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Sample records for body exercise performance

  1. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

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    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  2. Effects of a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on muscle activation and performance during subsequent lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts.

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    Tan, Jeremy G; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A

    2014-05-01

    A single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise may negatively affect a subsequent lower-body resistance exercise workout. However, less is known regarding the effects of a lower-body aerobic workout on muscle activation and performance during a subsequent upper-body resistance exercise workout. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation and performance during lower- and upper-body resistance exercise workouts after a single bout of lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine. Fourteen men (mean age = 24.1 ± 2.3 years, height = 180.8 ± 6.9 cm, body mass = 91.9 ± 16.4 kg) completed 4 trials in random order. Two trials consisted of 30 minutes on the elliptical machine, using the lower body only, at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate before either a back squat or bench press workout, consisting of 3 sets to failure performed at 75% 1 repetition maximum. The other 2 trials consisted of only the back squat or bench press resistance workouts. To quantify muscle activation, bipolar surface electromyography electrodes were placed on the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis or pectoralis major. Acute lower-body aerobic exercise on an elliptical machine significantly reduced the number of repetitions completed for the back squat but not the bench press exercise. There was no significant difference in muscle activation between the elliptical and no elliptical conditions. However, for both exercises and conditions, muscle activation increased significantly between the first and final repetitions for the first 2 sets but not for the third set. These results suggest that to optimize the quality of a lower-body resistance-training workout, the workout should not be preceded by lower-body aerobic exercise.

  3. Cardiovascular Responses to Unilateral, Bilateral, and Alternating Limb Resistance Exercise Performed Using Different Body Segments.

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    Moreira, Osvaldo C; Faraci, Lucas L; de Matos, Dihogo G; Mazini Filho, Mauro L; da Silva, Sandro F; Aidar, Felipe José; Hickner, Robert C; de Oliveira, Cláudia E P

    2017-03-01

    Moreira, OC, Faraci, LL, de Matos, DG, Mazini Filho, ML, da Silva, SF, Aidar, FJ, Hickner, RC, and de Oliveira, CEP. Cardiovascular responses to unilateral, bilateral and alternating limb resistance exercise performed using different body segments. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 644-652, 2017-The aim of this study was to verify and compare the cardiovascular responses to unilateral, bilateral, and alternating limb resistance exercise (RE) performed using different body segments. Fifteen men experienced in RE were studied during biceps curls, barbell rows, and knee extension exercises when performed bilaterally, unilaterally, and using alternating limbs. The protocol consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 10 repetition maximum with 2-minute rest between sets. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured after the last repetition. There was a statistically significant increase in HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and rate pressure product (RPP), from rest to postexercise. The RPP was higher in the third set of all exercises and in all 3 forms of execution, when compared with the first set. Bilateral biceps curls caused a greater increase in RPP (first and second sets) and HR, compared with the same exercise performed unilaterally. Furthermore, the performance of bilateral biceps curls induced greater HR and RPP, in all sets, compared with bilateral knee extension and barbell rows. There was also a significantly higher SBP for the alternating second and third sets and also for the bilateral third set of the knee extensions as compared with the barbell rows. It was concluded from the data of this study that the cardiovascular response was increased from rest to postexercise in all forms of exercise, especially immediately after the third set of RE. For exercises performed bilaterally with the upper body (biceps curls), there was a greater cardiovascular response when compared with the same exercise performed unilaterally or with lower-body exercise

  4. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

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    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players. PMID:27942136

  5. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

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    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Phillips, T.; Platts, S. H.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Stenger, M. B.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  6. The Effect of Prior Upper Body Exercise on Subsequent Wingate Performance

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    Marie Clare Grant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported previously that the upper body musculature is continually active during high intensity cycle ergometry. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of prior upper body exercise on subsequent Wingate (WAnT performance. Eleven recreationally active males (20.8 ± 2.2 yrs; 77.7 ± 12.0 kg; 1.79 ± 0.04 m completed two trials in a randomised order. In one trial participants completed 2×30 s WAnT tests (WAnT1 and WAnT2 with a 6 min recovery period; in the other trial, this protocol was preceded with 4 sets of biceps curls to induce localised arm fatigue. Prior upper body exercise was found to have a statistically significant detrimental effect on peak power output (PPO during WAnT1 (P0.05. Handgrip (HG strength was also found to be significantly lower following the upper body exercise. These results demonstrate that the upper body is meaningfully involved in the generation of leg power during intense cycling.

  7. Does quercetin and vitamin C improve exercise performance, muscle damage, and body composition in male athletes?

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    Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza; Karimian, Jahangir; Feizi, Awat; Paknahad, Zamzam; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hajishafiei, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Quercetin is a bioflavonoid occurs in many food items. Some previous studies on quercetin showed the inconsistent results on exercise performance and muscle damage in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of quercetin supplementation on exercise performance and muscle damage indices in student athletes. Methods: This placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 male students for 8 weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: a) quercetin (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day placebo), b) quercetin+ vitamin C (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day vitamin C), vitamin C (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day vitamin C), and placebo (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day placebo). Time to exhaustion (TTE) for measuring performance, aspartate transaminase (AST), and creatine kinase (CK) for measuring muscle damage and body fat percent (BFP) were measured before and after intervention. Results: CK levels reduced in group 1 significantly (P=0.045) and BFP reduced in group 1, 3, and 4, significantly, too (P=0.018, P=0.013, and P=0.043, respectively). Whereas statistically significant changes between groups were not observed for TTE, AST, CK, and BFP after 8 weeks of intervention. Conclusions: Supplementation with quercetin and vitamin C for 8 weeks did not improve exercise performance but reduced muscle damage and body fat percent in healthy subjects. PMID:23267392

  8. Does quercetin and vitamin C improve exercise performance, muscle damage, and body composition in male athletes?

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    Gholamreza Askari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: quercetin is a bioflavonoid occurs in many food items. Some previous studies on quercetin showed the inconsistent results on exercise performance and muscle damage in athletes. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of quercetin supplementation on exercise performance and muscle damage indices in student athletes. Methods: this placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 60 male students for 8 weeks. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: a quercetin (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day placebo, b quercetin+ vitamin C (500 mg/day quercetin + 200 mg/day vitamin C, vitamin C (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day vitamin C, and placebo (500 mg/day placebo + 200 mg/day placebo. Time to exhaustion (TTE for measuring performance, aspartate transaminase (AST, and creatine kinase (CK for measuring muscle damage and body fat percent (BFP were measured before and after intervention. Results: CK levels reduced in group 1 significantly (P=0.045 and BFP reduced in group 1, 3, and 4, significantly, too (P=0.018, P=0.013, and P=0.043, respectively. Whereas statistically significant changes between groups were not observed for TTE, AST, CK, and BFP after 8 weeks of intervention. Conclusions: supplementation with quercetin and vitamin C for 8 weeks did not improve exercise performance but reduced muscle damage and body fat percent in healthy subjects.

  9. Effect of ginger and cinnamon intake on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female athletes

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    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with the placebo group.

  10. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition

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    Bergamin M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Bergamin,1 Andrea Ermolao,1 Silvia Tolomio,1 Linda Berton,2 Giuseppe Sergi,2 Marco Zaccaria1 1Sports Medicine Division, 2Geriatrics Division, University of Padova, Padua, Italy Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a 24-week exercise protocol carried out in geothermal spring water to improve overall physical function and muscle mass in a group of healthy elderly subjects. A further aim was to compare this water-based protocol with a land-based protocol and a control group. For this purpose, 59 subjects were recruited and randomly allocated to three groups: aquatic group (AG, land group (LG, and control group (CG. AG and LG followed a 6-month, twice-weekly, multimodality exercise intervention. AG underwent the protocol in hot-spring water (36°C while LG did it in a land-based environment. After the intervention, knee-extension strength was maintained in AG and LG. The 8-foot up-and-go test showed a reduction in both exercise groups (AG −19.3%, P < 0.05; LG −12.6%, P < 0.05, with a significantly greater decrease in AG. The back-scratch test revealed an improvement only in AG (25.8%; P < 0.05, while the sit-and-reach test improved in all groups. Finally, AG reduced fat mass by 4% (P < 0.05, and dominant forearm fat decreased by 9.2% (P < 0.05. In addition, calf muscle density increased by 1.8% (P < 0.05. In summary, both water- and land-based activities were beneficial in maintaining strength and in improving lower-body flexibility. Aquatic exercise appeared a better activity to improve dynamic balance. Thermal swimming pools and the use of rating of perceived exertion as a method of exercise monitoring should be considered potentially useful tools to enhance physical performance and body composition in healthy elderly. Keywords: aging, multimodality exercise, performance, muscle mass

  11. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

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    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  12. The Effects of Quercetin Supplementation on Body Composition, Exercise Performance and Muscle Damage Indices in Athletes

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    Askari, Gholamreza; Ghiasvand, Reza; Paknahad, Zamzam; Karimian, Jahangir; Rabiee, Katayoun; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat

    2013-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids comprise a large group of plant metabolites, 6,000 of which have been identified to date. Some studies have shown the increased aerobic performance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and therefore fitness following quercetin intake as a result of elevated number of intracellular mitochondria caused by the flavonoid. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial comprised 60 male students having an athletic history of at least 3 years. Body composition, exercise performance, and some blood biomarkers were analyzed. The individuals were selected by convenient sampling, and then were assigned into four groups of equal number by using permuted block randomization. The first to fourth groups received a 500 mg supplemental quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg vitamin C pill, a 500 mg supplemental quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg placebo vitamin C pill, a 500 mg placebo quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg vitamin C pill, and a 500 mg placebo quercetin capsule plus a 250 mg placebo vitamin C pill, respectively, daily for 8 weeks. The participants were asked to continue their routine diet and physical activity during the study and they were monitored through phone calls or text messages. Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO2max increased in the “quercetin” and “quercetin + vitamin C” groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance. PMID:23412140

  13. Adding whole body vibration to preconditioning exercise increases subsequent on-ice sprint performance in ice-hockey players.

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    Rønnestad, Bent R; Slettaløkken, Gunnar; Ellefsen, Stian

    2016-04-01

    The phenomenon postactivation potentiation can possibly be used to acutely improve sprint performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of body-loaded half-squats with added whole body vibration (WBV) on subsequent 20 m on-ice sprint performance. Fifteen male ice-hockey players performed 4 test sessions on separate days and in a randomized order. Two of this test sessions were with WBV and 2 were with noWBV and the best sprint time was used to determine effectiveness. Each test session included preconditioning 30 seconds half-squat exercise, 2 of which were supplemented with 50 Hz WBV at a amplitude of 3 mm. One minute after the cessation of the preconditioning exercise, the 20 m sprint test was performed. Intermediate time was sampled after 10 m. Preconditioning exercise performed with 50 Hz WBV resulted in superior 10 m and 20 m sprint performance compared to preconditioning exercise performed without WBV (1.84 6 0.10 seconds vs. 1.89 6 0.10 seconds and 3.14 6 0.13 vs. 3.17 6 0.13 seconds, respectively, p # 0.01). There was no difference between the protocols in perceived well-being of the legs before the warm-up or after the warm up (p = 0.3). However, there was an improved well-being in the legs immediately after the preconditioning exercise with WBV (p , 0.05). In conclusion, preconditioning exercise performed with WBV at 50 Hz seems to enhance on-ice sprint performance in ice-hockey players. This suggests that coaches can incorporate such exercise into the preparation to specific sprint training to improve the quality of the training.

  14. Effect of Ginger and Cinnamon Intake on Oxidative Stress and Exercise Performance and Body Composition in Iranian Female Athletes

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    Mashhadi, Nafiseh Shokri; Ghiasvand, Reza; Hariri, Mitra; Askari, Gholamreza; Feizi, Awat; Darvishi, Leila; Hajishafiee, Maryam; Barani, Azam

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ginger (rich in gingerols and shogaols) rhizomes have been widely used as dietary spices and to treat different diseases in Asia. Cinnamon (containing cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde) is used as spices and as a pharmacological agent in ancient medicine. Intense exercise can result in oxidative damage to cellular compounds and also muscle soreness. Efficacy of dietary ginger and cinnamon as antioxidant agents and their effectiveness in exercise performance and reducing muscle soreness have been investigated in limited studies on humans. So we studied the effects of dietary ginger and cinnamon on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female taekwondo players. Methods: Sixty healthy trained women, aged 13-25 years, were enrolled in the 6 week investigation and randomly categorized in three groups (cinnamon, ginger, or placebo) and received three grams of ginger, cinnamon, or placebo powder each day depending on the group they belonged. Human malondialdehyde (MDA) level, exercise performance, and body composition were evaluated in the beginning and at the end of the study and compared among the groups. Results: Forty-nine of the participants completed the 6 weeks intervention. There was minor decrease in MDA in cinnamon and ginger group compared with the placebo group and significant increase in exercise performance in ginger group (P < 0.01), and considerable increase in skin fold in cinnamon groups (P < 0.01), whereas there were significant accretion in BMI for ginger group (P < 0.1) and cinnamon group (P < 0.05). No significant changes in MDA, EP, and BMI were observed between groups over time. But there were specific changes in skin fold between cinnamon and placebo group (P < 0.05) and cinnamon and ginger groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with

  15. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

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    Gholamreza Askari

    2013-01-01

    Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO 2max increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.

  16. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

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    Ozcelik O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

  17. Fluid balance and exercise performance.

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    Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2003-03-01

    Major sporting events in Malaysia are commonly staged in hot environments where the average daytime temperature is generally in the range of 29 to 31°C with the average relative humidity ranging from 80 to 95%. Exercise capacity and exercise performance are reduced when the ambient temperature is high and it has major implications for competitors as well as for spectators and officials. Prolonged exercise leads to progressive water and electrolyte loss from the body as sweat is secreted to promote heat loss. The rate of sweating depends on many factors and increases in proportion to work rate and environmental temperature and humidity. Sweat rates are highly variable and can exceed 2L.h-1 for prolonged periods in high heat. Since dehydration will impair exercise capacity and can pose a risk to health, the intake of fluid during exercise to offset sweat losses is important. Carbohydrate-electrolyte fluid ingestion during exercise has the dual role of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. The composition of the drinks to be taken will be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water which, in turn depends on the intensity and duration of exercise activity, the ambient temperature, and humidity. Carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. There is no advantage to fluid intake during exercise of less than 30-minute duration. Complete restoration of fluid balance after exercise is an important part of the recovery process and becomes even more important in hot, humid conditions. If a second bout of exercise has to be performed after a relatively short interval, the speed of rehydration becomes of crucial importance. Rehydration after exercise requires not only replacement of volume losses, but also replacement of some electrolytes, primarily sodium

  18. The Effects of a Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy Exposure on Physiological, Performance, and Perceptual Responses of Professional Academy Soccer Players After Repeated Sprint Exercise.

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    Russell, Mark; Birch, Jack; Love, Thomas; Cook, Christian J; Bracken, Richard M; Taylor, Tom; Swift, Eamon; Cockburn, Emma; Finn, Charlie; Cunningham, Daniel; Wilson, Laura; Kilduff, Liam P

    2017-02-01

    Russell, M, Birch, J, Love, T, Cook, CJ, Bracken, RM, Taylor, T, Swift, E, Cockburn, E, Finn, C, Cunningham, D, Wilson, L, and Kilduff, LP. The effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy exposure on physiological, performance, and perceptual responses of professional academy soccer players after repeated sprint exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 415-421, 2017-In professional youth soccer players, the physiological, performance, and perceptual effects of a single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) session performed shortly after repeated sprint exercise were investigated. In a randomized, counterbalanced, and crossover design, 14 habituated English Premier League academy soccer players performed 15 × 30 m sprints (each followed by a 10 m forced deceleration) on 2 occasions. Within 20 minutes of exercise cessation, players entered a WBC chamber (Cryo: 30 seconds at -60° C, 120 seconds at -135° C) or remained seated (Con) indoors in temperate conditions (∼25° C). Blood and saliva samples, peak power output (countermovement jump), and perceptual indices of recovery and soreness were assessed pre-exercise and immediately, 2-hour and 24-hour postexercise. When compared with Con, a greater testosterone response was observed at 2-hour (+32.5 ± 32.3 pg·ml, +21%) and 24-hour (+50.4 ± 48.9 pg·ml, +28%) postexercise (both P = 0.002) in Cryo (trial × treatment interaction: P = 0.001). No between-trial differences were observed for other salivary (cortisol and testosterone/cortisol ratio), blood (lactate and creatine kinase), performance (peak power output), or perceptual (recovery or soreness) markers (all trial × treatment interactions: P > 0.05); all of which were influenced by exercise (time effects: all P ≤ 0.05). A single session of WBC performed within 20 minutes of repeated sprint exercise elevated testosterone concentrations for 24 hours but did not affect any other performance, physiological, or perceptual measurements taken. Although unclear, WBC may be

  19. Dietary Re-education, Exercise Program, Performance and Body Indexes Associated with Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Women

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    Marchini Julio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study observed the effect of a dietary re-education plus regular physical activity on body composition, risk factors and physical test performance of sedentary overweight/obese women and to correlate these variables one with each other. Fifty women (36 ± 10 yrs; 31 ± 6 body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 volunteered for the study. Body compositions were obtained by anthropometry and bioimpedance and some body indexes were established. One-repetition maximum (1-RM and treadmill VO2max tests were carried out and blood samples were obtained for lipid, glucose and uric acid analyses before (T1 and after two months of intervention (T2. Diet was established by indirect calorimetry. Body fat, glucose, uric acid, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were significantly reduced. The 1-RM and VO2max tests were significantly increased. Neck circumference (NC was correlated with body composition, back muscle 1-MR, HDL and LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, uric acid, and resting energy expenditure. BMI was found to be significantly correlated with waist/hip ratio, circumference sum, and body fat percentage by anthropometry and bioimpedance. Body fat percentage determined by bioimpedance and anthropometry was significantly correlated with arm fat area and arm fat area corrected respectively, and both with BMI at T1 and T2. This study suggests that a dietary reeducation plus physical activity around 200 min/week improved body composition and the health of these women. Many anthropometry measurements have correspondence to risk factors and NC could be a simple approach to reflect these results, without other more complex techniques.

  20. The origins of Western mind–body exercise methods

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    Hoffman, Jonathan; Gabel, C. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over recent decades, mind–body exercise methods have gained international popularity and importance in the management of musculoskeletal disorders. Objectives: The scope of this paper was to investigate: the origins of Western mind–body methods, their philosophies, exercises, and relationship with mainstream healthcare over the last two centuries. Major findings: Within a few decades of the turn of the 20th century, a cluster of mind–body exercise methods emerged from at least six pioneering founders: Checkley, Müller, Alexander, Randell, Pilates, and Morris. Each was based upon a similar exercise philosophy and similar functional movement-harmonizing exercises. This renaissance of independent mind–body schools occurred in parallel with the demise of the 18th and 19th century gymnasium Physical Culture movement and the concurrent emergence of bodybuilding and strength training. Even though mostly forgotten today, Western mind–body exercise methods enjoyed celebrated success during the first half of the 20th century, were hailed by medical and allied health practitioners and practiced by millions from society’s elite to deprived minorities. Conclusions: Rediscovering the Western mind–body exercise movement is hoped to facilitate official healthcare establishment recognition of this kind of training as an integral entity. This may widen research opportunities and consolidate approaches toward: optimal musculoskeletal rehabilitation and injury prevention, promotion of a healthy active lifestyle environment in the modern world, and enhancement of the natural pain-free human athletic look, feel, and performance. PMID:27695277

  1. Heat Acclimation Improves Exercise Performance

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    2010-01-01

    induces metabolic adaptations during exercise by reducing the aerobic metabolic rate (32, 42), or decreasing the rate of glycogenolysis (7, 8, 20...metabolic rate (1, 32, 42), or decreasing the rate of glycogenolysis (7, 8, 20). Alternatively, the increased plasma volume (and thus, total blood volume) (3...8. Febbraio MA, Snow RJ, Stathis CG, Hargreaves M, Carey MF. Blunting the rise in body temperature reduces muscle glycogenolysis during exercise in

  2. Appearance-based exercise motivation moderates the relationship between exercise frequency and positive body image.

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    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2014-03-01

    Individuals with a positive body image appreciate their bodies, hold an internal perspective of their bodies, and are satisfied with the functionality of their bodies. Research shows that positive body image is more complex than the absence of body dissatisfaction. Although exercise reduces women's body dissatisfaction, very little research has explored how, or even whether, exercise is associated with positive body image. Therefore, we examined whether exercise frequency was positively related to three aspects of positive body image (body appreciation, internal body orientation, and functional body satisfaction) among 321 college women. Appearance-based exercise motivation (the extent exercise is pursued to influence weight or shape) was hypothesized to moderate these associations. Hierarchical moderated regression analyses showed that exercise frequency was related to higher positive body image, but high levels of appearance-based exercise motivation weakened these relationships. Thus, messages promoting exercise need to de-emphasize weight loss and appearance for positive body image.

  3. Beetroot juice and exercise performance

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    Ormsbee MJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Ormsbee,1 Jon Lox,1 Paul J Arciero2 1Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences, Human Performance Lab, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Human Nutrition and Metabolism Lab, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY, USA Abstract: Increased sales and consumption of organic and natural foods reflect consumers heightened interest in promoting health and improving athletic performance. Of these products, beetroot and its constituents have become increasingly popular in the arena of exercise performance, mainly due to the high concentrations of nitrate. Studies have indicated beetroot juice (BRJ may improve exercise time to exhaustion, running performance, and increase muscular efficiency during moderate intensity exercise. The purpose of this review is to examine the efficacy of BRJ to serve as an ergogenic aid in athletic performance. It appears that BRJ may provide modest performance enhancement; however, more research is needed to clearly identify mechanisms of action and proper dosing patterns to maximize the performance benefits of BRJ. Keywords: beetroot, nitrate, betaine, sports nutrition

  4. THE EFFECTS OF PRE-AND POST-EXERCISE WHEY VS. CASEIN PROTEIN CONSUMPTION ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES IN COLLEGIATE FEMALE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    olin D. Wilborn

    2013-03-01

    .4 ± 6.6 cm; CP: 12. 9 ± 7.1 cm, p < 0.001. The combination of a controlled undulating resistance training program with pre- and post-exercise protein supplementation is capable of inducing significant changes in performance and body composition. There does not appear to be a difference in the performance- enhancing effects between whey and casein proteins

  5. Brain temperature and exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Events arising within the central nervous system seem to play a major factor in the aetiology of hyperthermia-induced fatigue. Thus, various studies with superimposed electrical nerve stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation have shown that both passive and exercise-induced hyperthermia...... temperature in exercising goats indicate that excessive brain hyperthermia will directly affect motor performance. However, several homeostatic changes arise in parallel with hyperthermia including factors that may influence both peripheral and central fatigue and it is likely that these changes interact...

  6. Full Body Loading for Small Exercise Devices Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Meghan; Hanson, Andrea; Newby, Nathaniel

    2015-01-01

    Protecting astronauts' spine, hip, and lower body musculoskeletal strength will be critical to safely and efficiently perform physically demanding vehicle egress, exploration, and habitat building activities necessary to expand human presence in the solar system. Functionally limiting decrements in musculoskeletal health are likely during Mars proving-ground and Earth-independent missions given extended transit times and the vehicle limitations for exercise devices (low-mass, small volume). Most small exercise device concepts are designed with single-cable loading, which inhibits the ability to perform full body exercises requiring two-point loading at the shoulders. Shoulder loading is critical to protect spine, hip, and lower body musculoskeletal strength. We propose a novel low-mass, low-maintenance, and rapid deploy pulley-based system that can attach to a single-cable small exercise device to enable two-point loading at the shoulders. This attachment could protect astronauts' health and save cost, space, and energy during all phases of the Journey to Mars.

  7. Impact of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Justin A; Green, James M; Bishop, Phillip A; Richardson, Mark T; Neggers, Yasmin H; Leeper, James D

    2010-05-01

    This study examined effects of dehydration on a full body resistance exercise workout. Ten males completed two trials: heat exposed (with 100% fluid replacement) (HE) and dehydration (approximately 3% body mass loss with no fluid replacement) (DEHY) achieved via hot water bath (approximately 39 degrees C). Following HE and DEHY, participants performed three sets to failure (using predetermined 12 repetition maximum) of bench press, lat pull down, overhead press, barbell curl, triceps press, and leg press with a 2-min recovery between each set and 2 min between exercises. A paired t test showed total repetitions (all sets combined) were significantly lower for DEHY: (144.1 +/- 26.6 repetitions) versus HE: (169.4 +/- 29.1 repetitions). ANOVAs showed significantly lower repetitions (approximately 1-2 repetitions on average) per exercise for DEHY versus HE (all exercises). Pre-set rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and pre-set heart rate (HR) were significantly higher [approximately 0.6-1.1 units on average in triceps press, leg press, and approached significance in lat pull down (P = 0.14) and approximately 6-13 b min(-1) on average in bench press, lat pull down, triceps press, and approached significance for overhead press (P = 0.10)] in DEHY versus HE. Session RPE difference approached significance (DEHY: 8.6 +/- 1.9, HE: 7.4 +/- 2.3) (P = 0.12). Recovery HR was significantly higher for DEHY (116 +/- 15 b min(-1)) versus HE (105 +/- 13 b min(-1)). Dehydration (approximately 3%) impaired resistance exercise performance, decreased repetitions, increased perceived exertion, and hindered HR recovery. Results highlight the importance of adequate hydration during full body resistance exercise sessions.

  8. Upper Body Exercise: 'Jarming' Instead of Jogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cindy Christian

    1986-01-01

    The virtues of "armchair exercise" and "jarming" (jogging with the arms) are being extolled far and wide. The relative merits of arm and leg exercise are discussed. People who could benefit from arm exercise are described. (MT)

  9. Setting for exercise and concerns about body appearance of women who exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z

    2001-12-01

    The present study examined the association between the sex composition of exercise environment and concerns related to body appearance of women who exercise. A questionnaire concerning social physique anxiety, body dissatisfaction, and attitude toward women-only exercise environment was administered to 81 women who used either the women-only area or the co-ed area in a fitness club. A one-way analysis of variance indicated that those who exercised in a women-only area reported more social physique anxiety and dissatisfaction with body size and favored exercising in areas exclusively reserved for women than women who exercised primarily in co-ed areas. The women-only area served as a protective environment for those who were heavier, anxious about their body appearances, and dissatisfied about their body images. These women also preferred to exercise in an exclusively female setting compared to women who used the co-ed area.

  10. Regular exercise modulates obesity factors and body composition in sturdy men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Il-Gyu; Choi, Pil-Byung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the change and correlation between obesity factors and body composition according to regular exercise. Thirty-six sturdy men at twenty years old in ‘K’ university students were participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (n= 18 in each group): control group and regular exercise group. Exercise program composed of three programs: warm-up (10 min), work-out (30–60 min), cool-down (10 min), and categorized by five days per week for eight weeks. Aerobic exercise using a treadmill at 60% of heart rate reserve was performed, and weight training was composed of nine different exercises for the large muscles. Before the performing regular exercise, there was no significant difference between control and regular exercise groups. In the present results, 8 weeks regular exercise significantly decreased leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, waist to hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) more than compared to before performing regular exercise, whereas significantly enhanced lean mass more than compared to before performing regular exercise. Furthermore, regular exercise group reduced leptin, weight, fat mass, % fat, WHR, and BMI compared to control group in the post test. In the correlation of obesity-related factors and body composition, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) showed correlation with weight, lean mass, and fat mass after performing regular exercise. Here in this study, we suggest that regular exercise is a valuable tool for the improvement of health in the sturdy men, because regular exercise suppresses body fat and obesity-related factors. PMID:24278869

  11. Indicators chest rheography at swimmers at rest and after exercise in different body positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Sinyugina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Study of chest rheography for skilled swimmers when the dosage of physical activity in different body positions. Materials and Methods: the study involved 20 qualified swimmers for middle and long distance. Results: studies changes rheographic indicators from qualified swimmers in response to exercise in different positions of the body showed a clear dependence of the structure and functional hemodynamic changes the position of the body in which the exercise is carried out. Conclusions: found that when evaluating the success of readiness of swimmers and planning training loads must be based on indicators of physical performance obtained during exercise in a horizontal position of the body.

  12. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Wilborn, Colin D; Krieger, James W.; Sonmez, Gul T

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that performing aerobic exercise after an overnight fast accelerates the loss of body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fat mass and fat-free mass following four weeks of volume-equated fasted versus fed aerobic exercise in young women adhering to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty healthy young female volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a fasted training (FASTED) group that performed exercise after an overnight fast (n ...

  13. Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canale Robert E

    2010-05-01

    than finished products containing multiple ingredients, and 2 while we do not have data in relation to post-exercise recovery parameters, the tested products are ineffective in terms of increasing blood flow and improving acute upper body exercise performance.

  14. Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Body Fluid and Electrolyte Balance in Endurance Athletes during The Course of Treadmill Exercise Performed at 30 °C for 90 minute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Pense

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of glycerol-induced hyperhydration on body fluid and electrolyte balancein endurance athletes during the course of treadmill exercise performed at 30C for 90min. 9 elit level male long-distance runnerwere participated to this study (age: x = 18,7 ±1,3 years, height: x = 170,7±5,2 cm, body weight: x = 58,8±6,6 kg, VO2max:63,94±3,04 ml.kg-1. First, VO2max of the subjects were determined with an incremental treadmill running protocol. In a randomized,double-blind cross over experimental design subjects were tested three times with 3 days intervals (wash out following ingestion of20 ml.kg-1BW of three different mixture of solutions: 1 diluted sports drink with 1.2 gr.kg-1BW glycerol (GS 2 diluted sports drink(SP and 3 aspartame flavored distilled water (WS. Exercise trials were conducted at an exercise intensity of 65% maximal oxygenconsumption (VO2max for 90 min at 30±1.8C and 25-35% relative humidity. Blood and urin samples were collected pre and postfluid ingestion, at the 30th, 60th and 90th min of exercise trials to determine body fluid and electrolyte balance. Data were analyzedusing two-way (treatmentxtime analyses of variance (ANOVA. Significance level was defined as p0.05. Inconclusion, glycerol-induced hyperhydration has no advantage compared to the other solutions ingested on body fluid andelectrolyte balance in endurance athletes during 90 min of treadmill run.

  15. Heavy Resistance Training and Peri-Exercise Ingestion of a Multi-Ingredient Ergogenic Nutritional Supplement in Males: Effects on Body Composition, Muscle Performance and Markers of Muscle Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spillane, Neil Schwarz, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ergogenic multi-ingredient nutritional supplement ingestion on blood and skeletal markers of muscle protein synthesis (MPS, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty-four college-age males were randomly assigned to either a multi-ingredient SizeOn Maximum Performance (SIZE or protein/carbohydrate/creatine (PCC comparator supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05. Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were not differentially affected (p > 0.05. However, fat-free mass was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p = 0.037. Lower-body muscle strength (p = 0.029 and endurance (p = 0.027 were significantly increased with resistance training, but not supplementation (p > 0.05. Serum insulin, IGF-1, GH, and cortisol were not differentially affected (p > 0.05. Muscle creatine content was significantly increased in both groups from supplementation (p = 0.044. Total muscle protein (p = 0.038, MHC 1 (p = 0.041, MHC 2A, (p = 0.029, total IRS- (p = 0.041, and total Akt (p = 0.011 were increased from resistance training, but not supplementation. In response to heavy resistance training when compared to PCC, the peri-exercise ingestion of SIZE did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS.

  16. Effect of Exercise on Depressive Symptoms and Body Balance in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Yang, Yu-Chi; Huang, Chih-Kun; Hsiao, Ching-Hsiang; Liu, Ting-Yang; Wang, Cheng-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Exercise systematically improves physical and psychological performances on a wide range of measures, but the links between them are rarely examined for the high homogeneous group of institutionalized veterans. This study aims to investigate the exercise intervention effects on both depressive symptoms and body-balance. Samples were divided into…

  17. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  18. Evaluation the effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium in healthy male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanger Karimian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: L- Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that can affect athletic performance. Thus the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of L- arginine supplementation on athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants, 56 male athletes with an average age of 20.85±4.29 years were selected in Isfahan University of Medical Science clubs in the winter of 2014. Athletes received l- arginine supplementation with a dose of 2 g daily for 45 days in the intervention group and the same amount of placebo (maltodextrin in the control group received. At the beginning and end of the study, the level of athletic performance, body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were measured and data were analysis with using SPSS software version 19. Results: At the end of the study athletic performance in the group receiving supplements of L - arginine significantly improved compared to the control group (P=0.035. However, no significant changes in body composition and serum sodium and potassium levels were observed (P>0.05. Conclusion: Supplementation of L - arginine can improve athletic performance in semi-professional athletes.

  19. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Atan, T.

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-...

  20. Lower Body Negative Pressure Treadmill Exercise and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Physiologic Function in Women during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Guinet, P.; Hughson, R. L.; Smith, Scott M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that supine LBNP treadmill exercise combined with Flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright physiologic responses following 60-days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS: 16 healthy women (age 25-40 years) underwent 60-days HDT (-6deg.) BR. Women were assigned to either a non-exercise control group (CON, n=8) or to an exercise group (EX, n=8). EX subjects performed a 40-min, variable intensity LBNP exercise protocol at foot-ward forces between 1.0-1.1 times body weight, followed by 10- min of resting LBNP 3-4 days/week. Resistive exercise of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises were performed using a flywheel ergometer 2-3 days/week. IRBs approved this study with informed/written consent. RESULTS: Post-BR VO2pk was not different in EX (-3.3+/-1.2%) but decreased significantly in CON (-21.2+/-2.1%), pexercise along with flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright exercise capacity, orthostatic responses and muscle strength during 60-days HDT BR.

  1. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  2. Thermic effect of food at rest, during exercise, and after exercise in lean and obese men of similar body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Gutin, B; Nyman, A M; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1985-09-01

    The thermic effect of food at rest, during 30 min of cycle ergometer exercise, and after exercise was studied in eight lean (mean +/- SEM, 10 +/- 1% body fat, hydrostatically-determined) and eight obese men (30 +/- 2% body fat). The lean and obese mean were matched with respect to age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to determine the relationship between thermogenesis and body composition, independent of body weight. All men were overweight, defined as a BMI between 26-34, but the obese had three times more body fat and significantly less lean body mass than the lean men. Metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry under four conditions on separate mornings, in randomized order, after an overnight fast: 3 h of rest in the postabsorptive state; 3 h of rest after a 750-kcal mixed meal (14% protein, 31.5% fat, and 54.5% carbohydrate); during 30 min of cycling and for 3 h post exercise in the postabsorptive state; and during 30 min of cycling performed 30 min after the test meal and for 3 h post exercise. The thermic effect of food, which is the difference between postabsorptive and postprandial energy expenditure, was significantly higher for the lean than the obese men under the rest, post exercise, and exercise conditions: the increments in metabolic rate for the lean and obese men, respectively, were 48 +/- 7 vs. 28 +/- 4 kcal over 3 h rest (P less than 0.05); 44 +/- 7 vs. 16 +/- 5 kcal over 3 h post exercise (P less than 0.05); and 19 +/- 3 vs. 6 +/- 3 kcal over 30 min of exercise (P less than 0.05). The thermic effect of food was significantly negatively related to body fat content under the rest (r = -0.55), post exercise (r = -0.66), and exercise (r = -0.58) conditions. The results of this study indicate that for men of similar total body weight and BMI, body composition is a significant determinant of postprandial thermogenesis; the responses of obese are significantly blunted compared with those of lean men.

  3. Effects of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB on exercise performance and body composition across varying levels of age, sex, and training experience: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Jacob M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB has been extensively used as an ergogenic aid; particularly among bodybuilders and strength/power athletes, who use it to promote exercise performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. While numerous studies have supported the efficacy of HMB in exercise and clinical conditions, there have been a number of conflicting results. Therefore, the first purpose of this paper will be to provide an in depth and objective analysis of HMB research. Special care is taken to present critical details of each study in an attempt to both examine the effectiveness of HMB as well as explain possible reasons for conflicting results seen in the literature. Within this analysis, moderator variables such as age, training experience, various states of muscle catabolism, and optimal dosages of HMB are discussed. The validity of dependent measurements, clustering of data, and a conflict of interest bias will also be analyzed. A second purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive discussion on possible mechanisms, which HMB may operate through. Currently, the most readily discussed mechanism has been attributed to HMB as a precursor to the rate limiting enzyme to cholesterol synthesis HMG-coenzyme A reductase. However, an increase in research has been directed towards possible proteolytic pathways HMB may operate through. Evidence from cachectic cancer studies suggests that HMB may inhibit the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway responsible for the specific degradation of intracellular proteins. HMB may also directly stimulate protein synthesis, through an mTOR dependent mechanism. Finally, special care has been taken to provide future research implications.

  4. Heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ingestion of a multi-ingredient ergogenic nutritional supplement in males: effects on body composition, muscle performance and markers of muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2014-12-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ergogenic multi-ingredient nutritional supplement ingestion on blood and skeletal markers of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty-four college-age males were randomly assigned to either a multi-ingredient SizeOn Maximum Performance (SIZE) or protein/carbohydrate/creatine (PCC) comparator supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were not differentially affected (p > 0.05). However, fat-free mass was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p = 0.037). Lower-body muscle strength (p = 0.029) and endurance (p = 0.027) were significantly increased with resistance training, but not supplementation (p > 0.05). Serum insulin, IGF-1, GH, and cortisol were not differentially affected (p > 0.05). Muscle creatine content was significantly increased in both groups from supplementation (p = 0.044). Total muscle protein (p = 0.038), MHC 1 (p = 0.041), MHC 2A, (p = 0.029), total IRS- (p = 0.041), and total Akt (p = 0.011) were increased from resistance training, but not supplementation. In response to heavy resistance training when compared to PCC, the peri-exercise ingestion of SIZE did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS. Key pointsIn response to 42 days of heavy resistance training and either SizeOn Maximum Performance or protein/carbohydrate/creatine supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of SizeOn Maximum Performance had no preferential effect on augmenting

  5. The Relationships among Body Image, Body Mass Index, Exercise, and Sexual Functioning in Heterosexual Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Problems related to negative body image are very common among young women. In this study, we examined the relationship between women's body image and their sexual functioning over and above the effects of physical exercise and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 214 university women. Low situational body image dysphoria and low body…

  6. Adolescent Male Athletes: Body Image, Diet, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Pamela S. McKay; Read, Marsha H.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates and compares football players' (n=44) and cross-country runners' (n=30) body image concerns, attitudes toward eating, and reasons for exercising. Results revealed significant differences. Football players reported a more positive body image, whereas runners indicated a greater concern for weight control and more disordered eating…

  7. [Advances in the genetics of exercise performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenting

    2014-04-01

    Differences among individuals in exercise performance are determined by a range of environmental and genetic factors. Since 2008, numerous studies in the genetics of exercise performance have been published and a set of significant results have been obtained. In this review, we analyze the research results in physical activity, muscular strength and endurance from reputable papers selected based on these following aspects: sample size, quality of phenotype measurements, quality of the exercise program or physical activity exposure, study design, adjustment for experimental testing and quality of genotyping. We also review the progress of these three research fields and suggest new directions to future research.

  8. Monitoring Change of Body Fluid during Physical Exercise using Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and Finite Element Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Röthlingshöfer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Athletes need a balanced body composition in order to achieve maximum performance. Especially dehydration reduces power and endurance during physical exercise. Monitoring the body composition, with a focus on body fluid, may help to avoid reduction in performance and other health problems.For this, a potential measurement method is bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS. BIS is a simple, non-invasive measurement method that allows to determine different body compartments (body fluid, fat, fat-free mass. However, because many physiological changes occur during physical exercise that can influence impedance measurements and distort results, it cannot be assumed that the BIS data are related to body fluid loss alone.To confirm that BIS can detect body fluid loss due to physical exercise, finite element (FE simulations were done. Besides impedance, also the current density contribution during a BIS measurement was modeled to evaluate the influence of certain tissues on BIS measurements.Simulations were done using CST EM Studio (Computer Simulation Technology, Germany and the Visible Human Data Set (National Library of Medicine, USA. In addition to the simulations, BIS measurements were also made on athletes. Comparison between the measured bioimpedance data and simulation data, as well as body weight loss during sport, indicates that BIS measurements are sensitive enough to monitor body fluid loss during physical exercise.doi:10.5617/jeb.178 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 79-85, 2011

  9. Lower Body Negative Pressure Treadmill Exercise and Resistive Exercise Countermeasures Maintain Physiologic Function in Women during Simulated Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, B. R.; Schneider, S. M.; Lee, S. M. C.; Guinet, P.; Hughson, R. L.; Smith, Scott M.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that supine LBNP treadmill exercise combined with Flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright physiologic responses following 60-days of head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest (BR). METHODS: 16 healthy women (age 25-40 years) underwent 60-days HDT (-6deg.) BR. Women were assigned to either a non-exercise control group (CON, n=8) or to an exercise group (EX, n=8). EX subjects performed a 40-min, variable intensity LBNP exercise protocol at foot-ward forces between 1.0-1.1 times body weight, followed by 10- min of resting LBNP 3-4 days/week. Resistive exercise of maximal concentric and eccentric supine leg press and heel raise exercises were performed using a flywheel ergometer 2-3 days/week. IRBs approved this study with informed/written consent. RESULTS: Post-BR VO2pk was not different in EX (-3.3+/-1.2%) but decreased significantly in CON (-21.2+/-2.1%), p< 0.05. Post-BR orthostatic tolerance time (mean se) decreased significantly less in EX (19.3+/-1.3 to 14.4+/-1.5 min) than in CON (17.5+/-0.1 to 9.1+/- 1.5 min), p=0.03. Post-BR muscle strength decreased significantly in CON, but was preserved in EX. Post-BR bone resorption was greater than pre-BR in both groups (p<0.05). Bone formation markers, were significantly elevated (p<0.05) in EX than in CON. CONCLUSIONS: Supine LBNP treadmill exercise along with flywheel resistive exercise maintains upright exercise capacity, orthostatic responses and muscle strength during 60-days HDT BR.

  10. Examining the effects of pilates exercise programs on flexibility performance and body composition in womenBayanlara uygulanan pilates egzersiz programının esneklik performansı ve beden kompozisyonu üzerine olan etkisinin incelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm Baştuğ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Pilates training program on flexibility and body composition in women. A total of 62 volunter women participated in this study. Women were divided into 2 groups as experimental (32 women and control groups (30 women. The body weights, Body mass index and flexibility performances were measured before and after the program. To measure the flexibility performance, the Sit-Stretch Test was used. Both experimental and control groups has regularly participated in walking and jogging exercise on 3 days a week for 45-60 minutes (5-10 minutes warm-up before exercise, stretching exercises at the end of a 5-10 min organized by Muğla Municipality Public Education Center. As well as walking and joggig exercises, Pilates (mat exercises for 15-20 minutes, 3 days a week throughout the 12 weeks in 50-60% of the target heart beat rate were applied to the experimental group. As a result; significant differences were observed in the body weights, body mass index flexibility performance in experimental groups as compared with control group after the twelve-week. It was reported that pilates exercise method is one of the most important exercise in improving flexibility performance and body  composition. Since the body composition and flexibility are important in terms of health and quality of life, It is recommended that pilates exercise program should done regulary. In this type of studies, It can be said that diet programmes should be required to be control. ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı, bayanlara uygulanan pilates antrenman programının esneklik ve beden kompozisyonu üzerine olan etkisinin incelenmesidir. Bu çalışmaya toplamda 62 bayan gönüllü olarak katılmıştır. Bayanlar deney ve kontrol grubu olmak üzere 2 gruba ayrılmıştır. Deney ve kontrol grubu Muğla Büyükşehir Belediyesi Halk Eğitim Merkezi tarafından açılan yürüyüş ve koşu egzersizlerine haftada 3 gün 45-60 dakika

  11. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  12. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  13. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...... (p=0.051) for VibM to perform better compared to Con. There were no effects in the self-reported disease status measures. This study showed that the WBV-exercise regime on a stable platform (VibM) yielded increased muscle strength, while the WBV-exercise on a balance board (VibF) showed improved TDPM...

  14. Fluid consumption, exercise, and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, T P; Fitzgerald, K

    2016-09-01

    Laboratory evidence supports the notion that dehydration degrades exercise performance and impairs certain cognitive processes. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a voluntary versus a dictated drinking condition on exercise and cognitive performance. The study used a double-blind and paired design. Twenty male and female college students (10 women, 10 men) participated in an exercise protocol consisting of 1 hr of treadmill running followed by a high intensity portion continuing until voluntary exhaustion. The dictated drinking condition consisted of 900 ml of water equally distributed in 4 pre-prepared opaque bottles. At 15 min intervals the subject was instructed to drink the entire contents until the end of the 1 hr treadmill protocol. The voluntary drinking condition consisted of 225 ml of water within arm's reach of the subjects while on the treadmill. Exercise performance was significantly better (longer duration and faster speed) in the voluntary condition compared with the dictated condition. Cognitive test outcomes were not significantly different between drinking conditions. A difference in fluid absorption is a potential source of exercise impairment seen in the dictated fluid condition. The higher fluid consumption rate presumably would cause greater gastric and esophageal distention resulting in the diversion of blood flow from working muscles to the gastrointestinal system. In situations where dehydration is likely, drinking to recommended guidelines may protect individuals from dehydration and its negative effects. However, when dehydration is not likely, allowing an individual to follow voluntary drinking behavior is preferable for exercise performance.

  15. Influence of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Catherine; Mueller, Mackenzie; Zuniga, Krystle E

    2017-01-04

    Diet composition can affect systemic pH and acid-base regulation, which may in turn influence exercise performance. An acidic environment in the muscle impairs performance and contributes to fatigue; therefore, current trends in sports nutrition place importance on maximizing the alkalinity of the body with ergogenic aids and dietary strategies. This review examines the evidence on the effects of dietary manipulations on acid load and exercise performance. Ten studies that investigated the effect of high versus low dietary acid loads on athletic performance generally identified that low dietary acid loads increased plasma pH, but did not consistently improve exercise performance at maximal or submaximal exercise intensities. In addition, the few studies conducted have several limitations including lack of female subjects and use of exercise tests exclusive to cycling or treadmill running. Although the research does not strongly support a performance benefit from low dietary acid loads, a more alkaline dietary pattern may be beneficial for overall health, as dietary induced acidosis has been associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and bone disease. The review includes dietary recommendations for athletes to reduce dietary acid load while still meeting sports nutrition recommendations.

