attentional focus in the performance-monitoring app condition compared to more dissociative focus in the game-based app condition. Game-based and performance-tracking running apps may not have differential effects on goal motivation during exercise. However, game-based apps may help recreational exercisers dissociate from exercise more readily. Increasing the enjoyment of an exercise bout through the development of new and innovative mobile technologies is an important avenue for future research.

  4. Exercise-induced trace mineral element concentration in regional versus whole-body wash-down sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Stofan, John R; Lukaski, Henry C; Horswill, Craig A

    2011-06-01

    Simultaneous whole-body wash-down (WBW) and regional skin surface sweat collections were completed to compare regional patch and WBW sweat calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. Athletes (4 men, 4 women) cycled in a plastic open-air chamber for 90 min in the heat. Before exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer (covered in plastic) were washed with deionized water. After the onset of sweating, sterile patches were attached to the forearm, back, chest, forehead, and thigh and removed on saturation. After exercise, the subjects and cycle ergometer were washed with 5 L of 15-mM ammonium sulfate solution to collect all sweat minerals and determine the volume of unevaporated sweat. Control trials were performed to measure mineral contamination in regional and WBW methods. Because background contamination in the collection system was high for WBW Mn, Fe, and Zn, method comparisons were not made for these minerals. After correction for minimal background contamination, WBW sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 44.6 ± 20.0, 9.8 ± 4.8, and 0.125 ± 0.069 mg/L, respectively, and 5-site regional (weighted for local sweat rate and body surface area) sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] were 59.0 ± 15.9, 14.5 ± 4.8, and 0.166 ± 0.031 mg/L, respectively. Five-site regional [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] overestimated WBW by 32%, 48%, and 33%, respectively. No individual regional patch site or 5-site regional was significantly correlated with WBW sweat [Ca] (r = -.21, p = .65), [Mg] (r = .49, p = .33), or [Cu] (r = .17, p = .74). In conclusion, regional sweat [Ca], [Mg], and [Cu] are not accurate surrogates for or significantly correlated with WBW sweat composition.

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition of Soccer Referees; Do These Correlate With Proper Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Reza; Halabchi, Farzin; Seif Barghi, Tohid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-01

    The elite-level referee is exposed to similar physical demands to those placed on a midfield soccer player. They have an important responsibility to implement the rules of the game. So, good health and performance of soccer referees have a great importance. The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of all 78 soccer referees officiating at the Iranian Premier League and determine the correlation between these parameters and performance. In a cross-sectional study, all referees selected for the competitions were enrolled. Participants underwent exercise stress test, pulmonary function test and body composition assessment. Then the weekly scores of each referee, assessed by qualified supervisors of national federation were obtained using the FIFA standard form throughout the season (34 weeks) and registered. Among 78 participants (including 32 center and 46 side referees), mean and standard deviation of age, body mass index, percent of body fat, VO2max and performance scores were 37 ± 3.8, 23.6 ± 2.1, 20.7 ± 3.9, 59.9 ± 7.1 and 85.8 ± 0.25, respectively. No significant correlation between referees' mean score and selected parameters were found. It seems that the acquired scores of top-class referees may be influenced by multiple factors other than the laboratory findings of cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition.

  6. Physical activity in the school setting: cognitive performance is not affected by three different types of acute exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai; Singh, Amika

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediatepositive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, thetype of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents isnot fully understood. Therefore, this controlled

  7. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05°C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0°C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40.1-40.2°C, muscle......, respectively, P stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40°C), with skin blood flow plateauing...

  8. Cerebral volumetric changes induced by prolonged hypoxic exposure and whole-body exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Rupp, Thomas; Jubeau, Marc; Lamalle, Laurent; Warnking, Jan M; Millet, Guillaume Y; Wuyam, Bernard; Esteve, François; Levy, Patrick; Krainik, Alexandre; Verges, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the isolated and synergetic effects of hypoxic exposure and prolonged exercise on cerebral volume and subedema and symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Twelve healthy males performed three semirandomized blinded 11-hour sessions with (1) an inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) of 12% and 4-hour cycling, (2) FiO2=21% and 4-hour cycling, and (3) FiO2=8.5% to 12% at rest (matching arterial oxygen saturation measured during the first hypoxic session). Volumetric, ap...

