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Sample records for body dysmorphic disorder

  1. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perihan Cam Ray

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder are crucial because of increased suicidality and reduction in life quality. In this article the symptoms, etiology, clinical features and treatment of body dysmorphic disorder are briefly reviewed.

  2. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Perihan Cam Ray; Mehmet Emin Demirkol; Lut Tamam

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common disorder that consists of a distressing or impairing preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in appearance. BDD is commonly considered to be an obsessivecompulsive spectrum disorder, based on similarities it has with obsessive-compulsive disorder. It is important to recognize and appropriately treat BDD, as this disorder is associated with marked impairment in psychosocial functioning, notably poor quality of life, and high suicidali...

  3. Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Perihan Çam; Demirkol, Mehmet Emin; Tamam, Lut

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a type of mental illness, wherein the affected person is concerned with body image, manifested as excessive concern about and preoccupation with a perceived defect of their physical features. Although it is a common disease and has been defined in the literature over a century, it is not a well known disease. Chronic, treatment resistant and sometimes delusional nature could result in severe functional impairment. The diagnosis and appropriate therapy of disorder a...

  4. Body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, D

    2004-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a preoccupation with an "imagined" defect in one's appearance. Alternatively, where there is a slight physical anomaly, then the person's concern is markedly excessive. The preoccupation is associated with many time consuming rituals such as mirror gazing or constant comparing. BDD patients have a distorted body image, which may be associated with bullying or abuse during childhood or adolescence. Such patients have a poor quality of life, are soci...

  5. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia)

    OpenAIRE

    Anukriti Varma; Rajesh Rastogi

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in...

  6. Recognizing body dysmorphic disorder (dysmorphophobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anukriti Varma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial.This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder.

  7. Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Dysmorphophobia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Anukriti; Rastogi, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Dysmorphophobia is a psychiatric condition which frequently presents in the clinics of dermatologists and plastic surgeons. This disorder (also called body dysmorphic disorder) is troublesome to the patient whilst being confusing for the doctor. This commonly undiagnosed condition can be detected by a few simple steps. Timely referral to a psychiatrist benefits most patients suffering from it. This article describes with a case vignette, how to recognize body dysmorphic disorder presenting in the dermatological or aesthetic surgery set up. Diagnostic criteria, eitiology, approach to patient, management strategy and when to refer are important learning points. The importance of recognizing this disorder timely and referring the patient to the psychiatrist for appropriate treatment is crucial. This article covers all aspects of body dysmorphic disorder relevant to dermatologists and plastic surgeons and hopes to be useful in a better understanding of this disorder. PMID:26644741

  8. Dismorfna telesna motnja: Body dysmorphic disorder:

    OpenAIRE

    Ahčan, Uroš; Župan, Anja

    2011-01-01

    Background: Body dysmorphic disorder is a somatoform disorder, which is characterized by the patientćs preoccupation with a minor or imagined apperance defect. It has a reported prevalence of 0.7 % to 2.3 % in the general population. Prevalence among patients seeking aesthetic surgery is 6 %to 15 %. Body dysmorphic disorder appears to affect men and women equally. Comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders is frequent. Cosmetic medical treatment is ineffective in treating body dysmorphic di...

  9. Nonpsychiatric Medical Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Crerand, Canice E.; Phillips, Katharine A.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Many individuals with body dysmorphic disorder seek nonpsychiatric medical and surgical treatment to improve perceived defects in their physical appearance. However, the types of treatments sought and received, as well as the treatment outcome, have received little investigation. This study describes the frequency, types, and outcomes of treatments sought and received by 200 individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. Treatment was sought by 71.0% and received by 64.0%. Dermatological treatmen...

  10. [Body dysmorphic disorder : Anxiety about deformity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieler, T; Brähler, E

    2016-05-01

    Between 0.8 and 1.8 % of the German population suffers from a body dysmorphic disorder. In specific settings like dermatological offices up to 11.9 % of patients suffer from this disease. The highest prevalence could be found in the field of cosmetic dermatology with a prevalence of 13.1 %. Until now, the diagnosis has been made too rarely. The body dysmorphic disorder is a chronic psychic disease, in which the patients feel disfigured and experience shame and disgust at the same time. Comorbidities like social phobia, depression, suicidality, and eating disorders are frequent. The diagnosis is made using questionnaires (e.g., dysmorphic concern questionnaire) or by use of the DSM-5 manual. An early diagnosis seems to be important to avoid chronification and suicidal ideas. Therapeutic approaches should include cognitive behavioral therapies as well as the use of SSRIs. PMID:26893009

  11. Self-discrepancy in body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Kinderman, Peter; Riley, Susan; Lambrou, Christina

    2003-01-01

    According to self-discrepancy theory (SDT), depression, social anxiety, eating disorders and paranoia result from different types of conflicting self-beliefs. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) consists of a preoccupation with imagined or slight defects in one's appearance, which is often associated with a depressed mood and social anxiety. SDT was therefore applied to BDD patients to further understand their beliefs about their appearance.

  12. Psychological Treatment of Social Anxiety Disorder Improves Body Dysmorphic Concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Angela; Sawyer, Alice T.; Aderka, Idan M.; Hofmann, Stefan G.

    2013-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder are considered nosologically distinct disorders In contrast, some cognitive models suggest that social anxiety disorder and body dysmorphic disorder share similar cognitive maintenance factors. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder on body dysmorphic disorder concerns. In Study 1, we found that 12 weekly group sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy led to significant decre...

  13. Social anxiety in body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Anthony; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2005-01-01

    Although clinical impressions suggest that patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) experience distress in social situations, social anxiety in BDD has received little investigation. This study examined social anxiety in 81 patients with BDD and change in social anxiety with pharmacotherapy. Subjects completed the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale (SADS) and were assessed with measures of BDD symptomatology. Participants in a placebo-controlled fluoxetine trial completed measures at bas...

  14. Dysfunctional Metacognitive Beliefs in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zeinodini, Zahra; Sedighi, Sahar; Rahimi, Mandana Baghertork; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Esfahani, Sepideh Rajezi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the correlation of body dysmorphic disorder, with metacognitive subscales, metaworry and thought-fusion. The study was conducted in a correlation framework. Sample included 155 high school students in Isfahan, Iran in 2013-2014, gathered through convenience sampling. To gather data about BDD, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD was applied. Then, Meta Cognitive Questionnaire, Metaworry Questionnaire, and Thought-Fusion Inventory were used t...

  15. Body Dysmorphic Disorder : An Unusual Presentation of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Amul; Sharma, Himanshu; Thakker, Yogesh

    2004-01-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder is a psychiatric disorder in its own right, rarely it can be a variant of a variety of psychiatric syndromes like schizophrenia, mood disorders, OCD etc. Following is an unusual case report of a female patient who presented with body dysmorphic disorder later diagnosed as having schizophrenia.

  16. Dysfunctional Metacognitive Beliefs in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinodini, Zahra; Sedighi, Sahar; Baghertork Rahimi, Mandana; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2015-06-25

    The present study aims to examine the correlation of body dysmorphic disorder, with metacognitive subscales, metaworry and thought-fusion. The study was conducted in a correlation framework. Sample included 155 high school students in Isfahan, Iran in 2013-2014, gathered through convenience sampling. To gather data about BDD, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD was applied. Then, Meta Cognitive Questionnaire, Metaworry Questionnaire, and Thought-Fusion Inventory were used to assess metacognitive subscales, metaworry and thought-fusion. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions in SPSS 18. Result indicated YBOCS-BDD scores had a significant correlation with scores from MCQ (P<0.05), MWG (P<0.05), and TFI (P<0.05). Also, multiple regressions were run to predict YBOCS from TFI, MWQ, and MCQ-30. These variables significantly predicted YBOCS [F (3,151) =32.393, R(2)=0.57]. Findings indicated that body dysmorphic disorder was significantly related to metacognitive subscales, metaworry, and thought fusion in high school students in Isfahan, which is in line with previous studies. A deeper understanding of these processes can broaden theory and treatment of BDD, thereby improve the lives of sufferers and potentially protect others from developing this devastating disorder.

  17. Dysfunctional Metacognitive Beliefs in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinodini, Zahra; Sedighi, Sahar; Baghertork Rahimi, Mandana; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Rajezi Esfahani, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to examine the correlation of body dysmorphic disorder, with metacognitive subscales, metaworry and thought-fusion. The study was conducted in a correlation framework. Sample included 155 high school students in Isfahan, Iran in 2013-2014, gathered through convenience sampling. To gather data about BDD, Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale Modified for BDD was applied. Then, Meta Cognitive Questionnaire, Metaworry Questionnaire, and Thought-Fusion Inventory were used to assess metacognitive subscales, metaworry and thought-fusion. Data obtained from this study were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions in SPSS 18. Result indicated YBOCS-BDD scores had a significant correlation with scores from MCQ (PMCQ-30. These variables significantly predicted YBOCS [F (3,151) =32.393, R(2)=0.57]. Findings indicated that body dysmorphic disorder was significantly related to metacognitive subscales, metaworry, and thought fusion in high school students in Isfahan, which is in line with previous studies. A deeper understanding of these processes can broaden theory and treatment of BDD, thereby improve the lives of sufferers and potentially protect others from developing this devastating disorder. PMID:26493420

  18. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Presenting for Cosmetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Altintas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is an obsessive-compulsive related psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation about an imagined or slight defect in appearance. Preoccupation of the appearance with the skin, hair and nose are most common. Impairment of the quality of life, comorbidity of the psychiatric and personality disorder are related with body dysmorphic disorder. Nowadays, cosmetic procedure has become increasingly popular especially among women. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among patients seeking cosmetic treatment in surgery or dermatology clinics is higher than general population. As postoperatively some patients dissatisfied with the surgery, dermatologists and surgeons should be informed about body dysmorphic disorder. This aim of this review was to assess prevalance, clinical features, motivational factors of patients with body dysmorphic disorder presenting for cosmetic medical treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 324-338

  19. Intolerance of uncertainty in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Berta J; Matheny, Natalie L; Sarawgi, Shivali; Cougle, Jesse R

    2016-03-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) is a transdiagnostic construct associated with several anxiety and related disorders. Three studies were conducted to explore the potential relationship between IU and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Study 1 revealed a positive relationship between IU and BDD symptoms above symptoms of anxiety and depression in an unselected student sample (N=88). Study 2 demonstrated a similar relationship between IU and BDD symptoms above negative affectivity and intolerance of ambiguity in a community sample (N=116). Study 3 found that a clinical BDD sample (N=23) reported greater IU than healthy controls (N=20), though this relationship was accounted for by symptoms of anxiety and depression. Greater IU predicted functional impairment in the clinical sample above BDD symptoms and past-week anxiety and depression. The observed relationship between IU and BDD symptoms provides preliminary support for the relevance of IU to this population. PMID:26688272

  20. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W;

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological...

  1. Cognitive-Behavioral Body Image Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, James C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Randomly assigned 54 body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) subjects to cognitive behavior therapy or no treatment. BDD symptoms were significantly decreased in therapy subjects and the disorder was eliminated in 82 percent of cases at posttreatment and 77 percent at follow-up. Subjects' overall psychological symptoms and self-esteem also improved. (RJM)

  2. Body dysmorphic disorder in Iranian orthodontic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Yassaei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Patient's preoccupations with perceived defect in appearance or excessive concern about minimal flaws are among diagnostic criteria of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. Sufferers usually seek cosmetic procedures such as orthodontic treatment. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of BDD among a sample of Iranian orthodontic patients. A total of 270 orthodontic patients were evaluated with BDD-YBOCS questionnaire for the diagnosis of BDD. Fifteen patients (5.5% were screened positive for BDD. BDD was more frequent among females, singles and in younger patients. Most of the BDD patients experienced multiple previous orthodontic evaluations. The relative high prevalence of BDD among orthodontic patients in Iran offers that orthodontists should take psychologically based problems such as BDD into account while evaluating patient's orthodontic problems.

  3. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Presenting for Cosmetic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ebru Altintas

    2015-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is an obsessive-compulsive related psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation about an imagined or slight defect in appearance. Preoccupation of the appearance with the skin, hair and nose are most common. Impairment of the quality of life, comorbidity of the psychiatric and personality disorder are related with body dysmorphic disorder. Nowadays, cosmetic procedure has become increasingly popular especially among women. The prevalence of body dysm...

  4. Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Presentingfor Cosmetic Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Altıntaş, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is an obsessive-compulsive related psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation about an imagined or slight defect in appearance. Preoccupation of the appearance with the skin, hair and nose are most common. Impairment of the quality of life, comorbidity of the psychiatric and personality disorder are related with body dysmorphic disorder. Nowadays, cosmetic procedure has become increasingly popular especially among women. The prevalence of body dysmo...

  5. Relationship between Social Anxiety Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Angela; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are two separate, but conceptually overlapping nosological entities. In this review, we examine similarities between SAD and BDD in comorbidity, phenomenology, cognitive biases, treatment outcome, and cross-cultural aspects. Our review suggests that SAD and BDD are highly comorbid, show a similar age of onset, share a chronic trajectory, and show similar cognitive biases for interpreting ambiguous social information in a negativ...

  6. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Easing the Distress of Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Cynthia M.

    People who suffer from body dysmorphic disorder believe that their body is defected and that this defect makes them ugly. Their distorted body image can be precipitated by many internal and external factors and as a result of their imagined defect, these normal-appearing individuals exhibit self-defeating behaviors. The disorder can lead to the…

  7. Body dysmorphic disorder, dysmorphophobia or delusional disorder—somatic subtype?

    OpenAIRE

    Aravind, V. K.; Krishnaram, V. D.

    2006-01-01

    Excessive concern about the appearance of one's body is the hallmark of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). A case with recurrent intrusive preoccupation and concern about the appearance of the face, ritualistic behaviours associated with this preoccupation, resulting in social and interpersonal difficulties is presented. The difficulty to draw a discrete boundary between BDD and a delusional disorder of somatic type is highlighted.

  8. Childhood Abuse and Neglect in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Tortolani, Christina C.; Pope, Courtney G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: No published studies have examined childhood abuse and neglect in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This study examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of abuse and neglect in individuals with this disorder. Methods: Seventy-five subjects (69.3% female, mean age = 35.4 +/- 12.0) with DSM-IV BDD completed the Childhood Trauma…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Markowitz, Sarah; Petronko, Michael R.; Taylor, Caitlin E.; Wilhelm, Sabine; Wilson, G. Terence

    2010-01-01

    The onset of appearance-related concerns associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) typically occurs in adolescence, and these concerns are often severe enough to interfere with normal development and psychosocial functioning. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for adults with BDD. However, no treatment studies…

  10. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings…

  11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Neurobiological Features and an Updated Model

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Wei; Arienzo, Donatello; Feusner, Jamie D

    2013-01-01

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) affects approximately 2% of the population and involves misperceived defects of appearance along with obsessive preoccupation and compulsive behaviors. There is evidence of neurobiological abnormalities associated with symptoms in BDD, although research to date is still limited. This review covers the latest neuropsychological, genetic, neurochemical, psychophysical, and neuroimaging studies and synthesizes these findings into an updated (yet still preliminary) ...

  12. A Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment Approach for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Buhlmann, Ulrike; Hayward, Laura C.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Dimaite, Ruta

    2010-01-01

    Although body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been described in the literature for more than a century, there has been only a limited focus on the development of cognitive behavioral treatments for BDD. Our case report provides a detailed description of a course of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for an individual with BDD. The patient was…

  13. Body dysmorphic disorder: Borderline category between neurosis and psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, K.; Ponnudurai, R.; O S Ravindran

    2014-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is an under-recognized chronic problem that has been established as an independent diagnostic entity. Its clinical features, comorbidity, course, and prognosis have been studied in detail. But, the issue of its psychotic and non-psychotic variants and the question of dimensional or categorical method of classifying this disorder still pose a diagnostic dilemma. This case report tries to highlight this issue.

  14. Body dysmorphic disorder: Borderline category between neurosis and psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Raman, K.

    2013-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is an under-recognised chronic problem, which is established as independent diagnostic entity. Its clinical features, co-morbidity, course, and prognosis have been studied in detail. But the issue of its psychotic and non-psychotic variants and the question of dimensional or categorical method of classifying this disorder still poses a diagnostic dilemma. This case report tries to highlight on this issue.

  15. Predictors of Remission From Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Pagano, Maria E.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Stout, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    In the first naturalistic, prospective study of the course of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we examined predictors of remission in 161 subjects over 1 year of follow-up. Data were obtained on clinical characteristics at the intake interview and weekly BDD symptom severity over 1 year using the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation. More severe BDD at intake, longer BDD duration, and the presence of a comorbid personality disorder predicted a lower likelihood of partial or full remissio...

  16. [Body dysmorphic disorder and aesthetic surgery: A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfant, N; Henry, A-S; Ta, P; Trimaille, A; Philandrianos, C; Hu, W

    2015-12-01

    Patients suffering from body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are preoccupied with an imagined or minor defect in appearance that causes significant distress and impairment in social and occupational functioning. Despite a rate of up to 15% of BDD patients reported in cosmetic surgery settings, there is no consensus on the best management for these patients. The main purpose of this article was to conduct a literature review on BDD and cosmetic surgery. Properly trained healthcare professionals in recognizing and diagnosing this pathology is essential for the delivery of quality psychiatric care while taking into account the high prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder patients in cosmetic surgery and the poor outcome of these patients following cosmetic procedures. PMID:26184610

  17. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Fiori; Luigi Maria Giannetti

    2009-01-01

    Patrizia Fiori1,2, Luigi Maria Giannetti1,31II University of Naples, 2Neurologist, 3Director of Infantile Neuropsychiatry, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, ASL AV, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3La Crisalide, Aesthetical Medical Center, Naples, ItalyBackground: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular...

  18. Cortical thickness and brain volumetric analysis in body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, SK; Zai, A; Pirnia, T.; Arienzo, D.; Zhan, L.; Moody, TD; Thompson, PM; Feusner, JD

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) suffer from preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance, causing severe distress and disability. Although BDD affects 1-2% of the population, the neurobiology is not understood. Discrepant results in previous volumetric studies may be due to small sample sizes, and no study has investigated cortical thickness in BDD. The current study is the largest neuroimaging analysis of BDD. Participants included...

  19. Modular Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Phillips, Katharine A.; Fama, Jeanne M.; Greenberg, Jennifer L.; Steketee, Gail

    2011-01-01

    This study pilot tested a newly developed modular cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) treatment manual for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 12 adults with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 18 or 22 weeks. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report measures were used to assess BDD and related symptoms pre- and posttreatment and at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. At posttreatment, BDD a...

  20. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W; Odlaug, Brian L

    2015-09-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological studies, 16 (29.1%) had co-occurring BDD. SPD participants with and without BDD were compared to each other and to 40 healthy volunteers on measures of symptom severity, social functioning, and cognitive assessments using the Stop-signal task (assessing response impulsivity) and the Intra-dimensional/Extra-dimensional Set Shift task (assessing cognitive flexibility). Individuals with SPD and BDD exhibited significantly worse picking, significantly worse overall psychosocial functioning, and significantly greater dysfunction on aspects of cognitive flexibility. These results indicate that when SPD co-occurs with BDD unique clinical and cognitive aspects of SPD may be more pronounced. Future work should explore possible subgroups in SPD and whether these predict different treatment outcomes. PMID:26070103

  1. Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that provides significant improvements to the people with positive changes. But first of all, this branch has a characteristic which requires analysing patients' psychological situation very carefully. Plastic surgeons are often confronted by patients with mental disorders seeking aesthetic surgery. It is imperative for surgeons to recognize possible underlying psychiatric illnesses. Common psychiatric conditions seen in cosmetic surgery patients include body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, narcissistic personality disorder and histrionic personality disorders. BDD is of particular importance to plastic surgeons. Because outrageous dissatisfaction with one's appearance may conceal psychopathologic traits that are not always easily recognizable, and which, if neglected, may result in serious iatrogenic and medicolegal consequences, we hope that this paper will help plastic surgeons in ultimately preventing patient and surgeon dissatisfaction within the population of patients with psychiatric disorders, and should recognize the diagnostic features of body dysmorphic disorder and screen psychologically unstable patients who may never be satisfied with surgery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(2.000: 109-115

  2. Body Dysmorphic Disorder%惧畸障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永乐; 郑涌

    2004-01-01

    惧畸障碍(Body Dysmorphic Disorder)也被译为变形障碍.根据其症状表现,同时参照[1]对Dysmorphosis一词的翻译,惧畸障碍这一名称更能反映出这种精神障碍的症状表现.本文将着重介绍目前国内外关于惧畸障碍症状、分类鉴别方面的研究情况.

  3. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptoms and Associated Clinical Features among Australian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Dianna

    2007-01-01

    The current study addressed the frequency of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms among university students and investigated the predictors of dysmorphic concern. Six hundred and nineteen Australian university students completed measures assessing BDD, dysmorphic concern, self-esteem, depression, life satisfaction, self-oriented and socially…

  4. [An old "new" disease: body dysmorphic disorder (dysmorphophobia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Pál

    2010-10-31

    Body dysmorphic disorder causes significant suffering and serious impairment in psychosocial functions. However, this disease with dangerous risks is scarcely mentioned in the Hungarian medical literature. The objective of the author is to give a detailed review about this almost unknown, but relatively common disorder. The serious disorder of body perception is in the centre of symptoms, leading to social isolation, anxiety, depression and obsessive-compulsive phenomena. The disorder often remains unrecognized because of the lack of insight of disease. Comorbidity with affective disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, alcoholism and substance use disorders is common. The life quality of affected patients is bad, the risk of suicide or violence is high. Biological, psychological and sociocultural factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of the disorder. Imaging techniques and neuropsychological measures revealed changes characteristic for the disease. Childhood abuse and neglect, appearance-related critical remarks, stressors and the impact of media are also supposed to have role in the development of the disorder. The point prevalence is 0.7-2.5% in the general population, however, in special groups such as in tertiary students, psychiatric, dermatological and cosmetic surgery patients the prevalence rates may be much higher. Typically, the disease begins in early adolescence, and it persists and deteriorates without treatment, showing a chronic course. By means of pharmacotherapy and/or psychotherapy long-during improvement or full recovery can be achieved within a relatively short period of time. PMID:20961842

  5. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Esnaashari

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.

  6. Discrimination of facial appearance stimuli in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangier, Ulrich; Adam-Schwebe, Stefanie; Müller, Thomas; Wolter, Manfred

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) propose that information-processing biases--in particular, selective attention to a defect in one's appearance as well as improved aesthetical perception--might contribute to the development or maintenance of the disorder. In the present study, the authors tested the hypothesis that patients with BDD discriminate facial appearance stimuli more accurately than controls. Sixty female patients from a dermatological clinic participated in the study: 21 patients with BDD, 19 patients with disfiguring dermatological conditions, and 20 patients with nondisfiguring dermatological disorders. Participants rated dissimilarities between pictures of neutral faces that had been manipulated with regard to aesthetic characteristics. Manipulation ratings of participants with BDD were significantly more accurate than those of both control groups. Implications of these results for cognitive theories of BDD are discussed.

  7. Appearance comparison in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Martin; Veale, David; Miles, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Research investigating appearance comparison in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) remains very limited, despite the fact that this is one of the most commonly observed behaviors in individuals with the disorder. The present study investigated the self-reported extent and nature of appearance comparison in 35 BDD participants relative to 45 controls using a newly devised and a standardized appearance comparison measure. The results showed that BDD participants reported significantly higher levels of appearance comparison than controls. Individuals with BDD also reported greater levels of comparing in terms of the specific feature(s) of their appearance they were most concerned about as compared to overall appearance, whilst controls showed the opposite pattern. Levels of comparing in BDD participants increased as targets increased in terms of attractiveness, and individuals with BDD rated themselves as being markedly less attractive than targets, and feeling markedly less satisfied with their appearance after comparing. Cognitive-behavioral treatment implications are discussed. PMID:26379252

  8. Body dysmorphic disorder: some key issues for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Wilhelm, Sabine; Koran, Lorrin M; Didie, Elizabeth R; Fallon, Brian A; Feusner, Jamie; Stein, Dan J

    2010-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, has been described for more than a century and increasingly studied over the past several decades. This article provides a focused review of issues pertaining to BDD that are relevant to DSM-V. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Criterion A may benefit from some rewording, without changing its focus or meaning; (2) There are both advantages and disadvantages to adding a new criterion to reflect compulsive BDD behaviors; this possible addition requires further consideration; (3) A clinical significance criterion seems necessary for BDD to differentiate it from normal appearance concerns; (4) BDD and eating disorders have some overlapping features and need to be differentiated; some minor changes to DSM-IV's criterion C are suggested; (5) BDD should not be broadened to include body integrity identity disorder (apotemnophilia) or olfactory reference syndrome; (6) There is no compelling evidence for including diagnostic features or subtypes that are specific to gender-related, age-related, or cultural manifestations of BDD; (7) Adding muscle dysmorphia as a specifier may have clinical utility; and (8) The ICD-10 criteria for hypochondriacal disorder are not suitable for BDD, and there is no empirical evidence that BDD and hypochondriasis are the same disorder. The issue of how BDD's delusional variant should be classified in DSM-V is briefly discussed and will be addressed more extensively in a separate article.

  9. A Review of Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Its Presentation in Different Clinical Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Mufaddel, Amir; Osman, Ossama T.; Almugaddam, Fadwa; Jafferany, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common psychiatric disorder characterized by preoccupations with perceived defects in physical appearance. This review aimed to explore epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidities, and treatment options for BDD in different clinical settings.

  10. Body dysmorphic disorder and olfactory reference disorder: proposals for ICD-11

    OpenAIRE

    David Veale; Hisato Matsunaga

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews the historical background and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and olfactory reference disorder, and describes the proposals of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders related to these categories. This paper examines the possible classification of BDD symptoms in ICD-10. Four different possible diagnoses are found (hypochondriacal disorder, schizotypal disorder, delusional disorder, or other persistent delu...

  11. Body dysmorphic disorder: some key issues for DSM-V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katharine A; Wilhelm, Sabine; Koran, Lorrin M; Didie, Elizabeth R; Fallon, Brian A; Feusner, Jamie; Stein, Dan J

    2010-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), a distressing or impairing preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect in appearance, has been described for more than a century and increasingly studied over the past several decades. This article provides a focused review of issues pertaining to BDD that are relevant to DSM-V. The review presents a number of options and preliminary recommendations to be considered for DSM-V: (1) Criterion A may benefit from some rewording, without changing its focus or meaning; (2) There are both advantages and disadvantages to adding a new criterion to reflect compulsive BDD behaviors; this possible addition requires further consideration; (3) A clinical significance criterion seems necessary for BDD to differentiate it from normal appearance concerns; (4) BDD and eating disorders have some overlapping features and need to be differentiated; some minor changes to DSM-IV's criterion C are suggested; (5) BDD should not be broadened to include body integrity identity disorder (apotemnophilia) or olfactory reference syndrome; (6) There is no compelling evidence for including diagnostic features or subtypes that are specific to gender-related, age-related, or cultural manifestations of BDD; (7) Adding muscle dysmorphia as a specifier may have clinical utility; and (8) The ICD-10 criteria for hypochondriacal disorder are not suitable for BDD, and there is no empirical evidence that BDD and hypochondriasis are the same disorder. The issue of how BDD's delusional variant should be classified in DSM-V is briefly discussed and will be addressed more extensively in a separate article. PMID:20533368

  12. Body dysmorphic disorder: A complex and polymorphic affection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fiori

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Patrizia Fiori1,2, Luigi Maria Giannetti1,31II University of Naples, 2Neurologist, 3Director of Infantile Neuropsychiatry, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, ASL AV, II University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 3La Crisalide, Aesthetical Medical Center, Naples, ItalyBackground: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is defined as a syndrome characterized by an excessive preoccupation because of a presumed or minimal physical flaw in appearance that polarizes the energies of the subject. So far, its specular aspect, represented by the presence of an evident physical defect that is not recognized or is even denied and neglected, has been disregarded. The aim of our study was to examine the individual and relational meaning of BDD and to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and medical–aesthetical treatments.Methods and results: We describe two subjects with BDD, diagnosed by clinical interviews and test. Both patients were compliant to cognitive-behavioral approach. One out of two subjects underwent aesthetical treatments.Conclusions: Cognitive-behavioral therapy stimulates self-consciousness, rebuilds the body image, promotes health care, and improves relational capacity. Moreover, it ensures the success of any medical and/or surgical procedures by preventing unrealistic expectations. Lastly, it contributes to the definition of worldwide shared behavioral models.Keywords: diagnostic criteria, body image, cognition, aesthetical treatments

  13. The role of aesthetic sensitivity in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrou, Christina; Veale, David; Wilson, Glenn

    2011-05-01

    Individuals with a higher aesthetic sensitivity may be more vulnerable to developing body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). Aesthetic sensitivity has 3 components: (a) perceptual, (b) emotional, and (c) evaluative. Individuals with BDD (n = 50) were compared with a control group of individuals with an education or employment in art and design related fields (n = 50) and a control group of individuals without aesthetic training (n = 50). A facial photograph of each participant was manipulated to create a 9-image symmetry continuum. Presented with the continuum on a computer, participants were required to select and rate the image representing their self-actual, self-ideal, idea of perfect, most physically attractive, most pleasure, and most disgust. Control symmetry continua examined the specificity of the disturbance. As predicted, BDD participants displayed no distortion in their perceptual processing but were disturbed in their negative emotional/evaluative processing of their self-image. A significant discrepancy between their self-actual and self-ideal, resulting from an absent self-serving bias in their self-actual (a bias exhibited by controls) appears to be the source of their disturbance. They also overvalued the importance of appearance and self-objectified. These aesthetic evaluations may predispose individuals to BDD and/or maintain the disorder.

  14. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

    OpenAIRE

    N Esnaashari; AR Bakhshayesh; AR Afshani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737) in 2012-2013, among which 371 students wer...

  15. Demographic Characteristics, Phenomenology, Comorbidity, and Family History in 200 Individuals With Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; WEISBERG, RISA

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined characteristics of body dysmorphic disorder in the largest sample for which a wide range of clinical features has been reported. The authors also compared psychiatrically treated and untreated subjects. Body dysmorphic disorder usually began during adolescence, involved numerous body areas and behaviors, and was characterized by poor insight, high comorbidity rates, and high rates of functional impairment, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. There were far more simil...

  16. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Female Adolescents of Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Esnaashari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Body dysmorphic disorder is one of the common disorders in which adolescents give excessive attention to their appearances. In fact, it may causes disruptions in adolescents' individual and social life. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in female adolescents of Yazd. Method: In this cross-sectional study, the population consisted of all high school female students of Yazd (N= 10737 in 2012-2013, among which 371 students were selected as the study sample by using Cochran formula and cluster sampling method. Moreover, the participants completed a series of demographic questions as well as the questionnaire of Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale-Body Dysmorphic Disorder (Y-BOCS-BDD. Results: The findings revealed that 41% of sample were reported to have unusual concern about appearance and body shape in range of low to very severe. As a matter of fact, most of them experienced moderate severity and 7.1% showed severe body dysmorphic disorder that required immediate psychological intervention. The prevalence in female adolescents was estimated as 7.1% and most prevalent age of suffering was 17. Conclusion: In this research, it was endeavored to provide a more realistic image of body dysmorphic disorder in Yazd adolescents by utilizing a precise methodology. Considering the high prevalence of this disorder in female adolescents and its adverse consequences, some programs are recommended to be applied for diagnosis and early treatment of body dysmorphic disorder to promote adolescents mental health.

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder by Proxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a distressing or impairing preoccupation with a perceived defect in physical appearance. BDD by proxy (BDDBP) is a significant but understudied variant of BDD in which the primary preoccupation involves perceived imperfections of another person. Like BDD, individuals with BDDBP engage in time-consuming rituals to "fix" the other person's appearance or alleviate distress. Avoidance is common and the impact of BDDBP on social functioning is profound. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best-studied and most promising psychological treatment for BDD, but no studies have examined its generalizability to the BDDBP variant. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome of CBT modified for BDDBP in a sample of 6 adults with primary BDDBP. Treatment was delivered in weekly individual sessions over 12-20weeks. Mean symptom severity (BDDBP-YBOCS) dropped from the moderately severe range at pretreatment to the subclinical range at posttreatment, t(6)=10.7, p<.001, d=3.3. One hundred percent of treatment completers were responders (≥30% reduction in BDDBP-YBOCS). Insight also improved. Treatment gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. To our knowledge, this represents the first treatment study for BDDBP. PMID:27423167

  18. Therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: single blind randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Enander, Jesper; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Lichtenstein, Linn; Alstroem, Katarina; Andersson, Gerhard; Ljotsson, Brjann; Rueck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of therapist guided internet based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET) compared with online supportive therapy. Design A 12 week single blind parallel group randomised controlled trial. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 94 self referred adult outpatients with a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder and a modified Yale-Brown obsessive compulsive scale (BDD-YBOCS) score of ≥20. Concurrent psychotrop...

  19. Case Conceptualization and Treatment of Comorbid Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Bulimia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didie, Elizabeth R.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders often co-occur and share some clinical features. In addition, the co-occurrence of BDD and an eating disorder may be associated with greater impairment in functioning. Furthermore, clinical impressions suggest that this comorbidity may be more treatment resistant than either disorder alone. The…

  20. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Frías Á; Palma C; Farriols N; González L

    2015-01-01

    Álvaro Frías,1,2 Carol Palma,1,2 Núria Farriols,1,2 Laura González2 1FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, 2Adult Outpatient Mental Health Center, Hospital de Mataró – CSdM, Mataró, Spain Background: With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorde...

  1. Anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: A comparison of body image concerns and explicit and implicit attractiveness beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A S; Thomas, J J; Greenberg, J L; Elliott, C M; Matheny, N L; Wilhelm, S

    2015-06-01

    Although body image is central to the etiological models of anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder, studies comparing body image and beliefs about attractiveness between the disorders are rare. Sixty-nine individuals (anorexia nervosa: n=24, body dysmorphic disorder: n=23, healthy controls: n=22) completed self-report measures (body image and general psychopathology), diagnostic interviews, and Go/No-Go Association tasks measuring implicit associations. Compared to controls, both clinical groups exhibited greater negative body image, a more negative attitude toward their physical selves, and more dysfunctional coping strategies (psattractiveness (psattractive to be successful") might be a fruitful target for therapy across both disorders. PMID:25920044

  2. PHYSICAL THERAPY AS A SUPPORT FOR PSYCHOTHERAPY IN TREATING BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER (BDD - CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mârza-Dănilă Doina

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (or dysmorphophobia includes antidepressant medication, cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy, psychoanalytical psychotherapy, hypnosis and others [2].Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was used for a patient with Body Dysmorphic Disorder, without any remarkable results, because even if the patient could bring himself to imagine the anxiogenic scenes, he could not manage to confront his fears. The psychotherapist called upon the services of physical therapy and over the course of three months, the patient's phobia regressed almost completely from his daily life. In conclusion, physical therapy can be considered, in Body Dysmorphic Disorder cases that are hard to manage through behavioral and cognitive therapies, as a support for psychotherapy.

  3. Visual processing in anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder: similarities, differences, and future research directions

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Sarah K.; Bohon, Cara; Feusner, Jamie D.

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) are psychiatric disorders that involve distortion of the experience of one’s physical appearance. In AN, individuals believe that they are overweight, perceive their body as “fat,” and are preoccupied with maintaining a low body weight. In BDD, individuals are preoccupied with misperceived defects in physical appearance, most often of the face. Distorted visual perception may contribute to these cardinal symptoms, and may be a common un...

  4. The Relationship between Body Dysmorphic Disorder Behaviors and the Acquired Capability for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Tracy K.; Didie, Elizabeth R.; Menard, William; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2012-01-01

    In a sample of 200 individuals diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we utilized the interpersonal-psychological theory for suicide as a framework to examine BDD behaviors that might be associated with suicide risk, insofar as they might increase the acquired capability for suicide. We predicted that physically painful BDD behaviors…

  5. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prazeres AM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.Keywords: dysmorphophobia, behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy, literature review

  6. Clinical Application of a Behavioral Model for the Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Dena; Neziroglu, Fugen; Roberts, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by an obsessive concern over a perceived flaw in bodily appearance. If a minor flaw does exist, the patient displays unwarranted distress. This preoccupation typically leads to compulsive behaviors, such as mirror checking or mirror avoiding, camouflaging, and seeking reassurance from others…

  7. Comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder: prevalence, explanatory theories, and clinical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frías Á

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Álvaro Frías,1,2 Carol Palma,1,2 Núria Farriols,1,2 Laura González2 1FPCEE Blanquerna, Universitat Ramon Llull, Barcelona, 2Adult Outpatient Mental Health Center, Hospital de Mataró – CSdM, Mataró, Spain Background: With the advent of the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, body dysmorphic disorder (BDD has been subsumed into the obsessive-compulsive disorders and related disorders (OCDRD category. Objective: We aimed to determine the empirical evidence regarding the potential relationship between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD based on the prevalence data, etiopathogenic pathways, and clinical characterization of patients with both disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of databases (PubMed and PsycINFO was performed. Published manuscripts between 1985 and May 2015 were identified. Overall, 53 studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Results: Lifetime comorbidity rates of BDD–OCD are almost three times higher in samples with a primary diagnosis of BDD than those with primary OCD (27.5% vs 10.4%. However, other mental disorders, such as social phobia or major mood depression, are more likely among both types of psychiatric samples. Empirical evidence regarding the etiopathogenic pathways for BDD–OCD comorbidity is still inconclusive, whether concerning common shared features or one disorder as a risk factor for the other. Specifically, current findings concerning third variables show more divergences than similarities when comparing both disorders. Preliminary data on the clinical characterization of the patients with BDD and OCD indicate that the deleterious clinical impact of BDD in OCD patients is greater than vice versa. Conclusion: Despite the recent inclusion of BDD within the OCDRD, data from comparative studies between BDD and OCD need further evidence for supporting this nosological approach. To better define this issue, comparative studies between BDD, OCD, and social phobia

  8. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Gender differences and prevalence in a Pakistani medical student population

    OpenAIRE

    Vaqar Talha; Satti Minahil; Tayyeb Syed M; Khan Asmatullah; Shahid Fatima; Gowani Saqib A; Shaikh Mehrine; Taqui Ather M; Shahid Saman; Shamsi Afreen; Ganatra Hammad A; Naqvi Haider A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of co...

  9. Validation of the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire in a community sample of Swedish women

    OpenAIRE

    Brohede, Sabina; Wingren, Gun; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is characterized by a distressing and impairing preoccupation with a nonexistent or slight defect in appearance. Patients with the disorder present to both psychiatric and non-psychiatric physicians. A few studies have assessed BDD prevalence in the general population and have shown that the disorder is relatively common. To date, no BDD assessment instruments have been validated in the general population. Our aim was to validate a brief self-screening instrumen...

  10. Potential link between body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and alexithymia in an eating-disordered treatment-seeking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Andrea Siân; Sullivan, Karen Anne

    2011-09-30

    This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eating behaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight related body image. Significant moderate positive correlations (Pearson's r) between selected variables were found, suggesting that participants with high levels of dysmorphic concern (imagined ugliness) have more difficulty with the affective elements of alexithymia, that is, identifying and describing feelings. When depression, eating attitudes, and weight-related body image concerns were controlled for, significant moderate positive correlations between this alexithymia factor and dysmorphic concerns remained present. An independent-samples t-test between eating-disordered participants with and without symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) revealed significant group differences in difficulties identifying feelings. This pattern of results was replicated when the groups were identified on the basis of dysmorphic concerns, as opposed to BDD symptoms. This study highlights the associations between alexithymia and body dysmorphia that have not previously been demonstrated. PMID:21803428

  11. Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Other Clinically Significant Body Image Concerns in Adolescent Psychiatric Inpatients: Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Jennifer; Kittler, Jennifer; Phillips, Katharine A.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study assessed prevalence and clinical correlates of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), eating disorders (ED), and other clinically significant body image concerns in 208 consecutively admitted adolescent inpatients. It was hypothesized that adolescents with BDD would have higher levels of depression, anxiety, and suicidality.…

  12. Body dysmorphic disorder and olfactory reference disorder: proposals for ICD-11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Veale

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the historical background and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD and olfactory reference disorder, and describes the proposals of the WHO ICD-11 Working Group on the Classification of Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders related to these categories. This paper examines the possible classification of BDD symptoms in ICD-10. Four different possible diagnoses are found (hypochondriacal disorder, schizotypal disorder, delusional disorder, or other persistent delusional disorder. This has led to significant confusion and lack of clear identification in ICD-10. Olfactory reference disorder can also be classified as a delusional disorder in ICD-10, but there is no diagnosis for non-delusional cases. The Working Group reviewed the classification and diagnostic criteria of BDD in DSM-5, as well as cultural variations of BDD and olfactory reference disorder that include Taijin Kyofusho. The Working Group has proposed the inclusion of both BDD and olfactory reference disorder in ICD-11, and has provided diagnostic guidelines and guidance on differential diagnosis. The Working Group's proposals for ICD-11 related to BDD and olfactory reference disorder are consistent with available global evidence and current understanding of common mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and resolve considerable confusion inherent in ICD-10. The proposals explicitly recognize cultural factors. They are intended to improve clinical utility related to appropriate identification, treatment, and resource allocation related to these disorders.

  13. Functional connectivity for face processing in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder and anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Moody, TD; Sasaki, MA; Bohon, C; Strober, MA; Bookheimer, SY; Sheen, CL; Feusner, JD

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and anorexia nervosa (AN) are both characterized by distorted perception of appearance. Previous studies in BDD suggest abnormalities in visual processing of own and others’ faces, but no study has examined visual processing of faces in AN, nor directly compared the two disorders in this respect. Method: We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data on 60 individuals of equivalent age and gender i...

  14. An open-label study of escitalopram in body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Katharine A.

    2006-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and impairing disorder. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) appear selectively efficacious for BDD, but pharmacotherapy research is limited, and escitalopram has not been studied. Fifteen subjects with BDD were treated with escitalopram and assessed with reliable and valid measures. BDD symptoms significantly improved (P < 0.001), and 73.3% (n = 11) of subjects were responders. Of the subjects, 46.7% were very much improved, and...

  15. Development of a Cosmetic Procedure Screening Questionnaire (COPS) for Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Ellison, N.; Werner, T. G.; Dodhia, R.; Serfaty, M. A.; Clarke, A.

    2012-01-01

    Guidelines recommend screening patients for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) prior to cosmetic surgery to identify those who may require further psychological assessment1 but there are few validated instruments available. The aim of the current study was therefore to develop a screening questionnaire that (a) was brief, free to download and could identify people with BDD, (b) might predict either dissatisfaction with a cosmetic procedure or no change or deterioration in symptoms of BDD, and (c)...

  16. Spontaneously occurring images and early memories in people with body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, Selen; Cooper, Myra; Hackmann, Ann; Veale, David

    2004-01-01

    A semi-structured interview assessing the presence and characteristics of spontaneous appearance-related images was designed and administered. A total of 18 patients with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and 18 normal controls took part. The BDD patients were found to have spontaneously occurring appearance-related images that were significantly more negative, recurrent, and viewed from an observer perspective than control participants. These images were more vivid and detailed and typically in...

  17. Perceptual and cognitive biases in individuals with body dysmorphic disorder symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2008-01-01

    Given the extreme focus on perceived physical defects in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), we expected that perceptual and cognitive biases related to physical appearance would be associated with BDD symptomology. To examine these hypotheses, participants (N = 70) high and low in BDD symptoms completed tasks assessing visual perception and cognition. As expected, there were significant group differences in self-, but not other-, relevant cognitive biases. Perceptual bias results were mixed, wit...

  18. Efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy versus anxiety management for body dysmorphic disorder: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, D; Anson, M; Miles, S; Pieta, M.; Costa, A.; Ellison, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The evidence base for the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for treating body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is weak. Aims: To determine whether CBT is more effective than anxiety management (AM) in an outpatient setting. Method: This was a single-blind stratified parallelgroup randomised controlled trial. The primary endpoint was at 12 weeks, and the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD (BDD-YBOCS) was the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures for BDD includ...

  19. Patient Selection in Plastic Surgery: Recognizing Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Cihan Sahin; Onat Yilmaz; Yalcin Bayram; Huseyin Karagoz; Celalettin Sever; Yalcin Kulahci; Alpay Ates

    2013-01-01

    Plastic surgery is a branch of medicine that provides significant improvements to the people with positive changes. But first of all, this branch has a characteristic which requires analysing patients' psychological situation very carefully. Plastic surgeons are often confronted by patients with mental disorders seeking aesthetic surgery. It is imperative for surgeons to recognize possible underlying psychiatric illnesses. Common psychiatric conditions seen in cosmetic surgery patients includ...

  20. Interoceptive Awareness and Self-Objectification in Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The cognitive model of BDD (Veale, 2004) proposes high levels of self-objectification (viewing and treating oneself as an object) as an important maintaining factor; however, to date this construct has not been empirically measured in this population. In addition, recent models of the self (Damasio, 2010) point towards the central role of interoceptive awareness (IA; the ability to identify bodily signals) in developing a sense of self. Low levels of IA have been associated to body dissatisfa...

  1. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    OpenAIRE

    Challop, Roger S.; Rashid A. Fawwaz; DeLaPaz, Robert L.; W. Louis Cleveland

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A -hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune gl...

  2. Metakognitiv terapi (MCT) for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) : En kasusserie av fire pasienter

    OpenAIRE

    Espenes, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    Hensikten med denne kasusstudien var å undersøke hvorvidt metakognitiv terapi (MCT) ville ha en effekt på symptomer for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). BDD defineres som en overopptatthet av en innbilt eller reell fysisk defekt, som studier viser kan ramme opp mot 2.4% av populasjonen og gir signifikante begrensinger på pasientens livskvalitet. Utvalget bestod av fire pasienter fra Spesialpost 4 for Tvangslidelser ved Østmarka, St. Olavs Hospital, som gjennomgikk et tre-ukers behandlingsprogr...