  16. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  17. Whole body vibration: unsupervised training or combined with a supervised multi-purpose exercise for fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Meucci, Marco; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of an unsupervised whole body vibration (WBV) training and two different supervised multi-purpose exercise programmes, with and without WBV, on body composition, functional fitness and self-reported well-being in middle-aged adults. Fifty-four healthy participants (age 48.6 ± 6.7 years) were randomly assigned to a vibration group (VG), a multi-purpose exercise group (MG) and a multi-purpose exercise with vibration group (VMG) and trained 3 days a week for 4 months. VG performed a standardised unsupervised WBV protocol, MG a supervised multi-purpose exercise and VMG a multi-purpose exercise including vibration. After training, drop out was significantly higher in VG group (P = 0.016) when compared to VMG group. In both MG and VMG, body composition, sit-up, push-up, sit and reach, agility test, hopping test and self-reported general health significantly improved (P fitness and the best results in adherence could be achieved integrating WBV practice into a multi-purpose exercise training.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY BUILD AND ENDURANCE ON TREADMILL EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalathadevi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The type of the body build, efficacy of energy and oxygen supply mechanisms and utilization are the chief determinants of various forms of exertional endurance and achievement in various sporting activities. Therefore, the relationship between these varia bles of physique, fuel supply and aerobic capacity 6 and the endurance on treadmill stress test are chosen for study. MATERIALS & METHODS: Two groups (20 each of subjects (18 - 20 years were chosen based on body weight differences 9 60 kg BW for the study. They were further sub grouped based on BMI. DISCUSSION: When the body mass Index (BMI is at the range of 20 - 25, the endurance was better. However, when the BMI increased to very high value like 30, the endurance decreased. Such individual s with disproportionally high body weight could not endure a longer duration of exercise. This perhaps may be explained on the ground that such very high weight individuals (BMI > 30 may have more body fat than muscles. Excess body fat is dead weight that adds directly to the energy cost of running. In both groups of individuals with BMI of 20 or slightly above could run for longer periods than at extreme lower or higher ends of the BMI scale. OBSERVATIONS: The subjects with greater BMI could run for great er length of times, greater distances and achieved greater METs, glucose utilization and oxygen usage (aerobic capacity. The percentage of oxygen saturation (Pulse oxymetry after exercise fell to a greater degree in high body mass (BMI subjects indicati ng better cardio pulmonary function and greater degree of oxygen utilization. Finally, the resting heart rate and magnitude of heart rate rise during exercise are found to be somewhat lower in high body mass index subjects

  19. Creatine Kinase Activity Weakly Correlates to Volume Completed Following Upper Body Resistance Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marco; Willardson, Jeffrey M.; Silva, Dailson P.; Frigulha, Italo C.; Koch, Alexander J.; Souza, Sergio C.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the relationship between serum creatine kinase (CK) activity following upper body resistance exercise with a 1- or 3-min rest between sets. Twenty men performed two sessions, each consisting of four sets with a 10-repetition maximum load. The results demonstrated significantly greater volume for the 3-min…

  20. Effects of eight weeks of exercise training and orlistat therapy on body composition and maximal exercise capacity in obese females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, O; Dogan, H; Kelestimur, H

    2006-01-01

    A comparative assessment was made of the short-term effects of orlistat therapy and exercise training on body composition and aerobic fitness in obese females. A total of 24 obese patients were enrolled in to the study; 12 received orlistat therapy (DO) and 12 participated in a regular aerobic exercise-training programme (DE). All patients were on hypocaloric diets. Each patient performed three incremental ramp exercise tests (one at Week 0, one at the end of Week 4 and one at the end of Week 8) to exhaustion using an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer to determine their anaerobic threshold and maximal exercise (Wmax) capacity. Patients in the DE group performed continuous exercise at a work rate that corresponded to the anaerobic threshold. Weight loss and loss of fat mass after 8 weeks were -6.4% (P=0.002) and -13.4% (DE) vs -5.8% (P=0.002) and -6.4% (P=0.008) (DO), respectively. Wmax capacity was 90.8+/-5 W (basal) vs 92.9+/-5 W (Week 4, P=0.1) and 100.4+/-6 W (Week 8, 10.5%, P=0.04) in the DO group, and 96.2+/-6 W (basal) vs 129.1+/-4 W (Week 4, 34.1%, P=0.002) and 137.5+/-5 W(Week 8, 42.9%, P=0.002) in the DE group. Despite similar decreases in body weight in both groups, patients in the DE group achieved a markedly higher level of Wmax, reflecting a better improvement in cardiopulmonary fitness, compared with patients in the DO group. Considering the improvement of aerobic fitness in the short term, an aerobic exercise-training programme should be considered for sedentary obese patients to improve their aerobic fitness and thereby reduce the negative outcomes of obesity.

  1. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    The 2005 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. These interviews should be held in the period from 15 November 2004 to 15 February 2005 [see Administrative Circular No 26 (Rev. 5) Annex II, § 3. For this exercise, the paper MAPS form has been replaced by an electronic form in the EDH system, which is available via EDH (on the EDH desktop under Other Tasks / HR & Training) No changes have been made to the contents of the form. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  2. Glucocorticoids improve high-intensity exercise performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Melskens, Lars; Bruhn, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise.......It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise....

  3. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises.

  4. Performing resistance exercise before versus after aerobic exercise influences growth hormone secretion in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E; Sigal, Ronald J; Riddell, Michael C; Perkins, Bruce A; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-02-01

    We compared growth hormone (GH) and plasma glucose (PG) levels in type 1 diabetic individuals performing aerobic before resistance exercise (AR) to when resistance exercise was performed first (RA). In AR, GH secretion declined in late exercise while it rose throughout exercise in RA, resulting in higher GH in RA versus AR at exercise completion. Higher GH during RA may support PG by increasing hepatic glucose production and lipid mobilization.

  5. Body composition changes associated with fasted versus non-fasted aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Wilborn, Colin D; Krieger, James W; Sonmez, Gul T

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that performing aerobic exercise after an overnight fast accelerates the loss of body fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fat mass and fat-free mass following four weeks of volume-equated fasted versus fed aerobic exercise in young women adhering to a hypocaloric diet. Twenty healthy young female volunteers were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a fasted training (FASTED) group that performed exercise after an overnight fast (n = 10) or a post-prandial training (FED) group that consumed a meal prior to exercise (n = 10). Training consisted of 1 hour of steady-state aerobic exercise performed 3 days per week. Subjects were provided with customized dietary plans designed to induce a caloric deficit. Nutritional counseling was provided throughout the study period to help ensure dietary adherence and self-reported food intake was monitored on a regular basis. A meal replacement shake was provided either immediately prior to exercise for the FED group or immediately following exercise for the FASTED group, with this nutritional provision carried out under the supervision of a research assistant. Both groups showed a significant loss of weight (P = 0.0005) and fat mass (P = 0.02) from baseline, but no significant between-group differences were noted in any outcome measure. These findings indicate that body composition changes associated with aerobic exercise in conjunction with a hypocaloric diet are similar regardless whether or not an individual is fasted prior to training.

  6. Exercise for Individuals with Lewy Body Dementia: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inskip

    Full Text Available Individuals with Lewy body Dementia (LBD, which encompasses both Parkinson disease dementia (PDD and Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB experience functional decline through Parkinsonism and sedentariness exacerbated by motor, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. Exercise may improve functional outcomes in Parkinson's disease (PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, the multi-domain nature of the LBD cluster of symptoms (physical, cognitive, psychiatric, autonomic results in vulnerable individuals often being excluded from exercise studies evaluating physical function in PD or cognitive function in dementia to avoid confounding results. This review evaluated existing literature reporting the effects of exercise interventions or physical activity (PA exposure on cluster symptoms in LBD.A high-sensitivity search was executed across 19 databases. Full-length articles of any language and quality, published or unpublished, that analysed effects of isolated exercise/physical activity on indicative Dementia with Lewy Bodies or PD-dementia cohorts were evaluated for outcomes inclusive of physical, cognitive, psychiatric, physiological and quality of life measures. The protocol for this review (Reg. #: CRD42015019002 is accessible at http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/.111,485 articles were initially retrieved; 288 full articles were reviewed and 89.6% subsequently deemed ineligible due to exclusion of participants with co-existence of dementia and Parkinsonism. Five studies (1 uncontrolled trial, 1 randomized controlled trial and 3 case reports evaluating 16 participants were included. Interventions were diverse and outcome homogeneity was low. Habitual gait speed outcomes were measured in 13 participants and increased (0.18m/s, 95% CI -0.02, 0.38m/s, exceeding moderate important change (0.14m/s for PD cohorts. Other outcomes appeared to improve modestly in most participants.Scarce research investigating exercise in LBD exists. This review confirms

  7. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Mieszkowski, Jan; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Ciechanowska, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The report of the World Health Organization (WHO) of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used 'postmenopausal osteoporosis' and 'whole-body vibration exercise'.

  8. Body Mass Index and Body Fat Status of Men Involved in Sports, Exercise, and Sedentary Activites

    OpenAIRE

    Wan Nudri, Wan Daud; Wan Abdul Manan, Wan Muda; Mohamed Rusli, Abdullah

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Kota Bharu on three groups of men with ages ranging from 18 to 44 years. The study groups included 83 athletes representing various types of sports and levels of participation (athlete group), 80 active men who exercised a minimum of 30 minutes per day at least 3 times per week (exercise group), and 80 inactive men (sedentary group). The objectives of the study were to compare the body mass indices (BMIs) and body fat statuses among the three groups ...

  9. Cellular Stress Response Gene Expression During Upper and Lower Body High Intensity Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanowicz, Andrzej; Sawczyn, Stanisław; Niespodziński, Bartłomiej; Mieszkowski, Jan; Kochanowicz, Kazimierz

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to compare the effect of upper and lower body high-intensity exercise on chosen genes expression in athletes and non-athletes. Method Fourteen elite male artistic gymnasts (EAG) aged 20.6 ± 3.3 years and 14 physically active men (PAM) aged 19.9 ± 1.0 years performed lower and upper body 30 s Wingate Tests. Blood samples were collected before, 5 and 30 minutes after each effort to assess gene expression via PCR. Results Significantly higher mechanical parameters after lower body exercise was observed in both groups, for relative power (8.7 ± 1.2 W/kg in gymnasts, 7.2 ± 1.2 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01) and mean power (6.7 ± 0.7 W/kg in gymnasts, 5.4 ± 0.8 W/kg in controls, p = 0.01). No differences in lower versus upper body gene expression were detected for all tested genes as well as between gymnasts and physical active man. For IL-6 m-RNA time-dependent effect was observed. Conclusions Because of no significant differences in expression of genes associated with cellular stress response the similar adaptive effect to exercise may be obtained so by lower and upper body exercise. PMID:28141870

  10. Compression garments and exercise: garment considerations, physiology and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacRae, Braid A; Cotter, James D; Laing, Raechel M

    2011-10-01

    Compression garments (CGs) provide a means of applying mechanical pressure at the body surface, thereby compressing and perhaps stabilizing/supporting underlying tissue. The body segments compressed and applied pressures ostensibly reflect the purpose of the garment, which is to mitigate exercise-induced discomfort or aid aspects of current or subsequent exercise performance. Potential benefits may be mediated via physical, physiological or psychological effects, although underlying mechanisms are typically not well elucidated. Despite widespread acceptance of CGs by competitive and recreational athletes, convincing scientific evidence supporting ergogenic effects remains somewhat elusive. The literature is fragmented due to great heterogeneity among studies, with variability including the type, duration and intensity of exercise, the measures used as indicators of exercise or recovery performance/physiological function, training status of participants, when the garments were worn and for what duration, the type of garment/body area covered and the applied pressures. Little is known about the adequacy of current sizing systems, pressure variability within and among individuals, maintenance of applied pressures during one wear session or over the life of the garment and, perhaps most importantly, whether any of these actually influence potential compression-associated benefits. During exercise, relatively few ergogenic effects have been demonstrated when wearing CGs. While CGs appear to aid aspects of jump performance in some situations, only limited data are available to indicate positive effects on performance for other forms of exercise. There is some indication for physical and physiological effects, including attenuation of muscle oscillation, improved joint awareness, perfusion augmentation and altered oxygen usage at sub-maximal intensities, but such findings are relatively isolated. Sub-maximal (at matched work loads) and maximal heart rate appears

  11. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... from vastus lateralis and a 3 h bicycle exercise test was performed at 58% of VO(2max). Whole-body fat oxidation was calculated during prolonged and graded exercise from the respiratory exchange ratio using standard indirect calorimetry equations. Based on the graded exercise test, whole-body peak fat...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (PVO(2max)) in trained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  12. The Feasibility of performing resistance exercise with acutely ill hospitalized older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockwood Kenneth

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For older adults, hospitalization frequently results in deterioration of mobility and function. Nevertheless, there are little data about how older adults exercise in the hospital and definitive studies are not yet available to determine what type of physical activity will prevent hospital related decline. Strengthening exercise may prevent deconditioning and Pilates exercise, which focuses on proper body mechanics and posture, may promote safety. Methods A hospital-based resistance exercise program, which incorporates principles of resistance training and Pilates exercise, was developed and administered to intervention subjects to determine whether acutely-ill older patients can perform resistance exercise while in the hospital. Exercises were designed to be reproducible and easily performed in bed. The primary outcome measures were adherence and participation. Results Thirty-nine ill patients, recently admitted to an acute care hospital, who were over age 70 [mean age of 82.0 (SD= 7.3] and ambulatory prior to admission, were randomized to the resistance exercise group (19 or passive range of motion (ROM group (20. For the resistance exercise group, participation was 71% (p = 0.004 and adherence was 63% (p = 0.020. Participation and adherence for ROM exercises was 96% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion Using a standardized and simple exercise regimen, selected, ill, older adults in the hospital are able to comply with resistance exercise. Further studies are needed to determine if resistance exercise can prevent or treat hospital-related deterioration in mobility and function.

  13. Alterations in Whole-Body Insulin Sensitivity Resulting From Repeated Eccentric Exercise of a Single Muscle Group: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Barwood, Martin J; Goodall, Stuart; Thomas, Kevin; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-08-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to repeated exposure. However, it is unknown whether damage to small muscle groups impacts upon whole-body insulin sensitivity. This pilot investigation aimed to characterize whole-body insulin sensitivity in response to repeated bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors. Nine healthy males completed two bouts of eccentric exercise separated by 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (updated homeostasis model of insulin resistance, HOMA2-IR) and muscle damage profiles (soreness and physical function) were assessed before, and 48 h after exercise. Matsuda insulin sensitivity indices (ISI Matsuda) were also determined in 6 participants at the same time points as HOMA2-IR. Soreness was elevated, and physical function impaired, by both bouts of exercise (both p Eccentric exercise decreased ISI Matsuda after the first but not the second bout of eccentric exercise (time x bout interaction p Eccentric exercise performed with an isolated upper limb impairs whole-body insulin sensitivity after the first, but not the second, bout.

  14. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  15. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  16. Whole body vibration exercise improves body balance and walking velocity in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate: Galileo and Alendronate Intervention Trail (GAIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, J; Sato, Y; Takeda, T; Matsumoto, H

    2012-09-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the effect of 6 months of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate. Fifty-two ambulatory postmenopausal women with osteoporosis (mean age: 74.2 years, range: 51-91 years) were randomly divided into two groups: an exercise group and a control group. A four-minute WBV exercise was performed two days per week only in the exercise group. No exercise was performed in the control group. All the women were treated with alendronate. After 6 months of the WBV exercise, the indices for flexibility, body balance, and walking velocity were significantly improved in the exercise group compared with the control group. The exercise was safe and well tolerated. The reductions in serum alkaline phosphatase and urinary cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen during the 6-month period were comparable between the two groups. The present study showed the benefit and safety of WBV exercise for improving physical function in postmenopausal osteoporotic women treated with alendronate.

  17. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  18. The role of water intake on cardiac vagal reactivation after upper-body resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A L; Ramos, P S; Marins, J B; Ricardo, D R

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the hypothesis that water intake will accelerate cardiac vagal reactivation after a single session of upper-body resistance exercise. 13 healthy men (26.5±5.9 years) with previous experience in resistance training were enrolled. In visits 1 and 2, participants performed the one-repetition maximum (1RM) test and retest with the bench press exercise. The sessions 3 and 4 were performed randomly, while participants consumed 500 ml (experimental visit) or 50 ml (control visit) of water immediately after 3 sets of maximum repetitions at 80% of 1RM. Cardiac vagal activity was represented by cardiac vagal index (CVI) measured before, immediately after and 30 min post-exercise. Additionally, heart rate and blood pressure were measured. The results show that CVI was higher 30 min post-exercise when 500 ml of water was ingested compared to 50 ml (1.39±0.07 vs. 1.23±0.07; p=0.02) (mean±SEM). Heart rate and blood pressure values were similar in both trials. We conclude that water intake accelerates post-resistance exercise cardiac vagal reactivation. These findings suggest that hydration after resistance exercise might be beneficial for cardiovascular safety in healthy subjects.

  19. Performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    The 2007 performance appraisal and merit recognition exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 8 January 2007 to 16 April 2007. Interconnection with the 5-yearly review, a number of modifications to the procedures relating to the performance appraisal and merit recognition are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from January onwards. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  20. Whole-body vibration exercise in postmenopausal osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Weber-Rajek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The report of the World Health Organization (WHO of 2008 defines osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass and an increased risk of fracture. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is connected to the decrease in estrogens concentration as a result of malfunction of endocrine ovarian function. Low estrogens concentration causes increase in bone demineralization and results in osteoporosis. Physical activity, as a component of therapy of patients with osteoporosis, has been used for a long time now. One of the forms of safe physical activity is the vibration training. Training is to maintain a static position or execution of specific exercises involving the appropriate muscles on a vibrating platform, the mechanical vibrations are transmitted to the body of the patient. According to the piezoelectric theory, pressure induces bone formation in the electrical potential difference, which acts as a stimulant of the process of bone formation. Whole body vibration increases the level of growth hormone and testosterone in serum, preventing sarcopenia and osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to review the literature on vibration exercise in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis based on the PubMed and Medline database. While searching the database, the following key words were used ‘postmenopausal osteoporosis’ and ‘whole-body vibration exercise’.

  1. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to in...

  2. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery.

  3. The effect of complex exercise rehabilitation program on body composition, blood pressure, blood sugar, and vessel elasticity in elderly women with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Kozyreva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify what kind of effects complex exercise rehabilitation program has on body composition of female, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood vessel elasticity and find more effective complex exercise program for elderly females. The subjects are selected 30 females applicants in exercise program in City of G and not restricted in mobility to perform the exercise without any particular disorders. Exercise program is a combination of aerobic and strength training with different ratio, for the first 6 months focused on strength training complex exercise, and for next 6 months focused on aerobic exercise. Except for strength training and aerobic exercise, durations for strength, rest, and wrapping-up are equal. The frequency of experiments is 90 min each, 2 times per a week. Body composition, blood pressure, and blood vessel elasticity are tested pre and post experiment to compare the effectiveness of both complex exercises. As results, in the complex exercise program focused on strength training, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic pressure increased. Blood vessel elasticity maintained its level or slightly decreased. In the complex exercise focused on aerobic exercise, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure decreased. Blood vessel elasticity on left foot and right foot are slightly different. Therefore, aerobic exercise is more effective than strength training for old obese females. PMID:24409428

  4. Effect of exercise performance by elderly women on balance ability and muscle function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Cheol; Lee, Mi Lim; Kim, Seon-Rye

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an exercise intervention on the balance ability and muscle function of elderly women. [Subjects] The subjects were randomly divided into a control group (n=10) and an exercise group (n=10). [Methods] The subjects participated in an elastic band exercise program lasting for 8 weeks, exercising for 40 minutes, four days a week with resting terms of 60 sec. Subjects used a band corresponding to 60% of the strength of the color band with which repetitive exercise was possible up to twelve times. The subjects performed elastic band exercises, with variations to the number of band exercises according to the improvement of their physical fitness levels. When fifteen repetitive elastic band exercises could be performed with no damage of the body, we changed the band for one which was one level up from the former one and subjects used the same band for the upper body and lower body. [Results] Leg muscular strength measured as sit-stand repetitions in 30 s significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. Leg muscular endurance measured as the number of knee ups in 2 minutes significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. Balance measured by one-leg standing time with the eyes open significantly improved in the exercise group after the intervention compared to before the intervention. [Conclusion] Balance ability and muscle function significantly improved in the exercise group and showing that the intervention is effective at improving balance, muscle strength, and muscle endurance of elderly women. PMID:25995539

  5. The Effect of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise on Power Output for the Upper Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Harvey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine and measure high intensity, intermittent upper body performance, in addition to identifying areas of the body that affect the variance in total work done during the 5 × 6 s sprint test. Fifteen males completed an upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test on a modified electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer, which consisted of five maximal effort sprints, each 6 s in duration, separated by 24 s of passive recovery. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% of the participants’ body weight was used as the implemented resistance level. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Percent (% decrement was calculated as 100 − (Total work/ideal work × 100. Significant (P < 0.05 differences were found between sprints for both absolute and relative (W, W·kg−1, W·kg−1 Lean body mass (LBM and W·kg−1 Upper body lean body mass (UBLBM peak (PP and mean (MP power. The % decrement in total work done over the five sprints was 11.4%. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that UBLBM accounts for 87% of the variance in total work done during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test. These results provide a descriptive analysis of upper body, high intensity intermittent exercise, demonstrating that PP and MP output decreased significantly during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test.

  6. Thermic effect of food at rest, during exercise, and after exercise in lean and obese men of similar body weight.

    OpenAIRE

    Segal, K R; Gutin, B; Nyman, A M; Pi-Sunyer, F.X.

    1985-01-01

    The thermic effect of food at rest, during 30 min of cycle ergometer exercise, and after exercise was studied in eight lean (mean +/- SEM, 10 +/- 1% body fat, hydrostatically-determined) and eight obese men (30 +/- 2% body fat). The lean and obese mean were matched with respect to age, height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) to determine the relationship between thermogenesis and body composition, independent of body weight. All men were overweight, defined as a BMI between 26-34, but the o...

  7. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  8. Human body communication performance simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Mufti, H. (Haseeb)

    2016-01-01

    Human Body Communication (HBC) is a novel communication method between devices which use human body as a transmission medium. This idea is mostly based on the concept of wireless biomedical monitoring system. The on-body sensor nodes can monitor vital signs of a human body and use the body as a transmission medium. This technology is convenient for long durations of clinical monitoring with the option of more mobility and freedom for the user. In this thesis, IEEE 802.15.6-2012 phy...

  9. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 31 March 2006. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisal are currently under study. Administrative Circular No 26 (Procedures governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  10. Performance appraisal and advancement exercise 2006 (Rev)

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The 2006 performance appraisal and advancement exercise will start in the usual way with annual interviews between staff and their supervisors. This year, these interviews should be held in the period from 1 December 2005 to 15 March 2006*. In this connection, a number of improvements to the procedures relating to the interviews and performance appraisals are currently under study. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Procedures Governing the Career Development of Staff Members) and the electronic MAPS form in EDH are being reviewed and will be available from December onwards. In the meantime supervisors can start the interview procedure. HR Department will shortly provide further information on this subject. The 2005 MAPS report can be retrieved for consultation at any time via EDH. * Instead of 31 March, as indicated in the electronic Bulletin No. 47 of 21 November 2005 Human Resources Department Tel. 73566

  11. Effects of 2 different prior endurance exercises on whole-body fat oxidation kinetics: light vs. heavy exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenevière, Xavier; Borrani, Fabio; Droz, David; Gojanovic, Boris; Malatesta, Davide

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 2 different prior endurance exercises on subsequent whole-body fat oxidation kinetics. Fifteen men performed 2 identical submaximal incremental tests (Incr2) on a cycle ergometer after (i) a ∼40-min submaximal incremental test (Incr1) followed by a 90-min continuous exercise performed at 50% of maximal aerobic power-output and a 1-h rest period (Heavy); and (ii) Incr1 followed by a 2.5-h rest period (Light). Fat oxidation was measured using indirect calorimetry and plotted as a function of exercise intensity during Incr1 and Incr2. A sinusoidal equation, including 3 independent variables (dilatation, symmetry and translation), was used to characterize the fat oxidation kinetics and to determine the intensity (Fat(max)) that elicited the maximal fat oxidation (MFO) during Incr. After the Heavy and Light trials, Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates were significantly greater during Incr2 than Incr1 (p < 0.001). However, Δ (i.e., Incr2-Incr1) Fat(max), MFO, and fat oxidation rates were greater in the Heavy compared with the Light trial (p < 0.05). The fat oxidation kinetics during Incr2(Heavy) showed a greater dilatation and rightward asymmetry than Incr1(Heavy), whereas only a greater dilatation was observed in Incr2(Light) (p < 0.05). This study showed that although to a lesser extent in the Light trial, both prior exercise sessions led to an increase in Fat(max), MFO, and absolute fat oxidation rates during Incr2, inducing significant changes in the shape of the fat oxidation kinetics.

  12. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodorou Anastasios A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm. After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality.

  13. Selected herbals and human exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, L R

    2000-08-01

    Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.

  14. Pre-Exercise Hyperpnea Attenuates Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Without Affecting Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberger, Philipp A.; Scherer, Thomas A.; Spengler, Christina M.

    2016-01-01

    Whole-body warm-up exercises were shown to attenuate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Whether intense pre-exercise hyperpnea offers similar protection and whether this might negatively affect exercise performance is unknown. Nine subjects with EIB (25±5 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1s [FEV1], 104±15% predicted) performed an exercise challenge (ECh) followed—after 30min—by a constant-load cycling test to exhaustion. The ECh was preceded by one of four conditions: by i) control warm-up (CON) or by 10min of normocapnic hyperpnea with partial rebreathing at either ii) 50% (WU50) or iii) variable intensity (8x 30s-80%/45s-30%; WU80/30), or at iv) 70% (WU70) of maximal voluntary ventilation. FEV1 was measured at baseline and in 5-min intervals until 15min after CON/warm-up and 30min after ECh. None of the warm-up conditions induced EIB. The maximal post-ECh decrease in FEV1 was -13.8±3.1% after CON, −9.3±5.0% after WU50 (p = 0.081 vs. CON), −8.6±7.5% after WU80/30 (p = 0.081 vs. CON) and −7.2±5.0% after WU70 (p = 0.006 vs. CON), and perception of respiratory exertion was significantly attenuated (all p≤0.048), with no difference between warm-up conditions. Only after CON, FEV1 remained significantly reduced up to the start of the cycling endurance test (−8.0±4.3%, p = 0.004). Cycling performance did not differ significantly between test days (CON: 13±7min; WU50: 14±9min; WU80/30: 13±9min; WU70: 14±7min; p = 0.582). These data indicate that intense hyperpnea warm-up is effective in attenuating EIB severity and accelerating lung function recovery while none of the warm-up condition do compromise cycling performance. PMID:27898744

  15. Hydration Effects on Human Physiology and Exercise-Heat Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    AD REPORT NO T7-90 HYDRATION EFFECTS :N HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE-HEA PERFORMANCE Co U S ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE N OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...effects on human physiology and exercise.-heat performance 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Michael N. Sawka, Andrew J. Young. William A. Latzka, P. Darrell...acknowledge Ms. Patricia DeMusis for preparing the manuscript. AD Report No. HYDRATION EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY AND EXERCISE-HEAT PERFORMANCE by Michael N

  16. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  17. Whole Body Vibration Exercise Protocol versus a Standard Exercise Protocol after ACL Reconstruction: A Clinical Randomized Controlled Trial with Short Term Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gereon Berschin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The suitability and effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV exercise in rehabilitation after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL was studied using a specially designed WBV protocol. We wanted to test the hypothesis if WBV leads to superior short term results regarding neuromuscular performance (strength and coordination and would be less time consuming than a current standard muscle strengthening protocol. In this prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, forty patients who tore their ACL and underwent subsequent ligament reconstruction were enrolled. Patients were randomized to the whole body vibration (n=20 or standard rehabilitation exercise protocol (n=20. Both protocols started in the 2nd week after surgery. Isometric and isokinetic strength measurements, clinical assessment, Lysholm score, neuromuscular performance were conducted weeks 2, 5, 8 and 11 after surgery. Time spent for rehabilitation exercise was reduced to less than a half in the WBV group. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of clinical assessment, Lysholm score, isokinetic and isometric strength. The WBV group displayed significant better results in the stability test. In conclusion, preliminary data indicate that our whole body vibration muscle exercise protocol seems to be a good alternative to a standard exercise program in ACL-rehabilitation. Despite of its significant reduced time requirement it is at least equally effective compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol.

  18. Effect of Glycemic Index of a Pre-exercise Meal on Endurance Exercise Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burdon, Catriona A.; Spronk, Inge; Cheng, Hoi Lun; O’Connor, Helen T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low glycemic index (GI) pre-exercise meals may enhance endurance performance by maintaining euglycemia and altering fuel utilization. However, evidence for performance benefits is equivocal. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a low GI (LGI) versus a high GI (HGI) pre-exercise meal o

  19. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, B; Sarabon, N

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -19 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training.

  20. Countermeasures against lumbar spine deconditioning in prolonged bed rest: resistive exercise with and without whole body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavý, Daniel L; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Gast, Ulf; Richardson, Carolyn A; Hides, Julie A; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of short-duration, high-load resistive exercise, with and without whole body vibration on lumbar muscle size, intervertebral disk and spinal morphology changes, and low back pain (LBP) incidence during prolonged bed rest, 24 subjects underwent 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest and performed either resistive vibration exercise (n = 7), resistive exercise only (n = 8), or no exercise (n = 9; 2nd Berlin Bed-Rest Study). Discal and spinal shape was measured from sagittal plane magnetic resonance images. Cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus, erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, and psoas were measured on para-axial magnetic resonance images. LBP incidence was assessed with questionnaires at regular intervals. The countermeasures reduced CSA loss in the multifidus, lumbar erector spinae and quadratus lumborum muscles, with greater increases in psoas muscle CSA seen in the countermeasure groups (P ≤ 0.004). There was little statistical evidence for an additional effect of whole body vibration above resistive exercise alone on these muscle changes. Exercise subjects reported LBP more frequently in the first week of bed rest, but this was only significant in resistive exercise only (P = 0.011 vs. control, resistive vibration exercise vs. control: P = 0.56). No effect of the countermeasures on changes in spinal morphology was seen (P ≥ 0.22). The results suggest that high-load resistive exercise, with or without whole body vibration, performed 3 days/wk can reduce lumbar muscle atrophy, but further countermeasure optimization is required.

  1. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  2. Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Tino Hoffmann

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature...... (Tes) = 35.9 ± 0.2, 37.4 ± 0.1, or 38.2 ± 0.1 (SE) °C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 ± 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40°C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine...... the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05°C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0°C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40.1-40.2°C, muscle...

  3. The effects of strength exercise and walking on lumbar function, pain level, and body composition in chronic back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Kang, Suh-Jung

    2016-10-01

    The beneficial effects of a strength exercise program and a combined exercise program of strength training plus walking were examined in overweight with chronic back pain patients. The participants were randomly placed in the strength exercise group (SEG, n=15), combined exercise group (CEG, n=15), and control group (CG, n=6). All subjects performed exercise twice per week, 50 min per session with a professional instructors for 12 weeks. In order to evaluate exercise intervention effects, lumbar function was measured by back strength and flexibility. Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to evaluate pain level. Fat and muscle mass were measured to compare body composition changes. All measurements were performed before and after 12 weeks of exercise program. Lumbar function: Back strength was significantly different over time, and significant time×group differences were found between SEG and CG and, CEG and CG. Pain disorder degree: VAS showed a significant group difference, and significant time×group differences were shown between SEG and CG, and CEG and CG. Also, RMDG showed a significant difference between CEG and CG. Body composition: Fat mass was significantly different over time×group between SEG and CG. In conclusion, participating in strength and walking exercises were beneficial to improve lumbar function. Also, the combined exercise program was more effective for reducing pain levels than the strength exercise. Finally, fat mass was reduced in this study and this may play a possible role in the improvement of lumbar function and reduction in low back pain.

  4. The impact of exercise on body composition and nutritional intake in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Roberta K; Sanders, Mark G

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of heart failure patients and the potential synergistic effects between nutritional intake and exercise. This small, randomized trial examined the effects of a 3-month exercise program on body composition and nutritional intake in 31 men (17 exercisers; 14 controls), aged 30-76 years (mean, 56 years) with stable class II-III heart failure. Baseline and 3-month evaluations included body mass index, body fat mass by triceps skinfold thickness, dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire, and the 6-minute walk test. Exercise consisted of walking 3 d/wk and resistance exercises 2 d/wk for 40-60 minutes. Dietary recommendations were consistent with the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology heart failure guidelines. Exercisers decreased body weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.0001), and triceps skinfold thickness (p=0.03) and improved 6-minute walk test (p=0.01) compared with controls. Exercisers also demonstrated trends toward decreased total caloric and cholesterol intake and a three-fold higher carbohydrate, fiber, and beta carotene intake vs. controls. In this study population, protein, fiber, and magnesium intake were below recommended daily allowance. After exercise, body mass index was reduced, accompanied by dietary modifications including greater intake of foods with higher moisture content. Further study is needed to investigate the interaction among diet, exercise, and weight.

  5. Human thermoregulation and measurement of body temperature in exercise and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Leong; Byrne, Chris; Lee, Jason Kw

    2008-04-01

    This review discusses human thermoregulation during exercise and the measurement of body temperature in clinical and exercise settings. The thermoregulatory mechanisms play important roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis during rest and physical exercise. Physical exertion poses a challenge to thermoregulation by causing a substantial increase in metabolic heat production. However, within a non-thermolytic range, the thermoregulatory mechanisms are capable of adapting to sustain physiological functions under these conditions. The central nervous system may also rely on hyperthermia to protect the body from "overheating." Hyperthermia may serve as a self-limiting signal that triggers central inhibition of exercise performance when a temperature threshold is achieved. Exposure to sub-lethal heat stress may also confer tolerance against higher doses of heat stress by inducing the production of heat shock proteins, which protect cells against the thermolytic effects of heat. Advances in body temperature measurement also contribute to research in thermoregulation. Current evidence supports the use of oral temperature measurement in the clinical setting, although it may not be as convenient as tympanic temperature measurement using the infrared temperature scanner. Rectal and oesophagus temperatures are widely accepted surrogate measurements of core temperature (Tc), but they cause discomfort and are less likely to be accepted by users. Gastrointestinal temperature measurement using the ingestible temperature sensor provides an acceptable level of accuracy as a surrogate measure of Tc without causing discomfort to the user. This form of Tc measurement also allows Tc to be measured continuously in the field and has gained wider acceptance in the last decade.

  6. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  7. Respiratory muscle training in healthy individuals: physiological rationale and implications for exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheel, A William

    2002-01-01

    The respiratory system has traditionally been viewed to be capable of meeting the substantial demands for ventilation and gas exchange and the cardiopulmonary interactions imposed by short-term maximum exercise or long-term endurance exercise. Recent studies suggest that specific respiratory muscle (RM) training can improve the endurance and strength of the respiratory muscles in healthy humans. The effects of RM training on exercise performance remains controversial. When whole-body exercise performance is evaluated using submaximal fixed work-rate tests, significant improvements are seen and smaller, but significant improvements have also been reported in placebo-trained individuals. When performance is measured using time-trial type performance measures versus fixed workload tests, performance is increased to a much lesser extent with RM training. It appears that RM training influences relevant measures of physical performance to a limited extent at most. Interpretation of the collective literature is difficult because most studies have utilised relatively small sample sizes and very few studies have used appropriate control or placebo groups. Mechanisms to explain the purported improvements in exercise performance remain largely unknown. However, possible candidates include improved ratings of breathing perception, delay of respiratory muscle fatigue, ventilatory efficiency, or blood-flow competition between respiratory and locomotor muscles. This review summarises the current literature on the physiology of RM training in healthy individuals and critically evaluates the possible implications for exercise performance.

  8. Whole-body energy mapping under physical exercise using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iemitsu, M; Itoh, M; Fujimoto, T; Tashiro, M; Nagatomi, R; Ohmori, H; Ishii, K

    2000-12-01

    We attempted to visualize dynamic adjustment of glucose utilization in humans in the whole-body organs during physical exercise by using three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3D-PET) and [18F]-2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG). Twelve healthy male volunteers collaborated on the study; six subjects were assigned to the resting control group (C) and the other six to the running group (E). Group E subjects performed running on a flat road for 35 min. After 15 min of running, subjects injected FDG and kept on running thereafter for another 20 min. Group C subjects sat on a comfortable chair in a quiet room for 35 min after the injection of FDG. After scanning by PET, the regions of interest (ROIs) were manually set on brain, heart, thorax, abdomen, lower extremities, and the rest of the body on the corresponding transaxial images. The uptake of FDG in each region was evaluated as the % fraction of FDG accumulation relative to the total amount of whole-body accumulation. The results revealed increase of FDG uptake after running in the lower leg muscles from 24.6 +/- 9.5% to 43.1 +/- 4.7% and in the heart from 2.3 +/- 0.4% to 2.8 +/- 0.6%. The differences were significant (P body. FDG uptake in the abdominal region reduced from 37.3 +/- 7.2% to 19.7 +/- 4.9%. However, FDG uptake in the brain remained stable, i.e., 11.9 +/- 2.8% at rest and 10.3 +/- 2.5% after exercise. Thus, 3D-PET is a tool to visualize the dynamic adjustment of energy consumption during physical exercise in humans.

  9. Carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling improves exercise capacity following soccer-specific intermittent exercise performed in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N D; Maclaren, D P M; Reilly, T; Drust, B

    2011-07-01

    Ingestion of carbohydrate and reducing core body temperature pre-exercise, either separately or combined, may have ergogenic effects during prolonged intermittent exercise in hot conditions. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of carbohydrate ingestion and pre-cooling on the physiological responses to soccer-specific intermittent exercise and the impact on subsequent high-intensity exercise performance in the heat. Twelve male soccer players performed a soccer-specific intermittent protocol for 90 min in the heat (30.5°C and 42.2% r.h.) on four occasions. On two occasions, the participants underwent a pre-cooling manoeuvre. During these sessions either a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHOc) or a placebo was consumed at (PLAc). During the remaining sessions either the carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO) or placebo (PLA) was consumed. At 15-min intervals throughout the protocol participants performed a mental concentration test. Following the soccer-specific protocol participants performed a self-chosen pace test and a test of high-intensity exercise capacity. The period of pre-cooling significantly reduced core temperature, muscle temperature and thermal sensation (P < 0.05). Self-chosen pace was greater with CHOc (12.5 ± 0.5 km h(-1)) compared with CHO (11.3 ± 0.4 km h(-1)), PLA (11.3 ± 0.4 km h(-1)) and PLAc (11.6 ± 0.5 km h(-1)) (P < 0.05). High-intensity exercise capacity was improved with CHOc and CHO when compared with PLA (CHOc; 79.8 ± 7 s, CHO; 72.1 ± 5 s, PLAc; 70.1 ± 8 s, PLA; 57.1 ± 5 s; P < 0.05). Mental concentration during the protocol was also enhanced during CHOc compared with PLA (P < 0.05). These results suggest pre-cooling in conjunction with the ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise enhances exercise capacity and helps maintain mental performance during intermittent exercise in hot conditions.

  10. Voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition depend on genetic selection history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Estrada-Smith, Daria; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Little is known about how genetic variation affects the capacity for exercise to change body composition. We examined the extent to which voluntary exercise alters body composition in several lines of selectively bred mice compared to controls. Lines studied included high runner (HR) (selected for high wheel running), M16 (selected for rapid weight gain), Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) (randomly bred as control for M16), M16i (an inbred line derived from M16), HE (selected for high percentage of body fat while holding body weight constant), LF (selected for low percentage of body fat), C57BL/6J (common inbred line), and the F1 between HR and C57BL/6J. Body weight and body fat were recorded before and after 6 days of free access to running wheels in males and females that were individually caged. Total food intake was measured during this 6-day period. All pre- and postexercise measures showed significant strain effects. While HR mice predictably exercised at higher levels, all other selection lines had decreased levels of wheel running relative to ICR. The HR x B6 F1 ran at similar levels to HR demonstrating complete dominance for voluntary exercise. Also, all strains lost body fat after exercise, but the relationships between exercise and changes in percent body were not uniform across genotypes. These results indicate that there is significant genetic variation for voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition. It is important to carefully consider genetic background and/or selection history when using mice to model effects of exercise on body composition, and perhaps, other complex traits as well.

  11. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  12. The Effect of Submaximal Exercise Preceded by Single Whole-Body Cryotherapy on the Markers of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Blood of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestyna Mila-Kierzenkowska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of single whole-body cryotherapy (WBC session applied prior to submaximal exercise on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the concentration of lipid peroxidation products, total oxidative status, and the level of cytokines in blood of volleyball players. The study group consisted of 18 male professional volleyball players, who were subjected to extremely cold air (−130∘C prior to exercise performed on cycloergometer. Blood samples were taken five times: before WBC, after WBC procedure, after exercise preceded by cryotherapy (WBC exercise, and before and after exercise without WBC (control exercise. The activity of catalase statistically significantly increased after control exercise. Moreover, the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was lower after WBC exercise than after control exercise (P<0.001. After WBC exercise, the level of IL-6 and IL-1β was also lower (P<0.001 than after control exercise. The obtained results may suggest that cryotherapy prior to exercise may have some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The relations between the level of studied oxidative stress and inflammatory markers may testify to the contribution of reactive oxygen species in cytokines release into the blood system in response to exercise and WBC.

  13. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk-Sanchez NJ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neva J Kirk-Sanchez,1 Ellen L McGough21Department of Physical Therapy, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA; 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.Keywords: aging, neurodegeneration, dementia, brain, physical activity

  14. Core Temperature and Surface Heat Flux During Exercise in Heat While Wearing Body Armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-26

    Potter AW, Santee WR, Clements CM, Brooks KA, & Hoyt RW. Comparative analysis of metabolic cost equations: A review. Journal of Sport and Human...TECHNICAL REPORT NO. T16-1 DATE October 2015 ADA CORE TEMPERATURE AND SURFACE HEAT FLUX ...DURING EXERCISE IN HEAT WHILE WEARING BODY ARMOR USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-1 CORE TEMPERATURE AND SURFACE HEAT FLUX DURING EXERCISE

  15. Dietary supplements and physical exercise affecting bone and body composition in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Chin A Paw, M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    This study determined the effect of enriched foods and all-around physical exercise on bone and body composition in frail elderly persons. Methods. A 17-week randomized, controlled intervention trial, following a 2 x 2 factorial design—(1) enriched foods, (2) exercise, (3) both, or (4) neither— was

  16. Exercise on Ovarian Androgens and Body Composition of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Gaeini

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: A period of exercise with body weight loss and reduction of BMI can contribute to the decline of testosterone concentration, decrease of LH/FSH ratio, improvement of metabolic condition. It prevents the increasing of prolactin and also the side effects of hyperandrogenism. Keywords: Exercise, PCOS, Prolactin, Testosterone

  17. Skeletal muscle mass and exercise performance in stable ambulatory patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C C; Chomsky, D B; Rayos, G; Yeoh, T K; Wilson, J R

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle atrophy limits the maximal exercise capacity of stable ambulatory patients with heart failure. Body composition and maximal exercise capacity were measured in 100 stable ambulatory patients with heart failure. Body composition was assessed by using dual-energy X-ray absorption. Peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and the anaerobic threshold were measured by using a Naughton treadmill protocol and a Medical Graphics CardioO2 System. VO2peak averaged 13.4 +/- 3.3 ml.min-1.kg-1 or 43 +/- 12% of normal. Lean body mass averaged 52.9 +/- 10.5 kg and leg lean mass 16.5 +/- 3.6 kg. Leg lean mass correlated linearly with VO2peak (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), suggesting that exercise performance is influences by skeletal muscle mass. However, lean body mass was comparable to levels noted in 1,584 normal control subjects, suggesting no decrease in muscle mass. Leg muscle mass was comparable to levels noted in 34 normal control subjects, further supporting this conclusion. These findings suggest that exercise intolerance in stable ambulatory patients with heart failure is not due to skeletal muscle atrophy.

  18. Effects of an 8-weeks erythropoietin treatment on mitochondrial and Whole body fat oxidation capacity during exercise in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guadalupe Grau, Amelia; Plenge, Ulla; Bønding, Signe Helbo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration and angiog......Abstract The present investigation was performed to elucidate if the non-erythropoietic ergogenic effect of a recombinant erythropoietin treatment results in an impact on skeletal muscle mitochondrial and whole body fatty acid oxidation capacity during exercise, myoglobin concentration......, pyruvate, succinate) with additional electron input from β-oxidation (octanoylcarnitine) (from 60 ± 13 to 87 ± 24 pmol · s(-1) · mg(-1) P ... of recombinant erythropoietin treatment increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity and myoglobin concentration without any effect on whole body maximal fat oxidation....

  19. Influence of prior exercise on VO2 kinetics subsequent exhaustive rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana; Ribeiro, João; Sousa, Marisa; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2014-01-01

    Prior exercise has the potential to enhance subsequent performance by accelerating the oxygen uptake (VO2) kinetics. The present study investigated the effects of two different intensities of prior exercise on pulmonary VO2 kinetics and exercise time during subsequent exhaustive rowing exercise. It was hypothesized that in prior heavy, but not prior moderate exercise condition, overall VO2 kinetics would be faster and the VO2 primary amplitude would be higher, leading to longer exercise time at VO2max. Six subjects (mean ± SD; age: 22.9±4.5 yr; height: 181.2±7.1 cm and body mass: 75.5±3.4 kg) completed square-wave transitions to 100% of VO2max from three different conditions: without prior exercise, with prior moderate and heavy exercise. VO2 was measured using a telemetric portable gas analyser (K4b(2), Cosmed, Rome, Italy) and the data were modelled using either mono or double exponential fittings. The use of prior moderate exercise resulted in a faster VO2 pulmonary kinetics response (τ1 = 13.41±3.96 s), an improved performance in the time to exhaustion (238.8±50.2 s) and similar blood lactate concentrations ([La(-)]) values (11.8±1.7 mmol.L(-1)) compared to the condition without prior exercise (16.0±5.56 s, 215.3±60.1 s and 10.7±1.2 mmol.L(-1), for τ1, time sustained at VO2max and [La(-)], respectively). Performance of prior heavy exercise, although useful in accelerating the VO2 pulmonary kinetics response during a subsequent time to exhaustion exercise (τ1 = 9.18±1.60 s), resulted in a shorter time sustained at VO2max (155.5±46.0 s), while [La(-)] was similar (13.5±1.7 mmol.L(-1)) compared to the other two conditions. Although both prior moderate and heavy exercise resulted in a faster pulmonary VO2 kinetics response, only prior moderate exercise lead to improved rowing performance.

  20. Media images of the "ideal" female body: can acute exercise moderate their psychological impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Elizabeth A; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to the media's "ideal" physique increases mood and body image disturbance, especially for at-risk women. Because exercise decreases mood and body image disturbance, we examined the ability of acute aerobic exercise to moderate the negative psychological impact of exposure to media pictures of the "ideal" female body. Women reporting high drive for thinness and media internalization viewed pictures of either nonphysique or "ideal" physique pictures after engaging in 30min of either aerobic exercise or quiet rest. Compared to the nonphysique pictures, viewing the physique pictures resulted in increased depression and body dissatisfaction. Acute aerobic exercise, however, did not moderate the negative mood states elicited by the media images. Implications of our results and future directions for research are discussed.