  9. Comparing a Yoga Class with a Resistance Exercise Class: Effects on Body Satisfaction and Social Physique Anxiety in University Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, Kimberley L; Drouin, Breanne; Lamarche, Larkin

    2016-11-01

    The current study compared a single yoga group exercise class and a resistance group exercise class for their effects on state body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in women. A pretest-posttest design was used. Participants (N = 46) completed both a resistance exercise class and yoga class in a counterbalanced order. Measures of body satisfaction and social physique anxiety were completed immediately before and after each class. A 2 (time) × 2 (class type) repeatedmeasures multiple analysis of variance showed a significant overall Time × Class Type interaction (F 2,44 = 5.69, P class. After both classes, there was a significant decrease in social physique anxiety, but the magnitude of the change was larger after the yoga class than after the resistance class. Both types of exercise class were associated with improvements in body image, but there were greater improvements after the yoga class. This study provided evidence of the positive effects of yoga for reducing state social physique anxiety and increasing state body satisfaction, adding to correlational evidence suggesting that yoga is particularly beneficial for improving body image-related outcomes in women.

  10. Aerobic Exercise Intervention, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Lars S; Nyberg, Lars; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cognition and reduce brain atrophy in older adults. However, the literature is equivocal with regards to the specificity or generality of these effects. To this end, we report results on cognitive function and brain structure...

  11. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program.

  12. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Background & objectives: Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. Methods...

  13. Do muscle strengthening exercises improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia G. Reis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking speed seems to be related to aerobic capacity, lower limb strength, and functional mobility, however it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between improvement in muscle strength and gait performance in early postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of muscle strengthening exercises on the performance of the 6-minute walk test in women within 5 years of menopause. METHODS: The women were randomized into control group (n=31, which performed no exercise, and exercise group (n=27, which performed muscle strengthening exercises. The exercises were performed twice a week for 3 months. The exercise protocol consisted of warm-up, stretching, and strengthening of the quadriceps, hamstring, calf, tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, and abdominal muscles, followed by relaxation. Muscular strength training started with 60% of 1MR (2 series of 10-15 repetitions, reaching 85% until the end of the 3-month period (4 series of 6 repetitions each. RESULTS: The between-group comparisons pre- and post-intervention did not show any difference in distance walked, heart rate or blood pressure (p>0.05, but showed differences in muscle strength post-intervention, with the exercise group showing greater strength (p CONCLUSION: The results suggest that muscle strengthening of the lower limbs did not improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in this population of postmenopausal women.

  14. Effects of a popular exercise and weight loss program on weight loss, body composition, energy expenditure and health in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magrans-Courtney Teresa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the safety and efficacy of altering the ratio of carbohydrate and protein in low-energy diets in conjunction with a popular exercise program in obese women. Design Matched, prospective clinical intervention study to assess efficacy of varying ratios of carbohydrate and protein intake in conjunction with a regular exercise program. Participants One-hundred sixty one sedentary, obese, pre-menopausal women (38.5 ± 8.5 yrs, 164.2 ± 6.7 cm, 94.2 ± 18.8 kg, 34.9 ± 6.4 kg·m-2, 43.8 ± 4.2% participated in this study. Participants were weight stable and not participating in additional weight loss programs. Methods Participants were assigned to either a no exercise + no diet control (CON, a no diet + exercise group (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (presented as kcals; % carbohydrate: protein: fat: 1 a high energy, high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HED [2,600; 55:15:30%], 2 a very low carbohydrate, high protein diet (VLCHP [1,200 kcals; 63:7:30%], 3 a low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet (LCMP [1,200 kcals; 50:20:30%] and 4 a high carbohydrate, low protein diet (HCLP [1,200 kcals; 55:15:30%]. Participants in exercise groups (all but CON performed a pneumatic resistance-based, circuit training program under supervision three times per week. Measurements Anthropometric, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE, fasting blood samples and muscular fitness assessments were examined at baseline and weeks 2, 10 and 14. Results All groups except CON experienced significant reductions (P P P P P Conclusion Exercise alone (ND appears to have minimal impact on measured outcomes with positive outcomes apparent when exercise is combined with a hypoenergetic diet. Greater improvements in waist circumference and body composition occurred when carbohydrate is replaced in the diet with protein. Weight loss in all diet groups (VLCHP, LCMP and HCLP was primarily fat and stimulated improvements in markers of

  15. Dopamine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in women improves endurance exercise performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordery, P; Peirce, N; Maughan, R J; Watson, P

    2017-11-01

    Catecholamine reuptake inhibition improves the performance of male volunteers exercising in warm conditions, but sex differences in thermoregulation, circulating hormones, and central neurotransmission may alter this response.