  3. Clinical features of muscle dysmorphia among males with body dysmorphic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Courtney G.; Pope, Harrison G.; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Olivardia, Roberto; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2005-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia – a pathological preoccupation with muscularity – appears to be a form of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) with a focus on muscularity. However, little is known about muscle dysmorphia in men with BDD, and no study has compared men with BDD who do and do not report muscle dysmorphia. To explore this issue, we reviewed the histories of 63 men with BDD; we compared those rated as having a history of muscle dysmorphia with those who had BDD but not muscle dysmorphia in several do...

  4. Clinical features of muscle dysmorphia among males with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Courtney G; Pope, Harrison G; Menard, William; Fay, Christina; Olivardia, Roberto; Phillips, Katharine A

    2005-12-01

    Muscle dysmorphia - a pathological preoccupation with muscularity - appears to be a form of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) with a focus on muscularity. However, little is known about muscle dysmorphia in men with BDD, and no study has compared men with BDD who do and do not report muscle dysmorphia. To explore this issue, we reviewed the histories of 63 men with BDD; we compared those rated as having a history of muscle dysmorphia with those who had BDD but not muscle dysmorphia in several domains. The 14 men with muscle dysmorphia resembled the 49 comparison men in demographic features, BDD severity, delusionality, and number of non-muscle-related body parts of concern. However, those with muscle dysmorphia were more likely to have attempted suicide, had poorer quality of life, and had a higher frequency of any substance use disorder and anabolic steroid abuse. Thus, muscle dysmorphia was associated with greater psychopathology. PMID:17075613

  5. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients referred to Razi hospital cosmetic clinic with complaints of cosmetic disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Amirhooshang Ehsani; Yousef Fakour; Fatemeh Gholamali; Leila Mokhtari; Mahbobeh Sadat Hosseini; Najmeh Khosrovanmehr; Pedram Noormohammadpour

    2013-01-01

    Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined defect in ones appearance or an exaggeration of a slight physical anomaly. Any part of the appearance may be the focuse of BDD patients. Thus preoccupation with appearance leads to significant damages of social and job functioning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BDD in patients referred to cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Methods: Patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi h...

  6. [Body dysmorphic disorder: clinical aspects, nosological dimensions and controversies with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Rosa; Arancibia, Marcelo; Heitzer, Cristóbal; Meza, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    There is strong evidence about the co-existence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and eating disorders (ED), particularly with anorexia nervosa (AN). An exhaustive review of the specialised literature regarding these disorders was carried out. The results show that their co-occurrence implies a more complex diagnosis and treatment, a more severe clinical symptomatology and a worse prognosis and outcome. Both disorders display common similarities, differences and comorbidities, which allow authors to classify them in different nosological spectra (somatomorphic, anxious, obsessive-compulsive, affective and psychotic). Their crossover involves higher levels of body dissatisfaction and body image distortion, depression, suicidal tendency, personality disorders, substance use/abuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, alexithymia and childhood abuse or neglect background. Treatment including cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and selective reuptake serotonin inhibitors are effective for both, BDD and ED; nevertheless, plastic surgery could exacerbate BDD. Clinical traits of BDD must be systematically detected in patients suffering from ED and vice versa. PMID:27552014

  7. Prevalence and Characteristics of Body Dysmorphic Disorder Among Patients in a Partial Hospital Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornsson, Andri; Magnusdottir, Soffia; Wessman, Inga; Beard, Courtney; Lee, Josephine; Hearon, Bridget A; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2016-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a common disorder that is usually associated with impaired functioning and high levels of suicidality. The current study is the first to assess prevalence of BDD among patients in a partial hospital program and compare patients with and without BDD on demographic and clinical variables. Participants were 207 patients with a variety of Axis I diagnoses. Prevalence of current BDD was 7.2%, and a diagnosis of BDD did not predict worse treatment outcome in the program. Patients with current BDD were more likely to be female and younger and have more comorbid diagnoses than patients without current BDD. No other significant differences were found at baseline between patients with and without current BDD. Results indicate that BDD is relatively common among patients in partial hospital programs and that such programs may be as beneficial to patients with BDD as to other patients. PMID:27362701

  8. Emotion recognition in body dysmorphic disorder: application of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhlmann, Ulrike; Winter, Anna; Kathmann, Norbert

    2013-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by perceived appearance-related defects, often tied to aspects of the face or head (e.g., acne). Deficits in decoding emotional expressions have been examined in several psychological disorders including BDD. Previous research indicates that BDD is associated with impaired facial emotion recognition, particularly in situations that involve the BDD sufferer him/herself. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the ability to read other people's emotions among 31 individuals with BDD, and 31 mentally healthy controls. We applied the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task, in which participants are presented with a series of pairs of eyes, one at a time, and are asked to identify the emotion that describes the stimulus best. The groups did not differ with respect to decoding other people's emotions by looking into their eyes. Findings are discussed in light of previous research examining emotion recognition in BDD.

  9. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy.

  10. Body dysmorphic disorder in different settings: A systematic review and estimated weighted prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Gledhill, Lucinda J; Christodoulou, Polyxeni; Hodsoll, John

    2016-09-01

    Our aim was to systematically review the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a variety of settings. Weighted prevalence estimate and 95% confidence intervals in each study were calculated. The weighted prevalence of BDD in adults in the community was estimated to be 1.9%; in adolescents 2.2%; in student populations 3.3%; in adult psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adolescent psychiatric inpatients 7.4%; in adult psychiatric outpatients 5.8%; in general cosmetic surgery 13.2%; in rhinoplasty surgery 20.1%; in orthognathic surgery 11.2%; in orthodontics/cosmetic dentistry settings 5.2%; in dermatology outpatients 11.3%; in cosmetic dermatology outpatients 9.2%; and in acne dermatology clinics 11.1%. Women outnumbered men in the majority of settings but not in cosmetic or dermatological settings. BDD is common in some psychiatric and cosmetic settings but is poorly identified. PMID:27498379

  11. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. PMID:26952016

  12. Reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulink, Nienke C; Planting, Robin S; Figee, Martijn; Booij, Jan; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    Though the dopaminergic system is implicated in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders (OCRD), the dopaminergic system has never been investigated in-vivo in Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). In line with consistent findings of reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), we hypothesized that the dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the striatum will be lower in patients with BDD in comparison to healthy subjects. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor Binding Potential (BPND) was examined in 12 drug-free BDD patients and 12 control subjects pairwise matched by age, sex, and handedness using [(123)I]iodobenzamide Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT; bolus/constant infusion technique). Regions of interest were the caudate nucleus and the putamen. BPND was calculated as the ratio of specific striatal to binding in the occipital cortex (representing nonspecific binding). Compared to controls, dopamine D2/3 receptor BPND was significantly lower in BDD, both in the putamen (p=0.017) and caudate nucleus (p=0.022). This study provides the first evidence of a disturbed dopaminergic system in BDD patients. Although previously BDD was classified as a separate disorder (somatoform disorder), our findings give pathophysiological support for the recent reclassification of BDD to the OCRD in DSM-5. PMID:26711686

  13. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders. PMID:25909960

  14. Acceptance-Based Exposure Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Johanna; Rück, Christian; Bjureberg, Johan; Ivanov, Volen Z; Djurfeldt, Diana Radu; Ramnerö, Jonas

    2015-07-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an often severe, chronic, and disabling disorder, and although some controlled trials of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) have shown efficacy, the body of evidence is still limited. The condition is generally considered difficult to treat, and further research to determine the effectiveness of psychological treatments for BDD is needed. The present study is the first to evaluate an acceptance-based therapy for BDD. In total, 21 patients received a 12-week group treatment consisting of weekly sessions of psychoeducation, acceptance and defusion practice, and exposure exercises to foster acceptance of internal discomfort and to strengthen the patients' committed purposeful actions. The primary outcome was BDD symptomatology (measured on the BDD-YBOCS) assessed by a psychiatrist before and after treatment and at 6months follow-up. The secondary outcomes were self-rated BDD symptoms, psychological flexibility, depressive symptoms, quality of life, and disability. Reductions in BDD symptomatology from pre- to posttreatment were significant and showed a large effect size, d=1.93 (95% CI 0.82-3.04). At posttreatment, 68% of the participants showed clinically significant improvement in the primary outcome variable. Treatment gains were maintained at 6months follow-up. The treatment also resulted in significant improvements in all secondary outcomes. The dropout rate was low; 90.5% of the participants completed treatment. This study suggests that acceptance-based exposure therapy may be an efficacious and acceptable treatment for BDD that warrants further investigation in larger controlled trials. PMID:26163707

  15. Facial discrimination in body dysmorphic, obsessive-compulsive and social anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Claudia; Wiesendahl, Wiebke; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Stangier, Ulrich; Kathmann, Norbert; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2016-02-28

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with perceived flaws in one's own appearance. Several risk factors such as aesthetic perceptual sensitivity have been proposed to explain BDD's unique symptomatology. Although research on facial discrimination is limited so far, the few existing studies have produced mixed results. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further examine facial discrimination in BDD. We administered a facial discrimination paradigm, which allows to assess the ability to identify slight to strong facial changes (e.g., hair loss, acne) when presented with an original (unmodified) facial image, relative to a changed (modified) facial image. The experiment was administered in individuals with BDD, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and mentally healthy controls (32 per group, respectively). Overall, groups did not differ with respect to their ability to correctly identify facial aberrations when presented with other people's faces. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of enhanced general aesthetic perceptual sensitivity in individuals with (vs. without) BDD. PMID:26774187

  16. Comparison of visual perceptual organization in schizophrenia and body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Steven M; Elliott, Corinna M; Feusner, Jamie D; Keane, Brian P; Mikkilineni, Deepthi; Hansen, Natasha; Hartmann, Andrea; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-09-30

    People with schizophrenia are impaired at organizing potentially ambiguous visual information into well-formed shape and object representations. This perceptual organization (PO) impairment has not been found in other psychiatric disorders. However, recent data on body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), suggest that BDD may also be characterized by reduced PO. Similarities between these groups could have implications for understanding the RDoC dimension of visual perception in psychopathology, and for modeling symptom formation across these two conditions. We compared patients with SCZ (n=24) to those with BDD (n=20), as well as control groups of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients (n=20) and healthy controls (n=20), on two measures of PO that have been reliably associated with schizophrenia-related performance impairment. On both the contour integration and Ebbinghaus illusion tests, only the SCZ group demonstrated abnormal performance relative to controls; the BDD group performed similarly to the OCD and CON groups. In addition, on both tasks, the SCZ group performed more abnormally than the BDD group. Overall, these data suggest that PO reductions observed in SCZ are not present in BDD. Visual processing impairments in BDD may arise instead from other perceptual disturbances or attentional biases related to emotional factors. PMID:26184989

  17. Facial discrimination in body dysmorphic, obsessive-compulsive and social anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, Claudia; Wiesendahl, Wiebke; Kleinstäuber, Maria; Stangier, Ulrich; Kathmann, Norbert; Buhlmann, Ulrike

    2016-02-28

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by preoccupation with perceived flaws in one's own appearance. Several risk factors such as aesthetic perceptual sensitivity have been proposed to explain BDD's unique symptomatology. Although research on facial discrimination is limited so far, the few existing studies have produced mixed results. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further examine facial discrimination in BDD. We administered a facial discrimination paradigm, which allows to assess the ability to identify slight to strong facial changes (e.g., hair loss, acne) when presented with an original (unmodified) facial image, relative to a changed (modified) facial image. The experiment was administered in individuals with BDD, social anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and mentally healthy controls (32 per group, respectively). Overall, groups did not differ with respect to their ability to correctly identify facial aberrations when presented with other people's faces. Our findings do not support the hypothesis of enhanced general aesthetic perceptual sensitivity in individuals with (vs. without) BDD.

  18. Body Dysmorphic Disorder: Gender differences and prevalence in a Pakistani medical student population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaqar Talha

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is a psychiatric disorder characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined or slight defect which causes significant distress or impairment in functioning. Few studies have assessed gender differences in BDD in a non clinical population. Also no study assessed BDD in medical students. This study was designed to determine the point prevalence of BDD in Pakistani medical students and the gender differences in prevalence of BDD, body foci of concern and symptoms of BDD. Methods The medical students enrolled in a medical university in Karachi, Pakistan filled out a self-report questionnaire which assessed clinical features of BDD. BDD was diagnosed according to the DSM-IV criteria. Results Out of the 156 students, 57.1% were female. A total of 78.8% of the students reported dissatisfaction with some aspect of their appearance and 5.8% met the DSM-IV criteria for BDD. The male to female ratio for BDD was 1.7. Regarding gender differences in body foci of concern, the top three reported foci of concern in male students were head hair (34.3%, being fat (32.8%, skin (14.9% and nose(14.9%, whereas in females they were being fat (40.4%, skin (24.7% and teeth (18%. Females were significantly more concerned about being fat (p = 0.005. Male students were significantly more concerned about being thin (p = 0.01 and about head hair (p = 0.012. Conclusion BDD is fairly common in our medical student population, with a higher prevalence in males. Important gender differences in BDD symptomatology and reported body foci of concern were identified which reflected the influence of media on body image perception. The impact of cultural factors on the prevalence as well as gender differences in BDD symptomatology was also established.

  19. The Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayi, Andreana

    2015-09-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a somatoform disorder characterised by a distressing obsession with an imagined or slight appearance defect, which can significantly impair normal day-to-day functioning. Patients with BDD often first present, and are hence diagnosed, in cosmetic surgery settings. Several studies have investigated the prevalence rate of BDD in the general population or have done so for patients referring to cosmetic medical centers. To date, however, no review has been undertaken to compare the prevalence in the general community versus in a cosmetic surgery setting. Despite the lack of such a review it is a commonly held belief that BDD is more common in patients seeking cosmetic surgery. The current study aims to review the available literature in order to investigate whether BDD is indeed more prevalent in patients requesting cosmetic surgery, and if that is the case, to provide possible reasons for the difference in prevalence. In addition this review provides evidence on the effectiveness of cosmetic surgery as a treatment of BDD. PMID:26417812

  20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescent Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Jennifer L; Mothi, Suraj Sarvode; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2016-03-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a relatively common and severe disorder that typically onsets in adolescence, but often goes unrecognized. Despite BDD's severity and early onset, treatment outcome research on adolescent BDD is scarce. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is the gold-standard psychosocial treatment for BDD in adults and has shown promise in adolescents. The current study examined the development and testing of a new CBT for adolescents with BDD. We tested feasibility, acceptability, and treatment outcome in a sample of 13 adolescents (mean age 15.23years, range: 13-17) with primary BDD. Treatment was delivered in 12-22 weekly individual sessions. Standardized clinician ratings and self-report measures were used to assess BDD and related symptoms pre- and posttreatment and at 3- and 6-months follow-up. At posttreatment, BDD and related symptoms (e.g., insight, mood) were significantly improved. Scores on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale for BDD indicated a 50% (intent-to-treat) and 68% (completer) improvement in BDD symptoms. Seventy-five percent of adolescents who started treatment and 100% of completers were considered treatment responders. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up. High patient satisfaction ratings and patient feedback indicated that treatment was acceptable. This represents the largest study of a psychosocial treatment for adolescent BDD. PMID:26956653

  1. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale: Development and preliminary validation of a self-report scale of symptom specific dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth; Kasarskis, Irina; Blashill, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    The Body Dysmorphic Disorder Symptom Scale (BDD-SS) is a new self-report measure used to examine the severity of a wide variety of symptoms associated with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). The BDD-SS was designed to differentiate, for each group of symptoms, the number of symptoms endorsed and their severity. This report evaluates and compares the psychometric characteristics of the BDD-SS in relation to other measures of BDD, body image, and depression in 99 adult participants diagnosed with BDD. Total scores of the BDD-SS showed good reliability and convergent validity and moderate discriminant validity. Analyses of the individual BDD-SS symptom groups confirmed the reliability of the checking, grooming, weight/shape, and cognition groups. The current findings indicate that the BDD-SS can be quickly administered and used to examine the severity of heterogeneous BDD symptoms for research and clinical purposes. PMID:26971118

  2. Imagery Rescripting for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Multiple-Baseline Single-Case Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Rob; Veale, David; Freeston, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often experience negative distorted images of their appearance, and research suggests these may be linked to memories of adverse events such as bullying or teasing. This study evaluates imagery rescripting (ImR) as an intervention for BDD. In this article, we present a multiple-baseline single-case experimental design testing imagery rescripting as a brief, stand-alone intervention, with six individuals with BDD that related to aversive memories. The impact of the intervention was assessed by self-reported daily measures of symptom severity (preoccupation with appearance, appearance-related checking behaviors, appearance-related distress, and strength of belief that their main problem is their appearance) and standardized clinician ratings of BDD severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD). Four out of six of the participants responded positively to the intervention, with clinically meaningful improvement in symptomatology. Overall response was rapid; improvements began within the first week post-ImR intervention. From a small sample it is cautiously concluded that imagery rescripting may show promise as a module in cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD, and is worthy of further investigation. PMID:26956656

  3. Therapist-guided, Internet-based cognitive–behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD-NET): a feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Enander, Jesper; Ivanov, Volen Z; Andersson, Erik; Mataix-Cols, David; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Rück, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). However, most sufferers do not have access to this treatment. One way to increase access to CBT is to administer treatment remotely via the Internet. This study piloted a novel therapist-supported, Internet-based CBT program for BDD (BDD-NET). Design Uncontrolled clinical trial. Participants Patients (N=23) were recruited through self-referral and assessed face to face at a clinic spec...

  4. High-Dose Glycine Treatment of Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a 5-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Louis Cleveland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an individual who was diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD at age 17 when education was discontinued. By age 19, he was housebound without social contacts except for parents. Adequate trials of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, two with atypical neuroleptics, were ineffective. Major exacerbations following ear infections involving Group A -hemolytic streptococcus at ages 19 and 20 led to intravenous immune globulin therapy, which was also ineffective. At age 22, another severe exacerbation followed antibiotic treatment for H. pylori. This led to a hypothesis that postulates deficient signal transduction by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR. Treatment with glycine, an NMDAR coagonist, over 5 years led to robust reduction of OCD/BDD signs and symptoms except for partial relapses during treatment cessation. Education and social life were resumed and evidence suggests improved cognition. Our findings motivate further study of glycine treatment of OCD and BDD.

  5. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder and its clinical correlates in a VA primary care behavioral health clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Megan M; Zhang, Jinxin; Phillips, Katharine A

    2015-07-30

    We examined the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in a Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care behavioral health clinic. Of 100 Veterans, 11% (95% CI = 6.3-18.6%) had current BDD and 12% (95% CI = 7.0-19.8%) had lifetime BDD. However, only 8.3% of these Veterans had been diagnosed with BDD. BDD was significantly associated with a substantially elevated rate of suicide attempts, major depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This severe disorder appears to be underdiagnosed in VA settings. PMID:25935375

  6. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in patients referred to Razi hospital cosmetic clinic with complaints of cosmetic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirhooshang Ehsani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined defect in ones appearance or an exaggeration of a slight physical anomaly. Any part of the appearance may be the focuse of BDD patients. Thus preoccupation with appearance leads to significant damages of social and job functioning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BDD in patients referred to cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Methods: Patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital were selected if they agreed to participate in the study. They were evaluated by Yale brown obsessive compulsive scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder (YBOCS-BDD as well as questionnaires containing demographic characteristics of patients including gender, educational status, marital status, history of reference to psychiatrist or psychologist, other medication, history of cosmetic surgery and rate of satisfaction of cosmetic surgery. YBOCS-BDD questionnaires then processed by educated specialist to determine BDD score of patie-nts. Demographic questionnaires, also analysed to evaluate epidemiologic properties of patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Results: The prevalence of BDD in current sample was 33.3%. 70.7% of BDD patients were female while 29.3% were male. The commonest age range was 21-50 years (82.8%. 65.5% were educated to level of diploma or lower, while 34.5% had academic degrees. 51.7% were married. 20.7% had history of reference to psychiatrist or psycholo-gist. 17/2% had history of cosmetic surgery with satisfaction ranging from unsatisfied (20% to relative satisfaction (80%. None were fully satisfied.Conclusion: BDD had high prevalence in patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi skin hospital. This high rate of prevalence show the necessity of diagnosis of BDD in skin patients and it is critical for them to refer to psychiatrists or psychologists.

  7. Is body dysmorphic disorder associated with abnormal bodily self-awareness? A study using the rubber hand illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A Kaplan

    Full Text Available Evidence from past research suggests that behaviours and characteristics related to body dissatisfaction may be associated with greater instability of perceptual body image, possibly due to problems in the integration of body-related multisensory information. We investigated whether people with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD, a condition characterised by body image disturbances, demonstrated enhanced susceptibility to the rubber hand illusion (RHI, which arises as a result of multisensory integration processes when a rubber hand and the participant's hidden real hand are stimulated in synchrony. Overall, differences in RHI experience between the BDD group and healthy and schizophrenia control groups (n = 17 in each were not significant. RHI strength, however, was positively associated with body dissatisfaction and related tendencies. For the healthy control group, proprioceptive drift towards the rubber hand was observed following synchronous but not asynchronous stimulation, a typical pattern when inducing the RHI. Similar drifts in proprioceptive awareness occurred for the BDD group irrespective of whether stimulation was synchronous or not. These results are discussed in terms of possible abnormalities in visual processing and multisensory integration among people with BDD.

  8. 抑郁症合并躯体变形障碍的临床特征%CLINICAL FEATURES OF DEPRESSION WITH BODY DYSMORPHIC DISORDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程宇

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical features of depression with body dysmorphic disorder .Meth‐ods A comparative study on the clinical data of 138 patients who had depression with or without body dysmorphic disorder was conducted .Results Of the 17 patients (12 .32% ) with depression and body dysmor‐phic disorder ,the levels of anxiety ,despair ,psychomotor inhibition ,self‐accusation ,self‐guilty and sui‐cidal behavior were found much higher than those in the patients without body dysmorphic disorder .The attack time in patients with body dysmorphic disorder was earlier than that in patientd without body dys‐morphic disorder ,and the combined treatments were frequently used .There existed no significant differ‐ence in onset time and curative effect between the two groups .Conclusion Body dysmorphic disorder is common in patients with depression ,and measures for preventing suicide in patients with body dysmorphic disorder should be taken .%目的:探讨抑郁症合并躯体变形障碍的临床特征。方法对138例抑郁症患者按照合并躯体变形障碍和不合并躯体变形障碍分为两组,对比分析两组患者的临床资料。结果抑郁症合并躯体变形障碍者17例(12.32%),其焦虑、绝望、精神运动性抑制、自责自罪、自杀行为显著高于不合并躯体障碍者,其发病年龄较早,联合用药较多,而起效时间、疗效与不合并躯体变形障碍者无显著性差异。结论躯体变形障碍在抑郁症中并非少见,对伴有躯体变形障碍的抑郁症患者应谨防自杀行为的发生。

  9. Tratamento do transtorno dismórfico corporal com venlafaxina: relato de caso Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder with venlafaxine: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson José Amâncio

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho descreve um paciente com transtorno dismórfico corporal que respondeu preferencialmente com venlafaxina. Além disso, revisa a literatura sobre o assunto e discute similaridades e diferenças com o distúrbio obsessivo-compulsivo.A body dysmorphic disorder (BDD patient who responded preferentially to venlafaxine is described. A literature review was carried out, and the paper also discusses the similarities and differences between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  10. Tratamento do transtorno dismórfico corporal com venlafaxina: relato de caso Treatment of body dysmorphic disorder with venlafaxine: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Edson José Amâncio; Catulo César P Magalhães; Antônio Carlos G Santos; Cássio M Peluso; Mara Fernanda C Pires; Ana Paula Peña-Dias

    2002-01-01

    O trabalho descreve um paciente com transtorno dismórfico corporal que respondeu preferencialmente com venlafaxina. Além disso, revisa a literatura sobre o assunto e discute similaridades e diferenças com o distúrbio obsessivo-compulsivo.A body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) patient who responded preferentially to venlafaxine is described. A literature review was carried out, and the paper also discusses the similarities and differences between BDD and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  11. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder on a psychiatric inpatient ward and the value of a screening question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Akyüz, Elvan U; Hodsoll, John

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) on an inpatient ward in the UK with a larger sample than previously studied and to investigate the value of a simple screening question during an assessment interview. Four hundred and thirty two consecutive admissions were screened for BDD on an adult psychiatric ward over a period of 13 months. Those who screened positive had a structured diagnostic interview for BDD. The prevalence of BDD was estimated to be 5.8% (C.I. 3.6-8.1%). Our screening question had a slightly low specificity (76.6%) for detecting BDD. The strength of this study was a larger sample size and narrower confidence interval than previous studies. The study adds to previous observations that BDD is poorly identified in psychiatric inpatients. BDD was identified predominantly in those presenting with depression, substance misuse or an anxiety disorder. The screening question could be improved by excluding those with weight or shape concerns. Missing the diagnosis is likely to lead to inappropriate treatment. PMID:26404769

  12. The meaning of beauty: implicit and explicit self-esteem and attractiveness beliefs in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhlmann, Ulrike; Teachman, Bethany A; Naumann, Eva; Fehlinger, Tobias; Rief, Winfried

    2009-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by imagined or slight defects in one's appearance. We evaluated implicit and explicit biases among individuals diagnosed with BDD (n=21), individuals with subclinical BDD symptoms (n=21), and healthy control participants (n=21). Specifically, we used the Implicit Association Test [IAT; Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480] to examine automatic associations related to self-esteem, associations between attractive and important, and a physical attractiveness stereotype (associations between attractive and competent). BDD participants had significantly lower implicit self-esteem, relative to control participants, and the subclinical BDD participants were intermediate between these groups. Although no group differences were observed on the implicit Attractive Important IAT; as predicted, BDD participants had significantly stronger implicit associations between attractive and competent than the other groups, in line with a common stereotype about physical attractiveness. Both the Attractive Competent IAT and Self-Esteem IAT were significant predictors of BDD symptom severity, and distress and avoidance during a mirror exposure task. Findings are discussed in light of cognitive-behavioral models of BDD. PMID:19278822

  13. The meaning of beauty: implicit and explicit self-esteem and attractiveness beliefs in body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhlmann, Ulrike; Teachman, Bethany A; Naumann, Eva; Fehlinger, Tobias; Rief, Winfried

    2009-06-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by imagined or slight defects in one's appearance. We evaluated implicit and explicit biases among individuals diagnosed with BDD (n=21), individuals with subclinical BDD symptoms (n=21), and healthy control participants (n=21). Specifically, we used the Implicit Association Test [IAT; Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480] to examine automatic associations related to self-esteem, associations between attractive and important, and a physical attractiveness stereotype (associations between attractive and competent). BDD participants had significantly lower implicit self-esteem, relative to control participants, and the subclinical BDD participants were intermediate between these groups. Although no group differences were observed on the implicit Attractive Important IAT; as predicted, BDD participants had significantly stronger implicit associations between attractive and competent than the other groups, in line with a common stereotype about physical attractiveness. Both the Attractive Competent IAT and Self-Esteem IAT were significant predictors of BDD symptom severity, and distress and avoidance during a mirror exposure task. Findings are discussed in light of cognitive-behavioral models of BDD.

  14. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder: body dysmorphic disorder in ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Lindsay K; Lee, Wendy W; Black, Donald W; Shriver, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that up to 15% of patients in an aesthetic surgery practice have body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), little has been written about the condition in the oculoplastic literature. The authors describe 3 patients with suspected BDD who presented with perceived periocular defects. To appear "Asian," a 39-year-old Hispanic woman underwent over 30 surgeries. She developed disfiguring scars and lagophthalmos with corneal scarring, remained unsatisfied, and tragically committed suicide. A 52-year-old woman with moderate dermatochalasis underwent a blepharoplasty to improve her vision and appearance and help her gain employment. Despite a good outcome, she remained dissatisfied and blamed the surgeon for her unemployment. Finally, a 73-year-old woman presented demanding treatment for brow rhytids causing severe emotional distress. She was denied intervention due to unrealistic expectations. These patients are suspected to be suffering from BDD. Increased awareness is critical as BDD patients often remain unsatisfied after surgical intervention and are in need of psychiatric care. PMID:24833442

  15. Change in Psychosocial Functioning and Quality of Life of Patients With Body Dysmorphic Disorder Treated With Fluoxetine: A Placebo-Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Katharine A.; Rasmussen, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    In a 12-week placebo-controlled study of fluoxetine in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder, the authors investigated change in psychosocial functioning and mental health-related quality of life in 60 subjects. The subjects were assessed with the LIFE-RIFT (a measure of impaired functioning), Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) before and after receiving fluoxetine or placebo. At baseline, the patients had...

  16. Symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder among people presenting for cosmetic dental treatment: a comparative study of cosmetic dental patients and a general population sample

    OpenAIRE

    de, Jongh, Petra; Aartman, I. H. A.; Parvaneh, H.; Ilik, M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:  To determine appearance concerns of patients presenting for cosmetic treatment. Methods:  This cross-sectional comparative study included consecutive patients of six different cosmetic clinics (n = 170), and a sample of the general population (n = 878). A study-specific self-report questionnaire was administered to document demographic and appearance concerns. Presence of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) was assessed based on DSM-IV criteria. Results:  Cosmetic dental patients did ...

  17. Aberrant Early Visual Neural Activity and Brain-Behavior Relationships in Anorexia Nervosa and Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eLi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD and anorexia nervosa (AN share the clinical symptom of disturbed body image, which may be a function of perceptual distortions. Previous studies suggest visual or visuospatial processing abnormalities may be contributory, but have been unable to discern whether these occur early or late in the visual processing stream. We used electroencephalography (EEG and visual event related potentials (ERP to investigate early perceptual neural activity associated with processing visual stimuli.Methods:We performed EEG on 20 AN, 20 BDD, 20 healthy controls, all unmedicated. In order to probe configural/holistic and detailed processing, participants viewed photographs of faces and houses that were unaltered or filtered to low or high spatial frequencies, respectively. We calculated the early ERP components P100 and N170, and compared amplitudes and latencies among groups.Results:P100 amplitudes were smaller in AN than BDD and healthy controls, regardless of spatial frequency or stimulus type (faces or houses. Similarly, N170 latencies were longer in AN than healthy controls, regardless of spatial frequency or stimulus type, with a similar pattern in BDD at trend level significance. N170 amplitudes were smaller in AN than controls for high and normal spatial frequency images, and smaller in BDD than controls for normal spatial frequency images, regardless of stimulus type. Poor insight correlated with lower N170 amplitudes for normal and low spatial frequency faces in the BDD group.Conclusions:Individuals with AN exhibit abnormal early visual system activity, consistent with reduced configural processing and enhanced detailed processing. This is evident regardless of whether the stimuli are appearance- or non appearance-related, and thus may be a reflection of general, early perceptual abnormalities. As N170 amplitude could be a marker of structural encoding of faces, lower values may be associated with perceptual dis

  18. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Veale, MD, FRCPsych

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Men with BDD are more likely to have erectile dysfunction and less satisfaction with intercourse than controls but maintain their libido. Further research is required to develop and evaluate a psychological intervention for such men with adequate outcome measures. Veale D, Miles S, Read J, Troglia A, Wylie K, and Muir G. Sexual functioning and behavior of men with body dysmorphic disorder concerning penis size compared with men anxious about penis size and with controls: A cohort study. Sex Med 2015;3:147–155.

  19. Sexual Functioning and Behavior of Men with Body Dysmorphic Disorder Concerning Penis Size Compared with Men Anxious about Penis Size and with Controls: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Little is known about the sexual functioning and behavior of men anxious about the size of their penis and the means that they might use to try to alter the size of their penis.AIM: To compare sexual functioning and behavior in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerning penis size and in men with small penis anxiety (SPA without BDD) and in a control group of men who do not have any concerns.METHODS: An opportunistic sample of 90 men from the community were recruited and...

  20. Accept, distract, or reframe? An exploratory experimental comparison of strategies for coping with intrusive body image thoughts in anorexia nervosa and body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Andrea S; Thomas, Jennifer J; Greenberg, Jennifer L; Rosenfield, Elizabeth H; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-02-28

    Negative body image is the hallmark of anorexia nervosa (AN) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). One aspect of body image, appearance-related thoughts, have shown to be a major contributor to relapse, thus further investigation of successful treatment strategies targeting these maladaptive thoughts are warranted. The present study tested an acceptance/mindfulness (AC), a cognitive restructuring (CR), and a distraction strategy with regard to their short-term effectiveness of reducing the frequency of thought occurrence and associated outcomes in participants with AN (n=20), BDD (n=21), and healthy controls (HC; n=22). Although all strategies led to a significant reduction of thought frequency, there was no group × strategy interaction effect in their reduction. Positive affect increased in the BDD group through the AC strategy, but decreased in healthy controls. Acceptance of the thought increased in the CR strategy in AN, whereas that strategy seemed to work least for BDD. Healthy controls showed most acceptance when using distraction. Taken together, the study suggests that all strategies might have their benefits and that it might be worthwhile further investigating differential indication of the strategies with regard to diagnosis and individual factors. PMID:25530419

  1. 体象障碍患者人格特征研究%Personality in patients with body-dysmorphic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱国; 陈建国; 沈永健

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the similarities and differences of personality in patients with body-dysmorphic disorder(BDD),obsessive-compulsive disorder(OCD) and ordinary person.As well as to provide information for clinical therapy. Methods All BDD patients( n =29),OCD controls( n =30) and normal controls( n =30) completed Self Rating Scale of Body Image (SRSBI) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Results Ten clinical scales score of MMPI in BDD were found significant higher than normal controls which including hypochondriasis,depression,hysteria, psychopathic deviate, masculinity-femininity, paranoia,psychasthenia,schizophrenia,and social introversion.Four clinical scales[(68.18±8.70),(65.44±8.73),(61.39±9.37),(60.70±12.88)] were significant higher than OCD controls[(61.09±13.29),(58.82±10.26 ),(56.23±9.58),(50.03±12.63)] which including psychopathic deviate,psychasthenia,schiaophrenia and social introversion( P <0.05). But hysteria scale was significant lower than OCD controls( P <0.01). Conclusion BDD patients have abnormal personality which is more significant than OCD patients. Significant abnormal personality are likely the psychopathology of BDD from which the clinic symptom produced.%目的 探讨体象障碍(BDD)患者与正常人以及强迫症患者的人格特征差异,为临床诊断和治疗提供帮助.方法 采用体象障碍自评量表(SRSBI)、明尼苏达多相人格调查表(MMPI),对29例BDD患者、30例强迫症患者与30名正常人进行对照研究.结果在MMPI临床量表中,体象障碍组1~10量表分均极显著高于正常对照组;偏执(Pa)、精神衰弱(Pt)、精神分裂(Sc)、社会内向(Si)等量表分[(68.18±8.70)分,(65.44±8.73)分,(61.39±9.37)分,(60.70±12.88)分]显著高于强迫症组[(61.09±13.29)分,(58.82±10.26 )分,(56.23±9.58)分,(50.03±12.63)分]( t =3.26,3.03,2.20,3.31,P <0.05),而癔病(Hy)量表分[(57.30±8.96)分]显著低于强迫症组[(64.80±11.34)分,( t =3.35,P

  2. Examining neurocognition in body dysmorphic disorder using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): A comparison with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Wei Lin; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2015-08-30

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterised by (i) an excessive preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance, as well as (ii) repetitive behaviours and/or mental acts that occur in response to the preoccupation. To date, neuropsychological investigations have been limited. This study examined performance on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), tapping into five indices of neurocognition: (i) Immediate Memory, (ii) Visuospatial Construction, (iii) Language, (iv) Attention, and (iv) Delayed Memory. Twenty-one BDD participants were compared with 19 obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) participants and 21 healthy controls (HC), who were age-, sex-, and IQ-matched. Results indicated the BDD and OCD groups demonstrated poor overall neuropsychological performance (i.e. total RBANS) as well as deficits on the indices of Immediate Memory and Attention. Further group differences involving the subtests of Story Memory, Digit Span, and Story Recall were detected. Neuropsychological impairment in BDD with indicated similarities in OCD were corroborated. Future research should extend investigations focusing on gist and delayed memory, and aspects of attentional processing. PMID:26144584

  3. The relationship between perceived social support and severity of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms: the role of gender O efeito do gênero sobre a relação entre suporte social apreendido e gravidade dos sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal

    OpenAIRE

    Luana Marques; Hilary M. Weingarden; LeBlanc, Nicole J.; Jedidiah Siev; Sabine Wilhelm

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Whether social support is associated with severity of body dysmorphic symptoms is unknown. To address this gap in the literature, the present study aims to examine the association between three domains of perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others) and severity of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. METHOD: Participants (N = 400) with symptoms consistent with diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder completed measures of symptomatology and social support vi...

  4. Body Dysmorphic Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Depression: The Role of Appearance-Based Teasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingarden, Hilary; Renshaw, Keith D

    2016-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is associated with elevated social and occupational impairment and comorbid depression, but research on risk factors for body dysmorphic symptoms and associated outcomes is limited. Appearance-based teasing may be a potential risk factor. To examine the specificity of this factor, the authors assessed self-reported appearance-based teasing, body dysmorphic, and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, functional impairment (i.e., social, occupational, family impairment), and depression in a nonclinical sample of undergraduates. As hypothesized, appearance-based teasing was positively correlated with body dysmorphic symptoms. The correlation between teasing and body dysmorphic symptoms was stronger than that between teasing and obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Last, body dysmorphic symptom severity and appearance-based teasing interacted in predicting functional impairment and depression. Specifically, appearance-based teasing was positively associated with depression and functional impairment only in those with elevated body dysmorphic symptoms. When a similar moderation was tested with obsessive-compulsive, in place of body dysmorphic, symptom severity, the interaction was nonsignificant. Findings support theory that appearance-based teasing is a specific risk factor for body dysmorphic symptoms and associated functional impairment. PMID:25706778

  5. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD-YBOCS: Brazilian Portuguese translation, cultural adaptation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. de Brito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To translate, culturally adapt, and validate a Brazilian Portuguese version of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD-YBOCS. Methods: Ninety-three patients of both sexes seeking rhinoplasty were consecutively selected at the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil, between May 2012 and March 2013. The BDD-YBOCS was translated into Brazilian Portuguese. Thirty patients participated in the cultural adaptation of the scale. The final version was tested for reliability in 20 patients, and for construct validity in 43 patients (correlation of the BDD-YBOCS with the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Examination [BDDE]. Results: Total Cronbach’s alpha was 0.918. The BDD-YBOCS had excellent inter-rater (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.934; p < 0.001 and intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.999; p < 0.001. Significant differences in BDD-YBOCS scores were found between patients with and without BDD symptoms (p < 0.001, and among patients with different levels of BDD severity (p < 0.001. A strong correlation (r = 0.781; p < 0.001 was observed between the BDDE and the BDD-YBOCS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.851, suggesting a very good accuracy for discriminating between presence and absence of BDD symptoms. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the BDD-YBOCS is a reliable instrument, showing face, content and construct validity.

  6. 躯体变形障碍问卷的修订考评%Amending and evaluation of body dysmorphic disorder questionnaire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑铮; 张宁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of body dysmorphic disorder questionnaire (BDDQ) Chinese version. Methods A total of 222 participants from a plastic surgery department were enrolled in the study by systematic sampling. They were measured with BDDQ Chinese version and interviewed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-]V-TR-Patients( SCID/P) to evaluate the validity. Fifty participants were assessed again after two weeks to evaluate the test-retest reliability. Results The sensitivity of BDDQ Chinese version was 100% and the specificity was 93%. The correlation coefficient of each item was between 0. 808 and 1.000(P< 0.001). Conclusion BDDQ Chinese version has fairly high reliability and validity. Thus, it can be used as a screening diagnosis tool for BDD.%目的 修订躯体变形障碍问卷(Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire,BDDQ)并检验其信度与效度.方法 系统抽样222名美容整形科求术者进行BDDQ中文版的施测及临床访谈,以DSM-Ⅳ-TR轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查病人版(SCID/P)的BDD诊断作为"金标准"检验BDDQ的效度,对其中50名被调查者于第1次访谈结束两周后再次进行施测以检验BDDQ的重测信度.结果 BDDQ中文版诊断BDD的灵敏度为100%,特异度93%,问卷各条目两次测量结果之间的相关系数在0.808~1.000之间(P<0.001).结论 BDDQ中文版对诊断BDD有较好的信效度,适合作为BDD的筛查诊断工具.

  7. Body Image and Body Dysmorphic Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Aragones, Lucia; Marron, Servando E

    2016-08-23

    Most people would like to change something about their bodies and the way that they look, but for some it becomes an obsession. A healthy skin plays an important role in a person's physical and mental wellbeing, whereas a disfiguring appearance is associated with body image concerns. Skin diseases such as acne, psoriasis and vitiligo produce cosmetic disfigurement and patients suffering these and other visible skin conditions have an increased risk of depression, anxiety, feelings of stigmatization and self-harm ideation. Body image affects our emotions, thoughts, and behaviours in everyday life, but, above all, it influences our relationships. Furthermore, it has the potential to influence our quality of life. Promotion of positive body image is highly recommended, as it is important in improving people's quality of life, physical health, and health-related behaviors. Dermatologists have a key role in identifying body image concerns and offering patients possible treatment options. PMID:27283435

  8. Phenomenology of men with body dysmorphic disorder concerning penis size compared to men anxious about their penis size and to men without concerns: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    Men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) may be preoccupied with the size or shape of the penis, which may be causing significant shame or impairment. Little is known about the characteristics and phenomenology of such men and whether they can be differentiated from men with small penis anxiety (SPA) (who do not have BDD), and men with no penile concerns. Twenty-six men with BDD, 31 men with SPA, and 33 men without penile concerns were compared on psychopathology, experiences of recurrent imagery, avoidance and safety-seeking behaviours. Men with BDD had significantly higher scores than both the SPA group and no penile concern group for measures of imagery, avoidance, safety seeking and general psychopathology. The groups differed on the phenomenology of BDD specific to penile size preoccupation clearly from the worries of SPA, which in turn were different to those of the men without concerns. The common avoidance and safety seeking behaviours were identified in such men that may be used clinically.

  9. Long-Term Outcome of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Naturalistic Case Series of 1 to 4 Years After a Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Anson, Martin

    2015-11-01

    There is some evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) after 1 to 6months but none in the long term. The aim of this study was to follow up the participants in a randomized controlled trial of CBT versus anxiety management to determine whether or not the treatment gains were maintained over time. Thirty of the original 39 participants who had CBT were followed up over 1 to 4years and assessed using a number of clinician and self-report measures, which included the primary outcome measure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD. Outcome scores generally maintained over time from end of treatment to long-term follow-up. There was a slight deterioration from n=20 (51.3%) to n=18 (46.2%) who met improvement criteria at long-term follow-up. Eleven (28.2%) were in full remission and 22 (56.4%) were in partial remission. The gains made were generally maintained at long-term follow-up. However, there were a significant number of participants who maintained chronic symptoms after treatment and may need a longer-term or more complex intervention and active medication management. PMID:26520220

  10. 银屑病患者体象障碍的团体心理干预研究%Study on Group Intervention of Body Dysmorphic Disorder on Psoriasis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊一斌; 温海; 杨明辉; 钱金鑫; 寿碧琪; 柏涌海

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解银屑病患者在团体咨询干预前后的体象障碍水平. 方法 采用"银屑病患者体象障碍问卷"筛选出16名患者组成干预组和对照组进行团体咨询干预与分析. 结果 干预组的体象障碍水平比干预前有所下降,在缺陷感、情绪受损度、社会交往度3个方面改善显著,但在认知度、关注度、尝试改变度、他人评价度上无显著改善.结论 团体干预能有效降低银屑病患者的体象障碍水平,患者接受干预后在体象障碍的缺陷感、情绪受损度、社会交往度上有明显改善.%Objective To evaluate the different body dysmorphic disorder on psoriatic patients by group counseling intervention. Methods 16 patients showing body dysmorphic disorder by the "questionnaires of psoriatic patients" were selected into intervention group and control group. Conducted group counseling to intervention group and made analysis by comparing the results to the control group. Results The level of body dysmorphic disorder after the intervention was declined significantly in intervention group. Specific on defects sense, emotional damage and social interaction. However, the cognitive awareness, attention, attempting to change, others' evaluation were not significant. Conclusion Group intervention can effectively reduce body dysmorphic disorder on psoriatic patients. After intervention, there is significant improvement on patients' defects sense, emotional damage and social interaction.

  11. Dysmorphic disorders: clinical and nosological heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Medvedev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of dysmorphophobia (DMP (dysmorphia, DM has been inadequately investigated; its descriptions are contradictory.Objective: to study the clinical structure of DMP (DM on a sample of plastic or cosmetic surgery patients.Patients and methods. An examination was made in of 103 patients, including 81 (78.6% women (mean age, 35.8±4.9 years and 22 (21.4% men (mean age, 30.9±5.7 years, who had gone to a clinic of cosmetic or plastic surgery with complaints of objectively unverified appearance defects and DM signs and given consent to take part in the investigation. All the patients underwent clinical and psychopathological examination; in so doing the follow-up data in the past 1-3 tears were borne in mind. Their somatic condition was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the medical documents and the results of laboratory, clinical, and instrumental studies.Results. The dysmorphic syndrome has been found to have overvalued, hypochondriacal, obsessive-compulsive, depressive, and delusional forms. It has been established that DM can manifest within schizophrenia, personality disorders, affective disorders, and organic mental diseases. Differential diagnostic criteria for different types of DM in heterogeneous psychopathological disorders are given.