  1. Effects of two programs of exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Barboza Seron

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of a 12 week aerobic and resistance exercise on body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome. Methods: A quasi-experimental study with 41 adolescents with Down syndrome, aged 15.5±2.7 years, divided into three groups: Aerobic Training Group (ATG; n=16, Resisted Training Group (RTG; n=15 and Control Group (CG; n=10. There were two types of training: aerobic, with intensity of 50-70% of the heart rate reserve 3 times/week, and resisted, with intensity of 12 maximum repetitions 2 times week. Both trainings were applied during a 12-week period. The percentage of fat evaluation was performed using plethysmography with Bod Pod(r equipment. Waist circumference (WC, body weight and height were also measured. Paired t-test was used to compare variables before and after the exercise program. Results: The percentage of body fat did not change significantly for both groups that participated in the training intervention. However, CG showed a significant increase in this variable (31.3±7.2 versus 34.0±7.9. On the other hand, body mass index (BMI and WC were significantly reduced for ATG (BMI: 27.0±4.4 and 26.5±4.2; WC: 87.3±11.1 and 86.2±9.7, while RTG and GC showed no differences in these variables. Conclusions: The aerobic and resisted training programs maintained body fat levels. ATG significantly reduced BMI and WC measures. Individuals who did not attend the training intervention increased their percentage of fat.

  2. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Ronikeili-Costa, Pedro; Carvalho-Lima, Rafaelle Pacheco; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bravo-Monteiro, Milena Oliveira; Costa, Rebeca; de Moraes-Silva, Janaina; Paiva, Dulciane Nunes; Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Mantilla-Giehl, Paula; Arnobio, Adriano; Marin, Pedro Jesus; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV) exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF) of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS) was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS. PMID:25276434

  3. Whole Body Vibration Exercises and the Improvement of the Flexibility in Patient with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúbia da Cunha Sá-Caputo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibrations produced in oscillating/vibratory platform generate whole body vibration (WBV exercises, which are important in sports, as well as in treating diseases, promoting rehabilitation, and improving the quality of life. WBV exercises relevantly increase the muscle strength, muscle power, and the bone mineral density, as well as improving the postural control, the balance, and the gait. An important number of publications are found in the PubMed database with the keyword “flexibility” and eight of the analyzed papers involving WBV and flexibility reached a level of evidence II. The biggest distance between the third finger of the hand to the floor (DBTFF of a patient with metabolic syndrome (MS was found before the first session and was considered to be 100%. The percentages to the other measurements in the different sessions were determined to be related to the 100%. It is possible to see an immediate improvement after each session with a decrease of the %DBTFF. As the presence of MS is associated with poorer physical performance, a simple and safe protocol using WBV exercises promoted an improvement of the flexibility in a patient with MS.

  4. Fatigue is a brain-derived emotion that regulates the exercise behavior to ensure the protection of whole body homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy David Noakes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An influential book written by A. Mosso in the late 19th century proposed that fatigue that at first sight might appear an imperfection of our body, is on the contrary one of its most marvellous perfections. The fatigue increasing more rapidly than the amount of work done saves us from the injury which lesser sensibility would involve for the organism so that muscular fatigue also is at bottom an exhaustion of the nervous system.It has taken more than a century to confirm Mosso’s idea that both the brain and the muscles alter their function during exercise and that fatigue is predominantly an emotion, part of a complex regulation, the goal of which is to protect the body from harm. Mosso’s ideas were supplanted in the English literature by those of A.V. Hill who believed that fatigue was the result of biochemical changes in the exercising limb muscles - peripheral fatigue - to which the central nervous system makes no contribution. The past decade has witnessed the growing realization that this brainless model cannot explain exercise performance. This article traces the evolution of our modern understanding of how the CNS regulates exercise specifically to insure that each exercise bout terminates whilst homeostasis is retained in all bodily systems. The brain uses the symptoms of fatigue as key regulators to insure that the exercise is completed before harm develops. These sensations of fatigue are unique to each individual and are illusionary since their generation is largely independent of the real biological state of the athlete at the time they develop. The model predicts that attempts to understand fatigue and to explain superior human athletic performance purely on the basis of the body’s known physiological and metabolic responses to exercise must fail since subconscious and conscious mental decisions made by winners and losers, in both training and competition, are the ultimate determinants of both fatigue and athletic performance.

  5. Effects of Dietary Acid Load on Exercise Metabolism and Anaerobic Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan L. Caciano, Cynthia L. Inman, Elizabeth E. Gockel-Blessing, Edward P. Weiss

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary acid load, quantified as the potential renal acid load (PRAL of the diet, affects systemic pH and acid-base regulation. In a previous cross-sectional study, we reported that a low dietary PRAL (i.e. alkaline promoting diet is associated with higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER values during maximal exercise. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the previous findings with a short-term dietary intervention study. Additionally, we sought to determine if changes in PRAL affects submaximal exercise RER (as a reflection of substrate utilization and anaerobic exercise performance. Subjects underwent a graded treadmill exercise test (GXT to exhaustion and an anaerobic exercise performance test on two occasions, once after following a low-PRAL diet and on a separate occasion, after a high-PRAL diet. The diets were continued as long as needed to achieve an alkaline or acid fasted morning urine pH, respectively, with all being 4-9 days in duration. RER was measured during the GXT with indirect calorimetry. The anaerobic performance test was a running time-to-exhaustion test lasting 1-4 min. Maximal exercise RER was lower in the low-PRAL trial compared to the high-PRAL trial (1.10 ± 0.02 vs. 1.20 ± 0.05, p = 0.037. The low-PRAL diet also resulted in a 21% greater time to exhaustion during anaerobic exercise (2.56 ± 0.36 vs. 2.11 ± 0.31 sec, p = 0.044 and a strong tendency for lower RER values during submaximal exercise at 70% VO2max (0.88 ± 0.02 vs. 0.96 ± 0.04, p = 0.060. Contrary to our expectations, a short-term low-PRAL (alkaline promoting diet resulted in lower RER values during maximal-intensity exercise. However, the low-PRAL diet also increased anaerobic exercise time to exhaustion and appears to have shifted submaximal exercise substrate utilization to favor lipid oxidation and spare carbohydrate, both of which would be considered favorable effects in the context of exercise performance.

  6. Hot Water Extract of Leather Carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) Improves Exercise Performance in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gong-Hyeon; Harwanto, Dicky; Park, Sun-Mee; Choi, Jae-Suk; Kim, Mi-Ryung; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    The hot water extract of leather carp (Cyprinus carpio nudus) has been used as a nourishing tonic soup and as an aid for recovery from physical fatigue. In this study, we investigated the effect of leather carp extract on exercise performance in mice. Swimming endurance and forelimb grip strength were assessed following oral administration of the extract (once per day for 7 days) at a dose of 0.5 mg/10 μL/g body weight. After 7 days, mice given the leather carp extract had significantly greater swimming endurance [105±18 s (Pleather carp extract can improve physical exercise performance and prevent oxidative stress caused by exhaustive workouts.

  7. LOCALISED MUSCLE TISSUE OXYGENATION DURING DYNAMIC EXERCISE WITH WHOLE BODY VIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Robbins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS. Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration. Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001 depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings

  8. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo,...

  9. The effect of heavy resistance exercise on repeated sprint performance in youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel; Harsley, Paul; Shaw, Matthew; Peart, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This investigation assessed whether prior heavy resistance exercise would improve the repeated sprint performance of 16 trained youth soccer players (Age 17.05 ± 0.65 years; height 182.6 ± 8.9 cm; body mass 77.8 ± 8.2 kg). In session 1, individual 1 repetition max was measured utilising a squat movement. In sessions 2 and 3, participants performed a running-based repeated anaerobic sprint test with and without prior heavy resistance exercise of 91% of their 1 repetition max. Times were recorded for each of the 6 sprints performed in the repeated sprint test and summed to provide total time. T-tests compared the two exercise conditions via differences in corresponding sprint times and total time. Analysis revealed significantly reduced total time with use of heavy resistance exercise (33.48 (±1.27) vs. 33.59 (±1.27); P = 0.01). Sprints 1 (P = 0.05) and 2 (P = 0.02) were also faster in the heavy resistance exercise condition (5.09 (±0.16) vs. 5.11 (±0.16) and 5.36 (±0.24) vs. 5.45 (±0.26) seconds respectively) although no other differences were shown. Findings demonstrate improved sprint times of trained adolescent soccer players after heavy resistance exercise although benefits appear not as sustained as in adult participants.

  10. Effects of body mass on exercise efficiency and VO2 during steady-state cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, M J; Storsteen, J A; Woodard, C M

    1993-09-01

    Oxygen uptake (VO2) and exercise efficiency during cycle ergometer exercise are considered to be independent of body mass. To determine the validity of this assumption, 50 females ranging in body mass from 41.5-98.9 kg exercised on a cycle ergometer with no load at 60 rpm and at 25, 50, 75, and 100 W at 60 and 90 rpm. Gross VO2 and efficiency, net VO2 and efficiency, work VO2 and efficiency, and delta efficiency were computed. Gross and net VO2 were significantly and positively correlated with body mass at all work rates and pedal frequencies. Gross efficiency was significantly and negatively correlated with body mass at all work rates and pedal frequencies. Work VO2 and body mass were not significantly correlated. The correlations between work and delta efficiency and body mass were not significant. Since body mass was found to be significantly correlated with gross VO2, the following equation was developed using stepwise multiple regression to predict gross VO2: VO2 (ml.min-1) = 10.9 (work rate, W) + 8.2 (pedal rate, rpm) + 8.3 (body mass, kg) - 559.6. These data suggest that body mass should be considered when estimating the oxygen uptake during cycle ergometer exercise.

  11. Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriet, Lawrence L

    2014-11-01

    Caffeine is a popular work-enhancing supplement that has been actively researched since the 1970s. The majority of research has examined the effects of moderate to high caffeine doses (5-13 mg/kg body mass) on exercise and sport. These caffeine doses have profound effects on the responses to exercise at the whole-body level and are associated with variable results and some undesirable side effects. Low doses of caffeine (caffeine doses (1) do not alter the peripheral whole-body responses to exercise; (2) improve vigilance, alertness, and mood and cognitive processes during and after exercise; and (3) are associated with few, if any, side effects. Therefore, the ergogenic effect of low caffeine doses appears to result from alterations in the central nervous system. However, several aspects of consuming low doses of caffeine remain unresolved and suffer from a paucity of research, including the potential effects on high-intensity sprint and burst activities. The responses to low doses of caffeine are also variable and athletes need to determine whether the ingestion of ~200 mg of caffeine before and/or during training and competitions is ergogenic on an individual basis.

  12. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise - a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, Pernille Landrock; Reichkendler, Michala Holm

    2012-01-01

    is limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy sedentary moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous...... sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) and 22 to a high dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) exercise group for 13 weeks, corresponding to approximately 30 and 60 minutes of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6kg, P...

  13. Factors Affecting Exercise Test Performance in Patients After Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotarska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In addition, low physical activity is a risk factor for cardiac and cerebrovascular complications. Objectives This study examined potential relationships between physical activity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an exercise test in liver-graft recipients. Patients and Methods A total of 107 participants (62 men/45 women who had received a liver transplantation (LT at least 6 months previously were evaluated. Physical activity was assessed using three different questionnaires, while HRQoL was assessed using the medical outcomes study short form (SF-36 questionnaire, and health behaviors were evaluated using the health behavior inventory (HBI. The exercise test was performed in a standard manner. Results Seven participants (6.5% had a positive exercise test, and these individuals were older than those who had a negative exercise test (P = 0.04. A significant association between a negative exercise test and a higher level of physical activity was shown by the Seven-day physical activity recall questionnaire. In addition, HRQoL was improved in various domains of the SF-36 in participants who had a negative exercise test. No correlations between physical activity, the exercise test and healthy behaviors, as assessed via the HBI were observed. Conclusions Exercise test performance was affected by lower quality of life and lower physical activity after LT. With the exception of hypertension, well known factors that affect the risk of coronary artery disease had no effect on the exercise test results.

  14. Polyphenol supplementation: benefits for exercise performance or oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2014-05-01

    Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition. The purpose of this review is to present background information on groups of polyphenols and their derivatives because their differing chemical structures influence mechanisms of action; to discuss the potential of plant, fruit and vegetable-based biological supplements, high in polyphenol content, to affect exercise performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress and exercise-induced muscle damage; and to critically discuss the exercise studies and biomarkers used. Subjects in the studies reviewed were either sedentary, healthy individuals, or active, recreationally trained or well-trained athletes. Polyphenol supplementation in exercise studies included mainly extracts (multicomponent or purified), juices, infusions or an increased intake of polyphenol-rich foods. This review includes details of supplement doses and exercise test protocols. Many studies considered only the performance or one or two selected biomarkers of antioxidant capacity instead of a comprehensive choice of biomarkers to assess damage to lipids or proteins. Evidence is insufficient to make recommendations for or against the use of polyphenol supplementation (neither specific polyphenols nor specific doses) for either recreational, competitive or elite athletes. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies must be designed appropriately and specifically to determine physiological interactions between exercise and the selected supplement, rather than considering performance alone.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise (ID 1577, , 1584), increase in lean body mass (ID 1579, 1582, 1583), increase in muscle strength (ID 1578, 1583, 1587), increase in endurance performance (ID 1580, 1581), skeletal muscle tissue repair (ID 1586) and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise (ID 1576, 1585) pursuant to Article 13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate monohydrate (HMB) alone or in combination with α-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) and reduction of muscle tissue damage during exercise, increase in lean body mass, increase in muscle strength, increase in endurance performance, skeletal muscle tissue repair...... and faster recovery from muscle fatigue after exercise. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent...

  16. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  17. Changes in body composition of high competition rugby players during the phases of a regular season: influence of diet and exercise load

    OpenAIRE

    M. García; J. M. Martínez-Moreno; A. Reyes-Ortiz; L. Suárez Moreno-Arrones; A. García A.; M. Garcíacaballero

    2014-01-01

    Background: Top athletes are subjected to intense training to achieve high performance. There are factors such as diet and strenuous exercise that affects body composition and can modify the performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a personalized plan of diet and training on body composition. Methods: We studied the body composition of 18 professional rugby players using Kinanthropometry parameters. The study was conducted from the preseason to the end of the season tak...

  18. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Leicht

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC. Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex. At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal walking ability was greatest for Control participants and similar for IC-Ex and IC-Con patients. Supervised exercise resulted in significantly greater improvements in maximal walking ability (IC-Ex 148%–170% vs. IC-Con 29%–52% and smaller increases in body fat (IC-Ex −2.1%–1.4% vs. IC-Con 8.4%–10%. IC-Con patients exhibited significantly greater increases in body fat compared with Control at follow-up (8.4%–10% vs. −0.6%–1.4%. Eating patterns were similar for all groups at follow-up. The current study demonstrated that regular, supervised exercise significantly improved maximal walking ability and minimised increase in body fat amongst IC patients without changes in eating patterns. The study supports the use of supervised exercise to minimize cardiovascular risk amongst IC patients. Further studies are needed to examine the additional value of other lifestyle interventions such as diet modification.

  19. VO2 Max in Variable Type Exercise Among Well-Trained Upper Body Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Douglas R.; Mullin, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of well-trained upper body athletes was compared to that of untrained individuals in four types of exercise: arm cranking, legs only cycling, graded treadmill running, and combined arm cranking and leg cycling. Results of the study showed that well-trained upper body athletes attained a significantly higher…

  20. Noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions influence body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afa K Palu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Unites States has reached unprecedented levels, and so has the need for effective exercise and nutritional programs for prevention of unhealthy weight gain or safe weight loss. Aims: The present study was conducted in overweight men and women to assess the impact of noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions on body composition. Materials and Methods: Twenty two participants (16 women and 6 men, ages 18-65, were enrolled in a 12-week, open-label trial of a weight-loss program involving noni-based dietary supplements, gender-specific daily calorie restriction, and exercise interventions. Weight, percent body fat, and body mass index were measured before and after the trial. Results: All participants experienced weight loss. The average decrease in fat mass was highly significant (P < 0.0001, as were decreases in percent body fat and body mass index. Individual weight and fat mass losses were 17.55 ± 9.73 and 21.78 ± 8.34 lbs., respectively, and individual percent body fat and body mass index decreases were 8.91 ± 3.58 % and 2.6 ± 1.32, respectively. Conclusion: The nutritional and exercise interventions significantly influenced body composition among participants.

  1. CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION AND EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P. Bird

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, the nutritional supplement creatine monohydrate has been gaining popularity exponentially. Introduced to the general public in the early 1990s, shortly after the Barcelona Olympic Games, creatine (Cr has become one of the most widely used nutritional supplements or ergogenic aids, with loading doses as high as 20-30 g·day-1 for 5-7 days typical among athletes. This paper reviews the available research that has examined the potential ergogenic value of creatine supplementation (CrS on exercise performance and training adaptations. Short-term CrS has been reported to improve maximal power/strength, work performed during sets of maximal effort muscle contractions, single-effort sprint performance, and work performed during repetitive sprint performance. During training CrS has been reported to promote significantly greater gains in strength, fat free mass, and exercise performance primarily of high intensity tasks. However, not all studies demonstrate a beneficial effect on exercise performance, as CrS does not appear to be effective in improving running and swimming performance. CrS appears to pose no serious health risks when taken at doses described in the literature and may enhance exercise performance in individuals that require maximal single effort and/or repetitive sprint bouts

  2. Effects of dumb-bell exercise with and without energy restriction on resting metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and body composition in mildly obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T; Suzuki, M

    1999-06-01

    The effects of dumb-bell exercise (aerobic-resistance exercise) with and without low calorie diet (LCD) therapy on resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and body composition were studied in 12 mildly obese women aged 19-20 years. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following two groups: dumb-bell exercise with LCD (DEx + LCD group), and dumb-bell exercise only (DEx group). The subjects performed dumb-bell exercises with pairs of 2 kg dumb-bells every day after dinner for approximately 20 min. In the DEx + LCD group, subjects also received a liquid-formula diet based on a commercially available diet supplement, Micro Diet, for two of their three daily meals. Thus, they were restricted to approximately 4.18 MJ of energy intake per day for 12 weeks. Subjects underwent several measurements (body composition, RMR and DIT tests) before commencing the experiment and again after 12 weeks while still dieting. During the 12 week experimental period, body weight and body fat decreased significantly in both the DEx + LCD and the DEx groups without reducing fat free mass (FFM). The decreases in body weight and body fat were significantly larger in the LCD + DEx group than in the DEx group. These results suggest that dumb-bell exercise decreases body weight and body fat without reducing FFM in relation to increasing RMR and DIT. Micro Diet LCD may strengthen the effect of dumb-bell exercise on body weight and body fat, but weaken the effects on RMR and DIT.

  3. Effects of Warm-Up Stretching Exercises on Sprint Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaruk, Hubert; Makaruk, Beata; Kedra, Stanislaw

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess direct effects of warm-up consisting of static and dynamic stretching exercises on sprint results attained by students differing in sprint performance. Material and methods: A group of 24 male and 19 female physical education students, including 12 and 9 sprinters, respectively. They performed warm-ups consisting of dynamic…

  4. The impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction on athletic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Oliver J; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    of this review is to provide a systematic appraisal of the current status of knowledge regarding EIB and exercise performance and to highlight potential mechanisms by which performance may be compromised by EIB. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: PubMed/Medline and EBSCO databases were searched up to May 2014...

  5. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  6. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T E

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also been shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects. The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by

  7. The effects of physique-salient and physique non-salient exercise videos on women's body image, self-presentational concerns, and exercise motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginis, Kathleen A Martin; Prapavessis, Harry; Haase, Anne M

    2008-06-01

    This experiment examined the effects of exposure to physique-salient (PS) and physique non-salient (PNS) exercise videos and the moderating influence of perceived physique discrepancies, on body image, self-presentational concerns, and exercise motivation. Eighty inactive women (M age=26) exercised to a 30 min instructional exercise video. In the PS condition, the video instructor wore revealing attire that emphasized her thin and toned physique. In the PNS condition, she wore attire that concealed her physique. Participants completed pre- and post-exercise measures of body image, social physique anxiety (SPA) and self-presentational efficacy (SPE) and a post-exercise measure of exercise motivation and perceived discrepancies with the instructor's body. No main or moderated effects emerged for video condition. However, greater perceived negative discrepancies were associated with poorer post-exercise body satisfaction and body evaluations, and higher state SPA. There were no effects on SPE or motivation. Results suggest that exercise videos that elicit perceived negative discrepancies can be detrimental to women's body images.

  8. Body-related envy: a social comparison perspective in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Stamiris, Angela; Castonguay, Andree; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-02-01

    These three studies sought to better understand experiences of body-related envy and to examine the association with motivation and exercise behavior in young adult males and females. In an interview study, participants (N = 11) discussed body-related envy within a framework of social comparison. In Study 2, a thematic content analysis was conducted on self-reported narratives of body-related envy experiences reported by 288 participants. Themes of body-related envy triggers, cognitions, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were identified. Findings from Studies 1 and 2 highlighted the possible link between body-related envy and exercise motivation and behavior. Study 3 tested these associations with males and females (N = 595) who completed a self-report questionnaire. In the structural equation model, body-related envy was positively associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations, and identified regulation was positively associated with exercise behavior. Taken together, the importance of body-related envy in the experience of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes related to sport and exercise contexts is highlighted.

  9. Effects of aerobic exercise on the body composition and lipid profile of overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an aerobic physical exercise program without dietary intervention prescribed with blood lactate levels on body composition and lipid profile of overweight adolescents. A randomized study consisting of pre- and post-treatment tests was conducted on overweight adolescents who were randomly divided into an experimental group submitted to an aerobic exercise program and a control group. The exercise program lasted 12 weeks. After the intervention, a reduction in triceps skinfold thickness, percent body fat and fat mass and an increase in fat-free mass and lipid profile (HDL-c were observed in the experimental group (p<0.05. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the risk of cardiovascular diseases in overweight adolescents who regularly exercise.

  10. Body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic exercise in adolescents: are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if boys and girls who practice exercises with aesthetic propose report higher levels of body dissatisfaction compared to their inactive peers. A total of 199 adolescents (89 boys, mean age 16.1 years, completed measures of body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise. Results demonstrated that active boys presented lower dissatisfaction than their inactive peers; and active girls were significantly more dissatisfied than inactive ones. Active boys were more satisfied than active girls. The majority of active girls reported a desire for a slimmer silhouette; while active boys were equally divided between those who desired a heavier silhouette and those who were satisfied. Psychological commitment to exercise did not differ between satisfied and dissatisfied active adolescents. Thus, girls who practice aesthetic exercises must be looked at as a high risk population to the development of health harmful behaviors and eating disorders.

  11. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Ersöz, Ersin Altiparmak, F. Hülya Aşçı

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI. 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification.

  12. Effect of physical exercise interventions on musculoskeletal pain in all body regions among office workers: A one-year randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Christensen, Karl Bang; Holtermann, Andreas;

    2010-01-01

    at baseline of 3 or more (scale of 0-9) during the last three months. For neck cases specifically, the additional number of pain regions was counted. Intensity of pain decreased significantly more in the neck, low back, right elbow and right hand in cases of the two exercise groups compared with the reference......This study investigated effects of physical exercise on musculoskeletal pain symptoms in all regions of the body, as well as on other musculoskeletal pain in association with neck pain. A single blind randomized controlled trial testing a one-year exercise intervention was performed among 549...... office workers; specific neck/shoulder resistance training, all-round physical exercise, or a reference intervention. Pain symptoms were determined by questionnaire screening of twelve selected body regions. Case individuals were identified for each body region as those reporting pain intensities...

  13. A re-examination of the benefits of exercise for state body satisfaction: consideration of individual difference factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matt; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita

    2013-01-01

    Although the link between exercise and body image is well documented, the considerable inter-individual variability in this relationship has been largely ignored. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the contributions of key body image and exercise-related moderators (age, body mass index (BMI), exercise frequency, trait body dissatisfaction, internalisation of appearance standards, and body surveillance tendencies) in predicting variability in the exercise-body satisfaction relationship. Thirty-seven undergraduate women completed a questionnaire containing the above trait-based measures and then carried a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) for a 7-day period. Participants were instructed to use the PDA to self-report their state body satisfaction immediately following an exercise session and also when the PDA signalled at each of six random intervals throughout the day. Multilevel modelling revealed a bi-directional relationship between exercise and state body satisfaction. Moreover, post-exercise increases in state body satisfaction were strongest for individuals who were younger and engaged in regular exercise, and weakest for individuals with high BMI and/or the tendency to compare their appearance with others. These findings highlight potential limits on the efficacy of exercise-based therapy for body image disturbances.

  14. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  15. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO₂, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, pexercise increased Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain.

  16. A moderate glycemic meal before endurance exercise can enhance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; O'Gorman, D; Evans, W J

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether presweetened breakfast cereals with various fiber contents and a moderate glycemic index optimize glucose availability and improve endurance exercise performance. Six recreationally active women ate 75 g of available carbohydrate in the form of breakfast cereals: sweetened whole-grain rolled oats (SRO, 7 g of dietary fiber) or sweetened whole-oat flour (SOF, 3 g of dietary fiber) and 300 ml of water or water alone (Con). The meals were provided 45 min before semirecumbent cycle ergometer exercise to exhaustion at 60% of peak O2 consumption (VO2peak). Diet and physical activity were controlled by having the subjects reside in the General Clinical Research Center for 2 days before each trial. Blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein for glucose, free fatty acid (FFA), glycerol, insulin, epinephrine, and norepinephrine determination. Breath samples were obtained at 15-min intervals after meal ingestion and at 30-min intervals during exercise. Muscle glycogen concentration was determined from biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before the meal and immediately after exercise. Plasma FFA concentrations were lower (P glycemic index 45 min before prolonged moderately intense exercise significantly enhances exercise capacity.

  17. Water immersion recovery for athletes: effect on exercise performance and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versey, Nathan G; Halson, Shona L; Dawson, Brian T

    2013-11-01

    performing full-body immersion, or using hot showers instead of pools. TWI has been investigated as both a control to determine the effect of water temperature on performance recovery, and as an intervention itself. However, due to conflicting findings it is uncertain whether TWI improves recovery of subsequent exercise performance. Both CWI and CWT appear likely to assist recovery of exercise performance more than HWI and TWI; however, it is unclear which technique is most effective. While the literature on the use of water immersion for recovery of exercise performance is increasing, further research is required to obtain a more complete understanding of the effects on performance.

  18. Maximal muscular vascular conductances during whole body upright exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Jensen-Urstad, M; Van Hall, Gerrit;

    2004-01-01

    That muscular blood flow may reach 2.5 l kg(-1) min(-1) in the quadriceps muscle has led to the suggestion that muscular vascular conductance must be restrained during whole body exercise to avoid hypotension. The main aim of this study was to determine the maximal arm and leg muscle vascular...... conductances (VC) during leg and arm exercise, to find out if the maximal muscular vasodilatory response is restrained during maximal combined arm and leg exercise. Six Swedish elite cross-country skiers, age (mean +/-s.e.m.) 24 +/- 2 years, height 180 +/- 2 cm, weight 74 +/- 2 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake...

  19. Mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation does not exacerbate central fatigue during subsequent whole-body endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M; Rozand, Vianney; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the mental fatigue induced by prolonged self-regulation increases perception of effort and reduces performance during subsequent endurance exercise. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying these negative effects of mental fatigue are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental fatigue exacerbates central fatigue induced by whole-body endurance exercise. Twelve subjects performed 30 min of either an incongruent Stroop task to induce a condition of mental fatigue or a congruent Stroop task (control condition) in a random and counterbalanced order. Both cognitive tasks (CTs) were followed by a whole-body endurance task (ET) consisting of 6 min of cycling exercise at 80% of peak power output measured during a preliminary incremental test. Neuromuscular function of the knee extensors was assessed before and after CT, and after ET. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured during ET. Both CTs did not induce any decrease in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque (p = 0.194). During ET, mentally fatigued subjects reported higher RPE (mental fatigue 13.9 ± 3.0, control 13.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.044). ET induced a similar decrease in MVC torque (mental fatigue -17 ± 15%, control -15 ± 11%, p = 0.001), maximal voluntary activation level (mental fatigue -6 ± 9%, control -6 ± 7%, p = 0.013) and resting twitch (mental fatigue -30 ± 14%, control -32 ± 10%, p mental fatigue does not reduce the capacity of the central nervous system to recruit the working muscles. The negative effect of mental fatigue on perception of effort does not reflect a greater development of either central or peripheral fatigue. Consequently, mentally fatigued subjects are still able to perform maximal exercise, but they are experiencing an altered performance during submaximal exercise due to higher-than-normal perception of effort.

  20. The kinetics of lactate production and removal during whole-body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxnes John F

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on a literature review, the current study aimed to construct mathematical models of lactate production and removal in both muscles and blood during steady state and at varying intensities during whole-body exercise. In order to experimentally test the models in dynamic situations, a cross-country skier performed laboratory tests while treadmill roller skiing, from where work rate, aerobic power and blood lactate concentration were measured. A two-compartment simulation model for blood lactate production and removal was constructed. Results The simulated and experimental data differed less than 0.5 mmol/L both during steady state and varying sub-maximal intensities. However, the simulation model for lactate removal after high exercise intensities seems to require further examination. Conclusions Overall, the simulation models of lactate production and removal provide useful insight into the parameters that affect blood lactate response, and specifically how blood lactate concentration during practical training and testing in dynamical situations should be interpreted.

  1. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J

    2013-01-01

    ), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer...... biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI...... 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between...

  2. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F.; Panissa, Valéria L. G.; Lira, Fábio S.; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Methods: Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk−1): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. Results: For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Conclusion: Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance. PMID:27445856

  3. Type-D personality and body image in men: the role of exercise status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco; Levy, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 'Distressed' or Type-D personality is described by the interaction between high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. This study investigated the prevalence of Type-D personality in men of different exercise status, the association between Type-D and body image perceptions, and the moderating effect of exercise status. Participants were 564 British males aged between 18 and 55 years. Of these 200 were classified as sedentary, 148 as active and 216 as weight trainers. Participants completed the DS14 and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Results showed that more individuals were classified as Type-D in the sedentary group (45%) than the two active groups, and in the weight training (24.5%) than the active (14.2%) group. Both Type-D and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with a significantly poorer body image. However, exercise mode was not associated with body image differences. Sedentary Type-D men scored significantly lower in Body Areas Satisfaction and higher in Self-Classified Weight than both active groups. Regular exercise might provide a pathway for Type-D men to develop a more positive body image.

  4. Effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat using leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Andreacci, Joseph; B Dixon, Curt; Ledezma, Christina; L Goss, Fredric

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF) estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA) in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys) mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr(-1), 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr(-1), 0% grade) each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001) were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001) in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 %) and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 %) children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73%) the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise. Key PointsLBIA measures of body weight, percent body fat, fat mass, fat free mass and total body water were significantly lower after the intermittent sub-maximal exercise.The reductions in percent body fat for girls (1.4%) and boys (1.5%) compare favorably to previous investigations.Intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on LBIA percent body fat estimates.

  5. Effect of L-carnitine on exercise performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Gimenes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Exercise intolerance due to impaired oxidative metabolism is a prominent symptom in patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM, but it is still uncertain whether L-carnitine supplementation is beneficial for patients with MM. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on exercise performance in MM. Twelve MM subjects (mean age±SD=35.4±10.8 years with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO were first compared to 10 healthy controls (mean age±SD=29±7.8 years before they were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine supplementation (3 g/daily or placebo in a double-blind crossover design. Clinical status, body composition, respiratory function tests, peripheral muscle strength (isokinetic and isometric torque and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (incremental to peak exercise and at 70% of maximal, constant work rate (CWR exercise test, to the limit of tolerance [Tlim] were assessed after 2 months of L-carnitine/placebo administration. Patients with MM presented with lower mean height, total body weight, fat-free mass, and peripheral muscle strength compared to controls in the pre-test evaluation. After L-carnitine supplementation, the patients with MM significantly improved their Tlim (14±1.9 vs 11±1.4 min and oxygen consumption (V˙O2 at CWR exercise, both at isotime (1151±115 vs 1049±104 mL/min and at Tlim (1223±114 vs 1060±108 mL/min. These results indicate that L-carnitine supplementation may improve aerobic capacity and exercise tolerance during high-intensity CWRs in MM patients with CPEO.

  6. Effect of L-carnitine on exercise performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, A C; Bravo, D M; Nápolis, L M; Mello, M T; Oliveira, A S B; Neder, J A; Nery, L E

    2015-04-01

    Exercise intolerance due to impaired oxidative metabolism is a prominent symptom in patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM), but it is still uncertain whether L-carnitine supplementation is beneficial for patients with MM. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of L-carnitine on exercise performance in MM. Twelve MM subjects (mean age±SD=35.4±10.8 years) with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) were first compared to 10 healthy controls (mean age±SD=29±7.8 years) before they were randomly assigned to receive L-carnitine supplementation (3 g/daily) or placebo in a double-blind crossover design. Clinical status, body composition, respiratory function tests, peripheral muscle strength (isokinetic and isometric torque) and cardiopulmonary exercise tests (incremental to peak exercise and at 70% of maximal), constant work rate (CWR) exercise test, to the limit of tolerance [Tlim]) were assessed after 2 months of L-carnitine/placebo administration. Patients with MM presented with lower mean height, total body weight, fat-free mass, and peripheral muscle strength compared to controls in the pre-test evaluation. After L-carnitine supplementation, the patients with MM significantly improved their Tlim (14±1.9 vs 11±1.4 min) and oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O 2 ) at CWR exercise, both at isotime (1151±115 vs 1049±104 mL/min) and at Tlim (1223±114 vs 1060±108 mL/min). These results indicate that L-carnitine supplementation may improve aerobic capacity and exercise tolerance during high-intensity CWRs in MM patients with CPEO.

  7. Effects of stretching on upper-body muscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Earlando M; Kraemer, William J; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S; Hatfield, Disa L; Spiering, Barry A; Ho, Jen Yu; Fragala, Maren S; Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Häkkinen, Keijo; Maresh, Carl M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of upper-body static stretching and dynamic stretching on upper-body muscular performance. Eleven healthy men, who were National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I track and field athletes (age, 19.6 +/- 1.7 years; body mass, 93.7 +/- 13.8 kg; height, 183.6 +/- 4.6 cm; bench press 1 repetition maximum [1RM], 106.2 +/- 23.0 kg), participated in this study. Over 4 sessions, subjects participated in 4 different stretching protocols (i.e., no stretching, static stretching, dynamic stretching, and combined static and dynamic stretching) in a balanced randomized order followed by 4 tests: 30% of 1 RM bench throw, isometric bench press, overhead medicine ball throw, and lateral medicine ball throw. Depending on the exercise, test peak power (Pmax), peak force (Fmax), peak acceleration (Amax), peak velocity (Vmax), and peak displacement (Dmax) were measured. There were no differences among stretch trials for Pmax, Fmax, Amax, Vmax, or Dmax for the bench throw or for Fmax for the isometric bench press. For the overhead medicine ball throw, there were no differences among stretch trials for Vmax or Dmax. For the lateral medicine ball throw, there was no difference in Vmax among stretch trials; however, Dmax was significantly larger (p static and dynamic condition compared to the static-only condition. In general, there was no short-term effect of stretching on upper-body muscular performance in young adult male athletes, regardless of stretch mode, potentially due to the amount of rest used after stretching before the performances. Since throwing performance was largely unaffected by static or dynamic upper-body stretching, athletes competing in the field events could perform upper-body stretching, if enough time were allowed before the performance. However, prior studies on lower-body musculature have demonstrated dramatic negative effects on speed and power. Therefore, it is recommended that a dynamic

  8. Maximal exercise performance in patients with postcancer fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, H.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Zwarts, M.J.; Leer, J.W.H.; Heerschap, A.; Bleijenberg, G.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to examine whether physical fitness of severely fatigued and non-fatigued cancer survivors, as measured by maximal exercise performance, is different between both groups and, if so, whether this difference can be explained by differences in physical activity, self-e

  9. Neuroenhancement of memory for children with autism by a mind-body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes S eChan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind-body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR training, or no training for one month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the sLORETA method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind-body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism.

  10. Neuroenhancement of Memory for Children with Autism by a Mind-Body Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S; Han, Yvonne M Y; Sze, Sophia L; Lau, Eliza M

    2015-01-01

    The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind-body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT), progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training, or no training for 1 month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind-body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism.

  11. Neuroenhancement of Memory for Children with Autism by a Mind–Body Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Sze, Sophia L.; Lau, Eliza M.

    2015-01-01

    The memory deficits found in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be caused by the lack of an effective strategy to aid memory. The executive control of memory processing is mediated largely by the timely coupling between frontal and posterior brain regions. The present study aimed to explore the potential effect of a Chinese mind–body exercise, namely Nei Gong, for enhancing learning and memory in children with ASD, and the possible neural basis of the improvement. Sixty-six children with ASD were randomly assigned to groups receiving Nei Gong training (NGT), progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) training, or no training for 1 month. Before and after training, the participants were tested individually on a computerized visual memory task while EEG signals were acquired during the memory encoding phase. Children in the NGT group demonstrated significantly enhanced memory performance and more effective use of a memory strategy, which was not observed in the other two groups. Furthermore, the improved memory after NGT was consistent with findings of elevated EEG theta coherence between frontal and posterior brain regions, a measure of functional coupling. The scalp EEG signals were localized by the standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography method and found to originate from a neural network that promotes effective memory processing, including the prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex, and the medial and inferior temporal cortex. This alteration in neural processing was not found in children receiving PMR or in those who received no training. The present findings suggest that the mind–body exercise program may have the potential effect on modulating neural functional connectivity underlying memory processing and hence enhance memory functions in individuals with autism. PMID:26696946

  12. IGF-I Polymorphism is Associated with Lean Mass, Exercise Economy and Performance Among Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Alarcón, Mardya; Hunter, Gary R.; Gower, Barba A.; Fernández, José R.

    2007-01-01

    Background We undertook this study to investigate the association of a genetic polymorphism of the insulin-like growth factor, IGF-I189, on body composition, exercise performance and exercise economy, after controlling for the independent effect of race as assessed by African genetic admixture (AFADM). Methods A total of 114 premenopausal sedentary women were genotyped for IGF-I189, obtaining measures of fat mass, lean body mass, VO2 during cycling and stairclimbing, time on treadmill and leg strength. A quantitative value for AFADM was derived from genotypic information of approximately 40 ancestry informative markers and used as covariate in statistical models. Results After adjusting for AFADM, IGF-I189 was negatively associated with lean body mass (p = 0.029) and lean leg mass (p = 0.050). Leg strength was not associated with the presence/absence of IGF-I189 (p = 0.380), but carriers of the allele demonstrated a longer time on the treadmill (p = 0.015) after adjusting for AFADM. There was also a negative relationship between oxygen uptake during cycling and presence of the IGF-I189 independent of AFADM (p = 0.010). Conclusion Independent of AFADM, individuals with IGF-I189 are more likely to have low leg lean mass and to perform better in activities requiring exercise economy and endurance performance. PMID:17174724

  13. Comparison of oxygen uptake during and after the execution of resistance exercises and exercises performed on ergometers, matched for intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilaça-Alves José

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the values of oxygen uptake (VO2 during and after strength training exercises (STe and ergometer exercises (Ee, matched for intensity and exercise time. Eight men (24 ± 2.33 years performed upper and lower body cycling Ee at the individual’s ventilatory threshold (VE/VCO2. The STe session included half squats and the bench press which were performed with a load at the individual blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l. Both sessions lasted 30 minutes, alternating 50 seconds of effort with a 10 second transition time between upper and lower body work. The averaged overall VO2 between sessions was significantly higher for Ee (24.96 ± 3.6 ml·kg·min-1 compared to STe (21.66 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1 (p = 0.035, but this difference was only seen for the first 20 minutes of exercise. Absolute VO2 values between sessions did not reveal differences. There were more statistically greater values in Ee compared to STe, regarding VO2 of lower limbs (25.44 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.83 ± 2·24 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.038 and upper limbs (24.49 ± 3.84 ml·kg·min-1 versus 21.54 ± 1.77 ml·kg·min-1; p = 0.047. There were further significant differences regarding the moment effect (p<0.0001 of both STe and Ee sessions. With respect to the moment × session effect, only VO2 5 minutes into recovery showed significant differences (p = 0.017. In conclusion, although significant increases in VO2 were seen following Ee compared to STe, it appears that the load/intensity, and not the material/equipment used for the execution of an exercise, are variables that best influence oxygen uptake.

  14. Effect of Regular Yoga Practice on Respiratory Regulation and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Eveline; Beltrami, Fernando G; Boutellier, Urs; Spengler, Christina M

    2016-01-01

    Yoga alters spontaneous respiratory regulation and reduces hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses. Since a lower ventilatory response is associated with an improved endurance capacity during whole-body exercise, we tested whether yogic subjects (YOGA) show an increased endurance capacity compared to matched non-yogic individuals (CON) with similar physical activity levels. Resting ventilation, the ventilatory response to hypercapnia, passive leg movement and exercise, as well as endurance performance were assessed. YOGA (n = 9), compared to CONTROL (n = 6), had a higher tidal volume at rest (0.7±0.2 vs. 0.5±0.1 l, p = 0.034) and a reduced ventilatory response to hypercapnia (33±15 vs. 47±15 l·min(-1), p = 0.048). A YOGA subgroup (n = 6) with maximal performance similar to CONTROL showed a blunted ventilatory response to passive cycling (11±2 vs. 14±2 l·min(-1), p = 0.039) and a tendency towards lower exercise ventilation (33±2 vs. 36±3 l·min(-1), p = 0.094) while cycling endurance (YOGA: 17.3±3.3; CON: 19.6±8.5 min, p = 0.276) did not differ. Thus, yoga practice was not associated with improved exercise capacity nor with significant changes in exercise ventilation despite a significantly different respiratory regulation at rest and in response to hypercapnia and passive leg movement.

  15. Respiratory muscle performance as a possible determinant of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esch, M. van der; Hul, A.J. van 't; Heijmans, M.; Dekker, J.

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of exercise capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis is associated with skeletal muscle performance. The contribution of respiratory muscle performance is questionable. This pilot study was designed to investigate the relationship between respiratory muscle performance and exercise

  16. Adolescent Athleticism, Exercise, Body Image, and Dietary Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Cheryl J.; McKeown, Robert E.; Sargent, Roger G.; Valois, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    Investigated relationships between physical activity and athletic participation and body-size perceptions, diet, and weight-control practice among high school students, noting racial and gender differences. Surveys indicated that diet quality improved and weight-loss attempts increased as physical activity and athletic participation increased.…

  17. Effect of Coffee and Caffeine Ingestion on Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Darren L; Clarke, Neil D

    2016-10-01

    Richardson, DL and Clarke, ND. Effect of coffee and caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2892-2900, 2016-The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of ingesting caffeine dose-matched anhydrous caffeine, coffee, or decaffeinated coffee plus anhydrous caffeine during resistance exercise on performance. Nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SD: age, 24 ± 2 years; weight, 84 ± 8 kg; height, 180 ± 8 cm) completed a squat and bench press exercise protocol at 60% 1 repetition maximum until failure on 5 occasions consuming 0.15 g·kg caffeinated coffee (COF), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee (DEC), 0.15 g·kg decaffeinated coffee plus 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (D + C), 5 mg·kg anhydrous caffeine (CAF), or a placebo (PLA). Felt arousal and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were used to assess perceptual variables and heart rate (HR) to assess physiological responses between trials. There were significant differences in total weight lifted for the squat between conditions (p Coffee and decaffeinated coffee plus caffeine have the ability to improve performance during a resistance exercise protocol, although possibly not over multiple bouts.

  18. New strategies in sport nutrition to increase exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, G L; Hamilton, D L; Philp, A; Burke, L M; Morton, J P

    2016-09-01

    Despite over 50 years of research, the field of sports nutrition continues to grow at a rapid rate. Whilst the traditional research focus was one that centred on strategies to maximise competition performance, emerging data in the last decade has demonstrated how both macronutrient and micronutrient availability can play a prominent role in regulating those cell signalling pathways that modulate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and resistance training. Nonetheless, in the context of exercise performance, it is clear that carbohydrate (but not fat) still remains king and that carefully chosen ergogenic aids (e.g. caffeine, creatine, sodium bicarbonate, beta-alanine, nitrates) can all promote performance in the correct exercise setting. In relation to exercise training, however, it is now thought that strategic periods of reduced carbohydrate and elevated dietary protein intake may enhance training adaptations whereas high carbohydrate availability and antioxidant supplementation may actually attenuate training adaptation. Emerging evidence also suggests that vitamin D may play a regulatory role in muscle regeneration and subsequent hypertrophy following damaging forms of exercise. Finally, novel compounds (albeit largely examined in rodent models) such as epicatechins, nicotinamide riboside, resveratrol, β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate, phosphatidic acid and ursolic acid may also promote or attenuate skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance and strength training. When taken together, it is clear that sports nutrition is very much at the heart of the Olympic motto, Citius, Altius, Fortius (faster, higher, stronger).

  19. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation and Exercise Training on Exercise Performance in Middle-Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wen Kan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RES has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antalgic, and anti-fatigue activities. Exercise training (ET improves frailty resulting from aging. This study evaluated the effects of a combination of RES supplementation and ET on the exercise performance of aged mice. C57BL/6J mice (16 months old were randomly divided into four groups: an older control group (OC group, supplementation with RES group (RES group, ET group (ET group, and a combination of ET and RES supplementation group (ET+RES group. Other 10-week-old mice were used as a young control group (Y-Ctrl group. In this study, exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. Our results showed that the forelimb grip strength of mice in the ET+RES group was significantly higher than those in the OC, RES, and ET groups (by 1.3-, 1.2-, and 1.1-fold, respectively, p < 0.05, and exhibited no difference with the Y-Ctrl group. The endurance swimming test showed that swimming times of the ET and ET+RES groups were significantly longer than those of the OC and RES groups. Moreover, plasma lactate and ammonia levels of the ET + RES group after acute swimming exercise were significantly lower compared to the OC group (p < 0.05. Thus, it was suggested that by combining RES supplementation with ET for 4 weeks, the muscle strength and endurance performance of aged mice were significantly improved compared to the single intervention with either RES or ET alone. This combination might help shorten the extent of deterioration accompanying the aging process.

  20. Does Body Mass Index Influence Behavioral Regulations, Dispositional Flow and Social Physique Anxiety in Exercise Setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Gözde; Altiparmak, Ersin; Aşçı, F Hülya

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow, social physique anxiety of exercisers in terms of body mass index (BMI). 782 university students participated in this study. Dispositional Flow State Scale-2, Behavioral Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire-2, Social Physique Anxiety Scale and Physical Activity Stages of Change Questionnaire were administered to participants. After controlling for gender, analysis indicated significant differences in behavioral regulations, dispositional flow and social physique anxiety of exercise participants with regards to BMI. In summary, the findings demonstrate that normal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons while underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation. Additionally, participants who are underweight had higher dispositional flow and lower social physique anxiety scores than other BMI classification. Key pointsNormal weighted participants exercise for internal reasons.Underweighted participants are amotivated for exercise participation.Underweighted participants had higher dispositional flow.Underweighted participants have lower social physique anxiety scores than normal weighted, overweight and obese participants.

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise training on body composition and metabolic syndrome factors in obese male college student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASTEGAR HOSEINI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (Ms is emerging as a serious public health problem in Iran. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training on body composition and Ms factors in obese Iran male college students. subjects were randomly assigned to exercise (n = 19 and control (n = 19 groups. The exercise group trained for 50 min/day, for 3 day/week for 8 weeks. each exercise session comprised 3 phases: warm-up for 10 min, aerobic exercise for 30 min (the exercise intensity for aerobic exercise was 60–80% of the heart rate reserve (HRR for 30 min and cool down for 10 min. The paired and unpaired t-test in 0.05. A 8-week aerobic exercise program could effectively reduce tgs, tc, LDL, percent body fat, Wc, sBP, DBP and in- crease HDL in a sample population of obese Iran male college students.

  2. Discrepancy between actual and ideal body images; Impact on eating and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Perri, M G; Riley, J R

    2000-12-01

    This study examined how discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are related to eating and exercise patterns. A total of 115 college-age women completed the Body Discrepancy Scale (BDS, a measure of the discrepancy between one's "actual" vs. "ideal" weight and size), a leisure-time physical activity survey, and questionnaires assessing the intake of fat and fiber (i.e., fruits and vegetables), as well as measures of maladaptive eating attitudes and behaviors. Partial correlations (controlling for Body Mass Index, BMI) showed that scores on the BDS were significantly (P'sbody image dissatisfaction (r=.32) and binge eating (r=.32). Collectively, these findings suggest that discrepancies between actual and ideal body images are associated with maladaptive eating and exercise patterns.

  3. IMPACT OF EXERCISE INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE ON SPRINT AND AGILITY PERFORMANCE

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    Şengül AKDENİZ

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of exercise induced muscle damage on sprint and agility performance.Methods: Eleven healthy male soccer players [( ±SD age: 21.63 ± 1.91 years; stature: 176.63 ± 5.31cm; body mass: 70.36 ± 3.72kg] who did not perform any high intensity physical training during last 3 months volunteered to participate in this study. Agility and sprint running times were measured, following determination of athletes muscle soreness level using visual analog scale (VAS, before (baseline and at 1st, 24th, 48th, 72nd and 96th hours after muscle damaging exercise protocol. Five sets of 20 repetitions drop jumps were performed as a muscle damage exercise protocol. Repeated measure ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.Results: Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant changes in muscle soreness [F(5-50= 196.65, p≤0.01], agility [F(5-50= 32.034, p≤0.01] and sprint running times [F(5-50= 9.28, p≤0.01] relevant with time intervals. Muscle soreness and agility test times were significantly (p≤0.05 higher than baseline values at all time intervals (1st, 24th, 48th, 72nd and 96th hours. Sprint running time was significantly (p≤0.05 increased at 1st, 24th, and 48th hours compared to baseline values.Conclusion: Consequently, results of the study revealed that exercise induced muscle damage affect agility and sprint performance negatively. The respondents should be careful in including unfamiliar exercises and exercises including intense eccentric contractions during the process of training planning for sports branches, where agility and sprint are important features.

  4. Changes in body composition of high competition rugby players during the phases of a regular season: influence of diet and exercise load

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    M. García

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Top athletes are subjected to intense training to achieve high performance. There are factors such as diet and strenuous exercise that affects body composition and can modify the performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a personalized plan of diet and training on body composition. Methods: We studied the body composition of 18 professional rugby players using Kinanthropometry parameters. The study was conducted from the preseason to the end of the season taking into account the position of the player for measuring exercise intensity, and developing a personalized nutritional and training plan to each player. Results: At baseline the players were away from the internationally recommended body composition, with high percentages of body fat. Appropriate and personalized diet plans and training custom achieved fat percentages close to those recommended. Conclusions: The personalized program of diet and training directed has adequate leverage to improve all parameters studied them bringing them as close to the ideal.

  5. EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT SUB-MAXIMAL EXERCISE ON PERCENT BODY FAT USING LEG-TO-LEG BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS IN CHILDREN

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    Joseph L. Andreacci

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of intermittent sub-maximal exercise on percent body fat (%BF estimated by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (LBIA in children. Fifty-nine children (29 girls; 30 boys mean age 9.0 ± 1.3 years participated in this study. LBIA measured %BF values were obtained immediately before and within five minutes after completing an intermittent exercise protocol consisting of three 8-minute sub-maximal exercise bouts (2.74 km·hr-1, 0% grade; 4.03 km·hr-1, 0% grade; and 5.47 km·hr-1, 0% grade each separated by a 5-min seated rest period. The three exercise bouts corresponded to 56%, 61% and 71% of maximal heart rate. Significant differences (p < 0.001 were observed for fat mass, fat free mass, total body water, and body weight, post-exercise in both groups. Significant reductions (p < 0.001 in %BF were observed post-exercise in the female (23.1 ± 9.9 vs. 21.8 ± 9. 9 % and male (23.3 ± 10.5 vs. 21.8 ± 10.2 % children when compared to pre-exercise values. However, for the majority of the subjects (females = 86%; males = 73% the decrease in %BF post- exercise was less than 2.0 %BF. These data indicate that sub-maximal intermittent exercise, that may be representative of daily free-form activities in children, will most likely have a limited impact on %BF estimates when the assessment is performed immediately post-exercise

  6. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    OpenAIRE

    E. Romero; S. Márquez-Rosa; Bernal, F; N. Camberos; J.A. De Paz

    2015-01-01

    Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 chil...

  7. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  8. Exercise science: research to sustain and enhance performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Jonathan E.

    2013-05-01

    Cardiovascular adjustments accompanying exercise in high ambient temperatures are likely responsible for diminished aerobic capacity and performance in such conditions. These adjustments include a phenomenon known as cardiovascular drift in which heart rate rises and stroke volume declines progressively over time during constant-rate exercise. A variety of factors modulate the magnitude of cardiovascular drift, e.g., elevated core and skin temperatures, dehydration, and exercise intensity. Regardless of the mode of manipulation, decreases in stroke volume associated with cardiovascular drift result in directionally and proportionally similar decreases in maximal aerobic capacity. Maximal aerobic capacity is determined by maximal heart rate, maximal tissue oxygen extraction, and maximal stroke volume. Because maximal heart rate and maximal tissue oxygen extraction are unaffected during exercise in the heat, decreased stroke volume associated with cardiovascular drift likely persists during maximal efforts and explains the decrease in maximal aerobic capacity. Decreased maximal aerobic capacity results in a greater perceptual and physiological strain accompanying any given level of work. Therefore, sustaining and enhancing performance involves sophisticated monitoring of physiological strain combined with development of countermeasures that mitigate the magnitude of deleterious phenomena like cardiovascular drift.

  9. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

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    Painelli Vitor

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance.

  10. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

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    Brielle V Rosa

    Full Text Available Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively. At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01 and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02; however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during

  11. Moderate exercise during pregnancy in Wistar rats alters bone and body composition of the adult offspring in a sex-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Brielle V; Blair, Hugh T; Vickers, Mark H; Dittmer, Keren E; Morel, Patrick C H; Knight, Cameron G; Firth, Elwyn C

    2013-01-01

    Exercise during pregnancy may have long-lasting effects on offspring health. Musculoskeletal growth and development, metabolism, and later-life disease risk can all be impacted by the maternal environment during pregnancy. The skeleton influences glucose handling through the actions of the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of moderate maternal exercise during pregnancy on the bone and body composition of the offspring in adult life, and to investigate the role of osteocalcin in these effects. Groups of pregnant Wistar rats either performed bipedal standing exercise to obtain food/water throughout gestation but not lactation, or were fed conventionally. Litters were reduced to 8/dam and pups were raised to maturity under control conditions. Whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and ex vivo peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the right tibia were performed. At study termination blood and tissue samples were collected. Serum concentrations of fully and undercarboxylated osteocalcin were measured, and the relative expression levels of osteocalcin, insulin receptor, Forkhead box transcription factor O1, and osteotesticular protein tyrosine phosphatase mRNA were quantified. Body mass did not differ between the offspring of exercised and control dams, but the male offspring of exercised dams had a greater % fat and lower % lean than controls (p=0.001 and p=0.0008, respectively). At the mid-tibial diaphysis, offspring of exercised dams had a lower volumetric bone mineral density than controls (p=0.01) and in the male offspring of exercised dams the bone: muscle relationship was fundamentally altered. Serum concentrations of undercarboxylated osteocalcin were significantly greater in the male offspring of exercised dams than in controls (p=0.02); however, the relative expression of the measured genes did not differ between groups. These results suggest that moderate exercise during pregnancy can

  12. Evaluation of the body bearing of high performance female volleyball players

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    Stech M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the results of the study of body bearing in 12 high performance female volleyball players of polish team (TPS Rumia are presented. To estimate body bearing the New-York's test of the body bearing classification was used. The results of the study have shown that asymmetrical positions of volleyball players in the time of services and attacks are contributed to formed some asymmetrical disturbances of body bearing. At the majority of sportsmen it is exhibited in omitting the left brachium and the left blade, in a right-hand scoliosis, in the tendency to a platypodia. It requires use of special preventive and adjusting exercises.

  13. Effects of once-weekly shallow water aerobic exercise on functional performance in elderly women

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    Veronika Kramperová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 24-week shallow-water aerobic exercise on functional performance in postmenopausal women. Thirty-seven women aged 60+ (mean age 67.2 ± 4.8 years were self-selected to a water exercise group (n = 21 or to a comparison group (n = 16. The training consisted of a 24-week (60 min.day−1, 1 d.wk−1 supervised and guided exercise programme that included aerobic and strength training using an aquatic noodle in shallow water (1.2 m. Outcome measures were 30-s chair stand and 30-s arm curl tests, assessed at baseline and 24 weeks. Significant differences between groups were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test. At 24 weeks there was a significantly (p < 0.05 greater improvement in measure of upper-body strength in the water exercise group. Arm curling improved by 15.8 versus 14.3% in the water exercise and comparison groups, respectively.

  14. Effect of Permissive Dehydration on Induction and Decay of Heat Acclimation, and Temperate Exercise Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Rebecca A.; Massey, Heather C.; Tipton, Michael J.; Young, John S.; Corbett, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It has been suggested that dehydration is an independent stimulus for heat acclimation (HA), possibly through influencing fluid-regulation mechanisms and increasing plasma volume (PV) expansion. There is also some evidence that HA may be ergogenic in temperate conditions and that this may be linked to PV expansion. We investigated: (i) the influence of dehydration on the time-course of acquisition and decay of HA; (ii) whether dehydration augmented any ergogenic benefits in temperate conditions, particularly those related to PV expansion. Methods: Eight males [VO2max: 56.9(7.2) mL·kg−1·min−1] undertook two HA programmes (balanced cross-over design), once drinking to maintain euhydration (HAEu) and once with restricted fluid-intake (HADe). Days 1, 6, 11, and 18 were 60 min exercise-heat stress tests [HST (40°C; 50% RH)], days 2–5 and 7–10 were 90 min, isothermal-strain (Tre ~ 38.5°C), exercise-heat sessions. Performance parameters [VO2max, lactate threshold, efficiency, peak power output (PPO)] were determined pre and post HA by graded exercise test (22°C; 55%RH). Results: During isothermal-strain sessions hypohydration was achieved in HADe and euhydration maintained in HAEu [average body mass loss −2.71(0.82)% vs. −0.56(0.73)%, P exercise Tre [−0.30(0.27)°C] and exercise heart rate [−12(15) beats.min−1], increased PV [+7.2(6.4)%] and sweat-loss [+0.25(0.22) L.h−1], P exercise Tre [−0.25(0.19)°C] and exercise heart rate [−3(9) beats.min−1], P 5 days to optimize HA. PMID:27932993

  15. Casein protein results in higher prandial and exercise induced whole body protein anabolism than whey protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Rutten, Erica P A; De Castro, Carmen L N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2012-09-01

    Exercise is known to improve physical functioning and health status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Recently, disturbances in protein turnover and amino acid kinetics have been observed after exercise in COPD. The objective was to investigate which dairy protein is able to positively influence the protein metabolic response to exercise in COPD. 8 COPD patients and 8 healthy subjects performed a cycle test on two days while ingesting casein or whey protein. Whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS), splanchnic amino acid extraction (SPE), and NetWbPS (=WbPS-WbPB) were measured using stable isotope methodology during 20 min of exercise (at 50% peak work load of COPD group). The controls performed a second exercise test at the same relative workload. Exercise was followed by 1 h of recovery. In the healthy group, WbPS, SPE, and NetPS were higher during casein than during whey feeding (Pexercise, independent of exercise intensity (PCOPD due to lower WbPB (Pexercise during casein and whey feeding in COPD (Pexercise were higher in COPD (Pexercise, lower NetPS values were found independent of protein type in both groups. Casein resulted in more protein anabolism than whey protein which was maintained during and following exercise in COPD. Optimizing protein intake might be of importance for muscle maintenance during daily physical activities in COPD.

  16. Effect of aquatic exercise on body composition, balance and joint range of motion in hemophilic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Turgut

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to examine the affect of ten week period aquatic exercise on children’s body composition, balance, and range motion who are under constant observation of Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology.Seven boys who were 10.71±3.1 mean aged voluntarily attended in this study. Participants made 60 minutes exercises twice a week, and study lasted for ten weeks. Bioelectricity impedance, kinesthetic balance, tandem stance-walk and joint range of motion measurements were obtained prior and post to the exercise program. Statistical analysis of data was made by Wilcoxon test. At the end of exercise program satisfying results in measures of height, weight, basal metabolic rate, free fat mass, and total body water were obtained (p<0.05. In hip and shoulder joint range of motion satisfying results were obtained in flexometric measures (p<0.05.As result of this study, it is founded that aquatic exercise may increase muscle mass, and may affect joint range of motion in three axed joints as hip and shoulder positively.

  17. Effect of aquatic exercise on body composition, balance and joint range of motion in hemophilic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Turgut

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study is to examine the affect of ten week period aquatic exercise on children’s body composition, balance, and range motion who are under constant observation of Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine Division of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology.Seven boys who were 10.71±3.1 mean aged voluntarily attended in this study. Participants made 60 minutes exercises twice a week, and study lasted for ten weeks. Bioelectricity impedance, kinesthetic balance, tandem stance-walk and joint range of motion measurements were obtained prior and post to the exercise program. Statistical analysis of data was made by Wilcoxon test. At the end of exercise program satisfying results in measures of height, weight, basal metabolic rate, free fat mass, and total body water were obtained (p<0.05. In hip and shoulder joint range of motion satisfying results were obtained in flexometric measures (p<0.05.As result of this study, it is founded that aquatic exercise may increase muscle mass, and may affect joint range of motion in three axed joints as hip and shoulder positively.

  18. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals.

  19. Time-course of changes in inflammatory response after whole-body cryotherapy multi exposures following severe exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present investigation was to analyze the effect of two different recovery modalities on classical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD and inflammation obtained after a simulated trail running race. Endurance trained males (n = 11 completed two experimental trials separated by 1 month in a randomized crossover design; one trial involved passive recovery (PAS, the other a specific whole body cryotherapy (WBC for 96 h post-exercise (repeated each day. For each trial, subjects performed a 48 min running treadmill exercise followed by PAS or WBC. The Interleukin (IL -1 (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, protein C-reactive (CRP and white blood cells count were measured at rest, immediately post-exercise, and at 24, 48, 72, 96 h in post-exercise recovery. A significant time effect was observed to characterize an inflammatory state (Pre vs. Post following the exercise bout in all conditions (p<0.05. Indeed, IL-1β (Post 1 h and CRP (Post 24 h levels decreased and IL-1ra (Post 1 h increased following WBC when compared to PAS. In WBC condition (p<0.05, TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-6 remain unchanged compared to PAS condition. Overall, the results indicated that the WBC was effective in reducing the inflammatory process. These results may be explained by vasoconstriction at muscular level, and both the decrease in cytokines activity pro-inflammatory, and increase in cytokines anti-inflammatory.

  20. Acute caffeine ingestion enhances strength performance and reduces perceived exertion and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Stanley, Michelle; Parkhouse, Natalie; Cook, Kathryn; Smith, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of caffeine ingestion in enhancing aerobic performance is well established. However, despite suggestions that caffeine may enhance resistance exercise performance, research is equivocal on the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on resistance exercise performance. It has also been suggested that dampened perception of perceived exertion and pain perception might be an explanation for any possible enhancement of resistance exercise performance due to caffeine ingestion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of caffeine ingestion on repetitions to failure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and muscle pain perception during resistance exercise to failure. Eleven resistance trained individuals (9 males, 2 females, mean age±SD=26.4±6.4 years), took part in this double-blind, randomised cross-over experimental study whereby they ingested a caffeinated (5 mg kg(-1)) or placebo solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise. Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Resistance exercise sessions consisted of bench press, deadlift, prone row and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 60% 1 repetition maximum. Results indicated that participants completed significantly greater repetitions to failure, irrespective of exercise, in the presence of caffeine (p=0.0001). Mean±S.D of repetitions to failure was 19.6±3.7 and 18.5±4.1 in caffeine and placebo conditions, respectively. There were no differences in peak heart rate or peak blood lactate values across conditions (both p >0.05). RPE was significantly lower in the caffeine compared to the placebo condition (p=0.03) and was significantly higher during lower body exercises compared to upper body exercises irrespective of substance ingested (p=0.0001). For muscle pain perception, a significant condition by exercise interaction (p=0.027) revealed that muscle pain perception was lower in the caffeine condition, irrespective of exercise

  1. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  2. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...... being highly selected as to confounding factors. The increased blood pressure in the hypertension prone subjects could not be attributed to differences in body composition, exercise capacity or dietary habits....... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X...

  3. Effect of Yoga Exercises on the Body Composition of Fasting Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zorofi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of one-month fasting along with yoga training on the body composition of novice female athletes. Twenty trained women were randomly assigned to experimental (n=10 and control (n=10 groups. The experimental group participated in yoga training classes for 4 weeks, two 60-min sessions per week; the control group did not participate in any regular exercise programs. This study was conducted on two fasting groups in the month of Ramadan, 2012. The study variables including body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were measured in three stages: a week before Ramadan, the fifteenth day of Ramadan, and a week after Ramadan. The results showed that BMI in the fasting yoga group decreased; however the changes of BMI in the control group were not significant. Also, subcutaneous fat showed significant reduction in both experimental and control groups, though the changes were more significant in the exercise group; also, the results showed that waist-to-hip ratio significantly changed in the experimental group. As to the results, yoga exercises along with fasting can help overweight people to experience ideal weight loss; also for the athletes who stop exercising in Ramadan, yoga can be used as an alternative to maintain their weight.

  4. Effect of yoga exercises on the body composition of fasting females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zorofi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of one-month fasting along with yoga training on the body composition of novice female athletes. Twenty trained women were randomly assigned to experimental (n=10 and control (n=10 groups. The experimental group participated in yoga training classes for 4 weeks, two 60-min sessions per week; the control group did not participate in any regular exercise programs. This study was conducted on two fasting groups in the month of Ramadan, 2012. The study variables including body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were measured in three stages: a week before Ramadan, the fifteenth day of Ramadan, and a week after Ramadan. The results showed that BMI in the fasting yoga group decreased; however the changes of BMI in the control group were not significant. Also, subcutaneous fat showed significant reduction in both experimental and control groups, though the changes were more significant in the exercise group; also, the results showed that waist-to-hip ratio significantly changed in the experimental group. As to the results, yoga exercises along with fasting can help overweight people to experience ideal weight loss; also for the athletes who stop exercising in Ramadan, yoga can be used as an alternative to maintain their weight.

  5. The effect of high-intensity intermittent exercise on body composition of overweight young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, M; Freund, J; Boutcher, S H

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of a 12-week high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) intervention on total body, abdominal, trunk, visceral fat mass, and fat free mass of young overweight males. Participants were randomly assigned to either exercise or control group. The intervention group received HIIE three times per week, 20 min per session, for 12 weeks. Aerobic power improved significantly (P 0.05) occurred in levels of insulin, HOMA-IR, and blood lipids. Twelve weeks of HIIE resulted in significant reductions in total, abdominal, trunk, and visceral fat and significant increases in fat free mass and aerobic power.

  6. Does whole-body cryotherapy improve vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise bout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Ferreira-Junior, Joao B; Vieira, Carlos; Cleto, Vitor A; Cadore, Eduardo L; Simões, Herbert G; Carmo, Jake Do; Brown, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) has been used as a recovery strategy following different sports activities. Thus, the aim of the study reported here was to examine the effect of WBC on vertical jump recovery following a high-intensity exercise (HIE) bout. Twelve trained men (mean ± standard deviation age = 23.9±5.9 years) were randomly exposed to two different conditions separated by 7 days: 1) WBC (3 minutes of WBC at −110°C immediately after the HIE) and 2) control (CON; no WBC after the HIE). The HIE consisted of six sets of ten repetitions of knee extensions at 60° · s−1 concentric and 180° · s−1 eccentric on an isokinetic dynamometer. The vertical jump test was used to evaluate the influence of HIE on lower extremity muscular performance. The vertical jump was performed on a force platform before HIE (T1) and 30 minutes after (T2) the WBC and CON conditions. As a result of HIE, jump height, muscle power, and maximal velocity (Vmax) had significant decreases between T1 and T2, however no significance was found between the WBC and CON conditions. The results indicate that one session of WBC had no effect on vertical jump following an HIE compared with a CON condition. WBC may not improve muscle-function (dependent on stretch-shortening cycle) recovery in very short periods (ie, 30 minutes) following HIE. PMID:25750548

  7. DIFFERENCES IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OLDER MEN AND WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew W. Gardner; Montgomery, Polly S.

    2008-01-01

    Purposes: (a) To compare exercise performance and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) between older men and women, (b) to assess the relationship between exercise performance and LTPA, and (c) to determine whether group differences in exercise performance persist after controlling for LTPA.Methods: A total of 105 women and 155 men who were 65 years of age and older participated in this study. Subjects were characterized on exercise performance by a 6-minute walk test, and by a short physi...

  8. Whey protein improves HDL/non-HDL ratio and body weight gain in rats subjected to the resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kely Raspante Teixeira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of resistance exercise, such as weight-lifting (WL on the biochemical parameters of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk in the rats fed casein (control or whey protein (WP diets. Thirty-two male Fisher rats were randomly assigned to sedentary or exercise-trained groups and were fed control or WP diets. The WL program consisted of inducing the animals to perform the sets of jumps with weights attached to the chest. After seven weeks, arteriovenous blood samples were collected for analysis. The WL or WP ingestion were able to improve the lipid profile, reducing the TC and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, but only WP treatment significantly increased the serum HDL concentrations, thereby also affecting the TC/HDL and HDL/non-HDL ratios. However, WL plus WP was more effective in improving the HDL/non-HDL ratio than the exercise or WP ingestion alone and the body weight gain than exercise without WP ingestion.

  9. Chicken Essence Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Physical Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chicken essence (CE is a liquid nutritional supplement made from cooking whole chickens. In traditional Chinese medicine, CE is used to support health, promote healing, increase metabolism, and relieve fatigue. However, few studies have examined the effect of CE on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CE on fatigue and ergogenic functions following physical challenge in mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups to receive vehicle or CE by oral gavage at 0, 845, 1690, or 4225 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of physical fatigue-related biomarkers serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after physical challenge. CE supplementation dose-dependently elevated endurance and grip strength. CE supplementation significantly decreased lactate, ammonia, and CK levels after physical challenge. Tissue glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise, was significantly increased with CE supplementation. In addition, CE supplementation had few subchronic toxic effects. The supplementation with CE can have a wide spectrum of bioactivities on health promotion, performance improvement and anti-fatigue.

  10. The effect of physical exercise on the daily rhythm of platelet aggregation and body temperature in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Grasso, Fortunata; Fazio, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on the daily rhythm of platelet aggregation and body temperature in horses. Blood samples from 12 Thoroughbred horses, six sedentary animals and six athletes (studied both before and after a period of inactivity) were collected at 4h intervals for 48h via an intravenous cannula inserted into the jugular vein. Body temperature was recorded every 4h for 48h with a rectal probe. Platelet aggregation was measured with an aggregometer. Collagen was used to test the aggregation of the plasma samples. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and by single cosinor method. Cosinor analysis identified the periodic parameters and their acrophases (expressed in hours) during the 2 days of monitoring. On each single day, there was a highly significant effect of time in all the horses, with P values Temperature rhythms were unaffected by exercise. Platelet aggregation in exercising horses differed from the sedentary horses, and this difference disappeared after a 2-week period of rest. The results could be interpreted as indicating that physical exercise has an influence on the daily rhythm of platelet aggregation in horses.

  11. The Effectiveness of Whole Body Cryotherapy Compared to Cold Water Immersion: Implications for Sport and Exercise Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holmes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cryotherapy is the process of cooling the body, is typically used therapeutically, and is often used as a method of recovery relative to sport and exercise performance.  The purpose of this review is to compare the current literature on WBC to that of CWI and determine whether WBC provides any additional enhancements for sport and exercise recovery. These include tissue temperature reduction, markers of muscle damage, markers of inflammation, and parasympathetic reactivation. Method: Common methods of cryotherapy include cold water immersion (CWI, ice packs, ice massages, and gel or cooling creams. CWI is the most common method among athletes; however, a new form of cryotherapy, known as whole-body cryotherapy (WBC, has recently emerged.  Since its introduction, WBC has grown in popularity among practitioners and athletes. WBC involves short exposures (generally between 2-4 minutes to very cold air (-100o C to -140o C in a controlled room and setting. Furthermore, many of the studies on WBC were observational and did not contain a control group. Conclusion: Despite its growing popularity, the alleged benefits of WBC are largely based on anecdotal evidence as randomized, clinically-controlled studies regarding its efficacy are limited.  Keywords: cryotherapy, cold water immersion, exercise, recovery, muscle damage, inflammation

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute whole-body exercise on motor processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Davranche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.

  13. Small and inconsistent effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Lesinski, Melanie; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the acute and chronic effects of whole body vibration on athletic performance or its proxy measures in competitive and/or elite athletes. Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Whole body vibration combined with exercise had an overall 0.3 % acute effect on maximal voluntary l

  14. Effects of circuit-based exercise programs on the body composition of elderly obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Lima, Lucas S; de Andrade, Socrates; Madureira, Angelo; Rica, Roberta L; dos Santos, Rodrigo Nolasco; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Silva, Jose Antonio; Rodriguez, Daniel; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of circuit-based exercise on the body composition in obese older women by focusing on physical exercise and body weight (BW) gain control in older people. Methods Seventy older women (>60 years old) voluntarily took part in the study. Participants were randomized into six different groups according to body mass index (BMI): appropriate weight (AW) control (AWC) and trained (AWT) groups, overweight (OW) control (OWC) and trained (OWT) groups, and obesity (O) control (OC) and trained (OT) groups. The exercise program consisted of 50 minutes of exercise three times per week for 12 weeks. The exercises were alternated between upper and lower body using rest between sets for 40 seconds with intensity controlled by heart rate (70% of work). The contraction time established was 5 seconds to eccentric and concentric muscular action phase. The following anthropometric parameters were evaluated: height (m), body weight (BW, kg), body fat (BF, %), fat mass (FM, kg), lean mass (LM, kg), and BMI (kg/m2). Results The values (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) of relative changes to BW (−8.0% ± 0.8%), BF (−21.4% ± 2.1%), LM (3.0% ± 0.3%), and FM (−31.2% ± 3.0%) to the OT group were higher (P < 0.05) than in the AWT (BW: −2.0% ± 1.1%; BF: −4.6% ± 1.8%; FM: −7.0% ± 2.8%; LM: 0.2% ± 1.1%) and OWT (BW: −4.5% ± 1.0%; BF: −11.0% ± 2.2%; FM: −16.1% ± 3.2%; LM: −0.2% ± 1.0%) groups; additionally, no differences were found for C groups. While reduction (P < 0.03) in BMI according to absolute values was observed for all trained groups (AWT: 22 ± 1 versus 21 ± 1; OWT: 27 ± 1 versus 25 ± 1, OT: 34 ± 1 versus 30 ± 1) after training, no differences were found for C groups. Conclusion In summary, circuit-based exercise is an effective method for promoting reduction in anthropometrics parameters in obese older women. PMID:23271901

  15. The influence of respiratory muscle training upon intermittent exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, C R; Morgan, D W; Fuller, D K; Caputo, J L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on intermittent exercise performance, respiratory muscle strength (PI (max)), respiratory muscle fatigue (RMF), and dyspnea in soccer athletes. Collegiate soccer athletes (20 male, 7 female) were randomly divided into either a RMT or control condition during off-season conditioning. The RMT group performed a 30RM protocol (10 times weekly) for 5 weeks using a commercially-available training device, while the controls received no RMT. Performance was evaluated utilizing Level 1 of the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (IRT) and dyspnea was assessed during and immediately following the IRT. RMF was quantified within 2 minutes (RMF2) and 10 minutes (RMF10) after completing the IRT. Following training, the RMT group significantly increased IRT performance by 216.6 +/- 231.0 meters (p = .008) while the 49.2 +/- 75.1 meter increase observed in the controls was not significant. PI (max) in the RMT group increased from 138.1 +/- 19.6 to 165.3 +/- 23.5 cmH (2)O (p RMT did not significantly affect RMF or dyspnea. In conclusion, RMT improved intermittent exercise performance in these soccer athletes. The mechanisms by which RMT improves performance warrant further study.

  16. Struggling with cancer and treatment: young athletes recapture body control and identity through exercise: qualitative findings from a supervised group exercise program in cancer patients of mixed gender undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, L.; Andersen, C.; Midtgaard, J.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer and treatment can negatively affect the body's performance and appearance. Exercise has been tested in a few studies for altered body image among middle-aged women with breast cancer. The aim of the study was to explore how young pre-cancer athletes of both genders experience disease......- and treatment-related physical fitness and appearance changes while undergoing chemotherapy and participating in a 6-week group exercise intervention. A prospective, explorative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted before and at termination of the intervention. The study included 22 cancer...... patients (median age 28 years). The young athletes experienced a change from a high level of physical activity, body satisfaction and a positive self-identity to a low level of physical activity, body denial and a negative self-identity. In the program, the patients experienced increased physical strength...

  17. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  18. The majority are not performing home-exercises correctly two weeks after their initial instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mathilde; Andersen, Malene H.; Sevel, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    exercises. Material and Methods. The study was an assessorblinded intervention study with 29 participants. After an initial instruction, all participants were instructed to perform two weeks of homebased unsupervised shoulder abduction exercises three times per week with an elastic exercise band......-up assessment of TUT and exercise form while performing the shoulder abduction exercise. A stretch sensor attached to the elastic band was used to measure TUT at baseline and follow-up. A physiotherapist used a predefined clinical observation protocol to determine if participants used the correct exercise form....... Results. Fourteen of the 29 participants trained with the instructed TUT at follow-up (predefined target: 240 s ±8%). Thirteen of the 29 participants performed the shoulder abduction exercise with a correct exercise form. Seven of the 29 participants trained with the instructed TUT and exercise form...

  19. Body image in obese children: Effects produced by physical exercise program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Romero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Body image self-perception in obese children is important since it can encourage behaviors leading to social isolation and cause an increase in food intake. The objective of this study was to determine the changes produced in the level of body image satisfaction and the variation in anthropometric indicators of young children in the State of Sonora, Mexico after participating in a program of 40 sessions of physical exercise with an average caloric expenditure of 267 Kcal per session. 119 children were enrolled in the program; they were between the ages of 8 and 11 with a body mass index (BMI of 26.59 ± 4.2 (kg/m2. They were evaluated before and after the physical activity intervention by means of a Body Image Satisfaction (BIS Test. The results with significant changes (p ≤ 0.05 between the pre-test and post-test are in weight and height. There are also significant changes observed in self-image in 15 parts of evaluated body segments, mainly in the abdomen, chest, thighs, buttocks, waist, and hips in all children from the experimental group. The results conclude that physical exercise, in spite of not producing significant changes in BMI, can positively modify body image perception.

  20. Influences of Short -term Aerobic Exercise and Supplementation of Carnitine With or Without Choline on Body Weight, Serum Leptin and Carnitine as Well as Lipid Status In Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Neamat E. Hishem*, Bushra H. El-Zawahry*, Seham M.S. El Nakeeb**

    2006-01-01

    Background: Carnitine is essential for fatty acids translocation, muscles function and exercise performance. Choline is a lipotropic agent that prevents deposition of fat in the liver. The studies concerning the effects of carnitine and choline supplementation with exercise on carnitine status and serum leptin are rare. The aim of the present study was to study the effect of carnitine and its combination with choline, with or without exercise on body and total fat pad (TFP) weights, serum car...

  1. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – the gold standard in physical performance assesment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX is a modern procedure that allows us to evaluate the global performanceof a subject. Because CPX devices are expensive and less popular due to a less amount of specialists in this field, many oflaboratories uses the more common ECG stress tests for physical performance assessment. Aim: to demonstrate theimportance and accuracy of cardiopulmonary exercise testing comparing with traditional maximal electrocardiographic (ECGstress test without gas exchange analysis. Methods: 18th elite soccer players (age 22.7±6 years, body mass 74.6±9.5 kg,height 175.4±9.8 cm participated in the study. The subjects accomplished two treadmill effort tests with and without gasanalyses, in 2 consecutive days interval. Results: At the end of the study we noticed a highly significant statistical difference(p<0.0001 between the investigated testing methods. In gas exchange testing method we found a decreased level of all theparameters evaluated comparing to stress ECG: VO2 peak (ml*kg-1*min-1 = 55.4±5.2 vs. 67.8±5.7; AT (ml*kg-1*min-1 =41.2±7.6 vs. 47.4±6.9; VO2/HR (ml = 23.8±2.5 vs. 23.8±2.5. Conclusions: Asessment of exercise performance based solelyon a maximal stress ECG without gas analyzing is inaccurate. Furthermore, estimation of peak exercise responses based uponcalculation of VO2 peak from peak work rate are inappropriate in sportsman. The study demonstrate once again that CPXremain the most accurate and reliable test for detection of AT and for a comprehensive physical performance assessment andcannot be replace by other surrogate laboratory exercise tests like stress ECG.

  2. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions.

  3. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives.

  4. Association between the increase in brain temperature and physical performance at different exercise intensities and protocols in a temperate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstetter, A C; Wanner, S P; Madeira, L G; Wilke, C F; Rodrigues, L O C; Lima, N R V

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that brain temperature (T brain) provides a more sensitive index than other core body temperatures in determining physical performance. However, no study has addressed whether the association between performance and increases in T brain in a temperate environment is dependent upon exercise intensity, and this was the primary aim of the present study. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to constant exercise at three different speeds (18, 21, and 24 m/min) until the onset of volitional fatigue. T brain was continuously measured by a thermistor inserted through a brain guide cannula. Exercise induced a speed-dependent increase in T brain, with the fastest speed associated with a higher rate of T brain increase. Rats subjected to constant exercise had similar T brain values at the time of fatigue, although a pronounced individual variability was observed (38.7-41.7°C). There were negative correlations between the rate of T brain increase and performance for all speeds that were studied. These results indicate that performance during constant exercise is negatively associated with the increase in T brain, particularly with its rate of increase. We then investigated how an incremental-speed protocol affected the association between the increase in T brain and performance. At volitional fatigue, T brain was lower during incremental exercise compared with the T brain resulting from constant exercise (39.3 ± 0.3 vs 40.3 ± 0.1°C; Pbrain increase and performance was observed. These findings suggest that the influence of T brain on performance under temperate conditions is dependent on exercise protocol.

  5. Exercise load index and changes in body weight during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Lyons, Terence J.; Binder, Heidi; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objectives of this project were to investigate exercise load and body weight related to long-duration confinement in a closed environment simulating ISS flight conditions, and to evaluate subjects' motivation to continue the experiment and their adaptation to isolation. METHODS: Four Russian male subjects participated in a 240-d experiment (Group I), and four subjects (three male subjects and one female subject) from Austria, Canada, Japan, and Russia participated in a 110-d experiment (Group II). Exercise load was estimated during confinement using a modified Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Free reports were used to determine subjects' motivation. Body weight was measured before, during, and after confinement. RESULTS: Group I achieved their lowest exercise loads during their first month of isolation; problems with adaptation to the isolation environment were also reported during this first month. Group II exercise load was significantly lower in the second month due to crewmember problems; loss of motivation could be noted from their free reports. The subject with the lowest exercise load retired from the isolation experiment earlier than scheduled. Exercise load was not correlated with prior exercise habits. Significant differences in body weight was observed between group I and II and between Russian and non-Russian subjects. One subject in Group I experienced a significant increase in his body weight. CONCLUSION: Exercise load may be a good indicator for adaptation problems and motivation changes in closed environments. Immobility, lack of space, and smoking cessation in general did not induce significant body weight changes.

  6. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study insulin resistance in subjects with strong genetic predisposition to essential hypertension, compared with non-disposed subjects. SUBJECTS: Thirty normotensive subjects aged 18-35 years whose parents both had essential hypertension, and 30 age- and sex matched subjects whose p...... being highly selected as to confounding factors. The increased blood pressure in the hypertension prone subjects could not be attributed to differences in body composition, exercise capacity or dietary habits....

  7. Fibromyalgia and the relevance of the whole-body vibration exercises in vibratory platforms: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson de Souza Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Among nonpharmacological strategy to manage fibromyalgia, exercise (aerobic has shown efficacy. Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise has been proposed as a potential clinical intervention. WBV would induce increase in growth hormone (GH. An impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-GH-Insulin Growth Factor-1(IGF-1 axis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia. This article aims to review the studies on exploring the relationship between WBV and fibromyalgia. Literature searches were performed in the PubMed database on 04/03/2010 using terms related to "pain", "whole body vibration" and "fibromyalgia". An important number of publications were identified with the term "pain" and in comparison, only a small number of articles were found related to "fibromyalgia". Three publications found with "whole body vibration" and fibromyalgia were analyzed.There are reports describing increase in serum IGF-1 following exposure to WBV in elderly patients. However, one randomized fibromyalgia trial revealed no changes in serum IGF-1 levels in women undergoing WBV. Due to the paucity of available, effective therapies for fibromyalgia, further studies that explore the relationship between the neuroendocrine system, fibromyalgia and WBV are merited.

  8. An Acute Bout of Exercise Improves the Cognitive Performance of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Liam; Addamo, Patricia K; Selva Raj, Isaac; Borkoles, Erika; Wyckelsma, Victoria; Cyarto, Elizabeth; Polman, Remco C

    2016-10-01

    There is evidence that an acute bout of exercise confers cognitive benefits, but it is largely unknown what the optimal mode and duration of exercise is and how cognitive performance changes over time after exercise. We compared the cognitive performance of 31 older adults using the Stroop test before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 min after a 10 and 30 min aerobic or resistance exercise session. Heart rate and feelings of arousal were also measured before, during, and after exercise. We found that, independent of mode or duration of exercise, the participants improved in the Stroop Inhibition task immediately postexercise. We did not find that exercise influenced the performance of the Stroop Color or Stroop Word Interference tasks. Our findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise can improve cognitive performance and, in particular, the more complex executive functioning of older adults.

  9. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  10. Influence of prior intense exercise and cold water immersion in recovery for performance and physiological response during subsequent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    ) and the influence from prior intense exercise on subsequent performance and physiological response to moderate and maximal exercise with and without the use of cold water immersion (CWI) in recovery (part B). In part A, performance times during eight World championships for male track cyclists were extracted from...... the qualifying and final races in 4000-m individual pursuit. In part B, twelve trained cyclists with an average (±SD) ⩒O2-peak of 67 ± 5 mL/min/kg performed a protocol mimicking a qualifying race (QUAL) followed 3 h later by a performance test (PT) with each exercise period encompassing intense exercise for ~4...... min preceded by an identical warm-up period in both a control setting (CON) and using cold water immersion in recovery (CWI; 15 min at 15°C). Performance was lowered (P cyclists during World championships in part A. In part B...

  11. [Influence of an 8-week exercise intervention on body composition, physical fitness, and mental health in female nursing students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Fumio; Yamada, Hisao; Morikawa, Sachiko

    2013-03-01

    To determine the effectiveness of habitual exercise on the health promotion of college students, we measured the body composition and physical fitness of female nursing students before (Pre) and after (Post) an 8-week low-intensity exercise intervention. We also conducted a questionnaire survey of their mental health condition before and at every 4 weeks during the intervention. The quantity of physical exercise increased (P exercise intervention did not alter the body weight, but decreased the body fat (Pre, 26.8 ± 0.5%; Post, 24.9 ± 0.5%, P mental health were significantly raised by the intervention. These results suggest that habitual exercise for 8 weeks was effective for the promotion of physical and mental health in female nursing students.

  12. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed.

  13. The effects of elevated pain inhibition on endurance exercise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, Gordon; Keegan, Richard J.; Thompson, Kevin G.; Cathcart, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Background The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min), the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance. It was hypothesised that HD-tDCS would enhance the efficiency of the endogenous pain inhibitory response and improve endurance exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy males between 18 and 40 years of age (M = 24.42 ± 3.85) were recruited for participation. Endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and exercise performance were assessed before and after both active and sham (placebo) stimulation. The conditioned pain modulation protocol was used for the measurement of pain inhibition. Exercise performance assessment consisted of both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and submaximal muscular endurance performance trials using isometric contractions of the non-dominant leg extensors. Results Active HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.32 ± 1.33 kg; post-tDCS, −1.23 ± 1.21 kg) significantly increased pain inhibitory responses relative to the effects of sham HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.91 ± .92 kg; post-tDCS, −.26 ± .92 kg; p = .046). Irrespective of condition, peak MVC force and muscular endurance was reduced from pre- to post-stimulation. HD-tDCS did not significantly influence this reduction in maximal force (active: pre-tDCS, 264.89 ± 66.87 Nm; post-tDCS, 236.33 ± 66.51 Nm; sham: pre-tDCS, 249.25 ± 88.56 Nm; post-tDCS, 239.63 ± 67.53 Nm) or muscular endurance (active: pre-tDCS, 104.65 ± 42.36 s; post-tDCS, 93.07 ± 33.73 s; sham: pre-tDCS, 123.42 ± 72.48 s; post-tDCS, 100.27 ± 44

  14. The effects of elevated pain inhibition on endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Flood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min, the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance. It was hypothesised that HD-tDCS would enhance the efficiency of the endogenous pain inhibitory response and improve endurance exercise performance. Methods Twelve healthy males between 18 and 40 years of age (M = 24.42 ± 3.85 were recruited for participation. Endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and exercise performance were assessed before and after both active and sham (placebo stimulation. The conditioned pain modulation protocol was used for the measurement of pain inhibition. Exercise performance assessment consisted of both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC and submaximal muscular endurance performance trials using isometric contractions of the non-dominant leg extensors. Results Active HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.32 ± 1.33 kg; post-tDCS, −1.23 ± 1.21 kg significantly increased pain inhibitory responses relative to the effects of sham HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, −.91 ± .92 kg; post-tDCS, −.26 ± .92 kg; p = .046. Irrespective of condition, peak MVC force and muscular endurance was reduced from pre- to post-stimulation. HD-tDCS did not significantly influence this reduction in maximal force (active: pre-tDCS, 264.89 ± 66.87 Nm; post-tDCS, 236.33 ± 66.51 Nm; sham: pre-tDCS, 249.25 ± 88.56 Nm; post-tDCS, 239.63 ± 67.53 Nm or muscular endurance (active: pre-tDCS, 104.65 ± 42.36 s; post-tDCS, 93.07 ± 33.73 s; sham: pre-tDCS, 123.42 ± 72.48 s; post

  15. The effect of a pelvis-concentrated exercise program on male college students' body alignment and foot base pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Chae-Woo; Kim, Seong-Gil; An, Byung-Wook

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a pelvis-concentrated exercise program and walking on the changes in body shape and foot base pressure. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adults from K University in Busan, Republic of Korea, were randomly divided into the Swiss-ball exercise group and McKenzie exercise group, and they conducted exercise for 40 min 3 times a week for 6 weeks. [Results] Global postural system results and foot base pressure significantly decreased in both groups. A comparison of foot base pressure after the intervention between the two groups revealed that the Swiss-ball exercise group exhibited a greater reduction than the McKenzie exercise group. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that the Swiss-ball exercise may improve posture and foot base pressure in male adults.

  16. "Exercise to be fit, not skinny": The effect of fitspiration imagery on women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Zaccardo, Mia

    2015-09-01

    Fitspiration is an online trend designed to inspire viewers towards a healthier lifestyle by promoting exercise and healthy food. The present study aimed to experimentally investigate the impact of fitspiration images on women's body image. Participants were 130 female undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to view either a set of Instagram fitspiration images or a control set of travel images presented on an iPad. Results showed that acute exposure to fitspiration images led to increased negative mood and body dissatisfaction and decreased state appearance self-esteem relative to travel images. Importantly, regression analyses showed that the effects of image type were mediated by state appearance comparison. Thus it was concluded that fitspiration can have negative unintended consequences for body image. The results offer support to general sociocultural models of media effects on body image, and extend these to "new" media.

  17. The Gravity-Loading countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) and its effect upon aerobic exercise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attias, Julia; Philip, A. T. Carvil; Waldie, James; Russomano, Thais; Simon, N. Evetts; David, A. Green

    2017-03-01

    The Russian Pingvin suit is employed as a countermeasure to musculoskeletal atrophy in microgravity, though its 2-stage loading regime is poorly tolerated. The Gravity-Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) has been devised to comfortably compress the body via incrementally increasing longitudinal elastic-fibre tensions from the shoulders to the feet. We tested whether the Mk III GLCS was a feasible adjunct to sub-maximal aerobic exercise and resulting VO2Max predictions. Eight healthy subjects (5♂, 28±6 yr) performed cycle ergometry at 75% VO2Max (derived from an Astrand-Rhyming protocol) whilst wearing a GLCS and gym clothing (GYM). Ventilatory parameters, heart rate (HR), core temperature (TC), and blood lactate (BL) were recorded along with subjective perceived exertion, thermal comfort, movement discomfort and body control. Physiological and subjective responses were compared over TIME and between GYM and GLCS (ATTIRE) with 2-way repeated measures ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests respectively. Resultant VO2Max predictions were compared with paired t-tests between ATTIRE. The GLCS induced greater initial exercise ventilatory responses which stabilised by 20 min. HR and TC continued to rise from 5 min irrespective of ATTIRE, whereas BL was greater in the GLCS at 20 min. Predicted V O2Max did not differ with ATTIRE, though some observed differences in HR were noteworthy. All subjective ratings were exacerbated in the GLCS. Despite increased perception of workload and initial ventilatory augmentations, submaximal exercise performance was not impeded. Whilst predicted VO2Max did not differ, determination of actual VO2Max in the GLCS is warranted due to apparent modulation of the linear HR-VO2 relationship. The GLCS may be a feasible adjunct to exercise and potential countermeasure to unloaded-induced physiological deconditioning on Earth or in space.