  12. Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder in a Cosmetic Plastic Surgery Department in Nanjing%躯体变形障碍在南京市某美容整形科的患病率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑铮; 张宁

    2012-01-01

    To explore the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in an aesthetic and plastic surgery department in Nanjing, a total of 218 participants were enrolled in the study by systematic sampling. They were measured and interviewed with BDDQ Chinese version and SCID— I /P. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder was 10. 55%. The prevalence in females was 10. 00% and in males was 11. 36%. Therefore, the prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder in the aesthetic and plastic surgery department was rather high and there's no significant difference in different genders or ages.%为了解躯体变形障碍在国内美容整形科的患病率,采取等距骂样的方法,选取2006年6月~9月期间求诊于江苏省南京市某三甲医院美容整形科的求术者218人,采用躯体变形障碍问卷(body dysmorphic disorder questionnaire,BDDQ)中文版与DSM-Ⅳ-TR轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查病人版(s1ructured clinical interview for DSM-Ⅳ-TRaxis Ⅰ disorders,SCID-Ⅰ/P)进行调查与临床访谈.结果显示,218名求术者中,23人(10.55%)符合躯体变形障碍的诊断;130名女性求术者中,13 人(10.00%)符合躯体变形障碍的诊断;88名男性求术者中,10人(11.36%)符合躯体变形障碍的诊断;不同性别求术者的患病率不存在显著性差异(x2=0.10,P>0.05);不同年龄段求术者的患病率不存在显著性差异(x2=5.59,P>0.05).因此,躯体变形障碍在美容整形科的患病率较高且患病率不存在性别及年龄差异.

  13. Penile Dysmorphic Disorder: Development of a Screening Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-11-01

    Penile dysmorphic disorder (PDD) is shorthand for men diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder, in whom the size or shape of the penis is their main, if not their exclusive, preoccupation causing significant shame or handicap. There are no specific measures for identifying men with PDD compared to men who are anxious about the size of their penis but do not have PDD. Such a measure might be helpful for treatment planning, reducing unrealistic expectations, and measuring outcome after any psychological or physical intervention. Our aim was, therefore, to validate a specific measure, termed the Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale for PDD (COPS-P). Eighty-one male participants were divided into three groups: a PDD group (n = 21), a small penis anxiety group (n = 37), and a control group (n = 23). All participants completed the COPS-P as well as standardized measures of depression, anxiety, social phobia, body image, quality of life, and erectile function. Penis size was also measured. The final COPS-P was based on nine items. The scale had good internal reliability and significant convergent validity with measures of related constructs. It discriminated between the PDD group, the small penis anxiety group, and the control group. This is the first study to develop a scale able to discriminate between those with PDD and men anxious about their size who did not have PDD. Clinicians and researchers may use the scale as part of an assessment for men presenting with anxiety about penis size and as an audit or outcome measure after any intervention for this population.

  14. Penile Dysmorphic Disorder: Development of a Screening Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-11-01

    Penile dysmorphic disorder (PDD) is shorthand for men diagnosed with body dysmorphic disorder, in whom the size or shape of the penis is their main, if not their exclusive, preoccupation causing significant shame or handicap. There are no specific measures for identifying men with PDD compared to men who are anxious about the size of their penis but do not have PDD. Such a measure might be helpful for treatment planning, reducing unrealistic expectations, and measuring outcome after any psychological or physical intervention. Our aim was, therefore, to validate a specific measure, termed the Cosmetic Procedure Screening Scale for PDD (COPS-P). Eighty-one male participants were divided into three groups: a PDD group (n = 21), a small penis anxiety group (n = 37), and a control group (n = 23). All participants completed the COPS-P as well as standardized measures of depression, anxiety, social phobia, body image, quality of life, and erectile function. Penis size was also measured. The final COPS-P was based on nine items. The scale had good internal reliability and significant convergent validity with measures of related constructs. It discriminated between the PDD group, the small penis anxiety group, and the control group. This is the first study to develop a scale able to discriminate between those with PDD and men anxious about their size who did not have PDD. Clinicians and researchers may use the scale as part of an assessment for men presenting with anxiety about penis size and as an audit or outcome measure after any intervention for this population. PMID:25731908

  15. Comorbidade entre transtorno dismórfico corporal e transtornos alimentares: uma revisão sistemática Comorbidity between body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Leandro Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A insatisfação com a imagem corporal é uma das características mais proeminentes do transtorno dismórfico corporal (TDC e dos transtornos alimentares (TA. Esses dois grupos de transtornos apresentam semelhanças em suas características psicopatológicas e epidemiológicas e na resposta ao tratamento. Apesar de ambos serem considerados transtornos do espectro obsessivo-compulsivo, pouco se sabe em relação à comorbidade entre esses dois grupos de transtornos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a produção bibliográfica atual sobre a comorbidade entre TDC e TA. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática nos bancos de dados PubMed e ISI Web of Science dos artigos referentes à comorbidade entre TDC e TA. RESULTADOS: Oito artigos foram selecionados. As amostras de portadores de TA apresentavam comorbidade com TDC em 6% a 39% dos casos. Dos pacientes com TDC, 10% a 32,5%, por sua vez, podem apresentar comorbidade com TA. O TDC frequentemente precedia o TA, e os pacientes com comorbidade apresentavam quadro clínico mais grave que os com apenas um dos transtornos. CONCLUSÃO: Estudos recentes demonstram que as taxas de comorbidade entre esses dois transtornos são elevadas. Apesar disso, o TDC raramente é diagnosticado em portadores de TA, mesmo quando é o transtorno que causa mais incômodo.BACKGROUND: Body image dissatisfaction is one of the most prominent psychopathological features of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD and eating disorders (ED. These groups of disorders present similarities in psychopathological and epidemiological features and also in response to treatment. Although these disorders are included in the obsessive-compulsive spectrum, little is known about the comorbidity between the two groups of disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current bibliographic production on the comorbidity of BDD and ED. METHOD: A systematic review has been conducted on the PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases. RESULTS: Eight articles have

  16. Assessment Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (AS-BDD: psychometric properties Escala de Avaliação do Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal (EA-TDC: propriedades psicométricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Perez Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the psychometric properties of the second version of the Assessment Scale for Body Dysmorphic Disorder (AS-BDD. It is a scale of self-report, with 40 items, developed to evaluate 3 dimensions of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD: (a excessive concern with a minor or imagined flaw in his/her personal physical characteristics, (b significant clinical suffering and functional damage in important areas of life, and (c such concern is not better explained by another disorder. The construct analysis by judges indicated accordance in 35 items which were answered by 30 patients diagnosed with BDD and 400 university students. The validity of criterion measures indicated ability to discriminate the items among the individuals of both sampled groups. The exploratory factor analysis suggested a unidimensional structure of the scale which allows to measuring "excessive concern with a minor or imagined flaw in his/her personal physical characteristics and the functional damages in different areas of life". The withheld items have shown excellent internal consistency. Cut point definitions and the ability to discriminate other disorders should be further studied.Este estudo analisou as propriedades psicométricas da segunda versão da Escala de Avaliação do Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal - EA-TDC, de auto-relato, 40 itens, desenvolvidos para avaliar três critérios do Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal caracterizado por: preocupação excessiva com um imaginado defeito na aparência; sofrimento clinicamente significativo e prejuízo funcional em campos importantes da vida; a preocupação não é melhor explicada por outro transtorno. A análise de construto por juízes indicou acordo sobre 35 itens. Esses foram respondidos por 30 pacientes diagnosticados com TDC e 400 universitários. A validade de critério indicou capacidade de discriminação dos itens entre os indivíduos dos dois grupos amostrais. A análise fatorial explorat

  17. 氟伏沙明联合小剂量奎硫平治疗体像障碍对照研究%Fluvoxamine Combined with Small-dose Quetiapine in the Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈运昭; 刘亚丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of fluvoxamine combined with small-dose quetiapine in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder.Methods A total of 32 patients with body dysmorphic disorder were divided into study group and control group randomly.Study group were given fluvoxamine combined with small-dose quetiapine.Control group given fluvoxamine only for the treatment of 8 weeks.The efficacy and side effects were evaluated with scores of BDD,HAMD,HAMA and TESS.Results At the end of 8 weeks,scores of BDD,HAMD and HAMA of both groups were significantly lower than pre-treatment(t=3.40951,3.3907,3.5101 ; P < 0.01).There were significant differences between two groups (t =3.5102,3.5019,3.4061 ; P <0.01).There was no significant difference in side effects between two groups(x2=0.37,P> 0.05).Conclusion Fluvoxamine combined with small-dose quetiapine in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder takes effects better than single fluvoxamine and doesn't increase side effects.%目的 探讨氟伏沙明联合小剂量奎硫平治疗体像障碍的临床疗效和安全性.方法 32例体像障碍患者随机分为两组,治疗组给予氟伏沙明合并小剂量奎硫平,对照组单用氟伏沙明,疗程均为8周.采用鲁龙光体像障碍量表(BDD)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)及汉密尔顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评定临床疗效,副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果 8周末两组BDD、HAMD及HAMA评分较治疗前均降低,差异有统计学意义(t=3.401,3.391,3.510;P<0.01);两组间比较差异有统计学意义(t=3.510,3.502,3.406;P<0.01);两组不良反应无明显差异(x2=0.37,P>0.05).结论 氟伏沙明合并小剂量奎硫平治疗体像障碍,疗效优于单用氟伏沙明,且不增加不良反应.

  18. Transtorno dismórfico corporal em dermatologia: diagnóstico, epidemiologia e aspectos clínicos Body dysmorphic disorder in dermatology: diagnosis, epidemiology and clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Archetti Conrado

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available São cada vez mais frequentes as queixas cosméticas, uma vez que objetivam a perfeição das formas do corpo e da pele. Os dermatologistas são consultados para avaliar e tratar essas queixas. Sendo assim, é importante conhecer o Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal, inicialmente chamado de "dismorfofobia", pouco estudado até recentemente. Esse transtorno é relativamente comum, por vezes, incapacitante, e envolve uma percepção distorcida da imagem corporal, caracterizada pela preocupação exagerada com um defeito imaginário na aparência ou com um mínimo defeito corporal presente. A maioria dos pacientes apresenta algum grau de prejuízo no funcionamento social e ocupacional, e como resultado de suas queixas obsessivas com a aparência, podem desenvolver comportamentos compulsivos, e, em casos mais graves, há risco de suicídio. O nível de crença é prejudicado, visto que não reconhecem o seu defeito como mínimo ou inexistente e, frequentemente, procuram tratamentos cosméticos para um transtorno psíquico. A prevalência do transtorno, na população geral, é de 1 a 2% e, em pacientes dermatológicos e de cirurgia cosmética, de 2,9 a 16%. Considerando a alta prevalência do Transtorno Dismórfico Corporal, em pacientes dermatológicos, e que os tratamentos cosméticos raramente melhoram seus sintomas, o treinamento dos profissionais para a investigação sistemática, diagnóstico e encaminhamento para tratamento psiquiátrico é fundamental.Cosmetic concerns are becoming increasingly common in view of the obsession with the perfect body and skin. Dermatologists are often seen to evaluate and treat these conditions. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge the existence of Body Dysmorphic Disorder, also known as dysmorphophobia. Despite being relatively common, this disorder has not been well researched. Sometimes causing impairment, the disease involves a distorted body image perception characterized by excessive preoccupation with

  19. 体象障碍患者对美容手术的满意度调查%Investigation of satisfactory rate in patients with body dysmorphic disorder after cosmetic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冠华; 罗跃嘉; 杜太超; 雷全友; 解永学

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the satisfactory rate in patients with body dysmorphic disorder(BDD)after cosmetic surgery.Methods We designed a questionnaire to investigate the postoperative satisfactory rate in patients with BDD and without BDD.Results There Was significant difference in postoperative satisfactory rate between patients with BDD and without BDD.Conclusion The patients with BDD have a lower satisfactory rate,which is even worse after repeated surgery.%目的 观察体象障碍患者在整形手术中的一般情况及其对手术的满意程度.方法 采用自制问卷调查21名体象障碍组和对照组对手术的满意程度及体象障碍组对两次手术的满意程度.结果 体象障碍组和对照组在手术满意度上有显著差异,体象障碍组的第1次与第2次手术的满意度有显著差异.结论 体象障碍患者对手术的满意程度较低,反复的手术导致更低的满意程度.

  20. Case report of body dysmorphic disorder in a suicidal paitent%因自杀行为而就诊的躯体变形障碍1例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎锋; 马红霞; 王彦兵

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Few reports exist about the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) in patients who are suicidal. This case report describes a 19-year-old male with BDD who had delusional-intensity beliefs about facial disifgurement that had gradually intensiifed over a 2-year period. However, he was iniitally misdiagnosed with depression partly because he was admitted immediately atfer a suicide attempt that was associated with depressive symptoms and social withdrawal, symptoms that subsequently proved to be secondary to his BDD. The symptoms resolved completely and his social functioning returned to normal after 8 weeks of inpatient treatment with fluoxetine and cognitive behavioral therapy. This report is a reminder that suicidal behavior and ideation can have many causes; to avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment, clinicians should consider other possibiliites before assuming that suicidal behavior or ideaiton is the direct result of depression. We discuss the many changes in the understanding and diagnositc classiifcaiton of BDD since it was ifrst reported by Enrico Morselli in 1886.%概述:对治疗伴自杀行为的躯体变形障碍(body dysmorphic disorder, BDD)的病例报道较少。本文报道了一位患有BDD的19岁男性患者,两年来认为自己面部变丑,这一信念逐渐加重,几乎达妄想程度。然而,他最初被误诊为抑郁障碍,部分原因是他企图自杀,当时存在抑郁症状和社会退缩。后来经证实,这些症状是继发于BDD的。经过8周住院治疗,采用氟西汀和认知行为治疗相结合,患者的症状彻底改善,社会功能也恢复正常。这一病例提醒我们,自杀行为和意念有多方面原因;为了避免误诊和不恰当的治疗,临床医生只有在排除其它可能的原因后才能推断自杀行为和意念是抑郁症的直接结果。本文也讨论了自1886年Enrico Morselli首度报道BDD后,在理解BDD和BDD的诊断标准上的诸多变化。

  1. 大学生躯体变形障碍发生情况及其影响因素%Prevalence and influencing factors of body dysmorphic disorder among undergraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑铮; 张宁

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解大学生躯体变形障碍的发生及其影响因素,为引导大学生积极体像的形成以及对躯体变形障碍的有效干预提供理论依据.方法 整群随机抽取南京市6所高校428名在校大学生,采用躯体变形障碍问卷中文版、DSM-Ⅳ- TR轴Ⅰ障碍定式临床检查病人版、自尊量表、Beck抑郁自评问卷和16项人格因素问卷进行调查与访谈.结果 大学生中躯体变形障碍的检出率为5.37%,检出率在性别(x2=0.565,P>0.05)、专业(x2=1.864,P>0.05)、年级(x2=0.176,P>0.05)之间的差异均无统计学意义;自尊水平及抑郁程度在躯体变形障碍与非躯体变形障碍大学生之间的差异有统计学意义;在稳定性、恃强性、兴奋性、敢为性、敏感性、怀疑性、世故性、忧虑性、独立性、自律性、紧张性人格因素上,躯体变形障碍与非躯体变形障碍大学生之间的差异有统计学意义.结论 大学生躯体变形障碍发生率较高,躯体变形障碍大学生的自尊水平较低,抑郁程度较高并具有某些人格特质.%Objective To explore the prevalence and influencing factors of body dysmorphic disorder among undergraduates. Methods A total of 428 participants were enrolled in the study by random sampling. They were measured and interviewed with BDDQ, SCID - I /P, BDI, SES and 16PF. Results The prevalence rate of body dysmorphic disorder among undergraduates was 5.37% , and it was statistically differed by genders(x2 =0.565, P >0.05) , major (x2 = 1. 864, P>0.05) and grades(x2 = 0. 176, P > 0.05 ). Scores of BDI, SES and 16PF (except gregaropisness, intelligence, perseverance, fantasy and experimentation ) were significantly different between BDD and non-BDD students. Conclusion The prevalence of BDD in undergraduates is rather high. BDD students were apt to low self-esteem, high depression level and certain personality traits.

  2. The relationship between perceived social support and severity of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms: the role of gender O efeito do gênero sobre a relação entre suporte social apreendido e gravidade dos sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Marques

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether social support is associated with severity of body dysmorphic symptoms is unknown. To address this gap in the literature, the present study aims to examine the association between three domains of perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others and severity of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. METHOD: Participants (N = 400 with symptoms consistent with diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder completed measures of symptomatology and social support via the internet. RESULTS: More perceived social support from friends and significant others was associated with less severe body dysmorphic disorder symptoms for males, and more perceived social support from family and friends was associated with less severe body dysmorphic disorder symptoms among females. Additionally, gender moderated the association between perceived social support from significant others and symptom severity, such that perceived social support from a significant other was significantly negatively associated with body dysmorphic symptom severity in males, but not females. CONCLUSION: The present study implicates social support as an important area of future body dysmorphic disorder research.OBJETIVO: Não há informação sobre o impacto do suporte social apreendido sobre a gravidade dos sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal. A fim de investigar essa relação, este estudo visa avaliar a associação entre três domínios do suporte social apreendido (familiares, amigos, e relacionamentos amorosos significativos e a gravidade dos sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal. MÉTODO: Os participantes (N = 400 com sintomas compatíveis com o diagnóstico de transtorno dismórfico corporal preencheram questionários sobre seus sintomas e suporte social via internet. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada correlação inversa estatisticamente significativa entre a apreensão do suporte social por parte de amigos e relacionamentos amorosos e a

  3. The relationship between perceived social support and severity of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms: the role of gender O efeito do gênero sobre a relação entre suporte social apreendido e gravidade dos sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Marques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether social support is associated with severity of body dysmorphic symptoms is unknown. To address this gap in the literature, the present study aims to examine the association between three domains of perceived social support (i.e., family, friends, and significant others and severity of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms. METHOD: Participants (N = 400 with symptoms consistent with diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder completed measures of symptomatology and social support via the internet. RESULTS: More perceived social support from friends and significant others was associated with less severe body dysmorphic disorder symptoms for males, and more perceived social support from family and friends was associated with less severe body dysmorphic disorder symptoms among females. Additionally, gender moderated the association between perceived social support from significant others and symptom severity, such that perceived social support from a significant other was significantly negatively associated with body dysmorphic symptom severity in males, but not females. CONCLUSION: The present study implicates social support as an important area of future body dysmorphic disorder research.OBJETIVO: Não há informação sobre o impacto do suporte social apreendido sobre a gravidade dos sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal. A fim de investigar essa relação, este estudo visa avaliar a associação entre três domínios do suporte social apreendido (familiares, amigos, e relacionamentos amorosos significativos e a gravidade dos sintomas do transtorno dismórfico corporal. MÉTODO: Os participantes (N = 400 com sintomas compatíveis com o diagnóstico de transtorno dismórfico corporal preencheram questionários sobre seus sintomas e suporte social via internet. RESULTADOS: Foi encontrada correlação inversa estatisticamente significativa entre a apreensão do suporte social por parte de amigos e relacionamentos amorosos e a

  4. Shadows of Beauty - Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Concerns in Germany is Increasing: Data from Two Representative Samples from 2002 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieler, Tanja; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Braehler, Elmar; Schut, Christina; Peters, Eva; Kupfer, Jörg

    2016-08-23

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychosomatic disease associated with reduced quality of life and suicidal ideations. Increasing attention to beauty and the development of beauty industries lead to the hypothesis that BDD is increasing. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis in two representative samples of Germans, assessed in 2002 and 2013. In 2002, n = 2,066 and in 2013, n = 2,508 Germans were asked to fill in the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ), which assesses dysmorphic concerns. Subclinical and clinical dysmorphic concerns increased from 2002 to 2013 (subclinical from 0.5% to 2.6%, OR = 5.16 (CI95% = 2.64; 10.06); clinical from 0.5% to 1.0%, OR = 2.20 (CI95% = 1.03; 4.73). Women reported more dysmorphic concerns than men, with rates of 0.7% subclinical and 0.8 clinical BDD in women and 0.3% subclinical and 0.1% clinical BDD in men in 2002. In 2013, 2.8% subclinical and 1.2% clinical BDD were found in women and 2.4% subclinical and 0.8% clinical BDD in men. Further studies should assess predictors for developing a BDD and evaluate factors determining the efficacy of disease-specific psychotherapeutic and psychotropic drug treatments.

  5. Shadows of Beauty - Prevalence of Body Dysmorphic Concerns in Germany is Increasing: Data from Two Representative Samples from 2002 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieler, Tanja; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Braehler, Elmar; Schut, Christina; Peters, Eva; Kupfer, Jörg

    2016-08-23

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a psychosomatic disease associated with reduced quality of life and suicidal ideations. Increasing attention to beauty and the development of beauty industries lead to the hypothesis that BDD is increasing. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis in two representative samples of Germans, assessed in 2002 and 2013. In 2002, n = 2,066 and in 2013, n = 2,508 Germans were asked to fill in the Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ), which assesses dysmorphic concerns. Subclinical and clinical dysmorphic concerns increased from 2002 to 2013 (subclinical from 0.5% to 2.6%, OR = 5.16 (CI95% = 2.64; 10.06); clinical from 0.5% to 1.0%, OR = 2.20 (CI95% = 1.03; 4.73). Women reported more dysmorphic concerns than men, with rates of 0.7% subclinical and 0.8 clinical BDD in women and 0.3% subclinical and 0.1% clinical BDD in men in 2002. In 2013, 2.8% subclinical and 1.2% clinical BDD were found in women and 2.4% subclinical and 0.8% clinical BDD in men. Further studies should assess predictors for developing a BDD and evaluate factors determining the efficacy of disease-specific psychotherapeutic and psychotropic drug treatments. PMID:27282243

  6. Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenahalli Jagadish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hypoparathyroidism, growth retardation and facial dysmorphism is a rare autosomal recessive disorder seen among children born to consanguineous couple of Arab ethnicity. This syndrome is commonly known as Sanjad-Sakati or hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism syndrome (HRD. We report 13-year-old Hindu boy with hypoparathyroidism, tetany, facial dysmorphism and developmental delay, compatible with HRD syndrome.

  7. Brief assessment of negative dysmorphic signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Fiori

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Patrizia Fiori1, Antonio Monaco1, Maria Giannetti Luigi21Central Operative Unit of Neurology, 2Infantile Neuropsychiatry and Social Service, ASL AV, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, University of Naples, ItalyAbstract: Body dysmorphic disorder is a body image dysperception, characterized either by an excessive preoccupation with a presumed or minimal flaw in appearance, or by unrecognition, denial, or even neglect regarding an obvious defect. These features are evaluated by a novel questionnaire, the Brief Assessment of Negative Dysmorphic Signs (BANDS. Moreover, the temperament and character background is examined. The relationship with addictive mentality/behavior and schizoaffectivity is also highlighted. Lastly, the potential shift toward cognitive impairment and dementia is considered.Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, schizoaffectivity, addiction, behavioral-cognitive impairment

  8. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  9. Body Dysmorphic Disorder%躯体变形障碍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪春运

    2004-01-01

    Morselli1886年描述了一种病人,这种病人即使外貌正常,但仍强迫性认为自己丑,并确信别人已发现自己丑,Momelli将该病称为变形恐怖症。1903年,Janet将之称为伴躯体羞耻感的强迫症,分类为类强迫症。后欧洲文献间或报道,但美国文献则很少提起。直到1987年,DSM-Ⅲ-R将该病称为躯体变形障碍,该领域研究才明显增加。

  10. Training interpretation biases among individuals with body dysmorphic disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Julie E; Sarfan, Laurel D; Clerkin, Elise M

    2016-03-01

    The current study provided an initial test of a Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretations (CBM-I) training paradigm among a sample with elevated BDD symptoms (N=86). As expected, BDD-relevant interpretations were reduced among participants who completed a positive (vs. comparison) training program. Results also pointed to the intriguing possibility that modifying biased appearance-relevant interpretations is causally related to changes in biased, socially relevant interpretations. Further, providing support for cognitive behavioral models, residual change in interpretations was associated with some aspects of in vivo stressor responding. However, contrary to expectations there were no significant effects of condition on emotional vulnerability to a BDD stressor, potentially because participants in both training conditions experienced reductions in biased socially-threatening interpretations following training (suggesting that the "comparison" condition was not inert). These findings have meaningful theoretical and clinical implications, and fit with transdiagnostic conceptualizations of psychopathology. PMID:26705744

  11. Young Adolescents' Body Dysmorphic Symptoms: Associations with Same- and Cross-Sex Peer Teasing via Appearance-based Rejection Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Haley J; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J; Mastro, Shawna; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Lavell, Cassie H

    2015-08-01

    In this study of young adolescents' (N = 188, M age  = 11.93, 54.8% females) body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms, we examined a theoretically-derived model to determine if symptoms could be explained by appearance-related teasing, general peer victimization, and social anxiety. BDD symptoms were assessed as distressing preoccupation with perceived appearance defects, social avoidance, and repeated grooming and appearance checking. Associations were expected to occur via the social-perceptual bias known as appearance-based rejection sensitivity (appearance-RS). The source of appearance teasing was also considered (same-sex vs. cross-sex peers), and age and gender moderation were assessed. As predicted, in a structural equation model, BDD symptoms were higher when adolescents self-reported more appearance teasing and higher social anxiety. Moreover, it was appearance teasing by cross-sex peers, rather than same-sex peers, that was uniquely associated with elevated BDD symptoms. These associations were partially mediated by appearance-RS. Notably, peer-reported general victimization was not associated with BDD symptoms. There was no evidence for gender moderation, but some age moderation was found, with stronger associations usually found among older compared to younger adolescents. The findings suggest that appearance-related social adversity, particularly cross-sex teasing, is linked with greater concerns about rejection due to appearance and, in turn, heightened BDD symptoms. This has important implications for understanding the development and treatment of BDD. Continued research to identify the social experiences and interpretative biases that contribute to BDD symptomology is needed. PMID:25582320

  12. General self-efficacy and body dysmorphic disorder of patients with deformities of the maxillofacial region%口腔颌面部畸形患者手术前后自我效能感与体像障碍的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克义; 许凯; 张彬

    2013-01-01

    in preoperative (P < 0.05).Postoperative satisfaction was comparatively lower for the patients whose GSES score was higher than 32 and 36 for SSBI in preoperative.Conclusion Oporation can enhance the self-efficacy of patients with oral and maxillofacial deformity and reduce the incidence of patients with body dysmorphic disorder tendency.

  13. Brief assessment of negative dysmorphic signs

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Fiori; Antonio Monaco; Maria Giannetti Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Patrizia Fiori1, Antonio Monaco1, Maria Giannetti Luigi21Central Operative Unit of Neurology, 2Infantile Neuropsychiatry and Social Service, ASL AV, Civil Hospital of Ariano Irpino, University of Naples, ItalyAbstract: Body dysmorphic disorder is a body image dysperception, characterized either by an excessive preoccupation with a presumed or minimal flaw in appearance, or by unrecognition, denial, or even neglect regarding an obvious defect. These features are evaluated by a novel questionna...

  14. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Building a Healthy Self-Image and Improving Self-Esteem 8 Things You Should Know About Body Dysmorphic ... personality disorder. Personality disorders are usually recognizable by adolescence or earlier, continue throughout adulthood, and become less ...

  15. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  16. Body Image and Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Maximiano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders should be understood in a multidimensional perspective, emphasizing a biopsicossocial context. In these pathologies it`s the body, in the first instance, that reveals the disease, being in this way the target of the conflict, revealing a disturbed body experience and as a consequence a weak conception of their personal body image. The body image is conceptualised as a subjective image that the individuals form in their own mind, about their body, in relation with differ- ent contexts of life. The intent of the studies is to comprehend the level of body image disturbance, which have concluded that in the majority of the cases, significant changes on perceptive capacity of the patients do not exist. In this way it`s important to study in a more effective and qualitative way the affective and personal factors. The authors pretend with this bibliographic revision, make a research of body image assessment to the Eating Disorders (Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa, and to reflect which are the best ones to adapt for Portuguese reality.

  17. Adolescence and Body Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinshenker, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses body image among adolescents, explaining that today's adolescents are more prone to body image distortions and dissatisfaction than ever and examining the historical context; how self-image develops; normative discontent; body image distortions; body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); vulnerability of boys (muscle dysmorphia); who is at risk;…

  18. Personality disorders and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Xu, Haiyong; French, Michael T; Ettner, Susan L

    2014-01-01

    We examine the impact of Axis II personality disorders (PDs) on body weight. PDs are psychiatric conditions that develop early in life from a mixture of genetics and environment, are persistent, and lead to substantial dysfunction for the affected individual. The defining characteristics of PDs conceptually link them with body weight, but the direction of the relationship likely varies across PD type. To investigate these links, we analyze data from Wave II of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. We measure body weight with the body mass index (BMI) and a dichotomous indicator for obesity (BMI≥30). We find that women with PDs have significantly higher BMI and are more likely to be obese than otherwise similar women. We find few statistically significant or economically meaningful effects for men. Paranoid, schizotypal, and avoidant PDs demonstrate the strongest adverse impacts on women's body weight while dependent PD may be protective against elevated body weight among men. Findings from unconditional quantile regressions demonstrate a positive gradient between PDs and BMI in that the effects are greater for higher BMI respondents.

  19. Somatoform Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a headache may mean a brain tumor. Body dysmorphic disorder occurs when a person becomes obsessed with a flaw in his or her physical appearance that is either a minor flaw or a flaw ... be any part of the body. Wrinkles, hair loss, weight gain, and size and ...

  20. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Prazeres AM; Nascimento AL; Fontenelle LF

    2013-01-01

    Angélica M Prazeres,1 Antônio L Nascimento,1 Leonardo F Fontenelle1,21Anxiety and Depression Research Program, Institute of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Hospital Universitário Antonio Pedro, Niterói, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to tr...

  1. Body dysmorphia and plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder is a mental disorder characterized by a preoccupation with some aspect of one's appearance. In cosmetic surgery, this preoccupation can be overlooked by practitioners resulting in a discrepancy between expected and realistic outcome. Identifying the characteristics of this disorder may be crucial to the practitioner-patient relationship in the plastic surgery setting. PMID:22929194

  2. Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenne, Jennifer L.; Beresin, Eugene V.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Eating disorders, including obesity, are a major public health problem today. Throughout history, body image has been determined by various factors, including politics and media. Exposure to mass media (television, movies, magazines, Internet) is correlated with obesity and negative body image, which may lead to disordered eating. The…

  3. [Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): interrogation of patients and theories for explanation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasten, E

    2009-01-01

    Apotemnophilia, Amputee Identity Disorder or Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is the intensive feeling that the body will be "more complete" after amputation of a limb. The article disputes the question of matching personality characteristics of these subjects and asks for motives. Based on reports of nine individuals, triggering experiences are referred. In contrast to other children, often these subjects were fascinated by the sight of a handicapped person. In the article is investigated, whether the concerned limb showed more affections. Described is typical pretending behavior. Parallels to body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), fetishism, or delusions are investigated. These were minor, in most cases the wish was fixated on a specific limb, the subjects were aware of the abnormity of their desire and quarreled with the pros and cons. Sexual motives were found in one third. Some of the interviewed persons were in medical or psychological therapy; this did not let the desire disappear. In several BIID sufferers the wish for amputation changed, e. g. from the left to the right leg. This finding is not in accordance with the brain-dysfunction-theory. These people rather have an ideal of a "perfect" body minus one arm or leg. Most admire the beauty of a stump, and see amputees as "heroes" who still master their life in spite of their handicap. BIID is not a homogenous disturbance, one should separate three axes: 1. Strength of neuronal dysfunction, 2. Psychic components (e. g. secondary morbid gain) and 3. Intensity of sexual interests. PMID:19101876

  4. Guy's Guide to Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Body Dysmorphic Disorder Are Steroids Worth the Risk? Delayed Puberty How Can I Improve My Self-Esteem? Body Image and Self-Esteem Help! Is This ...

  5. Body image, eating disorders, and the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Marjorie J; Strasburger, Victor C

    2008-12-01

    Adolescence is a time of tremendous change in physical appearance. Many adolescents report dissatisfaction with their body shape and size. Forming one's body image is a complex process, influenced by family, peers, and media messages. Increasing evidence shows that the combination of ubiquitous ads for foods and emphasis on female beauty and thinness in both advertising and programming leads to confusion and dissatisfaction for many young people. Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder. Pediatricians and other adults must work to promote media education and make media healthier for young people. More research is needed to identify the most vulnerable children and adolescents.

  6. Feminist identity, body image, and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Hannah M; Eisenberg, Marla E; Bucchianeri, Michaela M; Piran, Niva; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    Using data from a community-based sample (Project EAT-III), this study (N = 1241; mean age = 25.2) examined the relationship of feminist identity with body image and disordered eating. Feminist-identified women reported significantly higher body satisfaction than non-feminist women and women who did not identify as feminists but held feminist beliefs. However, feminist-identified women did not differ from non-feminist women in disordered eating. Women holding feminist beliefs and non-feminist women did not differ in body satisfaction. Our findings suggest that self-identification as a feminist may promote positive body image in young adult women, but may be insufficient to change behaviors. PMID:26694553

  7. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Cuzzolaro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological of BED and b to present the results of an original research on body image in obese patients with BED. The study was aimed to verify the following hypothesis: in persons with obesity, BED is associated with greater body uneasiness independently of some possible modulating factors. We studied a clinical sample of 159 (89 females and 70 males adult obese patients who fulfilled DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for BED matched to 159 non-BED obese patients for gender, ethnicity, BMI class, age, weight, stature, onset age of obesity, education level, and marital status. We used the Body Uneasiness Test (BUT, a valuable multidimensional tool for the clinical assessment of body uneasiness in subjects suffering from eating disorders and/or obesity. Obese patients with BED reported higher scores than non-BED patients in the General Severity Index (BUT-A GSI and in every BUT-A subscale. All differences were statistically significant in both sexes. As expected women obtained higher scores than men. According to some other studies, our findings suggest that a negative body image should be included among diagnostic criteria for BED. Consequently, treatment should be focused not simply on eating behaviour and outcome studies should evaluate changes of body image as well.

  8. Loose anagen hair syndrome associated with colobomas and dysmorphic features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kjaersgård; Brandrup, Flemming; Clemmensen, Ole

    2004-01-01

    Loose anagen hair syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder. It may occur in association with other syndromes and dysmorphic features. We report a girl who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for this syndrome as proposed by Tosti (Arch Dermatol 2002, 138: 521-522). She also had several other ano...

  9. Dysmorphic concern is related to delusional proneness and negative affect in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Charlotte; Thomas, Neil; Stephens, Jessie; Castle, David J; Rossell, Susan L

    2016-06-30

    Body image concerns are common in the general population and in some mental illnesses reach pathological levels. We investigated whether dysmorphic concern with appearance (a preoccupation with minor or imagined defects in appearance) is explained by psychotic processes in a community sample. In a cross-sectional design, two hundred and twenty six participants completed an online survey battery including: The Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire; the Peters Delusional inventory; the Aberrant Salience Inventory; and the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale. Participants were native English speakers residing in Australia. Dysmorphic concern was positively correlated with delusional proneness, aberrant salience and negative emotion. Regression established that negative emotion and delusional proneness predicted dysmorphic concern, whereas, aberrant salience did not. Although delusional proneness was related to body dysmorphia, there was no evidence that it was related to aberrant salience. Understanding the contribution of other psychosis processes, and other health related variables to the severity of dysmorphic concern will be a focus of future research. PMID:27085667

  10. A Review on Body Dysmorphic Disorder%躯体变形障碍研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑铮; 张宁; 何伦

    2006-01-01

    躯体变形障碍(BDD)是一种对想象或轻微外表缺陷的先占观念.作为一种精神障碍,BDD不仅危害患者的身心健康,还易引发复杂的医疗问题.本文总结了近年来有关躯体变形障碍的流行病学、病因,临床特征,以及治疗发面的进展,并对躯体变形障碍的名称由来作一回顾.

  11. Body-focused repetitive behavior disorders in ICD-11

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Jon E.; Dan J Stein

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the question of how body-focused repetitive behavior disorders (e.g., trichotillomania and skin-picking disorder) should be characterized in ICD-11. The article reviews the historical nosology of the two disorders and the current approaches in DSM-5 and ICD-10. Although data are limited and mixed regarding the optimal relationship between body-focused repetitive behavior disorders and nosological categories, these conditions should be included within the obsessive-compu...

  12. Muscle dysmorphia: Could it be classified as an addiction to body image?

    OpenAIRE

    FOSTER, ANDREW C.; Shorter, Gillian W.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Muscle dysmorphia (MD) describes a condition characterised by a misconstrued body image in which individuals who interpret their body size as both small or weak even though they may look normal or highly muscular. MD has been conceptualized as a type of body dysmorphic disorder, an eating disorder, and obsessive–compulsive disorder symptomatology. Method and aim Through a review of the most salient literature on MD, this paper proposes an alternative classification of MD – the ‘Add...

  13. Eating Disorders and Body Image of Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousley, Louise; Cordero, Elizabeth Diane; White, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate men are less documented and researched than are eating disorders and body dissatisfaction among undergraduate women. Objective and Participants: In this study, the authors examined these issues in undergraduate men to identify similarities and differences between this population and…

  14. A Dysmorphic Child with a Pericentric Inversion of Chromosome 8

    OpenAIRE

    Venkateshwari Ananthapur; Srilekha Avvari; Sujatha Madireddi; Pratibha Nallari; Jyothy Akka

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy was referred to our institute with dysmorphic features such as mild lupus, micrognathia, low hair line, hypoplasia, hemi atrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. MRI scan was found to be normal and EEG suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with 46, XY, and inv 8 (p11.2; q21.2) karyotype.

  15. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF, among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh; the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction were found in 43 (27.6% and 23 athletes (14.7%, respectively, and an association was detected between the two variables (p < 0.001. Athletes with and without disordered eating behaviors did not differ in %BF (11.0±5.2% and 9.8±4.0%, respectively; p = 0.106. However, athletes with body image dissatisfaction had higher %BF than those who were satisfied (12.6±5.9% and 9.7±3.9%, respectively; p = 0.034. There were no differences in BF, frequency of disordered eating behaviors, and body image dissatisfaction between sports categories. Conclusion: Nearly one-quarter of athletes showed disordered eating behaviors, which was associated with body image dissatisfaction. Athletes with higher %BF were more likely to be dissatisfied with body image. There was no difference in eating behavior and body image between athletes from different sports categories.

  16. Exploring the Complex Treatment Experiences of Eating Disorder Clients

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, G

    2012-01-01

    This case report provides a description of a course of therapy with a client who presented to a specialist eating disorder service for treatment for her primary diagnosis of Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) but who also had a previous diagnosis of Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD). The client was treated primarily with Fairburn’s (2008) “transdiagnostic” model of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for eating disorders (CBT-E) with integrated conceptualisations and interventions from a CB...

  17. New treatment models for compulsive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Fineberg, Naomi; van Ameringen, Michael; Cath, Danielle; Visser, Henny; Carmi, Lior; Pallanti, Stefano; Hollander, Eric; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2016-05-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as related disorders such as body dysmorphic disorder, tic disorder, and trichotillomania are all common and often debilitating. Although treatments are available, more effective approaches to these problems are needed. Thus this review article presents what is currently known about OCD and related disorders and suggests that understanding OCD more broadly as a compulsive disorder may allow for more effective treatment options. Toward that goal, the review presents new models of psychopharmacology and psychotherapy, as well as new brain stimulation strategies. Treatment advances, grounded in the neuroscience, have promise in advancing treatment response for OCD as well as other disorders of compulsivity. PMID:26621260

  18. [How relevant are diagnostics and therapy in body image disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Bauer, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Body image-related interventions become increasingly important in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Previous studies concerning body image disturbance conducted by means of diverse research methods focused on different components of body image - the perceptive, cognitive-emotional and the behavioral component. However, regarding the etiology, maintenance and treatment of body image disturbance in eating disorders, many questions remain unanswered. An integrative perspective on the different body image components within a theoretical framework as well as the development of specific body image-related interventions according to individual indications would be desirable. PMID:25594272

  19. Body dissatisfaction as an explanatory variable of eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Maganto Mateo; Soledad Cruz Saez

    2002-01-01

    Eating disorders ha ve increased over the last few years, as well as the age range of their initialonset which includes younger people. Food-related anxiety, fear of gaining weight, and obsession with thinness are associated with variables of age, sex, social leve!, body mass index, distortion and dissatisfaction with body image are considered risk factors for eating disorders. This research examined the relationship among these factors and analyzed their predictive value. The participants we...

  20. Disordered eating behaviors and body image in male athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Reistenbach Goltz; Lucia Marques Stenzel; Cláudia Dornelles Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify disordered eating behaviors and body image dissatisfaction, as well as their relationship to body fat (BF), among male athletes in high risk sports for eating disorders. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six male athletes were divided into the following categories: weight-class sports, sports where leanness improves performance, and sports with aesthetic ideals. BF was assessed and three questionnaires were used: the Eating Attitudes Test; the Bulimic Investigatory Test,...

  1. Gastrointestinal disorders and symptoms: does body mass index matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, M.G.H. van; Josemanders, D.F.; Laheij, R.J.F.; Rossum, L.G.M. van; Tan, A.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown inconsistent results about the association between body mass index (BMI) and gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association between BMI and gastrointestinal disorders in patients referred for endoscopy. METHODS: Consecutive patie

  2. An Empirical Model of Body Image Disturbance Using Behavioral Principles Found in Functional Analytic Psychotherapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Glenn M.; Duenas, Julissa A.; Nadeau, Sarah E.; Darrow, Sabrina M.; Van der Merwe, Jessica; Misko, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The literature examining body image disturbance and Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is fraught with competing theoretical constructions of the etiology and nosology of these problems. Recent studies on various forms of psychopathology suggest that intrapersonal processes, including experiential avoidance, and interpersonal processes such as…

  3. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jáuregui-Lobera I

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF, specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods.Patients and methods: The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 59 women and seven men. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Appreciation Scale (BAS, Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI-SP, Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R and Thought-Shape Fusion Questionnaire (TSF-Q.Results: Significant correlations were found between TSF-Q and body image-related variables. Those with higher scores in TSF showed higher scores in the BSQ (P < 0.0001, Eating Disorder Inventory – Drive for Thinness (EDI-DT (P < 0.0001, and Eating Disorder Inventory – Body Dissatisfaction (EDI-BD (P < 0.0001. The same patients showed lower scores in the BAS (P < 0.0001. With respect to the psychopathological variables, patients with high TSF obtained higher scores in all SCL-90-R subscales as well as in the STAI.Conclusion: The current study shows the interrelations among different body image-related variables, TSF, and body image quality of life.Keywords: cognitive distortions, quality of life, body appreciation, psychopathology, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa

  4. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  5. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio; Bolaños-Ríos, Patricia; Ruiz-Prieto, Inmaculada

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understanding of the links between body image concerns and a specific bias consisting of beliefs about the consequences of thinking about forbidden foods. Patients and methods The final sample included 76 eating disorder patients (mean age 20.13 ± 2.28 years; 5...

  6. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera; Patricia Bolaños Ríos

    2011-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED) clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body...

  7. Menstruation disorders in adolescents with eating disorders ? target body mass index percentiles for their resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Vale, B; De Brito, S.; Paulo, L; Moleiro, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyse the progression of body mass index in eating disorders and to determine the percentile for establishment and resolution of the disease. Methods A retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Review of clinical files of adolescents with eating disorders. Results Of the 62 female adolescents studied with eating disorders, 51 presented with eating disorder not otherwise specified, 10 anorexia nervosa, and 1 bulimia nervosa. Twenty-one of these adolescents had menstrual d...

  8. Body dissatisfaction as an explanatory variable of eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maganto Mateo

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders ha ve increased over the last few years, as well as the age range of their initialonset which includes younger people. Food-related anxiety, fear of gaining weight, and obsession with thinness are associated with variables of age, sex, social leve!, body mass index, distortion and dissatisfaction with body image are considered risk factors for eating disorders. This research examined the relationship among these factors and analyzed their predictive value. The participants were 200 adolescents (104 boys and 96 girls, aged between 14 and 17 years. The testsused werc the STAI, EDI-2, EAT and two experimental tests. The results indicated that underlying these disorders were distorted body-image perception and dissatisfaction. The risk for girlsincreased between 15 and 16 years. Dissatisfaction with global physical aspect, distortion of body size, age, and trait anxiety were revealed as predictive factors.

  9. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (Pschizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  10. Out of my real body. Cognitive Neuroscience meets Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eRiva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models - the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory – identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: Why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an eating disorder? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders?In this paper we suggest that a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience. First, our bodily representations are not just a way to map an external space but the main tool we use to generate meaning, organize our experience, and shape our social identity. In particular, we will argue that our bodily experience evolves over time by integrating six different representations of the body characterized by specific pathologies – body schema (phantom limb, spatial body (unilateral hemi-neglect, active body (alien hand syndrome, personal body (autoscopic phenomena, objectified body (xenomelia and body image (body dysmorphia. Second, these representations include either schematic (allocentric or perceptual (egocentric contents that interact within the working memory of the individual through the alignment between the retrieved contents from long-term memory and the ongoing egocentric contents from perception. In this view eating disorders may be the outcome of an impairment in the ability of updating a negative body representation stored in autobiographical memory (allocentric with real-time sensorimotor and proprioceptive data

  11. Eating Disorder Risk and Body Dissatisfaction Based on Muscularity and Body Fat in Male University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Participants: Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Methods: Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body…

  12. Major depressive disorder alters perception of emotional body movements

    OpenAIRE

    Morten eKaletsch; Sebastian ePilgramm; Matthias eBischoff; Stefan eKindermann; Isabell eSauerbier; Rudolph eStark; Stefanie eLis; Bernd eGallhofer; Gebhard eSammer; Karen eZentgraf; Joern eMunzert; Britta eLorey

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown an association between mood disorders and an altered emotion perception. However, these studies were conducted mainly with stimuli such as faces. This is the first study to examine possible differences in how people with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy controls perceive emotions expressed via body movements. Thirty patients with MDD and thirty healthy controls observed the video scenes of human interactions conveyed by point-light displays (PLDs). Th...

  13. A Dysmorphic Child with a Pericentric Inversion of Chromosome 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateshwari Ananthapur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old boy was referred to our institute with dysmorphic features such as mild lupus, micrognathia, low hair line, hypoplasia, hemi atrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. MRI scan was found to be normal and EEG suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with 46, XY, and inv 8 (p11.2; q21.2 karyotype.

  14. A dysmorphic child with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthapur, Venkateshwari; Avvari, Srilekha; Madireddi, Sujatha; Nallari, Pratibha; Akka, Jyothy

    2012-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy was referred to our institute with dysmorphic features such as mild lupus, micrognathia, low hair line, hypoplasia, hemi atrophy of left side of the face, abnormal size of ears, hypothenar, hypoplasia of chin, and tongue tie. MRI scan was found to be normal and EEG suggestive of generalized seizure disorder. Cytogenetic evaluation of the proband revealed a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 with 46, XY, and inv 8 (p11.2; q21.2) karyotype. PMID:22606536

  15. [Somatoform disorders in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konichezky, Andres; Gothelf, Doron

    2011-02-01

    Somatoform disorders among children and adolescents may cause impairment in educational and social functioning and generate a great deal of psychosocial distress. The diagnosis of such disorders is complex due to the fact that they may appear as medical conditions. Hence, most of somatoform patients do not seek psychiatric assistance. The common feature of somatoform disorders as described in DSM-IV-TR is the presence of physical symptoms suggesting an underlying medical condition that is either not found or does not account for the level of functional impairment. The diagnostic criteria for the somatoform disorders were established for adults and are applied to children for lack of child-specific research base and a developmentally appropriate alternative system. The most common somatoform disorders in children and adolescents are recurrent abdominal pain and tension headache. Other disorders in the category include: somatization disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder Treatment is applied through a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. SSRI'S are effective in somatoform disorders that have co-morbidity with anxiety and depression as well as in body dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis. Conversion disorder is usually treated with benzodiazepines and pain disorder with light analgesics, tricyclics and tegretol. In terms of psychotherapy, treatments most effective for somatoform disorders have been found to be cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis and biofeedback. PMID:22164950

  16. Persistent body image disturbance following recovery from eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Eshkevari, E.; Rieger, E; Longo, Matthew R.; Haggard, P; Treasure, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been previously found that individuals with an eating disorder experience the rubber hand illusion (RHI) significantly more strongly than healthy controls on both perceptual (proprioceptive drift) and subjective (self-report embodiment questionnaire) measures. Such heightened sensitivity to visual information about the body, and reduced somatosensory information processing about the body, indicate an increased malleability of the bodily self. The aim of the present study wa...

  17. Body integrity identity disorder and the ethics of mutilation.

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The rare phenomenon in which a person desires amputation of a healthy limb, now often termed body integrity identity disorder, raises central questions for biomedical ethics. Standard bioethical discussions of surgical intervention in such cases fail to address the meaning of bodily integrity, which is intrinsic to a theological understanding of the goodness of the body. However, moral theological responses are liable to assume that such interventions necessarily represent an implicitly docet...

  18. Co-Morbidity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Motor Tics in an Eight Year–Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Zarei

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-Compulsive Disease (OCD incidence rate in children and adolescents is about 1-2 percent; males develop the disease more than females and it clearly is associated with attentiondeficithyperactivity disorder (ADHD, depression and body dysmorphic disorder. Regarding the fact that initial diagnosis and treatment of disorders with OCD in children can protect them from further problems in their life, in this study, the premature OCD with motor tic disorder in an 8-year-old boy is reported.

  19. Altered Visual Adaptation to Body Shape in Eating Disorders: Implications for Body Image Distortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Harald M; Rickmeyer, Constanze; Hummel, Dennis; Ernst, Mareike; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has shown that after adapting to a thin body, healthy participants (HP) perceive pictures of their own bodies as being fatter and vice versa. This aftereffect might contribute to the development of perceptual body image disturbances in eating disorders (ED).In the present study, HP and ED completed a behavioral experiment to rate manipulated pictures of their own bodies after adaptation to thin or fat body pictures. After adapting to a thin body, HP judged a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa, resembling a typical aftereffect. ED only showed such an adaptation effect when they adapted to fat body pictures.The reported results indicate a relationship between body image distortion in ED and visual body image adaptation. It can be suspected that due to a pre-existing, long-lasting adaptation to thin body shapes in ED, an additional visual adaption to thin body shapes cannot be induced. Hence this pre-existing adaptation to thin body shapes could induce perceptual body image distortions in ED. PMID:26921409

  20. Gender differences dominate sleep disorder patients' body problem complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted L. Rosenthal

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied it age, gender, diagnostic status, and psychiatric features affected 291 consecutive sleep disorder patient's body complaints on a brief checklist. Gender had a strong impact on all four (tested dependent measures, with women reporting more distress than men. Age produced significant regressions on two measures, with younger patients complaining more than older. Presence of psychiatric features was associated with more complaints on one dependent measure - previously found to reflect internal medicine patients' emotional distress. The results of regression analyses were largely supported by follow-up ANOVAs. However, contrasting insomniac versus hypersomniac versus all other sleep disorder diagnoses did not affect body complaints on any dependent measure. The results caution against combining males and females to compare self-reported distress between sleep disorders.

  1. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures. PMID:27634782

  2. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  3. Out of my real body: cognitive neuroscience meets eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED) as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models-the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory-identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an ED? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders? In this paper we suggest that the path to a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience. First, our bodily representations are not just a way to map an external space but the main tool we use to generate meaning, organize our experience, and shape our social identity. In particular, we will argue that our bodily experience evolves over time by integrating six different representations of the body characterized by specific pathologies-body schema (phantom limb), spatial body (unilateral hemi-neglect), active body (alien hand syndrome), personal body (autoscopic phenomena), objectified body (xenomelia) and body image (body dysmorphia). Second, these representations include either schematic (allocentric) or perceptual (egocentric) contents that interact within the working memory of the individual through the alignment between the retrieved contents from long-term memory and the ongoing egocentric contents from perception. In this view EDs may be the outcome of an impairment in the ability of updating a negative body representation stored in autobiographical memory (allocentric) with real-time sensorimotor and proprioceptive data (egocentric). PMID:24834042

  4. Out of my real body: cognitive neuroscience meets eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED) as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models-the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory-identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers to several critical questions: why do not all the individuals with obsessive compulsive features, anxious avoidance or with a dysfunctional scheme for self-evaluation develop an ED? What is the role of the body experience in the etiology of these disorders? In this paper we suggest that the path to a meaningful answer requires the integration of these models with the recent outcomes of cognitive neuroscience. First, our bodily representations are not just a way to map an external space but the main tool we use to generate meaning, organize our experience, and shape our social identity. In particular, we will argue that our bodily experience evolves over time by integrating six different representations of the body characterized by specific pathologies-body schema (phantom limb), spatial body (unilateral hemi-neglect), active body (alien hand syndrome), personal body (autoscopic phenomena), objectified body (xenomelia) and body image (body dysmorphia). Second, these representations include either schematic (allocentric) or perceptual (egocentric) contents that interact within the working memory of the individual through the alignment between the retrieved contents from long-term memory and the ongoing egocentric contents from perception. In this view EDs may be the outcome of an impairment in the ability of updating a negative body representation stored in autobiographical memory (allocentric) with real-time sensorimotor and proprioceptive data (egocentric).

  5. Body image quality of life in eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Jáuregui Lobera1, Patricia Bolaños Ríos21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavior Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The objective was to examine how body image affects quality of life in an eating-disorder (ED clinical sample, a non-ED clinical sample, and a nonclinical sample. We hypothesized that ED patients would show the worst body image quality of life. We also hypothesized that body image quality of life would have a stronger negative association with specific ED-related variables than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, mainly among ED patients. On the basis of previous studies, the influence of gender on the results was explored, too.Patients and methods: The final sample comprised 70 ED patients (mean age 22.65 ± 7.76 years; 59 women and 11 men; 106 were patients with other psychiatric disorders (mean age 28.20 ± 6.52; 67 women and 39 men, and 135 were university students (mean age 21.57 ± 2.58; 81 women and 54 men, with no psychiatric history. After having obtained informed consent, the following questionnaires were administered: Body Image Quality of Life Inventory-Spanish version (BIQLI-SP, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ, Self-Esteem Scale (SES, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R.Results: The ED patients' ratings on the BIQLI-SP were the lowest and negatively scored (BIQLI-SP means: +20.18, +5.14, and —6.18, in the student group, the non-ED patient group, and the ED group, respectively. The effect of body image on quality of life was more negative in the ED group in all items of the BIQLI-SP. Body image quality of life was negatively associated with specific ED-related variables, more than with other psychological and psychopathological variables, but not especially among ED patients.Conclusion: Body image quality of life was affected not only by specific pathologies related to body

  6. Major depressive disorder alters perception of emotional body movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKaletsch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research has shown an association between mood disorders and an altered emotion perception. However, these studies were conducted mainly with stimuli such as faces. This is the first study to examine possible differences in how people with major depressive disorder (MDD and healthy controls perceive emotions expressed via body movements. 30 patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls observed video scenes of human interactions conveyed by point–light displays (PLDs. They rated the depicted emotions and judged their confidence in their rating. Results showed that patients with MDD rated the depicted interactions more negatively than healthy controls. They also rated interactions with negative emotionality as being more intense and were more confident in their ratings. It is concluded that patients with MDD exhibit an altered emotion perception compared to healthy controls when rating emotions expressed via body movements depicted in PLDs.

  7. Binge Eating Disorder and Body Uneasiness

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Cuzzolaro; Maurizio Bellini; Lorenzo Donini; Chiara Santomassimo

    2008-01-01

    Debate continues regarding the nosological status of binge eating disorder (BED) and the specific diagnostic criteria, including whether, like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, it should be characterized by body image disturbances in addition to abnormal eating behaviour. The aims of this article are: a) to concisely review the main points of the literature that has developed on diagnosis and treatment (especially pharmacological) of BED and b) to present the results of an original resear...

  8. The Encultured Body: Policy Implications for Healthy Body Image and Disordered Eating Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Deanne, Ed.; Sanders, Fran, Ed.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide discussion of some of the most difficult and controversial issues surrounding body image and eating disorders, specifically, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. It includes contributions from a number of nationally and internationally recognized clinicians and researchers in the field. It also…

  9. The Relationship of Yoga, Body Awareness, and Body Responsiveness to Self-Objectification and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    Study 1 tested whether yoga practice is associated with greater awareness of and responsiveness to bodily sensations, lower self-objectification, greater body satisfaction, and fewer disordered eating attitudes. Three samples of women (43 yoga, 45 aerobic, and 51 nonyoga/nonaerobic practitioners) completed questionnaire measures. As predicted,…

  10. Apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder: a case report review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Khalil, Rami; Richa, Sami

    2012-12-01

    Apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder (BIID) denotes a syndrome in which a person is preoccupied with the desire to amputate a healthy limb. In this report, we review the available case reports in the literature in order to enhance psychiatrists' and physicians' comprehension of this disorder. A search for the case reports available via MEDLINE was done since the first case report published by Money et al in 1977 till May 2011, using the following terms: apotemnophilia, self-demand amputation, body integrity identity disorder, and BIID. In all, 14 case reports were found relevant to our search. The desire to amputate one's healthy limb seems to be related to a major disturbance in the person's perception of one's own identity, where limb amputation can relieve temporarily the patient's feeling of distress without necessarily and uniformly adjusting the patient's own identity misperception. More investigations are needed in this domain in order to develop noninvasive treatment strategies that approach this aspect of the patient's distress within a globalist perspective. In addition, the health professionals' awareness regarding this disorder is required to ensure professional management of patients' suffering. PMID:23089967

  11. Media images, body dissatisfaction, and disordered eating in adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrist, Linda C

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the literature related to the media, body image, and diet/weight issues in children and young women. The media holds an awesome power to influence young women, bombarding them with images of abnormally thin models who seem to represent the ideal. When the majority of adolescents inevitably fail to achieve the extremely thin image they crave, body dissatisfaction results, and disordered eating can begin. Emerging research in the pediatric and adolescent literature demonstrates that children as young as 5 are already anxious about their bodies, and want to be thinner. This obsessive interest in body weight is only fueled by a dramatic increase in the number of Internet Web sites devoted to disordered eating. Unfortunately many of the Web sites are "pro-ana" (pro anorexia) and "pro-mia" (pro bulimia); these Web sites encourage young people at risk to begin starving themselves, or to begin binge-purging. As nurses know, each of these scenarios can lead to serious illness, and sometimes to death. PMID:12629318

  12. I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Myocardial Scintigraphy in Lewy Body-Related Disorders: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Joo Chung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lewy body-related disorders are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, which have abnormal aggregations of α-synuclein in the nigral and extranigral areas, including in the heart. 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG scintigraphy is a well-known tool to evaluate cardiac sympathetic denervation in the Lewy body-related disorders. MIBG scintigraphy showed low uptake of MIBG in the Lewy body-related disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review summarizes previous results on the diagnostic applications of MIBG scintigraphy in Lewy body-related disorders.

  13. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Le Grange; Rosanne Menna; Andrew Taylor; Zaitsoff, Shannon L.; Hamel, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC) and eating disorders (EDs) by: (a) comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD), and no psychiatric history; and (b) investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group). To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point ...

  14. Polar Body Diagnosis for Monogenic Disorders in Regensburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hehr A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polar body diagnosis (PBD is currently the only legal option to perform a preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD in Germany. The results of PBD for monogenic disorders performed at our center in Regensburg since 2001 are reported. Our data show that PBD can be safely performed on first and second polar bodies within the tight timeframe provided by the German Embryo Protection Act. It requires extensive interdisciplinary counseling of the couple, good and close cooperation between the IVF center and the genetics laboratory as well as meticulous development, validation, and performance of the individual genetic assay. Provided that these prerequisites are met, PBD can today be an acceptable option for German couples at high risk for a particular monogenic disorder in their offspring. Main arguments pro PBD usually include a decline of both conventional prenatal diagnosis and subsequently induced abortion of an affected offspring as well as the birth of an affected child. Major disadvantages of PBD in this situation include the requirement of assisted reproduction for couples in the absence of any obvious fertility problems with their immanent obstacles like pregnancy rate, remaining recurrence risk for the particular monogenic disorder, costs etc. Furthermore, PBD can only be offered for mutations, which are passed on by the female partner with her nuclear DNA (autosomal dominant, X-chromosomal as well as autosomal recessive traits. For heterozygous female mutation carriers of autosomal recessive or X-chromosomal inherited disorders PBD requires discarding all oocytes carrying the mutation, although they may result in healthy offspring if the sperm does not carry the mutation or the Y chromosome, respectively. Finally, both PBD as well as PGD can substantially reduce the recurrence risk for a particular monogenic disorder but not diminish it entirely. Therefore, conventional prenatal diagnosis (PND should still be offered and in fact has been

  15. Get your own mirror. Investigating how strict eating disordered women are in judging the bodies of other eating disordered women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Jessica; Jansen, Anita; Martijn, Carolien; Schepers, Jan; Nederkoorn, Chantal

    2013-09-01

    Previous research has shown that eating disordered women lack a self-serving body image bias and largely make self-defeating social comparisons. These factors influence how eating disordered women feel about their bodies, and may also influence treatment for disordered eating. In group mirror exposure therapy, women inevitably compare their own bodies to other women's bodies. Yet, how eating disordered women view their own bodies in relation to other women's bodies has never been investigated. This study investigated how subjects high in eating disorder symptoms ("high symptomatics") view the bodies of other women and of other high symptomatics specifically. Twelve high symptomatics and 13 low symptomatics viewed photos of, and rated the attractiveness of, their own and other participants' bodies. The results show that low symptomatics rated both other women's bodies and other low symptomatic bodies specifically as less attractive, but not as fatter, than their own bodies. In contrast, high symptomatics rated both other women's bodies and other high symptomatic bodies specifically as equally (un)attractive, but as thinner than their own bodies. These results suggest that high symptomatics lack a self-serving body image bias when it comes to aspects of weight specifically. Considering weight is a self-relevant dimension to eating disordered women, the impact of these self-defeating comparisons may be especially negative and may impede treatment progress. PMID:23623779

  16. Body dysmorphic disorder and how to screen aesthetic patients%躯体变形障碍与美容患者选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦虎; 范金财

    2009-01-01

    随着生活水平的提高,媒体对美的大肆宣传,人们变得越来越在意外貌。有报道74.3%的学生关心自己的外貌[1];普通人群众中10%的男性和15.6%的女性对外表非常不满意[2]。在美国从1997年到2004年美容手术增长了119%[3]。与此同时医疗纠纷也在迅速增长,有时由于求美者存在心理障碍一台成功的美容手术并不能使其满意,常常引起医疗纠纷,甚之暴力流血事件[4]。

  17. 躯体变形障碍与美容整形术前心理评估%Body Dysmorphic Disorder and Psychological Assessment before Aesthetic Plastic Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑铮; 张宁

    2010-01-01

    躯体变形障碍是一种并不罕见的精神障碍,其临床表现的特殊性使大多数患者以普通求术者的身份出现在美容整形科医生面前.然而,美容整形手术非但不能解决患者的心理问题,更可能引发复杂的医疗纠纷.基于躯体变形障碍在美容整形科呈高发生率的特点,文章对美容整形术前心理评估的必要性和现状进行分析,并列举了有效的评估工具以提高心理评估的准确性.

  18. A Case Study on Psychological Technique of Body Dysmorphic Disorder%运用心理技术治疗惧畸障碍的个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱会明

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过介绍对1名惧畸障碍患者的诊断与干预,探讨用心理技术治疗惧畸障碍的方法及过程.方法 依据医学鉴定结果,症状自评量表(SCL-90)测量结果以及典型行为表现诊断惧畸障碍.根据患者的实际情况采用现察法、谈话法、认知疗法以及放松训练等心理技术,制定详细的治疗划并时其进行心理咨询与治疗.结果 治疗后惠者的焦虑、抑郁等消极情绪有了显著改善(P<0.01),惧畸障碍得到了有效控制,最终治愈.结论 运用观察法、谈话法、认知疗法以及放松训练等心理技术对惧畸障碍进行治疗是有效的.

  19. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising. PMID:27408719

  20. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising.

  1. Body checking behaviors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D Catherine; Anderson, Drew A; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Males have been facing increasing pressure from the media to attain a lean, muscular physique, and are at risk for body dissatisfaction, disturbed eating and exercise behaviors, and abuse of appearance- and performance-enhancing drugs (APEDs). The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between body checking and mood, symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, importance of shape and weight, and APED use in undergraduate males. Body checking in males was correlated with weight and shape concern, symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, depression, negative affect, and APED use. Body checking predicted APED use and uniquely accounted for the largest amount of variance in Muscle Dysmorphic Disorder Inventory (MDDI) scores (16%). Findings support the view that body checking is an important construct in male body image, muscle dysmorphia, and body change strategies and suggest a need for further research. PMID:19482568

  2. Body-esteem, body mass index, and risk for disordered eating among adolescents in synchronized swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Claude; Magnan, Claire; Philippe, Roberta Antonini

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine dimensions of body-esteem, Body Mass Index, and their relations with eating disorder symptoms among 42 elite adolescent athletes engaged in competitive synchronized swimming (M = 15.4 yr., SD = 1.2) and to compare them with 40 athletes in sports with no emphasis on leanness (M = 16.5 yr., SD = .93), and 50 nonathlete college female students (M = 16.3 yr., SD = 1.1). They completed the Body-esteem Scale and the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Body Mass Index was computed. Analysis showed synchronized swimmers reported greater negative feelings about their appearance than the two other groups and low perceptions of how others evaluate their physical appearance. Participants did not differ on the EAT-26. Regression analyses showed that Body Mass Index and Body-esteem Appearance accounted for 38% of the variance in log-transformed Dieting scores of synchronized swimmers. Results are discussed in relation to the literature. PMID:16491692

  3. Body mass index and psychiatric disorders: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Bowden, Jack; Loret de Mola, Christian; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Davey Smith, George; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a highly prevalent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases. Observational studies suggest that obesity is associated with psychiatric traits, but causal inference from such studies has several limitations. We used two-sample Mendelian randomization methods (inverse variance weighting, weighted median and MR-Egger regression) to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with three psychiatric traits using data from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits and Psychiatric Genomics consortia. Causal odds ratio estimates per 1-standard deviation increment in BMI ranged from 0.88 (95% CI: 0.62; 1.25) to 1.23 (95% CI: 0.65; 2.31) for bipolar disorder; 0.93 (0.78; 1.11) to 1.41 (0.87; 2.27) for schizophrenia; and 1.15 (95% CI: 0.92; 1.44) to 1.40 (95% CI: 1.03; 1.90) for major depressive disorder. Analyses removing potentially influential SNPs suggested that the effect estimates for depression might be underestimated. Our findings do not support the notion that higher BMI increases risk of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Although the point estimates for depression were consistent in all sensitivity analyses, the overall statistical evidence was weak. However, the fact that SNP-depression associations were estimated in relatively small samples reduced power to detect causal effects. This should be re-addressed when SNP-depression associations from larger studies become available. PMID:27601421

  4. Suicide in Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Karakus

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a complex term. Suicide attempts are common in women, but completed suicide rates are higher in men. Several demographic factors, stressful life events, previous suicide attempts, childhood abuse, physical or psychiatric disorders are risk factors for suicide. Suicide rates in a variety of mental disorders is more than the normal population. Data on rates and risk factors of suicide in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders are limited. Present data are often associated with patients with obsessive compulsive disorder and body dysmorphic disorder. Lifetime suicidal ideation rates in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder is within a range of 36-63%. Any comorbid psychiatric diagnosis is an important risk factor for suicide in this disorder. This article aims to review the relationship between suicide and obsessive compulsive and related disorders [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 402-413

  5. Photoanthropometric Study of Dysmorphic Features of the Face in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Ziora; Agnieszka Kapinos- Gorczyca; Piotr Gorczyca; Joanna Oświęcimska

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Childhood autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and by a pattern of stereotypical behaviors and interests. The aim of this study was to estimate the dysmorphic facial features of children with autism and children with Asperger syndrome . Methods: The examination was conducted on 60 children (30 with childhood autism and 30 with Asperger syndrome). The photo anthropometric method used in this ...

  6. The body as a simulacrum of identity: the subjective experience in the eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Brogna

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at better understanding the subjective experience, the so-called Erlebnis, in individuals diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED. We shall highlight the particular way in which people with such disorders perceive their own bodies and specifically how they perceive their bodies in the presence of other people. To this end we shall analyze the subjective experience by means of two concepts as described by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre: "body-self" and "body-forothers". Our hypothesis is that some people suffering from eating disorders, especially those with a diagnosis of Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS, experience their body mainly as body-for-others. Rather than a diagnostic category, EDNOS could be conceived as an anthropological configuration vulnerable to ED. Eating disorders appear as an "identity disorder" characterized by a suspension of the experiential polarity between self and other-than-self.

  7. The body as a simulacrum of identity: the subjective experience in the eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogna, Patrizia; Caroppo, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at better understanding the subjective experience, the so-called Erlebnis, in individuals diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED). We shall highlight the particular way in which people with such disorders perceive their own bodies and specifically how they perceive their bodies in the presence of other people. To this end we shall analyze the subjective experience by means of two concepts as described by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre: "body-self" and "body-forothers". Our hypothesis is that some people suffering from eating disorders, especially those with a diagnosis of Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), experience their body mainly as body-for-others. Rather than a diagnostic category, EDNOS could be conceived as an anthropological configuration vulnerable to ED. Eating disorders appear as an "identity disorder" characterized by a suspension of the experiential polarity between self and other-than-self.

  8. The body as a simulacrum of identity: the subjective experience in the eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogna, Patrizia; Caroppo, Emanuele

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at better understanding the subjective experience, the so-called Erlebnis, in individuals diagnosed with Eating Disorders (ED). We shall highlight the particular way in which people with such disorders perceive their own bodies and specifically how they perceive their bodies in the presence of other people. To this end we shall analyze the subjective experience by means of two concepts as described by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre: "body-self" and "body-forothers". Our hypothesis is that some people suffering from eating disorders, especially those with a diagnosis of Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS), experience their body mainly as body-for-others. Rather than a diagnostic category, EDNOS could be conceived as an anthropological configuration vulnerable to ED. Eating disorders appear as an "identity disorder" characterized by a suspension of the experiential polarity between self and other-than-self. PMID:21169675

  9. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders. PMID:26178486

  10. Body image disturbance in binge eating disorder: a comparison of obese patients with and without binge eating disorder regarding the cognitive, behavioral and perceptual component of body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, Merle; Nasrawi, Nadia; Schroeder, Dorothea; Vocks, Silja

    2016-03-01

    Whereas the manifestation of body image disturbance in binge eating disorder (BED) has been intensively investigated concerning the cognitive-affective component, with regard to the behavioral and the perceptual components of body image disturbance in BED, research is limited and results are inconsistent. Therefore, the present study assessed body image disturbance in BED with respect to the different components of body image in a sample of obese females (n = 31) with BED compared to obese females without an eating disorder (n = 28). The Eating Disorder Inventory-2, the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Body Image Avoidance Questionnaire and the Body Checking Questionnaire as well as a Digital Photo Distortion Technique based on a picture of each participant taken under standardized conditions were employed. Using two-sample t tests, we found that the participants with BED displayed significantly greater impairments concerning the cognitive-affective component of body image than the control group. Concerning the behavioral component, participants with BED reported more body checking and avoidance behavior than the controls, but group differences failed to reach significance after the Bonferroni corrections. Regarding the perceptual component, a significant group difference was found for the perceived "ideal" figure, with the individuals suffering from BED displaying a greater wish for a slimmer ideal figure than the control group. These results support the assumption that body image disturbance is a relevant factor in BED, similar to other eating disorders.

  11. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cros...

  12. Dysmorphism of the middle ear: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solero, P; Ferrara, M; Musto, R; Pira, A; Di Lisi, D

    2005-10-01

    Although there are numerous publications in the literature describing the wide range of diagnosis, classifications and treatment of malformations of the hearing apparatus, even more variations can be found in clinical practice. Indeed, each individual case is unique as far as concerns pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment. The case reported herein describes a 12-year-old boy affected by cranio-facial dysmorphism and monolateral conductive hearing loss in the right ear: followed from radiological diagnosis--carried out to study a malformation of the ear pinna--to surgical treatment. PMID:16602328

  13. Male body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptomatology: moderating variables among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Zanetti, Assunta M; Riva, Giuseppe; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Volpato, Chiara; Madeddu, Fabio; Clerici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is recognized as a robust risk factor for eating disorders. Despite over 80% of college men being body dissatisfied, not all men report several levels of eating disorder symptoms. In this study, we examined poor impulse control, social anxiety and internalization of media ideals as potential moderators. Data collected from 405 college-aged men were analysed, using latent variable structural equation modelling approach. All variables investigated have been found to moderate the body dissatisfaction-eating disorder symptomatology, such that male body dissatisfaction was strongly related to men's eating disorder symptomatology when each moderator was at its highest level. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:23988683

  14. Body-Related Social Comparison and Disordered Eating among Adolescent Females with an Eating Disorder, Depressive Disorder, and Healthy Controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Le Grange

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between body-related social comparison (BRSC and eating disorders (EDs by: (a comparing the degree of BRSC in adolescents with an ED, depressive disorder (DD, and no psychiatric history; and (b investigating whether BRSC is associated with ED symptoms after controlling for symptoms of depression and self-esteem. Participants were 75 girls, aged 12–18 (25 per diagnostic group. To assess BRSC, participants reported on a 5-point Likert scale how often they compare their body to others’. Participants also completed a diagnostic interview, Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (EDI-2, Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE. Compared to adolescents with a DD and healthy adolescents, adolescents with an ED engaged in significantly more BRSC (p ≤ 0.001. Collapsing across groups, BRSC was significantly positively correlated with ED symptoms (p ≤ 0.01, and these associations remained even after controlling for two robust predictors of both ED symptoms and social comparison, namely BDI-II and RSE. In conclusion, BRSC seems to be strongly related to EDs. Treatment for adolescents with an ED may focus on reducing BRSC.

  15. Body attitudes in patients with eating disorders at presentation and completion of intensive outpatient day treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exterkate, C.C.; Vriesendorp, P.F.; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2009-01-01

    Due to the importance of the distorted body experience in eating disorder diagnosis and treatment, we wanted to explore body attitudes of patients with eating disorders before and after 5 months of intensive specialized outpatient day treatment. We assessed 193 patients diagnosed with Anorexia Nervo

  16. Practice and Educational Gaps in Dermatology: Disorders of the Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colavincenzo, Maria L

    2016-07-01

    Clinical practice gaps exist in the care of hair patients. Attitude gaps include a relative lack of dermatologists interested in caring for patients with hair complaints, a potential underestimation of the effect of hair disorders on the quality of patients' lives, and potential failure to recognize the presentation of body dysmorphic disorder among patients with hair complaints. Knowledge gaps regarding the prevalence and presentation of hair loss disorders may lead to a delay in diagnosis and treatment of hair patients. Skill gaps in physical examination, particularly with dermoscopy of the scalp and hair, may affect the care of hair patients. PMID:27363884

  17. Body Image and Eating Disorders among Female Students: A Pilot Nutritional Psychology Study in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comfort Nora Ntim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body image and eating disorders have emerged as an essential facet of bio-psychosocial well-being. Although considered less prevalent in Ghana than in the West, body image and eating disorders are issues of global concern. One hundred (100 female participants with a mean age of approximately 21 years were recruited after informed consent for this pilot study. Results showed a positive correlation between body image and eating disorders. In addition, there was no significant difference between the levels of university education on female body image and eating distortions in Ghana. These findings underscore the importance for more future studies in nutritional psychology and related clinical management.

  18. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders. PMID:25511202

  19. The sporting body: body image and eating disorder symptomatology among female athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M

    2015-01-01

    Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.

  20. Relevant risk factors, current eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero García, Anna; Sánchez Planell, Luis; Rusiñol Estragués, Jordi; Raich, Rosa M.; Sánchez Carracedo, David

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first aim of this study is to assess retrospectively the relevant risk factors in patients with Eating Disorders (EDs). The second aim is the assessment of eating psychopathology, body shape concern and psychological functioning in different groups of eating disorders. Method: Evaluation prior to intervention of 73 patients with bulimia nervosa of the purging type (BN-P; n=29), binge eating disorder (BED; n=6), eating disorder not otherwise specified purging type (EDNOS-P; n=17...

  1. Empowerment, feminism, and self-efficacy: relationships to body image and disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsaul, Jessica A E; Curtin, Lisa; Bazzini, Doris; Martz, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Sociocultural norms pertaining to an ideal of thinness for women likely play a role in the development and maintenance of disturbance in body image, and by extension, disordered eating. However, competing norms associated with feminism may buffer women from pressures associated with achieving the thin ideal. The present study explored the relationship between feminist ideology, empowerment, and self-efficacy relative to body image and eating behavior with a sample of U.S. undergraduate women (N=318) attending a southeastern U.S. mid-sized university. In planned hierarchical multiple regression analyses, endorsement of feminist ideology predicted perceptions of positive body image, but did not appear to predict disordered eating. Self-efficacy emerged as a robust predictor of positive body image and lower disordered eating even after controlling for perceptions of personal empowerment and feminism. Results, although limited by correlational data, suggest that self-efficacy may protect college-aged women from disordered eating and negative body image.

  2. Adolescent Females and Body Image: Eating Disorders and Educational Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Janice A.; Cuffaro, Maria Assunta

    2001-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the internal and external predisposing factors that signal potential eating disorders in females. It outlines the psychology of high ability females, which places them at greater risk for the development of an eating disorder and provides recommendations for identification and intervention. (Contains…

  3. Body-Related Emotions in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Anne S; Feldmann, Robert E; Borgmann, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic experiences are associated with emotions such as anxiety, shame, guilt, disgust, and anger. For patients who have experienced child sexual abuse, these emotions might be triggered by perceptions of their own body. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of the association of the body to traumatic experiences and to discern the emotions linked to trauma-associated body areas. Ninety-seven female participants were assigned to four groups: post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse with co-occurring borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder following child sexual abuse without co-occurring borderline personality disorder, borderline personality disorder without post-traumatic stress disorder, and healthy controls. Participants rated 26 body areas regarding their association with trauma and 7 emotions. Emotions were assessed by questionnaires. Results suggest that specific areas of the body are associated with trauma and linked to highly aversive emotions. In post-traumatic stress disorder patients, the areas associated with highly negative emotions were the pubic region and inner thighs. Thus, the patient's body may act as a trigger for traumatic memories. PMID:26340071

  4. Risk for eating disorders modulates startle-responses to body words

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelia Herbert; Andrea Kübler; Claus Vögele

    2013-01-01

    Body image disturbances are core symptoms of eating disorders (EDs). Recent evidence suggests that changes in body image may occur prior to ED onset and are not restricted to in-vivo exposure (e.g. mirror image), but also evident during presentation of abstract cues such as body shape and weight-related words. In the present study startle modulation, heart rate and subjective evaluations were examined during reading of body words and neutral words in 41 student female volunteers screened for ...

  5. StudentBodies-eating disorders: A randomized controlled trial of a coached online intervention for subclinical eating disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenine Saekow

    2015-11-01

    Results: Results indicate that for study completers, the intervention had large effects for reduction of eating-related psychopathology (d = 1.5, weight concerns (d = .7, and psychosocial impairment (d = .7. Those who completed it rated the program very acceptable. This pilot study suggests the potential efficacy of StudentBodies-Eating Disorders as a self-help intervention for subclinical eating disorders in a non-clinical setting.

  6. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior in a non-clinical sample of women: a cross-sectional investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Makeda; Masuda, Akihiko; Hill, Mary L; Goodnight, Bradley L

    2014-12-01

    Body image flexibility, a regulation process of openly and freely experiencing disordered eating thoughts and body dissatisfaction, has been found to be a buffering factor against disordered eating symptomatology. The present cross-sectional study investigates whether body image flexibility accounts for disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility in a sample of nonclinical women, and whether body image flexibility moderates the associations between these correlates and disordered eating behavior. Participants were 421 women, age 21±5.3 years old on average, who completed a web-based survey that included the self-report measures of interest. Results demonstrate the incremental effects of body image flexibility on disordered eating behavior above and beyond disordered eating cognition, mindfulness, and psychological inflexibility. Women with greater body image flexibility endorse disordered eating behavior less so than those with lower body image flexibility. Body image flexibility moderates the association between disordered eating cognition and disordered eating behavior; for women with greater body image flexibility, disordered eating cognition is not positively associated with disordered eating behavior.

  7. The drive for muscle leanness: a complex case with features of muscle dysmorphia and eating disorder not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, G; Blevins, N; Thompson, J K

    2006-12-01

    Muscle dysmorphia has been described as a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder in which an individual experiences severe body image disturbance related to muscularity. The current case is of a 20-year-old man who describes a history of muscle dysmorphia in which the nature of the body image concern is related to leanness (i.e., muscularity in the absence of body fat), as opposed to increasing muscle mass, which is how muscle dysmorphia has typically been characterized in the literature. The case illustrates the need to consider this additional facet of body image when diagnosing muscle dysmorphia. PMID:17272941

  8. Borderline personality disorder is associated with lower confidence in perception of emotional body movements

    OpenAIRE

    Kaletsch, Morten; Krüger, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Stark, Rudolf; Lis, Stefanie; Gallhofer, Bernd; Zentgraf, Karen; Munzert, Jörn; Sammer, Gebhard

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that personality disorders are associated with an altered emotion perception. Whereas most of this research was conducted with stimuli such as faces, the present study examined possible differences in the perception of emotions expressed via body language and body movements. 30 patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 30 non-patients observed video scenes of emotional human interactions conveyed by point–light displays, rated the depicted valence,...

  9. Borderline Personality Disorder is Associated with Lower Confidence in Perception of Emotional Body Movements

    OpenAIRE

    Morten eKaletsch; Britta eKrüger; Sebastian ePilgramm; Rudolf eStark; Stefanie eLis; Bernd eGallhofer; Karen eZentgraf; Jörn eMunzert; Gebhard eSammer

    2014-01-01

    Much recent research has shown that personality disorders are associated with an altered emotion perception. Whereas most of this research was conducted with stimuli such as faces, the present study examined possible differences in the perception of emotions expressed via body language and body movements. 30 patients with borderline personality disorder and 30 non-patients observed video scenes of emotional human interactions conveyed by point–light displays, rated the depicted valence, and j...

  10. A common cognitive, psychiatric, and dysmorphic phenotype in carriers of NRXN1 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas-Jornet, Marina; Esteba-Castillo, Susanna; Gabau, Elisabeth; Ribas-Vidal, Núria; Baena, Neus; San, Joan; Ruiz, Anna; Coll, Maria Dolors; Novell, Ramon; Guitart, Miriam

    2014-11-01

    Deletions in the 2p16.3 region that includes the neurexin (NRXN1) gene are associated with intellectual disability and various psychiatric disorders, in particular, autism and schizophrenia. We present three unrelated patients, two adults and one child, in whom we identified an intragenic 2p16.3 deletion within the NRXN1 gene using an oligonucleotide comparative genomic hybridization array. The three patients presented dual diagnosis that consisted of mild intellectual disability and autism and bipolar disorder. Also, they all shared a dysmorphic phenotype characterized by a long face, deep set eyes, and prominent premaxilla. Genetic analysis of family members showed two inherited deletions. A comprehensive neuropsychological examination of the 2p16.3 deletion carriers revealed the same phenotype, characterized by anxiety disorder, borderline intelligence, and dysexecutive syndrome. The cognitive pattern of dysexecutive syndrome with poor working memory and reduced attention switching, mental flexibility, and verbal fluency was the same than those of the adult probands. We suggest that in addition to intellectual disability and psychiatric disease, NRXN1 deletion is a risk factor for a characteristic cognitive and dysmorphic profile. The new cognitive phenotype found in the 2p16.3 deletion carriers suggests that 2p16.3 deletions might have a wide variable expressivity instead of incomplete penetrance.

  11. A novel 5q11.2 microdeletion in a child with mild developmental delay and dysmorphic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Paolo; Tortora, Cristina; Petillo, Roberta; Falco, Mariateresa; Miniero, Martina; De Brasi, Davide; Pisanti, Maria Antonietta

    2016-09-01

    5q11.2 Deletion is a very rare genomic disorder, and its clinical phenotype has not yet been characterized. This report describes a patient with an 8.6 Mb deletion, showing hypotonia, mild developmental delay, short stature, and distinctive dysmorphic features (frontal bossing, square face, deep-set eyes, prominent columella, long philtrum, thin lips). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Excoriation (skin-picking) disorder in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leibovici, Vera; Koran, Lorrin M; Murad, Sari;

    2015-01-01

    was more prevalent in the SPD-positive Jewish subsample (p=0.02). In the total sample, diabetes mellitus was more common in women than in men (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Lifetime SPD appears to be relatively common in Israeli adults and associated with other mental disorders. Differences in the self......OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the lifetime prevalence of Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder (SPD) in the Israeli adult population as a whole and compare SPD prevalence in the Jewish and Arab communities. We also explored demographic, medical and psychological correlates of SPD diagnosis....... METHODS: Questionnaires and scales screening for SPD, and assessing the severity of perceived stress, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), alcohol use, illicit drug use, and medical disorders were completed in a sample of 2145 adults attending medical settings...

  13. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Preston

    Full Text Available Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology.

  14. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Catherine; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate that the perceptual experience of the body can be readily manipulated using multisensory illusions. The current study exploits such illusions to modulate perceived body size in an attempt to influence body satisfaction. Participants were presented with stereoscopic video images of slimmer and wider mannequin bodies viewed through head-mounted displays from first person perspective. Illusory ownership was induced by synchronously stroking the seen mannequin body with the unseen real body. Pre and post-illusion affective and perceptual measures captured changes in perceived body size and body satisfaction. Illusory ownership of a slimmer body resulted in participants perceiving their actual body as slimmer and giving higher ratings of body satisfaction demonstrating a direct link between perceptual and affective body representations. Change in body satisfaction following illusory ownership of a wider body, however, was related to degree of (non-clinical) eating disorder psychopathology, which can be linked to fluctuating body representations found in clinical samples. The results suggest that body perception is linked to body satisfaction and may be of importance for eating disorder symptomology. PMID:24465698

  15. Carotid body tumors are not associated with an increased risk for sleep-disordered breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsteijn, L.T. van; Duinen, N. van; Ninaber, M.K.; Romijn, J.A.; Dijk, J.G. van; Kralingen, K.W. van; Havekes, B.; Smid, L.; Lammers, G.J.; Jansen, J.C.; Smit, J.W.; Thijs, R.D.; Corssmit, E.P.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Tumors in the carotid bodies may interfere with their function as peripheral chemoreceptors. An altered control of ventilation may predispose to sleep-disordered breathing. This study aimed to assess whether patients with unilateral or bilateral carotid body tumors (uCBT or bCBT, respective

  16. The Contribution of Emotion Regulation to Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Leslie; Zeman, Janice

    2006-01-01

    To understand whether difficulties in emotional functioning distinguish between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, a set of emotion regulation (i.e., negative emotion, emotional awareness, coping), demographic (i.e., age), and physical (i.e., BMI (Body Mass Index)) factors were assessed in 234 early adolescent girls, grades six to eight.…

  17. Acculturation, Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Eating-Disorder Symptomatology in Adolescent Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…

  18. Relationship between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating: mediating role of self-esteem and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechan, Inge; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating behavior is mediated through self-esteem and depression. If the effect of body dissatisfaction on disordered eating can be explained by self-esteem and depression, treatment may benefit from focusing more on self-esteem and depression than body dissatisfaction. We also hypothesized body image importance to be associated with lower self-esteem, stronger symptoms of depression, and more disordered eating. The results showed that the effect of body dissatisfaction on disorder eating was completely mediated, whereas the effect of body image importance was partly mediated. Both self-esteem and depression were significant mediators. Body image importance and self-esteem had a direct effect on restrained eating and compensatory behavior. Depression had a direct effect on binge eating. This effect was significantly stronger among women. Depression also had a direct effect on restrained eating. This effect was positive among women, but negative among men. The results support emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral theories of eating disorders, indicating that self-esteem and depression are the most proximal factors, whereas the effect of body dissatisfaction is indirect. The results point out the importance of distinguishing between different symptoms of bulimia. Depression may cause binge eating, but compensatory behavior depends on self-esteem and body image importance. The results suggest that women may turn to both binge eating and restrained eating to escape awareness of negative emotions, whereas men focus on eating to a lesser extent than women. Existing treatment focuses on eating behavior first and mechanisms such as self-esteem and depression second. The results from this study suggest that an earlier focus on self-esteem and depression may be warranted in the treatment of disordered eating. PMID:25574864

  19. Factors related to depression and eating disorders: self-esteem, body image, and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, H J; Sellers, M I; Waligroski, K

    1993-06-01

    To test hypotheses that women suffering from some form of eating disorder would experience lower self-esteem and higher depression and that women with lower self-esteem and greater depression would rate their attractiveness lower and see themselves as heavier than less depressed individuals, 42 college undergraduate women were individually administered the Eating Disorders Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory, and a Body Image/Attractiveness Perception Scale. A Pearson correlation indicated a substantial relation between scores on depression and scores on eating disorders, but nonsignificant values between self-esteem scores and scores on either eating disorders or on depression. Depression scores correlated significantly with rated body size, but not attractiveness, while self-esteem scores were significantly correlated with rated attractiveness, not body size. These results contradict literature on the relation between self-esteem and depression. Directions for additional research are discussed. PMID:8332667

  20. Out of my real body: cognitive neuroscience meets eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe eRiva

    2014-01-01

    Clinical psychology is starting to explain eating disorders (ED) as the outcome of the interaction among cognitive, socio-emotional and interpersonal elements. In particular two influential models - the revised cognitive-interpersonal maintenance model and the transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral theory – identified possible key predisposing and maintaining factors. These models, even if very influential and able to provide clear suggestions for therapy, still are not able to provide answers ...

  1. Posturographic destabilization in eating disorders in female patients exposed to body image related phobic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghieri, M; Monzani, D; Mackinnon, A; Ferrari, S; Gherpelli, C; Galeazzi, G M

    2016-08-26

    Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image. Results were compared to those obtained by eighteen healthy subjects. Eating disordered patients showed higher levels of body dissatisfaction and higher postural destabilization than controls, but this was limited to the conditions in which they were exposed to their mirror image or a fashion model image. Postural destabilization under these conditions correlated with measures of body dissatisfaction. In eating disordered patients, body related stimuli seem to act as phobic stimuli in the posturographic paradigm used. If confirmed, this has the potential to be developed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  2. Posturographic destabilization in eating disorders in female patients exposed to body image related phobic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghieri, M; Monzani, D; Mackinnon, A; Ferrari, S; Gherpelli, C; Galeazzi, G M

    2016-08-26

    Human postural control is dependent on the central integration of vestibular, visual and proprioceptive inputs. Psychological states can affect balance control: anxiety, in particular, has been shown to influence balance mediated by visual stimuli. We hypothesized that patients with eating disorders would show postural destabilization when exposed to their image in a mirror and to the image of a fashion model representing their body ideal in comparison to body neutral stimuli. Seventeen females patients attending a day centre for the treatment of eating disorders were administered psychometric measures of body dissatisfaction, anxiety, depression and underwent posturographic measures with their eyes closed, open, watching a neutral stimulus, while exposed to a full length mirror and to an image of a fashion model corresponding to their body image. Results were compared to those obtained by eighteen healthy subjects. Eating disordered patients showed higher levels of body dissatisfaction and higher postural destabilization than controls, but this was limited to the conditions in which they were exposed to their mirror image or a fashion model image. Postural destabilization under these conditions correlated with measures of body dissatisfaction. In eating disordered patients, body related stimuli seem to act as phobic stimuli in the posturographic paradigm used. If confirmed, this has the potential to be developed for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:27397012

  3. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein, Seyyed Abbas; Bahrami, Masoud; Mohamadirizi, Shahla; Paknaad, Zamzam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cross-correlation study. It was carried out in Sayed-Al-Shohada Hospital affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Two hundred and ten patients with cancer were selected and were asked tocomplete the demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ), and eating disorders questionnaire. SPSS statistical software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis’-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyzing the obtained data. Results: The mean values of age, body mass index (BMI), and duration of illness were 48.2 ± 13.20 years, 24.6 ± 4.6kg/m2, and 25.64 ± 21.24months, respectively. Most patients were married (87%), without university education (96%), unemployed (67%), and with incomes below their requirement (52%). Most patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (36.5%). They received chemotherapy as the main treatment (56.2%). In addition, mean ± SD of eating disorders and body image were 12.84 ± 4.7 and184.40 ± 43.68, respectively. Also, 49.7% of patients with cancer had an eating disorder. Among these, 29% had experiences of anorexia and 20.7% had bulimia. There was a significant negative correlation between the score of body image and eating disorders (r = −0.47, P = 0.01). Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that most patients with cancer had experienced symptoms of eating disorders. This may lead to a negative impact on

  4. Does Liposuction Improve Body Image and Symptoms of Eating Disorders?

    OpenAIRE

    Saariniemi, Kai M. M.; Asko M. Salmi; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unpleasant attention to unfavorable fat may have harmful psychological effects in terms of body dissatisfaction. As a consequence, this may cause abnormal eating regulation. It has been noted that women interested in liposuction self-report more eating problems. As far as we know, there are no prospective studies with standardized instruments providing sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic liposuction on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, publications o...

  5. Risk for eating disorders modulates startle-responses to body words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Herbert

    Full Text Available Body image disturbances are core symptoms of eating disorders (EDs. Recent evidence suggests that changes in body image may occur prior to ED onset and are not restricted to in-vivo exposure (e.g. mirror image, but also evident during presentation of abstract cues such as body shape and weight-related words. In the present study startle modulation, heart rate and subjective evaluations were examined during reading of body words and neutral words in 41 student female volunteers screened for risk of EDs. The aim was to determine if responses to body words are attributable to a general negativity bias regardless of ED risk or if activated, ED relevant negative body schemas facilitate priming of defensive responses. Heart rate and word ratings differed between body words and neutral words in the whole female sample, supporting a general processing bias for body weight and shape-related concepts in young women regardless of ED risk. Startle modulation was specifically related to eating disorder symptoms, as was indicated by significant positive correlations with self-reported body dissatisfaction. These results emphasize the relevance of examining body schema representations as a function of ED risk across different levels of responding. Peripheral-physiological measures such as the startle reflex could possibly be used as predictors of females' risk for developing EDs in the future.

  6. Evaluation of body dysmorphic disorder and analysis of body dysmorphic feature for seekers of Maxillofacial Plastic Surgery%颌面部整形求术者体像障碍的测评及体像特点的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芬; 孙惠; 白雪

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解颌面部整形求术者体像障碍的发病率,分析颌面部整形求术者的体像特点.方法:应用体像障碍自评量表对466名口腔颌面外科和整形外科以颌面部整形求术者进行问卷调查并进行结果分析.结果:466例颌面部整形求术者体像障碍的患病率为8.9%.颌面部整形求术者体貌关注度、他人评价度的分值明显高于其他;而体像障碍患者各组指标的分值均明显高于平均水平.结论:颌面部整形求术者比一般人具有较多的消极体像,体像障碍是颌面部整形求术者的常见心理疾病.颌面部整形求术者的自我缺陷意识强烈,非常关注他人对自身体像的评价,需针对这类患者进行心理疏导或美学指导.

  7. Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body dissatisfaction and mental disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka;

    2016-01-01

    Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11–12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours...... are associated with possible predictors of eating disorders, such as body dissatisfaction, weight status and mental disorders. A subsample of 1567 children (47.7% boys; 52.3% girls) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC2000) completed web-based questionnaires on eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction using...... The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent...

  8. Body image, disordered eating and anabolic steroid use in female bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S

    2009-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating practices are common among sports and activities that require low body fat or low body weight for enhanced performance. Competitive Bodybuilding is a sport that requires participants to be exceptionally lean and mesomorphic, thus participants may be vulnerable to developing unhealthy eating and weight control practices, as well as using anabolic steroids. This study compares competitive female bodybuilders (CFBBs) and recreational female weight-training controls (RFWTs) on a broad scope of eating related and general psychological characteristics. Anonymous questionnaires, designed to assess eating attitudes, body image, weight and shape preoccupation, prevalence of binge eating, body modification practices (including anabolic steroids), lifetime rates of eating disorders, and general psychological characteristics, were completed by 20 CFBBs and 25 RFWTs. High rates of weight and shape preoccupation, body dissatisfaction, bulimic practices, and anabolic steroid use were reported among CFBBs, and to a lesser degree, RFWTs. Differences between groups on general psychological factors were not statistically significant and effect sizes were small. CFBBs appear to share many eating-related features with women with bulimia nervosa but few psychological traits. Longitudinal research is needed to ascertain whether women with disordered eating or a history of bulimia nervosa disproportionately gravitate to competitive bodybuilding, and/or whether competitive bodybuilding fosters body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, bulimia nervosa, and anabolic steroid use.

  9. Striking discrepancy of anomalous body experiences with normal interoceptive accuracy in depersonalization-derealization disorder

    OpenAIRE

    MICHAL M.; Reuchlein, B.; Adler, J.; Reiner, I.; Beutel, M; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, H.; Schulz, André

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD). Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. METHODS: We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA) of DPD patients (n = 24) as compared to healthy controls (n = 26) with two different ...

  10. Association Between Sleep Disorder and Increased Body Mass Index in Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bocicor Andreea Elena; Buicu Gabriela; Sabau Daniela; Varga Andreea; Tilea I; Gabos-Grecu I

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives. Obesity is a public health issue, with increasing prevalence and incidence all over the world. Diet and exercise applied in obesity treatment are not always as effective as expected, as there are many other determining factors which can lead to obesity. One of these modifiable factors seem to be sleep disorder. The objective of our study was to test the positive association between the presence of sleep disorder and increased body mass index (BMI).

  11. Selected psychological traits and body image characteristics in females suffering from binge eating disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2013-01-01

    Aim. This paper reports the results of the author’s own research aimed at diagnosing specific psychological (personality) traits and body image characteristics in a population of selected females suffering from binge eating disorder (BED).Method. The methods applied in this research included an inventory (i.e. a Polish version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) devised by David Garner, Marion P. Olmsted, and Janet Polivy, adapted by Cezary Żechowski; and the Socio-cultural Attitudes towar...

  12. Association Between Sleep Disorder and Increased Body Mass Index in Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocicor Andreea Elena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives. Obesity is a public health issue, with increasing prevalence and incidence all over the world. Diet and exercise applied in obesity treatment are not always as effective as expected, as there are many other determining factors which can lead to obesity. One of these modifiable factors seem to be sleep disorder. The objective of our study was to test the positive association between the presence of sleep disorder and increased body mass index (BMI.

  13. Body Image Screening Questionnaire for eating disorder early detection: a Romanian replication

    OpenAIRE

    Tomsa, Raluca; Istfan, Nicoleta; Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; G. Bermejo, Belén

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders adversely affect physical health, eating habits, social and family relationships, mood, work and school performance. We tested for cross-cultural validity of the Body Image Screening Questionnaire (BISQ), a screening measure validated in Spain, which assesses potential eating disorders related to anorexia, perception of obesity, orthorexia and vigorexia, in a Romanian sample from both clinical and general populations. The measure showed adequate internal consistency and allow...

  14. The Role of Socio-Physical Anxiety, Body Image, and Self Esteem in Prediction of the Eating Disorder in Sportswomen

    OpenAIRE

    Aidin Valizade; Saeed Ariapooran

    2012-01-01

    Background: Socio-physical anxiety, body image, and self esteem are variables that play an important role on eating disorders. The purpose of this research was the role of socio-physical anxiety, body image and self esteem in prediction of the eating disorders in sportswomen.Materials and Method: 181 of aerobic and physical readiness sportswomen were selected by clustered sampling method and filled the questionnaire containing eating disorder, socio-physical anxiety, body image concern and se...

  15. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal.

  16. Does Internalizing Society and Media Messages Cause Body Dissatisfaction, in Turn Causing Disordered Eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive influence that internalization of society and media messages has on body dissatisfaction, as well as the prediction influence that body dissatisfaction has on disordered eating behaviors, such as preoccupation with weight, dieting, and eating restraint. A total of 324 participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 2001 ), the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995 ) for women, and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-Revised-Male-Version (Cusumano & Thompson, 1997 ) for men, and the locus of control (Rotter, 1966 ). The results of this study found that high internalization leads to body dissatisfaction, in turn, leading to disordered eating behaviors, such as preoccupation with weight, dieting, and eating restraint. This study proposes the implementation of media literacy and education programs that teach college women and men, girls and boys, to think more critically about the media. PMID:26086885

  17. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. PMID:25886711

  18. Does Internalizing Society and Media Messages Cause Body Dissatisfaction, in Turn Causing Disordered Eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive influence that internalization of society and media messages has on body dissatisfaction, as well as the prediction influence that body dissatisfaction has on disordered eating behaviors, such as preoccupation with weight, dieting, and eating restraint. A total of 324 participants completed the demographic questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body Self Relations Questionnaire (Cash, 2001 ), the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (Heinberg, Thompson, & Stormer, 1995 ) for women, and the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-Revised-Male-Version (Cusumano & Thompson, 1997 ) for men, and the locus of control (Rotter, 1966 ). The results of this study found that high internalization leads to body dissatisfaction, in turn, leading to disordered eating behaviors, such as preoccupation with weight, dieting, and eating restraint. This study proposes the implementation of media literacy and education programs that teach college women and men, girls and boys, to think more critically about the media.

  19. Thought–shape fusion and body image in eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera,1 Patricia Bolaños-Ríos,2 Inmaculada Ruiz-Prieto21Department of Nutrition and Bromatology, Pablo de Olavide University, Seville, Spain; 2Behavioral Sciences Institute, Seville, SpainPurpose: The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships among thought–shape fusion (TSF), specific instruments to assess body image disturbances, and body image quality of life in eating disorder patients in order to improve the understandi...

  20. Illusory changes in body size modulate body satisfaction in a way that is related to non-clinical eating disorder psychopathology.

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Preston; Henrik Ehrsson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, body size overestimation has been linked to abnormal levels of body dissatisfaction found in eating disorders. However, recently this relationship has been called into question. Indeed, despite a link between how we perceive and how we feel about our body seeming intuitive, until now lack of an experimental method to manipulate body size has meant that a causal link, even in healthy participants, has remained elusive. Recent developments in body perception research demonstrate t...

  1. Body Mass Index, Smoking and Hypertensive Disorders during Pregnancy: A Population Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuridur A Gudnadóttir

    Full Text Available While obesity is an indicated risk factor for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be inversely associated with the development of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of high body mass index and smoking on hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. This was a case-control study based on national registers, nested within all pregnancies in Iceland 1989-2004, resulting in birth at the Landspitali University Hospital. Cases (n = 500 were matched 1:2 with women without a hypertensive diagnosis who gave birth in the same year. Body mass index (kg/m2 was based on height and weight at 10-15 weeks of pregnancy. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals as measures of association, adjusting for potential confounders and tested for additive and multiplicative interactions of body mass index and smoking. Women's body mass index during early pregnancy was positively associated with each hypertensive outcome. Compared with normal weight women, the multivariable adjusted odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder was 1.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3 for overweight women and 3.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.3 for obese women. The odds ratio for any hypertensive disorder with obesity was 3.9 (95% confidence interval 1.8-8.6 among smokers and 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1-4.3 among non-smokers. The effect estimates for hypertensive disorders with high body mass index appeared more pronounced among smokers than non-smokers, although the observed difference was not statistically significant. Our findings may help elucidate the complicated interplay of these lifestyle-related factors with the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy.

  2. Body uneasiness, eating disorders, and muscle dysmorphia in individuals who overexercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, Cristina; Ammendolia, Antonio; Procopio, Leonardo; Papaianni, Maria C; Sinopoli, Flora; Bianco, Carmelina; De Fazio, Pasquale; Capranica, Laura

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate exercise dependence, body and eating concerns of active individuals in relation to muscle dysmorphia (MD) and eating disorders (EDs). One hundred and thirty-four active individuals (86 men, 48 women) and 20 ED women were divided into 4 groups according to their sex and the difference between their actual and desired body weight (group A: men who wanted to gain weight; group B: men who wanted to lose weight; group C: women who wanted to lose weight; group D: ED women). The Eating Disorder Inventory 2, Body Uneasiness Test, and Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory questionnaires were administered. All women desired to reduce their body weight, whereas 55% of men wanted to increase their muscle mass, also using anabolic steroids and food integrators. All groups showed a similar use of diuretics and laxatives (range 10-21%). The findings highlighted the presence of minor body image disorders in groups B and C. Conversely, body image was remarkably altered in groups D and A. Recognizing main MD traits, physical trainers should recommend further psychological counseling. Information should also be provided to gym clients regarding the health risks associated with purgative behaviors, use of steroids, and abuse of food supplements. PMID:20838254

  3. Photoanthropometric Study of Dysmorphic Features of the Face in Children with Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Ziora

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interactions, verbal and non-verbal communication and by a pattern of stereotypical behaviors and interests. The aim of this study was to estimate the dysmorphic facial features of children with autism and children with Asperger syndrome . Methods: The examination was conducted on 60 children (30 with childhood autism and 30 with Asperger syndrome. The photo anthropometric method used in this study followed the protocol established by Stengel-Rutkowski et al . Results: The performed statistical analysis showed that in patients with childhood autism, the anteriorly rotated ears and the long back of the nose appeared more often. In the group of children with autism, there was a connection between the amount of dysmorphies and the presence of some somatic diseases in the first-degree relatives. There was also a connection between the motor coordination and the age the child began to walk. Discussion: In patients with childhood autism, there were certain dysmorphies (like the anterior rotated ears and the long back of the nose which appeared more often. Although the connection was not statistically significant, it seemed to concur with data from the literature . Conclusion: Formulation of the other conclusions would require broader studies e.g. dealing with a familial analysis of dysmorphic features.

  4. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca L Beilharz

    Full Text Available The body image concern (BIC continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD. BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing. Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD.

  5. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilharz, Francesca L; Atkins, Kelly J; Duncum, Anna J F; Mundy, Matthew E

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  6. Altering Visual Perception Abnormalities: A Marker for Body Image Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Anna J. F.; Mundy, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    The body image concern (BIC) continuum ranges from a healthy and positive body image, to clinical diagnoses of abnormal body image, like body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). BDD and non-clinical, yet high-BIC participants have demonstrated a local visual processing bias, characterised by reduced inversion effects. To examine whether this bias is a potential marker of BDD, the visual processing of individuals across the entire BIC continuum was examined. Dysmorphic Concern Questionnaire (DCQ; quantified BIC) scores were expected to correlate with higher discrimination accuracy and faster reaction times of inverted stimuli, indicating reduced inversion effects (occurring due to increased local visual processing). Additionally, an induced global or local processing bias via Navon stimulus presentation was expected to alter these associations. Seventy-four participants completed the DCQ and upright-inverted face and body stimulus discrimination task. Moderate positive associations were revealed between DCQ scores and accuracy rates for inverted face and body stimuli, indicating a graded local bias accompanying increases in BIC. This relationship supports a local processing bias as a marker for BDD, which has significant assessment implications. Furthermore, a moderate negative relationship was found between DCQ score and inverted face accuracy after inducing global processing, indicating the processing bias can temporarily be reversed in high BIC individuals. Navon stimuli were successfully able to alter the visual processing of individuals across the BIC continuum, which has important implications for treating BDD. PMID:27003715

  7. Body Experience and Mirror Behaviour in Female Eating Disorders Patients and non Clinical Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Probst

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently the attention for mirror exercises in therapies targeted specifically to body experience concerns has increased. This retrospective study will explore the mirror behaviour of anorexia nervosa (AN, bulimia nervosa (BN and non-clinical female subjects (CG and investigate whether mirror avoidance or checking are related to negative body experiences.The group of eating disorders consisted of 560 AN and 314 BN patients. The control group consisted of 1151 female subjects. The Body Attitude Test and the Eating Disorder Inventory subscales drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction were used. To explore the mirror behaviour, one item of the Body Attitude Test ‘I am observing my appearance in the mirror’ was used. Nonparametric analyses (Spearman rho correlations, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney test were used because of the categorical data.BN patients observed their body more often in the mirror than AN patients and the control subjects do. Age and BMI showed no significant main effect of mirror frequency. The relation between the frequency of mirror behaviour and body experience were significant but low (under .40. AN patients and control subjects with a mirror checking behaviour had a more negative body experience than those with mirror avoidance behaviour. In the BN group, no differences were found.There is support to integrate mirror exercises in a treatment of eating disorder patients. From a clinical point, mirror exercises are preferably combined with a body oriented therapy within a multidimensional cognitive behavioural approach. Recommendations for mirror exercises based on the clinical experience are given.

  8. Borderline Personality Disorder is Associated with Lower Confidence in Perception of Emotional Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eKaletsch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Much recent research has shown that personality disorders are associated with an altered emotion perception. Whereas most of this research was conducted with stimuli such as faces, the present study examined possible differences in the perception of emotions expressed via body language and body movements. 30 patients with borderline personality disorder and 30 non-patients observed video scenes of emotional human interactions conveyed by point–light displays, rated the depicted valence, and judged their confidence in this rating. Patients with borderline personality disorder showed no altered emotion perception (i.e., no biased perception in either a negative or a positive direction. They did not perceive and evaluate depicted emotions as being more extreme than healthy controls. However, patients with borderline personality disorder showed less confidence in their perception of depicted emotions, especially when these were difficult to identify. The findings extend insights on altered emotion perception in persons with borderline personality disorder to include the field of body movements.

  9. Body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Chia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The research examined the relationship between body weight satisfaction and disordered eating among youth who are active in sport in Singapore. Method : 137 youths (82 boys and 55 girls; age 12-13 enrolled in school sport completed two self-report questionnaires- SCOFF for disordered eating and body weight satisfaction- on two separate occasions that were six months apart (T1 vs. T2. Results : Body mass index for age classifications revealed that 5.1% were severely underweight; 1.5% underweight; 88.3% acceptable weight; 4.4% overweight and 0.7% were severely overweight. Conclusions : (i the prevalence of disordered eating was 46% at baseline measurement and this remained stable at 45.3% six months later; (ii there was no sex difference for disordered eating on the two measurement occasions (T1 vs. T2, p>0.05; (iii the prevalence of youths unsure of their bodyweight satisfaction was 26.6-21.2% which compared to 88.3% adjudged to be of healthy weight; across T1 and T2, more male subjects wanted to gain bodyweight while more female subjects wanted to lose bodyweight; and (iv subjects who were dissatisfied with their bodyweight had significantly greater odds of being at risk for developing DE. Holistic education programmes based upon body image and nutrition, are recommended.

  10. 78 FR 73696 - Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body System Listings; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... in the Federal Register of December 3, 2013, (78 FR 72571) extending the expiration date of the... rule, we incorrectly stated the RIN as 0960-AH49. This correction changes the RIN to 0960-AH62. In FR... ADMINISTRATION 20 CFR Part 404 RIN 0960-AH62 Extension of Expiration Date for Mental Disorders Body...

  11. A Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women in Midlife: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sian A.; Paxton, Susan J.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the outcome of a body image and disordered eating intervention for midlife women. The intervention was specifically designed to address risk factors that are pertinent in midlife. Method: Participants were 61 women aged 30 to 60 years (M = 43.92, SD = 8.22) randomly assigned to intervention (n = 32) or (delayed…

  12. Self-Injury and Disordered Eating: Expressing Emotion Dysregulation through the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlenkamp, Jennifer J.; Peat, Christine M.; Claes, Laurence; Smits, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that emotion dysregulation, body-related concerns, and depressive symptoms are associated with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and disordered eating (DE) separately and in combination. However, it has been difficult to ascertain to what extent these constructs contribute to NSSI and DE given the relatively small…

  13. Sexual Orientation and Gender as Factors in Socioculturally Acquired Vulnerability to Body Dissatisfaction and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siever, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    Investigated hypothesis that gay men and heterosexual women are dissatisfied with their bodies and vulnerable to eating disorders because of shared emphasis on physical attractiveness and thinness based on desire to please men. Findings from 53 lesbian, 59 gay, 62 heterosexual female, and 63 heterosexual male college students generally confirmed…

  14. The Body Electric: Thin-Ideal Media and Eating Disorders in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen

    2000-01-01

    Finds that exposure to fat-character television, thin-ideal magazines, and sports magazines predicted eating-disorder symptomatology for adolescent females, especially older ones; exposure to fat-character television also predicted body dissatisfaction for younger males; and that relationships remain significant when selective exposure based on…

  15. Guidelines for uniform reporting of body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Khalil, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades, there a......OBJECTIVE: The aim of these guidelines is to make the process of reporting body fluid biomarker studies in neurologic disorders more uniform and transparent, in line with existing standards for reporting research in other biomedical areas. Although biomarkers have been around for decades......, there are concerns over the high attrition rate of promising candidate biomarkers at later phases of development. METHODS: BioMS-eu consortium, a collaborative network working toward improving the quality of biomarker research in neurologic disorders, discussed the merits of standardizing the reporting of body fluid...... of studies. This guideline by the BioMS-eu consortium is aimed at setting a standard for the reporting of future body fluid biomarker research studies in neurologic disorders. We anticipate that following these guidelines will help to accelerate the selection of biomarkers for clinical development....

  16. Confusing and Contradictory: Considering Obesity Discourse and Eating Disorders as They Shape Body Pedagogies in HPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Ken; Wright, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We suggest that recent concerns about young people's excess body weight have generally been treated quite separately to longer standing concerns about young people (particularly, young women) and eating disorders. The few papers that have addressed this connection directly have focused on how practices motivated by the obesity discourse have had…

  17. Manualized-Group Treatment of Eating Disorders: Attunement in Mind, Body, and Relationship (AMBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Beck, Meredith; Kane, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a manualized-group treatment of eating disorders, the attunement in mind, body, and relationship (AMBR) program. The cognitive behavioral and dialectic behavioral research as well as the innovative prevention interventions upon which the program is based (e.g., interactive discourse, yoga, and mediation) are introduced. The…

  18. Depression, coping, hassles, and body dissatisfaction: factors associated with disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Rose Marie; Hay, M Cameron

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to explore what predicts first-year college women's disordered eating tendencies when they arrive on campus. The 215 first-year college women completed the surveys within the first 2weeks of classes. A structural model examined how much the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale, the Brief COPE, the Brief College Student Hassle Scale, and the Body Shape Questionnaire predicted eating disordered tendencies (as measured by the Eating Attitudes Test). The Body Shape Questionnaire, the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale (inversely), and the Denial subscale of the Brief COPE significantly predicted eating disorder tendencies in first-year college women. In addition, the Planning and Self-Blame subscales of the Brief COPE and the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale predicted the Body Shape Questionnaire. In general, higher levels on the Helplessness, Hopelessness, Haplessness Scale and higher levels on the Brief College Student Hassle Scale related to higher levels on the Brief COPE. Coping seems to remove the direct path from stress and depression to disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. PMID:25528718

  19. Developmental Coordination Disorder, Gender, and Body Weight: Examining the Impact of Participation in Active Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine whether differences in participation in active play (PAP) can account for gender differences in the relationship between Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) and body weight/fat (BMI and percentage fat) in youth. Methods: A cross-sectional investigation of students in grades four through eight (n = 590). Height, weight…

  20. Season of birth is associated with adult body mass index in patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreca, Isabella; Cheng, Yu; Frank, Ellen; Fagiolini, Andrea; Kupfer, David J

    2013-05-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors, such as abdominal obesity and obesity in general, are very prevalent among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Although long-term use of psychotropic medications is an important determinant of these risk factors, other evidence suggests that early development may interact with the mood disorder diathesis to exponentially increase the risk of obesity. The goal of our study was to test whether season of birth is associated with adult body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity in individuals with bipolar disorder. We compared season of birth effects on BMI in 375 adult patients with bipolar disorder and 196 adult patients with unipolar major depression. We found a significant season of birth effect on BMI in patients with bipolar disorder, but not unipolar. In patients with bipolar disorder, season of birth was also associated with waist circumference, with a stronger effect in males. Season of birth affects adult BMI and waist circumference in patients with bipolar disorder, but not in patients with unipolar depression. Our results suggest that early environmental factors, yet to be identified, interact with specific neurobiological features of bipolar disorder to determine stable traits and disease risk factors in adult life. PMID:23445513

  1. Excoriation (skin picking) disorder in Israeli University students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leibovici, Vera; Murad, Sari; Cooper-Kazaz, Rena;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence of excoriation (skin picking) disorder (SPD) and associated physical and mental health correlates in a sample of Israeli university students. METHODS: Five thousand Israeli students were given questionnaires screening for SPD......, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder and disruptive, impulse control and conduct disorders. A total of 2176 participants (43.6%) responded and were included in the analysis. Mean age was 25.1 ± 4.8 (range 17-60) years, and 64.3% were female. RESULTS: The proportion of students...... who were screened positive for SPD was 3.03%, with a nearly equal gender distribution (3.0% in females and 3.1% in males). There was a trend toward significantly higher rates of psychiatric problems such as generalized anxiety, compulsive sexual behavior and eating disorders in these students. Within...

  2. 'The body remembers': narrating embodied reconciliations of eating disorder and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eli, Karin

    2016-01-01

    After severe illness, there are stories: narrative strands to suture discontinuities of identities, practices, and lives. But within these narratives of illness and recovery, the body's discontinuities stand apart, striking in the materiality of change, in the tangible multiplicity of bodies - healthy, ill, recovering, recovered - that a person can call one's own. Based on longitudinal research interviews with Israeli women who identified as recovered from long-term eating disorders (fieldwork conducted in 2005-2006 and in 2011), this paper explores how these bodily discontinuities are expressed, drawing particular attention to the narrative role of embodied memory in linking past and present-tense bodies and selves. Embodied memory, as narrated by the participants, is deeply, sometimes surprisingly, embedded in lived experience, imbuing recovered bodies with moments of sensory continuity, the past coming into presence through forms of sensation and perception learned at the height of disorder. Examining narrative moments of sensory remembrance, this paper analyses how participants narrate embodied memory as a mode of reflection, self-protection, and dynamic integration, wherein the experience of disorder informs practices of recovery, and the body becomes a site for the reconciliation of past and present.

  3. Out of body, out of space: Impaired reference frame processing in eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serino, Silvia; Dakanalis, Antonios; Gaudio, Santino; Carrà, Giuseppe; Cipresso, Pietro; Clerici, Massimo; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-12-15

    A distorted body representation is a core symptom in eating disorders (EDs), though its mechanism is unclear. Allocentric lock theory, emphasising the role of reference frame processing in body image, suggests that ED patients may be (b)locked to an (allocentric) representation of their own body stored in long-term memory (e.g., my body is fat) that is not updated (modified) by the (real-time egocentric) perception-driven experience of the physical body. Employing a well-validated virtual reality-based procedure, relative to healthy controls, ED patients showed deficits in the ability to refer to and update a long-term stored (allocentric) representation with (egocentric) perceptual-driven inputs. PMID:26541204

  4. Delusional disorders in dermatology: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, David T; Romm, Sharon; Combs, Heidi; Olson, Jonathan; Kirby, Phil

    2008-01-01

    There are several unique psychiatric disorders that are likely to present to a dermatologist because of their accompanying skin complaints. Delusions of parasitosis (DP) is a fixed, false belief of parasitic infestation that may lead patients to compulsively self-mutilate while attempting to remove the non-existent parasites. Morgellons disease is a controversial condition characterized by a fixed belief that fibers that are imbedded or extruding from the skin; this condition is likely in the spectrum of DP. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance that causes significant distress and is associated with time consuming rituals, isolation, depression, and increased risk of suicide. Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is a preoccupation with body odor leading to the stigmata of shame, embarrassment, and social isolation. This brief review examines each of these conditions and their management because any one of them may present to a dermatologist. PMID:18713583

  5. A review of body image influences on men's fitness goals and supplement use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, Donald R; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Heinberg, Leslie J; Boroughs, Michael; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-12-01

    Men's fitness goals are influenced by the lens through which they view their bodies, which is different from the way women view their bodies. Their increased focus on a muscular, hairless body means that they exercise to enhance their physical bulk and are more likely to engage in depilatory behaviors. In addition, the drive for muscularity may be associated with an increased risk anabolic-androgenic steroids and other nutritional supplements whose utility not clearly demonstrated. In the extreme, the drive for muscularity may manifest itself as a form of body dysmorphic disorder referred to as muscle dysmorphia. However, not all men focus on their muscularity. Gay men are more likely than heterosexual men to experience a desire to be thin and are at greater risk for eating and body image disorders. These issues are discussed in this article. PMID:19482812

  6. The Role of Body Image and Disordered Eating as Risk Factors for Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brausch, Amy M.; Gutierrez, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    There is much empirical literature on factors for adolescent suicide risk, but body image and disordered eating are rarely included in these models. In the current study, disordered eating and body image were examined as risk factors for suicide ideation since these factors are prevalent in adolescence, particularly for females. It was…

  7. The Role of Socio-Physical Anxiety, Body Image, and Self Esteem in Prediction of the Eating Disorder in Sportswomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Valizade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-physical anxiety, body image, and self esteem are variables that play an important role on eating disorders. The purpose of this research was the role of socio-physical anxiety, body image and self esteem in prediction of the eating disorders in sportswomen.Materials and Method: 181 of aerobic and physical readiness sportswomen were selected by clustered sampling method and filled the questionnaire containing eating disorder, socio-physical anxiety, body image concern and self esteem scales. Results: According to this research, there was meaningful correlation between social physical anxiety (r=-0.326, body image concern (r=0.466 and self-esteem (r=0.349 with eating disorders and these variables were explained the 0.27 variance in eating disorders. Conclusion: Results are corresponding with previous studies and have important implications in attention to the predicting variables of eating disorders in athletes’ women

  8. Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Vulink, Nienke C; van der Wal, Sija J; Nakamae, Takashi; Tan, Zhonglin; Derks, Eske M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a condition in which people do not perceive a part of their body as their own, which results in a strong desire for amputation or paralyzation. The disorder is likely to be congenital due to its very early onset. The English literature describes only Western patients with BIID, suggesting that the disorder might be merely prevalent in the West. To scrutinize this assumption, and to extend our knowledge of the etiology of BIID, it is important to trace cases with BIID in non-Western populations. Our objective was to review Chinese and Japanese literature on BIID to learn about its presence in populations with a different genetic background. A systematic literature search was performed in databases containing Japanese and Chinese research, published in the respective languages. Five Japanese articles of BIID were identified which described two cases of BIID, whereas in the Chinese databases only BIID-related conditions were found. This article reports some preliminary evidence that BIID is also present in non-Western countries. However, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. This low number possibly resulted from the extreme secrecy associated with the disorder, perhaps even more so in Asian countries. PMID:27366074

  9. Diploid/triploid mosaicism in dysmorphic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, [No Value; Rabelink, G; Hochstenbach, R; Tuerlings, J; Giltay, J

    2002-01-01

    Diploid/triploid mosaicism is a dysmorphology syndrome consisting of mental retardation, truncal obesity, body and/or facial asymmetry, growth retardation, hypotonia, a small phallus, malformed low-set ears and micrognathia. In 75% of the cases, the blood karyotype is normal and the diagnosis can on

  10. The relationship of sex and sexual orientation to self-esteem, body shape satisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology

    OpenAIRE

    Chetra eYean; Erik eBenau; Antonios eDakanalis; Hormes, Julia M.; Julie ePerone; Alix eTimko

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a) differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b) whether the internalization-eating disord...

  11. The Key to Unlocking the Virtual Body: Virtual Reality in the Treatment of Obesity and Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Riva, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and eating disorders are usually considered unrelated problems with different causes. However, various studies identify unhealthful weight-control behaviors (fasting, vomiting, or laxative abuse), induced by a negative experience of the body, as the common antecedents of both obesity and eating disorders. But how might negative body image—common to most adolescents, not only to medical patients—be behind the development of obesity and eating disorders? In this paper, I review the “all...

  12. Perfectionism in Body Dissatisfaction, Sociocultural Influence of the Thinness model and Symptoms of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Franco Paredes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess if perfectionism components explained body dissatisfaction (BD, sociocultural influences of aesthetic model (SIAM and symptoms of eating disorders (ED. The sample comprised 30 women with Bulimia Nervosa (BN, 35 women with Eating Disorder not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS and 63 women without ED. A regression analysis showed that concern over mistakes (CM and doubt about actions explained BD and SIAM in the BN sample; while concern over mistakes only explained SIAM in the EDNOS sample. These findings evidence that two perfectionism components contribute to vulnerability of thinness ideal and BD among women, which constitute two important risk factors for ED.

  13. Body Image Education as a Preventive Measure for Eating Disorders and Obesity in Ninth-Grade Students

    OpenAIRE

    Keith, Diana K.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity and eating disorders are major public health problems in the U.S. Prevention of these problems in childhood and adolescence is crucial to avoid medical complications and costs associated with these conditions. A growing body of research supports designing and implementing interventions to prevent obesity and eating disorders simultaneously by targeting common risk factors such as poor body image. This study explored the use of a body image education unit as a preventive measure for ob...

  14. Striking discrepancy of anomalous body experiences with normal interoceptive accuracy in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Michal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disembodiment is a core feature of depersonalization disorder (DPD. Given the narratives of DPD patients about their disembodiment and emotional numbing and neurobiological findings of an inhibition of insular activity, DPD may be considered as a mental disorder with specific impairments of interoceptive awareness and body perception. METHODS: We investigated cardioceptive accuracy (CA of DPD patients (n=24 as compared to healthy controls (n=26 with two different heartbeat detection tasks ("Schandry heartbeat counting task" and "Whitehead heartbeat discrimination task". Self-rated clearness of body perception was measured by questionnaire. RESULTS: Contrary to our hypothesis, DPD patients performed similarly to healthy controls on the two different heartbeat detection tasks, and they had equal scores regarding their self-rated clearness of body perception. There was no correlation of the severity of "anomalous body experiences" and depersonalization with measures of interoceptive accuracy. Only among healthy controls CA in the Schandry task was positively correlated with self-rated clearness of body perception. Depersonalization was unrelated to severity of depression or anxiety, while depression and anxiety were highly correlated. Anxiety and depression did not modify the associations of depersonalization with interoceptive accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Our main findings highlight a striking discrepancy of normal interoception with overwhelming experiences of disembodiment in DPD. This may reflect difficulties of DPD patients to integrate their visceral and bodily perceptions into a sense of their selves. This problem may be considered an important target for psychotherapeutic treatment approaches.

  15. Body Image in Eating Disorders: The Influence of Exposure to Virtual-Reality Environments.

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Maldonado, José; Ferrer, Marta; Caqueo-Urízar, A.; Moreno, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the effect of virtual-reality exposure to situations that are emotionally significant for patients with eating disorders (ED) on the stability of body-image distortion and body-image dissatisfaction. A total of 85 ED patients and 108 non-ED students were randomly exposed to four experimental virtual environments: a kitchen with low-calorie food, a kitchen with high-calorie food, a restaurant with low-calorie food, and a restaurant with high-calorie food. I...

  16. Female college students and cosmetic surgery: an investigation of experiences, attitudes, and body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Cash, Thomas F; Magee, Leanne; Williams, Emily Fleming; Thompson, J Kevin; Roehrig, Megan; Tantleff-Dunn, Stacey; Agliata, Allison Kanter; Wilfley, Denise E; Amidon, Amy D; Anderson, Drew A; Romanofski, Michelle

    2005-03-01

    This large, multisite study investigated female college students' experiences with and attitudes about cosmetic surgery. The study also assessed the relationship between several aspects of body image, including appearance satisfaction and investment and symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder, and interest in cosmetic surgery. Thirty (5 percent) of the 559 women surveyed reported that they had undergone cosmetic surgery. Two thirds of respondents reported knowing someone who had received cosmetic surgery, and approximately one third indicated that a family member had undergone surgery. Overall, participants held relatively favorable attitudes about surgery. Regression analysis suggested that a greater psychological investment in physical appearance and greater internalization of mass media images of beauty predicted more favorable attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Fourteen women (2.5 percent) screened positive for body dysmorphic disorder based on the nature and severity of their self-reported body-image concerns. Results of this study provide new information on young women's experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery and how these attitudes relate to body image. PMID:15731697

  17. Influence of neighbourhood-level crowding on sleep-disordered breathing severity: mediation by body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dayna A; Drake, Christopher; Joseph, Christine L M; Krajenta, Richard; Hudgel, David W; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E

    2015-10-01

    Neighbourhood-level crowding, a measure of the percentage of households with more than one person per room, may impact the severity of sleep-disordered breathing. This study examined the association of neighbourhood-level crowding with apnoea-hypopnoea index in a large clinical sample of diverse adults with sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep-disordered breathing severity was quantified as the apnoea-hypopnoea index calculated from overnight polysomnogram; analyses were restricted to those with apnoea-hypopnoea index ≥5. Neighbourhood-level crowding was defined using 2000 US Census tract data as percentage of households in a census tract with >1 person per room. Multivariable linear mixed models were fit to examine the associations between the percentage of neighbourhood-level crowding and apnoea-hypopnoea index, and a causal mediation analysis was conducted to determine if body mass index acted as a mediator between neighbourhood-level crowding and apnoea-hypopnoea index. Among 1789 patients (43% African American; 68% male; 80% obese), the mean apnoea-hypopnoea index was 29.0 ± 25.3. After adjusting for race, age, marital status and gender, neighbourhood-level crowding was associated with apnoea-hypopnoea index; for every one-unit increase in percentage of neighbourhood-level crowding mean, the apnoea-hypopnoea index increased by 0.40 ± 0.20 (P = 0.04). There was a statistically significant indirect effect of neighbourhood-level crowding through body mass index on the apnoea-hypopnoea index (P crowding is associated with severity of sleep-disordered breathing. Body mass index partially mediated the association between neighbourhood-level crowding and sleep-disordered breathing. Investigating prevalent neighbourhood conditions impacting breathing in urban settings may be promising.

  18. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogiorgou, Paraskevi; Bader, Armin; Stockfleth, Eggert; Juckel, Georg

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obsessive-compulsive (OCD) and related disorders - primarily trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder, and skin picking disorder - frequently present to dermatologists due to associated hair and skin symptoms. It is therefore crucial that dermatologists be familiar with these disorders. In this review article, we provide an update on clinical features, neurobiology factors, and treatment options for OCD spectrum disorders. Employing PubMed and Cochrane Library databases, a selective literature search was conducted using keywords related to dermatological disorders within the OCD spectrum. OCD and its related disorders share several phenomenological as well as pathophysiological similarities, thus warranting their classification within a separate nosological category of psychiatric disorders. Another similarity of OCD spectrum disorders is the frequent concurrence of hair and skin diseases. Besides symptomatic dermatological treatment, the combination of psychotherapy (behavioral therapy) and psychopharmacotherapy (SSRIs) may be helpful. Although recent insights into OCD have contributed to a better understanding and treatment thereof, more research is required, especially with respect to OCD spectrum disorders, for which large controlled treatment studies are still lacking. PMID:26408459

  19. Body Satisfaction and Eating Disorder Behaviors among Immigrant Adolescents in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magtoto, Joanne; Cox, David; Saewyc, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Using a province-wide school-based health survey, this article investigated body satisfaction as a mediator of the association between eating disorder behaviors and immigrant status. Participants were a sample of adolescent girls (n = 15,066) and boys (n = 14,200) who completed the 2008 McCreary Centre Society Adolescent Health Survey IV.…

  20. Idiopathic REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: Implications for the Pathogenesis of Lewy Body Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Koichi Hirata; Masaoki Iwanami; Masayuki Miyamoto; Tomoyuki Miyamoto

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Both results of the odor identification and cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine accumulation have been investigated for their potential to enhance the detection of pathogenesis resembling that of Lewy body-related α -synucleinopathies in patients clinically diagnosed as having idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Methods. We performed both the Odor Stick Identification Test for Japanese and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy in 30 patients with idiopathic REM sleep beha...

  1. The relationship between alexithymia, shame, trauma, and body image disorders: investigation over a large clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzoni E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Emilio Franzoni,1 Stefano Gualandi,1 Vincenzo Caretti,2 Adriano Schimmenti,3 Elena Di Pietro,1 Gaetano Pellegrini,1 Giuseppe Craparo,3 Arianna Franchi,1 Alberto Verrotti,4 Alessandro Pellicciari11Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 3Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, ItalyBackground: The connections between eating disorders (EDs and alexithymia have not been fully clarified. This study aims to define alexithymia's connections with shame, trauma, dissociation, and body image disorders.Methods: We administered the Dissociative Experience Scale-II, Trauma Symptom Inventory, Experience of Shame Scale, Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, and Body Uneasiness Test questionnaires to 143 ED subjects. Extensive statistical analyses were performed.Results: The subjects showed higher scores on alexithymia, shame, dissociation, and traumatic feelings scales than the nonclinical population. These aspects are linked with each other in a statistically significant way. Partial correlations highlighted that feelings of shame are correlated to body dissatisfaction, irrespective of trauma or depressed mood. Multiple regression analysis demonstrates that shame (anorexic patients and perceived traumatic conditions (bulimic and ED not otherwise specified are associated with adverse image disorders.Conclusion: Shame seems to hold a central role in the perception of an adverse self-image. Alexithymia may be interpreted as being a consequence of previous unelaborated traumatic experiences and feelings of shame, and it could therefore be conceptualized as a maladaptive–reactive construct.Keywords: eating disorders, trauma, alexithymia, shame, body image

  2. Amputees by choice: body integrity identity disorder and the ethics of amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim; Levy, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Should surgeons be permitted to amputate healthy limbs if patients request such operations? We argue that if such patients are experiencing significant distress as a consequence of the rare psychological disorder named Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID), such operations might be permissible. We examine rival accounts of the origins of the desire for healthy limb amputations and argue that none are as plausible as the BIID hypothesis. We then turn to the moral arguments against such operations, and argue that on the evidence available, none is compelling. BIID sufferers meet reasonable standards for rationality and autonomy: so as long as no other effective treatment for their disorder is available, surgeons ought to be allowed to accede to their requests. PMID:15948330

  3. The Child’s Body as a Disorder: discursive approaches towards ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most frequent neurological diagnosis of the Chilean primary health care system for elementary school students. New norms and regulations now define which professionals can diagnose and treat this disorder. In this study, we approach to the construction of ADHD from a discursive perspective, through the analyses of interviews with parents, and professionals from health and school systems, in charge of ADHD detection and treatment. The analyses focused on the discursive positions evidenced in the interpretative repertoires (IR of these actors, and on the effects they generate. Findings show three IR: the construction of the infant body as dysfunctional, as corrigible, and as medicable. These findings are discussed in relation to the conception of childhood, the asymmetry in the child-adult construction of the disorder, as well as to the notion of child wellbeing as being limited to ensuring the child´s subsistence in the school system..

  4. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalisvaart, H.; Broeckhuysen, S. van; Bühring, M.; Kool, M.B.; Dulmen, S. van; Geenen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with seve

  5. Children with autism spectrum disorder are skilled at reading emotion body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; Slaughter, Virginia; Brownell, Celia

    2015-11-01

    Autism is commonly believed to impair the ability to perceive emotions, yet empirical evidence is mixed. Because face processing may be difficult for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we developed a novel test of recognizing emotion via static body postures (Body-Emotion test) and evaluated it with children aged 5 to 12 years in two studies. In Study 1, 34 children with ASD and 41 typically developing (TD) controls matched for age and verbal intelligence (VIQ [verbal IQ]) were tested on (a) our new Body-Emotion test, (b) a widely used test of emotion recognition using photos of eyes as stimuli (Baron-Cohen et al.'s "Reading Mind in the Eyes: Child" or RMEC [Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 2001, Vol. 5, pp. 47-78]), (c) a well-validated theory of mind (ToM) battery, and (d) a teacher-rated empathy scale. In Study 2 (33 children with ASD and 31 TD controls), the RMEC test was simplified to the six basic human emotions. Results of both studies showed that children with ASD performed as well as their TD peers on the Body-Emotion test. Yet TD children outperformed the ASD group on ToM and on both the standard RMEC test and the simplified version. VIQ was not related to perceiving emotions via either body posture or eyes for either group. However, recognizing emotions from body posture was correlated with ToM, especially for children with ASD. Finally, reading emotions from body posture was easier than reading emotions from eyes for both groups. PMID:26079273

  6. Children with autism spectrum disorder are skilled at reading emotion body language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Candida C; Slaughter, Virginia; Brownell, Celia

    2015-11-01

    Autism is commonly believed to impair the ability to perceive emotions, yet empirical evidence is mixed. Because face processing may be difficult for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we developed a novel test of recognizing emotion via static body postures (Body-Emotion test) and evaluated it with children aged 5 to 12 years in two studies. In Study 1, 34 children with ASD and 41 typically developing (TD) controls matched for age and verbal intelligence (VIQ [verbal IQ]) were tested on (a) our new Body-Emotion test, (b) a widely used test of emotion recognition using photos of eyes as stimuli (Baron-Cohen et al.'s "Reading Mind in the Eyes: Child" or RMEC [Journal of Developmental and Learning Disorders, 2001, Vol. 5, pp. 47-78]), (c) a well-validated theory of mind (ToM) battery, and (d) a teacher-rated empathy scale. In Study 2 (33 children with ASD and 31 TD controls), the RMEC test was simplified to the six basic human emotions. Results of both studies showed that children with ASD performed as well as their TD peers on the Body-Emotion test. Yet TD children outperformed the ASD group on ToM and on both the standard RMEC test and the simplified version. VIQ was not related to perceiving emotions via either body posture or eyes for either group. However, recognizing emotions from body posture was correlated with ToM, especially for children with ASD. Finally, reading emotions from body posture was easier than reading emotions from eyes for both groups.

  7. Body image dissatisfaction and eating symptoms in mothers of adolescents with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobelo, A Weisz; de Chermont Prochnik Estima, C; Nakano, E Yoshio; Conti, M Aparecida; Cordás, T Athanássios

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess body dissatisfaction and eating symptoms in mothers of eating disorder (ED) female patients and to compare results with those of a control group. The case group consisted of 35 mothers of female adolescents (aged between 10 and 17 yrs) diagnosed with ED who attended the Interdisciplinary Project for Care, Teaching and Research on Eating Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence (PROTAD) at Clínicas Hospital Institute of Psychiatry of the Universidade de São Paulo Medical School. Demographic and socioeconomic data were collected. Eating symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) and body image was assessed by the Body Image Questionnaire (BSQ) and Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS). The case group was compared to a control group consisting of 35 mothers of female adolescents (between 10 and 17 years) who attended a private school in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. With regard to EAT, BSQ and FRS scores, we found no statistically significant differences between the two groups. However, we found a positive correlation between BMI and BSQ scores in the control group (but not in the case group) and a positive correlation between EAT and FRS scores in the case group (but not in the control group). It appears to be advantageous to assess body image by combining more than one scale to evaluate additional components of the construct. PMID:21406945

  8. Self-compassion, body image, and disordered eating: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tosca D; Park, Crystal L; Gorin, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Self-compassion, treating oneself as a loved friend might, demonstrates beneficial associations with body image and eating behaviors. In this systematic review, 28 studies supporting the role of self-compassion as a protective factor against poor body image and eating pathology are reviewed. Findings across various study designs consistently linked self-compassion to lower levels of eating pathology, and self-compassion was implicated as a protective factor against poor body image and eating pathology, with a few exceptions. These findings offer preliminary support that self-compassion may protect against eating pathology by: (a) decreasing eating disorder-related outcomes directly; (b) preventing initial occurrence of a risk factor of a maladaptive outcome; (c) interacting with risk factors to interrupt their deleterious effects; and (d) disrupting the mediational chain through which risk factors operate. We conclude with suggestions for future research that may inform intervention development, including the utilization of research designs that better afford causal inference. PMID:27038782

  9. Cultural factors in the eating disorders: a study of body shape preferences of Arab students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, K A; Dolan, B M; Evans, C

    1990-01-01

    A replication of an American study of body shape preference was conducted in a group of 218 Arab students attending the American University in Cairo, Egypt. Arab female students felt their ideal shape to be significantly thinner than their current shape, while male students did not. Hence the appraisal of body shape shows gender differences in Egypt consistent with the American study. The Arab women reported a current shape similar to American women but had a smaller discrepancy between ratings of their ideal and current body shape. There was no difference for either Arab women or men between the shape thought most attractive to the opposite sex and that which the other gender actually reported as most attractive. The study shows a clear preference for thinness in the Arabic culture, inferences are made to its role in predisposing to eating disorders.

  10. Body Type, Self-Esteem and Assertiveness among High School Students in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bruce

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body type, self-esteem and assertiveness among adolescents of ages between 13 and 19 years. To achieve this aim, the study sampled 56 male and 94 female adolescents of the Senior High School in Accra, Ghana. Results showed that, higher self-esteem leads to assertiveness. Results also showed that body type perception affects self-esteem. It is, therefore, recommended that Guidance and Counselling officers in our schools should educate adolescent students on the three body types and the advantages associated with being one of these body types. This may help prevent developing body dysmorphic disorder, low self-esteem and non-assertiveness among students with negative perceptions of their body types and the possible effects on their personal relationships with peers, general academic performance and in- school and out-of- school life.

  11. Association between eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Body image dissatisfaction and eating disorders are of common problems in adolescence and adulthood especially among athletes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the association of eating disorders and body image in athletes and non-athlete students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 226 athlete students and 350 non-athlete students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences during 2013-2014. Students who followed a specific sport field and had participated in at least one sport event were considered as athlete students. All athlete students were entered the study by census method. Non-athlete students were selected among students who had not any exercise activity and by random sampling method. Data were collected through demographic questionnaire, Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26, and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ. Data were analyzed using T-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean age was 21.92±3.19 years and mean body mass index (BMI was 22.24±3.18 kg/m2. The frequency of eating disorders was 11.5% among the athlete students and 11.2% among the non-athlete students. Anorexia nervosa was found to be more prevalent than bulimia nervosa in both groups. The students with normal BMI had better body image perception and less eating disorders symptoms than other students. The association of age, educational level, and gender with eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. The association of eating disorders and body image was not statistically significant. Eating disorders were more prevalent in males than females but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction are relatively prevalent among both athletes and non-athlete students and BMI is predictor of eating disorders.

  12. Body Image Disturbance and Perfectionism as Predictor’s Factors of Disordered Eating Behavior among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Khodabakhsh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: The prevalence of disordered eating behaviors has been reported to increase in recent decades; therefore, scientific studies should perform for specifying psychological variables that may contribute to the etiology of this disorder. In this study, we examined the role of body image disturbance and perfectionism variables in predicting disordered eating behaviors among female students.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2014 upon a sample consisting of 464 female students in Allame Tabatabaie University were selected based on a Morgan formula and multi-stage cluster random sampling. Then, participants responded to the questionnaires of body image disturbance of Reas and et al. (2002, perfectionism scale of Besharat (2004 and eating attitudes test of Garner and Garfinkel (1979. The data were analyzed by correlation techniques and stepwise regression.Results: The results showed that these were internal correlation among body image disturbance and perfectionism and disordered eating behavior. Also, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that body image disturbance and perfectionism significantly predicted, respectively, almost 16% and 14% of variances of disordered eating behaviors among female students.Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, body image disturbance and perfectionism can predict disordered eating behaviors. Therefore, considering these variables can be important to prevent the development of eating-related diseases and to promote students’ health. Key Words: Body Image Disturbance, Perfectionism, Disordered Eating Behavior, Female Students.

  13. Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hay Phillipa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors.

  14. Tourette's disorder with and without obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults: are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, B J; Miguel, E C; Biederman, J; Baer, L; Rauch, S L; O'Sullivan, R L; Savage, C R; Phillips, K; Borgman, A; Green-Leibovitz, M I; Moore, E; Park, K S; Jenike, M A

    1998-04-01

    Clinical research has documented a bidirectional overlap between Tourette's disorder (TD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) from familial-genetic, phenomenological, comorbidity, and natural history perspectives. Patients with Tourette's disorder plus obsessive-compulsive disorder (TD + OCD), a putative subtype, share features of both. The purpose of this exploratory study was to evaluate correlates of patients with TD, OCD, and TD + OCD to determine whether TD + OCD is a subtype of TD, OCD, or an additive form of both. Sixty-one subjects with TD, OCD, or TD + OCD were evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R supplemented with additional modules. The three groups differed in the rates of bipolar disorder (p < .04), social phobia (p < .02), body dysmorphic disorder (p < .002), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (p < .03), and substance use disorders (p < .04). These findings were accounted for by the elevated rates of the disorders in the TD + OCD group compared with the TD and OCD groups. These finding are most consistent with the hypothesis that TD + OCD is a more severe disorder than TD and OCD and may be more etiologically linked to TD than to OCD. These findings highlight the importance of assessment of the full spectrum of psychiatric comorbidity in patients with TD and OCD.

  15. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Influence of Pro-Eating Disorder Websites on Body Image and Eating Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Lowy, Alice S; Halperin, Daniella M; Franko, Debra L

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that exposure to pro-eating disorder websites might increase eating pathology; however, the magnitude of this effect is unknown. This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology. Studies examining the relationship between exposure to pro-eating disorder websites and eating pathology-related outcomes were included. The systematic review identified nine studies. Findings revealed significant effect sizes of exposure to pro-eating disorder websites on body image dissatisfaction (five studies), d = .41, p = .003; dieting (six studies), d = .68, p eating disorder websites on body image and eating pathology, highlighting the need for enforceable regulation of these websites. PMID:26230192

  16. Racial comparisons in perceptions of maternal and peer attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and eating disorders among African American and White women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javier, Sarah J; Moore, Melanie P; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2016-01-01

    Although once thought primarily to affect White women, body dissatisfaction and disordered eating exist among all racial groups. In the current study, the authors determined whether the relationship between participants' perceived maternal/peer attitudes toward appearance and the outcomes of body dissatisfaction and eating pathology varied by race. Self-reported data, including measures of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and perceptions of maternal/peer attitudes, were collected from December 2012 to May 2013 at a large Mid-Atlantic university. BMI (β = 0.20, p = .01), perceptions of peers' attitudes toward appearance (β = 0.23, p = .02), and White race (β = 0.33, p disordered eating. The results of this study have implications for prevention programs that address disordered eating for racially diverse groups of women. PMID:26583765

  17. A comparative study of paroxetine combined with MECT in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder.%帕罗西汀联合MECT治疗体像障碍对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨帕罗西汀联合MECT治疗体像障碍的临床疗效.方法:将26例体像障碍患者随机分为研究组、对照组各13例,两组均用帕罗西汀治疗,研究组联合MECT治疗.疗程8周.于治疗前及治疗第2,4,8周末采用鲁龙光体像障碍(BDD)量表、汉密顿焦虑量表(HAMA)评定临床疗效;TESS评定副反应.结果:两组均自治疗第2周末BDD量表及HAMA分值均开始下降,研究组低于对照组(P<0.05),第8周末两组间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:帕罗西汀合并MECT治疗与单一帕罗西汀治疗BDD均有显著疗效,前者治疗效果更好,起效更快.

  18. 美容受术者术前体像障碍的评测与对比分析%Assessment and analysis of body dysmorphic disorder in cosmetic surgery patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周常青; 王毅超; 李东

    2007-01-01

    目的 调查美容受术者中患体像障碍的情况,并比较美容受术者和一般外科患者患体像障碍的差异.方法 采用鲁龙光等编制的体像障碍自评量表法,对86例美容受术者(测试组)和103例体表肿物患者(对照组)进行评测和分析.结果 经体像障碍量表法评分后,测试组86例中有5例(5.8%)总分超过体像障碍临界值(≥36分).对照组103例中仅有1例(0.97%)总分超过临界值.测试组较对照组的总分明显高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 美容受术者的体像障碍评分较一般外科患者高,提示美容受术者更具有患体像障碍的倾向.

  19. 美容就医者体像障碍评分与术后满意度的相关性分析%Correlation between body dysmorphic disorder scores and patients' satisfaction after cosmetic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周常青; 王毅超; 李东

    2007-01-01

    目的 探讨美容就医者伴有体像障碍倾向时对美容整形术后满意度的影响.方法 对81例美容就医者进行术前体像障碍量表评测和体貌缺陷程度评测,并于术后2~3个月进行随访,依据医者评价手术效果和受术者对美容手术的满意度,分析评价术前体像障碍评分对于美容就医者术后满意度的影响.结果 影响美容就医者术后满意度的因素有术前体像障碍评分和医者对手术效果的评价,其中手术效果评分是正相关,标准化回归系数β=0.566,术前体像障碍评分是负相关,标准化回归系数β=-0.424.并建立回归方程:美容就医者满意度=1.130×手术效果评分-0.0583×体像障碍评分-0.741.未发现术前缺陷的严重程度对术后满意度有明显影响.结论 美容就医者中,术前体像障碍评分与就医者术后满意度存在负相关.提示伴有体像障碍倾向的美容就医者术后出现对手术效果不满意的可能性较大,术前体像障碍评分有助于预测可能出现的医疗纠纷.

  20. 海南大学生躯体变形障碍患病率调查分析%The prevalence of the body dysmorphic disorder among undergraduate students in Hainan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱唤清; 邓云龙

    2010-01-01

    目的:了解海南大学生躯体变形障碍的患病率其及影响因素.方法:应用自编调查问卷、体象障碍自评量表等对海南五所高校一年级至四年级的大学生2 463人进行分层整群随机抽样调查和分析.结果:海南大学生中检出躯体变形障碍患病率为4.95%,不同性别、年级、民族、年龄的海南大学生躯体变形障碍患病率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:海南大学生躯体变形障碍的患病率为4.95%,与性别、民族、年级、年龄无关.

  1. Effects of Psycholgical Intervention on Emotion and The Quality of Life in Patients with Body Dysmorphic Disorder%心理干预对体像障碍患者情绪及生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冠华; 雷全友; 杜太超; 刘文阁

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨心理干预对体像障碍患者情绪及生活质量的影响.方法 将64例体像障碍患者随机分为研究组和对照组各32例,研究组给予心理干预,观察3 mo.分别于干预前后采用焦虑自评量表、抑郁自评量表、生活质量综合评定问卷观察两组患者情绪状态和生活质量的变化.结果 焦虑自评量表、抑郁自评量表评分,研究组心理干预后较干预前均有显著下降(t=2.66、3.21,P<0.05),且均显著低于对照组(P<0.05).对照组无显著变化.生活质量综合评定问卷测评研究组心理干预后躯体功能、心理功能、社会功能维度分均较干预前显著提高(t=2.61、2.54、2.92,P<0.05),且均高于对照组(t=2.56、2.89、7.45,P<0.05或0.01).对照组均无显著变化.结论 心理干预可改善体像障碍患者的焦虑抑郁情绪,提高其的生活质量.

  2. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients' depression, sleep, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder. PMID:26357429

  3. Eating behaviours in preadolescence are associated with body dissatisfaction and mental disorders - Results of the CCC2000 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkholm, Anja; Olsen, Else Marie; Rask, Charlotte Ulrikka; Clemmensen, Lars; Rimvall, Martin K; Jeppesen, Pia; Micali, Nadia; Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-06-01

    Preadolescence is a key period in the early stages of eating disorder development. The aim of the present study was, firstly, to investigate restrained, emotional and external eating in a general population-based sample of 11-12 year olds. Secondly, we sought to explore how these eating behaviours are associated with possible predictors of eating disorders, such as body dissatisfaction, weight status and mental disorders. A subsample of 1567 children (47.7% boys; 52.3% girls) from the Copenhagen Child Cohort (CCC2000) completed web-based questionnaires on eating behaviours and body dissatisfaction using The Eating Pattern Inventory for Children (EPI-C) and The Children's Figure Rating Scale. Mental disorders were assessed using the online version of the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) based on parental replies with final DSM-IV diagnoses determined by experienced child- and adolescent psychiatrists. Height and weight were measured at a face-to-face assessment. The results showed that restrained eating was significantly associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and emotional disorders in both genders. Emotional eating showed similar associations with overweight and body dissatisfaction in both genders, but was only associated with mental disorders in girls. External eating was significantly associated with body dissatisfaction and neurodevelopmental disorders in both genders, but was only associated with overweight in girls. Our findings show that problematic eating behaviours can be identified in preadolescence, and co-exist with weight problems and mental disorders. Thus restrained, emotional and external eating was, in different ways, associated with overweight, body dissatisfaction and mental disorders. Our findings point to significant eating behaviours in preadolescence, which could constitute potential predictors of later eating disorder risk. PMID:26896837

  4. Femininity, Feminine Gender Role Stress, Body Dissatisfaction, and their Relationships to Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Femininity, Feminine Gender Role Stress, Body Dissatisfaction, and their Relationships to Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Nancy Romero Abstract Research suggests that the associations between femininity, body image and eating disorders are intricate. How these constructs are linked to each other still needs to be determined. The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of these links, examining the mediational relationship among these constructs. Also...

  5. The relationship of sex and sexual orientation to self-esteem, body shape satisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetra eYean

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The present data support several key trends in the literature: men generally reported less body dissatisfaction, internalization of socio-cultural standards of beauty, drive for thinness, and disordered eating, but a greater drive for muscularity than women; results also indicated that different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between internalization and eating disorder symptomatology. Gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction, internalization, eating disorder symptomatology, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity than heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians reported increased drive for muscularity, lower self-esteem, and lower internalization; however, they did not significantly differ on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness or disordered eating. Correlation coefficients between body shape dissatisfaction and several aspects of mental distress were significantly larger for gay men than heterosexual men; the same coefficients did not differ between lesbian women and heterosexual women. Results of path analyses indicated that the relationship between internalization and disordered eating differs for gay and heterosexual men but not for lesbian and heterosexual women. These results call attention to lesbians as a generally understudied population.

  6. The relationship of sex and sexual orientation to self-esteem, body shape satisfaction, and eating disorder symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yean, Chetra; Benau, Erik M; Dakanalis, Antonios; Hormes, Julia M; Perone, Julie; Timko, C Alix

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in understanding what role, if any, sex and sexual orientation play in body dissatisfaction, its correlates to distress, and its relationship to disordered eating. The goals of the present study were to examine: (a) differences in sex and sexual orientation in internalization of societal pressure to modify physical appearance, components of body image dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology and (b) whether the internalization-eating disorder symptomatology was mediated by the different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem. The present data support several key trends in the literature: men generally reported less body dissatisfaction, internalization of socio-cultural standards of beauty, drive for thinness, and disordered eating, but a greater drive for muscularity than women; results also indicated that different components of body image dissatisfaction and low self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between internalization and eating disorder symptomatology. Gay men reported significantly more body dissatisfaction, internalization, eating disorder symptomatology, drive for thinness, and drive for muscularity than heterosexual men. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians reported increased drive for muscularity, lower self-esteem, and lower internalization; however, they did not significantly differ on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness or disordered eating. Correlation coefficients between body shape dissatisfaction and several aspects of mental distress were significantly larger for gay men than heterosexual men; the same coefficients did not differ between lesbian women and heterosexual women. Results of path analyses indicated that the relationship between internalization and disordered eating differs for gay and heterosexual men but not for lesbian and heterosexual women. These results call attention to lesbians as a generally understudied population. PMID:24348441

  7. Observation of discrete time-crystalline order in a disordered dipolar many-body system

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Soonwon; Landig, Renate; Kucsko, Georg; Zhou, Hengyun; Isoya, Junichi; Jelezko, Fedor; Onoda, Shinobu; Sumiya, Hitoshi; Khemani, Vedika; von Keyserlingk, Curt; Yao, Norman Y; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2016-01-01

    Understanding quantum dynamics away from equilibrium is an outstanding challenge in the modern physical sciences. It is well known that out-of-equilibrium systems can display a rich array of phenomena, ranging from self-organized synchronization to dynamical phase transitions. More recently, advances in the controlled manipulation of isolated many-body systems have enabled detailed studies of non-equilibrium phases in strongly interacting quantum matter. As a particularly striking example, the interplay of periodic driving, disorder, and strong interactions has recently been predicted to result in exotic "time-crystalline" phases, which spontaneously break the discrete time-translation symmetry of the underlying drive. Here, we report the experimental observation of such discrete time-crystalline order in a driven, disordered ensemble of $\\sim 10^6$ dipolar spin impurities in diamond at room-temperature. We observe long-lived temporal correlations at integer multiples of the fundamental driving period, experi...

  8. Tourette syndrome associated with body temperature dysregulation: possible involvement of an idiopathic hypothalamic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Abraham R

    2002-10-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder that holds the potential to afflict the emotional, familial, social, or scholastic performances of patients with Tourette syndrome in day-to-day life functioning. The disorder is today characterized mainly and diagnosed by clinical observations, yet false-negative results obtained in the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome are numerous and well documented. There is still no laboratory or imaging technique available for the diagnosis of Tourette syndrome. This article reports on changes of the ambient thermal perception (38%) and a circadian dysregulation of the body-temperature profile present in Tourette syndrome probands, irrespective of their chronologic age, sex, or comorbid symptoms. An involvement of idiopathic hypothalamic dysfunctions associated with Tourette syndrome is proposed. Such a phenomenon, if substantiated, could lead to a better understanding of Tourette syndrome and the development of unbiased physical diagnostic criteria of Tourette syndrome and potentiate possible production of novel therapeutic possibilities.

  9. Effect of Aggression Regulation on Eating Disorder Pathology : RCT of a Brief Body and Movement Oriented Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Cees; Swart, Marte; Van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of a brief body and movement oriented intervention on aggression regulation and eating disorder pathology for individuals with eating disorders. MethodIn a first randomized controlled trial, 40 women were allocated to either the aggressio

  10. Effect of Aggression Regulation on Eating Disorder Pathology : RCT of a Brief Body and Movement Oriented Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerhout, Cees; Swart, Marte; Van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Hoek, Hans W.

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective of the study is to evaluate the effect of a brief body and movement oriented intervention on aggression regulation and eating disorder pathology for individuals with eating disorders. MethodIn a first randomized controlled trial, 40 women were allocated to either the aggressio

  11. Definition and structure of body-relatedness from the perspective of patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Kalisvaart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How a patient is connected with one's body is core to rehabilitation of somatoform disorder but a common model to describe body-relatedness is missing. The aim of our study was to investigate the components and hierarchical structure of body-relatedness as perceived by patients with severe somatoform disorder and their therapists. METHODS: Interviews with patients and therapists yielded statements about components of body-relatedness. Patients and therapists individually sorted these statements according to similarity. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to these sortings. Analysis of variance was used to compare the perceived importance of the statements between patients and therapists. RESULTS: The hierarchical structure included 71 characteristics of body-relatedness. It consisted of three levels with eight clusters at the lowest level: 1 understanding, 2 acceptance, 3 adjustment, 4 respect for the body, 5 regulation, 6 confidence, 7 self-esteem, and 8 autonomy. The cluster 'understanding' was considered most important by patients and therapists. Patients valued 'regulating the body' more than therapists. CONCLUSION: According to patients with somatoform disorders and their therapists, body-relatedness includes awareness of the body and self by understanding, accepting and adjusting to bodily signals, by respecting and regulating the body, by confiding and esteeming oneself and by being autonomous. This definition and structure of body-relatedness may help professionals to improve interdisciplinary communication, assessment, and treatment, and it may help patients to better understand their symptoms and treatment. (German language abstract, Abstract S1; Spanish language abstract, Abstract S2.

  12. Selected psychological traits and body image characteristics in females suffering from binge eating disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izydorczyk, Bernadetta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. This paper reports the results of the author’s own research aimed at diagnosing specific psychological (personality traits and body image characteristics in a population of selected females suffering from binge eating disorder (BED.Method. The methods applied in this research included an inventory (i.e. a Polish version of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI devised by David Garner, Marion P. Olmsted, and Janet Polivy, adapted by Cezary Żechowski; and the Socio-cultural Attitudes towards the Body and Appearance Questionnaire, constructed by the author of this study, based on the results of factor analysis and subject literature, as well as projective techniques such as Thompson’s Silhouette Test and a thematic drawing: “body image”. Theinventories and projective techniques applied in the research procedures aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological traits in the examined females.Results. Statistical analysis of the data obtained as a result of this research revealed that the examined females suffering from psychogenic overeating were overweight. Analysis of the study data concerning the subject’s evaluation of their body image pointed to a substantial discrepancy between the individuals’ perception of their current body shape, which they clearly did not approve of, and the ideal thin body that the females desired. The study data obtained as a result of the EDI inventory, aimed at diagnosing the level of selected psychological (personality traits exhibited by the examined females, revealed that the subjects received the highest (inappropriate score in the scale describing the individuals’ preoccupation with pursuit of thinness. It was also discovered that the study participants had a high level of internalization of socio-cultural norms about the ideal female body, promoting the “cult of thinness”, and they exhibited the feeling of insecurity and personal worthlessness, as well as a low level of interpersonal

  13. Foreign bodies in the abdomen: self-harm and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, Louise; Syed, Farah; Raja, Mazhar

    2015-08-05

    A 52-year-old woman presented to the accident and emergency department 5 h after deliberately stabbing herself with two pens through her midline laparotomy scar. Her medical history included an emotionally unstable (borderline) personality disorder and she was currently an inpatient in a psychiatric hospital. She had multiple accident and emergency attendances with previous episodes of self-harm. Clinical examination revealed evidence of trauma to her midline laparotomy scar with congealed blood covering the puncture site. Her abdomen was soft and non-tender on palpation. A chest radiograph revealed no air beneath her diaphragm and her abdominal radiograph identified a radiopacity in her upper right abdomen and dilated loops of small bowel. CT of the abdomen and pelvis confirmed two pens, with the lower pen tip reaching the pancreas. A midline laparotomy was performed and both foreign bodies were extricated unremarkably. The patient's postoperative recovery was uneventful. The second case involves a 22-year-old woman, a psychiatric hospital resident, presenting to the accident and emergency department 5 h after deliberately inserting the metal nib and inner plastic ink containing tube of a pen through her umbilicus. Her medical history included an emotionally unstable (borderline) personality disorder and paranoid schizophrenia. She had multiple accident and emergency department attendances with previous episodes of self-harm. Clinical examination revealed a soft, non-tender abdomen. Her chest radiograph was unremarkable and her abdominal radiograph identified a radiopaque foreign body at the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. CT of the abdomen and pelvis confirmed a metallic foreign body in the small bowel mesentery. An exploratory laparotomy converted to a midline laparotomy was performed and the foreign body was extricated. The patient's postoperative recovery was uneventful.

  14. Neural basis of limb ownership in individuals with body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenna T van Dijk

    Full Text Available Our body feels like it is ours. However, individuals with body integrity identity disorder (BIID lack this feeling of ownership for distinct limbs and desire amputation of perfectly healthy body parts. This extremely rare condition provides us with an opportunity to study the neural basis underlying the feeling of limb ownership, since these individuals have a feeling of disownership for a limb in the absence of apparent brain damage. Here we directly compared brain activation between limbs that do and do not feel as part of the body using functional MRI during separate tactile stimulation and motor execution experiments. In comparison to matched controls, individuals with BIID showed heightened responsivity of a large somatosensory network including the parietal cortex and right insula during tactile stimulation, regardless of whether the stimulated leg felt owned or alienated. Importantly, activity in the ventral premotor cortex depended on the feeling of ownership and was reduced during stimulation of the alienated compared to the owned leg. In contrast, no significant differences between groups were observed during the performance of motor actions. These results suggest that altered somatosensory processing in the premotor cortex is associated with the feeling of disownership in BIID, which may be related to altered integration of somatosensory and proprioceptive information.

  15. Entering Adulthood: Looking at Body Image and Eating Disorders. A Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Contemporary Health Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarratano, Susan

    This module includes six lessons which focus on issues related to body image and self-esteem, eating disorders, and sensible eating habits for adolescents in grades 9-12. In lesson 1, students examine influences on body image, assess their personal traits, and trade assessments with their peers. In lesson 2, students look at pressure and…

  16. The efficacy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) in monitoring body composition changes during treatment of restrictive eating disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Saladino, Charles F

    2014-01-01

    Reviews Treating restrictive eating disorder patients is metabolically and psychologically complex. Determining body composition is an important diagnostic and treatment option for these patients, because it ascertains whether the acquisition of body mass during refeeding is metabolically appropriate - ideally an approximate 20/80% - 25/75% fat/lean body mass ratio. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the efficacy of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) during the treatment period of p...

  17. Incorporating positive body image into the treatment of eating disorders: A model for attunement and mindful self-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine P

    2015-06-01

    This article provides a model for understanding the role positive body image can play in the treatment of eating disorders and methods for guiding patients away from symptoms and toward flourishing. The Attuned Representational Model of Self (Cook-Cottone, 2006) and a conceptual model detailing flourishing in the context of body image and eating behavior (Cook-Cottone et al., 2013) are discussed. The flourishing inherent in positive body image comes hand-in-hand with two critical ways of being: (a) having healthy, embodied awareness of the internal and external aspects of self (i.e., attunement) and (b) engaging in mindful self-care. Attunement and mindful self-care thus are considered as potential targets of actionable therapeutic work in the cultivation of positive body image among those with disordered eating. For context, best-practices in eating disorder treatment are also reviewed. Limitations in current research are detailed and directions for future research are explicated.

  18. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being.

  19. The impact of adolescent girls' life concerns and leisure activities on body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to situate adolescent girls' body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem in the context of their life concerns and leisure activities. Questionnaires containing measures of life concerns, leisure activities, body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and self-esteem were administered to 306 girls with a mean age of 16 years. It was found that although academic success and intelligence were rated as the most important life concerns, an emphasis on slimness was most strongly linked to body dissatisfaction, disordered eating, and global self-esteem. An emphasis on popularity with girls also was related to body dissatisfaction, and hours spent watching television were related to lower self-esteem. In contrast, emphasis on sport seemed to serve a protective function. It was concluded that adolescent girls who have a high concern for slimness should be assisted in decreasing this emphasis in order to improve their general well-being. PMID:11432599

  20. A Population-Wide Screening and Tailored Intervention Platform for Eating Disorders on College Campuses: The Healthy Body Image Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Megan; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Glass, Alan I.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper presents a new approach to intervention for eating disorders and body image concerns on college campuses, using a model of integrated eating disorder screening and intervention. Formative data on implementation feasibility are presented. Participants College students enrolled at two universities between 2011–2012. Methods The Healthy Body Image program is an evidence-based screening and intervention platform, enacted via community and online resources. An online screen was used to identify students at varying levels of risk or eating disorder symptom status; responses were used to direct students to universal or targeted online interventions or further evaluation. Universal prevention programs to improve healthy weight regulation and body image culture were offered to all students. Results Formative data from 1,551 students illustrates the application of this model. Conclusions The Healthy Body Image program is feasible to deliver and provides a comprehensive system of screening, evidence-based intervention, and community culture change. PMID:24621000

  1. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  2. Muscle MRI / whole-body MRI in diagnosis and dynamic evaluation of neuro-muscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carlier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of MRI in myopathies dates back to more than 20 years. The first investigations were slow and only allowed segmental and limited studies. Whole-body MRI has emerged over the past twelve years and became a useful diagnostic tool in the etiological diagnosis of myopathies and muscular dystrophies. This study must always be confronted with clinical and whichever other paraclinical data without being able to replace them. Indications to perform such an investigation are getting better and better defined and the diagnostic efficacy has progressed with the increasing number of cases, communications, publications and discussions within multidisciplinary working groups. Its noninvasive nature, the radiation-free exposure and its reasonable cost also enable this technique to be easily accepted by the patient. It also provides a valuable tool for monitoring the natural disease progression or the effectiveness of therapies. The radiology team must be acquainted with the management of neuromuscular patients. Interpreting muscle whole-body MRI requires an excellent knowledge of muscle anatomy whichever body part is examined. The radiologist performing these studies is ideally a specialist of musculoskeletal disorders or a neuroradiologist well trained in muscle anatomy.

  3. Body image and sexuality in Indonesian adults with a disorder of sex development (DSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediati, Annastasia; Juniarto, Achmad Zulfa; Birnie, Erwin; Drop, Stenvert L S; Faradz, Sultana M H; Dessens, Arianne B

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, disorders of sex development (DSDs) are not well recognized and medical care for affected individuals is scarce. Consequently, many patients live with ambiguous genitalia and appearance. We compared reported outcomes on body image, sexual functioning, and sexual orientation of 39 adults with DSDs (aged 18 to 41) and 39 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and residential setting (urban, suburban, rural). Differences in gender and treatment status (treated or untreated) were also explored. On body image, adults with DSDs reported dissatisfaction with sex-related body parts. Compared to the matched controls, women with DSDs reported greater sexual distress, and men with DSDs reported lower erectile and ejaculation frequencies, and more dissatisfaction with sexual life but not with sexual desire and activities. Men with DSDs who had undergone genital surgery reported higher erectile and ejaculation frequencies than untreated men. More women than men in the DSDs group reported a nonexclusive heterosexual orientation. DSDs and infertility had a great impact on sexuality. Fear of ostracism complicated DSD acceptance. Findings were compared to those of Western studies. Based on these results, education about DSDs and their psychosexual consequences may help reduce the sexual distress and problems in adults with DSDs and improve quality of life. PMID:24144298

  4. Self-objectification, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptoms in young Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Byrne, Susan M; Pettigrew, Simone

    2014-06-01

    Self-objectification has been examined extensively in adult populations. Despite theoretical evidence suggesting that children may also be vulnerable to experiencing self-objectification, whether children do self-objectify has not been determined. Accordingly, the present study examined the degree to which children self-objectify. The prevalence of body image and eating disturbances in this population, and the relationship between self-objectification and these disturbances, were also investigated. Results from over 250 boys and girls aged 6-11 years revealed that young girls report levels of self-objectification that are similar to those observed among older girls and women. Self-objectification was also found to be meaningfully related to body image and eating disturbances in children. A significant proportion of children reported body dissatisfaction and a minority engaged in disordered eating behaviours in the four weeks prior to the assessment. These results suggest that children may be at risk of experiencing the negative psychological outcomes associated with self-objectification. PMID:24958665

  5. A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Grace; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-06-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated mass media effects on body image and disordered eating. More recently, research in this area has turned to 'new' forms of media, such as the Internet, and particularly Social Networking Sites (SNSs). A systematic search for peer-reviewed articles on SNS use and body image and eating disorders resulted in 20 studies meeting specific inclusion criteria. As a whole, these articles demonstrated that use of SNSs is associated with body image and disordered eating. Specific SNS activities, such as viewing and uploading photos and seeking negative feedback via status updates, were identified as particularly problematic. A small number of studies also addressed underlying processes and found that appearance-based social comparison mediated the relationship between SNS use and body image and eating concerns. Gender was not found to be a moderating factor. It was concluded that, although there is a good deal of correlational research supporting the maladaptive effect of SNS use on body image and disordered eating, more longitudinal and experimental studies are needed. PMID:26995158

  6. A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Grace; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-06-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated mass media effects on body image and disordered eating. More recently, research in this area has turned to 'new' forms of media, such as the Internet, and particularly Social Networking Sites (SNSs). A systematic search for peer-reviewed articles on SNS use and body image and eating disorders resulted in 20 studies meeting specific inclusion criteria. As a whole, these articles demonstrated that use of SNSs is associated with body image and disordered eating. Specific SNS activities, such as viewing and uploading photos and seeking negative feedback via status updates, were identified as particularly problematic. A small number of studies also addressed underlying processes and found that appearance-based social comparison mediated the relationship between SNS use and body image and eating concerns. Gender was not found to be a moderating factor. It was concluded that, although there is a good deal of correlational research supporting the maladaptive effect of SNS use on body image and disordered eating, more longitudinal and experimental studies are needed.

  7. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  8. Assessment of Body Composition Using Whole Body Air-Displacement Plethysmography in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairney, John; Hay, John; Veldhuizen, Scott; Faught, Brent

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neuro-developmental disorder characterized by poor fine and/or gross motor coordination. Children with DCD are hypothesized to be at increased risk for overweight and obesity from inactivity due to their motor coordination problems. Although previous studies have found evidence to support this…

  9. Mind-body medicine for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Over half of psychiatric patients use some kind of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, with Mind-Body Medicine (MBM) being the most commonly used collective modality. To date however, to our knowledge, no overarching review exists examining MBM for psychotic disorders. Thus the purpose of this paper is to present the first review in this area. A MEDLINE search was conducted of articles written in English from 1946 up to January 15, 2011 using a range of MBM and psychotic disorder search terms. Human clinical trials and, where available, pertinent meta-analyses and reviews were included in this paper. Forty-two clinical studies and reviews of MBMs were located, revealing varying levels of evidence. All studies included used MBMs as an adjunctive therapy to usual care, including medication. Overall, supportive evidence was found for music therapy, meditation and mindfulness techniques. Some positive studies were found for yoga and breathing exercises, general relaxation training, and holistic multi-modality MBM interventions. Due to insufficient data, a conclusion cannot be reached for hypnosis, thermal or EMG biofeedback, dance or drama therapy, or art therapy. No clinical trials were found for guided imagery, autogenic training, journal writing, or ceremony practices. For many techniques, the quality of research was poor, with many studies having small samples, no randomization, and no adequate control. While the above techniques are likely to be safe and tolerable in this population based on current data, more research is required to decisively assess the validity of applying many MBMs in the mainstream treatment of psychotic disorders.

  10. Mind-body medicine for schizophrenia and psychotic disorders: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Chanel; Sarris, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Over half of psychiatric patients use some kind of Complementary and Alternative Medicine, with Mind-Body Medicine (MBM) being the most commonly used collective modality. To date however, to our knowledge, no overarching review exists examining MBM for psychotic disorders. Thus the purpose of this paper is to present the first review in this area. A MEDLINE search was conducted of articles written in English from 1946 up to January 15, 2011 using a range of MBM and psychotic disorder search terms. Human clinical trials and, where available, pertinent meta-analyses and reviews were included in this paper. Forty-two clinical studies and reviews of MBMs were located, revealing varying levels of evidence. All studies included used MBMs as an adjunctive therapy to usual care, including medication. Overall, supportive evidence was found for music therapy, meditation and mindfulness techniques. Some positive studies were found for yoga and breathing exercises, general relaxation training, and holistic multi-modality MBM interventions. Due to insufficient data, a conclusion cannot be reached for hypnosis, thermal or EMG biofeedback, dance or drama therapy, or art therapy. No clinical trials were found for guided imagery, autogenic training, journal writing, or ceremony practices. For many techniques, the quality of research was poor, with many studies having small samples, no randomization, and no adequate control. While the above techniques are likely to be safe and tolerable in this population based on current data, more research is required to decisively assess the validity of applying many MBMs in the mainstream treatment of psychotic disorders. PMID:23428783

  11. Definition and outcome of a curriculum to prevent disordered eating and body-shaping drug use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Diane L; Moe, Esther L; Goldberg, Linn; DeFrancesco, Carol A; Durham, Melissa B; Hix-Small, Hollie

    2006-02-01

    Almost one half of male and female students participate in high school-sponsored athletics, and high school also is a time when classroom health promotion curricula are less effective. The Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids is a sport team-centered drug-use prevention program for male high school athletes, which has been shown to reduce alcohol and illicit drug use. Just as anabolic steroid use is associated with male athletes, female sport participants may be at a greater risk for disordered eating and body-shaping drug use. Extending sport team-centered programs to young women athletes required defining and ranking factors related to developing those harmful behaviors. Survey results from a cross-sectional cohort of female middle and high school student athletes were used to identify and prioritize potential curriculum components, including mood and self-esteem, norms of behavior, perceptions of healthy body weight, effects of media depictions of women, and societal pressures to be thin. The derived sport team-centered program was prospectively assessed among a second group of female student athletes from 18 high schools, randomized to receive the intervention or the usual care control condition. The Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives (ATHENA) intervention is a scripted, coach-facilitated, peer-led 8-session program, which was incorporated into a team's usual training activities. The ATHENA program significantly altered the targeted risk factors and reduced ongoing and new use of diet pills and body-shaping substances (amphetamines, anabolic steroids, and sport supplements). These findings illustrate the utility of a structured process to define curriculum content, and the program's positive results also confirm the sport team's potential as a vehicle to effectively deter health-harming behaviors.

  12. Cognitive Impairment and Brain Imaging Characteristics of Patients with Congenital Cataracts, Facial Dysmorphism, Neuropathy Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Chamova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, neuropathy (CCFDN syndrome is a complex autosomal recessive multisystem disorder. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the degree of cognitive impairment in a cohort of 22 CCFDN patients and its correlation with patients’ age, motor disability, ataxia, and neuroimaging changes. Twenty-two patients with genetically confirmed diagnosis of CCFDN underwent a detailed neurological examination. Verbal and nonverbal intelligence, memory, executive functions, and verbal fluency wеre assessed in all the patients aged 4 to 47 years. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 20 affected patients. Eighteen affected were classified as having mild intellectual deficit, whereas 4 had borderline intelligence. In all psychometric tests, evaluating different cognitive domains, CCFDN patients had statistically significant lower scores when compared to the healthy control group. All cognitive domains seemed equally affected. The main abnormalities on brain MRI found in 19/20 patients included diffuse cerebral atrophy, enlargement of the lateral ventricles, and focal lesions in the subcortical white matter, different in number and size, consistent with demyelination more pronounced in the older CCFDN patients. The correlation analysis of the structural brain changes and the cognitive impairment found a statistically significant correlation only between the impairment of short-term verbal memory and the MRI changes.

  13. Fixation patterns, not clinical diagnosis, predict body size over‐estimation in eating disordered women and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Katri K.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over‐estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye‐movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over‐estimating body size. Method To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (rAN) who had concerns about body shape and weight and who over‐estimated body size, (ii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape and who estimated body size accurately (iii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape but who did over‐estimate body size. Results Comparisons between the three groups showed that: (i) accurate body size estimators tended to look more in the waist region, and this was independent of clinical diagnosis; (ii) there is a pattern of looking at images of bodies, particularly viewing the upper parts of the torso and face, which is specific to participants with rAN but which is independent of accuracy in body size estimation. Discussion Since the over‐estimating controls did not share the same body image concerns that women with rAN report, their over‐estimation cannot be explained by attitudinal concerns about body shape and weight. These results suggest that a distributed fixation pattern is associated with over‐estimation of body size and should be addressed in treatment programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:507–518). PMID:26996142

  14. Associations between body mass index, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical Chinese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research with adolescents has shown associations of body weight, weight control concerns and behaviors with eating disorder symptoms, but it is unclear whether these associations are direct or whether a mediating effect exists. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms and to examine the mediating function of weight control concerns and behaviors on the relationship between body mass index (BMI and eating disorder symptoms among non-clinical adolescents in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 2019 adolescent girls and 1525 adolescent boys in the 7th, 8th, 10th and 11th grades from seven cities in China was conducted. Information on weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms (Eating Disorder Inventory-3 were collected from the adolescents using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results Weight control concerns and behaviors, and eating disorder symptoms were prevalent among the study population. A high proportion of adolescents scored at or above the threshold on the eating disorder inventory (EDI subscale such as bulimia, interoceptive deficits, perfectionism, and maturity fears, which indicated eating disorder symptoms. High BMI was significantly associated with high score of drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, bulimia, low self-esteem, interceptive deficits and maturity fears, so do perceived body weight status. Almost all weight control concerns and behaviors we investigated were significantly associated with high EDI subscale scores. When weight control concerns were added to the model, as shown in the model, the association between BMI and tendency of drive to thinness and bulimia was attenuated but still kept significant. The association between BMI and body dissatisfaction were no further significant. The association of BMI and drive for thinness, body

  15. Prevention programs for body image and eating disorders on University campuses: a review of large, controlled interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2008-06-01

    Body dissatisfaction, dieting, eating disorders and exercise disorders are prevalent among male and female university students worldwide. Male students are also increasingly adopting health-damaging, body-image-related behaviors such as excessive weight lifting, body building and steroid abuse. Given the severity and difficulty of treating eating disorders, prevention of these problems is a recognized public health goal. Health promotion and health education programs have been conducted in the university setting since the mid 1980s, but few have achieved significant improvements in target health attitudes and behaviors. In this paper, 27 large, randomized and controlled health promotion and health education programs to improve body dissatisfaction, dieting and disordered eating and exercise behaviors of male and female college students are reviewed. In general, health education programs to improve body image and prevent eating disorders in the university setting have been limited by small sample sizes and the exclusion of male students. The majority of studies were conducted among either female undergraduate psychology students or women that were recruited using on-campus advertising. The latter reduces the ability to generalize results to the whole university population, or the general community. In addition, there has been a paucity of longitudinal studies that are methodologically sound, as only 82% (22/27) of interventions included in the review used random assignment of groups, and only 52% (n = 14) included follow-up testing. Information-based, cognitive behavioral and psycho-educational approaches have been the least effective at improving body image and eating problems among university students. Successful elements for future initiatives are identified as taking a media literacy- and dissonance-based educational approach, incorporating health education activities that build self-esteem, and using computers and the internet as a delivery medium. A newly

  16. A Pilot Study of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy as a Workshop Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adria N.; Follette, Victoria M.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    Body image dissatisfaction is a source of significant distress among non-eating-disordered women, but because it is subclinical it is generally not treated. It remains stable throughout adulthood, and has proven resistant to many prevention interventions. This study presents a pilot test of a practical alternative: a 1-day Acceptance and…

  17. Food Advertising and Eating Disorders: Marketing Body Dissatisfaction, the Drive for Thinness, and Dieting in Women's Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nona L.; Blackhurst, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    States that although the influence of fashion advertising on women's relationships with food and their bodies has received considerable attention, the role of food advertising in women's magazines has been virtually unexplored. Argues that food advertisements reflect and contribute to the primary precursors of eating disorders: body…

  18. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  19. Impaired Recognition of Emotions from Body Movements Is Associated with Elevated Motion Coherence Thresholds in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has confirmed that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in recognizing emotions from body movements. Difficulties in perceiving coherent motion are also common in ASD. Yet it is unknown whether these two impairments are related. Thirteen adults with ASD and 16 age- and IQ-matched typically developing…

  20. Body Image and Eating Disorder Symptoms in Sexual Minority Men: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Marcie C.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of integrating objectification theory research with research on body image and eating problems among sexual minority men, the present study examined relations among sociocultural and psychological correlates of eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 231 sexual minority men. Results of a path analysis supported tenets of…

  1. Media Exposure, Current and Future Body Ideals, and Disordered Eating among Preadolescent Girls: A Longitudinal Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kristen; Hefner, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    Internalization of the thin body ideal is considered by many to account for the relationship between media exposure and disordered eating among girls and young women, but almost all supporting research has employed adolescent and adult samples. Using longitudinal panel survey data collected from 257 preadolescent girls at 2 points in time 1 year…

  2. Self-Reported Eating Disorders of Black, Low-Income Adolescents: Behavior, Body Weight Perceptions, and Methods of Dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balentine, Margaret; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Study identified African-American low-income adolescents who thought they had bulimia or anorexia nervosa, identified common behaviors, and compared actual and perceived body weight and dieting methods. About 12 percent suspected an eating disorder and perceived themselves as heavier more often than their peers. Fasting was the most common dieting…

  3. Media Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Indigenous Adolescent Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina; Mellor, David; Ball, Kylie

    2005-01-01

    There has been no previous investigation of body image concerns and body change strategies among indigenous Australians. This study was designed to investigate the level of body satisfaction, body change strategies, and perceived media messages about body change strategies among 50 indigenous (25 males, 25 females) and 50 non-indigenous (25 males,…

  4. Maternal Body Mass Index and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Offspring: A Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Tang, Shiming; Xu, Shunsheng; Weng, Shenhong; Liu, Zhongchun

    2016-01-01

    Controversial results of the association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring were reported among several studies. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the overall association between maternal BMI and risk of ASD in offspring. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched until January 2016. Cohort and case-control studies addressing the association between maternal BMI and risk of ASD in offspring were included. We used random-effect models to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs), we also performed a dose-response meta-analysis to estimate the trend from the correlated log RR estimates across levels of BMI quantitatively. Totally, 6 cohort studies and 1 case-control study involving 8,403 cases and 509,167 participants were included for analysis. The summary RR (95% confidence interval) for ASD in offspring in relation to maternal underweight, overweight, and obesity vs. normal weight during pre-pregnancy or pregnancy, was 1.07 (0.93, 1.23), 1.28 (1.19, 1.36) and 1.36 (1.03, 1.78), respectively. A linear dose-response relationship was found, with a pooled RR of 1.16 (1.01, 1.33) for each 5 kg/m2. increment in maternal BMI. The present study suggests that excessive maternal BMI is associated with increased ASD risk in offspring. PMID:27687989

  5. Body Image, Dieting and Disordered Eating and Activity Practices among Teacher Trainees: Implications for School-Based Health Education and Obesity Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to investigate and compare body image, body dissatisfaction, dieting, disordered eating, exercise and eating disorders among trainee health education/physical education (H&PE) and non-H&PE teachers. Participants were 502 trainee teachers randomly selected from class groups at three Australian universities who completed the…

  6. A Controlled Intervention to Promote a Healthy Body Image, Reduce Eating Disorder Risk and Prevent Excessive Exercise among Trainee Health Education and Physical Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Zali; O'Dea, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of two interventions on body image, eating disorder risk and excessive exercise among 170 (65% female) trainee health education and physical education (HE & PE) teachers of mean (standard deviation) age 21.6 (2.3) who were considered an "at-risk" population for poor body image and eating disorders. In the first year…

  7. Behaviours And Attitudes About Body Image And Eating Disorders Among Adolescent Females In Kragujevac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic Maja

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating disorders are often in older teens and young women with prevalence 4-5% with increasing tendency. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders among adolescents in the city of Kragujevac, and to examine the relationship between the age and the type of eating disorder that can occur in adolescents.

  8. Behaviours And Attitudes About Body Image And Eating Disorders Among Adolescent Females In Kragujevac

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovic Maja

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are often in older teens and young women with prevalence 4-5% with increasing tendency. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating disorders among adolescents in the city of Kragujevac, and to examine the relationship between the age and the type of eating disorder that can occur in adolescents.

  9. Body dysmorphia, self-mutilation and the reconstructive surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James Kwok-Kwan; Jones, Sophie M; Heywood, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is a disabling preoccupation with a slight or an imagined defect in appearance. It is recognised in some patients who present to the plastic surgeon requesting multiple cosmetic procedures. Very rarely, BDD patients may wish for amputation of a healthy limb and may even mutilate themselves deliberately in order to necessitate amputation. These patients pose a diagnostic challenge as BDD is uncommon and they are often uncooperative whilst appearing mentally sound. Furthermore, they raise difficult ethical and legal issues for the surgeon. Although there is some guidance for the management of BDD patients seeking elective amputation, there is currently none for the management of those who present in the emergency setting. Illustrated by the case of a man who, having failed to find a complicit surgeon, attempted self-amputation of the hand, we review the relevant ethical, legal and management issues with advice by the British Medical Association and General Medical Council. PMID:20392680

  10. Eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction among female nutrition and exercise science university majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Natalie; Gee, David; D’Acquisto, Debra; Ogan, Dana; Pritchett, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Past research has examined eating disorder risk among college students majoring in Nutrition and has suggested an increased risk, while other studies contradict these results. Exercise Science majors, however, have yet to be fully examined regarding their risk for eating disorders and exercise dependence. Based on pressures to fit the image associated with careers related to these two disciplines, research is warranted to examine the potential risk for both eating disorder and exercise dependence. The purpose of this study is to compare eating disorder risk, exercise dependence, and body weight dissatisfaction (BWD) between Nutrition and Exercise Science majors, compared to students outside of these career pathways. Methods Participants (n = 89) were divided into three groups based on major; Nutrition majors (NUTR; n = 31), Exercise Science majors (EXSC; n = 30), and other majors (CON; n = 28). Participants were given the EAT-26 questionnaire and the Exercise Dependence Scale. BWD was calculated as the discrepancy between actual BMI and ideal BMI. Results The majority of participants expressed a desire to weigh less (83%) and EXSC had significantly (p = .03) greater BWD than NUTR. However, there were no significant differences in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence among majors. Discussion and Conclusions This study suggested there was no significant difference in eating disorder risk or exercise dependence between the three groups (NUTR, EXSC, and CON). PMID:26551912

  11. A case series investigation of association between co-morbid psychiatric disorder and the improvement in body mass index among patients with anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified of the anorexia nervosa type

    OpenAIRE

    Goh, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified* (not fulfilling Anorexia Nervosa DSM IV criteria) are increasing in Singapore. Patients with eating disorders may also present with other psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. The paper aims to investigate the association of co-morbid psychiatric disorders with the improvement of body mass index (BMI) in these patients. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis of 182 patients with anorexia and eating disor...

  12. Considering J.Lo and Ugly Betty: a qualitative examination of risk factors and prevention targets for body dissatisfaction, eating disorders, and obesity in young Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Debra L; Coen, Emilie J; Roehrig, James P; Rodgers, Rachel F; Jenkins, Amy; Lovering, Meghan E; Dela Cruz, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    Latina women are vulnerable to poor body image, eating disorders, and obesity, particularly during the college years. This study sought to identify common cultural antecedents of these concerns in order to inform the development of prevention programs for this population. Six groups of university students who identified as Latina (N=27) discussed cultural aspects of body image, eating disorders, and obesity. Thematic analysis identified four main themes: (a) cultural disparities in body-ideal, including the influence of the media and acculturation issues; (b) messages about body shape and weight received by family, peers, and society; (c) difficulties making healthy eating and physical activity choices as a function of college life; and (d) the influence of peers and potential male partners on body satisfaction and body-ideals. These results have implications for the development of programs targeting body dissatisfaction and risk for eating disorders and obesity in Latina college women. PMID:22609033

  13. A "coca-cola" shape: cultural change, body image, and eating disorders in San Andrés, Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Fye, Eileen P

    2004-12-01

    Eating disorders have been associated with developing nations undergoing rapid social transition, including participation in a global market economy and heavy media exposure. San Andrés, Belize, a community with many risk factors associated with the cross-cultural development of eating disorders, has shown remarkable resistance to previously documented patterns, despite a local focus on female beauty. Drawing on longitudinal person-centered ethnography with adolescent girls, this article examines why this community appears exceptional in light of the literature. First, community beauty and body image ideals and practices are explicated. Then, a protective ethnopsychology is proposed as a key mediating factor of the rapid socio-cultural change among young women. Finally, possible nascent cases of eating disordered behavior are discussed in light of their unique phenomenology: that is, having to do more with economic opportunity in the tourism industry and less with personal distress or desire for thinness. Close, meaning-centered examination of eating and body image practices may aid understanding and prevention of eating disorders among adolescents undergoing rapid social change in situations of globalization and immigration.

  14. Mild facial dysmorphism and quasidominant inheritance in Cenani-Lenz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temtamy, Samia A; Ismail, Samira; Nemat, Amany

    2003-04-01

    Cenani-Lenz syndrome (CLS; MIM 212780) is a rare autosomal recessive syndactyly/synostosis syndrome. No facial dysmorphism was previously noted. We studied two families; in the first an affected female had a previously affected brother and her father was said to have been similarly affected. Extensive inbreeding in this family suggests quasidominant inheritance. In the second family there was a history of a similarly affected sib who, in addition, had genital anomalies and cleft palate. The parents were first cousins. Both probands had similar mild facial dysmorphism; a high broad, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, a depressed nasal bridge, downslanting palpebral fissures, a short nose, a short prominent philtrum and malar hypoplasia. The present report suggests mild facial dysmorphism and quasidominant inheritance in one family with Cenani-Lenz syndrome.

  15. Eating Disorder Symptomatology, Body Image, and Mindfulness: Findings in a Non-Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Emma; Bore, Miles; Dyer, Stella

    2013-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in the use of mindfulness-based interventions in treating various disorders and conditions; however, evidence to support the application of mindfulness-based treatments for eating disorders is limited. The current study was designed as a preliminary investigation of the relationship between…

  16. Body Objectification, Social Pressure, and Disordered Eating Behavior in College Women: The Role of Sorority Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Foran, Kelly A.; Bookwala, Jamila

    2007-01-01

    Social pressure to conform to the thin ideal is believed to play a decisive role in the development of eating disorders. In this field study at a college with only sophomore rush, 99 sorority women, 80 nonsorority women past their first year, and 86 first-year women completed three subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2 (Garner, 1991), the…

  17. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness in Eating Disorders Prevention: The Sorority Body Image Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Ciao, Anna C.; Smith, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Although eating disorders prevention research has begun to produce programs with demonstrated efficacy, many such programs simply target individuals as opposed to engaging broader social systems (e.g., schools, sororities, athletic teams) as participant collaborators in eating disorders prevention. Yet, social systems ultimately will be…

  18. Fostering a Healthy Body Image: Prevention and Intervention with Adolescent Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Michelle; Hass, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Eating disorders are among the most frequently seen chronic illnesses found in adolescent females. In this paper, we discuss school-based prevention and intervention efforts that seek to reduce the impact of this serious illness. School counselors play a key role in the prevention of eating disorders and can provide support even when not directly…

  19. Automatic recognition of disorders, findings, pharmaceuticals and body structures from clinical text: an annotation and machine learning study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeppstedt, Maria; Kvist, Maria; Nilsson, Gunnar H; Dalianis, Hercules

    2014-06-01

    Automatic recognition of clinical entities in the narrative text of health records is useful for constructing applications for documentation of patient care, as well as for secondary usage in the form of medical knowledge extraction. There are a number of named entity recognition studies on English clinical text, but less work has been carried out on clinical text in other languages. This study was performed on Swedish health records, and focused on four entities that are highly relevant for constructing a patient overview and for medical hypothesis generation, namely the entities: Disorder, Finding, Pharmaceutical Drug and Body Structure. The study had two aims: to explore how well named entity recognition methods previously applied to English clinical text perform on similar texts written in Swedish; and to evaluate whether it is meaningful to divide the more general category Medical Problem, which has been used in a number of previous studies, into the two more granular entities, Disorder and Finding. Clinical notes from a Swedish internal medicine emergency unit were annotated for the four selected entity categories, and the inter-annotator agreement between two pairs of annotators was measured, resulting in an average F-score of 0.79 for Disorder, 0.66 for Finding, 0.90 for Pharmaceutical Drug and 0.80 for Body Structure. A subset of the developed corpus was thereafter used for finding suitable features for training a conditional random fields model. Finally, a new model was trained on this subset, using the best features and settings, and its ability to generalise to held-out data was evaluated. This final model obtained an F-score of 0.81 for Disorder, 0.69 for Finding, 0.88 for Pharmaceutical Drug, 0.85 for Body Structure and 0.78 for the combined category Disorder+Finding. The obtained results, which are in line with or slightly lower than those for similar studies on English clinical text, many of them conducted using a larger training data set, show that

  20. An exploration of the tripartite influence model of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating among Australian and French college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel; Chabrol, Henri; Paxton, Susan J

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare levels of body dissatisfaction, disordered eating and risk factors, and to examine the tripartite influence model of body image and eating disturbance among French and Australian young adult females. Participants were 188 Australian (mean age=19.6 years, SD=1.0) and 190 French (mean age=20.7 years, SD=2.6) students. Media, peer and family influences, internalisation of media ideals, appearance comparison, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimia and self-esteem were assessed. Australian participants reported perceiving more peer and media influence, and higher levels of appearance comparison, internalisation of media ideals and bulimic symptoms than French participants (peating disturbance with a view to prevention. PMID:21664887

  1. Body image, eating disorders, and the relationship to adolescent media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson A; Garcia, Kaylor; Massey, Meredith; Vasagar, Brintha; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2012-06-01

    Historically and currently, media messages around body shape and size emphasize the importance of being below-average weight for women and hypermuscular for men. The media messages around physical appearance are not realistic for most and lead to body dissatisfaction for most adolescents. Interventions designed to mitigate the influence of negative media messages on adolescents' body image are presented; however, most have shown limited success.

  2. Body image, eating disorders, and the relationship to adolescent media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz-Fredericks, Carson A; Garcia, Kaylor; Massey, Meredith; Vasagar, Brintha; Borzekowski, Dina L G

    2012-06-01

    Historically and currently, media messages around body shape and size emphasize the importance of being below-average weight for women and hypermuscular for men. The media messages around physical appearance are not realistic for most and lead to body dissatisfaction for most adolescents. Interventions designed to mitigate the influence of negative media messages on adolescents' body image are presented; however, most have shown limited success. PMID:22643174

  3. Body image, peer effects and food disorders: Evidence from a sample of European women

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Font, J.; Jofre-Bonet, M

    2010-01-01

    Excessive preoccupation with self-image has been pinpointed as a factor contributing to the proliferation of food disorders, especially among young women. To provide an economic basis for this argument this paper models how ‘self-image’ and ‘other people’s appearance’ influence health-related behaviour. Self-image (identity) is claimed to be biased towards anorexic women by social norms and peer pressure, increasing the probability of women experiencing a food disorder. This paper empirically...

  4. Glycosylation defects underlying fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a novel pathogenetic model. "When the wine goes in, strange things come out" - S.T. Coleridge, The Piccolomini.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binkhorst, M.; Wortmann, S.B.; Funke, S.; Kozicz, T.L.; Wevers, R.A.; Morava, E.

    2012-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is an umbrella term used to describe the craniofacial dysmorphic features, malformations, and disturbances in growth, neurodevelopment and behavior occurring in individuals prenatally exposed to alcohol. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) represents the severe end of

  5. Moderators of the Body Dissatisfaction-Eating Disorder Symptomatology Relationship: Replication and Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, Megan E.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, research conducted by T. L. Tylka (2004) was replicated and extended by examining perfectionism (self-oriented and socially prescribed), ego goal orientation, body surveillance, and neuroticism as moderators of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic and anorexic symptomatology among female undergraduates (N =…

  6. Tobacco use, Body Mass Index, and Potentially Malignant Disorders Among petrol fillers in Pimpri-Pune (India: A descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha G. S. Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since petrol is combustible and smoking is banned at the petrol pumps, it may be predicted that use of smokeless tobacco is more prevalent among the petrol fillers. Also, smokeless tobacco is a major risk factor for developing oral potentially malignant disorders. The present study was conducted to determine the tobacco use, body mass index (BMI, and potentially malignant disorders among a cohort of petrol fillers and also to evaluate the interaction of tobacco use and BMI with the presence of potentially malignant disorders. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at 45 petrol stations located at Pimpri-Pune, India. A descriptive study design was used. Materials and Method: Four hundred and ten petrol fillers aged 17-64 years participated in the study. General information and tobacco history was obtained by interview. Height and weight were recorded to obtain BMI. Oral examination was conducted to identify the potentially malignant disorders. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test, Z test, and logistic regression were used. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results and Conclusions: It was found that 242 (59.02% used tobacco in different forms. 77.68% were tobacco chewers, and 8.26% were smokers. Leukoplakia was prevalent among 68.47%, oral submucous fibrosis among 27.45%, and 5.08% had erythroplakia. Age (χ2 = 11.46, P < 0.05, duration (χ2 = 17.46, P < 0.05, and frequency of tobacco chewing (χ2 = 14.16, P < 0.05 were significantly associated with potentially malignant disorders. Tobacco chewing was more prevalent as compared to smoking. It can be concluded that the petrol fillers are at a high risk for developing oral potentially malignant disorders.

  7. Dysmorphology and mental retardation: molecular cytogenetic studies in dysmorphic mentally retarded patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buggenhout, G.J.C.M. van; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Mieloo, H.; Syrrou, M.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Brunner, H.G.; Fryns, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    In an institutionalised population of 471 mentally retarded adult residents (436 males and 35 females), 18 patients (16 males and 2 females) with dysmorphic features were selected to perform FISH studies by using subtelomeric probes to discover cryptic terminal deletions or duplications, undetectabl

  8. Body movements and their role in music therapy in the treatment of depression and an eating disorder : a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Karvonen, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Music and dance play an important role in every culture and society. In some parts of the world, the word for music and dance is the same. Due to this, one good treatment and psychological support can be music and dance. The purpose of this master’s thesis was to investigate how body movements and their role in music therapy in the treatment of depression and an eating disorder can offer one insights, and improve depression and quality of life. This case study was conducted within a cl...

  9. Group prevention of eating disorders with fifth-grade females: impact on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and media influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scime, Melinda; Cook-Cottone, Catherine; Kane, Linda; Watson, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a primary prevention program for eating disorders aimed at fifth-grade females. The curriculum was based on empirically validated risk and protective factors and incorporated interactive discourse, yoga, and relaxation into 10 weekly sessions. Pre- and post-test data from three groups conducted over the course of 13 months were combined for a total of 45 participants. Results indicate completion of the group resulted in a significant decrease on scales measuring body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness, as well as media influence. Implications for practice and future research are discussed. PMID:16777811

  10. Anorexia Nervosa and Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Further Explorations of the Relation Between Anxiety and Body Mass Index

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Laura M.; Dellava, Jocilyn E.; Root, Tammy L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2011-01-01

    We explore comorbidity of anorexia nervosa (AN) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and their relation with body mass index (BMI) and evaluate the presence of fasting and excessive exercise which both have anxiolytic and weight loss effects. All participants were female: 32 with AN only, 607 with GAD only, 22 with AN and GAD (AN+GAD), and 5,424 with no history of AN or GAD (referent) from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE). Lowest adult BMI differed significant...

  11. Abnormalities in visual processing amongst students with body image concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy E., Matthew; Sadusky, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they observe and discriminate visual information. A pre-occupation with perceived defects in appearance has been attributed to a local visual processing bias. We studied the nature of visual bias in individuals who may be at risk of developing BDD – those with high body image concerns (BICs) – by using inverted stimulus discrimination. Inversion disrupts global, configural information in favor of local, feature-based processing. 40 individuals with high BIC and 40 low BIC controls performed a discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, bodies, and scenes. Individuals with high BIC discriminated inverted faces and bodies faster than controls, and were also more accurate when discriminating inverted bodies and scenes. This reduction in inversion effect for high BIC individuals may be due to a stimulus-general local, detail-focused processing bias, which may be associated with maladaptive fixation on small features in their appearance. PMID:25157299

  12. Metabolic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  13. 76 FR 66006 - Revised Medical Criteria for Evaluating Congenital Disorders That Affect Multiple Body Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Affect Multiple Body Systems AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Regulations, Social Security Administration, 107 Altmeyer Building, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore..., Social Security Administration, 6401 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, Maryland 21235-6401, (410)...

  14. Diagonalization and Many-Body Localization for a Disordered Quantum Spin Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrie, John Z.

    2016-07-01

    We consider a weakly interacting quantum spin chain with random local interactions. We prove that many-body localization follows from a physically reasonable assumption that limits the extent of level attraction in the statistics of eigenvalues. In a Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser-style construction, a sequence of local unitary transformations is used to diagonalize the Hamiltonian by deforming the initial tensor-product basis into a complete set of exact many-body eigenfunctions.

  15. Disorders of body fluids, sodium and potassium in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitch, W E; Wilcox, C S

    1982-03-01

    A stable volume and composition of extracellular fluid are essential for normal functioning of the body. Since the kidney is primarily responsible for regulating extracellular fluid, loss of kidney function should have catastrophic consequences. Fortunately, even with loss of more than 90 percent of renal function, a remarkable capacity to regulate body fluid volumes and sodium and potassium persists. Nevertheless, this capacity is limited to chronic renal disease and this has important consequences for clinical management of these patients. How can sodium and potassium homeostasis be assessed? Methods for evaluating the steady-state regulation of sodium include measurement of body fluids and their distribution in different compartments and measurement of exchangeable and intracellular sodium. Short-term regulation of body sodium can be assessed from measurement of sodium balance during changes in dietary salt. Potassium is predominantly contained within cells and thus the assessment of its regulation requires special emphasis on measurement of steady-state body stores and potassium distribution across cell membranes. However, the methods used to make all of these measurements require assumptions that may not hold in the altered state of uremia. This raises problems in interpretation requiring critical analysis before conclusions can be made regarding sodium and potassium homeostasis in patients with chronic renal failure. This review focuses on abnormalities of body fluids, sodium and potassium in patients with creatinine clearances of less than 20 ml/min due to chronic renal failure and the impact of conservative therapy, dialysis and renal transplantation on these patients.

  16. Increased whole-body auditory startle reflex and autonomic reactivity in children with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; van der Meer, Johan N.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Boer, Frits

    2009-01-01

    Background: Young patients with anxiety disorders are thought to have a hypersensitive fear system, including alterations of the early sensorimotor processing of threatening information. However, there is equivocal support in auditory blink response studies for an enlarged auditory startle reflex (A

  17. Associations between body mass index and development of metabolic disorders in fertile women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Michelle Dalgas; Andersson, Charlotte; Køber, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    of this study. METHODS AND RESULTS: Women giving birth during the years 2004-2009, with no history of cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency, pregnancy-associated metabolic disorders, diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia were identified in nationwide registers. Women were categorized as underweight (BMI...

  18. Recent Research on Eating Disorders and Body Image Distortion among Aerobic Instructors and Exercise Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Dick; And Others

    This document reviews the research linking excessive exercise with eating disorders. Seven steps are listed that an individual follows in going from someone who starts out using exercise and aerobic dance as a stress management technique or a hobby to becoming an exercise dependent individual with addictive behavior. Studies are reviewed, the…

  19. Musculoskeletal disorders in construction: A review and a novel system for activity tracking with body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Sivanathan, Aparajithan; Bosché, Frédéric; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Human body motions have been analysed for decades with a view on enhancing occupational well-being and performance of workers. On-going progresses in miniaturised wearable sensors are set to revolutionise biomechanical analysis by providing accurate and real-time quantitative motion data. The construction industry has a poor record of occupational health, in particular with regard to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). In this article, we therefore focus on the study of human body motions that could cause WMSDs in construction-related activities. We first present an in-depth review of existing assessment frameworks used in practice for the evaluation of human body motion. Subsequently different methods for measuring working postures and motions are reviewed and compared, pointing out the technological developments, limitations and gaps; Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are particularly investigated. Finally, we introduce a new system to detect and characterise unsafe postures of construction workers based on the measurement of motion data from wearable wireless IMUs integrated in a body area network. The potential of this system is demonstrated through experiments conducts in a laboratory as well as in a college with actual construction trade trainees. PMID:26851471

  20. Musculoskeletal disorders in construction: A review and a novel system for activity tracking with body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Sivanathan, Aparajithan; Bosché, Frédéric; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Human body motions have been analysed for decades with a view on enhancing occupational well-being and performance of workers. On-going progresses in miniaturised wearable sensors are set to revolutionise biomechanical analysis by providing accurate and real-time quantitative motion data. The construction industry has a poor record of occupational health, in particular with regard to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). In this article, we therefore focus on the study of human body motions that could cause WMSDs in construction-related activities. We first present an in-depth review of existing assessment frameworks used in practice for the evaluation of human body motion. Subsequently different methods for measuring working postures and motions are reviewed and compared, pointing out the technological developments, limitations and gaps; Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are particularly investigated. Finally, we introduce a new system to detect and characterise unsafe postures of construction workers based on the measurement of motion data from wearable wireless IMUs integrated in a body area network. The potential of this system is demonstrated through experiments conducts in a laboratory as well as in a college with actual construction trade trainees.

  1. Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating among College Women in China, South Korea, and the United States: Contrasting Predictions from Sociocultural and Feminist Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehee; Forbes, Gordon B.

    2007-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating were compared across groups of college women from China (n = 109), South Korea (n = 137), and the United States (n = 102). Based on cultural differences in the amount of exposure to Western appearance standards, particularly the thin-body ideal, sociocultural theory (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, &…

  2. Body Dissatisfaction and Eating-Related Problems on the College Campus: Usefulness of the Eating Disorder Inventory with a Nonclinical Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemchuk, Helen P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Administered Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) to 1,506 female undergraduates. Found very high rates of body dissatisfaction. EDI factor analysis yielded six-factor structure accounting for 41 percent of variance. Two risk groups were identified on basis of extreme EDI factor scores: body-dissatisfied group and binge-purge group with poor…

  3. Metaphor as illness: postmodern dilemmas in the representation of body, mind and disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, S M

    1992-03-01

    The search for a synthesis bridging the gap between materialist and idealist approaches in anthropological theory has been invigorated by recent efforts to develop a critical medical anthropology. Not limited to integrating class analysis and cultural interpretation, the "mindful body" paradigm also aims at empowering the ill, whose experience is denied by biomedical and psychiatric categories that locate disease either in the body or in the mind, and treat them separately from one another and independently of social context. However, missing from the "mindful body" discourse is a reflexive awareness of its contextual grounding in both popular and biomedical discourses of illness, with which it exchanges meanings and from which it borrows dominating power. The case of cancer as a metaphorized illness and a pathologized trope is used to illustrate this process.

  4. BODY IMAGE DISTORTION, PERFECTIONISM AND EATING DISORDER SYMPTOMS IN RISK GROUP OF FEMALE BALLET DANCERS AND MODELS AND IN CONTROL GROUP OF FEMALE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Zoletić, Emina; Duraković-Belko, Elvira

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of this research was to examine differences among two groups of girls, models and ballerinas (with risk factors – experimental group) and young students (control group), in body image preception, body mass index, neurotic perfectionism, body – image distortion and simptoms of eating disorders. Subjects and methods: The research was conducted with 91 participants divided in two groups, control group – 55 students at University of Sarajevo and experimental group – 13 prof...

  5. The relationship between alexithymia, shame, trauma, and body image disorders: investigation over a large clinical sample

    OpenAIRE

    Franzoni E; Gualandi S; Caretti V; Schimmenti A; Di Pietro E; Pellegrini G; Craparo G; Franchi A; Verrotti A; Pellicciari A

    2013-01-01

    Emilio Franzoni,1 Stefano Gualandi,1 Vincenzo Caretti,2 Adriano Schimmenti,3 Elena Di Pietro,1 Gaetano Pellegrini,1 Giuseppe Craparo,3 Arianna Franchi,1 Alberto Verrotti,4 Alessandro Pellicciari11Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 3Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Kore University of Enna, Enna, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, University of Chieti, ItalyBackground: The connections between eating disorders (E...

  6. The Relationship Between Symptoms of Eating Disorders and Worry About Body Image, Attachment Styles, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies Among Students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davodi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background There are different assumptions about the factors responsible for the genesis and maintenance of eating disorders. Each of the two main types of eating disorders results from a complex interaction of emotional and psychological factors. Objectives The purpose of the current research was to study the relationship between symptoms of eating disorders and worry about body image, attachment styles, and cognitive emotion regulation strategies, among a sample of students at Ahvaz Jundishapur University. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, 2011 - 2012. The research participants were selected with use of multistage random sample from various colleges. Our research tools were the eating attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26, the Worry about body image questionnaire, the attachment styles questionnaire, and a questionnaire on cognitive emotion regulation strategies. Pearson correlation and stepwise regression methods, with inter and stepwise methods, were used during data analysis. Results The results of this research indicated that worry about body image, an avoidant attachment style, negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies, and secure attachment style in regression equation remained significant (P < 0.0001. Results also showed that worry about body image, an anxious attachment style, an avoidant attachment style, and negative cognitive emotion regulation strategies were significant in the regression equation, predicting 19% of the variance in the eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions Concerns about body image, an avoidant attachment style, and cognitive strategies to regulate negative emotions were the strongest predictors for eating disorder symptoms. Based on current research findings, an avoidance attachment style, concerns about body image, and negative emotion regulation cognitive strategies increase eating disorder symptoms in students. Because attachment

  7. Influences on Body Image and Disordered Eating among Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, William; Rhea, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    This study examined whether behavioral differences (exercise, dieting, changing eating habits, taking pills, or vomiting/taking laxatives to lose weight) exist when identifying the major influencing factors (media, family, friends, teacher/coach, and doctor/nurse) among Black and White men's and women's self-perceptions of body weight. Respondents…

  8. Transtornos alimentares e imagem corporal em acadêmicos de Educação Física Eating disorders and body image in Physical Education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosimeide Francisco Santos Legnani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar as associações entre excesso de peso corporal, provável transtorno alimentar e distorção da imagem corporal em acadêmicos de educação física. A amostra foi formada por 229 universitários (45,6% rapazes. A imagem corporal foi analisada pelo questionário Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ e os indicadores de transtorno alimentar pelo Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. A presença de transtorno alimentar esteve associada às distorções da imagem corporal (pThe objective of this study was to identify the relationships possible eating disorders and distortion of body image in physical education students. The sample was composed by 229 students (45.6% males. The body image was analyzed by mean Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ and the eating disorders through Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. The presence of possible eating disorders was associated with distortion of body image (p<0.001 and not with nutritional status (p=0.448. Already the distortion in body image was associated both with possible eating disorders (p<0.001 and with the nutritional status (p=0.016. The university students with distortion of body image that were 5.29-folder higher (CI 95%: 2.15-13.09 when compared with no disorders group. The possible eating disorders indicators and distortion body image were higher in females and the higher nutritional status prevalence in males.

  9. Intragenic ILRAPL1 deletion in a male patient with intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic signs, deafness, and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Chiara; Bianca, Sebastiano; Luciano, Daniela; Di Benedetto, Daniela; Vinci, Mirella; Fichera, Marco

    2013-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 2% of the population, with affected males outnumbering affected female, partly due to disturbances involving X-linked genes. To date >90 genes associated with X-linked intellectual disability have been identified and, among these, IL1RAPL1 (interleukin 1 receptor accessory protein-like 1), was first described and mapped to Xp21.3-22.1 in 1999. Intragenic deletions of IL1RAPL1, only rarely identified, have mostly been associated with nonspecific intellectual disability (IDX) and autism spectrum disorder. Array-CGH analysis performed in our patient with intellectual disability, mild dysmorphic signs and changes in behavior identified a 285 Kb deletion in chromosome Xp21.3-21.2, with breakpoints lying in IL1RAPL1 gene intron 2 and intron 3. This is the first patient reported in literature with deletion of only exon 3 of IL1RAPL1 gene. Our patient also exhibits bilateral progressive neurosensorial deafness, which has not been previously associated with IL1RAPL1 mutations. PMID:23613341

  10. CRIPT exonic deletion and a novel missense mutation in a female with short stature, dysmorphic features, microcephaly, and pigmentary abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Magalie S; Niu, Zhiyv; Bi, Weimin; Zhu, Wenmiao; Miloslavskaya, Irene; Chiang, Theodore; Streff, Haley; Seavitt, John R; Murray, Stephen A; Eng, Christine; Chan, Audrey; Yang, Yaping; Lalani, Seema R

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in CRIPT encoding cysteine-rich PDZ domain-binding protein are rare, and to date have been reported in only two patients with autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism and distinctive facies. Here, we describe a female with biallelic mutations in CRIPT presenting with postnatal growth retardation, global developmental delay, and dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, high forehead, and sparse hair and eyebrows. Additional clinical features included high myopia, admixed hyper- and hypopigmented macules primarily on the face, arms, and legs, and syndactyly of 4-5 toes bilaterally. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), we detected a c.8G>A (p.C3Y) missense variant in exon 1 of the CRIPT gene inherited from the mother and a 1,331 bp deletion encompassing exon 1, inherited from the father. The c.8G>A (p.C3Y) missense variant in CRIPT was apparently homozygous in the proband due to the exon 1 deletion. Our findings illustrate the clinical utility of combining WES with copy number variant (CNV) analysis to provide a molecular diagnosis to patients with rare Mendelian disorders. Our findings also illustrate the clinical spectrum of CRIPT related mutations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27250922

  11. Impaired recognition of emotions from body movements is associated with elevated motion coherence thresholds in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Anthony P

    2009-11-01

    Recent research has confirmed that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties in recognizing emotions from body movements. Difficulties in perceiving coherent motion are also common in ASD. Yet it is unknown whether these two impairments are related. Thirteen adults with ASD and 16 age- and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) adults classified basic emotions from point-light and full-light displays of body movements and discriminated the direction of coherent motion in random-dot kinematograms. The ASD group was reliably less accurate in classifying emotions regardless of stimulus display type, and in perceiving coherent motion. As predicted, ASD individuals with higher motion coherence thresholds were less accurate in classifying emotions from body movements, especially in the point-light displays; this relationship was not evident for the TD group. The results are discussed in relation to recent models of biological motion processing and known abnormalities in the neural substrates of motion and social perception in ASD. PMID:19500604

  12. Running to win or to be thin? An evaluation of body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among adult runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Gorrell, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-06-01

    The current study evaluated associations between sport-performance-related body dissatisfaction (BD), general-appearance-related BD, and their relation to EAT-26 scores among a sample of adult runners who participated in middle- and long-distance races in the northeastern United States (N=400, 46.5% male). Women reported elevated BD and eating disorder symptoms, as compared to men. Ridge regression was used to analyze correlations between appearance- and performance-related BD with EAT-26 scores. Results demonstrated that appearance- and performance-related BD positively correlated with EAT-26 scores in women (βs=0.18 and 0.13, respectively). Race length was a significant covariate for women, such that those who ran middle-distance race events were more likely to report higher EAT-26 scores (β=-3.12). These associations were not demonstrated in men. Results suggest that it is beneficial to address sport-specific body image concerns, in addition to more general appearance-related body image concerns in female runners.

  13. Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji: negotiating body image and identity during rapid social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Anne E

    2004-12-01

    Although the relationship between media exposure and risk behavior among youth is established at a population level, the specific psychological and social mechanisms mediating the adverse effects of media on youth remain poorly understood. This study reports on an investigation of the impact of the introduction of television to a rural community in Western Fiji on adolescent ethnic Fijian girls in a setting of rapid social and economic change. Narrative data were collected from 30 purposively selected ethnic Fijian secondary school girls via semi-structured, open-ended interviews. Interviews were conducted in 1998, 3 years after television was first broadcast to this region of Fiji. Narrative data were analyzed for content relating to response to television and mechanisms that mediate self and body image in Fijian adolescents. Data in this sample suggest that media imagery is used in both creative and destructive ways by adolescent Fijian girls to navigate opportunities and conflicts posed by the rapidly changing social environment. Study respondents indicated their explicit modeling of the perceived positive attributes of characters presented in television dramas, but also the beginnings of weight and body shape preoccupation, purging behavior to control weight, and body disparagement. Response to television appeared to be shaped by a desire for competitive social positioning during a period of rapid social transition. Understanding vulnerability to images and values imported with media will be critical to preventing disordered eating and, potentially, other youth risk behaviors in this population, as well as other populations at risk. PMID:15847053

  14. Running to win or to be thin? An evaluation of body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among adult runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Gorrell, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-06-01

    The current study evaluated associations between sport-performance-related body dissatisfaction (BD), general-appearance-related BD, and their relation to EAT-26 scores among a sample of adult runners who participated in middle- and long-distance races in the northeastern United States (N=400, 46.5% male). Women reported elevated BD and eating disorder symptoms, as compared to men. Ridge regression was used to analyze correlations between appearance- and performance-related BD with EAT-26 scores. Results demonstrated that appearance- and performance-related BD positively correlated with EAT-26 scores in women (βs=0.18 and 0.13, respectively). Race length was a significant covariate for women, such that those who ran middle-distance race events were more likely to report higher EAT-26 scores (β=-3.12). These associations were not demonstrated in men. Results suggest that it is beneficial to address sport-specific body image concerns, in addition to more general appearance-related body image concerns in female runners. PMID:26952015

  15. Green functions in the renormalized many-body perturbation theory for correlated and disordered electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Janiš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of introducing and handling renormalizations in the many-body perturbation theory are reviewed. We stress the indispensable role the technique of Green functions plays in extrapolating the weak-coupling perturbative approaches to intermediate and strong couplings. We separately discuss mass and charge renormalizations. The former is incorporated in a self-consistent equation for the self-energy derived explicitly from generating Feynman diagrams within the Baym and Kadanoff approach. The latter amounts to self-consistent equations for two-particle irreducible vertices. We analyze the charge renormalization initiated by De Dominicis and Martin and demonstrate that its realization via the parquet approach may become a powerful and viable way of using the many-body diagrammatic approach reliably in non-perturbative regimes with cooperative phenomena induced by either strong interaction or strong static randomness.

  16. Disorders of body cognition following unilateral stroke - neuropsychological basis and modulation by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS)

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Patients with vascular lesions of the right cerebral hemisphere often show unilateral, multimodal neglect. These patients fail to detect or respond to visual, acoustic or tactile stimuli in their contralesional hemispace or on their contralesional side of body. These failures are not caused by elementary disturbances of the visual (i.e. hemianopia), auditory (i.e. deafness) or motor (i.e. hemiparesis) modality, although they often go hand in hand with these impairments. The majority of previo...

  17. Apotemnophilia, body integrity identity disorder or xenomelia? Psychiatric and neurologic etiologies face each other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedda A

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anna Sedda,1,2 Gabriella Bottini1,21Department of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 2Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory, Niguarda Ca’ Granda Hospital, Milan, ItalyAbstract: This review summarizes the available studies of a rare condition in which ­individuals seek the amputation of a healthy limb or desire to be paraplegic. Since 1977, case reports and group studies have been produced, trying to understand the cause of this unusual desire. The main etiological hypotheses are presented, from the psychological/psychiatric to the most recent neurologic explanation. The paradigms adopted and the clinical features are compared across studies and analyzed in detail. Finally, future directions and ethical implications are discussed. A proposal is made to adopt a multidisciplinary approach that comprises state-of-the-art technologies and a variety of theoretical models, including both body representation and psychological and sexual components.Keywords: BIID, limb amputation, somatoparaphrenia, body representation, body ownership

  18. Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis with short stature, facial dysmorphism, and hypodontia--a new syndrome?: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seow, W K

    1989-06-01

    In this study, a possible new syndrome affecting 18 members of a family spanning 4 generations is described. The main features include palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, proportionate short stature, facial dysmorphism, clinodactyly, epilepsy, deafness, and hypodontia. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with a high degree of penetrance but variable expressivity. This syndrome differs markedly from the autosomal recessive types of palmoplantar hyperkeratosis such as Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome which shows premature loss of both dentitions. It is also distinct from other previously described cases of autosomal dominant forms of palmoplantar hyperkeratosis such as the Unna-Thost syndrome in that it presents short stature, facial dysmorphism, and hypodontia. These features which previously have not been associated with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis suggest that this may be a new syndrome.

  19. Dysmorphic penis image perception: the root of Koro vulnerability. A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, A N

    1989-11-01

    Koro is an acute anxiety reaction in which the perception of decreased penis length because of hyperinvolution from intra-abdominal traction is the main feature. In an earlier study the author reported that, despite having an average length penis, Koro patients perceived smaller penis length, in both the flaccid and extended state, than did normal subjects. To examine the influence of response bias on the dysmorphic penis length perception, a longitudinal study was undertaken, in which the Draw-a-penis Test, a graphomotor projective test, was administered on the same Koro patients 3 times over 2 years. The patients showed a remarkable constancy in their perception of penis length. The dysmorphic quality of own-penis perception is discussed in relation to Koro vulnerability.

  20. Employer differences in upper-body musculoskeletal disorders and pain among immigrant Latino poultry processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A; Mora, Dana C; Arcury, Thomas A; Chen, Haiying; Quandt, Sara A

    2014-01-01

    Between-employer differences in working conditions may lead to variable injury rates. The objective of this paper is to assess the difference in the prevalence of epicondylitis, rotator cuff syndrome, and low back pain among immigrant Latino poultry workers at plants of three different employers. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study among 286 poultry processing workers. Community-based sampling was used to recruit participants in western North Carolina. Rotator cuff syndrome (26.7%) and low back pain (27.9%) were more prevalent among employees of one specific employer. Multivariate analysis showed significant associations of low back pain and rotator cuff syndrome with age, task performed in the processing line, and employer. Employer is a major predictor of musculoskeletal disorders and pain. Line speed and work pace may account for these differences and provide an opportunity for regulation and intervention to protect the health of workers. PMID:25275404

  1. The lived body in schizophrenia: Transition from basic self-disorders to full-blown psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor eIrarrázaval

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the results of a phenomenological study of patients with schizophrenia during their first psychiatric hospitalisation. The study aims at clarify aspects related to the diagnosis of schizophrenia and to reach a greater understanding of the illness, with a view to contribute to prevention and psychotherapeutic intervention models. Firstly, the paper offers a description of the patients’ disembodiment manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Secondly, it presents a description of the subjective anomalies that may be considered as disorders of ipseity or of pre-reflexive self-awareness. Thirdly, the description is extended to encompass secondary disturbances to processes of establishing consensual intersubjectivity that lead to difficulties in shared communication practices and a progressive withdrawal from the intersubjective world. The conclusion states that a structural element, a key part of the personal processes involved in schizophrenia, is the diminishment of self-presence in experience, which manifests on both individual and social levels.

  2. The lived body in schizophrenia: transition from basic self-disorders to full-blown psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irarrázaval, Leonor

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides the results of a phenomenological study of patients with schizophrenia during their first psychiatric hospitalization. The study aims at clarify aspects related to the diagnosis of schizophrenia and to reach a greater understanding of the illness, with a view to contribute to prevention and psychotherapeutic intervention models. First, the paper offers a description of the patients' "disembodiment" manifested in acute phases of schizophrenia. Second, it presents a description of the subjective anomalies that may be considered as disorders of "ipseity" or of pre-reflexive self-awareness. Third, the description is extended to encompass secondary disturbances to processes of establishing consensual intersubjectivity that lead to difficulties in shared communication practices and a progressive withdrawal from the intersubjective world. The conclusion states that a structural element, a key part of the personal processes involved in schizophrenia, is the diminishment of self-presence in experience, which manifests on both individual and social levels.

  3. Muscle MRI / whole-body MRI in diagnosis and dynamic evaluation of neuro-muscular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Carlier

    2015-01-01

    The use of MRI in myopathies dates back to more than 20 years. The first investigations were slow and only allowed segmental and limited studies. Whole-body MRI has emerged over the past twelve years and became a useful diagnostic tool in the etiological diagnosis of myopathies and muscular dystrophies. This study must always be confronted with clinical and whichever other paraclinical data without being able to replace them. Indications to perform such an investigation are getting better and...

  4. Effects of body mass index-related disorders on cognition: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesavage JA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jerome A Yesavage,1,2 Lisa M Kinoshita,1,2 Art Noda,2 Laura C Lazzeroni,2 Jennifer Kaci Fairchild,1,2 Joy Taylor,1,2 Doina Kulick,3 Leah Friedman,1,2 Jauhtai Cheng,1,2 Jamie M Zeitzer,1,2 Ruth O’Hara1,21Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USABackground: Well-known risk factors for cognitive impairment are also associated with obesity. Research has highlighted genetic risk factors for obesity, yet the relationship of those risk factors with cognitive impairment is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between cognition, hypertension, diabetes, sleep-disordered breathing, and obesity. Genetic risk factors of obesity were also examined.Methods: The sample consisted of 369 nondemented individuals aged 50 years or older from four community cohorts. Primary outcome measures included auditory verbal memory, as measured by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and executive functioning, as measured by the Color–Word Interference Test of the Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System battery. Apnea–hypopnea index indicators were determined during standard overnight polysomnography. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations and linear regressions.Results: Poor executive function and auditory verbal memory were linked to cardiovascular risk factors, but not directly to obesity. Genetic factors appeared to have a small but measureable association to obesity.Conclusion: A direct linkage between obesity and poor executive function and auditory verbal memory is difficult to discern, possibly because nonobese individuals may show cognitive impairment due to insulin resistance and the “metabolic syndrome”.Keywords: sleep-disordered breathing, hypertension, diabetes, sleep apnea, BMI, obesity

  5. Subcutaneous fat pads on body MRI - an early sign of congenital disorder of glycosylation PMM2-CDG (CDG1a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Maawali, Almundher A.; Schulze, Andreas [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada); Miller, Elka [Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Yoon, Grace [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Clinical and Metabolic Genetics, Toronto (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Division of Neurology, Toronto (Canada); Blaser, Susan I. [The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Division of Paediatric Neuroradiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    Infants with phosphomannomutase 2 - congenital disorder of glycosylation (PMM2-CDG), formerly known as CDG1a, present with failure to thrive, visceral dysfunction, thromboembolic events and developmental delays noted before 6 months of age. Diagnosis is often delayed due to the considerable variability in phenotype. Characteristic, but not universal, features include inverted nipples and abnormal subcutaneous fat pads. Neuroimaging performed in the first 4 months of life may be normal, although cerebellar and brainstem atrophy is usual after 3 months of age. Cerebellar and brainstem atrophy have been noted as early as 11 days of life. We present an infant whose typical subcutaneous and retroperitoneal fat deposits were clinically occult, but identified on body MRI. (orig.)

  6. Development of a Protocol for Epidemiologal Studies of Whole-Body Vibration and Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Lower Back

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, M. L.; Pope, M. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Bovenzi, M.

    1998-08-01

    It seems evident from a large number of studies that there is a positive relationship between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and the occurrence of low back pain. There are existing standards for evaluating the human exposure to WBV, which are based on other factors than the effect of musculoskeletal disorders. Several national and international standards also exist for evaluating human exposure to WBV. The exposure limit values or health guidance caution zones included in some of these standards are not or only to a limited extent based on systematic epidemiological investigations. It has not yet been possible to establish a clear exposure-response relationship. There are many confounding or contributing factors which influence the hazards to workers caused by exposure to WBV. Reliable methods for the detection and prevention of injury due to vibration exposure at work, alone or in combination with other risk factors, need to be implemented. The aim of this paper was to design a protocol and a questionnaire for conducting collaborative studies of WBV and musculoskeletal back disorders. The protocol will be tested in a pilot study before it will be used in multi-center studies.

  7. Gestational Weight Gain, Body Mass Index, and Risk of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Silveira, Marushka; Waring, Molly E; Pekow, Penelope; Braun, Barry; Manson, JoAnn E; Solomon, Caren G; Markenson, Glenn

    2016-09-01

    Objectives To prospectively evaluate the association between gestational weight gain (GWG), prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy using the revised Institute of Medicine (IOM) Guidelines. Methods We examined these associations among 1359 participants in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011 among women from the Caribbean Islands. Information on prepregnancy BMI, GWG, and incident diagnoses of hypertension in pregnancy were based on medical record abstraction. Results Four percent (n = 54) of women were diagnosed with hypertension in pregnancy, including 2.6 % (n = 36) with preeclampsia. As compared to women who gained within IOM GWG guidelines (22.8 %), those who gained above guidelines (52.5 %) had an odds ratio of 3.82 for hypertensive disorders (95 % CI 1.46-10.00; ptrend = 0.003) and an odds ratio of 2.94 for preeclampsia (95 % CI 1.00-8.71, ptrend = 0.03) after adjusting for important risk factors. Each one standard deviation (0.45 lbs/week) increase in rate of GWG was associated with a 1.74 odds of total hypertensive disorders (95 % CI 1.34-2.27) and 1.86 odds of preeclampsia (95 % CI 1.37-2.52). Conclusions for Practice Findings from this prospective study suggest that excessive GWG is associated with hypertension in pregnancy and could be a potentially modifiable risk factor in this high-risk ethnic group. PMID:27003150

  8. Features of objectified body consciousness and sociocultural perspectives as risk factors for disordered eating among late-adolescent women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Body surveillance and body shame are features of objectified body consciousness (OBC) that have been linked to disordered eating, yet the evidence base is largely cross-sectional and limited to samples in certain Western countries. Furthermore, it is not clear whether these factors contribute to the prediction of eating disturbances independent of conceptually related risk factors emphasized within other sociocultural accounts. In this prospective study, body surveillance, body shame, and features of complementary sociocultural models (i.e., perceived appearance pressure from mass media and close interpersonal networks, appearance social comparisons, negative affect, body dissatisfaction) were assessed as risk factors for and concomitants of eating disturbances over time. University-age, mainland Chinese women (n = 2144) and men (n = 1017) completed validated measures of eating-disorder pathology and hypothesized risk factors at baseline (T1) and 1-year follow-up (T2). Among women, elevations on T1 measures of sociocultural-model features predicted more T2 eating disturbances, independent of T1 disturbances. After controlling for other T1 predictors, body surveillance and shame made modest unique contributions to the model. Finally, heightened T2 body dissatisfaction, media, and interpersonal appearance pressure, negative affect, and body shame predicted concomitant increases in T2 eating concerns. For men, T1 features of sociocultural accounts (negative affect, body dissatisfaction) but not OBC predicted T2 eating disturbances, along with attendant elevations in T2 negative affect, interpersonal appearance pressure, and body shame. Implications are discussed for theory and intervention that target disordered eating. PMID:26191981

  9. Cholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease and Lewy body spectrum disorders: the emerging pharmacogenetic story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review provides an update on the current state of pharmacogenetic research in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD and Lewy body disease (LBD as it pertains to the use of cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI. AD and LBD are first reviewed from clinical and pathophysiological perspectives. This is followed by a discussion of ChEIs used in the symptomatic treatment of these conditions, focusing on their unique and overlapping pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles, which can be used to identify candidate genes for pharmacogenetics studies. The literature published to date is then reviewed and limitations are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of potential endophenotypes which may help to refine future pharmacogenetic studies of response and adverse effects to ChEIs.

  10. Abnormalities in the Visual Processing of Viewing Complex Visual Stimuli Amongst Individuals With Body Image Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, A J F; Atkins, K J; Beilharz, F L; Mundy, M E

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and clinically concerning body-image concern (BIC) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they perceive visual information in the form of a bias towards local visual processing. As inversion interrupts normal global processing, forcing individuals to process locally, an upright-inverted stimulus discrimination task was used to investigate this phenomenon. We examined whether individuals with nonclinical, yet high levels of BIC would show signs of this bias, in the form of reduced inversion effects (i.e., increased local processing). Furthermore, we assessed whether this bias appeared for general visual stimuli or specifically for appearance-related stimuli, such as faces and bodies. Participants with high-BIC (n = 25) and low-BIC (n = 30) performed a stimulus discrimination task with upright and inverted faces, scenes, objects, and bodies. Unexpectedly, the high-BIC group showed an increased inversion effect compared to the low-BIC group, indicating perceptual abnormalities may not be present as local processing biases, as originally thought. There was no significant difference in performance across stimulus types, signifying that any visual processing abnormalities may be general rather than appearance-based. This has important implications for whether visual processing abnormalities are predisposing factors for BDD or develop throughout the disorder. PMID:27152128

  11. The effect of body dissatisfaction on eating disorder symptomatology : mediating effects of depression and low self-esteem : a partial test of the Dual-Pathway Model

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aim. The present study is based on the dual-pathway model (Stice, 2001), specifically testing the negative affect pathway of this model. This study examined whether depression and low self-esteem separately mediate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and general eating disorder symptomatology, focusing primarily on restraint eating and bulimic symptoms. Method. A sample of 113 junior high-school boys and girls completed measures of body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, depression,...

  12. Outcomes of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Interventions Provided by Unlicensed Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder; Body Dysmorphic Disorder; Tourette Syndrome; Trichotillomania; Panic Disorder; Social Phobia; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Depression; Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Eating Disorder; Specific Phobia; General Medical Condition

  13. Internalization of the Thin Ideal as a Predictor of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in African, African-American, and Afro-Caribbean Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stefanie C.; Crump, Stacey; Madhere, Serge; Schutz, William

    2009-01-01

    This study, conducted at a historically Black university, evaluated the impact of awareness and internalization of the Western thin ideal of beauty on body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia in African-American, African, and Caribbean women. The relationship between internalization of the thin ideal and disordered eating was…

  14. Construct validity of instruments measuring impairments in body structures and function in rheumatic disorders: which constructs are selected for validation? A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, R.A.H.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Swinkels-Meewisse, I.J.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Vet, H.C.W. de

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper focuses on the construct validity of instruments measuring impairments in body structures and function in rheumatic disorders. The objective is: 1) to make an inventory of constructs, based on the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health

  15. Construct validity of instruments measuring impairments in body structures and function in rheumatic disorders: Which constructs are selected for validation? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, R.A.H.M.; Bouter, L.M.; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; Swinkels-Meewisse, I.J.C.M.; Dijkstra, P.U.; de Vet, H.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. This paper focuses on the construct validity of instruments measuring impairments in body structures and function in rheumatic disorders. The objective is: 1) to make an inventory of constructs, based on the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disabilities and Health

  16. Evaluating the effects of a peer-support model: reducing negative body esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviours in grade eight girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carmen; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Saraceni, Reana

    2012-01-01

    During adolescence girls become increasingly preoccupied with unrealistic ideals about body weight, often leading to dieting and unhealthy compensatory behaviours. These practices have been linked to adverse psychological, social, and health consequences. Peer-support groups offer promise in addressing risk factors for disordered eating. This study explored the effects of peer-support on measures of body satisfaction, weight loss/weight gain behaviour, internalization of media ideals, weight based teasing, and communication, for a cohort of grade 8 girls. High-risk participants demonstrated trends toward decreased internalization of media ideals and increased body satisfaction at post-test. Implications and future research direction are discussed. PMID:22364343

  17. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. METHODS: A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear

  18. [The OCD spectrum disorder revisited. Toward a bipolar impulsion-compulsion configuration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumy, Olivier; Aouizerate, Bruno

    2014-02-01

    The so-called obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder (OCD spectrum) is represented by a large variety of clinical entities. There are in general obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania or Gilles de la Tourette disease among the impulse control disorders, body dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis among the somatoform disorders. Updated overview of the OCD spectrum through a bipolar configuration with the impulsion-compulsion (I-C) spectrum, characterized by a failure to resist and control intrusive thoughts associated with repetitive behaviors that seem to be uncontrollable or require considerable efforts to suppress their execution. There are several disrupted processes in the I-C spectrum, including cognitive control, flexibility and behavioural inhibition. All these psychiatric affections demonstrated to share apparent similarities regarding clinical symptomatology, demographic considerations, comorbidity and course pattern, and responses to the serotonine reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavioural therapy. The concept of I-C spectrum pleads for less categorical and more dimensional approach that seems to be consistently adapted to clinical, genetic, pathophysiology and therapeutic realities. PMID:23891530

  19. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures.

  20. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia M; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher levels of self-esteem, were less likely to compare their body to those of people in the media, felt less pressured to attain the physical appearance standard set by the media, and had less awareness of the societal appearance norms set by the media than other racial groups. Findings suggest that Black college women, independent of weight status, may be protected from disordered eating, negative body image, and societal media pressures. PMID:24411747

  1. Concurrent and prospective analyses of peer, television and social media influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Mónica E; Garza, Adolfo; Galindo, Mariza

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which media contributes to body dissatisfaction, life satisfaction and eating disorder symptoms in teenage girls continues to be debated. The current study examines television, social media and peer competition influences on body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and life satisfaction in a sample of 237 mostly Hispanic girls. 101 of these girls were reassessed in a later 6-month follow-up. Neither television exposure to thin ideal media nor social media predicted negative outcomes either concurrently nor prospectively with the exception of a small concurrent correlation between social media use and life satisfaction. Social media use was found to contribute to later peer competition in prospective analysis, however, suggesting potential indirect but not direct effects on body related outcomes. Peer competition proved to be a moderate strong predictor of negative outcomes both concurrently and prospectively. It is concluded that the negative influences of social comparison are focused on peers rather than television or social media exposure. PMID:23344652

  2. Macroscopic transport equations in many-body systems from microscopic exclusion processes in disordered media: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Galanti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Describing particle transport at the macroscopic or mesoscopic level in non-ideal environments poses fundamental theoretical challenges in domains ranging from inter and intra-cellular transport in biology to diffusion in porous media. Yet, often the nature of the constraints coming from many-body interactions or reflecting a complex and confining environment are better understood and modeled at the microscopic level.In this paper we review the subtle link between microscopic exclusion processes and the mean-field equations that ensue from them in the continuum limit. We show that in an inhomogeneous medium, i.e. when jumps are controlled by site-dependent hopping rates, one can obtain three different nonlinear advection-diffusion equations in the continuum limit, suitable for describing transport in the presence of quenched disorder and external fields, depending on the particular rule embodying site inequivalence at the microscopic level. In a situation that might be termed point-like scenario, when particles are treated as point-like objects, the effect of crowding as imposed at the microscopic level manifests in the mean-field equations only if some degree of inhomogeneity is enforced into the model. Conversely, when interacting agents are assigned a finite size, under the more realistic extended crowding framework, exclusion constraints persist in the unbiased macroscopic representation.

  3. Signatures of many-body localisation in a system without disorder and the relation to a glass transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, James M.; Genway, Sam; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2016-05-01

    We study a quantum spin system—adapted from a facilitated spin model for classical glasses—with local bilinear interactions and without quenched disorder which seems to display characteristic signatures of a many-body localisation (MBL) transition. From direct diagonalisation of small systems, we find a change in certain dynamical and spectral properties at a critical value of a coupling, from those characteristic of a thermalising phase to those characteristic of a MBL phase. The system we consider is known to have a quantum phase transition in its ground-state in the limit of large size, related to a first-order active-to-inactive phase transition in the stochastic trajectories of an associated classical model of glasses. Our results here suggest that this first-order transition in the low-lying spectrum may influence the rest of the spectrum of the system in the large size limit. These findings may help understand the connection between MBL and structural glass transitions.

  4. No body is perfect: the significance of habitual negative thinking about appearance for body dissatisfaction, eating disorder propensity, self-esteem and snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verplanken, Bas; Tangelder, Yonne

    2011-06-01

    Thinking negatively about one's appearance may be a major source of unhappiness. It was investigated whether the habitual quality of negative body image thinking constitutes an additional vulnerability factor, i.e. when such thinking is repetitive and automatic. The cognitive content of negative body image thinking ('what') was distinguished from the habitual occurrence of such thinking ('how'). The mental habit component uniquely predicted explicit as well as implicit body dissatisfaction (the latter measured by an implicit association test) over and above cognitive content. Mental habit also accounted for eating disturbance propensity, low self-esteem and restrained snacking behaviour over and above cognitive content, even when controlled for body dissatisfaction. The habitual component of negative thinking about appearance thus seems a significant body image construct, has discriminant validity against body dissatisfaction, and constitutes a vulnerability factor for feelings of low self-worth and eating disturbance propensity. Implications for intervention strategies, such as mindfulness-based approaches, are discussed.

  5. Tendency toward Weight Loss among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Study on Perceived Weight, Ideal Body Mass Index and Attitude toward Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Farid

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed.  Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P

  6. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhong Hou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We updated the prevalence of obesity and evaluated the clinical utility of separate and combined waist circumference (WC or body mass index (BMI category increments in identifying cardiometabolic disorder (CMD and cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in Chinese adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 46,024 participants aged ≥20 years, a nationally representative sample surveyed in 2007-2008, were included in this analysis. Taking the cutoffs recommended by the Chinese Joint Committee for Developing Chinese Guidelines (JCDCG and the Working Group on Obesity in China (WGOC into account, the participants were divided into four WC and four BMI groups in 0.5-SD increments around the mean, and 16 cross-tabulated combination groups of WC and BMI. 27.1%, 31.4%, and 12.2% of Chinese adults are centrally obese, overweight, or obese according to JCDCG and WGOC criteria. After adjustment for confounders, after a 1-SD increment, WC is associated with a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold greater risk of having DM or DM plus dyslipidemia than BMI, while BMI was associated with a 2.3-fold or 1.7-fold higher hypertension or hypertension plus dyslipidemia risk than WC. The combination of WC and BMI categories had stronger association with CMD risk, i.e., the adjusted ORs (95% CI of having DM, hypertension, and dyslipidemia for the combined and separate highest WC and BMI categories were 2.19 (1.96-2.44 vs 1.88 (1.67-2.12 and 1.12 (0.99-1.26; 5.70 (5.24-6.19 vs 1.51 (1.39-1.65 and 1.69 (1.57-1.82; and 3.73 (3.42-4.07 vs 2.16 (1.98-2.35 and 1.33 (1.25-1.40, respectively. The combination of WC and BMI categories was more likely to identify individuals with lower WC and lower BMI at CVD risk, even after the effects of CMD were controlled (all P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Central obesity, overweight, and obesity are epidemic in Chinese adults. The combination of WC and BMI measures is superior to the separate indices in identifying CMD and CVD risk.

  7. Gender-Related Discourses as Mediators in the Association between Internalization of the Thin-Body Ideal and Indicants of Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G.; Sheahan, Emer E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the gender-related discourses of self-objectification, self-silencing, and anger suppression mediated the association between internalization of the thin-body ideal and body dissatisfaction and eating pathology. We employed a cross-sectional design to study both university (n = 140) and community (n = 76) samples of…

  8. Mosaic variegated aneuploidy associated with a dysmorphic syndrome and mental handicap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, L.; Babu, A.; Willner, J. [Sount Sinai Sachool of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    A 41-year-old woman was evaluated for dysmorphic features and mental handicap. Prior karyotyping had revealed 7% mosaicism for trisomy 18 in skin fibroblasts with normal blood chromosomes. Clinical features consisted of short stature, mild mental retardation, sensorineural deafness and the following dysmorphic features: short, broad neck, low posterior hairline, small palpebral fissures with iris coloboma on the right, epicanthic folds, small mouth, high palate and prominent mandible, short metacarpals and digits, particularly the fifth, with bilateral simian creases. Medical problems included non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, oligomenorrhea and recent onset of diabetic neuropathy and retinal exudates. Head size and brain MRI were within normal limits. Peripheral blood chromosomes revealed: 46,XX (45 cells), 46,XX,t(7;16)(q21;q21) in 1 cell, 45,X (1 cell), 48,XXXX (1 cell), 47,XX,+mar (1 cell), 48,XX,+mar,+mar (1 cell). Skin fibroblasts revealed the following karyotypes: 46,XX (25 cells), 45,X (14 cells), 47,XX,+2 (10 cells) and 47,X,+2,+7 (1 cell). Previously reported cases of mosaic variegated aneuploidy include microcephaly as a prominent feature. Chromosomes involved in the abnormality are variable. Clinical presentations in such patients are not consistent and do not appear to correlate with specific chromosome defects. This patient represents an interesting example of probable mitotic instability disrupting normal developmental processes.

  9. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on body mass index (BMI: the sleep heart health study (SHHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins JA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is well known that obesity is a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. However, whether SDB predicts increase in BMI is not well defined. Data from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS were analyzed to determine whether SDB predicts longitudinal increase in BMI, adjusted for confounding factors.Methods: A full-montage unattended home polysomnogram (PSG and body anthropometric measurements were obtained approximately five years apart in 3001 participants. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was categorized using clinical thresholds: < 5 (normal, ≥ 5 to <15 (mild sleep apnea, and ³ 15 (moderate to severe sleep apnea. Linear regression was used to examine the association between the three AHI groups and increased BMI. The model included age, gender, race, baseline BMI, and change in AHI as covariates.Results: Mean (SD age was 62.2 years (10.14, 55.2% were female and 76.1% were Caucasian. Five-year increase in BMI was modest with a mean (SD change of 0.53 (2.62 kg/m2 (p=0.071. A multivariate regression model showed that subjects with a baseline AHI between 5-15 had a mean increase in BMI of 0.22 kg/m2 (p=0.055 and those with baseline AHI ≥ 15 had a BMI increase of 0.51 kg/m2 (p<0.001 compared to those with baseline AHI of <5.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that there is a positive association between severity of SDB and subsequent increased BMI over approximately 5 years. This observation may help explain why persons with SDB have difficulty losing weight.

  10. Disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a racially/ethnically diverse population of college women

    OpenAIRE

    Quick, Virginia M.; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This study examined disordered eating, socio-cultural media influencers, body image, and psychological factors among a large, racially/ethnically diverse sample of college women (n=1445; 58% White, 21% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 11% Black) who completed an online survey. Black women were significantly more satisfied with their weight and shape and had lower eating concerns, disinhibited eating, and emotional eating than all other racial/ethnic groups. Black women tended to have significantly higher...

  11. Body Satisfaction, Eating Disorders and Suicide Ideation in an Internet Sample of Self-harmers Reporting and Not Reporting Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Craig; MacDonald, Sophie; Fox, Jezz

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined differences between self-harmers who had and who had not been sexually abused in childhood with regards to other risk factors and associated behaviours commonly identified in the research literature as being related to self-harm. Methods: Participants (N=113, Mean age=19.92 years) were recruited via self-harm internet discussion groups and message boards, and completed a web questionnaire assessing measures of body satisfaction, eating disorders, childhood trau...

  12. Body mass index and anxiety/depression as mediators of the effects of child sexual and physical abuse on physical health disorders in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline

    2014-12-01

    The relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and physical health disorders in adulthood, and what factors may serve as mediators, remains poorly understood. Using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=3,486), we tested whether CSA was associated with physical health disorders in adult women and if mediated effects via body mass index (BMI), anxiety/depression, alcohol dependence, and smoking were present. Compared to women with no CSA, women who had experienced CSA involving intercourse had more than twice the odds of being obese, more than 3 times the odds of experiencing mental health disorders, more than 4 times the odds of being alcohol dependent, more than 5 times the odds of being drug dependent, and more than 6 times the odds of attempting suicide. Those experiencing both CSA and child physical abuse (CPA) were on average over 11kg heavier than those with neither CSA nor CPA. After controlling for demographics, CPA, and childhood bullying, CSA was associated with the majority of physical health disorders studied (typically 50-100% increases in odds). Evidence was found consistent with mediation by BMI (typically accounting for 5-20% increases in odds) and anxiety/depression (typically accounting for 8-40% increases in odds), in a dose-response manner, for the majority of physical health disorders. Bidirectional relations among these mediators and physical health disorders, and residual confounding, may have led to overestimation of mediation through BMI and anxiety/depression and underestimation of mediation through alcohol/smoking. Relations between both CPA and childhood bullying and physical health disorders in adulthood were also found. Longitudinal studies employing more sensitive measures of potential mediators are now required.

  13. Influência da percepção do peso e do índice de massa corporal nos comportamentos alimentares anormais Influence of body mass index and body weight perception on eating disorders symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Nunes

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar a associação entre a percepção do peso corporal, o índice de massa corporal e os comportamentos alimentares anormais. MÉTODOS: Delineamento transversal, de base populacional, com mulheres de 12 a 29 anos, da zona urbana de Porto Alegre, RS (n=513. Para medir a prevalência de comportamentos alimentares anormais utilizou-se o Teste de Atitudes Alimentares 26 (EAT-26 e o Teste de Investigação Bulímica de Edimburgo (BITE, considerados separadamente e em conjunto, e a percepção do peso corporal por meio de 2 perguntas estruturadas: qual era o peso que a mulher julgava ideal e a auto-avaliação sobre seu peso. O índice de massa corporal (IMC foi calculado por medida de peso e altura aferidos. RESULTADOS: Considerando os instrumentos conjuntamente, 30,2% das mulheres tinham comportamento alimentar de risco, e 11,3% apresentaram comportamento alimentar anormal. Além disso, 82% das mulheres apresentaram IMC normal, sendo que 2% eram magras, e 16% apresentaram IMC de sobrepeso/obesidade. Das mulheres estudadas, 46% tinham o ideal de pesar menos, e 37,8% consideravam-se gordas. Entre as mulheres com IMC normal, 25,2% das que se achavam normais apresentavam comportamento alimentar de risco, e 5,7 % comportamento alimentar anormal. Das mulheres que se consideravam gordas, 47,2% apresentaram comportamento alimentar de risco, e 19,2% tinham comportamento alimentar anormal. Mulheres que se sentiam gordas apresentaram um risco quatro vezes maior de apresentar comportamentos alimentares anormais (razão de odds 4,50; IC 95% 2,88-7,01; pOBJECTVE: To investigate the relationship between body mass index (BMI, body weight perception and eating disorder symptoms. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among women aged between 12 and 29 years old in Porto Alegre, Brazil (n=513. The prevalence of eating disorder symptoms was assessed by using two instruments: the Eating Attitudes Test - 26 (EAT-26 and the Bulimic

  14. Non-hospitalized Morita Therapy Combined with Sertraline in the Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder-Three Cases Report%门诊森田疗法联合舍曲林治疗躯体变形障碍3例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳艳; 王高华; 王惠玲; 桂瑰; 李江波

    2015-01-01

    随着媒体和美容整形业的快速发展,人们的审美标准逐渐提高,对样貌更加关注,躯体变形障碍的患者也逐渐增加.由于此病的治疗困难,有些患者反复进行整形手术,但症状并未改善甚至加重,给患者造成了极大的痛苦.本文报告了3例典型躯体变形障碍病例,并对其治疗过程加以分析讨论.

  15. Association between cerebral cannabinoid 1 receptor availability and body mass index in patients with food intake disorders and healthy subjects: a [(18)F]MK-9470 PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, J; Weltens, N; Ly, H G; Tack, J; Van Oudenhove, L; Van Laere, K

    2016-07-12

    Although of great public health relevance, the mechanisms underlying disordered eating behavior and body weight regulation remain insufficiently understood. Compelling preclinical evidence corroborates a critical role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central regulation of appetite and food intake. However, in vivo human evidence on ECS functioning in brain circuits involved in food intake regulation as well as its relationship with body weight is lacking, both in health and disease. Here, we measured cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]MK-9470 in 54 patients with food intake disorders (FID) covering a wide body mass index (BMI) range (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, functional dyspepsia with weight loss and obesity; BMI range=12.5-40.6 kg/m(2)) and 26 age-, gender- and average BMI-matched healthy subjects (BMI range=18.5-26.6 kg/m(2)). The association between regional CB1R availability and BMI was assessed within predefined homeostatic and reward-related regions of interest using voxel-based linear regression analyses. CB1R availability was inversely associated with BMI in homeostatic brain regions such as the hypothalamus and brainstem areas in both patients with FID and healthy subjects. However, in FID patients, CB1R availability was also negatively correlated with BMI throughout the mesolimbic reward system (midbrain, striatum, insula, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex), which constitutes the key circuit implicated in processing appetitive motivation and hedonic value of perceived food rewards. Our results indicate that the cerebral homeostatic CB1R system is inextricably linked to BMI, with additional involvement of reward areas under conditions of disordered body weight.

  16. Association between cerebral cannabinoid 1 receptor availability and body mass index in patients with food intake disorders and healthy subjects: a [(18)F]MK-9470 PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, J; Weltens, N; Ly, H G; Tack, J; Van Oudenhove, L; Van Laere, K

    2016-01-01

    Although of great public health relevance, the mechanisms underlying disordered eating behavior and body weight regulation remain insufficiently understood. Compelling preclinical evidence corroborates a critical role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the central regulation of appetite and food intake. However, in vivo human evidence on ECS functioning in brain circuits involved in food intake regulation as well as its relationship with body weight is lacking, both in health and disease. Here, we measured cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) availability using positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]MK-9470 in 54 patients with food intake disorders (FID) covering a wide body mass index (BMI) range (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, functional dyspepsia with weight loss and obesity; BMI range=12.5-40.6 kg/m(2)) and 26 age-, gender- and average BMI-matched healthy subjects (BMI range=18.5-26.6 kg/m(2)). The association between regional CB1R availability and BMI was assessed within predefined homeostatic and reward-related regions of interest using voxel-based linear regression analyses. CB1R availability was inversely associated with BMI in homeostatic brain regions such as the hypothalamus and brainstem areas in both patients with FID and healthy subjects. However, in FID patients, CB1R availability was also negatively correlated with BMI throughout the mesolimbic reward system (midbrain, striatum, insula, amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex), which constitutes the key circuit implicated in processing appetitive motivation and hedonic value of perceived food rewards. Our results indicate that the cerebral homeostatic CB1R system is inextricably linked to BMI, with additional involvement of reward areas under conditions of disordered body weight. PMID:27404285

  17. Phelan-McDermid syndrome in two adult brothers: Atypical bipolar disorder as its psychopathological phenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.M.A. Verhoeven (Wim); J.I.M. Egger (Jos); M.H. Willemsen; G.J.M. de Leijer (Gert); T. Kleefstra (Tjitske)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe 22q13.3 deletion, or Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is characterized by global intellectual disability, generalized hypotonia, severely delayed or absent speech associated with features of autism spectrum disorder, and minor dysmorphisms. Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturban

  18. Phelan-McDermid syndrome in two adult brothers: atypical bipolar disorder as its psychopathological phenotype?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.M.; Egger, J.I.; Willemsen, M.H.; Leijer, G.J. de; Kleefstra, T.

    2012-01-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion, or Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is characterized by global intellectual disability, generalized hypotonia, severely delayed or absent speech associated with features of autism spectrum disorder, and minor dysmorphisms. Its behavioral phenotype comprises sleep disturbances, communi

  19. Changes in Physical Fitness, Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition During Inpatient Treatment of Underweight and Normal Weight Females with Longstanding Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solfrid Bratland-Sanda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine changes in aerobic fitness, muscular strength, bone mineral density (BMD and body composition during inpatient treatment of underweight and normal weight patients with longstanding eating disorders (ED. Twenty-nine underweight (BMI < 18.5, n = 7 and normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5, n = 22 inpatients (mean (SD age: 31.0 (9.0 years, ED duration: 14.9 (8.8 years, duration of treatment: 16.6 (5.5 weeks completed this prospective naturalistic study. The treatment consisted of nutritional counseling, and 2 × 60 min weekly moderate intensive physical activity in addition to psychotherapy and milieu therapy. Underweight patients aimed to increase body weight with 0.5 kg/week until the weight gain goal was reached. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, BMD and body composition were measured at admission and discharge. Results showed an increase in mean muscular strength, total body mass, fat mass, and body fat percentage, but not aerobic capacity, among both underweight and normal weight patients. Lumbar spine BMD increased among the underweight patients, no changes were observed in BMD among the normal weight patients. Three out of seven underweight patients were still underweight at discharge, and only three out of nine patients with excessive body fat (i.e., >33% managed to reduce body fat to normal values during treatment. These results calls for a more individualized treatment approach to achieve a more optimal body composition among both underweight and normal to overweight patients with longstanding ED.

  20. The NK1R-/- mouse phenotype suggests that small body size, with a sex- and diet-dependent excess in body mass and fat, are physical biomarkers for a human endophenotype with vulnerability to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillidge, Katharine; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2016-09-01

    The abnormal behaviour of NK1R-/- mice (locomotor hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsivity in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Test) is arguably analogous to that of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence suggests that small body size and increased body weight are risk factors for ADHD. Here, we compared the body size, body mass and body composition of male and female NK1R-/- mice and their wildtypes that had been fed either standard laboratory chow or a high-fat (45%: 'Western') diet. Male NK1R-/- mice from both cohorts were approximately 7% shorter than wildtypes. A similar trend was evident in females. Male NK1R-/- mice fed the normal diet weighed less than wildtypes but the 'body mass index' ('mBMI': weight (mg)/length (cm)(2)) of female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. When given the high-fat diet, the mBMI of both male and female NK1R-/- mice was higher than wildtypes. There were no consistent genotype or sex differences in protein, ash or water content of mice from the two cohorts. However, the fat content of male NK1R-/- mice on the Western diet was considerably (35%) higher than wildtypes and resembled that of females from both genotypes. We conclude that a lack of functional NK1R is associated with small body size but increases vulnerability to an increase in mBMI and fat content, especially in males. This phenotype could also be evident in ADHD patients with polymorphism(s) of the TACR1 gene (the human equivalent of Nk1r). PMID:27462087

  1. Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Farah; Celasun Nalan; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and...

  2. How do you feel when you can't feel your body? Interoception, functional connectivity and emotional processing in depersonalization-derealization disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sedeño

    Full Text Available Depersonalization-Derealization Disorder (DD typically manifests as a disruption of body self-awareness. Interoception -defined as the cognitive processing of body signals- has been extensively considered as a key processing for body self-awareness. In consequence, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether there are systematic differences in interoception between a patient with DD and controls that might explain the disembodiment symptoms suffered in this disease. To assess interoception, we utilized a heartbeat detection task and measures of functional connectivity derived from fMRI networks in interoceptive/exteroceptivo/mind-wandering states. Additionally, we evaluated empathic abilities to test the association between interoception and emotional experience. The results showed patient's impaired performance in the heartbeat detection task when compared to controls. Furthermore, regarding functional connectivity, we found a lower global brain connectivity of the patient relative to controls only in the interoceptive state. He also presented a particular pattern of impairments in affective empathy. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental research that assesses the relationship between interoception and DD combining behavioral and neurobiological measures. Our results suggest that altered neural mechanisms and cognitive processes regarding body signaling might be engaged in DD phenomenology. Moreover, our study contributes experimental data to the comprehension of brain-body interactions and the emergence of self-awareness and emotional feelings.

  3. De novo 393 kb microdeletion of 7p11.2 characterized by aCGH in a boy with psychomotor retardation and dysmorphic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Varvagiannis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 27 month old boy presenting with psychomotor delay and dysmorphic features, mainly mild facial asymmetry, prominent cup-shaped ears, long eyelashes, open mouth appearance and slight abnormalities of the hands and feet. Array comparative genomic hybridization revealed a 393 kb microdeletion in 7p11.2. We discuss the possible involvement of CHCHD2, GBAS, MRPS17, SEPT14 and PSPH on our patient's phenotype. Additionally, we studied the expression of two other genes deleted in the patient, CCT6A and SUMF2, for which there is scarce data in the literature. Based on current knowledge and the de novo occurrence of this finding in our proband we presume that the aberration is likely to be pathogenic in our case. However, a single gene disorder, elsewhere in the genome or in this very region cannot be ruled out. Further elucidation of the properties of this chromosomal region, as well as of the role of the genes involved will be needed in order to draw safe conclusions regarding the association of the chromosomal deletion with the patient's features.

  4. Original Solution for Middle Ear Implant and Anesthetic/Surgical Management in a Child with Severe Craniofacial Dysmorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bianchin; Lorenzo Tribi; Aronne Reverzani; Patrizia Formigoni; Valeria Polizzi

    2015-01-01

    We describe the novel solution adopted in positioning middle ear implant in a child with bilateral congenital aural atresia and craniofacial dysmorphism that have posed a significant challenge for the safe and correct management of deafness. A five-year-old child, affected by a rare congenital disease (Van Maldergem Syndrome), suffered from conductive hearing loss. Conventional skin-drive bone-conduction device, attached with a steel spring headband, has been applied but auditory restoration ...

  5. An exceptional Albanian family with seven children presenting with dysmorphic features and mental retardation: maternal phenylketonuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigel Corina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenylketonuria is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism which can cause severe damage to the patient or, in the case of maternal phenylketonuria, to the foetus. The maternal phenylketonuria syndrome is caused by high blood phenylalanine concentrations during pregnancy and presents with serious foetal anomalies, especially congenital heart disease, microcephaly and mental retardation. Case presentation We report on an affected Albanian woman and her seven children. The mother is affected by phenylketonuria and is a compound heterozygote for two pathogenetic mutations, L48S and P281L. The diagnosis was only made in the context of her children, all of whom have at least one severe organic malformation. The first child, 17 years old, has a double-chambered right ventricle, vertebral malformations and epilepsy. She is also mentally retarded, microcephalic, exhibits facial dysmorphies and small stature. The second child, a girl 15 years of age, has severe mental retardation with microcephaly, small stature and various dysmorphic features. The next sibling, a boy, died of tetralogy of Fallot at the age of three months. He also had multiple vertebral and rib malformations. The subsequent girl, now eleven years old, has mental retardation, microcephaly and epilepsy along with facial dysmorphy, partial deafness and short stature. The eight-year-old child is slightly mentally retarded and microcephalic. A five-year-old boy was a premature, dystrophic baby and exhibits mental retardation, dysmorphic facial features, brachydactyly and clinodactyly of the fifth finger on both hands. Following a miscarriage, our index case, the youngest child at two years of age, is microcephalic and mentally retarded and shows minor facial anomalies. All children exhibit features of phenylalanine embryopathy caused by maternal phenylketonuria because the mother had not been diagnosed earlier and, therefore, never received any diet. Conclusion This is

  6. Body image, eating disorders, and the drive for muscularity in gay and heterosexual men: the influence of media images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Scott J; McCreary, Donald R

    2004-01-01

    This Internet research project examined the relationship between consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and/or various indices of pornography and body satisfaction in gay and heterosexual men. Participants (N = 101) were asked to complete body satisfaction questionnaires that addressed maladaptive eating attitudes, the drive for muscularity, and social physique anxiety. Participants also completed scales measuring self-esteem, depression, and socially desirable responding. Finally, respondents were asked about their consumption of muscle and fitness magazines and pornography. Results indicated that viewing and purchasing of muscle and fitness magazines correlated positively with levels of body dissatisfaction for both gay and heterosexual men. Pornography exposure was positively correlated with social physique anxiety for gay men. The limitations of this study and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:15451703

  7. Preocupación por la apariencia física y alteraciones emocionales en mujeres con trastornos alimentarios con autoestima baja (Body shape concern and emotional disturbances in women with eating disorders and low self-esteem)

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa Avargues Navarro; Beatriz Martín Monzón; Mercedes Borda Mas; Ruth Asuero Fernández

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in age, nutritional state (Body Mass Index or BMI), anxiety, depression and body dissatisfaction in eating disorder (ED) patients with low, medium and high self-esteem. We also attempted to identify discrepancies between the real and desired nutritional state. A total of 146 women with EDs (anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa; DSM-IV-TR criteria) were evaluated. The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Sca...

  8. Eating Disorders, Normative Eating Self-Efficacy and Body Image Self-Efficacy: Women in Recovery Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Czarlinski, Jennifer A.; Aase, Darrin M.; Leonard A. Jason

    2011-01-01

    Although eating disorders (EDs) and ED symptoms are common among individuals in recovery for substance abuse (SA), long-term SA treatment programmes rarely address these problems. The present study examined the prevalence of EDs among women residing in Oxford Houses—low-cost, self-governed recovery homes for SA. Further, among women both with and without an ED diagnosis, the association between duration of Oxford House residency and eating-related self-efficacy scores was examined as an indic...

  9. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen

    2014-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms.

  10. Three Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in a Patient with Developmental Delay, Mental Retardation, and Dysmorphic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We characterized three supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs simultaneously present in a 2-year- and 10-month-old male patient with mental retardation and dysmorphic features. Peripheral blood chromosome analysis revealed two to three SMCs in 25/26 cells analyzed. The remaining one cell had one SMC. Microarray comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH showed mosaicism for gains of 5q35.3, 15q11.2q13.3, and 18p11.21q11.1 regions. All three gains contain multiple OMIM genes. FISH studies indicated that one of the SMCs is a dicentric ring 15 with two copies of the 15q11.2q13.3 region including SNRPN/UBE3A and two copies of the 5q35.3 region. One of the der(18s contains the 18 centromere and 18p11.2 regions, while the other der(18 has a signal for the 18 centromere only. The phenotype of the patient is compared with that of patients with tetrasomy 15q11.2q13.3, trisomy 5q35.3, and trisomy 18p11.2. Our study demonstrates that aCGH and FISH analyses are powerful tools, which complement the conventional cytogenetic analysis for the identification of SMCs.

  11. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  12. Bleeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... times I'd miss work and skip the gym because I felt so lousy. So I decided ... cell called platelets. Your body also needs blood proteins called clotting factors. In people with bleeding disorders, ...

  13. Internet-Delivered Targeted Group Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…

  14. Application of Whole-body Vibration: Technical and clinical studies in healthy persons and people with a neurological disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bagheri (Javad)

    2013-01-01

    textabstract__Abstract__ The first use of vibration therapy to improve human fimction and muscle performance dates back to ancient Greece, a time when physicians used saws covered in cotton to transfer vibrations to specific parts of the body to improve muscle performance and relieve pain. However,

  15. Orders of eating and eating disorders: food, bodies and anorexia nervosa in the German Democratic Republic, 1949-1990

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr-Boyle, N.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is an historical study of anorexia nervosa in the German Democratic Republic. Its central premise is that any understanding of the existence of anorexia nervosa must be predicated upon an investigation of the material conditions, cultural discourses and social practices surrounding eating and the body, and the ways in which these conditions, discourses and practices constructed (gendered) subjectivities and behaviours. The thesis draws on archival material, questionnaires and oral...

  16. Does body mass index moderate the association between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and suicidal ideation in Iraq/Afghanistan veterans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Julie A; DeBeer, Bryann B; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Matthieu, Monica M; Meyer, Eric C; Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Morissette, Sandra B

    2016-10-30

    Suicide, PTSD, and obesity co-occur at high rates among returning veterans, yet limited research exists regarding the relationship among these variables. Self-report and diagnostic interview data from a longitudinal study of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans (N=130) enrolled in VA healthcare examined these inter-relations. As hypothesized, body mass index (BMI) significantly moderated the association between PTSD and suicidal ideation such that the association between PTSD and suicidal ideation was strongest among individuals with a high BMI. Programs that focus on health promotion, trauma treatment, and weight management should continue to monitor suicide risk.

  17. Negative body image and disordered eating behavior in children and adolescents: what places youth at risk and how can these problems be prevented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L; Ollendick, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    In this review, we examine the prevalence of negative body image and disordered eating behaviors (i.e., excessive dieting, binge eating, inappropriate weight loss techniques) in children and adolescents. We also explore correlates and predictors of the development of these problems, including individual, familial, and social factors, as well as discuss factors that may serve a protective function. In addition, we critically evaluate the psychoeducational programs that have been developed to prevent the onset of these problems and reduce the severity of symptoms in children and adolescents. Moreover, we suggest several possible strategies for how such prevention programs can be modified to enhance their efficacy. Finally, likely moderator and mediator variables of the effectiveness of such programs are proposed.

  18. Prediction of long-term metabolic effects of olanzapine and risperidone treatment from baseline body mass index in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William Victor; Bonaccorso, Stefania; Jayathilake, Karuna; Meltzer, Herbert Yale

    2011-09-30

    Baseline body mass index (BMI), baseline BMI status (normal, overweight, obese) and early (1 month) BMI increases were tested as predictors of 6- and 12-month increases in glucose and lipid measures in 82 olanzapine (OLZ)- and 78 risperidone (RIS)-treated patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder who participated in a 12-month randomized, prospective metabolic effects study. Baseline BMI predicted greater fasting glucose and HgbA1c levels at 12 months for both treatments. Early BMI change predicted fasting glucose levels at 6 months, but not HgbA1c or BMI, at either time point. For patients who received no concomitant mood stabilizers, early BMI change predicted 12 month HgbA1c values in the OLZ group, and 6- (but not 12-) month fasting glucose and HgbA1c values in the RIS group. Neither baseline BMI nor early BMI change consistently predicted increases in lipids with either drug. OLZ-treated patients with normal baseline BMI had greater increases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and non-HDL-cholesterol than those who were overweight or obese. In conclusion, higher baseline BMI predicted adverse glycemic changes after 12 months with OLZ and RIS. Individuals with normal baseline BMI may be most susceptible to OLZ-induced hyperlipidosis. Frequency of metabolic screening should be independent of baseline BMI or rapid increases in BMI.

  19. Hematologycal disorders in mice of C57BL family exposed to full body radiation by Radioactive Cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven groups of 5C57B1 mice were submitted to full body radiation ina a single dose of 1.000 r (258m C/Kg). Each group was sacrified respectively on the 5th, 7th, 8th, and 10th day after exposition to radiation. Another group (8th) of 5 animals was used as control group, and was to submitted to radiation. Before sacrificing the animals, peripheral blood was collected to prepare extensions which were stained by Leishman. Then the left femur was removed in order to prepare sections of the bone marrow. We observed accentuated reduction of blood corpuscles, parallel to a similar medullar depression that occurred progressively until the 10th day, when aplasia was almost total. At that time the bone marrow showed almost exclusively lymphocytes, plasmocytes, fibroblasts and endothelial cells, with arare megacaryocytes. However, blood platelets remained normal in the peripheral blood. (author)

  20. Dermal fibroblasts in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome with the lamin A G608G mutation have dysmorphic nuclei and are hypersensitive to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worman Howard J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS, OMIM 176670 is a rare sporadic disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 per 8 million live births. The phenotypic appearance consists of short stature, sculptured nose, alopecia, prominent scalp veins, small face, loss of subcutaneous fat, faint mid-facial cyanosis, and dystrophic nails. HGPS is caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene that encodes nuclear lamins A and C. The most common mutation in subjects with HGPS is a de novo single-base pair substitution, G608G (GGC>GGT, within exon 11 of LMNA. This creates an abnormal splice donor site, leading to expression of a truncated protein. Results We studied a new case of a 5 year-old girl with HGPS and found a heterozygous point mutation, G608G, in LMNA. Complementary DNA sequencing of RNA showed that this mutation resulted in the deletion of 50 amino acids in the carboxyl-terminal tail domain of prelamin A. We characterized a primary dermal fibroblast cell line derived from the subject's skin. These cells expressed the mutant protein and exhibited a normal growth rate at early passage in primary culture but showed alterations in nuclear morphology. Expression levels and overall distributions of nuclear lamins and emerin, an integral protein of the inner nuclear membrane, were not dramatically altered. Ultrastructural analysis of the nuclear envelope using electron microscopy showed that chromatin is in close association to the nuclear lamina, even in areas with abnormal nuclear envelope morphology. The fibroblasts were hypersensitive to heat shock, and demonstrated a delayed response to heat stress. Conclusion Dermal fibroblasts from a subject with HGPS expressing a mutant truncated lamin A have dysmorphic nuclei, hypersensitivity to heat shock, and delayed response to heat stress. This suggests that the mutant protein, even when expressed at low levels, causes defective cell stability, which may be responsible for phenotypic