  18. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE: IMPLICATIONS FOR HORMONAL AND MUSCULAR ADAPTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weipeng Teo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all physiological and biochemical processes within the human body follow a circadian rhythm (CR. In humans, the suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep- wake cycle and other daily biorhythms in line with solar time. Due to such daily physiological fluctuations, several investigations on neuromuscular performance have reported a distinct CR during exercise. Generally, peak performances have been found to occur in the early evening, at approximately the peak of core body temperature. The increase in core body temperature has been found to increase energy metabolism, improve muscle compliance and facilitate actin-myosin crossbridging. In addition, steroidal hormones such as testosterone (T and cortisol (C also display a clear CR. The role of T within the body is to maintain anabolism through the process of protein synthesis. By contrast, C plays a catabolic function and is involved in the response of stress. Due to the anabolic and catabolic nature of both T and C, it has been postulated that a causal relationship may exist between the CR of T and C and muscular performance. This review will therefore discuss the effects of CR on physical performance and its implications for training. Furthermore, this review will examine the impact of muscular performance on CR in hormonal responses and whether could variations in T and C be potentially beneficial for muscular adaptation

  19. The Effect of Exercise on Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem as a Function of Gender and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Williamson, Samantha

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between amount of exercise and psychological wellbeing, surveying people age 16-60 years. Women had lower body satisfaction and self-esteem than men. While there was generally a positive relationship between exercise and wellbeing, for women age 16-21 years, there was a significant negative relationship. Women…

  20. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines, an exercise program can help maintain good health. Physical activity Exercise doesn't have to be a rigorous cardiovascular workout to provide benefits. Physical activity in general ...

  1. Profiles of exercise motivation, physical activity, exercise habit, and academic performance in Malaysian adolescents: A cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hairul Anuar Hashim; Freddy Golok; Rosmatunisah Ali

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined Malaysian adolescents’ profiles of exercise motivation, exercise habit strength, academic performance, and levels of physical activity (PA) using cluster analysis.Methods: The sample (n = 300) consisted of 65.6% males and 34.4% females with a mean age of 13.40 ± 0.49. Statistical analysis was performed using cluster analysis.Results: Cluster analysis revealed three distinct cluster groups. Cluster 1 is characterized by a moderate level of PA, relatively high in...

  2. Effects of Krankcycle Training on Performance and Body Composition in Wheelchair Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čichoň Rostislav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in training equipment is important for increasing training effectiveness, performance and changes in body composition, especially in wheelchair users with paraplegia. The main objective of a workout session is to induce an adaptation stimulus, which requires overload of involved muscles by voluntary effort, yet this overload may be highly influenced by the size of the spinal cord lesion. Krancykl construction is designed to allow exercise on any wheelchair and with adjustable height or width of crank handles, where even the grip handle may be altered. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in body composition, performance and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE in paraplegics with a different level of paralyses after a 12 week training programme of a unilateral regime on Krankcycle equipment (a crank machine. The study sample included four men and one women at a different spine lesion level. The 12 weeks programme was successfully completed by four participants, while one subject got injured during the intervention process. Three participants were paraplegics and one was quadriplegic with innervation of the biceps humeri, triceps humeri and deltoideus. The Krankcycle 30 min programme was followed by four other exercises, which were performed after themselves rather than in a circuit training manner as the latter would result in much longer rest periods between exercises, because paraplegics have to be fixed by straps during exercise on hydraulic machines. The RPE after the workout decreased following the twelve week adaptation period.

  3. Exercise x BCAA Supplementation in Young Trained Rats: What are their Effects on Body Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Luz, Silmara Dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8): Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex), Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex), Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed) and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed). The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day) or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation. Key pointsCartilage proteoglycan synthesis was dramatically reduced in trained animals as a whole.BCAA supplementation augmented liver glycogen stores and reduced proteolysis in our experimental conditionsTrained animals receiving BCAA supplementation featured increased proteoglycan synthesis compared to sedentary ones, probably because BCAA may have attenuated the negative effects of exercise on cartilage development.BCAA supplementation was not capable of neutralizing directly the negative effects of long-term physical training and lower food intake in young male rats on body growth.

  4. Creatine supplementation with specific view to exercise/sports performance: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Robert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Creatine is one of the most popular and widely researched natural supplements. The majority of studies have focused on the effects of creatine monohydrate on performance and health; however, many other forms of creatine exist and are commercially available in the sports nutrition/supplement market. Regardless of the form, supplementation with creatine has regularly shown to increase strength, fat free mass, and muscle morphology with concurrent heavy resistance training more than resistance training alone. Creatine may be of benefit in other modes of exercise such as high-intensity sprints or endurance training. However, it appears that the effects of creatine diminish as the length of time spent exercising increases. Even though not all individuals respond similarly to creatine supplementation, it is generally accepted that its supplementation increases creatine storage and promotes a faster regeneration of adenosine triphosphate between high intensity exercises. These improved outcomes will increase performance and promote greater training adaptations. More recent research suggests that creatine supplementation in amounts of 0.1 g/kg of body weight combined with resistance training improves training adaptations at a cellular and sub-cellular level. Finally, although presently ingesting creatine as an oral supplement is considered safe and ethical, the perception of safety cannot be guaranteed, especially when administered for long period of time to different populations (athletes, sedentary, patient, active, young or elderly.

  5. The effects of aquatic exercise on body composition and nonspecific low back pain in elderly males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irandoust, Khadijeh; Taheri, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of aquatic exercises on nonspecific low back pain (LBP) in elderly males. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-two elderly men aged 65 or older were recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: aquatic training (3 d/wk for 12 wk) or a control group. Body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and trunk muscle mass were measured before and after training. [Results] The results suggested that all obesity variables including BMI, WHR, and PBF of the aquatic training group were decreased significantly, while the trunk muscle mass of the aquatic training group was increased significantly. Furthermore, low back pain was decreased in the subjects after the intervention. [Conclusion] The water-based program improved LBP and body composition in the elderly men. PMID:25729184

  6. EXERCISE X BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION IN YOUNG TRAINED RATS: WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS ON BODY GROWTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8: Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex, Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex, Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed. The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation

  7. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-11-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 h later. We used a one-leg knee extension/flexion task for the resistance exercise. To assess the physiological response to the exercise, we measured salivary alpha amylase (a biomarker of central norepinephrine), heart rate, and blood pressure. To test emotional episodic memory, we used a remember-know recognition memory paradigm with equal numbers of positive, negative, and neutral IAPS images as stimuli. The group that performed the exercise, the active group, had higher overall recognition accuracy than the group that did not exercise, the passive group. We found a robust effect of valence across groups, with better performance on emotional items as compared to neutral items and no difference between positive and negative items. This effect changed based on the physiological response to the exercise. Within the active group, participants with a high physiological response to the exercise were impaired for neutral items as compared to participants with a low physiological response to the exercise. Our results demonstrate that a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can enhance episodic memory and that the effect of valence on memory depends on the physiological response to the exercise.

  8. Effects of wearing two different types of clothing on body temperatures during and after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woon Seon; Tokura, Hiromi

    1989-06-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the human thermoregulatory responses during rest, exercise and recovery at T a 20°C and 60% R.H. under the conditions of wearing two different types of clothing. Six healthy men wore two types of clothing: one covering the whole body area except the head (Type A, weight 1656 g), and the other covering only the trunk, upper arms and thighs (Type B, weight 996 g). The level of rectal temperature was kept significantly higher in Type B than in Type A during rest and recovery. The increased and decreased rates of rectal temperature during exercise and recovery were significantly greater in Type A than in Type B, respectively. These findings are discussed from the viewpoint of the differences of skin temperatures of the extremities between Type A and Type B.

  9. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  10. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  11. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  12. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  13. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  14. Ischemic Preconditioning and Placebo Intervention Improves Resistance Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocolo, Moacir; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Marocolo, Isabela C; da Mota, Gustavo Ribeiro; Simão, Roberto; Maior, Alex S

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on resistance exercise performance in the lower limbs. Thirteen men participated in a randomized crossover design that involved 3 separate sessions (IPC, PLACEBO, and control). A 12-repetition maximum (12RM) load for the leg extension exercise was assessed through test and retest sessions before the first experimental session. The IPC session consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of occlusion at 220 mm Hg of pressure alternated with 5 minutes of reperfusion at 0 mm Hg for a total of 40 minutes. The PLACEBO session consisted of 4 cycles of 5 minutes of cuff administration at 20 mm Hg of pressure alternated with 5 minutes of pseudo-reperfusion at 0 mm Hg for a total of 40 minutes. The occlusion and reperfusion phases were conducted alternately between the thighs, with subjects remaining seated. No ischemic pressure was applied during the control (CON) session and subjects sat passively for 40 minutes. Eight minutes after IPC, PLACEBO, or CON, subjects performed 3 repetition maximum sets of the leg extension (2-minute rest between sets) with the predetermined 12RM load. Four minutes after the third set for each condition, blood lactate was assessed. The results showed that for the first set, the number of repetitions significantly increased for both the IPC (13.08 ± 2.11; p = 0.0036) and PLACEBO (13.15 ± 0.88; p = 0.0016) conditions, but not for the CON (11.88 ± 1.07; p > 0.99) condition. In addition, the IPC and PLACEBO conditions resulted insignificantly greater repetitions vs. the CON condition on the first set (p = 0.015; p = 0.007) and second set (p = 0.011; p = 0.019), but not on the third set (p = 0.68; p > 0.99). No difference (p = 0.465) was found in the fatigue index and lactate concentration between conditions. These results indicate that IPC and PLACEBO IPC may have small beneficial effects on repetition performance over a CON condition. Owing to potential for greater discomfort associated

  15. Caffeine, carnitine and choline supplementation of rats decreases body fat and serum leptin concentration as does exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongu, N; Sachan, D S

    2000-02-01

    The effect of a combination of caffeine, carnitine and choline with or without exercise on changes in body weight, fat pad mass, serum leptin concentration and metabolic indices was determined in 20 male, 7-wk-old Sprague-Dawley rats. They were given free access to a nonpurified diet without or with caffeine, carnitine and choline at concentrations of 0.1, 5 and 11.5 g/kg diet, respectively. In a 2x2 factorial design, one-half of each dietary group was exercised, and the other half was sedentary. Body weight and food intake of all rats were measured every day for 28 d. Rats were killed and blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed for biochemical markers. Food intake of the groups was not different, but the body weight was significantly reduced by exercise in both dietary groups. Fat pad weights and total lipids of epididymal, inguinal and perirenal regions were significantly reduced by the supplements as well as by exercise. Regardless of exercise, supplements significantly lowered triglycerides in serum but increased levels in skeletal muscle. Serum leptin concentrations were equally lowered by supplements and exercise. Serum leptin was correlated with body weight (r = 0.55, Pweight (r = 0.82, Ploss due to dietary supplements were similar to those due to mild exercise, and there were no interactive effects of the two variables.

  16. The relationship between biventricular myocardial performance and metabolic parameters during incremental exercise and recovery in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieles, Guido E; Gowing, Lucy; Forsey, Jonathan; Ramanujam, Paramanantham; Miller, Felicity; Stuart, A Graham; Williams, Craig A

    2015-12-15

    Background left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) myocardial reserve during exercise in adolescents has not been directly characterized. The aim of this study was to quantify myocardial performance response to exercise by using two-dimensional (2-D) speckle tracking echocardiography and describe the relationship between myocardial reserve, respiratory, and metabolic exercise parameters. A total of 23 healthy boys and girls (mean age 13.2 ± 2.7 yr; stature 159.1 ± 16.4 cm; body mass 49.5 ± 16.6 kg; BSA 1.47 ± 0.33 m(2)) completed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (25 W · 3 min increments) with simultaneous acquisition of 2-D transthoracic echocardiography at rest, each exercise stage up to 100 W, and in recovery at 2 min and 10 min. Two-dimensional LV (LV Sl) and RV (RV Sl) longitudinal strain and LV circumferential strain (LV Sc) were analyzed to define the relationship between myocardial performance reserve and metabolic exercise parameters. Participants achieved a peak oxygen uptake (V̇o 2peak) of 40.6 ± 8.9 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1) and a work rate of 154 ± 42 W. LV Sl and LV Sc and RV Sl increased significantly across work rates (P strain, V̇o 2peak, oxygen pulse, and work rate (0.530 ≤ r ≤ 0.784, P myocardial performance and metabolic parameters during exercise by using a novel methodology. Relationships detected present novel data directly describing myocardial adaptation at different stages of exercise and recovery that in the future can help directly assess cardiac reserve in patients with cardiac pathology.

  17. "I just feel so guilty": The role of introjected regulation in linking appearance goals for exercise with women's body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Megan; Dittmar, Helga; Banerjee, Robin; Bond, Rod

    2017-02-10

    Appearance goals for exercise are consistently associated with negative body image, but research has yet to consider the processes that link these two variables. Self-determination theory offers one such process: introjected (guilt-based) regulation of exercise behavior. Study 1 investigated these relationships within a cross-sectional sample of female UK students (n=215, 17-30 years). Appearance goals were indirectly, negatively associated with body image due to links with introjected regulation. Study 2 experimentally tested this pathway, manipulating guilt relating to exercise and appearance goals independently and assessing post-test guilt and body anxiety (n=165, 18-27 years). The guilt manipulation significantly increased post-test feelings of guilt, and these increases were associated with increased post-test body anxiety, but only for participants in the guilt condition. The implications of these findings for self-determination theory and the importance of guilt for the body image literature are discussed.

  18. The effect of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Liu, Li; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s(-1) and 2 bl s(-1), for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting ṀO2 (ṀO2rest) and postprandial ṀO2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s(-1)) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s(-1)) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s(-1) exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3

  19. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

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    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  20. EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE ON EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN SEDENTARY FEMALES

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    Karen E. Wallman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of caffeine ingestion on total work, average power, oxygen consumption (VO2, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, heart rate (HR and energy expenditure (kJ during stationary cycling at a standardised power output, as well as during a set time period where participants were required to cycle as fast as they could. Ten healthy, sedentary, female, non- regular caffeine users completed 15 min of stationary cycling at a standardised power output equating to 65% HRmax (Phase A, followed by 10 min of stationary cycling where they were required to cycled as fast as they could (Phase B after ingesting 6.0 mg·kg-1 of caffeine or placebo 60 min prior to exercise. VO2 and energy expenditure were significantly higher at the end of Phase A (p = 0.008 and p = 0.011, respectively. All other variables examined in Phase A were similar between trials. In Phase B, there were no significant differences found for any variable assessed. While caffeine ingestion resulted in significant increases in VO2 and energy expenditure during steady-state exercise, it did not improve cycling performance during a 10 min trial where participants were required to cycle as fast as they could

  1. Effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, N A; Hoffmann, K; Frederiksen, K S

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Knowledge about the feasibility and effects of exercise programs to persons with Alzheimer's disease is lacking. This study investigated the effect of aerobic exercise on physical performance in community-dwelling persons with mild Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: The single blinded...... of ≥66.6% resulted in significant positive effects on single-task physical performance and dual-task performance. DISCUSSION: Aerobic exercise has the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, single-task physical performance, dual-task performance and exercise self-efficacy in community......-dwelling patients with mild Alzheimer's disease....

  2. Effects of concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training on respiratory and exercise performance in competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gregory D; Plyley, Michael; Thomas, Scott; Goodman, Len; Duffin, James

    2005-08-01

    The efficiency of the respiratory system presents significant limitations on the body's ability to perform exercise due to the effects of the increased work of breathing, respiratory muscle fatigue, and dyspnoea. Respiratory muscle training is an intervention that may be able to address these limitations, but the impact of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance remains controversial. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effects of a 12-week (10 sessions week(-1)) concurrent inspiratory and expiratory muscle training (CRMT) program in 34 adolescent competitive swimmers. The CRMT program consisted of 6 weeks during which the experimental group (E, n = 17) performed CRMT and the sham group (S, n = 17) performed sham CRMT, followed by 6 weeks when the E and S groups performed CRMT of differing intensities. CRMT training resulted in a significant improvement in forced inspiratory volume in 1 s (FIV1.0) (P = 0.050) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0) (P = 0.045) in the E group, which exceeded the S group's results. Significant improvements in pulmonary function, breathing power, and chemoreflex ventilation threshold were observed in both groups, and there was a trend toward an improvement in swimming critical speed after 12 weeks of training (P = 0.08). We concluded that although swim training results in attenuation of the ventilatory response to hypercapnia and in improvements in pulmonary function and sustainable breathing power, supplemental respiratory muscle training has no additional effect except on dynamic pulmonary function variables.

  3. Coronary microvascular function, insulin sensitivity and body composition in predicting exercise capacity in overweight patients with coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürs, Anders; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease (CAD) has a negative impact on exercise capacity. The aim of this study was to determine how coronary microvascular function, glucose metabolism and body composition contribute to exercise capacity in overweight patients with CAD and without diabetes. METHODS......: Sixty-five non-diabetic, overweight patients with stable CAD, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) above 35 % were recruited. A 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate glucose metabolism. Peak aerobic exercise capacity (VO2peak) was assessed...... by a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Body composition was determined by whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and magnetic resonance imaging. Coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography was used as a measure of microvascular function. RESULTS: Median BMI was 31.3 and 72...

  4. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

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    Pinky Budhrani-Shani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation.

  5. Mind-Body Exercises for Nurses with Chronic Low Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcari, Patricia; Langevin, Helene; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) among nurses is a growing health concern. The multimodal nature of mind-body exercises has potential to impact physiological and psychological processes associated with chronic pain, affording possible advantages over conventional unimodal therapies. This paper summarizes the prevalence of and risk factors for CLBP among nurses, reviews the effectiveness in treating pain and disability of mind-body exercises (yoga and tai chi) for CLBP among the general and nursing population, and describes implications. Methods. Articles, published during or prior to 2015, were systematically identified through the PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases using the following search terms: nurses, mind-body, integrative, biopsychosocial, yoga, tai chi, back pain, and/or risk factors. Results. Prevalence estimates of CLBP among nurses ranged from 50% to 80%. Associated risk factors for CLBP included lifestyle and physical, psychological, psychosocial, and occupational factors. No published studies were identified that evaluated yoga or tai chi for nurses with CLBP. Studies in the general population suggested that these interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability and may improve factors/processes predictive of CLBP. Conclusion. This review suggests that evaluating the impact of multimodal interventions such as yoga and tai chi for nurses with CLBP warrants investigation. PMID:27446610

  6. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

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    H. Reza Ahmadian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62% and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P<0.001. Specifically, there was less overestimation when predicted VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  7. Comparison of Predicted Exercise Capacity Equations and the Effect of Actual versus Ideal Body Weight among Subjects Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, H Reza; Sclafani, Joseph J; Emmons, Ethan E; Morris, Michael J; Leclerc, Kenneth M; Slim, Ahmad M

    2013-01-01

    Background. Oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2 max) is considered the best available index for assessment of exercise capacity. The purpose of this study is to determine if the use of actual versus ideal body weight in standard regression equations for predicted VO2 max results in differences in predicted VO2 max. Methods. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who were predominantly in active military duty with complaints of dyspnea or exercise tolerance and who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) from 2007 to 2009. Results. A total of 230 subjects completed CPET on a bicycle ergometer with a male predominance (62%) and an average age of 37 ± 15 years. There was significant discordance between the measured VO2 max and predicted VO2 max when measured by the Hansen and Wasserman reference equations (P VO2 max was based on ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight. Conclusion. Our retrospective analysis confirmed the wide variations in predicted versus measured VO2 max based on varying prediction equations and showed the potential advantage of using ideal body weight as opposed to actual body weight in order to further standardize reference norms.

  8. Effect of Post-Exercise Whole Body Vibration with Stretching on Mood State, Fatigue, and Soreness in Collegiate Swimmers

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    Justin J. Merrigan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Static stretching (SS during whole body vibration (WBV has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT, mood state (BAM, soreness (SOR, and perceived exertion (RPE between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ± SD: 19.3 ± 1.3 year, 171 ± 5.7 cm, 67.6 ± 7.2 kg, 26.6 ± 4.1 %body fat (%BF; 10 men, mean ± SD: 19.7 ± 1.0 year, 183 ± 5.5 cm, 77.1 ± 4.2 kg, 13.1 ± 2.2 %BF. Athletes were divided by sex, event (sprint, distance, and assigned to SS or WBV+SS. Both conditions consisted of SS performed on the WBV platform with or without WBV (50 Hz, 6 mm. Sessions consisted of: pre and post measures of BAM, FAT, SOR; the condition; and RPE. Mixed factorial ANOVA were run. A significant condition by pre/post interaction was observed (p = 0.035. Post hoc analyses showed WBV+SS elicited lower post-exercise ratings of FAT (p = 0.002 and the BAM affective states, of tension (p = 0.031, and fatigue (p = 0.087. RPE did not differ between conditions. Of interest is the decrease in tension and fatigue noted by the BAM. Mood state can be indicative of how athletes adapt to training volume and intensity.

  9. Exercise in the heat: strategies to minimize the adverse effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrados, N; Maughan, R J

    1995-01-01

    Exercise in the heat is usually associated with reduced performance; both dehydration and hyperthermia adversely affect mental and physical performance. For athletes from temperate climates, the negative effects of heat had humidity can be attenuated by a period of acclimatization. This requires up to 10-14 days. Endurance-trained individuals already show some of the adaptations that accompany acclimatization, but further adaptation occurs with training in the heat. Prior dehydration has a negative effect even on exercise of short duration where sweat losses are small. The athlete must begin exercise fully hydrated and regular ingestion of fluids is beneficial where the exercise duration exceeds 40 min. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte (sodium) drinks are best for fluid replacement and also supply some substrate for the exercising muscles. Post-exercise rehydration requires electrolyte as well as volume replacement. In extreme conditions, neither acclimatization nor fluid replacement will allow hard exercise to be performed without some risk of heat illness.

  10. CORRECTED ERROR VIDEO VERSUS A PHYSICAL THERAPIST INSTRUCTED HOME EXERCISE PROGRAM: ACCURACY OF PERFORMING THERAPEUTIC SHOULDER EXERCISES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Kamesh; Hopp, Jennifer; Stanley, Laura; Spores, Ken; Braunreiter, David

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The accurate performance of physical therapy exercises can be difficult. In this evolving healthcare climate it is important to continually look for better methods to educate patients. The use of handouts, in-person demonstration, and video instruction are all potential avenues used to teach proper exercise form. The purpose of this study was to examine if a corrected error video (CEV) would be as effective as a single visit with a physical therapist (PT) to teach healthy subjects how to properly perform four different shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Study Design This was a prospective, single-blinded interventional trial. Methods Fifty-eight subjects with no shoulder complaints were recruited from two institutions and randomized into one of two groups: the CEV group (30 subjects) was given a CEV comprised of four shoulder exercises, while the physical therapy group (28 subjects) had one session with a PT as well as a handout of how to complete the exercises. Each subject practiced the exercises for one week and was then videotaped performing them during a return visit. Videos were scored with the shoulder exam assessment tool (SEAT) created by the authors. Results There was no difference between the groups on total SEAT score (13.66 ± 0.29 vs 13.46 ± 0.30 for CEV vs PT, p = 0.64, 95% CI [−0.06, 0.037]). Average scores for individual exercises also showed no significant difference. Conclusion/Clinical Relevance These results demonstrate that the inexpensive and accessible CEV is as beneficial as direct instruction in teaching subjects to properly perform shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Level of Evidence 1b

  11. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001), whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046) and spatial working memory (P<0.038). Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001), exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic

  12. Menopause is associated with decreased whole body fat oxidation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildgaard, J; Pedersen, A T; Green, C J; Harder-Lauridsen, N M; Solomon, T P; Thomsen, C; Juul, A; Pedersen, M; Pedersen, J T; Mortensen, O H; Pilegaard, H; Pedersen, B K; Lindegaard, B

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if fat oxidation was affected by menopausal status and to investigate if this could be related to the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Forty-one healthy women were enrolled in this cross-sectional study [premenopausal (n = 19), perimenopausal (n = 8), and postmenopausal (n = 14)]. Estimated insulin sensitivity was obtained from an oral glucose tolerance test. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Fat oxidation and energy expenditure were measured during an acute exercise bout of 45 min of ergometer biking at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis of the quadriceps muscle were obtained before and immediately after the exercise bout. Postmenopausal women had 33% [confidence interval (CI) 95%: 12-55] lower whole body fat oxidation (P = 0.005) and 19% (CI 95%: 9-22) lower energy expenditure (P = 0.02) during exercise, as well as 4.28 kg lower lean body mass (LBM) than premenopausal women. Correction for LBM reduced differences in fat oxidation to 23% (P = 0.05), whereas differences in energy expenditure disappeared (P = 0.22). No differences between groups were found in mRNA [carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α, citrate synthase (CS), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α)], protein [phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), vascular endothelial growth factor, pyruvate dehydrogenase-1Eα, cytochrome oxidase I], or enzyme activities (β-HAD, CS) in resting skeletal muscle, except for an increased protein level of cytochrome c in the post- and perimenopausal women relative to premenopausal women. Postmenopausal women demonstrated a trend to a blunted exercise-induced increase in phosphorylation of AMPK compared with premenopausal women (P = 0.06). We conclude

  13. Effects of exercise on cardiovascular performance in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Carlo; Giallauria, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Progressive aging induces several structural and functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, among whom particularly important are a reduced number of myocardial cells and increased interstitial collagen fibers, which result in impaired left ventricular diastolic function. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, aging is strongly associated to a age-related reduced maximal aerobic capacity. This is due to a variety of physiological changes both at central and at peripheral level. Physical activity (PA) appears in general to have a positive effect on several health outcomes in the elderly. This review aims to illustrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the physiologic decline of cardiovascular performance occurring with age. Furthermore, it will be stressed also the positive effect of physical activity in elderly patients affected by cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure and hypertension, and multiple comorbidities which may significantly worse prognosis in this high risk population.

  14. The relationships among body composition, anaerobic performance and back strength characteristics of sub-elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sinan Aslan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, long jump (standing, vertical jump, 20 meter sprint, back strength, relative strength and anaerobic power characteristics of the 80 sub-elit male athletes who are students at a physical education and sports department and participate competitions.  In this study, 80 male students at 22.17 ± 1.97 average age who have been doing exercises regularly, were participate as voluntary. Firstly, their age, height, body weight and skin fold values were determined. Body fat percentage was estimated by Zorba Formula. Anaerobic performance was determined via long jump (standing, vertical jump and 20 meter sprint. Relative strength was estimated with “back strength / body weight” formula. Then, the relationships among body composition, anaerobic performance and back strength characteristics of the participants were determined by Pearson correlation analysis. Analyses of collected data were used by SPSS for Windows (Ver. 10 and alpha level was set as 0.05 for statistical significance.Correlation analysis’ results indicated that there were statically significant correlations among lots of physical and physiological parameters. In conclusion; it was determined that height, body weight, body fat percentage and back strength were played an explicit role on anaerobic performance of athletes.

  15. The relation of fat-free mass to maximum exercise performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, A; Yoneda, T; Yoshikawa, M; Ikuno, M; Takenaka, H; Fukuoka, A; Narita, N; Nezu, K

    2000-01-01

    To assess the factors determining maximum exercise performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we examined nutritional status with special reference to body composition and pulmonary function in 50 stable COPD patients. Nutritional status was evaluated by body weight and body composition, including fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Exercise performance was evaluated by maximum oxygen uptake (Vo(2max)) on a cycle ergometer. A total of 50 patients (FEV(1) = 0.98 L) was divided randomly into either a study group (group A, n = 25) or validation group (group B, n = 25). Stepwise regression analysis was performed in group A to determine the best predictors of Vo(2max) from measurements of pulmonary function and nutritional status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that Vo(2max) was predicted best by the following equation in group A: Vo(2max) (mL/min) = 10.223 x FFM (kg) + 4.188 x MVV (L/min) + 9.952 x DL(co) (mL/min/mmHg) - 127.9 (r = 0.84, p equation was then cross-validated in group B: Measured Vo(2max) (mL/min) = 1.554 x Predicted Vo(2max) (mL/min) - 324.0 (r = 0.87, p < 0.001). We conclude that FFM is an important factor in determining maximum exercise performance, along with pulmonary function parameters, in patients with COPD.

  16. EFFECTS OF MAXIMAL SQUAT EXERCISE TESTING ON VERTICAL JUMP PERFORMANCE IN AMERICAN COLLEGE FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Hoffman

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Maximal strength and power testing are common assessments that are used to evaluate strength/power athletes. The validity and reliability of these tests have been well established (Hoffman, 2006, however the order of testing may have a profound effect on test performance outcome. It is generally recommended that the least fatiguing and highly-skilled tests are performed first, while highly fatiguing tests are performed last (Hoffman, 2006. Recent research has demonstrated that maximal isometric contractions and maximal or near- maximal dynamic exercise can augment the rate of force development, increase jump height and enhance sprint cycle performance (Chiu et al., 2003; French et al., 2003. The use of a maximal or near-maximal activity to enhance strength and power performance has been termed "muscle postactivation potentiation", and appears to be more common in the experienced resistance-trained athletes than in the recreationally-trained population (Chiu et al., 2003. It is believed that postactivation potentiation can enhance muscle performance by increasing the neural signal that activates the muscle (Hamada et al., 2000. Since heavy loading in a similar movement pattern of exercise appears to enhance maximal strength and power performance in the experienced resistance-trained athlete, it may be hypothesized that the postactivation potentiation associated with heavy loading has the potential to augment subsequent performance of tests utilizing similar motion. Therefore, consideration of an appropriate sequence of athletic performance testing in strength and power athletes is warranted. We would like to share our experience on the effect of performing a maximal lower body strength test on vertical jump performance in experienced resistance-trained strength/power athletes.We examined 64 NCAA Division III American collegiate football players (age = 20.1 ± 1.9 yr; body mass = 97.5 ± 17.8 kg; height = 1.80 ± 0.12 m. All testing was performed

  17. Physical exercise-induced changes in the core body temperature of mice depend more on ambient temperature than on exercise protocol or intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Samuel Penna; Costa, Kátia Anunciação; Soares, Anne Danieli Nascimento; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying physical exercise-induced hyperthermia may be species specific. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise intensity and ambient temperature on the core body temperature ( T core) of running mice, which provide an important experimental model for advancing the understanding of thermal physiology. We evaluated the influence of different protocols (constant- or incremental-speed exercises), treadmill speeds and ambient temperatures ( T a) on the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. To measure T core, a telemetric sensor was implanted in the abdominal cavity of male adult Swiss mice under anesthesia. After recovering from the surgery, the animals were familiarized to running on a treadmill and then subjected to the different running protocols and speeds at two T a: 24 °C or 34 °C. All of the experimental trials resulted in marked increases in T core. As expected, the higher-temperature environment increased the magnitude of running-induced hyperthermia. For example, during incremental exercise at 34 °C, the maximal T core achieved was increased by 1.2 °C relative to the value reached at 24 °C. However, at the same T a, neither treadmill speed nor exercise protocol altered the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperthermia. We conclude that T core of running mice is influenced greatly by T a, but not by the exercise protocols or intensities examined in the present report. These findings suggest that the magnitude of hyperthermia in running mice may be regulated centrally, independently of exercise intensity.

  18. Element nodes of sports equipment double back flip factions and double back flip hunched performed gymnast in floor exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potop V.A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the node elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. To compare the two types of nodes for double somersault. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts (age 12 - 14 years. All finalists in the competition floor exercise - reserve team Romania. The method of video - computer research and method of postural orientation movements. Results : identified nodal elements of sports equipment double back somersault tuck and double back flip bent. In the preparatory phase of motor actions - launcher body posture for reaching is repulsive to flip. In the phase of basic motor action - animation body postures (double back somersault tuck and bent (bent double back flip. Exercises are performed on the ascending and descending parts of the flight path of the demonstration of individual maximum lift height common center of mass. In the final phase of motor actions - final body posture - steady landing. Conclusions : indicators of key elements of sports equipment acrobatic exercises contain new scientific facts kinematic and dynamic structures of motor actions. They are necessary for the development of modern training programs acrobatic exercises in step specialized base preparation.

  19. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Treatment Reduces Exercise Performance in Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, K.; Doessing, S.; Nielsen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    period, they exercised to determine exercise performance and hormonal and metabolic responses. Participants: Twenty healthy males participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist (n = 10; 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 10). After the treatment period, they performed...... a maximal oxygen uptake ((V) over dotO(2max)) test and a prolonged exercise test, consisting of 60 min of submaximal cycling followed by exercise to fatigue at 90% of (V) over dotO(2max). Main Outcome Measures: (V) over dotO(2max) was measured before and after the treatment period. Hormonal and metabolic......Context: The effects of GH on exercise performance remain unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of GH receptor (GHR) antagonist treatment on exercise performance. Design: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant or placebo for 16 d. After the treatment...

  20. Effects of preferred and nonpreferred music on continuous cycling exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Priscila M; Pereira, Gleber; Papini, Camila B; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of preferred and nonpreferred music on exercise distance, Heart Rate (HR), and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during continuous cycling exercise performed at high intensity. Fifteen participants performed five test sessions. During two sessions, they cycled with fixed workload on ergometer to determine the Critical Power (CP) intensity. Then, they performed three more sessions cycling at CP intensity: listening to Preferred Music, listening to Nonpreferred Music, and No Music. The HR responses in the exercise sessions did not differ among all conditions. However, the RPE was higher for Nonpreferred Music than in the other conditions. The performance under Preferred Music (9.8 +/- 4.6 km) was greater than under Nonpreferred Music (7.1 +/- 3.5 km) conditions. Therefore, listening to Preferred Music during continuous cycling exercise at high intensity can increase the exercise distance, and individuals listening to Nonpreferred Music can perceive more discomfort caused by the exercise.

  1. On PHY and MAC Performance in Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sana Ullah; Henry Higgins; S. M. Riazul Islam; Pervez Khan; Kyung Sup Kwak

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents an empirical investigation on the performance of body implant communication using radio frequency (RF) technology. In body implant communication, the electrical properties of the body influence the signal propagation in several ways. We use a Perspex body model (30 cm diameter, 80 cm height and 0.5 cm thickness) filled with a liquid that mimics the electrical properties of the basic body tissues. This model is used to observe the effects of body ...

  2. On the relationship between upper-body strength, power, and sprint performance in ice sledge hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovereng, Knut; Ettema, Gertjan; Welde, Boye; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2013-12-01

    Ice sledge hockey is a popular paralympic team sport where players rely entirely on their upper body to propel themselves rapidly across the ice surface. The isolated and repetitive poling movements provide a good model for examining upper-body sprint ability and the related movement and strength characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between upper-body maximal strength, power, and sprint performance in ice sledge hockey. Thirteen male ice sledge hockey players from the Norwegian national team performed three 30-m maximal sprint tests recorded by fixed light sensors. The best 30-m time for each subject was used for further analyses, and the sprint was analyzed more in detail for the first and last 10-m split times and kinematics (cycle length and rate) using photocells and 2-dimensional video analysis. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength and peak power were assessed in the bench press, bench pull, and pull-down exercises using a barbell and a linear encoder. Both 1RM strength and peak power for all the 3 strength exercises correlated significantly with the total sprint time (-0.75 sprint test. There were no significant relationships between sprint kinematics and 1RM strength and peak power. Overall, these results demonstrate that there are close relationships between upper-body strength, power, and sprint performance in highly trained athletes and that the ability to produce propulsion and high frequency in combination is important for the sprint abilities in ice sledge hockey.

  3. Influence of Exercise Order on Electromyographic Activity During Upper Body Resistance Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soncin Rafael

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise order on electromyographic activity in different muscle groups among youth men with experience in strength training. Three sets of 8 RM were performed of each exercise in two sequences order: (a sequence A: bench press, chest fly, shoulder press, shoulder abduction, close grip bench press and lying triceps extension; (b sequence B: the opposite order. The electromyographic activity was analyzed in the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and long head triceps brachii, normalized for maximal voluntary isometric contraction. The muscles activity of the sternocostal head of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and long head triceps brachii showed significant interaction between sequence and exercise. The sternocostal head of the pectoralis major showed considerably higher activity in sequence A (100.13 ± 13.56% than sequence B (81.47 ± 13.09% for the chest fly. The anterior deltoid showed significantly higher electromyographic activity in sequence B (86.81 ± 40.43% than sequence A (66.15 ± 22.02% for the chest fly, whereas for the lying triceps extension, the electromyographic activity was significantly higher in sequence A (53.89 ± 27.09% than sequence B (34.32 ± 23.70%. For the long head triceps brachii, only the shoulder press showed differences between sequences (A = 52.43 ± 14.64 vs. B = 38.53 ± 16.26. The present study showed that the exercise order could modify the training results even though there was no alteration in volume and intensity of the exercise. These changes may result in different training adaptations.

  4. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-27

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  5. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zajac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate

  6. Ectopic catalase expression in mitochondria by adeno-associated virus enhances exercise performance in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejia Li

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is thought to compromise muscle contractility. However, administration of generic antioxidants has failed to convincingly improve performance during exhaustive exercise. One possible explanation may relate to the inability of the supplemented antioxidants to effectively eliminate excessive free radicals at the site of generation. Here, we tested whether delivering catalase to the mitochondria, a site of free radical production in contracting muscle, could improve treadmill performance in C57Bl/6 mice. Recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AV.RSV.MCAT was generated to express a mitochondria-targeted catalase gene. AV.RSV.MCAT was delivered to newborn C57Bl/6 mouse circulation at the dose of 10(12 vector genome particles per mouse. Three months later, we observed a approximately 2 to 10-fold increase of catalase protein and activity in skeletal muscle and the heart. Subcellular fractionation western blot and double immunofluorescence staining confirmed ectopic catalase expression in the mitochondria. Compared with untreated control mice, absolute running distance and body weight normalized running distance were significantly improved in AV.RSV.MCAT infected mice during exhaustive treadmill running. Interestingly, ex vivo contractility of the extensor digitorum longus muscle was not altered. Taken together, we have demonstrated that forced catalase expression in the mitochondria enhances exercise performance. Our result provides a framework for further elucidating the underlying mechanism. It also raises the hope of applying similar strategies to remove excessive, pathogenic free radicals in certain muscle diseases (such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and ameliorate muscle disease.

  7. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NATHÁLIA M. RESENDE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group, G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm. The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  8. The effects of coconut oil supplementation on the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Nathália M; Félix, Henrique R; Soré, Murillo R; M M, Aníbal; Campos, Kleber E; Volpato, Gustavo T

    2016-05-13

    This study aims to verify the effects of coconut oil supplementation (COS) in the body composition and lipid profile of rats submitted to physical exercise. The animals (n=6 per group) were randomly assigned to: G1=Sedentary and Non-supplemented (Control Group), G2=Sedentary and Supplemented, G3=Exercised and Non-supplemented and G4=Exercised and Supplemented. The COS protocol used was 3 mL/Kg of body mass by gavage for 28 days. The physical exercise was the vertical jumping training for 28 days. It was determined the body mass parameters, Lee Index, blood glucose and lipid profile. The COS did not interfere with body mass, but the lean body mass was lower in G3 compared to G2. The final Lee Index classified G1 and G2 as obese (>30g/cm). The lipid profile showed total cholesterol was decreased in G3, LDL-c concentration was decreased in G2, triglycerides, VLDL-c and HDL-c concentrations were increased in G2 and G4 in relation to G1 and G3. The COS decreased LDL-c/HDL-c ratio. In conclusion, the COS associated or not to physical exercise worsen others lipid parameters, like triglycerides and VLDL-c level, showing the care with the use of lipid supplements.

  9. Effects of short-period exercise training and orlistat therapy on body composition and maximal power production capacity in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, R; Ozcelik, O

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effects of weight loss induced by diet-orlistat (DO) and diet-orlistat combined with exercise (DOE) on maximal work rate production (Wmax) capacity in obese patients. Total of 24 obese patients were involved in this study. Twelve of them were subjected to DO therapy only and the remaining 12 patients participated in a regular aerobic exercise-training program in addition to DO therapy (DOE). Each patient performed two incremental ramp exercise tests up to exhaustion using an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer: one at the onset and one at the end of the 4th week. DOE therapy caused a significant decrease in total body weight: 101.5+/-17.4 kg (basal) vs 96.3+/-17.3 kg (4 wk) associated with a significant decrease in body fat mass: 45.0+/-10.5 kg (basal) vs 40.9+/-9.8 kg (4 wk). DO therapy also resulted in a significant decrease of total body weight 94.9+/-14.9 kg (basal) vs 91.6+/-13.5 kg (4 wk) associated with small but significant decreases in body fat mass: 37.7+/-5.6 kg (basal) to 36.0+/-6.2 kg (4 wk). Weight reduction achieved during DO therapy was not associated with increased Wmax capacity: 106+/-32 W (basal) vs 106+/-33 W (4 wk), while DOE therapy resulted in a markedly increased Wmax capacity: 109+/-39 W (basal) vs 138+/-30 W (4 wk). DO therapy combined with aerobic exercise training resulted in a significant reduction of fat mass tissue and markedly improved the aerobic fitness and Wmax capacities of obese patients. Considering this improvement within such a short period, physicians should consider applying an aerobic exercise-training program to sedentary obese patients for improving their physical fitness and thereby reduce the negative outcomes of obesity.

  10. Exercise training modalities and strategies to improve exercise performance in patients with respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, P; Rodrigues, F

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and whose daily living activities are often restricted. Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are designed to improve the physical and emotional condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote long-term adherence to health-enhancing behavior. Exercise training is at the core of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs. The benefits of exercise training include decreased dyspnea, improved health-related quality of life, fewer days of hospitalization, and decreased health-care utilization. To gain PR benefits, patients should be able to complete an exercise training program, preferably with high intensity exercise, and it is likely that these benefits will translate into a change from a pattern of a sedentary lifestyle to a physically active lifestyle. Chronic respiratory patients, namely COPD patients, have a low exercise tolerance due to multiple factors, such as dynamic hyperinflation and peripheral muscle dysfunction. In this article, the authors describe a variety of modalities and strategies to overcome exercise limitations and improve the effects of exercise training.

  11. Effects of Different Exercise Strategies and Intensities on Memory Performance and Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Kai; Bastl, Anna; Wersching, Heike; Teuber, Anja; Strecker, Jan-Kolja; Schmidt, Antje; Minnerup, Jens; Schäbitz, Wolf-Rüdiger

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that physical exercise affects both hippocampal neurogenesis and memory functions. Until now, distinctive effects of controlled and voluntary training (VT) on behavior and neurogenesis as well as interactions between exercise intensity, neurogenesis and memory performance are still elusive. The present study tested the impact of moderate controlled and VT on memory formation and hippocampal neurogenesis and evaluated interactions between exercise performance, learning efficiency and proliferation of progenitor cells in the hippocampus. Our data show that both controlled and VT augmented spatial learning and promoted hippocampal neurogenesis. Regression analysis revealed a significant linear increase of the amount of new hippocampal neurons with increased exercise intensity. Regression analysis of exercise performance on retention memory performance revealed a quadratic, inverted u-shaped relationship between exercise performance and retention of spatial memory. No association was found between the amount of newborn neurons and memory performance. Our results demonstrate that controlled training (CT), if performed with an appropriate combination of speed and duration, improves memory performance and neurogenesis. Voluntary exercise elevates neurogenesis dose dependently to high levels. Best cognitive improvement was achieved with moderate exercise performance. PMID:28360847

  12. Fibromyalgia and the relevance of the whole-body vibration exercises in vibratory platforms: a short review

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson de Souza Pinto; Milena de Oliveira Bravo Monteiro; Dulciane Nunes Paiva; Sebastião David Santos-Filho; Sotiris Misssailidis; Diane Thompson; Pedro Marín Cabezuelo; Mario Bernardo-Filho

    2012-01-01

    Among nonpharmacological strategy to manage fibromyalgia, exercise (aerobic) has shown efficacy. Whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise has been proposed as a potential clinical intervention. WBV would induce increase in growth hormone (GH). An impairment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-GH-Insulin Growth Factor-1(IGF-1) axis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia. This article aims to review the studies on exploring the relationship between WBV and fibromyalgia. Literature sear...

  13. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  14. Limiting factors of exercise performance 1 year after lung transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinsma, G. D.; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Grevink, R. G.; van der Bij, W.; Koer, G. H.; van Weert, E.

    2006-01-01

    Background: After lung transplantation (LTx). exercise capacity frequently remains limited, despite significantly improved pulmonary function. The aim of this study was to evaluate maximal exercise capacity and peripheral muscle force before and 1 year after LTx, and to determine whether peripheral

  15. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  16. Serial measurements of exercise performance in pediatric heart transplant patients using stress echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Joanne P; Human, Derek G; Sandor, George G S; De Souza, Astrid M; Potts, James E

    2011-05-01

    Heart transplantation is an increasingly acceptable therapeutic option for children with end-stage and complex congenital heart disease. With advances in surgery, immunosuppression, and follow-up care, functional outcomes need to be evaluated. We report the results of serial exercise testing performed using stress echocardiography in a cohort of pediatric HTP. HTP (n = 7) exercised on a semi-recumbent ergometer to volitional fatigue. Echocardiography-Doppler measurements, HR, and blood pressure were taken at rest and during staged exercise. Results were compared with healthy CON (n = 12). HTP did significantly less work during exercise (940 vs. 1218 J/kg, p HTP had a lower SF at peak exercise (48% vs. 52%, p HTP. HTP are able to exercise safely; however, their exercise tolerance is reduced, and hemodynamics and contractility are diminished. Over time, their hemodynamics and left ventricular function have remained relatively constant.

  17. The effect of programmed exercise on body compositions and heart rate of 11-13 years-old male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H. Dashti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different forms of physical activities can play a very important role in improving health and physical fitness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the programmed exercise on students’ body compositions and heart rate at rest.Materials and Method: Two groups each consisting of 15students, aged averagely 12.6 years were the subjects of this experimental study. The experimental group in each session took part in an exercise program consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic activity (running, 10 minutes of aerobic exercise, 30 minutes of local training and 5 minutes of free exercise. The experiment last for 24 sessions. Control group didn’t do any special practice. In both groups, weight, fat mass, fat percentage, lean body mass and heart rate were measured during rest period before and after the experiment. Results: Results showed that the fat percentage, weight, fat mass and heart rate had decreased after 8 weeks of programmed exercise in the experimental group unlike the control group. However, no significant difference was observed in lean body mass.Conclusion: The exercise program used in this study may help loosing weight and make the heart stronger

  18. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level...... and power output during intense exercise. Regular speed endurance training (SET), i.e. exercise performed at intensities above that corresponding to maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max ), enhances intense exercise performance. However, most of the studies that have provided mechanistic insight...

  19. Salt and fluid loading: effects on blood volume and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim

    2012-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, fluid and salt losses through sweating reduce plasma volume which leads to heart rate drift in association with hyperthermia and reductions in performance. Oral rehydration with water reduces the loss of plasma volume and lessens heart rate drift and hyperthermia. Moreover, the inclusion of sodium in the rehydration solution to levels that double those in sweat (i.e., around 90 mmol/l Na(+)) restores plasma volume when ingested during exercise, and expands plasma volume if ingested pre-exercise. Pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion with the intention of expanding plasma volume has received an increasing amount of attention in the literature in recent years. In four studies, pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion improved performance, measured as time to exhaustion, either during exercise in a thermoneutral or in a hot environment. While in a hot environment, the performance improvements were linked to lowering of core temperatures and heart rate, the reasons for the improved performance in a thermoneutral environment remain unclear. However, when ingesting pre-exercise saline solutions above 0.9% (i.e., > 164 mmol/l Na(+)), osmolality and plasma sodium increase and core temperature remain at dehydration levels. Thus, too much salt counteracts the beneficial effects of plasma volume expansion on heat dissipation and hence in performance. In summary, the available literature suggests that pre-exercise saline ingestion with concentrations not over 164 mmol/l Na(+) is an ergogenic aid for subsequent prolonged exercise in a warm or thermoneutral environment.

  20. On PHY and MAC Performance in Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Ullah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation on the performance of body implant communication using radio frequency (RF technology. In body implant communication, the electrical properties of the body influence the signal propagation in several ways. We use a Perspex body model (30 cm diameter, 80 cm height and 0.5 cm thickness filled with a liquid that mimics the electrical properties of the basic body tissues. This model is used to observe the effects of body tissue on the RF communication. We observe best performance at 3cm depth inside the liquid. We further present a simulation study of several low-power MAC protocols for an on-body sensor network and discuss the derived results. Also, the traditional preamble-based TMDA protocol is extended towards a beacon-based TDMA protocol in order to avoid preamble collision and to ensure low-power communication.

  1. On PHY and MAC Performance in Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Henry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an empirical investigation on the performance of body implant communication using radio frequency (RF technology. In body implant communication, the electrical properties of the body influence the signal propagation in several ways. We use a Perspex body model (30 cm diameter, 80 cm height and 0.5 cm thickness filled with a liquid that mimics the electrical properties of the basic body tissues. This model is used to observe the effects of body tissue on the RF communication. We observe best performance at 3cm depth inside the liquid. We further present a simulation study of several low-power MAC protocols for an on-body sensor network and discuss the derived results. Also, the traditional preamble-based TMDA protocol is extended towards a beacon-based TDMA protocol in order to avoid preamble collision and to ensure low-power communication.

  2. Cochrane review: Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Joseph T; Baker, Philip Ra; Minett, Geoffrey M; Bieuzen, Francois; Stewart, Ian B; Bleakley, Chris

    2016-01-14

    Delayed-onset muscle soreness, or 'DOMS', affects many people after exercise and can impair future performance. It usually peaks one to four days after exercise and several strategies are used to overcome it. The effectiveness and safety of many of these strategies applied and promoted is unknown. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. NIGARI (DEEP SEAWATER CONCENTRATE) ENHANCES THE TREADMILL EXERCISE PERFORMANCE OF GERBILS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The beneficial effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance has been reported by many researchers. In the present study, the effect of nigari, a concentrate of deep seawater containing high magnesium levels, on exercise performance, was examined. Gerbils were given double-distilled water or nigari (18 mg · kg−1, po) orally 30 min before exercise. All animals were subjected to forced exercise on a treadmill for 90 min at three successive speeds of 10, 15, and 20 m · min−1. The r...

  4. Influence of prior intense exercise and cold water immersion in recovery for performance and physiological response during subsequent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Athletes in intense endurance sports (e.g., 4000-m track cycling) often perform maximally (~4 min) twice a day due to qualifying and finals being placed on the same day. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate repeated performance on the same day in a competitive setting (part A) and the......Athletes in intense endurance sports (e.g., 4000-m track cycling) often perform maximally (~4 min) twice a day due to qualifying and finals being placed on the same day. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate repeated performance on the same day in a competitive setting (part A......) and the influence from prior intense exercise on subsequent performance and physiological response to moderate and maximal exercise with and without the use of cold water immersion (CWI) in recovery (part B). In part A, performance times during eight World championships for male track cyclists were extracted from...

  5. Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10 Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance and Increases Muscle Mass in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum is a well-known probiotic among the ingested-microorganism probiotics (i.e., ingested microorganisms associated with beneficial effects for the host. However, few studies have examined the effects of L. plantarum TWK10 (LP10 supplementation on exercise performance, physical fatigue, and gut microbial profile. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR strain mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for oral administration of LP10 for six weeks at 0, 2.05 × 108, or 1.03 × 109 colony-forming units/kg/day, designated the vehicle, LP10-1X and LP10-5X groups, respectively. LP10 significantly decreased final body weight and increased relative muscle weight (%. LP10 supplementation dose-dependently increased grip strength (p < 0.0001 and endurance swimming time (p < 0.001 and decreased levels of serum lactate (p < 0.0001, ammonia (p < 0.0001, creatine kinase (p = 0.0118, and glucose (p = 0.0151 after acute exercise challenge. The number of type I fibers (slow muscle in gastrocnemius muscle significantly increased with LP10 treatment. In addition, serum levels of albumin, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and triacylglycerol significantly decreased with LP10 treatment. Long-term supplementation with LP10 may increase muscle mass, enhance energy harvesting, and have health-promotion, performance-improvement, and anti-fatigue effects.

  6. Profiles of exercise motivation, physical activity, exercise habit, and academic performance in Malaysian adolescents: A cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairul Anuar Hashim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined Malaysian adolescents’ profiles of exercise motivation, exercise habit strength, academic performance, and levels of physical activity (PA using cluster analysis.Methods: The sample (n = 300 consisted of 65.6% males and 34.4% females with a mean age of 13.40 ± 0.49. Statistical analysis was performed using cluster analysis.Results: Cluster analysis revealed three distinct cluster groups. Cluster 1 is characterized by a moderate level of PA, relatively high in motivational indices and relative autonomy index (RAI, low in exercise habit, and moderate level of academic achievement. Cluster 2 has superior academic performance but is low in PA and all other measured variables. Cluster 3 is characterized by high levels of PA and all other variables but is lowest in academic performance. One way ANOVA revealed significant differences between cluster groups in total weekly MET, total minutes of weekly PA, academic performance, introjected regulation, and identified regulation.Conclusion: PA promotion with emphasis on external factors may be effective in instilling exercise habituation among adolescents in the present sample.

  7. Influence of Prior Intense Exercise and Cold Water Immersion in Recovery for Performance and Physiological Response during Subsequent Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Peter M; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Athletes in intense endurance sports (e.g., 4000-m track cycling) often perform maximally (~4 min) twice a day due to qualifying and finals being placed on the same day. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate repeated performance on the same day in a competitive setting (part A) and the influence from prior intense exercise on subsequent performance and physiological response to moderate and maximal exercise with and without the use of cold water immersion (CWI) in recovery (part B). In part A, performance times during eight World championships for male track cyclists were extracted from the qualifying and final races in 4000-m individual pursuit. In part B, twelve trained cyclists with an average (±SD) ⩒O2-peak of 67 ± 5 mL/min/kg performed a protocol mimicking a qualifying race (QUAL) followed 3 h later by a performance test (PT) with each exercise period encompassing intense exercise for ~4 min preceded by an identical warm-up period in both a control setting (CON) and using cold water immersion in recovery (CWI; 15 min at 15°C). Performance was lowered (P < 0.001) from qualification to finals (259 ± 3 vs. 261 ± 3 s) for the track cyclists during World championships in part A. In part B, mean power in PT was not different in CWI relative to CON (406 ± 43 vs. 405 ± 38 W). Peak ⩒O2 (5.04 ± 0.50 vs. 5.00 ± 0.49 L/min) and blood lactate (13 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 3 mmol/L) did not differ between QUAL and PT and cycling economy and potassium handling was not impaired by prior intense exercise. In conclusion, performance is reduced with repeated maximal exercise in world-class track cyclists during 4000-m individual pursuit lasting ~4 min, however prior intense exercise do not appear to impair peak ⩒O2, peak lactate, cycling economy, or potassium handling in trained cyclists and CWI in recovery does not improve subsequent performance.

  8. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Arciero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE training (PRISE in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15 or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15 for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs, power (bench throws, BTs, blood pressure (BP, augmentation index, (AIx, and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre and 13 (post. At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05 in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively, BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts, AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%, and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg. These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day diet and multi-component exercise (RISE training (PRISE enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women.

  9. Mechanisms governing the health and performance benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Bailey, D

    2013-11-01

    Humans are considered among the greatest if not the greatest endurance land animals. Over the last 50 years, as the population has become more sedentary, rates of cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension have all increased. Aerobic fitness is considered protective for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, a variety of cancers, joint disease and depression. Here, I will review the emerging mechanisms that underlie the response to exercise, focusing on the major target organ the skeletal muscle system. Understanding the mechanisms of action of exercise will allow us to develop new therapies that mimic the protective actions of exercise.

  10. Voluntary exercise improves performance of a discrimination task through effects on the striatal dopamine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C.; Stansfield, Katherine J.; Green, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that voluntary exercise facilitates discrimination learning in a modified T-maze. There is evidence implicating the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) as the substrate for this task. The present experiments examined whether changes in DLS dopamine receptors might underlie the exercise-associated facilitation. Infusing a D1R antagonist into the DLS prior to discrimination learning facilitated the performance of nonexercising rats but not exercising rats. Infusing a D2R antagonist impaired the performance of exercising rats but not nonexercising rats. Exercise-associated facilitation of this task may rely on an exercise-induced decrease in D1R and increase in D2R activation in the DLS. PMID:24934332

  11. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Lee J; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Jackman, Sarah R; Ermιdis, Georgios; Kelly, James; Black, Matthew I; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary inorganic nitrate (NO₃(-)) supplementation may improve muscle efficiency and endurance exercise tolerance but possible effects during team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise have not been examined. We hypothesized that NO₃(-) supplementation would enhance high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Fourteen male recreational team-sport players were assigned in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design to consume 490 mL of concentrated, nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) and nitrate-depleted placebo juice (PL) over ~30 h preceding the completion of a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1). Resting plasma nitrite concentration ([NO₂(-)]) was ~400% greater in BR compared to PL. Plasma [NO₂(-)] declined by 20% in PL (P exercise to end-exercise. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR1 was 4.2% greater (P exercise and may be a useful ergogenic aid for team sports players.

  12. Partner Influence in Diet and Exercise Behaviors: Testing Behavior Modeling, Social Control, and Normative Body Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Brady, Christy Freadreacea; Garcia, Justin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has documented social contagion in obesity and related health behaviors, but less is known about the social processes underlying these patterns. Focusing on married or cohabitating couples, we simultaneously explore three potential social mechanisms influencing obesity: normative body size, social control, and behavior modeling. We analyze the association between partner characteristics and the obesity-related health behaviors of focal respondents, comparing the effects of partners’ body type, partners’ attempts to manage respondents’ eating behaviors, and partners’ own health behaviors on respondents’ health behaviors (physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food consumption). Data on 215 partners are extracted from a larger study of social mechanisms of obesity in family and community contexts conducted in 2011 in the United States. Negative binomial regression models indicate that partner behavior is significantly related to respondent behavior (p obesity-related patterns of consumption and physical activity. In contrast, we find little support for the influence of normative body size or partner social control in this sample, though generalizations about the relevance of these processes may be inappropriate. These results underscore the importance of policies and interventions that target dyads and social groups, suggesting that adoption of exercise or diet modifications in one individual is likely to spread to others, creating a social environment characterized by mutual reinforcement of healthy behavior. PMID:28033428

  13. A single bout of resistance exercise can enhance episodic memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Lisa; Hasni, Anita; Shinohara, Minoru; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Acute aerobic exercise can be beneficial to episodic memory. This benefit may occur because exercise produces a similar physiological response as physical stressors. When administered during consolidation, acute stress, both physical and psychological, consistently enhances episodic memory, particularly memory for emotional materials. Here we investigated whether a single bout of resistance exercise performed during consolidation can produce episodic memory benefits 48 hours later. We used a ...

  14. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense ...

  15. Angelica sinensis Improves Exercise Performance and Protects against Physical Fatigue in Trained Mice

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    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Angelica sinensis (AS is a well-known medicinal herb and food material with antioxidative and multifunctional pharmacological activities. However, we lack evidence of the effect of AS on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of AS on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions after physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; (3 exercise training with AS treatment at 0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1; and (4 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5; both the vehicle and AS were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. Trend analysis revealed that AS treatments significantly increased endurance swimming time and blood glucose level, and decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels. Liver and muscle glycogen contents were higher for Ex-AS1 and Ex-AS5 groups than the exercise control. Therefore, AS supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue properties in mice and may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  16. Effect of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Body Composition Parameters and Exercise Capacity by Comparison with Age Matched Healthy Controls

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    Mann Randeep

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nutritional abnormalities are frequent systemic manifestation associated with COPD. The purpose of the present study was to compare the body composition parameters and exercise capacity between stable COPD patients and healthy controls, and to find the strength of association between exercise capacity, FMI and FFMI. Methods: 100 subjects were recruited, and divided into two groups. Group I included stable COPD patients, and Group II consisted of age matched healthy controls respectively. The spirometric parameters recorded were FEV1 (Litres, FVC (Litres, FEV1/FVC ratio (% predicted, FEF 25%75% (Litres/sec. Anthrometric measurements included Body Weight, Height and BMI measurements. Body composition was assessed by four-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BODY STAT, QUAD SCAN, USA. The following parameters were calculated: FFM, FFMI, FM and FMI. The exercise capacity was assessed by the six-minute walking distance test (6MWD. All the recordings were compared between groups and correlation was also computed between 6MWD, FMI and FFMI within groups. Results were analyzed using SPSS, version 16 and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: We found that COPD patients showed lower FFM, FFMI and exercise capacity as compared to healthy controls. And, great strength of association was found between FFMI and exercise capacity. Conclusions: Thus, our study indicates that with COPD there is preferential loss of lean body mass evident from lower FFMI leading to decreased walking distance in these patients. Hence, it is prudent to include nutritional and exercise capacity assessment in patients of COPD, to better manage these patients and improve their quality of life. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 53-57

  17. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise.

  18. Whole-Body Vibration Exercise for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess the effects of WBV exercise on patients with KOA. Methods. Eight databases including Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CNKI, and Wanfang were searched up to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of WBV for KOA were eligible. The outcomes were pain intensity, functional performances, self-reported status, adverse events, and muscle strength. A meta-analysis was conducted. Results. Five trials with 168 participants provided data for the meta-analysis. No significant difference was shown in pain intensity and self-reported status between WBV and other forms of exercise. Improvement in functional performance (evaluated by BBS; WMD, 2.96; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62; P=0.0005 was greater in WBV group, but the other parameters of functional performance (including 6MWT and TGUG revealed no statistically significant difference. Adverse events were only reported in one trial and no significant difference was discovered in muscle strength. The overall quality of evidence was very low. Conclusion. Currently there is only limited evidence that suggested that WBV is effective in the treatment of KOA. Large, well-designed RCTs with better designs are needed.

  19. Whole body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, accelerates brain and locomotor limb circulatory strain and impairs exercise capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Kalsi, Kameljit K

    2017-01-01

    with exercise capacity, blood temperature (TB), oxygen uptake (V̇O2), brain perfusion (MCA Vmean), locomotor limb hemodynamics, and hematological parameters were assessed during incremental cycling exercise with elevated skin (mild hyperthermia; HYPmild), combined core and skin temperatures (moderate...... conditions, whereas only TB was greater in HYPmod At exhaustion, oxygen uptake and exercise capacity were reduced in HYPmod in association with lower leg blood flow, MCA Vmean and mean arterial pressure (MAP), but similar maximal heart rate and TB The attenuated brain and leg perfusion with hyperthermia......-body hyperthermia, but not skin hyperthermia, compromises exercise capacity in heat-stressed humans through the early attenuation of brain and active muscle blood flow....

  20. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Fruit Extract Improves Physical Fatigue and Exercise Performance in Mice

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    Chia-Chung Hou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen and release (as blood glucose, and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  1. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) fruit extract improves physical fatigue and exercise performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Yi; Huang, Wen-Ching; Liu, Chieh-Chung; Wang, Ming-Fu; Ho, Chin-Shan; Huang, Wen-Pei; Hou, Chia-Chung; Chuang, Hsiao-Li; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2012-10-09

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) is a popular and nutritious vegetable consumed worldwide. The overall purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of C. moschata fruit extract (CME) on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenges. Male ICR mice from four groups designated vehicle, CME-50, CME-100 and CME-250, respectively (n = 8 per group in each test) were orally administered CME for 14 days at 0, 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance were evaluated using exhaustive swimming time, forelimb grip strength, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. The resting muscular and hepatic glycogen was also analyzed after 14-day supplementation with CME. Trend analysis revealed that CME treatments increased grip strength. CME dose-dependently increased 5% body weight loaded swimming time, blood glucose, and muscular and hepatic glycogen levels. CME dose-dependently decreased plasma lactate and ammonia levels and creatine kinase activity after a 15-min swimming test. The mechanism was relevant to the increase in energy storage (as glycogen) and release (as blood glucose), and the decrease of plasma levels of lactate, ammonia, and creatine kinase. Therefore, CME may be potential for the pharmacological effect of anti-fatigue.

  2. Acute Effect of Decaffeinated Coffee on Heart Rate, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance in Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Kaushik, Vidya S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of decaffeinated coffee on the cardiovascular exercise performance in nine healthy volunteers was evaluated in a double-blind randomized fashion. The heart rate, blood pressure, and duration of exercise were unchanged, and no arrhythmias or ischemic changes were seen on the electrocardiogram after drinking decaffeinated coffee. It was concluded that decaffeinated coffee has no discernible, acute, adverse cardiovascular effects. PMID:3339645

  3. Metabolic effects of beta2-agonists in relation to exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Beta2-agonists are frequently used in the treatment of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. However, aside from a bronchodilatory effect, beta2-agonists have also been shown to improve exercise performance, which makes these substances subjected to misuse by elite...

  4. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program.

  5. Effects of Arachidonic Acid Supplementation on Acute Anabolic Signaling and Chronic Functional Performance and Body Composition Adaptations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo O De Souza

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of arachidonic acid (ARA supplementation on functional performance and body composition in trained males. In addition, we performed a secondary study looking at molecular responses of ARA supplementation following an acute exercise bout in rodents.Thirty strength-trained males (age: 20.4 ± 2.1 yrs were randomly divided into two groups: ARA or placebo (i.e. CTL. Then, both groups underwent an 8-week, 3-day per week, non-periodized training protocol. Quadriceps muscle thickness, whole-body composition scan (DEXA, muscle strength, and power were assessed at baseline and post-test. In the rodent model, male Wistar rats (~250 g, ~8 weeks old were pre-fed with either ARA or water (CTL for 8 days and were fed the final dose of ARA prior to being acutely strength trained via electrical stimulation on unilateral plantar flexions. A mixed muscle sample was removed from the exercised and non-exercised leg 3 hours post-exercise.Lean body mass (2.9%, p<0.0005, upper-body strength (8.7%, p<0.0001, and peak power (12.7%, p<0.0001 increased only in the ARA group. For the animal trial, GSK-β (Ser9 phosphorylation (p<0.001 independent of exercise and AMPK phosphorylation after exercise (p-AMPK less in ARA, p = 0.041 were different in ARA-fed versus CTL rats.Our findings suggest that ARA supplementation can positively augment strength-training induced adaptations in resistance-trained males. However, chronic studies at the molecular level are required to further elucidate how ARA combined with strength training affect muscle adaptation.

  6. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  7. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  8. The Paroxetine Effect on Exercise Performance Depends on the Aerobic Capacity of Exercising Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Teixeira-Coelho, João Paulo Uendeles-Pinto, Ana Cláudia Alves Serafim, Samuel Penna Wanner, Márcio de Matos Coelho, Danusa Dias Soares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of aerobic capacity on the activation of the central serotonergic system and exercise fatigue in young men that ingested a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and were then subjected to moderate-intensity physical exercise. The maximal oxygen consumption of sixteen volunteers was measured during an incremental test. The volunteers were divided into two groups: subjects with higher (HAC and lower (LAC aerobic capacities. The volunteers were subjected to four experimental trials in which they ingested either placebo or paroxetine (10, 20 or 40 mg and, 4.5 h later, cycled at 60% of their maximal power output until reaching fatigue. None of the three paroxetine doses influenced the total exercise time in the LAC group. However, for the HAC group, the time to fatigue in the 20 mg paroxetine condition was 15% less than that in the placebo condition (76.3 ± 5.1 min vs. 90.0 ± 7.9 min; p < 0.05. The time to fatigue was higher in the HAC group than in the LAC group for all treatments. Our results provide additional evidence that aerobic capacity modulates the activity of the serotonergic system. However, contrary to what would be expected considering previous reports, the activation of the serotonergic system in exercising subjects in the HAC group was not less than that in the LAC group.

  9. Exercise Performance Measurement with Smartphone Embedded Sensor for Well-Being Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical activity reduces the risk of many diseases and improves physical and mental health. However, physical inactivity is widespread globally. Improving physical activity levels is a global concern in well-being management. Exercise performance measurement systems have the potential to improve physical activity by providing feedback and motivation to users. We propose an exercise performance measurement system for well-being management that is based on the accumulated activity effective index (AAEI) and incorporates a smartphone-embedded sensor. The proposed system generates a numeric index that is based on users’ exercise performance: their level of physical activity and number of days spent exercising. The AAEI presents a clear number that can serve as a useful feedback and goal-setting tool. We implemented the exercise performance measurement system by using a smartphone and conducted experiments to assess the feasibility of the system and investigated the user experience. We recruited 17 participants for validating the feasibility of the measurement system and a total of 35 participants for investigating the user experience. The exercise performance measurement system showed an overall precision of 88% in activity level estimation. Users provided positive feedback about their experience with the exercise performance measurement system. The proposed system is feasible and has a positive effective on well-being management. PMID:27727188

  10. Do muscle strengthening exercises improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia G. Reis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Walking speed seems to be related to aerobic capacity, lower limb strength, and functional mobility, however it is not clear whether there is a direct relationship between improvement in muscle strength and gait performance in early postmenopausal women. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of muscle strengthening exercises on the performance of the 6-minute walk test in women within 5 years of menopause. METHODS: The women were randomized into control group (n=31, which performed no exercise, and exercise group (n=27, which performed muscle strengthening exercises. The exercises were performed twice a week for 3 months. The exercise protocol consisted of warm-up, stretching, and strengthening of the quadriceps, hamstring, calf, tibialis anterior, gluteus maximus, and abdominal muscles, followed by relaxation. Muscular strength training started with 60% of 1MR (2 series of 10-15 repetitions, reaching 85% until the end of the 3-month period (4 series of 6 repetitions each. RESULTS: The between-group comparisons pre- and post-intervention did not show any difference in distance walked, heart rate or blood pressure (p>0.05, but showed differences in muscle strength post-intervention, with the exercise group showing greater strength (p CONCLUSION: The results suggest that muscle strengthening of the lower limbs did not improve performance in the 6-minute walk test in this population of postmenopausal women.

  11. Effectiveness of exercise and protein supplementation intervention on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahar S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suzana Shahar,1 Norshafarina Shari Kamaruddin,2 Manal Badrasawi,1 Noor Ibrahim Mohamed Sakian,3 Zahara Abd Manaf,1 Zaitun Yassin,4 Leonard Joseph51Dietetic Programme, 2Biomedical Programme, 3Occupational Therapy Programme, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, 5Department of Physiotherapy, School of Healthcare Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: Sarcopenia, characterized as muscle loss that occurs with aging, is a major health problem in an aging population, due to its implications on mobility, quality of life, and fall risk. Protein supplementation could improve the physical fitness by increasing protein anabolism, and exercise has a documented evidence of positive effect on functional status among the elderly. However, the combined effect of both protein supplementation and exercise has not been investigated among sarcopenic elderly in the Asian population. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of exercise intervention and protein supplementation either alone or in combination for 12 weeks, on body composition, functional fitness, and oxidative stress among elderly Malays with sarcopenia. Sixty five sarcopenic elderly Malays aged 60-74 years were assigned to the control group, exercise group (ExG, protein supplementation group (PrG, or the combination of exercise and protein supplementation group. A significant interaction effect between body weight and body mass index (BMI was observed, with the PrG (-2.1% body weight, -1.8% BMI showing the highest reductions. Further, there was a decrease in % body fat (-4.5% and an increase in fat-free mass (kg (+5.7% in the ExG after 12 weeks (P < 0.05. The highest increments in lower and upper body strength were observed in the Pr

  12. Spatial heterogeneity in the response of the proximal femur to two lower-body resistance exercise regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Thomas F; Saeed, Isra H; Streeper, Timothy; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Harnish, Roy J; Frassetto, Lynda A; Lee, Stuart M C; Sibonga, Jean D; Keyak, Joyce H; Spiering, Barry A; Grodsinsky, Carlos M; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the skeletal effects of resistance exercise involves delineating the spatially heterogeneous response of bone to load distributions from different muscle contractions. Bone mineral density (BMD) analyses may obscure these patterns by averaging data from tissues with variable mechanoresponse. To assess the proximal femoral response to resistance exercise, we acquired pretraining and posttraining quantitative computed tomography (QCT) images in 22 subjects (25-55 years, 9 males, 13 females) performing two resistance exercises for 16 weeks. One group (SQDL, n = 7) performed 4 sets each of squats and deadlifts, a second group (ABADD, n = 8) performed 4 sets each of standing hip abductions and adductions, and a third group (COMBO, n = 7) performed two sets each of squat/deadlift and abduction/adduction exercise. Subjects exercised three times weekly, and the load was adjusted each session to maximum effort. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to visualize BMD distributions. Hip strength computations used finite element modeling (FEM) with stance and fall loading conditions. We used QCT analysis for cortical and trabecular BMD, and cortical tissue volume. For muscle size and density, we analyzed the cross-sectional area (CSA) and mean Hounsfield unit (HU) in the hip extensor, flexor, abductor, and adductor muscle groups. Whereas SQDL increased vertebral BMD, femoral neck cortical BMD and volume, and stance hip strength, ABADD increased trochanteric cortical volume. The COMBO group showed no changes in any parameter. VBM showed different effects of ABADD and SQDL exercise, with the former causing focal changes of trochanteric cortical bone, and the latter showing diffuse changes in the femoral neck and head. ABADD exercise increased adductor CSA and HU, whereas SQDL exercise increased the hip extensor CSA and HU. In conclusion, we observed different proximal femoral bone and muscle tissue responses to SQDL and ABADD exercise. This study

  13. The effect of exercise intensity on cognitive performance during short duration treadmill running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Mike

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of short duration, moderate and high-intensity exercise on a Go/NoGo task. Fifteen, habitually active (9 females and 6 males aged 28 ± 5 years agreed to participate in the study and cognitive performance was measured in three sessions lasting 10 min each, performed at three different exercise intensities: rest, moderate and high. Results indicated significant exercise intensity main effects for reaction time (RT (p = 0.01, the omission error rate (p = 0.027 and the decision error rate (p = 0.011, with significantly longer RTs during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.039 and rest (p = 0.023. Mean ± SE of RT (ms was 395.8 ± 9.1, 396.3 ± 9.1 and 433.5 ± 16.1 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. This pattern was replicated for the error rate with a significantly higher omission error and decision error rate during high intensity exercise compared to moderate intensity exercise (p = 0.003 and rest (p = 0.001. Mean ± SE of omission errors (% was 0.88 ± 0.23, 0.8 ± 0.23 and 1.8 ± 0.46% for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. Likewise, mean ± SE of decision errors (% was 0.73 ± 0.24, 0.73 ± 0.21 and 1.8 ± 0.31 for rest, moderate and high intensity exercise, respectively. The present study’s results suggest that 10 min workout at high intensity impairs RT performances in habitually active adults compared to rest or moderate intensity exercise.

  14. A randomized trial investigating an exercise program to prevent reduction of bone mineral density and impairment of motor performance during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, A.; Winkel, M.L. te; Beek, van R.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Hop, W.C.; Heuvel-Eibrink, van den MM; Pieters, R.

    2009-01-01

    once a week. CONCLUSIONS: The exercise program was not more beneficial than standard care in preventing reduction in BMD, motor performance and passive ankle dorsiflexion than standard care, most likely due to unsatisfactory compliance. Increased BMI and body fat in the intervention group normalized

  15. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purpura Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest and after (posttest 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16, Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16 or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17 intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

  16. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Ponce-Bravo, Christian Ponce, Belén Feriche, Paulino Padial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG, or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG. Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT, choice reaction time (C-RT and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05. Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05 after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05. Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

  17. Influence of verapamil therapy on left ventricular performance at rest and during exercise in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrath, P; Schlüter, M; Sonntag, F; Diemert, J; Bleifeld, W

    1983-09-01

    To determine the hemodynamic effect of verapamil at rest and during exercise, 18 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were studied before and after 7 weeks of treatment with oral verapamil (maximal dose, 720 mg/day). At rest and at peak exercise, verapamil produced a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) systolic performance in terms of stroke volume index (rest, from 43 +/- 11 to 53 +/- 11 ml/m2, p less than 0.001; exercise, from 46 +/- 11 to 51 +/- 10 ml/m2, p less than 0.01), whereas heart rate decreased (rest, from 81 +/- 14 to 70 +/- 11 min-1, p less than 0.001; exercise, from 150 +/- 21 to 141 +/- 18 min-1, p less than 0.01). Cardiac index at rest and during exercise remained unchanged. Systolic vascular resistance did not change at rest, but decreased significantly during exercise (974 +/- 243 to 874 +/- 174 dynes s cm-5; p less than 0.05). After verapamil administration, pulmonary artery pressures did not change at rest, but decreased significantly during exercise. This was probably due to a shift in the LV pressure-volume relation. The improvement in LV hemodynamics was associated with a significant increase in exercise capacity. The findings of this study indicate that in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hemodynamic improvement at rest and during exercise can be achieved by chronic administration of verapamil.

  18. Recent Research on Eating Disorders and Body Image Distortion among Aerobic Instructors and Exercise Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This document reviews the research linking excessive exercise with eating disorders. Seven steps are listed that an individual follows in going from someone who starts out using exercise and aerobic dance as a stress management technique or a hobby to becoming an exercise dependent individual with addictive behavior. Studies are reviewed, the…

  19. New exercise-integrated technology can monitor the dosage and quality of exercise performed against an elastic resistance band by adolescents with patellofemoral pain: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Rathleff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is the exercise-integrated Bandcizer™ system feasible for recording exercise dosage (time under tension (TUT and repetitions and pain scores among adolescents with patellofemoral pain? Do adolescents practise the exercises as prescribed (TUT and repetitions? Do adolescents accurately report the exercises they do in an exercise diary? Design: Observational feasibility study. Participants: Twenty adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age with patellofemoral pain. Intervention: Participants were prescribed three exercise sessions per week (one with and two without supervision for 6 weeks. The exercises included three hip and one knee exercise with an elastic resistance band. Participants were instructed to perform three sets with a predefined TUT (3 seconds concentric; 2 seconds isometric; 3 seconds eccentric; 2 seconds pause, equating to 80 seconds for 10 repetitions (one set. Outcome measures: The exercise-integrated system consisted of a sensor attached to the elastic resistance band that was connected to the Bandtrainer app on an electronic tablet device. Pain intensity was reported on a visual analogue scale on the app. Participants also completed a self-report exercise diary. Results: No major problems were reported with the system. Participants performed 2541 exercise sets during the 6 weeks; 5% were performed with the predefined TUT (ie, within 10 seconds of the 80-second target and 90% were performed below the target TUT. On average, the participants received 15% of the instructed exercise dosage based on TUT. The exercise dosage reported in the exercise diaries was 2.3 times higher than the TUT data from the electronic system. Pain intensity was successfully collected in 100% of the exercise sets. Conclusion: The system was feasible for adolescents with patellofemoral pain. The system made it possible to capture detailed data about the TUT, repetitions and sets during home-based exercises together with pain intensity

  20. Effect of different types of music on exercise performance in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Anuprita M; Yardi, Sujata S

    2013-01-01

    While exercising, people seem to enjoy listening to music believing that it relaxes them or helps give the necessary rhythm for exercise. But is music really beneficial? In view of different people listening to different types of music, this study was intended to assess effect of different types of music on exercise performance. 30 healthy female college students in the age group of 18 to 25 years were made to walk on the treadmill 3 times at one week interval: without music (A), with slow music (B), with fast music (C). Duration of exercise and rate of perceived exertion were recorded at the end of each session. The results showed an increase in the duration of exercise in Group B and Group C as compared to Group A and the increase was more in Group C as compared to Group B. It was observed that level of RPE was the same at the end of every exercise session. The reason for increase in exercise duration with music could be because of various factors like dissociation, arousal, motivation, etc. It can be thus suggested that exercises can be performed for longer duration with music than without music and the effect is more with fast music than with slow music. Also with music, the same level of exertion is perceived though the walking duration is considerably increased.

  1. Morning and evening exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yun Seo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise may contribute to preventing pathological changes, treating multiple chronic diseases, and reducing mortality and morbidity ratios. Scientific evidence moreover shows that exercise plays a key role in improving health-related physical fitness components and hormone function. Regular exercise training is one of the few strategies that has been strictly adapted in healthy individuals and in athletes. However, time-dependent exercise has different outcomes, based on the exercise type, duration, and hormone adaptation. In the present review, we therefore briefly describe the type, duration, and adaptation of exercise performed in the morning and evening. In addition, we discuss the clinical considerations and indications for exercise training.

  2. Effect of carbohydrate availability on time to exhaustion in exercise performed at two different intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Lima-Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of pre-exercise carbohydrate availability on the time to exhaustion for moderate and heavy exercise. Seven men participated in a randomized order in two diet and exercise regimens each lasting 3 days with a 1-week interval for washout. The tests were performed at 50% of the difference between the first (LT1 and second (LT2 lactate breakpoint for moderate exercise (below LT2 and at 25% of the difference between the maximal load and LT2 for heavy exercise (above LT2 until exhaustion. Forty-eight hours before each experimental session, subjects performed a 90-min cycling exercise followed by 5-min rest periods and a subsequent 1-min cycling bout at 125% VO2max/1-min rest periods until exhaustion to deplete muscle glycogen. A diet providing 10% (CHOlow or 65% (CHOmod energy as carbohydrates was consumed for 2 days until the day of the experimental test. In the exercise below LT2, time to exhaustion did not differ between the CHOmod and the CHOlow diets (57.22 ± 24.24 vs 57.16 ± 25.24 min. In the exercise above LT2, time to exhaustion decreased significantly from 23.16 ± 8.76 min on the CHOmod diet to 18.30 ± 5.86 min on the CHOlow diet (P < 0.05. The rate of carbohydrate oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio and blood lactate concentration were reduced for CHOlow only during exercise above LT2. These results suggest that muscle glycogen depletion followed by a period of a low carbohydrate diet impairs high-intensity exercise performance.

  3. Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sport drinks are ubiquitous within the recreational and competitive fitness and sporting world. Most are manufactured and artificially flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. Recently, attention has been given to coconut water, a natural alternative to manufactured sport drinks, with initial evidence indicating efficacy with regard to maintaining hydration. We compared coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. Methods Following a 60-minute bout of dehydrating treadmill exercise, 12 exercise-trained men (26.6 ± 5.7 yrs received bottled water (BW, pure coconut water (VitaCoco®: CW, coconut water from concentrate (CWC, or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink (SD [a fluid amount based on body mass loss during the dehydrating exercise] on four occasions (separated by at least 5 days in a random order, single blind (subject and not investigators, cross-over design. Hydration status (body mass, fluid retention, plasma osmolality, urine specific gravity and performance (treadmill time to exhaustion; assessed after rehydration were determined during the recovery period. Subjective measures of thirst, bloatedness, refreshed, stomach upset, and tiredness were also determined using a 5-point visual analog scale. Results Subjects lost approximately 1.7 kg (~2% of body mass during the dehydrating exercise and regained this amount in a relatively similar manner following consumption of all conditions. No differences were noted between coconut water (CW or CWC and SD for any measures of fluid retention (p > 0.05. Regarding exercise performance, no significant difference (p > 0.05 was noted between BW (11.9 ± 5.9 min, CW (12.3 ± 5.8 min, CWC (11.9 ± 6.0 min, and SD (12.8 ± 4.9 min. In general, subjects reported feeling more bloated and experienced greater stomach upset with the CW and CWC conditions. Conclusion All tested beverages are

  4. Maximal exercise performance-impairing effects of simulated blast overpressure in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, A J; Mundie, T G; Dodd, K T

    1997-07-25

    Lung contusion has been identified as a primary blast injury. These experiments addressed a fundamental and overt endpoint of primary blast injury, incapacitation (performance decrement). Respiration, hemodynamics, and blood gases were measured in sheep undergoing incremental exercise challenge before and 1 h after simulated blast exposure of the thorax. Pathologic examination of lung tissue was performed after exposure and exercise testing. Blast overpressure was simulated in the laboratory using a compressed air-driven shock tube. Three levels of lung injury (Levels 1-3, 'Trivial', 'Slight', and 'Moderate' injury, respectively) were examined for effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO[2max]), an index of cardiorespiratory fitness. Resting hemodynamics and blood gases were relatively normal an hour after exposure, immediately before exercise. However, Levels 1-3 lung injury were associated with average 4.8, 29.9 and 49.3% VO(2max). decreases, respectively. These performance decrements for Levels 2 and 3 were significantly different from respective controls (non-exposed). Exercise caused significant hemoconcentration in sheep under control conditions, before exposure (resting 9.5 +/- 0.9, end-exercise 11.8 +/- 0.9 g/100 ml). Blast exposure resulted in average decreases of 4.9 +/- 3.4, 12.8 +/- 4.0, and 12.6 +/- 3.3% in exercise-induced hemoconcentration for Levels 1-3 injury, respectively. Normal exercise-induced hemodynamic increases were also attenuated after exposure. Levels 2 and 3 injury resulted in average 22.6 +/- 2.9 and 18.5 +/- 11.2% stroke volume decreases, and also 22.3 +/- 8.4 and 29.0 +/- 14.2% cardiac output decreases, respectively, during exercise. While blast lung pathology and pulmonary function changes could account for post-blast performance decrements, these experiments suggest that in sheep, early after exposure, diminished hemoconcentration and cardiac disfunction may also contribute to decreased exercise performance.

  5. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass......Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...

  6. Anaerobic performance when rehydrating with water or commercially available sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coso, Juan Del; Estevez, Emma; Baquero, Raúl Antonio; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2008-04-01

    The effects that rehydrating drinks ingested during exercise may have on anaerobic exercise performance are unclear. This study aimed to determine which of four commercial rehydrating drinks better maintains leg power and force during prolonged cycling in the heat. Seven endurance-trained and heat-acclimatized cyclists pedaled for 120 min at 63% maximum oxygen consumption in a hot, dry environment (36 degrees C; 29% humidity, 1.9 m.s-1 airflow). In five randomized trials, during exercise, subjects drank 2.4 +/- 0.1 L of (i) mineral water (WAT; San Benedetto), (ii) 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Gatorade lemon), (iii) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (Powerade Citrus Charge), (iv) 8% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution with lower sodium concentration than other sports drinks (Aquarius orange), or (v) did not ingest any fluid (DEH). Fluid balance, rectal temperature (Trec), maximal cycling power (Pmax), and leg maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) were measured. During DEH, subjects lost 3.7 +/- 0.2% of initial body mass, whereas subjects lost only 0.8% +/- 0.1% in the other trials (p rehydration with commercially available sports drinks during prolonged exercise in the heat preserves leg force, whereas rehydrating with water does not. However, low sodium concentration in a sports drink seems to preclude its ergogenic effects on force.

  7. The body voyage as visual representation and art performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    with it. A further aim with the paper is to discuss what kind of image of the body that is conveyed through medical visual technologies, such as endoscopy, and relate it to contemporary discussions on embodiment, embodied vision and bodily presence. The paper concludes with a recent exhibition......This paper looks at the notion of the body as an interior landscape that is made intelligible through visual representation. It discerns the key figure of the inner corporeal voyage, identifies its main elements and examines how contemporary artists working with performances and installations deal...... by the French artist Christian Boltanski, which gives a somewhat different meaning to the idea of the body voyage....

  8. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity (resistance exercise (HIT and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press. LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93±1.15% were significant (p=.001; however, no significant group differences were detected (p=.395. Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7±14.7%, p=.002, versus WB-EMS 7.3±10.3%, p=.012 with no significant (p=.215 between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  9. The NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside decreases exercise performance in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtzidis, Ioannis A.; Stoupas, Andreas T.; Gioris, Ioannis S.; Veskoukis, Aristidis S.; Margaritelis, Nikos V.; Tsantarliotou, Maria; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Vrabas, Ioannis S.; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and its phosphorylated form (NADP+) are key molecules in ubiquitous bioenergetic and cellular signaling pathways, regulating cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Thus, supplementation with NAD+ and NADP+ precursors emerged as a promising strategy to gain many and multifaceted health benefits. In this proof-of-concept study, we sought to investigate whether chronic nicotinamide riboside administration (an NAD+ precursor) affects exercise perf...

  10. Performance Assessment of Military Teams in Simulator and Live Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    their continuous love and support. Special warmth , gratitude and love goes to my wonderful wife, Eva. You are the anchor that keeps me grounded, and...Abilities (KSAs) and other characteristics (e.g., cognitive, physical , hardiness and sensory) (U.S. Army, 2005). The availability of personnel and their...team training exercises expose cadet teams to a wide range of psychological and physical stressors representative of those found in military

  11. The acute effect of lower-body training on average power output measured by loaded half-squat jump exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Krčmár

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: High muscular power output is required in many athletic endeavors in order for success to be achieved. In the scientific community postactivation potentiation and its effect on performance are often discussed. There are many studies where the effect of resistance exercise on motor performance (such as vertical jump performance and running speed has been investigated but only a few of them studied power output. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute responses to a 2 set loaded half-squat jumps and 2 set loaded back half-squat protocols designed to induce the acute maximum average power output during loaded half-squat jumps. Methods: A randomized cross-over design was used. 11 participants of this study performed 3 trials in randomized order separated by at least 48 hours where maximum average power output was measured. The specific conditioning activities were comprised of 2 sets and 4 repetitions of half-squat jumps, 2 sets and 4 repetitions of back half-squat exercises and a control protocol without an intervention by specific a conditioning activity. Participants were strength trained athletes with different sport specializations (e.g. ice-hockey, volleyball. Mean age of the athletes was 22 ± 1.8 years, body mass 80 ± 7.1 kg and body height 185 ± 6.5 cm. Analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to determine differences between pre- and post-condition in each protocol, as well as between conditioning protocols, and also effect size was used to evaluate practical significance. Results: Maximum average power was significantly enhanced after application of the half-squat jump condition protocol (1496.2 ± 194.5 to 1552 ± 196.1 W, Δ ~ 3.72%, p < .001 and after application of the back half-squat protocol (1500.7 ± 193.2 to 1556 ± 191.2 W, Δ ~ 3.68%, p < .001 after 10 min of rest. Power output after control protocol was

  12. New Insights into Enhancing Maximal Exercise Performance Through the Use of a Bitter Tastant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gam, Sharon; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2016-10-01

    It is generally acknowledged that for an orally administered ergogenic aid to enhance exercise performance it must first be absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract before exerting its effects. Recently, however, it has been reported that some ergogenic aids can affect exercise performance without prior absorption by the gastrointestinal tract. This is best illustrated by studies that have shown that rinsing the mouth with a carbohydrate (CHO) solution, without swallowing it, significantly improves exercise performance. The ergogenic effects of CHO mouth rinsing in these studies have been attributed to the activation of the brain by afferent taste signals, but the specific mechanisms by which this brain activation translates to enhanced exercise performance have not yet been elucidated. Given the benefits of CHO mouth rinsing for exercise performance, this raises the issue of whether other types of tastants, such as bitter-tasting solutions, may also improve exercise performance. Recently, we performed a series of studies investigating whether the bitter tastant quinine can improve maximal sprint performance in competitive male cyclists, and, if so, to examine some of the possible mechanisms whereby this effect may occur. These studies have shown that mouth rinsing and ingesting a bitter-tasting quinine solution can significantly improve the performance of a maximal cycling sprint. There is also evidence that the ergogenic effect of quinine is mediated, at least in part, by an increase in autonomic nervous system activation and/or corticomotor excitability. The purpose of this article is to discuss the results and implications of these recent studies and to suggest avenues for further research, which may add to the understanding of the way the brain integrates signals from the oral cavity with motor behaviour, as well as uncover novel strategies to improve exercise performance.

  13. Effects of whole-body cryotherapy vs. far-infrared vs. passive modalities on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in highly-trained runners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Hausswirth

    Full Text Available Enhanced recovery following physical activity and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD has become a priority for athletes. Consequently, a number of post-exercise recovery strategies are used, often without scientific evidence of their benefits. Within this framework, the purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of whole body cryotherapy (WBC, far infrared (FIR or passive (PAS modalities in hastening muscular recovery within the 48 hours after a simulated trail running race. In 3 non-adjoining weeks, 9 well-trained runners performed 3 repetitions of a simulated trail run on a motorized treadmill, designed to induce muscle damage. Immediately (post, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise, all participants tested three different recovery modalities (WBC, FIR, PAS in a random order over the three separate weeks. Markers of muscle damage (maximal isometric muscle strength, plasma creatine kinase [CK] activity and perceived sensations [i.e. pain, tiredness, well-being] were recorded before, immediately after (post, post 1 h, post 24 h, and post 48 h after exercise. In all testing sessions, the simulated 48 min trail run induced a similar, significant amount of muscle damage. Maximal muscle strength and perceived sensations were recovered after the first WBC session (post 1 h, while recovery took 24 h with FIR, and was not attained through the PAS recovery modality. No differences in plasma CK activity were recorded between conditions. Three WBC sessions performed within the 48 hours after a damaging running exercise accelerate recovery from EIMD to a greater extent than FIR or PAS modalities.

  14. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E van Loon

    Full Text Available Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise.105 healthy individuals (18-35 years were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599, Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987 and VWF (promoter, rs7965413 were determined.The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (p<0.0001. VWF:CB levels and ADAMTS13 activity both also increased after exhaustive exercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both p<0.0001. The strongest determinants of the VWF:Ag level increase are performance related (p<0.0001. We observed a gender difference in VWF:Ag response to exercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001, which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase.VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  15. Influence of dietary nitrate on the physiological determinants of exercise performance: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    Dietary nitrate supplementation, usually in the form of beetroot juice, has been heralded as a possible new ergogenic aid for sport and exercise performance. Early studies in recreationally active participants indicated that nitrate ingestion significantly reduces the O2 cost of submaximal exercise and improves performance during high-intensity endurance exercise. Subsequent studies have begun to address the physiological mechanisms underpinning these observations and to investigate the human populations in whom, and the exercise conditions (high- vs. low-intensity, long- vs. short-duration, continuous vs. intermittent, normoxic vs. hypoxic) under which, nitrate supplementation may be beneficial. Moreover, the optimal nitrate loading regimen in terms of nitrate dose and duration of supplementation has been explored. Depending on these factors, nitrate supplementation has been shown to exert physiological effects that could be conducive to exercise performance enhancement, at least in recreationally active or sub-élite athletes. This article provides a "state-of-the-art" review of the literature pertinent to the evaluation of the efficacy of nitrate supplementation in altering the physiological determinants of sport and exercise performance.

  16. Upregulation of skeletal muscle PGC-1α through the elevation of cyclic AMP levels by Cyanidin-3-glucoside enhances exercise performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Toshiya; Motojima, Hideko; Sato, Yuki; Takahashi, Shinya; Villareal, Myra O.; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-01-01

    Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α’s ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated. ICR mice were given Cy3G (1 mg/kg, orally) everyday and made to perform weight-loaded swimming exercise for 15 days. The endurance of mice orally administered with Cy3G was improved, enabling them to swim longer (time) and while the levels of exercise-induced lactate and fatigue markers (urea nitrogen, creatinine and total ketone bodies) were reduced. Additionally, the expression of lactate metabolism-related genes (lactate dehydrogenase B and monocarboxylate transporter 1) in gastrocnemius and biceps femoris muscles was increased in response to Cy3G-induced PGC-1α upregulation. In vitro, using C2C12 myotubes, Cy3G-induced elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels increased PGC-1α expression via the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase pathway. This study demonstrates that Cy3G enhances exercise performance by activating lactate metabolism through skeletal muscle PGC-1α upregulation. PMID:28317895

  17. Effect of Post-Exercise Whole Body Vibration with Stretching on Mood State, Fatigue, and Soreness in Collegiate Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Justin J. Merrigan; Matthew N. Tynan; Oliver, Jonathan M; Jagim, Andrew R; Jones, Margaret T.

    2017-01-01

    Static stretching (SS) during whole body vibration (WBV) has been suggested for exercise recovery. The purpose was to compare post-exercise self-ratings of fatigue (FAT), mood state (BAM), soreness (SOR), and perceived exertion (RPE) between SS and WBV+SS in swimmers (9 women, mean ± SD: 19.3 ± 1.3 year, 171 ± 5.7 cm, 67.6 ± 7.2 kg, 26.6 ± 4.1 %body fat (%BF); 10 men, mean ± SD: 19.7 ± 1.0 year, 183 ± 5.5 cm, 77.1 ± 4.2 kg, 13.1 ± 2.2 %BF). Athletes were divided by sex, event (sprint, distanc...

  18. Different types of exercise induce differential effects on neuronal adaptations and memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Wei; Chen, Shean-Jen; Huang, Tung-Yi; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Kuo, Yu-Min; Jen, Chauying J

    2012-01-01

    Different exercise paradigms show differential effects on various forms of memory. We hypothesize that the differential effects of exercises on memory performance are caused by different neuroplasticity changes in relevant brain regions in response to different exercise trainings. We examined the effects of treadmill running (TR) and wheel running (WR) on the Pavlovian fear conditioning task that assesses learning and memory performance associated with the amygdala (cued conditioning) and both the amygdala and hippocampus (contextual conditioning). The skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, an indicator of aerobic capacity, was elevated in rats received 4 w of TR, but not WR. While both TR and WR elevated the contextual conditional response, only TR facilitated the cued conditional response. Using a single-neuron labeling technique, we found that while both TR and MR enlarged the dendritic field and increased the spine density in hippocampal CA3 neurons, only TR showed these effects in basolateral amygdalar neurons. Moreover, both types of exercise upregulated synaptic proteins (i.e., TrkB and SNAP-25) in the hippocampus; however only TR showed similar effects in the amygdala. Injection of K252a, a TrkB kinase inhibitor, in the dorsal hippocampus or basolateral amygdala abolished the exercise-facilitated contextual or cued fear learning and memory performance, respectively, regardless of the types of exercise. In summary, our results supported that different types of exercise affect the performance of learning and memory via BDNF-TrkB signaling and neuroplasticity in specific brain regions. The brain region-specific neuronal adaptations are possibly induced by various levels of intensity/stress elicited by different types of exercise.

  19. The Effect of Krill Oil Supplementation on Exercise Performance and Markers of Immune Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariasole Da Boit

    Full Text Available Krill oil is a rich source of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, which may alter immune function after exercise. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of krill oil supplementation on post exercise immune function and performance.Nineteen males and 18 females (age: 25.8 ± 5.3 years; mean ± S.D. were randomly assigned to 2 g/day of krill oil (n = 18 or placebo (n = 19 supplementation for 6 weeks. A maximal incremental exercise test and cycling time trial (time to complete set amount of work were performed pre-supplementation with the time trial repeated post-supplementation. Blood samples collected pre- and post- supplementation at rest, and immediately, 1 and 3h post-exercise. Plasma IL-6 and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS concentrations and, erythrocyte fatty acid composition were measured. Natural killer (NK cell cytotoxic activity and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production were also measured.No effects of gender were noted for any variable. PBMC IL-2 and NK cell cytotoxic activity were greater (P < 0.05 3h post exercise in the krill oil compared to the control group. Plasma IL-6 and TBARS, PBMC IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFNγ production, along with performance and physiological measures during exercise, were not different between groups.Six weeks of krill oil supplementation can increase PBMC IL-2 production and NK cell cytotoxic activity 3h post-exercise in both healthy young males and females. Krill oil does not modify exercise performance.

  20. Exercise-induced dehydration does not alter time trial or neuromuscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C J; Whyte, D G; Cannon, J; Wickham, J; Marino, F E

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effect of exercise-induced dehydration by ~4% body mass loss on 5-km cycling time trial (TT) performance and neuromuscular drive, independent of hyperthermia. 7 active males were dehydrated on 2 occasions, separated by 7 d. Participants remained dehydrated (DEH, -3.8±0.5%) or were rehydrated (REH, 0.2±0.6%) over 2 h before completing the TT at 18-25 °C, 20-30% relative humidity. Neuromuscular function was determined before dehydration and immediately prior the TT. The TT started at the same core temperature (DEH, 37.3±0.3°C; REH, 37.0±0.2 °C (P>0.05). Neither TT performance (DEH, 7.31±1.5 min; REH, 7.10±1.3 min (P>0.05)) or % voluntary activation were affected by dehydration (DEH, 88.7±6.4%; REH, 90.6±6.1% (P>0.05)). Quadriceps peak torque was significantly elevated in both trials prior to the TT (Pperformance and neuromuscular function are not reduced by dehydration, independent of hyperthermia.

  1. Accelerated postoperative recovery programme after colonic resection improves physical performance, pulmonary function and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Raskov, H H; Hjort Jakobsen, D;

    2002-01-01

    exercise, pulmonary function and nocturnal oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Defaecation occurred earlier (median day 1 versus day 4) and hospital stay was shorter (median 2 versus 12 days) in patients who had multimodal treatment. Lean body and fat mass decreased in group 1 but not in group 2. Exercise......-supply (HR/oxygen saturation ratio) increased in group 1 but not in group 2. CONCLUSION: Multimodal rehabilitation prevents reduction in lean body mass, pulmonary function, oxygenation and cardiovascular response to exercise after colonic surgery....

  2. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    OpenAIRE

    Sofien Regaieg; Nadia Charfi; Mahdi Kamoun; Sameh Ghroubi; Haithem Rebai; Habib Elleuch; Mouna Mnif Feki; Mohamed Abid

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and ...

  3. Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, R C; Gonzalez, J T; Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Stevenson, E J

    2013-09-01

    The current study assessed the interactive effect of breakfast and exercise on cognition and mood. Twelve active males completed four trials; no breakfast-rest, breakfast-rest, no breakfast-exercise or breakfast-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. The trials consisted of; breakfast or fast, a 2h rest, exercise (treadmill run) or equivalent rest, a chocolate milk drink, a 90 min rest and an ad libitum lunch. Cognitive performance and mood were recorded frequently throughout each trial. Data was analysed as pre-exercise/rest, during and immediately post exercise/rest and post-drink. No effects were found prior to consumption of the drink. Post-drink, fasting before exercise increased mental fatigue compared to consuming breakfast before exercise and fasting before rest. Tension increased when breakfast was consumed at rest and when exercise was undertaken fasted compared to omitting breakfast before rest. Breakfast before rest decreased rapid visual information processing task speed and impaired Stroop performance. Breakfast omission improved Four Choice Reaction Time performance. To conclude, breakfast before exercise appeared beneficial for post-exercise mood even when a post-exercise snack was consumed. Exercise reversed post-breakfast cognitive impairment in active males.

  4. The effects of physical fitness and body composition on oxygen consumption and heart rate recovery after high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, E Z; Bastos, F N; Papoti, M; Freitas Junior, I F; Gobatto, C A; Balikian Junior, P

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential relationship between excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), heart rate recovery (HRR) and their respective time constants (tvo2 and t HR) and body composition and aerobic fitness (VO2max) variables after an anaerobic effort. 14 professional cyclists (age=28.4±4.8 years, height=176.0±6.7 cm, body mass=74.4±8.1 kg, VO2max=66.8±7.6 mL·kg - 1·min - 1) were recruited. Each athlete made 3 visits to the laboratory with 24 h between each visit. During the first visit, a total and segmental body composition assessment was carried out. During the second, the athletes undertook an incremental test to determine VO2max. In the final visit, EPOC (15-min) and HRR were measured after an all-out 30 s Wingate test. The results showed that EPOC is positively associated with % body fat (r=0.64), total body fat (r=0.73), fat-free mass (r=0.61) and lower limb fat-free mass (r=0.55) and negatively associated with HRR (r= - 0.53, pEPOC after high-intensity exercise. Even in short-term exercise, the major metabolic disturbance due to higher muscle mass and total muscle mass may increase EPOC. However, body fat impedes HRR and delays recovery of oxygen consumption after effort in highly trained athletes.

  5. Body Presence on Stage in Performance Studies and in Ethnoscenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armindo Jorge de Carvalho Bião

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a brief analysis on the titles of two related cross-disciplinary contemporary perspectives, in the university context, which seek to articulate theory and practice, arts and sciences, creation and criticism, cultural diversity and specific contexts, Ethnoscenology and Performance Studies, with emphasis on the explicit statement of their focus of interest, respectively performance and body presence on stage, and a statement about preferable choices.

  6. Disturbances in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance after passive body overheating and after exercise in elevated ambient temperatures in athletes and untrained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Pilch

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in two series of examinations with two types of stressors (exogenous heat and the combined exogenous and endogenous heat in trained and untrained men. The exogenous stressor was provided by Finnish sauna session, whereas the combined stressor was represented by the exercise in elevated ambient temperature. The men from the two groups performed the physical exercise on a cycle ergometer with the load of 53 ± 2% maximal oxygen uptake at the temperature of 33 ± 1 °C and relative humidity of 70% until their rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C. After a month from completion of the exercise test the subjects participated in a sauna bathing session with the temperature of 96 ± 2 °C, and relative humidity of 16 ± 5%. 15-minutes heating and 2-minute cool-down in a shower with the temperature of 20 °C was repeated until rectal temperature rose by 1.2 °C compared to the initial value. During both series of tests rectal temperature was measured at 5-minute intervals. Before both series of tests and after them body mass was measured and blood samples were taken for biochemical tests. Serum total protein, serum concentration of lipid peroxidation products and serum antioxidants were determined. The athletes were characterized by higher level of antioxidant status and lower concentration of lipid peroxidation products. Physical exercise at elevated ambient temperature caused lower changes in oxidative stress indices compared to sauna bathing. Sauna induced a shift in pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance towards oxidation, which was observed less intensively in the athletes compared to the untrained men. This leads to the conclusion that physical exercise increases tolerance to elevated ambient temperature and oxidative stress.

  7. What Limits Cardiac Performance during Exercise in Normal Subjects and in Healthy Fontan Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André La Gerche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is an important determinant of health but is significantly reduced in the patient with a univentricular circulation. Normal exercise physiology mandates an increase in pulmonary artery pressures which places an increased work demand on the right ventricle (RV. In a biventricular circulation with pathological increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and/or reductions in RV function, exercise-induced augmentation of cardiac output is limited. Left ventricular preload reserve is dependent upon flow through the pulmonary circulation and this requires adequate RV performance. In the Fontan patient, the reasons for exercise intolerance are complex. In those patients with myocardial dysfunction or other pathologies of the circulatory components, it is likely that these abnormalities serve as a limitation to cardiac performance during exercise. However, in the healthy Fontan patient, it may be the absence of a sub-pulmonary pump which limits normal increases in pulmonary pressures, trans-pulmonary flow requirements and cardiac output. If so, performance will be exquisitely dependent on pulmonary vascular resistance. This provides a potential explanation as to why pulmonary vasodilators may improve exercise tolerance. As has recently been demonstrated, these agents may offer an important new treatment strategy which directly addresses the physiological limitations in the Fontan patient.

  8. Impact of Oral Ubiquinol on Blood Oxidative Stress and Exercise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 plays an important role in bioenergetic processes and has antioxidant activity. Fifteen exercise-trained individuals (10 men and 5 women; 30–65 years received reduced CoQ10 (Kaneka QH ubiquinol; 300 mg per day or a placebo for four weeks in a random order, double blind, cross-over design (3 week washout. After each four-week period, a graded exercise treadmill test and a repeated cycle sprint test were performed (separated by 48 hours. Blood samples were collected before and immediately following both exercise tests and analyzed for lactate, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide. Resting blood samples were analyzed for CoQ10 (ubiquinone and ubiquinol profile before and after each treatment period. Treatment with CoQ10 resulted in a significant increase in total blood CoQ10 (138%; P=0.02 and reduced blood CoQ10 (168%; P=0.02, but did not improve exercise performance (with the exception of selected individuals or impact oxidative stress. The relationship between the percentage change in total blood CoQ10 and the cycle sprint total work (R2=0.6009 was noted to be moderate to strong. We conclude that treatment with CoQ10 in healthy, exercise-trained subjects increases total and reduced blood CoQ10, but this increase does not translate into improved exercise performance or decreased oxidative stress.

  9. Acute effect of resistance exercise performed at different intensities on the hemodynamics of normotensive men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Assis Saldanha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of resistance exercise performed at different intensities on the hemodynamics of normotensive men. The study included 10 normotensive and recreationally-trained men (25.40 ± 6.90 years performed the following three experimental protocols in a randomized order: a 60% of 8RM; b 80% of 8RM; c 100% of 8RM. All protocols performed six exercises (Leg Press, Vertical Bench Press, Leg Flexion, Close-Grip Seated Row, Leg Extension and Shoulder Press with three sets of eight repetitions for each exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR and double product (DP were measured at rest, at the end of exercise and during the 60-minute post-exercise. The findings showed that there was a significant reduction in the faster SBP with a longer duration (p 0.05. There were significantly higher elevations in HR and DP for 100% of 8RM at all times (p<0.0001. We conclude that high intensities (100% of 8RM promote post-exercise hypotension with faster responses and greater duration and increase HR and DP in normotensive men.

  10. Effects of moderate and high glycemic index meals on metabolism and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, J P; Cyr-Campbell, D; Campbell, W W; Scheiber, J; Evans, W J

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether pre-exercise ingestion of meals with moderate and high glycemic indexes (GI) affects glucose availability during exercise and exercise performance time. Six male volunteers (22 +/- 1 years; 80.4 +/- 3.7 kg; VO(2peak), 54.3 +/- 1.2 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) ingested 75 g of carbohydrate in the form of 2 different breakfast cereals, rolled oats (moderate GI, approximately 61; MOD-GI) or puffed rice (high GI, approximately 82; HI-GI), combined with 300 mL of water; or water alone (control). The trials were randomized, and the meals were ingested 45 minutes before the subjects performed cycling exercise (60% VO(2peak)) to exhaustion. Venous blood samples were drawn to measure glucose, free fatty acids (FFAs), glycerol, insulin (INS), epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations. A muscle biopsy specimen was obtained from the vastus lateralis before the meal and immediately after exercise for glycogen determination. Before exercise, both test meals elicited significant (P glycemic response was higher (P <.05) at the start of exercise after the HI-GI meal than after the control. During exercise, plasma glucose levels were higher (P <.05) at 60 (5.2 +/- 0.1, 4.2 +/- 0.2, and 4.6 +/- 0.1 mmol. L(-1)) and 90 (4.8 +/- 0.1, 4.1 +/- 0.1, and 4.3 +/- 0.1 mmol. L(-1)) minutes after the MOD-GI meal than after either the HI-GI or control. Total carbohydrate oxidation was greater (P <.05) during the MOD-GI trial than in control and was directly correlated with exercise performance time (r =.95, P <.0001). Pre-exercise plasma FFA levels were suppressed (P <.05) 30 and 45 minutes after ingestion of the HI-GI meal and 45 minutes after the MOD-GI meal compared with control. At 30, 60, and 120 minutes of exercise, FFAs remained suppressed (P <.05) for both test meals compared with control. At exhaustion, plasma glucose, INS, FFA, glycerol, EPI, and NE levels and muscle glycogen use were not different for all trials. Exercise time

  11. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooneyhan Andy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™ from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Methods Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water and placebo (PL 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR, time to exhaustion (Time, and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. Results The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P Conclusions The modified PRX formulation utilized in this investigation supports the findings of the previous investigation and its efficacy for enhancing indices of aerobic performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA during graded exercise testing.

  12. Water and electrolytes. [in human bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Harrison, M. H.

    1986-01-01

    It has been found that the performance of the strongest and fittest people will deteriorate rapidly with dehydration. The present paper is concerned with the anatomy of the fluid spaces in the body, taking into account also the fluid shifts and losses during exercise and their effects on performance. Total body water is arbitrarily divided into that contained within cells (cellular) and that located outside the cells (extracellular). The anatomy of body fluid compartments is considered along with the effects of exercise on body water, fluid shifts with exercise, the consequences of sweating, dehydration and exercise, heat acclimatization and endurance training, the adverse effects of dehydration, thirst and drinking during exercise, stimuli for drinking, and water, electrolyte, and carbohydrate replacement during exercise. It is found that the deterioration of physical exercise performance due to dehydration begins when body weight decreases by about 1 percent.

  13. Relationship between mean body temperature calculated by two- or three-compartment models and active cutaneous vasodilation in humans: a comparison between cool and warm environments during leg exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demachi, Koichi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Tsuneoka, Hideyuki

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the three-compartment model of mean body temperature (Tb3) calculated from the esophageal temperature (Tes), temperature in deep tissue of exercising muscle (Tdt), and mean skin temperature (Tsk) has the potential to provide a better match with the thermoregulatory responses than the two-component model of mean body temperature (Tb2) calculated from Tes and Tsk. Seven male subjects performed 40 min of a prolonged cycling exercise at 30% maximal oxygen uptake at 21°C or 31°C (50% relative humidity). Throughout the experiment, Tsk, Tb2, Tb3, and Tdt were significantly ( P vasodilation at the chest is related more closely to Tb3 or Tdt than that measured by Tes or Tb2 calculated by Tes and Tsk during exercise at both 21°C and 31°C.

  14. The Effect of Performing Bi- and Unilateral Row Exercises on Core Muscle Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, A; Andersen, V; Brudeseth, A; Lund, H; Fimland, M S

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare core muscle activation in 3 different row exercises (free-weight bent-over row, seated cable row and machine row) performed unilaterally and bilaterally, at matched effort levels. 15 resistance-trained men (26.0±4.4 years, 81.0±9.5 kg, 1.81±0.07 m) performed the exercises in randomized order. For erector spinae and multifidus, EMG activities in unilateral machine- and cable row were 60-63% and 74-78% of the bilateral performance (P≤0.036). For external oblique, the EMG activities recorded during bilateral exercises were 37-41% of the unilateral performance (P≤0.010). In unilateral cable- and machine rows, the EMG activities in external oblique and multifidus were 50-57% and 70-73% of the free-weight row (P≤0.002). In bilateral free-weight row, EMG activity in erector spinae was greater than bilateral machine- (+34%, P=0.004) and unilateral free-weight rows (+12%, P=0.016). For rectus abdominis there were no significant differences between conditions. In conclusion, 1) free-weight row provided greater EMG activity in erector spinae (bilaterally and unilaterally) and multifidus (unilaterally) than machine row; 2) unilateral performance of exercises activated the external oblique more than bilateral performance, regardless of exercise; and 3) generally bilateral performance of exercises provided higher erector spinae and multifidus EMG activity compared to unilateral performance.

  15. The Effectiveness of a Pre-Exercise Performance Drink (PRX) on Indices of Maximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars, Allyn; Greenwood, Mike; Greenwood, Lori; Simpson, Warren K

    2006-06-12

    This study examined the effectiveness of a pre-exercise drink (PRX) called EM.PACT on indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-four males (n = 12) and females (n = 12) ages 18-24 years (20.25 + 1.42), volunteered as subjects. Each subject performed two randomized trials of a VO2max treadmill test within a week of each other. Subjects in this randomized, placebo controlled, counter balanced, crossover design, ingested either a placebo (water) or PRX 20 minutes before each exercise bout. VO2max and time to exhaustion (Time) during graded exercise testing were evaluated. Using paired samples t-tests, significantly greater mean values were found in VO2max and Time for the PRX trial compared to the placebo trial (p PRX prior to exercise testing. The combined results of this investigation may provide meaningful practical applications for coaches and athletes alike regarding ergogenic hydration options.

  16. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheggen, R.J.; Maessen, M.F.; Green, D.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-

  17. L-arginine supplementation protects exercise performance and structural integrity of muscle fibers after a single bout of eccentric exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomonosova, Yulia N; Shenkman, Boris S; Kalamkarov, Grigorii R; Kostrominova, Tatiana Y; Nemirovskaya, Tatyana L

    2014-01-01

    Eccentric exercise is known to disrupt sarcolemmal integrity and induce damage of skeletal muscle fibers. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate) supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise would diminish exercise-induced damage. In addition, we used N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME; NOS inhibitor) to clarify the role of native NOS activity in the development of exercise-induced muscle damage. Rats were divided into four groups: non-treated control (C), downhill running with (RA) or without (R) L-Arg supplementation and downhill running with L-NAME supplementation (RN). Twenty four hours following eccentric exercise seven rats in each group were sacrificed and soleus muscles were dissected and frozen for further analysis. The remaining seven rats in each group were subjected to the exercise performance test. Our experiments showed that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise improved subsequent exercise performance capacity tests in RA rats when compared with R, RN and C rats by 37%, 27% and 13%, respectively. This outcome is mediated by L-Arg protection against post-exercise damage of sarcolemma (2.26- and 0.87-fold less than R and RN groups, respectively), reduced numbers of damaged muscle fibers indicated by the reduced loss of desmin content in the muscle (15% and 25% less than R and RN groups, respectively), and diminished µ-calpain mRNA up-regulation (42% and 30% less than R and RN groups, respectively). In conclusion, our study indicates that L-Arg supplementation prior to a single bout of eccentric exercise alleviates muscle fiber damage and preserves exercise performance capacity.

  18. Wearable technology for bio-chemical analysis of body fluids during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Deirdre; Schazmann, Benjamin; Wu, Yangzhe; Coyle, Shirley; Brady, Sarah; Fay, Cormac; Hayes, Jer; Lau, King Tong; Wallace, Gordon; Diamond, Dermot

    2008-01-01

    This paper details the development of a textile based fluid handling system with integrated wireless biochemical sensors. Such research represents a new advancement in the area of wearable technologies. The system contains pH, sodium and conductivity sensors. It has been demonstrated during on-body trials that the pH sensor has close agreement with measurements obtained using a reference pH probe. Initial investigations into the sodium and conductivity sensors have shown their suitability for integration into the wearable system. It is thought that applications exist in personal health and sports performance and training.

  19. The Effect of Green Tea Ingestion and Interval Sprinting Exercise on the Body Composition of Overweight Males: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahreman, Daniel; Heydari, Mehrdad; Boutcher, Yati; Freund, Judith; Boutcher, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of green tea ingestion and interval sprinting exercise on body and abdominal fat of overweight males was investigated. Participants were randomly assigned into control (C), green tea (GT), interval sprinting exercise (ISE), and green tea and ISE (GT + ISE) groups. The GT, GT + ISE, and C groups consumed three GT capsules daily. The ISE and GT + ISE groups completed 36 ISE sessions over 12 weeks. Forty eight overweight males with a mean BMI of 28.5 ± 0.92 kg/m2 and age of 26 ± 0.7 years acted as participants. There was a significant reduction in total and abdominal fat mass for the ISE and GT + ISE groups, p < 0.05, however, total and abdominal fat mass did not significantly change in the GT and C groups. There was a significant increase in total lean mass, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE and GT + ISE groups only. There was a significant increase in fat oxidation during submaximal aerobic exercise, p < 0.05, after the intervention for the ISE, GT + ISE, and GT groups with no change for the C group. Following the 12-week intervention the ISE and GT + ISE groups, compared to C, recorded a significantly greater decrease in body and abdominal fat, and a significant increase in total lean mass. Ingestion of green tea by itself, however, did not result in a significant decrease in body or abdominal fat, but increased fat utilization during submaximal exercise. The combination of 12 weeks of GT ingestion and ISE did not result in greater total and abdominal fat reduction compared to 12 weeks of ISE alone. PMID:27548216

  20. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  1. Quantifying Mapping Orbit Performance in the Vicinity of Primitive Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlak, Thomas A.; Broschart, Stephen B.; Lantoine, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Predicting and quantifying the capability of mapping orbits in the vicinity of primitive bodies is challenging given the complex orbit geometries that exist and the irregular shape of the bodies themselves. This paper employs various quantitative metrics to characterize the performance and relative effectiveness of various types of mapping orbits including terminator, quasi-terminator, hovering, pingpong, and conic-like trajectories. Metrics of interest include surface area coverage, lighting conditions, and the variety of viewing angles achieved. The metrics discussed in this investigation are intended to enable mission designers and project stakeholders to better characterize candidate mapping orbits during preliminary mission formulation activities.The goal of this investigation is to understand the trade space associated with carrying out remotesensing campaigns at small primitive bodies in the context of a robotic space mission. Specifically,this study seeks to understand the surface viewing geometries, ranges, etc. that are available fromseveral commonly proposed mapping orbits architectures.

  2. Exercise but not (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate or β-alanine enhances physical fitness, brain plasticity, and behavioral performance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Pence, Brandt D; Ossyra, Jessica M; Gibbons, Trisha E; Perez, Samuel; McCusker, Robert H; Kelley, Keith W; Johnson, Rodney W; Woods, Jeffrey A; Rhodes, Justin S

    2015-06-01

    Nutrition and physical exercise can enhance cognitive function but the specific combinations of dietary bioactives that maximize pro-cognitive effects are not known nor are the contributing neurobiological mechanisms. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a flavonoid constituent of many plants with high levels found in green tea. EGCG has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties and is known to cross the blood brain barrier where it can affect brain chemistry and physiology. β-Alanine (B-ALA) is a naturally occurring β-amino acid that could increase cognitive functioning by increasing levels of exercise via increased capacity of skeletal muscle, by crossing the blood brain barrier and acting as a neurotransmitter, or by free radical scavenging in muscle and brain after conversion into carnosine. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of EGCG (~250mg/kg/day), B-ALA (~550mg/kg/day), and their combination with voluntary wheel running exercise on the following outcome measures: body composition, time to fatigue, production of new cells in the granule layer of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus as a marker for neuronal plasticity, and behavioral performance on the contextual and cued fear conditioning tasks, as measures of associative learning and memory. Young adult male BALB/cJ mice approximately 2months old were randomized into 8 groups varying the nutritional supplement in their diet and access to running wheels over a 39day study period. Running increased food intake, decreased fat mass, increased time to exhaustive fatigue, increased numbers of new cells in the granule layer of the hippocampus, and enhanced retrieval of both contextual and cued fear memories. The diets had no effect on their own or in combination with exercise on any of the fitness, plasticity, and behavioral outcome measures other than B-ALA decreased percent body fat whereas EGCG increased lean body mass slightly. Results suggest that, in young adult BALB/cJ mice, a 39

  3. Developing Performance Management Competence: An Exercise Leveraging Video Technology and Multisource Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Troy V.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to competently manage employee performance is critical for students graduating with degrees in management. This article provides a competency development exercise (CDE) for use in graduate and undergraduate management courses to increase students' performance management competence. The CDE includes providing employee feedback,…

  4. Can Stretching Prior to Exercise and Sports Improve Performance and Prevent Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracko, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Examines data from research on stretching as it relates to enhanced performance and injury prevention so that fitness, exercise, and sports performance professionals can make informed decisions about stretching programs for clients. The paper notes that stretching is a misunderstood component of fitness and sports training. Few studies show…

  5. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  6. Body Management and the quest for performative health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thualagant, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The task of this article is to theorize on the matter of bodywork in relation to health and thereby propose a theoretical framework that can enlighten our understanding of bodywork in a ‘health society’. With the ambition of understanding bodywork in a (hyper)modern era, characterized by a strong...... interviews, it is stressed in this article that bodywork evolves around a general will to more health. This rationale can be identified as body management where the gym goers act in order to ensure a performative health.......The task of this article is to theorize on the matter of bodywork in relation to health and thereby propose a theoretical framework that can enlighten our understanding of bodywork in a ‘health society’. With the ambition of understanding bodywork in a (hyper)modern era, characterized by a strong...... individualism and the search for performance, the body is here conceived as a capital. The body as a site of investment can be improved, worked upon and has an impact on how the individual distinguishes him/herself in social space. Finding inspiration in the sociology of the body and the anthropologist Le...

  7. Prolonged exercise in type 1 diabetes: performance of a customizable algorithm to estimate the carbohydrate supplements to minimize glycemic imbalances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Francescato

    Full Text Available Physical activity in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM is hindered because of the high risk of glycemic imbalances. A recently proposed algorithm (named Ecres estimates well enough the supplemental carbohydrates for exercises lasting one hour, but its performance for prolonged exercise requires validation. Nine T1DM patients (5M/4F; 35-65 years; HbA1c 54 ± 13 mmol · mol(-1 performed, under free-life conditions, a 3-h walk at 30% heart rate reserve while insulin concentrations, whole-body carbohydrate oxidation rates (determined by indirect calorimetry and supplemental carbohydrates (93% sucrose, together with glycemia, were measured every 30 min. Data were subsequently compared with the corresponding values estimated by the algorithm. No significant difference was found between the estimated insulin concentrations and the laboratory-measured values (p = NS. Carbohydrates oxidation rate decreased significantly with time (from 0.84 ± 0.31 to 0.53 ± 0.24 g · min(-1, respectively; p < 0.001, being estimated well enough by the algorithm (p = NS. Estimated carbohydrates requirements were practically equal to the corresponding measured values (p = NS, the difference between the two quantities amounting to -1.0 ± 6.1 g, independent of the elapsed exercise time (time effect, p = NS. Results confirm that Ecres provides a satisfactory estimate of the carbohydrates required to avoid glycemic imbalances during moderate intensity aerobic physical activity, opening the prospect of an intriguing method that could liberate patients from the fear of exercise-induced hypoglycemia.

  8. The contribution of air breathing to aerobic scope and exercise performance in the banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, David J; Steffensen, John F; Taylor, Edwin W; Abe, Augusto S

    2012-04-15

    The contribution of air breathing to aerobic metabolic scope and exercise performance was investigated in a teleost with bimodal respiration, the banded knifefish, submitted to a critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol at 30°C. Seven individuals (mean ± s.e.m. mass 89±7 g, total length 230±4 mm) achieved a U(crit) of 2.1±1 body lengths (BL) s(-1) and an active metabolic rate (AMR) of 350±21 mg kg(-1) h(-1), with 38±6% derived from air breathing. All of the knifefish exhibited a significant increase in air-breathing frequency (f(AB)) with swimming speed. If denied access to air in normoxia, these individuals achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.2 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 368±24 mg kg(-1) h(-1) by gill ventilation alone. In normoxia, therefore, the contribution of air breathing to scope and exercise was entirely facultative. In aquatic hypoxia (P(O(2))=4 kPa) with access to normoxic air, the knifefish achieved a U(crit) of 2.0±0.1 BL s(-1) and an AMR of 338±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1), similar to aquatic normoxia, but with 55±5% of AMR derived from air breathing. Indeed, f(AB) was higher than in normoxia at all swimming speeds, with a profound exponential increase during exercise. If the knifefish were denied access to air in hypoxia, U(crit) declined to 1.2±0.1 BL s(-1) and AMR declined to 199±29 mg kg(-1) h(-1). Therefore, air breathing allowed the knifefish to avoid limitations to aerobic scope and exercise performance in aquatic hypoxia.

  9. EFFECTS OF PALM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee Keong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat

  10. Effects of a Pre-workout Energy Drink Supplement on Upper Body Muscular Endurance Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    MAGRINI, MITCHEL A.; COLQUHOUN, RYAN J.; DAWES, J. JAY; SMITH, DOUG B.

    2016-01-01

    The use of pre-workout beverages is becoming an increasingly common method of improving performance during exercise in athletic and recreationally active populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a commercially available energy drink on exercise performance. Thirty-one healthy males (n=23) and females (n=8) participated in this study and were separated into two groups: supplement (SU; n=16) or placebo (PL; n=15). Subjects visited the laboratory on 2 occasions separated by no more than 7 days. The first visit consisted of completing a push up to fatigue protocol (PUFP) without ingesting the pre-workout energy drink supplement (PWEDS). The second visit consisted of ingesting either a placebo or the PWEDS 30 minutes prior to completing the PUFP. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded following each set of pushups on both testing days. Also, participant’s height, weight, and body composition were collected. There was no significant differences at baseline in any variable between groups (p = >.05). After the second testing session, both groups significantly improved total push-ups (PL Pre: 133.3 ±39.4, PL Post: 155.3 ± 54.1; SU Pre: 139.3 ± 58.5, SU Post: 161.3 ± 79.4; p=ergogenic effects when compared to the placebo. PMID:27990227

  11. Effects of pre-exercise ingestion of trehalose, galactose and glucose on subsequent metabolism and cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentjens, R L P G; Jeukendrup, A E

    2003-01-01

    The glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to different carbohydrates vary and these have been suggested to affect performance. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of pre-exercise ingestion of glucose (GLU), galactose (GAL) and trehalose (TRE) on metabolic responses at rest and during exercise and on subsequent time-trial (TT) performance. Eight well-trained male cyclists completed three exercise trials separated by at least 3 days. At 45 min before the start of exercise subjects consumed 500 ml of a beverage containing 75 g of either glucose, galactose or trehalose. The exercise trials consisted of 20 min of submaximal steady-state exercise (SS) at 65% of maximal power output immediately followed by a [mean (SEM)] 702 (25) kJ TT. Plasma glucose concentration 15 min postprandial was significantly higher in GLU compared to GAL and TRE ( Pexercise four subjects in GLU and one subject in TRE developed a rebound hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose concentration less than 3.5 mmol.l(-1)). No differences were observed in TT performance between the three trials. Pre-exercise ingestion of trehalose and galactose resulted in lower plasma glucose and insulin responses prior to exercise and reduced the prevalence of rebound hypoglycaemia. Despite the attenuated insulin and glucose responses at rest and during exercise following pre-exercise ingestion of galactose and trehalose, there was no difference in TT performance compared with pre-exercise ingestion of glucose.

  12. Physical exercise performance in temperate and warm environments is decreased by an impaired arterial baroreflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Washington Pires

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether running performance in different environments is dependent on intact arterial baroreceptor reflexes. We also assessed the exercise-induced cardiovascular and thermoregulatory responses in animals lacking arterial baroafferent signals. To accomplish these goals, male Wistar rats were subjected to sinoaortic denervation (SAD or sham surgery (SHAM and had a catheter implanted into the ascending aorta to record arterial pressure and a telemetry sensor implanted in the abdominal cavity to record core temperature. After recovering from these surgeries, the animals were subjected to constant- or incremental-speed exercises performed until the voluntary interruption of effort under temperate (25° C and warm (35° C conditions. During the constant-speed exercises, the running time until the rats were fatigued was shorter in SAD rats in both environments. Although the core temperature was not significantly different between the groups, tail skin temperature was higher in SAD rats under temperate conditions. The denervated rats also displayed exaggerated increases in blood pressure and double product compared with the SHAM rats; in particular, in the warm environment, these exaggerated cardiovascular responses in the SAD rats persisted until they were fatigued. These SAD-mediated changes occurred in parallel with increased variability in the very low and low components of the systolic arterial pressure power spectrum. The running performance was also affected by SAD during the incremental-speed exercises, with the maximal speed attained being decreased by approximately 20% in both environments. Furthermore, at the maximal power output tolerated during the incremental exercises, the mean arterial pressure, heart rate and double product were exaggerated in the SAD relative to SHAM rats. In conclusion, the chronic absence of the arterial baroafferents accelerates exercise fatigue in temperate and warm

  13. The fat of the matter: how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Barbara J; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-11-01

    Fatty-acid composition of fat stores affects exercise performance in a variety of vertebrates although few such studies focus on flying vertebrates such as migratory birds, which are exceptional exercisers. We first discuss the natural variation in quality of fat available in natural foods eaten by migratory birds and their behavioral preferences for specific fatty acids in these foods. We then outline three proposed hypotheses for how dietary fatty acids can affect exercise performance, and some of the evidence to date that pertains to these hypotheses with special emphasis on the exercise performance of migratory birds. In theory, selectively feeding on certain long-chain unsaturated fatty acids may be advantageous because (1) such fatty acids may be metabolized more quickly and may stimulate key facets of aerobic metabolism (fuel hypothesis); (2) such fatty acids may affect composition and key functions of lipid-rich cell membranes (membrane hypothesis); and (3) such fatty acids may directly act as signaling molecules (signal hypothesis). Testing these hypotheses requires cleverly designed experiments that can distinguish between them by demonstrating that certain fatty acids stimulate oxidative capacity, including gene expression and activity of key oxidative enzymes, and that this stimulation changes during exercise.

  14. Influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on high-intensity aerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higino, Wonder Passoni; Aparecido de Souza, Renato; Cavalcanti, Fabio de Sousa; Cardoso, Anderlei Dos Santos; Vasconcelos, Murilo Victor; Fernandes da Silva, Fabiano; Leme, José Alexandre C A

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] It is believed that eccentric high-intensity exercise can decrease performance in subsequent exercise. However, with repetition, the deleterious effects can be minimized. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of repeated bouts of eccentric exercise on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. [Subjects and Methods] Seven healthy and sedentary male volunteers were recruited. a) Visit 1: determination of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) and speed associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) in incremental treadmill testing; b) Visit 2: run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim control); c) Visit 3: 10 sets of 10 depth jumps, followed by a run to exhaustion at vVO2max (Tlim 1); d) Visit 4: after 6 weeks without any physical training, the volunteers carried out the same procedures as on the third visit (Tlim 2). Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the post-hoc Tukey test. [Results] Significant differences were found between Tlim control and Tlim 1 (283.4 ± 47.7 s vs. 125.2 ± 64.1 s, respectively), these were not different from Tlim 2. [Conclusion] Eccentric exercise showed deleterious effects on subsequent high-intensity aerobic performance. These effects were minimized after the exercise protocol was repeated 6 weeks after the first event.

  15. Exercise-mode-related changes in task-switching performance in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Wang, Wen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore the relationships between exercise modes and executive functions in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly individuals in the open-skill group, 22 in the closed-skill group, and 21 in the sedentary-behavior (control) group were recruited in the current study, and performed a task-switching paradigm during which the switches occurred unpredictably and infrequently, while the behavioral and electrophysiological performances were assessed simultaneously. The results indicated that although there were no group differences in accuracy rates, the two exercise groups exhibited shorter reaction times (RTs), and larger P2 and P3 amplitudes across all conditions compared to the control group. In addition, the exercise-mode differences revealed a relatively smaller specific cost, and faster motor RTs and larger P3 amplitudes, in the switch condition for the open-skill group in comparison with the closed-skill and control groups. These findings suggest that regularly participating in physical exercise can enhance behavioral and electrophysiological performance with regard to executive control in the elderly, and provide further evidence for the beneficial effects of open-skill exercise on the task-switching paradigm. PMID:25798097

  16. Exercise-mode-related changes in task-switching performance in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Wang, Wen-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to explore the relationships between exercise modes and executive functions in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly individuals in the open-skill group, 22 in the closed-skill group, and 21 in the sedentary-behavior (control) group were recruited in the current study, and performed a task-switching paradigm during which the switches occurred unpredictably and infrequently, while the behavioral and electrophysiological performances were assessed simultaneously. The results indicated that although there were no group differences in accuracy rates, the two exercise groups exhibited shorter reaction times (RTs), and larger P2 and P3 amplitudes across all conditions compared to the control group. In addition, the exercise-mode differences revealed a relatively smaller specific cost, and faster motor RTs and larger P3 amplitudes, in the switch condition for the open-skill group in comparison with the closed-skill and control groups. These findings suggest that regularly participating in physical exercise can enhance behavioral and electrophysiological performance with regard to executive control in the elderly, and provide further evidence for the beneficial effects of open-skill exercise on the task-switching paradigm.

  17. Progenitor cell release plus exercise to improve functional performance in peripheral artery disease: the PROPEL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanchuk, Kathryn; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Criqui, Michael H; Tian, Lu; Liu, Kiang; Losordo, Douglas; Stein, James; Green, David; Kibbe, Melina; Zhao, Lihui; Annex, Brian; Perlman, Harris; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pearce, William; Taylor, Doris; McDermott, Mary M

    2013-11-01

    Functional impairment, functional decline, and mobility loss are major public health problems in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Few medical therapies significantly improve walking performance in PAD. We describe methods for the PROgenitor cell release Plus Exercise to improve functionaL performance in PAD (PROPEL) Study, a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to determine whether granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) combined with supervised treadmill walking exercise improves six-minute walk distance more than GM-CSF alone, more than supervised treadmill exercise alone, and more than placebo plus attention control in participants with PAD, respectively. PROPEL Study participants are randomized to one of four arms in a 2 by 2 factorial design. The four study arms are GM-CSF plus supervised treadmill exercise, GM-CSF plus attention control, placebo plus supervised exercise therapy, or placebo plus attention control. The primary outcome is change in six-minute walk distance at 12-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes include change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), change in maximal treadmill walking time, and change in circulating CD34+ cells at 12-week follow-up. Outcomes are also measured at six-week and six-month follow-up. Results of the PROPEL Study will have important implications for understanding mechanisms of improving walking performance and preventing mobility loss in the large and growing number of men and women with PAD.

  18. Exercise, mood and cognitive performance in intellectual disability - a neurophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; Schneider, Stefan; Abeln, Vera; Anneken, Volker; Strüder, Heiko Klaus

    2012-01-15

    While numerous researches addressed the connection between physical exercise, changes in brain cortical activity and its relationship to psycho-physiological processes, most of these neuro-scientific studies were set up for healthy individuals. However, the benefits of exercise, such as well being, physical and cognitive health enhancements are also becoming increasingly important for intellectually disabled individuals. This study aimed to localize electroencephalographic activity changes in intellectually disabled individuals following a moderate running exercise for 30 min. An increase in cognitive performance and in mood was hypothesized to correlate with a decrease in fronto-temporal brain areas following exercise. Significant changes in cortical current density in frontal brain areas as well as decreases in perceived physical energy could be shown. Overall motivational states (including self-confidence and social acceptance) as well as positive mood increased significantly. However, no changes could be observed for the cognitive tasks following exercise. With respect to the data provided here there is reason to believe, that a self-selected pace running exercise, enhances self-esteem, coincided with cortical activity changes in fronto-temporal brain areas.

  19. Combined impact of exercise and temperature in learning and memory performance of fluoride toxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, P Mahaboob; Sujitha, N S

    2012-12-01

    In previous studies, we investigated a link between high fluoride exposure and functional IQ deficits in rats. This study is an extension conducted to explore the combined influence of physical exercise and temperature stress on the learning ability and memory in rats and to assess whether any positive modulation could be attenuated due to exercise regimen subjected to F-toxicated animals at different temperatures. Accumulation of ingested fluoride resulted significant inhibition in acetylcholinesterase activity (P effect of treatments [F (5, 30) = 15.763; P exercise in the promotion of cognitive functions by decreasing fluoride levels in rat hippocampus. A significant recovery in cognitive function was noticed in all the exercised animals due to reduced burden of brain oxidative stress. In comparison to exercise regimens performed at different temperatures, high (35 °C) and low temperatures (20 °C) led to a slower acquisition and poor retention of the task when compared to thermo neutral temperatures (25 and 30 °C). Thus exercise up-regulate antioxidant defenses and promote learning abilities in fluorotic population.

  20. Muscle metabolite accumulation following maximal exercise. A comparison between short-term and prolonged kayak performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, P A; Karlsson, J

    1984-01-01

    Five elite flatwater kayak paddlers were studied during indoor simulated 500 and 10,000-m races, with performance times of 2 and 45 min, respectively. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the midportion of m. deltoideus immediately pre and post exercise. Concentrations of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), creatine phosphate (CP), glucose, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), glycogen, and lactate were subsequently determined. Short term exercise resulted in statistically significant increases in glucose (P less than 0.001), G-6-P (P less than 0.05) and lactate (P less than 0.01) concentration concomitant with decreased CP (P less than 0.05) and glycogen (P less than 0.01). Following prolonged exercise, a non-significant elevation in glucose and a reduction (P less than 0.01) in glycogen were demonstrated. Evidently the metabolic demands for kayak competitions at 500 and 10,000 m are different. Thus, the energy contribution from glycolytic precursors and the anaerobic component is of greater relative importance in short distances than in exercise of long duration. A generalization of the findings to other athletic events of varying distances is proposed. The present data on arm-exercise is consistent with previous findings obtained in connection with leg exercises.

  1. Effects of caffeine on time to exhaustion in exercise performed below and above the anaerobic threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denadai B.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Controversy still exists concerning the potential ergogenic benefit of caffeine (CAF for exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of CAF ingestion on endurance performance during exercise on a bicycle ergometer at two different intensities, i.e., approximately 10% below and 10% above the anaerobic threshold (AT. Eight untrained males, non-regular consumers of CAF, participated in this study. AT, defined as the intensity (watts corresponding to a lactate concentration of 4 mM, was determined during an incremental exercise test from rest to exhaustion on an electrically braked cycle ergometer. On the basis of these measurements, the subjects were asked to cycle until exhaustion at two different intensities, i.e., approximately 10% below and 10% above AT. Each intensity was performed twice in a double-blind randomized order by ingesting either CAF (5 mg/kg or a placebo (PLA 60 min prior to the test. Venous blood was analyzed for free fatty acid, glucose, and lactate, before, during, and immediately after exercise. Rating of perceived exertion and time to exhaustion were also measured during each trial. There were no differences in free fatty acids or lactate levels between CAF and PLA during and immediately after exercise for either intensity. Immediately after exercise glucose increased in the CAF trial at both intensities. Rating of perceived exertion was significantly lower (CAF = 14.1 ± 2.5 vs PLA = 16.6 ± 2.4 and time to exhaustion was significantly higher (CAF = 46.54 ± 8.05 min vs PLA = 32.42 ± 14.81 min during exercise below AT with CAF. However, there was no effect of CAF treatment on rating of perceived exertion (CAF = 18.0 ± 2.7 vs PLA = 17.6 ± 2.3 and time to exhaustion (CAF = 18.45 ± 7.28 min vs PLA = 19.17 ± 4.37 min during exercise above AT. We conclude that in untrained subjects caffeine can improve endurance performance during prolonged exercise performed below AT and that the decrease of

  2. Body image satisfaction and the view of active old women about the influence of physical exercise in their self-image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josinéia Gresele Coradini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the body image satisfaction with 24 active elderly women, and to understand the view of these people about the connection between physical exercise and their body image. All of them answered to the scale proposed by Stunkard, Sorenson and Schlusinger, 1983 and to a semi-structured interview. 87.50% of the women were unsatisfied about the body image. From the reading and analysis of the speeches, it was formed two major categories and four subcategories. Thus, most of the elderly women are unsatisfied about their body image, but the proportionate benefits by the exercises are recognized.

  3. Perceived hole size, performance, and body movement during putting in children with and without probable developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Chen; Wu, Sheng-Kuang

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived hole size (perception), performance, and body movement (action) in golf putting for children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and typically developing children (TDC). Forty-eight children (24 probable DCD, 24 TDC) performed putting in easy and hard conditions. Body movement was measured during putting, performance was measured as the distance between ball and hole, and perceived hole size was recorded using a Microsoft Paint drawing exercise 1 m away from the hole. The present results revealed that perceived hole size was positively related to putting performance, body movement was negatively associated with putting performance, and that there were negative correlations between body movement and perceived hole size. While children with probable DCD tended to perceive the hole as smaller, perform worse, and show more body movement, TDC exhibited the opposite. These findings help characterize the relationships between perception, performance, and action in children with probable DCD and TDC during golf putting.

  4. The functional state of cardiovascular system for boys 10 - 11 years old after static exercises with deadweight of body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proskurov E.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of static power endurance of muscles of humeral belt, abdominal press and muscles of the back of schoolboys is investigational. Directions are selected of forming hygienically of correct pose of schoolboy, being in position sitting after an educational mestome. In research took part 50 schoolboys in age 10 years and 50 - in age 11 years. A reaction is studied cardiovascular system of students on static exercises with the deadweight of body. The features of reaction of frequency of pulse, arteriotony, cardiac troop landing and minute volume of blood of students on the static loadings are certain: handing on bent arms, exercises for muscles abdominal press lying on a stomach and on the back. It is set that the changes of functional indexes in the process of the static loading of most degree make progress for ten year schoolboys. To such indexes behave: diastole arteriotony, frequency of heart-throbs, systole arteriotony.

  5. Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Female Body Esteem: A Multidimensional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoi, Stephen L.

    Although research has shown that regularly engaging in vigorous activity has both physical and mental benefits, including a more positive evaluation of one's own body, the multidimensional nature of people's body attitudes has not been considered. The Body Esteem Scale (BES) was developed to identify and assess different body esteem dimensions.…

  6. Effects of whole body vibration exercises on bone mineral density of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis without medications: novel findings and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionello, C.F.; Sá-Caputo, D.; Pereira, H.V.F.S.; Sousa-Gonçalves, C.R.; Maiworm, A.I.; Morel, D.S.; Moreira-Marconi, E.; Paineiras-Domingos, L.L.; Bemben, D.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to review the literature about the effect of whole body vibration exercise in the BMD in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis without medications. Methods: A systematic review was performed. Results: The frequency of the mechanical vibration used in the protocols has varied from 12 to 90 Hz. The time used in the protocols varied from 2 up to 22 months. Techniques with X-rays were used in nine of the twelve publications analyzed, the Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in eight studies and the High resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in one publication. The concentration of some biomarkers was determined, as the sclerostin, the bone alkaline phosphatase, N-telopeptide X and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Among the twelve articles analyzed, seven of them have shown an improvement of the BMD of some bone of postmenopausal women exposed to whole body vibration exercises not associated to medications; as well as modifications in biomarkers. PMID:27609034

  7. Effects of Supplemental Citrulline-Malate Ingestion on Blood Lactate, Cardiovascular Dynamics, and Resistance Exercise Performance in Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, Benjamin; Kavazis, Andreas N; Luckett, William

    2016-01-01

    Citrulline-malate (CM) has been proposed to provide an ergogenic effect during resistance exercise; however, there is a paucity of research investigating these claims. Therefore, we investigated the impact that CM supplementation would have on repeated bouts of resistance exercise. Fourteen resistance-trained males participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, double-blind study. Subjects were randomly assigned to placebo (PL) or CM (8 g) and performed three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups to failure. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the same protocol. Blood lactate (BLa), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were measured preexercise, with BLa measured a second time immediately following the last set, while HR and BP were measured 5 and 10 min postexercise. Citrulline-malate ingestion significantly increased the amount of repetitions performed for each exercise (chin-ups: PL = 28.4 ± 7.1, CM = 32.2 ± 5.6, p = .003; reverse chin-ups: PL = 26.6 ± 5.6, CM = 32.1 ± 7.1, p = .017; push-ups: PL = 89.1 ± 37.4, CM = 97.7 ± 36.1, p < .001). Blood lactate data indicated a time effect (p < .001), but no treatment differences (p = .935). Systolic BP data did not show differences for time (p = .078) or treatment (p = .119). Diastolic BP data did not show differences for time (p = .069), but indicated treatment differences (p = .014) for subjects ingesting CM. Collectively, these findings suggests that CM increased upper-body resistance performance in trained college-age males.

  8. Questions of legal awareness in psychology of citizens' assistance to bodies exercising operative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyagin Y.S.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to address the issues of legal awareness formation in the context of the citizens' assistance to the bodies, engaged in the operative investigation. We revealed legal content and basis citizens' assistance to the bodies doing operative investigation. From the moral and ethical point of view, we analyze the main motives of this assistance. We show the historical background of the Russian justice features in this context. We performed a comparative analysis of the attitude of citizens to the institution of assistance in Russia and some other countries. We considered individual sense of justice from the perspective of legal psychology, showed the main points of view on justice as a psychological study subject. We analyzed existing psychodiagnostic tools, aimed at determining the level of justice, estimated and identified the areas for further research. We show the reserve in the fight against crime in the form of increased legal awareness of citizens and law enforcement personnel, engaged in the operative activity.

  9. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  10. The feasibility of whole body vibration in institutionalised elderly persons and its influence on muscle performance, balance and mobility: a randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN62535013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hees Ellen

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue or lack of interest can reduce the feasibility of intensive physical exercise in nursing home residents. Low-volume exercise interventions with similar training effects might be an alternative. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the feasibility of Whole Body Vibration (WBV in institutionalised elderly, and its impact on functional capacity and muscle performance. Methods Twenty-four nursing home residents (15 female, 9 male; mean age 77.5 ± 11.0 years were randomised (stratification for age, gender and ADL-category to 6 weeks static WBV exercise (WBV+, N = 13 or control (only static exercise; N = 11. Outcome measures were exercise compliance, timed up-and-go, Tinetti-test, back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, handgrip strength and linear isokinetic leg extension. Results At baseline, WBV+ and control groups were similar for all outcome variables. Twenty-one participants completed the program and attended respectively 96% and 86% of the exercise sessions for the WBV+ and control groups. Training-induced changes in timed up-and-go and Tinetti-test were better for WBV+ compared to control (p = 0.029 for timed up-and-go, p = 0.001 and p = 0.002 for Tinetti body balance and total score respectively. In an alternative analysis (Worst Rank Score & Last Observation Carried Forward the differences in change remained significant on the Tinetti body balance and total score. No other significant differences in change between both groups were observed. Conclusion In nursing home residents with limited functional dependency, six weeks static WBV exercise is feasible, and is beneficial for balance and mobility. The supplementary benefit of WBV on muscle performance compared to classic exercise remains to be explored further.

  11. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF INDIVIDUALIZED EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION IN PHYSIOTHERAPY FOR ACHIEVING PHYSICAL FITNESS BY COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BODY COMPOSITION, PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Rohit Subhedar; Dr. Pallavi Dave; Dr. Priyanka Mishra; Dr. Dirgha Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study deals with the evaluation of body composition and fitness of individuals who differ in their physical characteristics viz. weight, height, Age, Sex, Body Frame and physical activity levels viz. Heavy, Moderate, Light, and thereby identify the ideal combination of physical characteristics and physical activity required in Prescribing Exercises for attaining “THE PERFECT BODY COMPOSITION”. Method: Assessments of physical characteristics, physical activity and body comp...

  12. The effects of compression garments on performance of prolonged manual-labour exercise and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Val; Duffield, Rob; Watsford, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of wearing compression garments during and 24 h following a 4-h exercise protocol simulating manual-labour tasks. Ten physically trained male participants, familiar with labouring activities, undertook 4 h of work tasks characteristic of industrial workplaces. Participants completed 2 testing sessions, separated by at least 1 week. In the experimental condition, participants wore a full-length compression top and compression shorts during the exercise protocol and overnight recovery, with normal work clothes worn in the control condition. Testing for serum creatine kinase and C-reactive protein, handgrip strength, knee flexion and extension torque, muscle stiffness, perceived muscle soreness and fatigue as well as heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) responses to 4-min cycling were performed before, following, and 24 h after exercise. Creatine kinase, muscle soreness, and rating of perceived fatigue increased following the exercise protocol (p 0.05). Knee extension torque was significantly higher in the control condition at 24 h postexercise (3.1% ± 5.4% change; compression: 2.2% ± 11.1% change), although no other variables were different between conditions at any time. However, compression demonstrated a moderate-large effect (d > 0.60) to reduce perceived muscle soreness, fatigue, and RPE from standardised warm-up at 24 h postexercise. The current findings suggest that compression may assist in perceptual recovery from manual-labour exercise with implications for the ability to perform subsequent work bouts.

  13. Postexercise cold-water immersion improves intermittent high-intensity exercise performance in normothermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Avina; Mulligan, James; Egaña, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    A brief cold water immersion between 2 continuous high-intensity exercise bouts improves the performance of the latter compared with passive recovery in the heat. We investigated if this effect is apparent in normothermic conditions (∼19 °C), employing an intermittent high-intensity exercise designed to reflect the work performed at the high-intensity domain in team sports. Fifteen young active men completed 2 exhaustive cycling protocols (Ex1 and Ex2: 12 min at 85% ventilatory threshold (VT) and then an intermittent exercise alternating 30-s at 40% peak power (Ppeak) and 30 s at 90% Ppeak to exhaustion) separated by 15 min of (i) passive rest, (ii) 5-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C, and (iii) 10-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C. Core temperature, heart rate, rates of perceived exertion, and oxygen uptake kinetics were not different during Ex1 among conditions. Time to failure during the intermittent exercise was significantly (P intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with passive rest in normothermia due, at least in part, to reductions in core temperature, circulatory strain, and effort perception.

  14. Mitochondrial nutrients stimulate performance and mitochondrial biogenesis in exhaustively exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M; Qian, F; Shen, W; Tian, C; Hao, J; Sun, L; Liu, J

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a combination of nutrients on physical performance, oxidative stress and mitochondrial biogenesis in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise. Rats were divided into sedentary control (SC), exhaustive exercise (EC) and exhaustive exercise with nutrient supplementation (EN). The nutrients include (mg/kg/day): R-α-lipoic acid 50, acetyl-L-carnitine 100, biotin 0.1, nicotinamide 15, riboflavin 6, pyridoxine 6, creatine 50, CoQ10 5, resveratrol 5 and taurine 100. Examination of running distances over the 4-week period revealed that EN rats ran significantly longer throughout the entire duration of the exhaustive exercise period compared with the EC rats. Nutrient supplementation significantly inhibited the increase in activities of alanine transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, reversed increases in malondialdehyde, inhibited decreases in glutathione S-transferase and total antioxidant capacity in plasma, and suppressed the elevation of reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in splenic lymphocytes. Nutrient supplementation increased the protein expression of mitochondrial complexes I, II and III, mtDNA number and transcription factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion in skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that mitochondrial nutrient supplementation can reduce exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction, thus leading to enhancement of physical performance and of fatigue recovery.

  15. Long term effects of a continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on weight changes and body fat percentage in overweight and obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are growing problem. The global community's concern is to find the best strategy to obtain a more efficient process of weight reduction, increase physical activity, and minimize weight regain level. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of a short-term intervention on weight changes.Methods: The present study is a one-year follow-up study of a 12-week intervention during which the 15 individuals in the intermittent group performed 40 minutes exercise in three bouts per day; however, the 15 participants of the continuous group did the same but 40 minutes continuously. The 15 participants in the control group had no exercise prescription. After one year, weight changes, body fat percentage, and BMI were re-evaluated in the groups.Results: After adjusting the baseline weight, patterns of change in the mean weights from the end of the third month to the twelfth month were different across groups (P=0.02. After significant weight loss in the intermittent group, the mean weight in this group increased by 2.32 kilograms during the period, although not statistically significant. No increase was observed in the control group’s mean weight (P=1.00. In the continuous group, the mean weight increased statistically (P=0.048, 3.63 kilograms.Conclusion: It seems that long-term effects of moderate intensity intermittent aerobic exercise in overweight and obese women on weight control are more efficient than those of continuous exercise. However, for a change in lifestyle and prevention of weight regain, longer follow-ups are required.

  16. Effects of Air Polution on Human Exercise Performance,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    Interaction of various acids and salts. The most commonly studied aerosols are ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate and amnium nitrate. These compounds are eye...FIELD IGROUP SUB-GROUP ozone, nitrogen dioxide, peroxyacetyl nitrate, aerosols, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide ’Itrength, performance. 19. ABSTRC...ozone, peroxyacetyl nitrate, aerosols, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen * dioxide. Only carb,:n monoxide has been show to reduce 2xercise performance

  17. The effect of post-exercise hydrotherapy on subsequent exercise performance and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Buchheit, Martin; Peake, Jonathan M

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of hydrotherapy on time-trial performance and cardiac parasympathetic reactivation during recovery from intense training. On three occasions, 18 well-trained cyclists completed 60 min high-intensity cycling, followed 20 min later by one of three 10-min recovery interventions: passive rest (PAS), cold water immersion (CWI), or contrast water immersion (CWT). The cyclists then rested quietly for 160 min with R-R intervals and perceptions of recovery recorded every 30 min. Cardiac parasympathetic activity was evaluated using the natural logarithm of the square root of mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (ln rMSSD). Finally, the cyclists completed a work-based cycling time trial. Effects were examined using magnitude-based inferences. Differences in time-trial performance between the three trials were trivial. Compared with PAS, general fatigue was very likely lower for CWI (difference [90% confidence limits; -12% (-18; -5)]) and CWT [-11% (-19; -2)]. Leg soreness was almost certainly lower following CWI [-22% (-30; -14)] and CWT [-27% (-37; -15)]. The change in mean ln rMSSD following the recovery interventions (ln rMSSD(Post-interv)) was almost certainly higher following CWI [16.0% (10.4; 23.2)] and very likely higher following CWT [12.5% (5.5; 20.0)] compared with PAS, and possibly higher following CWI [3.7% (-0.9; 8.4)] compared with CWT. The correlations between performance, ln rMSSD(Post-interv) and perceptions of recovery were unclear. A moderate correlation was observed between ln rMSSD(Post-interv) and leg soreness [r = -0.50 (-0.66; -0.29)]. Although the effects of CWI and CWT on performance were trivial, the beneficial effects on perceptions of recovery support the use of these recovery strategies.

  18. Are acute effects of maximal dynamic contractions on upper-body ballistic performance load specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Goran; Simek, Sanja; Bradic, Asim

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of upper-body maximal dynamic contractions on maximal throwing speed with 0.55- and 4-kg medicine balls. It was hypothesized that heavy preloading would transiently improve throwing performance only when overcoming the heavier of the two loads. Twenty-three male volunteers were randomly allocated into experimental (n = 11) and control (n = 12) groups. Both groups performed initial and final seated medicine ball throws from the chest, and the maximal medicine ball speed was measured by means of a radar gun. Between the two measurements, the control group rested passively for 15 minutes, and the experimental group performed three sets of three-repetition maximum bench presses. For the 0.55-kg load, a 2 x 2 repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant effect of time x group interaction (p = 0.22), as well as no significant time (p = 0.22) or group (p = 0.72) effects. In contrast, for the 4-kg load, a significant time x group interaction (p = 0.004) and a significant time (p = 0.035) but not group (p = 0.77) effect were observed. Analysis of simple main effects revealed that the experimental group significantly (8.3%; p ballistic performance might be load specific. In a practical sense, our findings suggest that the use of upper-body heavy resistance exercise before ballistic throwing movements against moderate external loads might be an efficient training strategy for improving an athlete's upper-body explosive performance.

  19. The effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on arm volume and arm circumference in women treated for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, K; Jespersen, D; McKenzie, D C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on changes in arm volume in breast cancer survivors. A total of 16 female breast cancer survivors with no clinical history of lymphoedema volunteered. The 20-week exercise programme consisted of resistance and aerobic exercise with the addition of dragon boat training at week 8. Arm circumference at two sites (CIRC10, CIRC15), arm volume (VOL), and upper body strength (1-RM) were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2), and week 20 (T3). All statistical tests were two-sided (alpha exercise programme and dragon boat training resulted in a significant increase in upper extremity volume over time. However, the changes were consistent for both arms and the significant gain in upper body muscular strength likely accounted for the increase in arm volume.

  20. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  1. Effects of aquatic exercise on muscle strength and functional performance of individuals with osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Mattos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA, due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of aquatic exercise programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving aquatic exercises for individuals with OA were included. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. 296 studies were found and twelve were selected: six studies comparing water-based exercises with land-based exercise, and six comparing water-based exercise groups with the control group. Exercise programs included muscle strengthening, aerobic, balance, flexibility and stretching exercises. Duration of the program, weekly frequency, intensity and progression varied between studies. Beneficial effects of aquatic exercise were found on physical function. However, only two of five studies that assessed muscle strength observed positive effect of aquatic exercise. Although it is difficult to compare studies and establish guidelines for the standardized protocol formulation, it was observed that water-based exercises can be effective on improving physical function and increasing muscle strength, since they are well-structured, with exercise intensity and overload controlled.

  2. Effects of aquatic exercise on muscle strength and functional performance of individuals with osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Fernanda de; Leite, Neiva; Pitta, Arthur; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce

    Water-based exercises are recommended for people with osteoarthritis (OA), due to the beneficial effects on physical function, quality of life and symptom reduction. However, the effects on muscle strength are still controversial. The aim of this review was to assess and compare the effects of aquatic exercise programs on muscle strength and physical function in people with OA. A systematic search was performed at Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Clinical trials with interventions involving aquatic exercises for individuals with OA were included. The methodological quality of the studies was evaluated using the PEDro scale. 296 studies were found and twelve were selected: six studies comparing water-based exercises with land-based exercise, and six comparing water-based exercise groups with the control group. Exercise programs included muscle strengthening, aerobic, balance, flexibility and stretching exercises. Duration of the program, weekly frequency, intensity and progression varied between studies. Beneficial effects of aquatic exercise were found on physical function. However, only two of five studies that assessed muscle strength observed positive effect of aquatic exercise. Although it is difficult to compare studies and establish guidelines for the standardized protocol formulation, it was observed that water-based exercises can be effective on improving physical function and increasing muscle strength, since they are well-structured, with exercise intensity and overload controlled.

  3. Contribution of Upper-Body Strength, Body Composition, and Maximal Oxygen Uptake to Predict Double Poling Power and Overall Performance in Female Cross-Country Skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerås, Sindre; Welde, Boye; Danielsen, Jørgen; van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2016-09-01

    Østerås, S, Welde, B, Danielsen, J, van den Tillaar, R, Ettema, G, and Sandbakk, Ø. Contribution of upper-body strength, body composition, and maximal oxygen uptake to predict double poling power and overall performance in female cross-country skiers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2557-2564, 2016-Maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) is regarded as the most performance-differentiating physiological measure in cross-country (XC) skiing. In addition, upper-body strength and lean mass have been associated with double poling (DP) power in XC skiers. In this study, we tested upper-body maximal strength, lean mass, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max's contributions to predict DP power production of different durations and the overall XC skiing performance level of elite female XC skiers. Thirteen skiers (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 64.9 ± 4.2 ml·kg·min) performed one 30-second and one 3-minute DP performance test using a ski ergometer. The International Ski Federation's (FIS) ranking points determined their overall XC skiing performance. The skiers performed three 1-repetition maximal strength tests in poling-specific exercises that isolated the elbow extension, shoulder extension, and trunk flexion movements. Body composition was determined by a DXA scan, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was tested in an incremental running test. Multiple regressions were used to predict power production in the 30-second and 3-minute tests and FIS points. The 2 best predictions of 30-second DP power were lean upper-body mass and maximal upper-body strength (with the 3 strength tests normalized and pooled together as one variable) (R = 0.84 and 0.81, p skiing performance (R = 0.43 and 0.40, p ≤ 0.05). Although the importance of upper-body strength and lean mass to predict DP power production and the overall XC skiing performance declines with the performance duration in female XC skiers, the importance of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max shows an opposite relationship.

  4. Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas;

    2011-01-01

    Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium.......05) following the Sal and Bicarb trials, respectively. Accordingly, the cerebral metabolic ratio decreased equally during the Sal and Bicarb trials: from 5.8 ± 0.6 at rest to 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bicarb eliminated metabolic acidosis...

  5. Physical Activity in the School Setting: Cognitive Performance Is Not Affected by Three Different Types of Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Vera; Saliasi, Emi; de Groot, Renate H M; Jolles, Jelle; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a single bout of physical exercise can have immediate positive effects on cognitive performance of children and adolescents. However, the type of exercise that affects cognitive performance the most in young adolescents is not fully understood. Therefore, this controlled study examined the acute effects of three types of 12-min classroom-based exercise sessions on information processing speed and selective attention. The three conditions consisted of aerobic, coordination, and strength exercises, respectively. In particular, this study focused on the feasibility and efficiency of introducing short bouts of exercise in the classroom. One hundred and ninety five students (5th and 6th grade; 10-13 years old) participated in a double baseline within-subjects design, with students acting as their own control. Exercise type was randomly assigned to each class and acted as between-subject factor. Before and immediately after both the control and the exercise session, students performed two cognitive tests that measured information processing speed (Letter Digit Substitution Test) and selective attention (d2 Test of Attention). The results revealed that exercising at low to moderate intensity does not have an effect on the cognitive parameters tested in young adolescents. Furthermore, there were no differential effects of exercise type. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the caution which should be taken when conducting exercise sessions in a classroom setting aimed at improving cognitive performance.

  6. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Shaun S; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise.

  7. Motivating Visually Impaired and Deaf-Blind People to Perform Regular Physical Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, Airi; Kivela, Tero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the different ways in which visually impaired and deaf-blind people can be motivated to perform regular physical exercises through the use of a physical training programme. The programme was designed for visually impaired and deaf-blind people with the aim of reducing their most common physical problems: those…

  8. Carbohydrates and Physical/Mental Performance during Intermittent Exercise to Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ralph S.; Davis, J. Mark; Burke, Jean R.; Williams, Harriet G.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO) ingestion on physical and mental function associated with performing high-intensity exercise. Physically active adults completed physical activities while researchers assessed them. CHO or placebo drinks were consumed before starting and at halftime. CHO ingestion resulted in 37 percent…

  9. The effect of pre-cooling intensity on cooling efficiency and exercise performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, N.; Perret, C.; Bogerd, C.P.; Rossi, R.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although pre-cooling is known to enhance exercise performance, the optimal cooling intensity is unknown. We hypothesized that mild cooling opposed to strong cooling circumvents skin vasoconstriction and thermogenesis, and thus improves cooling efficiency reflected in improved time to exhaustion. Eig

  10. Air Pollution and Its Effects on an Individual's Health and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A. I. Clifford

    1988-01-01

    Air Pollution is a common environmental stressor affecting the training and competitive performance of athletes, commonly irritating the eyes, nose, and throat. The health and exercise effects of such primary and secondary air pollutants as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, air particulates, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide are discussed. (CB)

  11. Motor Performance in Children with Generalized Hypermobility : The Influence of Muscle Strength and Exercise Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanewinkel-van Kleef, Yvonne B.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Takken, Tim; Engelbert, Raoul H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate whether muscle strength and functional exercise capacity (FEC) influence motor performance in children with generalized joint hypermobility. Methods: Forty-one children (mean age: 8.1 years) with symptomatic generalized hypermobility were included. M

  12. Determinants of time trial performance and maximal incremental exercise in highly trained endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Human endurance performance can be predicted from maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), lactate threshold, and exercise efficiency. These physiologic parameters, however, are not wholly exclusive from one another and their interplay is complex. Accordingly, we sought to identify more specific me...

  13. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

  14. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses to bicycle exercise during lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde-Petersen, F.; Suzuki, M.; Christensen, N. J.

    The purpose was to combine bicycle exercise and LBNP as a model to investigate the mechanisms regulating circulation during gravitatiobal stresses. METHODS: Cardiac Output (CO) by acetylene-, argon-, oxygen rebreathing; Heart Rate (HR) from ECG; Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) by arm cuff; Plasma Nor-Epinephrine (NE), Epinephrine (E), and Lactate (HLa) by isotope and enzymatic techniques respectively. Total Peripheral Resistance (TPR)=MAP/CO and stroke volume (SV)=CO/HR. Six subjects exercised at 180-200 Watts in the upright position on a mechanically braked computer controlled small bicycle ergometer placed in a LBNP box. The above parameters were measured at rest and at 5 and 9 min of exercise without and with LBNP at -30 or -40 mmHg (depending on LBNP tolerance). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the face of an increased sympathetic nervous activity (Ne+E, TPR, and HR increased) during exercise in LBNP, there was a decrease in CO and SV indicating that the venous return was insufficient. However, HLa was unchanged demonstrating that the blood flow to the working muscles did not suffer.

  15. Body temperature responses in spinal cord injured individuals during exercise in the cold and heat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, C.R.L.; Binkhorst, R.A.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of arm exercise on the heat balance in spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals with complete lesions at ambient temperatures of 10 and 35 degrees C. Four SCI with a high lesion (> or = T6) (SCI-H), seven with a low lesion (< T6) (SCI-L), and ten abl

  16. Effect of Semirecumbent and Upright Body Position on Maximal and Submaximal Exercise Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander; Antonishen, Kevin; Johnston, Chris; Pearce, Terri; Ryan, Michael; Sheel, A. William; McKenzie, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to determine the effect of upright-posture (UP) versus semirecumbent (SR) cycling on commonly used measures of maximal and submaximal exercise capacity. Nine healthy, untrained men (M age = 27 years, SD = 4.8 years) underwent steady-state submaximal aerobic testing followed by a ramped test to determine maximal oxygen…

  17. Performance Evaluation of Whole Body Counting Facilities in the Marshall Islands (2002-2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehl, S R; Hamilton, T; Jue, T; Hickman, D

    2007-04-03

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands (https://eed.llnl.gov/mi/). Local atoll governments have been actively engaged in developing shared responsibilities for protecting the health and safety of resettled and resettling population at risk from exposure to elevated levels of residual fallout contamination in the environment. Under the program, whole body counting facilities have been established at three locations in the Marshall Islands. These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing technical support services including data quality assurance and performance testing. We have also established a mirror whole body counting facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as a technician training center. The LLNL facility also allows program managers to develop quality assurance and operational procedures, and test equipment and corrective actions prior to deployment at remote stations in the Marshall Islands. This document summarizes the results of external performance evaluation exercises conducted at each of the facilities (2002-2005) under the umbrella of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Intercomparison Studies Program (ISP). The ISP was specifically designed to meet intercomparison requirements of the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). In this way, the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program has attempted to establish quality assurance measures in whole body counting that are consistent with standard requirements used to monitor DOE workers in the United States. Based on ANSI N13.30, the acceptable performance criteria for relative measurement bias and precision for radiobioassay service laboratory quality control

  18. Delayed voluntary exercise does not enhance cognitive performance after hippocampal injury: an investigation of differentially distributed exercise protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogensen, Elise; Gram, Marie Gajhede; Sommer, Jens Bak; Vilsen, Christina Rytter; Mogensen, Jesper; Malá, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary exercise has previously been shown to enhance cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study evaluated effects of two differentially distributed protocols of delayed, voluntary exercise on cognitive recovery using an allocentric place learning task in an 8-arm radial maze. Fifty-four Wistar rats were subjected to either bilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix (FF) or to sham surgery. Twenty-one days postinjury, the animals started exercising in running wheels either for 14 consecutive days (FF/exercise daily [ExD], sham/ExD) or every other day for 14 days (FF/exercise every second day [ExS], sham/ExS). Additional groups were given no exercise treatment (FF/not exercise [NE], sham/NE). Regardless of how exercise was distributed, we found no cognitively enhancing effects of exercise in the brain injured animals. Design and protocol factors possibly affecting the efficacy of post-ABI exercise are discussed. PMID:27807517

  19. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  20. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-21

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  1. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  2. A Conceptual Framework to Measure Systems’ Performance during Emergency Preparedness Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Elena; Agboola, Foluso; Biddinger, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale public health emergencies require a sophisticated, coordinated response involving multiple entities to protect health and minimize suffering. However, the rarity of such emergencies presents a barrier to gathering observational data about the effectiveness of the public health response before such events occur. For this reason, public health practitioners increasingly have relied on simulated emergencies, known as “exercises” as proxies to test their emergency capabilities. However, the formal evaluation of performance in these exercises, historically has been inconsistent, and there is little research to describe how data acquired from simulated emergencies actually support conclusions about the quality of the public health emergency response system. Over the past six years, we have designed and evaluated more than seventy public health emergency exercises, collaborating with public health agencies, hospitals and others to test a wide variety of systems and their capabilities. Using the data and experience that we gathered, we have developed a conceptual framework that describes the essential elements necessary to consider when applying performance measurement science to public health emergency exercises. We suggest that this framework may assist practitioners and researchers who wish to better measure performance in exercises and to improve public health emergency preparedness. PMID:25233015

  3. A Conceptual Framework to Measure Systems’ Performance during Emergency Preparedness Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Savoia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale public health emergencies require a sophisticated, coordinated response involving multiple entities to protect health and minimize suffering. However, the rarity of such emergencies presents a barrier to gathering observational data about the effectiveness of the public health response before such events occur. For this reason, public health practitioners increasingly have relied on simulated emergencies, known as “exercises” as proxies to test their emergency capabilities. However, the formal evaluation of performance in these exercises, historically has been inconsistent, and there is little research to describe how data acquired from simulated emergencies actually support conclusions about the quality of the public health emergency response system. Over the past six years, we have designed and evaluated more than seventy public health emergency exercises, collaborating with public health agencies, hospitals and others to test a wide variety of systems and their capabilities. Using the data and experience that we gathered, we have developed a conceptual framework that describes the essential elements necessary to consider when applying performance measurement science to public health emergency exercises. We suggest that this framework may assist practitioners and researchers who wish to better measure performance in exercises and to improve public health emergency preparedness.

  4. Mitochondrial and performance adaptations to exercise training in mice lacking skeletal muscle LKB1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Colby B; Madsen, Steven R; Hallowell, David M; Goring, Darren M J; Moore, Timothy M; Hardman, Shalene E; Heninger, Megan R; Atwood, Daniel R; Thomson, David M

    2013-10-15

    LKB1 and its downstream targets of the AMP-activated protein kinase family are important regulators of many aspects of skeletal muscle cell function, including control of mitochondrial content and capillarity. LKB1 deficiency in skeletal and cardiac muscle (mLKB1-KO) greatly impairs exercise capacity. However, cardiac dysfunction in that genetic model prevents a clear assessment of the role of skeletal muscle LKB1 in the observed effects. Our purposes here were to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1 (skmLKB1-KO) decreases exercise capacity and mitochondrial protein content, impairs accretion of mitochondrial proteins after exercise training, and attenuates improvement in running performance after exercise training. We found that treadmill and voluntary wheel running capacity was reduced in skmLKB1-KO vs. control (CON) mice. Citrate synthase activity, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase content were lower in KO vs. CON muscles. Three weeks of treadmill training resulted in significantly increased treadmill running performance in both CON and skmLKB1-KO mice. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly with training in both genotypes, but protein content and activity for components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain increased only in CON mice. Capillarity and VEGF protein was lower in skmLKB1-KO vs. CON muscles, but VEGF increased with training only in skmLKB1-KO. Three hours after an acute bout of muscle contractions, PGC-1α, cytochrome c, and VEGF gene expression all increased in CON but not skmLKB1-KO muscles. Our findings indicate that skeletal muscle LKB1 is required for accretion of some mitochondrial proteins but not for early exercise capacity improvements with exercise training.

  5. Effects of an intermittent exercise fatigue protocol on biomechanics of soccer kick performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellis, E; Katis, A; Vrabas, I S

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of fatigue on biomechanical indices of soccer kick performance. Ten male amateur soccer players performed maximal instep kicks prior to, in the middle and after the implementation of a 90 min intermittent exercise protocol. Three-dimensional data, ground reaction forces (GRFs) and segmental moments were measured during the kick while blood lactate and ammonia concentrations were monitored throughout the protocol. Analysis of variance designs with repeated measures indicated a significant increase in ammonia (P0.01). However, post-fatigue maximum angular velocity of the shank, the net moments acting on the shank and the resultant joint moments were significantly lower compared with the corresponding pre-exercise values (Pexercise protocol that simulates soccer game conditions results in significant impairment of soccer kick performance. This could be attributed to alterations of the function of the neuromuscular system and force generation capacity, which may have altered the mechanics of soccer kick performance.

  6. The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen;

    The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers: a randomized controlled trial Christensen, JR. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Justesen, JB. 1 SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Physical training may improve health and decrease...... the risk of sickness absence and low job performance. The aim of this paper was thus to investigate the effect of individually tailored intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) on sickness absence and job performance among office workers. Methods In a randomized controlled trial employees from six...... absence between the two groups. A per protocol analysis, where 89 (46%) office workers participated ≥70 % showed a significant 6% improvement in job performance (p =

  7. Intentional thought dynamics during exercise performed until volitional exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; Garcia, Sergi; Aragonés, Daniel; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Using a non-linear approach, intentional dynamics of thoughts were examined during constant cycling performed until volitional exhaustion. Participants (n = 12) completed two sessions at 80% Wmax. Their (1) intrinsic thought dynamics (i.e., no-imposed thoughts condition) and (2) intentional thought dynamics (i.e., imposed task-unrelated thoughts condition; TUT) were recorded and then classified into four categories: internal and external TUT (TUT-I, TUT-E) and external and internal task-related thoughts (TRT-E, TRT-I). The probability estimates for maintaining each thought category stable, the rate of switching from one category to another, and the entropy dynamics along the testing procedure were assessed and compared through time phase. Friedman ANOVA tests revealed a significant effect of effort increase on thought contents only in the imposed TUT test. While TUT-I probabilities decreased significantly (P < .001) as effort increased, TRT-I probabilities increased (P < .05). Moreover, the entropy to the entire thought dynamics increased at the outset of task performance and decreased upon approaching volitional exhaustion (P < .001). As time spent in constant effort increased, and volitional exhaustion approached, task relatedness (TUT, TRT), direction (internal, external), and entropy of thought contents changed unintentionally providing further evidence for a nonlinear dynamics of attention focus.

  8. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1 twelve subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6......(+) with microdialysis. In S1 Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 16% better (P...

  9. Performance and physiological responses to repeated-sprint exercise: a novel multiple-set approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpiello, Fabio R; McKenna, Michael J; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J; Aughey, Robert J

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the acute and chronic responses to multiple sets of repeated-sprint exercise (RSE), focusing on changes in acceleration, intermittent running capacity and physiological responses. Ten healthy young adults (7 males, 3 females) performed an incremental test, a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level1 (Yo-Yo IR1), and one session of RSE. RSE comprised three sets of 5 × 4-s maximal sprints on a non-motorised treadmill, with 20 s of passive recovery between repetitions and 4.5 min of passive recovery between sets. After ten repeated-sprint training sessions, participants repeated all tests. During RSE, performance was determined by measuring acceleration, mean and peak power/velocity. Recovery heart rate (HR), HR variability, and finger-tip capillary lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]) were measured. Performance progressively decreased across the three sets of RSE, with the indices of repeated-sprint ability being impaired to a different extent before and after training. Training induced a significant increase (p RSE. There were strong correlations between Yo-Yo IR1 performance and indices of RSE performance, especially acceleration post-training (r = 0.88, p = 0.004). Repeated-sprint training, comprising only 10 min of exercise overall, effectively improved performance during multiple-set RSE. This exercise model better reflects team-sport activities than single-set RSE. The rapid training-induced improvement in acceleration, quantified here for the first time, has wide applications for professional and recreational sport activities.

  10. Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-01-01

    A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.

  11. Joint Cooling does not Hinder Athletic Performance during High-intensity Intermittent Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Lee, D; Choi, H-M; Park, J

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of ankle and knee joint cooling on 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights during high-intensity intermittent exercise. 21 healthy collegiate male basketball (n=14) and handball players (n=7) underwent 3 experimental sessions. Each session consisted of four 15-min quarters of high-intensity intermittent exercises including various intensities of 20-m shuttle running and jumping. A 20-min bilateral joint cooling (ankle, knee, or control-no cooling: in a counterbalanced order) was applied before quarters 1 and 3. After joint cooling, no warm-up activity other than the exercise protocol was given. The 20-m sprint times and maximal vertical jump heights in each experimental session were recorded at baseline (prior to quarter-1) and during each quarter. To test joint cooling effects over time, we performed 3×5 mixed model ANOVAs. Neither ankle nor knee joint cooling changed 20-m sprint times (F8,280=1.45; p=0.18) or maximal vertical jump heights (F8,280=0.76; p=0.64). However, a trend was observed in which joint cooling immediately decreased (quarters 1 and 3) but active warm-up for approximately 20 min improved 20-min sprint times (quarters 2 and 4). Our study suggests that athletic performance such as sprinting and jumping are not altered by joint cooling applied prior to or during high-intensity intermittent exercise.

  12. Ventricular performance during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Iwao; Akashiba, Tsuneto; Horie, Takashi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    We assessed ventricular performance during exercise in 16 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and 8 normal control subjects by means of radionuclide equilibrium angiography using technetium-99m as a tracer. Supine exercise on a bicycle ergometer was performed until symptom-limited exhaustion. Data were accumulated for 300 heart beats at rest and 150 heart beats during exercise. We used the standard voxel count method to calculate the ventricular volumes. Age, FEV{sub 1.0}%, %VC, PaO{sub 2} and PaCO{sub 2} of the COPD patients were 63{+-}8 yr, 46{+-}11%, 69{+-}18%, 68{+-}11 Torr and 44{+-}7 Torr (mean{+-}SD), respectively. Systolic dysfunction of both the left and right ventricles was well confirmed in the present study. In 12 patients who also underwent hemodynamic studies, resting total pulmonary vascular resistance index (TPVRI) and mean pulmonary artery pressure (P-barpa) significantly correlated with right ventricular end-systolic volume index (RVESVI) obtained by RI angiography; {gamma}=0.769 (p<0.01) and {gamma}=0.631 (p<0.05), respectively. A significant relationship was also observed between left ventricular dysfunction and the degree of hypercapnia. In response to exercise testing, 10 of 16 patients exhibited insufficient augmentation of stroke volume, and both left and right end-diastolic volumes decreased in half of 10 patients. It is suggested that cardiac function may be disturbed by mechanical factors such as pulmonary hyperinflation in COPD patients. (author).

  13. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  14. Lower-limb performance disparities: Implications for exercise prescription in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca D. Larson, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine unilateral lower-limb exercise tolerance during fixed-load cycling to quantify performance disparities of the legs. Eight individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS and seven controls performed submaximal single-leg cycling. Individuals with MS performed significantly more work with the stronger leg than the weaker leg (stronger leg: 6.4 +/– 1.7 kJ, weaker leg: 4.7 +/– 2.5 kJ, p = 0.02. The control group displayed no statistical differences between limbs (p = 0.36. These results highlight a need for individualized exercise testing when prescribing training programs for those with MS.

  15. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  16. Effect of short-term heat acclimation with permissive dehydration on thermoregulation and temperate exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, R A; Corbett, J; Massey, H C; Tipton, M J

    2016-08-01

    We examined the effect of short-term heat acclimation with permissive dehydration (STHADe) on heat acclimation (HA) and cycling performance in a temperate environment. Ten trained male cyclists [mean (SD) maximal oxygen uptake: 63.3(4.0) mL/kg/min; peak power output (PPO): 385(40) W; training: 10 (3) h/week] underwent a STHADe program consisting of 5 days of exercise (maximum 90 min/day) in a hot environment (40 °C, 50% RH) to elicit isothermic heat strain [rectal temperature 38.64(0.27) °C]. Participants abstained from fluids during, and 30 min after, HA sessions. Pre- and post-STHADe HA was evaluated during euhydrated fixed-intensity exercise (60 min) in hot conditions; the effect of STHADe on thermoregulation was also examined under temperate conditions (20 min fixed-intensity exercise; 22 °C, 60% RH). Temperate cycling performance was assessed by a graded exercise test (GXT) and 20-km time trial (TT). STHADe reduced thermal and cardiovascular strain in hot and temperate environments. Lactate threshold [Δ = 16 (17) W] and GXT PPO [Δ = 6 (7) W] were improved following STHADe (P  0.05), although there was a trend for a higher mean power (P = 0.06). In conclusion, STHADE can reduce thermal and cardiovascular strain under hot and temperate conditions and there is some evidence of ergogenic potential for temperate exercise, but longer HA regimens may be necessary for this to meaningfully influence performance.

  17. Effects of pre-cooling procedures on intermittent-sprint exercise performance in warm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Rob; Marino, Frank E

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-cooling procedures improve both maximal sprint and sub-maximal work during intermittent-sprint exercise. Nine male rugby players performed a familiarisation session and three testing sessions of a 2 x 30-min intermittent sprint protocol, which consisted of a 15-m sprint every min separated by free-paced hard-running, jogging and walking in 32 degrees C and 30% humidity. The three sessions included a control condition, Ice-vest condition and Ice-bath/Ice-vest condition, with respective cooling interventions imposed for 15-min pre-exercise and 10-min at half-time. Performance measures of sprint time and % decline and distance covered during sub-maximal exercise were recorded, while physiological measures of core temperature (T (core)), mean skin temperature (T (skin)), heart rate, heat storage, nude mass, rate of perceived exertion, rate of thermal comfort and capillary blood measures of lactate [La(-)], pH, Sodium (Na(+)) and Potassium (K(+)) were recorded. Results for exercise performance indicated no significant differences between conditions for the time or % decline in 15-m sprint efforts or the distance covered during sub-maximal work bouts; however, large effect size data indicated a greater distance covered during hard running following Ice-bath cooling. Further, lowered T (core), T (skin), heart rate, sweat loss and thermal comfort following Ice-bath cooling than Ice-vest or Control conditions were present, with no differences present in capillary blood measures of [La(-)], pH, K(+) or Na(+). As such, the ergogenic benefits of effective pre-cooling procedures in warm conditions for team-sports may be predominantly evident during sub-maximal bouts of exercise.

  18. Autophagy is required for exercise training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation and improvement of physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Vitor A; Okutsu, Mitsuharu; Zhang, Mei; Greene, Nicholas P; Laker, Rhianna C; Breen, David S; Hoehn, Kyle L; Yan, Zhen

    2013-10-01

    Pathological and physiological stimuli, including acute exercise, activate autophagy; however, it is unknown whether exercise training alters basal levels of autophagy and whether autophagy is required for skeletal muscle adaptation to training. We observed greater autophagy flux (i.e., a combination of increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and LC3-II levels and reduced p62 protein content indicating a higher rate of initiation and resolution of autophagic events), autophagy protein expression (i.e., Atg6/Beclin1, Atg7, and Atg8/LC3) and mitophagy protein Bnip3 expression in tonic, oxidative muscle compared to muscles of either mixed fiber types or of predominant glycolytic fibers in mice. Long-term voluntary running (4 wk) resulted in increased basal autophagy flux and expression of autophagy proteins and Bnip3 in parallel to mitochondrial biogenesis in plantaris muscle with mixed fiber types. Conversely, exercise training promoted autophagy protein expression with no significant increases of autophagy flux and mitochondrial biogenesis in the oxidative soleus muscle. We also observed increased basal autophagy flux and Bnip3 content without increases in autophagy protein expression in the plantaris muscle of sedentary muscle-specific Pgc-1α transgenic mice, a genetic model of augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings reveal that endurance exercise training-induced increases in basal autophagy, including mitophagy, only take place if an enhanced oxidative phenotype is achieved. However, autophagy protein expression is mainly dictated by contractile activity independently of enhancements in oxidative phenotype. Exercise-trained mice heterozygous for the critical autophagy protein Atg6 showed attenuated increases of basal autophagy flux, mitochondrial content, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, along with impaired improvement of endurance capacity. These results demonstrate that increased basal autophagy is required for endurance exercise training-induced skeletal

  19. Rigid body dynamics modeling, experimental characterization, and performance analysis of a howitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nachiketa TIWARI; Mukund PATIL; Ravi SHANKAR; Abhishek SARASWAT; Rituraj DWIVEDI

    2016-01-01

    A large caliber howitzer is a complex and cumbersome assembly. Understanding its dynamics and performance attributes’ sensitivity to changes in its design parameters can be a very time-consuming and expensive exercise, as such an effort requires highly sophisticated test rigs and platforms. However, the need of such an understanding is crucially important for system designers, users, and evaluators. Some of the key performance attributes of such a system are its vertical jump, forward motion, recoil displacement, and force transmitted to ground through tires and trail after the gun has been fired. In this work, we have developed a rigid body dynamics model for a representative howitzer system, and used relatively simple experimental procedures to estimate its principal design parameters. Such procedures can help in obviating the need of expensive experimental rigs, especially in early stages of the design cycle. These parameters were subsequently incorporated into our simulation model, which was then used to predict gun performance. Finally, we conducted several sensitivity studies to understand the influence of changes in various design parameters on system performance. Their results provide useful insights in our understanding of the functioning of the overall system.

  20. Rigid body dynamics modeling, experimental characterization, and performance analysis of a howitzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachiketa Tiwari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A large caliber howitzer is a complex and cumbersome assembly. Understanding its dynamics and performance attributes' sensitivity to changes in its design parameters can be a very time-consuming and expensive exercise, as such an effort requires highly sophisticated test rigs and platforms. However, the need of such an understanding is crucially important for system designers, users, and evaluators. Some of the key performance attributes of such a system are its vertical jump, forward motion, recoil displacement, and force transmitted to ground through tires and trail after the gun has been fired. In this work, we have developed a rigid body dynamics model for a representative howitzer system, and used relatively simple experimental procedures to estimate its principal design parameters. Such procedures can help in obviating the need of expensive experimental rigs, especially in early stages of the design cycle. These parameters were subsequently incorporated into our simulation model, which was then used to predict gun performance. Finally, we conducted several sensitivity studies to understand the influence of changes in various design parameters on system performance. Their results provide useful insights in our understanding of the functioning of the overall system.

  1. Effect of Performance Speed on Trunk Movement Control During the Curl-Up Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbado David

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Trunk exercise speed has significant effects on neuro-mechanical demands; however, the influence of a variety of exercise speeds on motor control of the trunk displacement remains unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of performance speed on trunk motion control during the curl-up exercise by analyzing the kinematic variance about the sagittal trajectory. Seventeen subjects volunteered to perform curl-ups at different cadences controlled by a metronome. Standard deviation (SD and range (RG of shoulder girdle medial-lateral displacement (SGML and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA of SGML were calculated to examine linear variability and long range autocorrelation of medial-lateral upper trunk displacements, respectively. In addition, SD, RG and DFA of centre of pressure medial-lateral displacement (COPML were performed to analyze the behavior of the motor system while controlling trunk displacement. Although SD and RG of COPML increased as speed increased, the curl-up cadence did not have significant effects on SD and RG of SGML. These results suggest that although high speed curl-ups challenged participants’ ability to carry out medial-lateral adjustments, an increase of performance speed did not modify the linear variability about the sagittal trajectory. Regarding DFA, the scaling exponent α of SGML and COPML was higher for the fastest movements, mainly in long term fluctuations. Therefore, to maintain the target trajectory, participants used different strategies depending on performance speed. This is to say, there were less trajectory changes when participants performed the fastest exercises.

  2. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  3. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5, body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9 kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5 years, isocaloric nutrition, 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period. In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks. Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin, endocrinology

  4. The effects of low-speed swimming following exhaustive exercise on metabolic recovery and swimming performance in brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis).