Sample records for body displaying diurnal

  1. Effect of programmed diurnal temperature cycles on plasma thyroxine level, body temperature, and feed intake of holstein dairy cows (United States)

    Scott, I. M.; Johnson, H. D.; Hahn, G. L.


    Holstein cows exposed to simulated summer diurnal ambient temperature cycles of Phoenix, Arizona and Atlanta, Georgia and diurnal modifications of these climates displayed daily cycles fluctuations in plasma thyroxine (T4) and rectal temperatures (Tre). There were daily diurnal changes in T4 and Tre under all simulated climate conditions. Maximal values generally occurred in the evening hours and minimum values in the morning. Although the diurnal rhythm was influenced by the various simulated climates (diurnal modifications) a diurnal rhythm was very evident even under constant conditions at thermoneutral (Tnc) and at cyclic thermoneutral conditions (TN). The major significance of the study is that the initiation of night cooling of the animals at a time when their Tre was highest was most beneficial to maintenance of a TN plasma T4 level. There was a highly significant negative relationship of average T4 and average Tre. There was also a significant negative relationship of feed consumption and average temperature-humidity index (THI). These data suggest that night cooling may be a most effective method to alleviate thermoregulatory limitations of a hot climate on optimal animal performance. Decreasing the night time air temperature (Ta) or THI or increasing the diurnal range allows the cows to more easily dissipate excess body heat accumulated during the day and minimize the thermal inhibition on feed intake, and alterations in plasma T4 and Tre.

  2. Whole body interaction with public displays

    CERN Document Server

    Walter, Robert


    This book develops valuable new approaches to digital out-of-home media and digital signage in urban environments. It offers solutions for communicating interactive features of digital signage to passers-by. Digital out-of-home media and digital signage screens are becoming increasingly interactive thanks to touch input technology and gesture recognition. To optimize their conversion rate, interactive public displays must 1) attract attention, 2) communicate to passers-by that they are interactive, 3) explain the interaction, and 4) provide a motivation for passers-by to interact. This book highlights solutions to problems 2 and 3 above. The focus is on whole-body interaction, where the positions and orientations of users and their individual body parts are captured by specialized sensors (e.g., depth cameras). The book presents revealing findings from a field study on communicating interactivity, a laboratory on analysing visual attention, a field study on mid-air gestures, and a field study on using mid-air...

  3. Concurrent and longitudinal associations between diurnal cortisol and body mass index across adolescence. (United States)

    Ruttle, Paula L; Javaras, Kristin N; Klein, Marjorie H; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Burk, Linnea R; Essex, Marilyn J


    Childhood and adolescent obesity have reached epidemic levels; however, little is known about the psychobiological underpinnings of obesity in youth and whether these differ from the mechanisms identified in adults. The current study examines concurrent (i.e., measured at the same point in time) and longitudinal (i.e., using earlier cortisol measures to predict later body mass index [BMI]) associations between diurnal cortisol and BMI across adolescence. Adolescent diurnal cortisol was measured over 3 days at each 11, 13, and 15 years. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to extract average measures of predicted morning, afternoon, evening levels of cortisol and the diurnal slope at each assessment. Adolescent BMI (kg/m(2)) was measured at 11, 13, 15, and 18 years. Sex, family socioeconomic status, mother's BMI, pubertal status, and adolescent mental health were examined as possible confounding variables. Linear regressions revealed that blunted patterns of adolescent cortisol were associated with increased measures of BMI across adolescence both concurrently and longitudinally, particularly when examining measures of cortisol in early adolescence. Multinomial logistic regressions extended the linear regression findings beyond BMI scores to encompass categories of obesity. The current study builds on previous research documenting diurnal cortisol-obesity findings in adults by demonstrating similar findings exist both concurrently and longitudinally in adolescents. Findings suggest the association between cortisol and BMI is developmentally influenced and that blunted diurnal cortisol patterns can be identified in overweight individuals at a younger age than previously thought. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Community-wide body size differences between nocturnal and diurnal insects. (United States)

    Guevara, Jennifer; Avilés, Leticia


    Examining community-wide patterns for the most diverse animal group, insects, is fundamental to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary factors that maintain tropical diversity. Using several sampling techniques (malaise traps, pitfall traps, visual searches, and social spider nest captures), we investigated the day-night community composition of active insects to reveal differences in body size at three elevations in eastern Ecuador. We show that insects active at night are, on average, larger than those active during the day. Even though insect size decreased with increasing elevation, the observed diel pattern was consistent across elevations, and for most insect orders. All sampling techniques consistently detected day--night differences in insect size, except for social spider captures at the two higher elevations, probably due to the reduced range of colony sizes at the higher elevations and possibly lower spider activity at night. We suggest that the observed diel patterns in insect size may be driven by a combination of factors, including increased risk imposed on large insects by diurnal visual predators, mainly insectivorous birds, and physiological responses to diel changes in abiotic conditions.

  5. Posttranscriptional mechanisms controlling diurnal gene expression cycles by body temperature rhythms. (United States)

    Gotic, Ivana; Schibler, Ueli


    In mammals, body temperature oscillates in a daily fashion around a set point of 36°C-37°C. These fluctuations are controlled by the circadian master clock residing in the brain's suprachiasmatic nucleus and, despite their small amplitudes, contribute to the diurnal expression of genes throughout the organism. By focusing on the mechanisms underlying the temperature-dependent accumulation of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein CIRBP - a factor involved in the tuning of amplitude and phase in circadian clocks of peripheral tissues - we have recently identified a novel mechanism governing temperature-dependent gene expression. This mechanism involves the differential spicing efficiency of primary RNA transcripts under different temperature conditions and thereby determines the fraction of Cirbp pre-mRNA processed into mature mRNA. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that this mechanism affects the output of hundreds of genes. Here we discuss our findings and future directions toward the identification of specific factors and parameters governing temperature-sensitive splicing efficacy.

  6. Bodies on Display: Queer Biopolitics in Popular Culture. (United States)

    Hannabach, Cathy


    For this contribution to the special issue on "Mapping Queer Bioethics," the author undertakes the curatorial spaces of the library, the museum, the textbook, and the public exhibition. With showcases such as natural history museums and the recent Bodyworlds traveling exhibit as touchstones, the author argues that distinctions between medical and popular visual culture in pedagogical contexts are porous, such that the study of sensational body types (queer, anatomically atypical, and otherwise) are couched in culturally problematic appreciations of the agency of certain bodies to speak for and/or about themselves. By extension, how and where certain bodies are viewed represent vital, bioethical dilemmas on the nature of corporeal viability.

  7. Dynamical spreading of small bodies in 1:1 resonance with planets by the diurnal Yarkovsky effect (United States)

    Wang, Xuefeng; Hou, Xiyun


    A simple model is introduced to describe the inherent dynamics of Trojans in the presence of the diurnal Yarkovsky effect. For different spin statuses, the orbital elements of the Trojans (mainly semimajor axis, eccentricity and inclination) undergo different variations. The variation rate is generally very small, but the total variation of the semimajor axis or the orbit eccentricity over the age of the Solar system may be large enough to send small Trojans out of the regular region (or, vice versa, to capture small bodies in the regular region). In order to demonstrate the analytical analysis, we first carry out numerical simulations in a simple model, and then generalize these to two 'real' systems, namely the Sun-Jupiter system and the Sun-Earth system. In the Sun-Jupiter system, where the motion of Trojans is regular, the Yarkovsky effect gradually alters the libration width or the orbit eccentricity, forcing the Trojan to move from regular regionsto chaotic regions, where chaos may eventually cause it to escape. In the Sun-Earth system, where the motion of Trojans is generally chaotic, our limited numerical simulations indicate that the Yarkovsky effect is negligible for Trojans of 100 m in size, and even for larger ones. The Yarkovsky effect on small bodies captured in other 1:1 resonance orbits is also briefly discussed.

  8. Diurnal and menstrual cycles in body temperature are regulated differently: a 28-day ambulatory study in healthy women with thermal discomfort of cold extremities and controls. (United States)

    Kräuchi, Kurt; Konieczka, Katarzyna; Roescheisen-Weich, Corina; Gompper, Britta; Hauenstein, Daniela; Schoetzau, Andreas; Fraenkl, Stephan; Flammer, Josef


    Diurnal cycle variations in body-heat loss and heat production, and their resulting core body temperature (CBT), are relatively well investigated; however, little is known about their variations across the menstrual cycle under ambulatory conditions. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether menstrual cycle variations in distal and proximal skin temperatures exhibit similar patterns to those of diurnal variations, with lower internal heat conductance when CBT is high, i.e. during the luteal phase. Furthermore, we tested these relationships in two groups of women, with and without thermal discomfort of cold extremities (TDCE). In total, 19 healthy eumenorrheic women with regular menstrual cycles (28-32 days), 9 with habitual TDCE (ages 29 ± 1.5 year; BMI 20.1 ± 0.4) and 10 controls without these symptoms (CON: aged 27 ± 0.8 year; BMI 22.7 ± 0.6; p temperature measurements of distal (mean of hands and feet) and proximal (mean of sternum and infraclavicular regions) skin regions, thighs, and calves were carried out under real-life, ambulatory conditions (i-Buttons® skin probes, sampling rate: 2.5 min). The distal minus proximal skin temperature gradient (DPG) provided a valuable measure for heat redistribution from the core to the shell, and, hence, for internal heat conduction. Additionally, basal body temperature was measured sublingually directly after waking up in bed. Mean diurnal amplitudes in skin temperatures increased from proximal to distal skin regions and the 24-h mean values were inversely related. TDCE compared to CON showed significantly lower hand skin temperatures and DPG during daytime. However, menstrual cycle phase did not modify these diurnal patterns, indicating that menstrual and diurnal cycle variations in skin temperatures reveal additive effects. Most striking was the finding that all measured skin temperatures, together with basal body temperature, revealed a similar menstrual cycle variation

  9. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children. (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C


    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (pstress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (pstress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine


    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres...... in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal...

  11. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  12. Diurnal variation in the control of ventilation in response to rising body temperature during exercise in the heat. (United States)

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi


    We investigated whether heat-induced hyperventilation during exercise is affected by time of day, as diurnal variation leads to higher core temperatures in the evening. Nineteen male subjects were divided into two experiments (protocol 1, n = 10 and protocol 2, n = 9). In protocol 1, subjects performed cycle exercise at 50% peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C and 50% RH) in the morning (0600) and evening (1800). Results showed that baseline resting and exercising esophageal temperature (Tes) were significantly (0.5°C) higher in the evening than morning. Minute ventilation (V̇e) increased from 54.3 ± 7.9 and 54.9 ± 6.8 l/min at 10 min to 71.4 ± 8.1 and 76.5 ± 11.8 l/min at 48.5 min in the morning and evening, respectively (both P temperature is smaller in the evening. In protocol 2, the circadian rhythm-related higher resting Tes seen in the evening was adjusted down to the same temperature seen in the morning by immersing the subject in cold water. Importantly, the time course of changes in V̇e during exercise were smaller in the evening, but the threshold for V̇e remained higher in the evening than morning (P temperatures in the evening. This is likely due to diurnal variation in the control of ventilation in response to rising core temperature. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.


    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  14. A dielectric elastomer actuator-based tactile display for multiple fingertip interaction with virtual soft bodies (United States)

    Boys, Hugh; Frediani, Gabriele; Poslad, Stefan; Busfield, James; Carpi, Federico


    This paper presents a novel wearable tactile haptic display for rendering soft body sensations to multiple fingertips with electroactive smart elastomers. The system uses newly developed multi-layered hydrostatically coupled dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs), which have been designed to apply a localised tunable force to a user's fingertip via a soft electrically-deformable interface. The system is comprised of DEAs which are fingertip mounted and are driven individually by a wired connection to a control unit. The force applied to the user's fingertip is based on the user's fingertip position which is monitored by an optical three dimensional finger tracking system. This novel tactile display system is conceived to convey soft body interactions within virtual environments. To demonstrate this, a simulator capable of demonstrating virtual objects of varying tactile haptic properties has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results of ongoing testing, as well as data pertaining to the characterization of the device in terms of force response. The paper also outlines the current limitations of the proposed technology and challenges to be addressed for further developments.

  15. Age-congruency and contact effects in body expression recognition from point-light displays (PLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra M.J. Pollux


    Full Text Available Recognition of older people’s body expressions is a crucial social skill. We here investigate how age, not just of the observer, but also of the observed individual, affects this skill. Age may influence the ability to recognize other people’s body expressions by changes in one’s own ability to perform certain action over the life-span (i.e., an own-age bias may occur, with best recognition for one’s own age. Whole body point light displays of children, young adults and older adults (>70 years expressing six different emotions were presented to observers of the same three age-groups. Across two variations of the paradigm, no evidence for the predicted own-age bias (a cross-over interaction between one’s own age and the observed person’s age was found. Instead, experience effects were found with children better recognizing older actors’ expressions of ‘active emotions,’ such as anger and happiness with greater exposure in daily life. Together, the findings suggest that age-related changes in one own’s mobility only influences body expression categorization in young children who interact frequently with older adults.

  16. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Zhu, Yuan-Gen; Wang, Shu-You; Ma, Hui-Min; Ye, Yan-Yan; Fu, Wei-Xing; Hu, Wei-Guo


    AIM: To display the thermoimages of the body surface in experimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surface temperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria suspension into the stricture bile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acute pyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8 rabbits prepared by the same process except without injection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surface infrared thermoimages were continuously observed on the hair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 h before, 1-11 d after and (2, 3 wk) 4 wk after the operation with a total of over 10 records of thermoimages. RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitis revealed bi-lateral longitudinal high temperature lines in its trunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d1-d2, first in the right trunk, after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the model preparation, the lines appeared at the left side too, persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 °C higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 °C higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the high temperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk, or as long as the whole body itself. CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal high temperature lines at the lateral aspects of the trunk in the experimental group is directly bound up with the experimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with its running course quite similar to that of the Gallbladder Channel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones of hyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis. PMID:11925617

  17. Antecedent longitudinal changes in body mass index are associated with diurnal cortisol curve features: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J; Wang, Xu; Diez Roux, Ana V; Sanchez, Brisa N; Seeman, Teresa E; Needham, Belinda L; Golden, Sherita Hill


    Prior studies have shown a cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and salivary diurnal cortisol profile features (cortisol features); however, to our knowledge prior population-based studies have not examined the longitudinal association of body-mass index (BMI) with cortisol features. To examine the association of (1) prior annual BMI percent change over 7years with cortisol features, (2) baseline cortisol features with subsequent change in BMI over 6years and (3) the association of change in cortisol features with change in BMI over 6years. Longitudinal study. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress I & II Studies (2004-2006 & 2010-2012). 1685 ethnically diverse men and women attended either MESA Stress exam (mean age 65±10years at MESA Stress I; mean age 69±9years at MESA Stress II). Log-transformed cortisol features including wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response, early decline slope (30min to 2h post-awakening), late decline slope (2h post-awakening to bedtime), bedtime, and total area under the curve (AUC) cortisol. Over 7years, following multivariable adjustment, (1) a 1% higher prior annual BMI % increase was associated with a 2.9% (95% CI: -5.0%, -0.8%) and 3.0% (95% CI: -4.7%, -1.4%) lower current wake-up and total AUC cortisol, respectively; (2) there was no significant association between baseline cortisol features and subsequent change in BMI and (3) among participants with BMI≥30kg/m 2 , flattening of the late decline slope was associated with increases in BMI (every 1-unit increase late decline slope were associated with a 12.9% increase (95%CI: -1%, 26.8%) in BMI, respectively). We found a significant association between prior annual BMI % change and cortisol features, but no significant association between baseline cortisol features and subsequent change in BMI. In participants with obesity increases in BMI were associated with less pronounced declined. Collectively, our results suggest that greater

  18. Antecedent Longitudinal Changes in Body Mass Index are associated with Diurnal Cortisol Curve Features: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J.; Wang, Xu; Roux, Ana V. Diez; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Needham, Belinda L.; Golden, Sherita Hill


    Context Prior studies have shown a cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and salivary diurnal cortisol profile features (cortisol features); however, to our knowledge prior population-based studies have not examined the longitudinal association of body-mass index (BMI) with cortisol features. Objective To examine the association of (1) prior annual BMI percent change over 7 years with cortisol features, (2) baseline cortisol features with subsequent change in BMI over 6 years and (3) the association of change in cortisol features with change in BMI over 6 years. Design Longitudinal study Setting Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) Stress I & II Studies (2004-2006 & 2010-2012) Participants 1,685 ethnically diverse men and women attended either MESA Stress exam (mean age 65 ± 10 years at MESA Stress I; mean age 69 ± 9 years at MESA Stress II). Outcome Measures Log-transformed cortisol features including wake-up cortisol, cortisol awakening response, early decline slope (30 minutes to 2 hours post-awakening), late decline slope (2 hours post-awakening to bedtime), bedtime, and total area under the curve (AUC) cortisol. Results Over 7 years, following multivariable adjustment, (1) a 1% higher prior annual BMI % increase was associated with a 2.9% (95% CI: −5.0%, −0.8%) and 3.0% (95% CI: −4.7%, −1.4%) lower current wake-up and total AUC cortisol, respectively; (2) there was no significant association between baseline cortisol features and subsequent change in BMI and (3) among participants with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, flattening of the late decline slope was associated with increases in BMI (every 1-unit increase late decline slope were associated with a 12.9% increase (95%CI: −1%, 26.8%) in BMI, respectively). Conclusions We found a significant association between prior annual BMI % change and cortisol features, but no significant association between baseline cortisol features and subsequent change in BMI. In participants with obesity

  19. Body Temperature Controlled Optical and Thermal Information Storage Light Scattering Display with Fluorescence Effect and High Mechanical Strength. (United States)

    Chen, Si; Tong, Xiaoqian; He, Huiwen; Ma, Meng; Shi, Yanqin; Wang, Xu


    A kind of body temperature controlled optical and thermal information storage light scattering display based on super strong liquid crystalline physical gel with special "loofah-like gel network" was successfully prepared. Such liquid crystal (LC) gel was obtained by mixing a dendritic gelator (POSS-G1-BOC), an azobenzene compound (2Azo2), and a phosphor tethered liquid crystalline host (5CB), which could show its best contrast ratio at around human body temperature under UV light because of the phosphor's fluorescence effect. The gel also has quite strong mechanical strength, which could be used in wearable device field especially under sunlight, even under the forcing conditions as harsh as being centrifuged for 10 min at the speed of 2000 r/min. The whole production process of such a display is quite simple and could lead to displays at any size through noncontact writing. We believe it will have wide applications in the future.

  20. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype × environment interaction in growth rate. III. Diurnal patterns as influenced by vapor pressure deficit and internal water status (United States)

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen


    Pressure­volume curves were constructed and shoot water potentials measured for +20-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families growing on a moist site and a dry site at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, to determine whether differences in diurnal water relations traits were related to productivity. To...

  1. Domestic horses (Equus caballus) prefer to approach humans displaying a submissive body posture rather than a dominant body posture. (United States)

    Smith, Amy Victoria; Wilson, Clara; McComb, Karen; Proops, Leanne


    Signals of dominance and submissiveness are central to conspecific communication in many species. For domestic animals, sensitivities to these signals in humans may also be beneficial. We presented domestic horses with a free choice between two unfamiliar humans, one adopting a submissive and the other a dominant body posture, with vocal and facial cues absent. Horses had previously been given food rewards by both human demonstrators, adopting neutral postures, to encourage approach behaviour. Across four counterbalanced test trials, horses showed a significant preference for approaching the submissive posture in both the first trial and across subsequent trials, and no individual subject showed an overall preference for dominant postures. There was no significant difference in latency to approach the two postures. This study provides novel evidence that domestic horses may spontaneously discriminate between, and attribute communicative significance to, human body postures of dominance; and further, that familiarity with the signaller is not a requirement for this response. These findings raise interesting questions about the plasticity of social signal perception across the species barrier.

  2. Diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS). Technical improvement using free breathing, STIR and high resolution 3D display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Taro; Imai, Yutaka; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Seiei; Nasu, Seiji; Cauteren, M. Van


    The purpose of this study was to examine a new way of body diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) using the short TI inversion recovery-echo planar imaging (STIR-EPI) sequence and free breathing scanning (diffusion weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression; DWIBS) to obtain three-dimensional displays. Apparent contrast-to-noise ratios (AppCNR) between lymph nodes and surrounding fat tissue were compared in three types of DWI with and without breath-holding, with variable lengths of scan time and slice thickness. The STIR-EPI sequence and spin echo-echo planar imaging (SE-EPI) sequence with chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse were compared in terms of their degree of fat suppression. Eleven patients with neck, chest, and abdominal malignancy were scanned with DWIBS for evaluation of feasibility. Whole body imaging was done in a later stage of the study using the peripheral vascular coil. The AppCNR of 8 mm slice thickness images reconstructed from 4 mm slice thickness source images obtained in a free breathing scan of 430 sec were much better than 9 mm slice thickness breath-hold scans obtained in 25 sec. High resolution multi-planar reformat (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images could be made from the data set of 4 mm slice thickness images. Fat suppression was much better in the STIR-EPI sequence than SE-EPI with CHESS pulse. The feasibility of DWIBS was showed in clinical scans of 11 patients. Whole body images were successfully obtained with adequate fat suppression. Three-dimensional DWIBS can be obtained with this technique, which may allow us to screen for malignancies in the whole body. (author)

  3. A six degree-of-freedom god-object method for haptic display of rigid bodies with surface properties. (United States)

    Ortega, Michael; Redon, Stephane; Coquillart, Sabine


    This paper describes a generalization of the god-object method for haptic interaction between rigid bodies. Our approach separates the computation of the motion of the six degree-of-freedom god-object from the computation of the force applied to the user. The motion of the god-object is computed using continuous collision detection and constraint-based quasi-statics, which enables high-quality haptic interaction between contacting rigid bodies. The force applied to the user is computed using a novel constraint-based quasi-static approach, which allows us to suppress force artifacts typically found in previous methods. The constraint-based force applied to the user, which handles any number of simultaneous contact points, is computed within a few microseconds, while the update of the configuration of the rigid god-object is performed within a few milliseconds for rigid bodies containing up to tens of thousands of triangles. Our approach has been successfully tested on complex benchmarks. Our results show that the separation into asynchronous processes allows us to satisfy the different update rates required by the haptic and visual displays. Force shading and textures can be added and enlarge the range of haptic perception of a virtual environment. This paper is an extension of [1].

  4. Displaying the researched body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge


    In Heirloom, artist Gina Czarnecki and scientist John Hunt grow portraits of the artist’s daughters from their own cells, onto glass casts of their faces. This required the development of novel scien- tific techniques to allow the growth of human cells in a gallery. Heirloom was exhibited...

  5. Diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Müller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Cravens, T. E.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.


    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1000 and 1300 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from eight close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Although there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ˜700 cm-3 below ˜1300 km. Such a plateau is a combined result of significant depletion of light ions and modest depletion of heavy ones on Titan's nightside. We propose that the distinctions between the diurnal variations of light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through “fast” ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through “slow” electron dissociative recombination. The strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes suggests a scenario in which the ions created on Titan's dayside may survive well to the nightside. The observed asymmetry between the dawn and dusk ion density profiles also supports such an interpretation. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effect of ion survival associated with solid body rotation alone as well as superrotating horizontal winds. For long-lived ions, the predicted diurnal variations have similar general characteristics to those observed. However, for short-lived ions, the model densities on the nightside are significantly lower than the observed values. This implies that electron precipitation from Saturn's magnetosphere may be an additional and important contributor to the densities of the short-lived ions observed on Titan's nightside.

  6. Diurnal variations of Titan (United States)

    Cui, J.; Galand, M.; Yelle, R. V.; Vuitton, V.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Lavvas, P. P.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C. F.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Waite, J. H.


    We present our analysis of the diurnal variations of Titan's ionosphere (between 1,000 and 1,400 km) based on a sample of Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measurements in the Open Source Ion (OSI) mode obtained from 8 close encounters of the Cassini spacecraft with Titan. Though there is an overall ion depletion well beyond the terminator, the ion content on Titan's nightside is still appreciable, with a density plateau of ~700 cm-3 below ~1,300 km. Such a plateau is associated with the combination of distinct diurnal variations of light and heavy ions. Light ions (e.g. CH5+, HCNH+, C2H5+) show strong diurnal variation, with clear bite-outs in their nightside distributions. In contrast, heavy ions (e.g. c-C3H3+, C2H3CNH+, C6H7+) present modest diurnal variation, with significant densities observed on the nightside. We propose that the distinctions between light and heavy ions are associated with their different chemical loss pathways, with the former primarily through "fast" ion-neutral chemistry and the latter through "slow" electron dissociative recombination. The INMS data suggest day-to-night transport as an important source of ions on Titan's nightside, to be distinguished from the conventional scenario of auroral ionization by magnetospheric particles as the only ionizing source on the nightside. This is supported by the strong correlation between the observed night-to-day ion density ratios and the associated ion lifetimes. We construct a time-dependent ion chemistry model to investigate the effects of day-to-night transport on the ionospheric structures of Titan. The predicted diurnal variation has similar general characteristics to those observed, with some apparent discrepancies which could be reconciled by imposing fast horizontal thermal winds in Titan's upper atmosphere.

  7. Modelling of diurnal cycle under climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, A.V.; Bezmenov, K.V.; Demchenko, P.F.; Mokhov, I.I.; Petoukhov, V.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics


    The observed diurnal temperature range (DTR) displays remarkable change during last 30 years. Land air DTR generally decreases under global climate warming due to more significant night minimum temperature increase in comparison with day maximum temperature increase. Atmosphere hydrological cycle characteristics change under global warming and possible background aerosol atmosphere content change may cause essential errors in the estimation of DTR tendencies of change under global warming. The result of this study is the investigation of cloudiness effect on the DTR and blackbody radiative emissivity diurnal range. It is shown that in some cases (particularly in cold seasons) it results in opposite change in DTR and BD at doubled CO{sub 2} atmosphere content. The influence of background aerosol is the same as the cloudiness one

  8. Biophysical information in asymmetric and symmetric diurnal bidirectional canopy reflectance (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Caldwell, William F.; Pettigrew, Rita E.; Ustin, Susan L.; Martens, Scott N.; Rousseau, Robert A.; Berger, Kevin M.; Ganapol, B. D.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Clark, Jenny A.


    The authors present a theory for partitioning the information content in diurnal bidirectional reflectance measurements in order to detect differences potentially related to biophysical variables. The theory, which divides the canopy reflectance into asymmetric and symmetric functions of solar azimuth angle, attributes asymmetric variation to diurnal changes in the canopy biphysical properties. The symmetric function is attributed to the effects of sunlight interacting with a hypothetical average canopy which would display the average diurnal properties of the actual canopy. The authors analyzed radiometer data collected diurnally in the Thematic Mapper wavelength bands from two walnut canopies that received differing irrigation treatments. The reflectance of the canopies varied with sun and view angles and across seven bands in the visible, near-infrared, and middle infrared wavelength regions. Although one of the canopies was permanently water stressed and the other was stressed in mid-afternoon each day, no water stress signature was unambiguously evident in the reflectance data.

  9. Heads-Up Display with Virtual Precision Approach Path Indicator as Implemented in a Real-Time Piloted Lifting-Body Simulation (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jason R.


    This document describes the heads-up display (HUD) used in a piloted lifting-body entry, approach and landing simulation developed for the simulator facilities of the Simulation Development and Analysis Branch (SDAB) at NASA Langley Research Center. The HUD symbology originated with the piloted simulation evaluations of the HL-20 lifting body concept conducted in 1989 at NASA Langley. The original symbology was roughly based on Shuttle HUD symbology, as interpreted by Langley researchers. This document focuses on the addition of the precision approach path indicator (PAPI) lights to the HUD overlay.

  10. Evaluating the diurnal cycle in cloud top temperature from SEVIRI (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah; Stier, Philip; White, Bethan; Finkensieper, Stephan; Stengel, Martin


    accurately in regions of stratiform cloud such as the southeast Atlantic Ocean and Europe, where cloud top temperature retrieval biases are small and exhibit limited spatial and temporal variability. Quantifying the diurnal cycle over the tropics and regions of desert is more difficult, as retrieval biases are larger and display significant diurnal variability. CLAAS-2 cloud top temperature data are found to be of limited skill in measuring the diurnal cycle accurately over desert regions. In tropical regions such as central Africa, the diurnal cycle can be described by the CLAAS-2 data to some extent, although retrieval biases appear to reduce the amplitude of the real diurnal cycle of cloud top temperatures. This is the first study to relate the diurnal variations in SEVIRI retrieval bias to observed diurnal cycles in cloud top temperature. Our results may be of interest to those in the observation and modelling communities when using cloud top properties data from SEVIRI, particularly for studies considering the diurnal cycle of convection.

  11. Reduced peak, but no diurnal variation, in thrombin generation upon melatonin supplementation in tetraplegia. A randomised, placebo-controlled study. (United States)

    Iversen, Per Ole; Dahm, Anders; Skretting, Grethe; Mowinckel, Marie-Christine; Stranda, Annicke; Østerud, Bjarne; Sandset, Per Morten; Kostovski, Emil


    Tetraplegic patients have increased risk of venous thrombosis despite anti-thrombotic prophylaxis. Moreover, they have blunted plasma variations in melatonin and altered diurnal variation of several haemostatic markers, compared with able-bodied. However, whether healthy individuals and tetraplegic patients, with or without melatonin, display abnormalities in thrombin generation during a 24-hour (h) cycle, is unknown. We therefore used the Calibrated Automated Thrombogram (CAT) assay to examine diurnal variations and the possible role of melatonin in thrombin generation. Six men with long-standing complete tetraplegia were included in a randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study with melatonin supplementation (2 mg, 4 consecutive nights), whereas six healthy, able-bodied men served as controls. Ten plasma samples were collected frequently during a 24-h awake/sleep cycle. No significant diurnal variation of any of the measured CAT indices was detected in the three study groups. Whereas endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) was independent (p > 0.05) of whether the tetraplegic men received melatonin or placebo, melatonin decreased (p = 0.005) peak values in tetraplegia compared with those given placebo. Able-bodied men had lower (p = 0.019) ETP and Lag-Time (p = 0.018) compared with tetraplegics receiving placebo. Neither the Time-to-Peak nor the Start-Tail was affected (p > 0.05) by melatonin in tetraplegia. In conclusion, indices of thrombin generation are not subjected to diurnal variation in healthy able-bodied or tetraplegia, but peak thrombin generation is reduced in tetraplegic men receiving oral melatonin.

  12. Accelerator-feasible display='inline'>N -body nonlinear integrable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilov, V.; Nagaitsev, S.


    Nonlinear N-body integrable Hamiltonian systems, where N is an arbitrary number, attract the attention of mathematical physicists for the last several decades, following the discovery of some number of these systems. This paper presents a new integrable system, which can be realized in facilities such as particle accelerators. This feature makes it more attractive than many of the previous such systems with singular or unphysical forces.

  13. Diurnal Ensemble Surface Meteorology Statistics (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excel file containing diurnal ensemble statistics of 2-m temperature, 2-m mixing ratio and 10-m wind speed. This Excel file contains figures for Figure 2 in the...

  14. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  15. Evolution of potent and stable placental-growth-factor-1-targeting CovX-bodies from phage display peptide discovery. (United States)

    Bower, Kristen E; Lam, Son N; Oates, Bryan D; Del Rosario, Joselyn R; Corner, Emily; Osothprarop, Trina F; Kinhikar, Arvind G; Hoye, Julie A; Preston, R Ryan; Murphy, Robert E; Campbell, Lioudmila A; Huang, Hanhua; Jimenez, Judith; Cao, Xia; Chen, Gang; Ainekulu, Zemeda W; Datt, Aakash B; Levin, Nancy J; Doppalapudi, Venkata R; Pirie-Shepherd, Steven R; Bradshaw, Curt; Woodnutt, Gary; Lappe, Rodney W


    Novel phage-derived peptides are the first reported molecules specifically targeting human placental growth factor 1 (PlGF-1). Phage data enabled peptide modifications that decreased IC(50) values in PlGF-1/VEGFR-1 competition ELISA from 100 to 1 μM. Peptides exhibiting enhanced potency were bioconjugated to the CovX antibody scaffold 1 (CVX-2000), generating bivalent CovX-Bodies with 2 nM K(D) against PlGF-1. In vitro and in vivo peptide cleavage mapping studies enabled the identification of proteolytic hotspots that were subsequently chemically modified. These changes decreased IC(50) to 0.4 nM and increased compound stability from 5% remaining at 6 h after injection to 35% remaining at 24 h with a β phase half-life of 75 h in mice. In cynomolgus monkey, a 78 h β half-life was observed for lead compound 2. The pharmacological properties of 2 are currently being explored.

  16. diurnal climatic pressure on haematology and blood biochemistry of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve 2.5-year-old West African Dward (WAD) sheep consisting of eight (8) ewes and four (4) rams with mean body weight 19.4kg were used to study the effects of diurnal (morning and afternoon) climatic variations on the haematological and biochemical responses in WAD sheep. The animals were randomly assigned to ...

  17. Displays in scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Pizer, S.M.


    Displays have several functions: to transmit images, to permit interaction, to quantitate features and to provide records. The main characteristics of displays used for image transmission are their resolution, dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity. Considerations of visual acuity suggest that the display element size should be much less than the data element size, and in current practice at least 256X256 for a gamma camera image. The dynamic range for image transmission should be such that at least 64 levels of grey (or equivalent) are displayed. Scanner displays are also considered, and in particular, the requirements of a whole-body camera are examined. A number of display systems and devices are presented including a 'new' heated object colour display system. Interaction with displays is considered, including background subtraction, contrast enhancement, position indication and region-of-interest generation. Such systems lead to methods of quantitation, which imply knowledge of the expected distributions. Methods for intercomparing displays are considered. Polaroid displays, which have for so long dominated the field, are in the process of being replaced by stored image displays, now that large cheap memories exist which give an equivalent image quality. The impact of this in nuclear medicine is yet to be seen, but a major effect will be to enable true quantitation. (author)

  18. Biochemical markers identify influences on bone and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis - the effect of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA involves changes in both bone and cartilage. These processes might be associated under some circumstances. This study investigated correlations between bone and cartilage degradation in patients with OA as a function of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation. Methods This study was a 2-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study including 37 postmenopausal women and 36 men, aged 57-75 years, with painful knee OA, and a KL-score of I - III. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment arms: 0.6 mg or 0.8 mg oral sCT, or placebo given twice-daily for 14 days. Correlations between gender, KL score, or BMI and the bone resorption marker, serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX-I, or the cartilage degradation marker, urine C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II (CTX-II were investigated. Results At baseline, biomarkers indicated women with OA experienced higher bone and cartilage degradation than men. CTX-I levels were significantly higher, and CTX-II levels only marginally higher, in women than in men (p = 0.04 and p = 0.06, respectively. Increasing KL score was not correlated with bone resorption, but was significantly associated with the cartilage degradation CTX-II marker in both men and women (p = 0.007. BMI was significantly and negatively correlated to the bone resorption marker CTX-I, r = -0.40 (p = 0.002, but showed only a borderline positive correlation to CTX-II, r = 0.25 (p = 0.12. Before morning treatments on days 1 and 14, no correlation was seen between CTX-I and CTX-II in either the sCT or placebo group. However, oral sCT and food intake induced a clear correlation between these bone and cartilage degradation markers. Four hours after the first sCT dose on treatment days 1 and 14, a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p p = 0.02, but not on day 14. Conclusion Bone resorption was higher in

  19. Diurnal Mood Fluctuation and Age. (United States)

    Templer, Donald I.; And Others


    Studied the nature of diurnal mood variations in 173 persons aged 13 to 82. Results indicated adolescents and young adults tended to report better moods toward evening while middle-aged and elderly persons reported better moods in the morning. Limited findings suggest the opposite trends for depressed psychiatric patients (Author/JA)

  20. Nocturnalism induced by scheduled feeding in diurnal Octodon degus. (United States)

    Vivanco, Pablo; López-Espinoza, Antonio; Madariaga, Ana Maria; Rol, Maria Angeles; Madrid, Juan Antonio


    Octodon degus, a mainly diurnal rodent, characterized by its ability to shift to a nocturnal locomotor pattern under laboratory conditions, was studied to determine whether restricted food access during the scotophase could induce nocturnalism. To address this question, wheel running activity, feeding, and body temperature rhythms were analyzed for diurnal degus housed with a wheel and subjected to either long (12 h) or short (2 h) food availability periods, in the latter case with random or scheduled food access times. The results show that allowing nocturnal feeding for 2 h, but not 12 h, can shift a previous diurnal phase preference for wheel running activity and body temperature to the scotophase, with random feeding being more effective than scheduled food availability. However, this behavioral inversion proved to be unstable, as the degus returned to the diurnal phase within only a few days after the restricted feeding was discontinued. In addition, the negative masking effect induced by light, which is characteristic of the degus' nocturnal chronotype, was not observed when the animals were forced to feed at night. Thus, neither long, short, random, nor scheduled food-availability during the scotophase was able to induce all the characteristics of the nocturnal chronotype in Octodon degus.

  1. Position display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yukio.


    Object: To provide a device capable of easily and quickly reading mutual mounting relations of control bodies such as control rods mounted on a nuclear reactor and positions to which the control bodies are driven. Structure: A scanning circuit is provided to scan positions of controllably mounted control bodies such as control rods. Values detected by scanning the positions are converted into character signals according to the values and converted into preranked color signals. The character signals and color signals are stored in a memory circuit by synchronous signals in synchronism with the scanning in the scanning circuit. Outputs of the memory circuit are displayed by a display unit such as a color Braun tube in accordance with the synchronous signals to provide color representations according to positions to which control bodies are driven in the same positional relation as the mounting of the control bodies. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Diurnal variation of radon progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seftelis, I.; Nicolaou, G.; Trassanidis, S.; Tsagas, F.N.


    The diurnal variation of the gross alpha (α) radioactivity in the air near the ground and the gamma (γ) radioactivity emitted from the ground have been monitored in North-eastern Greece. Meteorological information comprising air temperature and humidity has been simultaneously recorded. Over a period of the 24 h of a typical day, the variation of α-radioactivity reaches a peak in the morning followed by a remarkable decrease, rising to a second peak in the afternoon. Furthermore, its significant dependence on the air temperature and humidity is confirmed, rising with an increase in humidity and decrease in temperature. The variation of the ground γ-radioactivity follows that of the air α-radioactivity. A mathematical model has been developed to describe the diurnal variation of the α-radioactivity in the air near the ground in terms of the above meteorological variables and ground level γ-radioactivity

  3. Projection displays (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.


    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  4. Diurnal variation of von Willebrand factor in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Annette; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Jørgensen, Henrik L


    thoroughly tested. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether VWF antigen and VWF activity in plasma display a diurnal profile in healthy young males, and whether such variation is related to changes in release or elimination. METHODS: Plasma from 20 healthy young males was collected at 9 time-points over 24 h (15 h......BACKGROUND: Quantitation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in plasma is a central element in assessing von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWF activity is known to vary, which has partly been ascribed to biological and preanalytical variation. However, a possible diurnal expression of VWF has not been...... of light and 9 h of darkness); the plasma concentration of melatonin was used as an internal control to confirm the normal 24-h rhythms of the individual participants. RESULTS: The data, analyzed by rhythmometric statistics, revealed a significant variation (P = 0.02) and total amplitude of 22.6% in VWF...

  5. Quasi-Biennial Oscillation signatures in the diurnal tidal winds over Cachoeira Paulista (United States)

    Rodrigues de Araujo, Luciana; Jacobi, Christoph; Batista, Paulo; Lima, Lourivaldo


    The solar diurnal tidal plays an important role in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region at low latitudes, in which its amplitude for horizontal winds maximizes around 20 degrees. The tides are excited in the lower atmosphere and stratosphere and can be affected by short and long-term local variations during their upward propagation. In this work, the meteor winds obtained over Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W), Brazil, have been used to investigate interannual variability in the amplitude of the diurnal tidal winds. The monthly diurnal tidal displays year to year variations. Amplitudes are strongest when the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) at the 30 mb level is eastward. This behavior can be observed in all seasons in the meridional component, whilst it is more clearly expressed during austral autumn in the zonal component, just when the diurnal tidal is strongest at this latitude.

  6. Diurnal variation of the human adipose transcriptome and the link to metabolic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamb John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circadian (diurnal rhythm is an integral part of the physiology of the body; specifically, sleep, feeding behavior and metabolism are tightly linked to the light-dark cycle dictated by earth's rotation. Methods The present study examines the effect of diurnal rhythm on gene expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of overweight to mildly obese, healthy individuals. In this well-controlled clinical study, adipose biopsies were taken in the morning, afternoon and evening from individuals in three study arms: treatment with the weight loss drug sibutramine/fasted, placebo/fed and placebo/fasted. Results The results indicated that diurnal rhythm was the most significant driver of gene expression variation in the human adipose tissue, with at least 25% of the genes having had significant changes in their expression levels during the course of the day. The mRNA expression levels of core clock genes at a specific time of day were consistent across multiple subjects on different days in all three arms, indicating robust diurnal regulation irrespective of potential confounding factors. The genes essential for energy metabolism and tissue physiology were part of the diurnal signature. We hypothesize that the diurnal transition of the expression of energy metabolism genes reflects the shift in the adipose tissue from an energy-expending state in the morning to an energy-storing state in the evening. Consistent with this hypothesis, the diurnal transition was delayed by fasting and treatment with sibutramine. Finally, an in silico comparison of the diurnal signature with data from the publicly-available Connectivity Map demonstrated a significant association with transcripts that were repressed by mTOR inhibitors, suggesting a possible link between mTOR signaling, diurnal gene expression and metabolic regulation. Conclusion Diurnal rhythm plays an important role in the physiology and regulation of energy metabolism in the adipose

  7. Display hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.


    To appreciate the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics it is necessary to have some acquaintance with the available technology. The aim of this chapter is to mention briefly the different display types and their 'ball-park' price ranges. It must be stressed that prices change rapidly, and so those quoted here are only intended to give an idea of the cost at the time of writing.

  8. Oculomotor Assessment of Diurnal Arousal Variations (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Di Stasi, Leandro L.


    Saccadic and pupillary responses are reliable indices of arousal decrement (e.g. fatigue), that might be exploited to improve work schedule guidelines. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of a short 30-s oculomotor test to detect diurnal arousal variations. Twelve participants (5 females, 7 males, 37.7+-11.9 years) volunteered to be assessed every hour (66+-20 min) for three consecutive working days, during their regular office-hours. We used a fully automated testing system, the FIT 2000 Fitness Impairment Tester (Pulse Medical Instruments Inc., Rockville, MD, USA), to measure and record saccadic peak velocity, pupil diameter, and latency and amplitude of the pupillary light reflex. In addition, we collected subjective levels of arousal using the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and body core temperature. We analyzed the data using a linear mixed model approach for longitudinal data. Both saccadic velocity and subjective alertness decreased over the course of a day, while body core temperature increased (all p-values.05). The data also weakly suggested an increase of the pupil diameter (p 07). The findings support the use of oculomotor indices in the assessment of arousal and fatigue in applied settings.

  9. Maize global transcriptomics reveals pervasive leaf diurnal rhythms but rhythms in developing ears are largely limited to the core oscillator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R Hayes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plant diurnal rhythms are vital environmental adaptations to coordinate internal physiological responses to alternating day-night cycles. A comprehensive view of diurnal biology has been lacking for maize (Zea mays, a major world crop. METHODOLOGY: A photosynthetic tissue, the leaf, and a non-photosynthetic tissue, the developing ear, were sampled under natural field conditions. Genome-wide transcript profiling was conducted on a high-density 105 K Agilent microarray to investigate diurnal rhythms. CONCLUSIONS: In both leaves and ears, the core oscillators were intact and diurnally cycling. Maize core oscillator genes are found to be largely conserved with their Arabidopsis counterparts. Diurnal gene regulation occurs in leaves, with some 23% of expressed transcripts exhibiting a diurnal cycling pattern. These transcripts can be assigned to over 1700 gene ontology functional terms, underscoring the pervasive impact of diurnal rhythms on plant biology. Considering the peak expression time for each diurnally regulated gene, and its corresponding functional assignment, most gene functions display temporal enrichment in the day, often with distinct patterns, such as dawn or midday preferred, indicating that there is a staged procession of biological events undulating with the diurnal cycle. Notably, many gene functions display a bimodal enrichment flanking the midday photosynthetic maximum, with an initial peak in mid-morning followed by another peak during the afternoon/evening. In contrast to leaves, in developing ears as few as 47 gene transcripts are diurnally regulated, and this set of transcripts includes primarily the core oscillators. In developing ears, which are largely shielded from light, the core oscillator therefore is intact with little outward effect on transcription.

  10. Effects of Melatonin on Diurnal Mood. (United States)


    As a substance produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, melatonin may have utility in promoting sleep during diurnal or other unusual sleep periods . Oral...substance produced nocturnally by the pineal gland, melatonin may have utility in promoting sleep during diurnal or other unusual sleep periods . Oral

  11. Diurnal Variation In Behaviour Of Pink-Footed Geese (Anser Brachyrhynchus) During Spring Migration In Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    habitat type, we fitted a model containing all predictors we believe may influence geese behaviour. The number of feeding and alert geese on fields displayed a strong diurnal trend, which varied among habitat types, frequent and sporadic disturbance, but not flock size. On roost sites, geese also showed...... diurnal variation in resting and alertness. The observed diurnal variation differed from what has been found on the wintering grounds indicating that during spring, birds increase their foraging intensity in order to meet energetic and nutritional demands in a short time. Seasonal availability of habitats...

  12. Paediatric dose display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.W.; Derges, S.; Hesslewood, S.


    A compact, inexpensive unit, based on an 8085 microprocessor, has been designed for calculating doses of intravenous radioactive injections for children. It has been used successfully for over a year. The dose is calculated from the body surface area and the result displayed in MBq. The operator can obtain the required dose on a twelve character alphanumeric display by entering the age of the patient and the adult dose using a hexadecimal keyboard. Circuit description, memory map and input/output, and firmware are dealt with. (U.K.)

  13. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lan


    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US. Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. The GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited diurnal fluctuations in summertime. The summertime PBM diurnal pattern displayed daily maxima in the early afternoon and lower mixing ratios at night, implying photochemical production of PBM in summer.

  14. Body


    Riggs, Christina


    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  15. Diurnal variation of zooplankton off Versova (Bombay)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    Physicochemical parameters and diurnal variaion of zooplankton were studied off Versova on 17/18 February 1981. Salinity and dissolved oxygen showed limited variation during the period of study. Nutrient values followed the tidal rhythm and high...

  16. An empirical model for the statistics of sea surface diurnal warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Filipiak


    Full Text Available A statistical model is derived relating the diurnal variation of sea surface temperature (SST to the net surface heat flux and surface wind speed from a numerical weather prediction (NWP model. The model is derived using fluxes and winds from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF NWP model and SSTs from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI. In the model, diurnal warming has a linear dependence on the net surface heat flux integrated since (approximately dawn and an inverse quadratic dependence on the maximum of the surface wind speed in the same period. The model coefficients are found by matching, for a given integrated heat flux, the frequency distributions of the maximum wind speed and the observed warming. Diurnal cooling, where it occurs, is modelled as proportional to the integrated heat flux divided by the heat capacity of the seasonal mixed layer. The model reproduces the statistics (mean, standard deviation, and 95-percentile of the diurnal variation of SST seen by SEVIRI and reproduces the geographical pattern of mean warming seen by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E. We use the functional dependencies in the statistical model to test the behaviour of two physical model of diurnal warming that display contrasting systematic errors.

  17. Diurnal Reflectance Changes in Vegetation Observed with AVIRIS (United States)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S. L.


    focused on day-to-day changes in water use, especially for agricultural applications. Ustin et al. showed seasonal changes in canopy water content in chaparral shrub could be estimated using optical methods. Vanderbilt et al. followed asymmetric diurnal changes in the reflectance of a walnut orchard, but could not attribute specific reflectance changes to specific changes in canopy architecture or physiology. Forests and shrub lands in California experience prolonged periods of drought, sometimes extending six months without precipitation. The conifer and evergreen chaparral communities common to the foothill region around the central valley of California retain their foliage throughout the summer and have low transpiration rates despite high net radiation and temperature conditions. In contrast, grasslands and drought resistant deciduous species in the same habitat are seasonally dormant in summer. Because of differences in the mechanisms of drought tolerance, rooting depth and physiology between different plant communities in the region, it is likely that they display differences in diurnal water relations. The presence of diverse plant communities provides an opportunity to investigate possible diurnal landscape patterns in water relations that could be observed by an airborne hyperspectral scanner. This investigation of AVIRIS data collected over forest and shrub land represents the continuation of a prior investigation involving spectral mixture analysis of diurnal effects in the same AVIRIS data set.

  18. Climatology of diurnal tide and its long-term variability in the lower middle atmosphere over a tropical station (United States)

    Kumar, P. Vinay; Dutta, Gopa; Mohammad, Salauddin; Rao, B. Venkateswara


    ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-interim) data of winds for two solar cycles (1991-2012) are harmonically analyzed to delineate the characteristics and variability of diurnal tide over a tropical site (13.5° N, 79.5° E). The diurnal cycle horizontal winds measured by Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar between May 2005 and April 2006 have been used to compute 24 h tidal amplitudes and phases and compared with the corresponding results obtained from ERA winds. The climatological diurnal tidal amplitudes and phases have been estimated from surface to ˜33 km using ERA interim data. The amplitudes and phases obtained in the present study are found to compare reasonably well with Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM-09). Diurnal tides show larger amplitudes in the lower troposphere below 5 km during summer and in the mid-stratosphere mainly during equinoctial months and early winter. Water vapor and convection in the lower troposphere are observed to play major roles in exciting 24-h tide. Correlations between diurnal amplitude and integrated water vapor and between diurnal amplitude and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) are 0.59 and -0.34, respectively. Ozone mixing ratio correlates ( ρ = 0.66) well with diurnal amplitude and shows annual variation in the troposphere whereas semi-annual variation is observed at stratospheric heights with stronger peaks in equinoctial months. A clear annual variation of diurnal amplitude is displayed in the troposphere and interannual variability becomes prominent in the stratosphere which could be partly due to the influence of equatorial stratospheric QBO. The influence of solar activity on diurnal oscillations is found to be insignificant.

  19. Diurnal Oscillations of Soybean Circadian Clock and Drought Responsive Genes (United States)

    Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Bendix, Claire; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Celaya, Brandon; Molinari, Hugo Bruno Correa; de Oliveira, Maria Cristina Neves; Harmon, Frank G.; Nepomuceno, Alexandre


    Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i) drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii) several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans. PMID:24475115

  20. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  1. Seasonal variations in the lightning diurnal cycle and implications for the global electric circuit (United States)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte G.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.


    Data obtained from the Optical Transient Detector and the Lightning Imaging Sensor satellites (70° and 35° inclination low earth orbits, respectively) are used to statistically determine the number of flashes in the seasonal diurnal cycle as a function of local and universal time. These data include corrections for detection efficiency and instrument view time. They are further subdivided by season, land versus ocean, and other spatial (e.g., continents) and temporal (e.g., time of peak diurnal amplitude) categories. These statistics are then combined with analyses of high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds to produce the seasonal diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Continental results display strong diurnal variation, with a lightning peak in the late afternoon and a minimum in late morning. In geographical regions dominated by large mesoscale convective systems, the peak in the diurnal curve shifts toward late evening or early morning hours. The maximum seasonal diurnal flash rate occurs in June-August, corresponding to the Northern Hemisphere summer, while the minimum occurs in December-February. Summer lightning dominates over winter activity and springtime lightning dominates over fall activity at most continental locations. Oceanic lightning exhibits minimal diurnal variation, but morning hours are slightly enhanced over afternoon. As was found earlier, for the annual diurnal variation, using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location (i.e., land/ocean), our seasonal estimates of the current in the global electric circuit provide an excellent match with independent measurements of the seasonal Carnegie curve diurnal variations. The maximum (minimum) total mean current of 2.4 kA (1.7 kA) is found during Northern Hemisphere summer (winter). Land thunderstorms supply about one half (52%) of the total global current. Ocean thunderstorms contribute about one third (31%) and the non

  2. Diurnal variations of tritium uptake by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettinger, M.; Diabate, S.; Strack, S.


    The influence of the diurnal cycle is important for the behaviour of environmental tritium in the vegetation. A mathematical model has been used to calculate the deposition of tritium in plants as a function of diurnal variations of climatic parameters. The necessary physiological parameters (relationship of net photosynthesis and growth) were derived from growth experiments for tomatoes and maize. In chamber experiments, tomato and maize plants were exposed to tritium with natural diurnal variations of the climatic conditions. Within the range of standard deviations the measured concentrations of tritium in tissue free water of tomatoes correspond well to the estimated values. Furthermore, the incorporation into non-exchangeable organically bound tritium (OBT nx) can be sufficiently modelled and explained. There are deviations from the estimated concentrations in some parts of maize leaves. (orig.) [de

  3. Robust fitting of diurnal brightness temperature cycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Udahemuka, G


    Full Text Available . In this paper, diurnal brightness temperatures received from the METEOSAT Second Generation (MSG) satellite were interpolated for missing data based on a model, and a performance test was performed by comparing a new approach based on robust modelling...

  4. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalf, J.G.; Munneke, M.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.; Zwarts, M.J.


    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  5. Diurnal variability of upper ocean temperature and heat budget in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These data have been analysed to examine the diurnal variability of upper oceanic heat budget and to estimate the eddy diffusivity coefficient of heat in the upper layer. Diurnal variation of near-surface temperature is typical at northern location (13°N) with a range of 0.5°C while the diurnal range of temperature is enhanced ...

  6. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes the variability in the diurnal range of SST in the north Indian Ocean using in situ measurements and tests the suitability of simple regression models in estimating the diurnal range.SST measurements obtained from 1556 drifting and 25 moored buoys were used to determine the diurnal range of SSTs.

  7. Repetitive methylphenidate administration modulates the diurnal behavioral activity pattern of adult female SD rats. (United States)

    Lee, Min J; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Swann, Alan C; Dafny, Nachum


    Diurnal rhythms influence many of the physiological processes that act to maintain homeostasis of the body in response to different environmental changes. Thus, disturbances in diurnal rhythms can lead to various physiological complications. Repeated exposure to psychostimulants may cause long-term effects by disturbing diurnal rhythms. The aim of the present study is to use the open field assay to determine whether repeated exposure to the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD) changes diurnal locomotor activity patterns of female adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. As much as 31 female adult SD rats were divided into four groups. On experimental day (ED) 1, all groups were given an injection of saline. On ED 2-7, animals were injected once a day with either saline, or 0.6 mg/kg MPD, or 2.5 mg/kg MPD, or 10 mg/kg MPD depending on the group. On ED 8-10, no injections were given (washout period). On ED 11, animals were treated as they were on ED 2-7. Locomotor movements were recorded using a computerized animal activity monitoring system. The horizontal activity (HA), total distance traveled (TDT), and number of stereotypies (NOS) were analyzed by cosine curve statistical analysis (CCSA) test. The HA and TDT diurnal rhythm activity patterns of ED 2, 7, 8, and 11 were significantly different (p < 0.05) from the control recording of ED 1 according to the CCSA test. The observation obtained in this study suggests that repeated administration of MPD (all doses tested) is able to change diurnal locomotor patterns, which indicates that chronic MPD treatment exerts long-term effects.

  8. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler


    BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between...... retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... and 3-6 had higher PP and blunted diurnal BP variation: night PP 55 +/- 10 mm Hg, 64 +/- 10 mm Hg, 61 +/- 15 mm Hg, P groups (45 normo-, 19 micro-, and 15...

  9. Diurnal behaviour of water on Mars (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Goody, R. M.


    A numerical model of the diurnal transport of water across the Martian surface is developed. The atmospheric boundary layer is modeled in terms of local radiative-convective processes, and radiative effects of ice fogs near the surface are included. Diffusion of water in the ground is treated for the cases of adsorption and condensation. The model is applied to the diurnal variation of water vapor in the atmosphere as observed by Barker (1974). The morning rise in the amount of water vapor can be explained in terms of the evaporation of ground fogs. The evening decrease is compatible with the model if adsorption dominates in the soil. The average level of vapor concentration requires that the atmosphere above the boundary layer be relatively dry. The ground fogs persist until midmorning and should be observable. Some consequences of these conclusions are discussed.

  10. natalensis) and diurn'al (Rhabdomys pumilio)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat production by means of oxygen consumption (Vo,) was measured at different ambient temperatures (T J 6-34 °e in both species. The thermo neutral zone for both speCies was found to be at T. = 32 ± 1 °e. Below the lower critical point. Vo. for the diurnal species (R. pumilio) was significantly higher. (p

  11. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen


    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  12. The effects of diurnal Ramadan fasting on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in healthy men. (United States)

    Alsubheen, Sana'a A; Ismail, Mohammad; Baker, Alicia; Blair, Jason; Adebayo, Adeboye; Kelly, Liam; Chandurkar, Vikram; Cheema, Sukhinder; Joanisse, Denis R; Basset, Fabien A


    The study aimed to examine the effects of diurnal Ramadan fasting (RF) on substrate oxidation, energy production, blood lipids and glucose as well as body composition. Nine healthy Muslim men (fasting (FAST) group) and eight healthy non-practicing men (control (CNT) group) were assessed pre- and post-RF. FAST were additionally assessed at days 10, 20 and 30 of RF in the morning and evening. Body composition was determined by hydrodensitometry, substrate oxidation and energy production by indirect calorimetry, blood metabolic profile by biochemical analyses and energy balance by activity tracker recordings and food log analyses. A significant group×time interaction revealed that chronic RF reduced body mass and adiposity in FAST, without changing lean mass, whereas CNT subjects remained unchanged. In parallel to these findings, a significant main diurnal effect (morning v. evening) of RF on substrate oxidation (a shift towards lipid oxidation) and blood metabolic profile (a decrease in glucose and an increase in total cholesterol and TAG levels, respectively) was observed, which did not vary over the course of the Ramadan. In conclusion, although RF induces diurnal metabolic adjustments (morning v. evening), no carryover effect was observed throughout RF despite the extended daily fasting period (18·0 (sd 0·3) h) and changes in body composition.

  13. Quasi-biennial oscillation signatures in the diurnal tidal winds over Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (United States)

    de Araújo, Luciana Rodrigues; Lima, Lourivaldo Mota; Jacobi, Christoph; Batista, Paulo Prado


    Mesosphere/lower thermosphere winds obtained by meteor radar over Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W), Brazil, have been used to investigate the interannual variability of the diurnal tidal (DT) wind amplitude. The monthly DT displays year to year variations and their amplitudes are strongest during the westerly phase of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) at the 30 hPa level. This can be observed in all seasons in the meridional component, whilst in the zonal component the signal is clearer during austral autumn, when the diurnal tide is strongest in this latitude. The spectrum obtained from the deseasonalized amplitudes shows a peak near 26 months in the meridional component, which can be associated to the stratospheric QBO. The QBO modulation of the DT amplitude shows a quasi-decadal variation, and it is stronger during the maximum of the solar cycle.

  14. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A


    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  15. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  16. The retinol-binding protein receptor STRA6 regulates diurnal insulin responses. (United States)

    Gliniak, Christy M; Brown, J Mark; Noy, Noa


    It has long been appreciated that insulin action is closely tied to circadian rhythms. However, the mechanisms that dictate diurnal insulin sensitivity in metabolic tissues are not well understood. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) has been implicated as a driver of insulin resistance in rodents and humans, and it has become an attractive drug target in type II diabetes. RBP4 is synthesized primarily in the liver where it binds retinol and transports it to tissues throughout the body. The retinol-RBP4 complex (holo-RBP) can be recognized by a cell-surface receptor known as st imulated by r etinoic a cid 6 (STRA6), which transports retinol into cells. Coupled to retinol transport, holo-RBP can activate STRA6-driven Janus kinase (JAK) signaling and downstream induction of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) target genes. STRA6 signaling in white adipose tissue has been shown to inhibit insulin receptor responses. Here, we examined diurnal rhythmicity of the RBP4/STRA6 signaling axis and investigated whether STRA6 is necessary for diurnal variations in insulin sensitivity. We show that adipose tissue STRA6 undergoes circadian patterning driven in part by the nuclear transcription factor REV-ERBα. Furthermore, STRA6 is necessary for diurnal rhythmicity of insulin action and JAK/STAT signaling in adipose tissue. These findings establish that holo-RBP and its receptor STRA6 are potent regulators of diurnal insulin responses and suggest that the holo-RBP/STRA6 signaling axis may represent a novel therapeutic target in type II diabetes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Diurnal-and sex-related difference of metallothionein expression in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metallothionein (MT is a small, cysteine-rich, metal-binding protein that plays an important role in protecting against toxicity of heavy metal and chemicals. This study was aimed to define diurnal and sex variation of MT in mice. Methods Adult mice were maintained in light- and temperature-controlled facilities for 2 weeks with light on at 8:00 and light off at 20:00. The blood, liver, and kidneys were collected every 4 h during the 24 h period. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis and MT protein was determined by western blot and the Cd/hemoglobin assay. Results The diurnal variations in mRNA levels of MT-1 and MT-2in liver were dramatic, up to a 40-foldpeak/trough ratio. MT mRNA levels in kidneys and blood also showed diurnal variation, up to 5-fold peak/trough ratio. The diurnal variation of MT mRNAs resembled the clock gene albumin site D-binding protein (Dbp, and was anti-phase to the clock gene Brain and Muscle ARNT-like Protein 1 (Bmal1 in liver and kidneys. The peaks of MT mRNA levels were higher in females than in males. Hepatic MT protein followed a similar pattern, with about a 3-fold difference. Conclusion MT mRNA levels and protein showed diurnal- and sex-variation in liver, kidney, and blood of mice, which could impact the body defense against toxic stimuli.

  18. Diurnal and seasonal occurrence of polar patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rodger


    Full Text Available Analysis of the diurnal and seasonal variation of polar patches, as identified in two years of HF-radar data from Halley, Antarctica during a period near sunspot maximum, shows that there is a broad maximum in occurrence centred about magnetic noon, not local noon. There are minima in occurrence near midsummer and midwinter, with maxima in occurrence between equinox and winter. There are no significant correlations between the occurrence of polar patches and the corresponding hourly averages of the solar wind and IMF parameters, except that patches usually occur when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. The results can be understood in terms of UT and seasonal differences in the plasma concentration being convected from the dayside ionosphere into the polar cap. In summer and winter the electron concentrations in the polar cap are high and low, respectively, but relatively unstructured. About equinox, a tongue of enhanced ionisation is convected into the polar cap; this tongue is then structured by the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field, but these Halley data cannot be used to separate the various competing mechanisms for patch formation. The observed diurnal and seasonal variation in the occurrence of polar patches are largely consistent with predictions of Sojka et al. (1994 when their results are translated into the southern hemisphere. However, the ionospheric effects of flux transfer events are still considered essential in their formation, a feature not yet included in the Sojka et al. model.

  19. Deregulated power prices: comparison of diurnal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ying; Flynn, Peter C.


    We examine electrical power price, and in particular its daily and average weekday vs. weekend pattern of change, for 14 deregulated markets. Power price in deregulated markets shows fundamentally different patterns. North American markets show a monotonic diurnal weekday price pattern, while all other markets studied show more than one price peak. Deregulated power markets differ in maximum vs. minimum daily average price and in average weekday to weekend price, in turn creating a different incentive for a consumer to time shift power consuming activities. Markets differ in the extent to which a small fraction of the days shapes the average diurnal pattern and value of price. Deregulated markets show a wide variation in the correlation between load and price. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent, and hence that can encourage a customer to shape consumption behaviors. Other markets, for example South Australia, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to escape risk through hedging mechanisms

  20. Deregulated power prices: comparison of diurnal patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Li; Flynn, P.C.


    We examine electrical power price, and in particular its daily and average weekday vs. weekend pattern of change, for 14 deregulated markets. Power price in deregulated markets shows fundamentally different patterns. North American markets show a monotonic diurnal weekday price pattern, while all other markets studied show more than one price peak. Deregulated power markets differ in maximum vs. minimum daily average price and in average weekday to weekend price, in turn creating a different incentive for a consumer to time shift power consuming activities. Markets differ in the extent to which a small fraction of the days shapes the average diurnal pattern and value of price. Deregulated markets show a wide variation in the correlation between load and price. Some deregulated markets, most notably Britain and Spain, show patterns that are predictable and consistent, and hence that can encourage a customer to shape consumption behaviors. Other markets, for example South Australia, have patterns that are inconsistent and irregular, and hence are hard for a customer to interpret; a customer in such a market will have a higher incentive to escape risk through hedging mechanisms. (Author)

  1. Diurnal tides in the Arctic Ocean (United States)

    Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. Y.


    A 2D numerical model with a space grid of about 14 km is applied to calculate diurnal tidal constituents K(1) and O(1) in the Arctic Ocean. Calculated corange and cotidal charts show that along the continental slope, local regions of increased sea level amplitude, highly variable phase and enhanced currents occur. It is shown that in these local regions, shelf waves (topographic waves) of tidal origin are generated. In the Arctic Ocean and Northern Atlantic Ocean more than 30 regions of enhanced currents are identified. To prove the near-resonant interaction of the diurnal tides with the local bottom topography, the natural periods of oscillations for all regions have been calculated. The flux of energy averaged over the tidal period depicts the gyres of semitrapped energy, suggesting that the shelf waves are partially trapped over the irregularities of the bottom topography. It is shown that the occurrence of near-resonance phenomenon changes the energy flow in the tidal waves. First, the flux of energy from the astronomical sources is amplified in the shelf wave regions, and afterwards the tidal energy is strongly dissipated in the same regions.

  2. Wheel running improves REM sleep and attenuates stress-induced flattening of diurnal rhythms in F344 rats. (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Roller, Rachel; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika


    Regular physical activity produces resistance to the negative health consequences of stressor exposure. One way that exercise may confer stress resistance is by reducing the impact of stress on diurnal rhythms and sleep; disruptions of which contribute to stress-related disease including mood disorders. Given the link between diurnal rhythm disruptions and stress-related disorders and that exercise both promotes stress resistance and is a powerful non-photic biological entrainment cue, we tested if wheel running could reduce stress-induced disruptions of sleep/wake behavior and diurnal rhythms. Adult, male F344 rats with or without access to running wheels were instrumented for biotelemetric recording of diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity, heart rate, core body temperature (CBT), and sleep (i.e. REM, NREM, and WAKE) in the presence of a 12 h light/dark cycle. Following 6 weeks of sedentary or exercise conditions, rats were exposed to an acute stressor known to disrupt diurnal rhythms and produce behaviors associated with mood disorders. Prior to stressor exposure, exercise rats had higher CBT, more locomotor activity during the dark cycle, and greater %REM during the light cycle relative to sedentary rats. NREM and REM sleep were consolidated immediately following peak running to a greater extent in exercise, compared to sedentary rats. In response to stressor exposure, exercise rats expressed higher stress-induced hyperthermia than sedentary rats. Stressor exposure disrupted diurnal rhythms in sedentary rats; and wheel running reduced these effects. Improvements in sleep and reduced diurnal rhythm disruptions following stress could contribute to the health promoting and stress protective effects of exercise.

  3. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system (United States)

    Studier, F. William; Rosenberg, Alan H.


    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest.

  4. Diurnal variation and evaluation of physico-chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the magnitude of diurnal variation of physicochemical parameters and potability of the Ikpoba River. Water samples were taken from stations 1 and 2 within the Reservoir and station 3 downstream. Water quality parameters showed significant diurnal, seasonal and spatial variations.

  5. Diurnal variations from muon data at Takeyama underground station (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Imai, K.; Imai, T.; Kudo, S.; Wada, M.


    An underground station, Takeyama, is introduced, and some results of the solar diurnal and semi-diurnal variations for the period between 1967 and 1984 are presented. There are clear tendencies of double and single solar cycle variations in the daily variations which are in good accord with those detected by other underground and neutron monitor observations.

  6. Characteristics of diurnal pattern of global photosynthetically-active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year data (September 1992 August 1994) on photosynhetically-active radiation (PAR) measured at Ilorin (Lat.: 832´N. Long.:434´E) using LI-190SA quantum sensor are analysed both on daily and monthly mean diurnal bases. This was done with the aim of characterizing the diurnal pattern of this radiation at this ...

  7. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)


    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  8. Diurnal patterns of branch movement in a desert shrub (Larrea tridentata) track hydraulic stress (United States)

    Hallmark, A.


    Near-surface, repeat digital photography has emerged as a powerful tool to collect continuous observations of plant traits of individuals and communities across daily, seasonal, and annual time scales. To date, this technology has largely been used to detect patterns of vegetative phenology or "canopy greenness." Little work has been done to use digital photographs to quantify changes in canopy structure or shifts in canopy function on shorter time scales. In this study, we tracked the position of creosote (Larrea tridentata) branches using a timeseries of photos taken in a creosote-dominated shrubland in central New Mexico, USA where radiation, temperature, humidity, soil water content, soil water potential, and stem water potential were also measured. We found that both living and dead woody branches displayed dramatic diurnal patterns of movement, with shrubs only 1-2 m in height sometimes undergoing vertical shifts in branch position of over 0.25 m and changes in branch angle of over 20 degrees. Although circadian rhythms in plants are often attributed to cyclical patterns of photoperiod or temperature, we found that creosote branch movements were best correlated with diurnal changes in stem water potential and atmospheric humidity and that this correlation was stronger under wetter soil conditions. Branches were straighter and oriented in higher positions in times of low hydraulic stress, possibly preparing the creosote to better capture moisture via stemflow. Branches were oriented lower to the ground in times of high hydraulic stress, possibly providing more shade and reducing soil evaporation beneath the base of the shrub. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe diurnal patterns of branch movements in creosote and is the most extensive dataset of observations of diurnal movements in any woody plant. It provides more knowledge about the biology of a desert shrub, but also offers novel methods for using repeat digital photography to gain

  9. Characterisation and quantification of regional diurnal SST cycles from SEVIRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, J.L.


    Hourly SST (sea surface temperature) fields from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) offer a unique opportunity for the characterisation and quantification of the diurnal cycle of SST in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the northern European shelf....... The different methodologies tested for the foundation temperature fields reveal variability introduced by averaging night-time SSTs over many days compared to single-day, pre-dawn values. Diurnal warming is most pronounced in the Mediterranean and Baltic seas while weaker diurnal signals are found...... in the tropics. Longer diurnal warming duration is identified in the high latitudes compared to the tropics. The maximum monthly mean diurnal signal can be up to 0.5K in specific regions....

  10. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro


    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  11. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason


    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  12. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina


    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  13. Diurnal cloud cycle biases in climate models. (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Porporato, Amilcare


    Clouds' efficiency at reflecting solar radiation and trapping the terrestrial radiation is strongly modulated by the diurnal cycle of clouds (DCC). Much attention has been paid to mean cloud properties due to their critical role in climate projections; however, less research has been devoted to the DCC. Here we quantify the mean, amplitude, and phase of the DCC in climate models and compare them with satellite observations and reanalysis data. While the mean appears to be reliable, the amplitude and phase of the DCC show marked inconsistencies, inducing overestimation of radiation in most climate models. In some models, DCC appears slightly shifted over the ocean, likely as a result of tuning and fortuitously compensating the large DCC errors over the land. While this model tuning does not seem to invalidate climate projections because of the limited DCC response to global warming, it may potentially increase the uncertainty of climate predictions.

  14. Diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal structures due to O2, O3 and H2O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from World Meteorological Organization (WMO. 1986), while the Rayleigh scattering cross section was calculated using the formula of Nicolet (1984). ..... Figure 5(a) exhibits the exponential growth of diurnal amplitude with altitude, at low to mid lat- itudes. At high latitudes, the diurnal amplitude decreases with altitude due to ...

  15. Polyplanar optical display electronics (United States)

    DeSanto, Leonard; Biscardi, Cyrus


    The polyplanar optical display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid- state laser at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real- time video, the laser light is being modulated by a digital light processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the digital micromirror device (DMD) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. We discuss the operation of the DMD divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD board with various video formats including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  16. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology


    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  17. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.


    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  18. Impact of land convection on temperature diurnal variation in the tropical lower stratosphere inferred from COSMIC GPS radio occultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Khaykin


    Full Text Available Following recent studies evidencing the influence of deep convection on the chemical composition and thermal structure of the tropical lower stratosphere, we explore its impact on the temperature diurnal variation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the high-resolution COSMIC GPS radio-occultation temperature measurements spanning from 2006 through 2011. The temperature in the lowermost stratosphere over land during summer displays a marked diurnal cycle characterized by an afternoon cooling. This diurnal cycle is shown collocated with most intense land convective areas observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM precipitation radar and in phase with the maximum overshooting occurrence frequency in late afternoon. Two processes potentially responsible for that are identified: (i non-migrating tides, whose physical nature is internal gravity waves, and (ii local cross-tropopause mass transport of adiabatically cooled air by overshooting turrets. Although both processes can contribute, only the lofting of adiabatically cooled air is well captured by models, making it difficult to characterize the contribution of non-migrating tides. The impact of deep convection on the temperature diurnal cycle is found larger in the southern tropics, suggesting more vigorous convection over clean rain forest continents than desert areas and polluted continents in the northern tropics.

  19. Diurnal changes in ocean color sensed in satellite imagery (United States)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermuelen, Ryan; Soto, Inia; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Yang, Haoping


    Measurements of diurnal changes in ocean color in turbid coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (aerosol robotic network-WaveCIS CSI-06) site that can provide 8 to 10 observations per day. Satellite capability to detect diurnal changes in ocean color was characterized using hourly overlapping afternoon orbits of the visual infrared imaging radiometer suite (VIIRS) Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership ocean color sensor and validated with in situ observations. The monthly cycle of diurnal changes was investigated for different water masses using VIIRS overlaps. Results showed the capability of satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in coastal regions that can be impacted by vertical movement of optical layers, in response to tides, resuspension, and river plume dispersion. The spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes showed the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooming and decaying processes. The diurnal change in ocean color was above 20%, which represents a 30% change in chlorophyll-a. Seasonal changes in diurnal ocean color for different water masses suggest differences in summer and winter responses to surface processes. The diurnal changes observed using satellite ocean color can be used to define the following: surface processes associated with biological activity, vertical changes in optical depth, and advection of water masses.

  20. Microlaser-based displays (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.


    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  1. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  2. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  3. Diurnal cortisol rhythms in Tsimane' Amazonian foragers: new insights into ecological HPA axis research. (United States)

    Nyberg, Colleen H


    Although a growing body of research has documented important pathways by which the HPA axis mediates the interface between the psychosocial world and individual health, there is a paucity of data from nonwestern populations, particularly from those populations with distinct nutritional and infectious disease ecologies. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to document variation in diurnal cortisol rhythms among the Tsimane', a remote population in the Bolivian Amazon, (2) to explore this variation by age and by gender, and (3) to compare diurnal rhythms from this study to other population based studies of cortisol conducted in industrialized nations. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice daily, immediately upon waking and before bed, for three consecutive days from 303 participants (age 1.6-82 years, 1564 samples) in conjunction with the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS). Cortisol rhythms showed strong age effects across the developmental span, with basal levels and slopes increasing into adulthood, although individuals older than 60 years demonstrated a precipitous flattening of the diurnal slope. Cortisol profiles were elevated in adult females compared to their age-matched male counterparts, and diurnal slopes, as well as mean cortisol concentrations among the Tsimane' were the lowest reported in any population based study of HPA axis function. Although the within-population variation in cortisol profiles was consistent with the established correlates of time of day, age, and sex, the between-population comparisons revealed dramatically lower levels of HPA activity among the Tsimane'. This study provides a benchmark against which to reference cortisol levels from industrialized populations, and expands the range of documented variation in HPA axis function in a nonwestern context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure under dehydration due to fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Baser


    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations under dehydration conditions and the relationship between the intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure. Methods: The intraocular pressures (IOP, body weights, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP of 36 fasting healthy volunteers were recorded at 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. in the Ramadan of 2014 and two weeks after it. The data were analyzed using paired Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: As the results demonstrated, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were 2.67±1.33 mmHg, 9.44±8.02 mmHg, 3.33±5.94 mmHg, and 0.90±0.46 kg during the fasting period, respectively. In addition, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were -0.33±1.4 mmHg (P=0.001, 0.55±7.25mmHg (P=0.003, -3.33±5.94 mmHg (P=0.001, and 0.12±0.45 kg (P=0.001 during the control period, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the diurnal IOP and SBP differences (r=0.517, P=0.028. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the current study, the total fluid volume might have a more dominant effect on IOP peaks than the sympathetic system activity. Furthermore, the SBP was found to correlate with the IOP.

  5. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.


    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  6. Small - Display Cartography


    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen; Brodersen, Lars


    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld...

  7. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper


    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  8. An unusual kind of diurnal streamflow variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas Jaime G.


    Full Text Available During hydrological research in a Chilean swamp forest, we noted a pattern of higher streamflows close to midday and lower ones close to midnight, the opposite of an evapotranspiration (Et-driven cycle. We analyzed this diurnal streamflow signal (DSS, which appeared mid-spring (in the growing season. The end of this DSS coincided with a sustained rain event in autumn, which deeply affected stream and meteorological variables. A survey along the stream revealed that the DSS maximum and minimum values appeared 6 and 4 hours earlier, respectively, at headwaters located in the mountain forests/ plantations than at the control point in the swamp forest. Et in the swamp forest was higher in the morning and in the late afternoon, but this process could not influence the groundwater stage. Trees in the mountain headwaters reached their maximum Ets in the early morning and/or close to midday. Our results suggest that the DSS is a wave that moves from forests high in the mountains towards lowland areas, where Et is decoupled from the DSS. This signal delay seems to convert the link between streamflow and Et in an apparent, but spurious positive relationship. It also highlights the role of landscape heterogeneity in shaping hydrological processes.

  9. Bats as prey of diurnal birds: a global perspective.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikula, P.; Morelli, Federico; Lučan, R. K.; Jones, D. N.; Tryjanowski, P.


    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2016), s. 160-174 ISSN 0305-1838 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : avian predation hypothesis * bats * diurnal birds * nocturnality * predation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.286, year: 2016

  10. Diurnal variation of tropospheric temperature at a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Revathy


    Full Text Available The vertical velocity in the troposphere-lower stratosphere region measured using MST radar has been utilized to evaluate the temperature profile in the region. The diurnal variation of the tropospheric temperature on one day in August 1998 at the tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E has been studied using the MST radar technique. The diurnal variation of the temperature revealed a prominent diurnal variation with the peak in the afternoon hours increasingly delayed in altitude. The tropopause temperature and altitude exhibited a clear diurnal cycle.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere - composition and chemistry; instruments and technique

  11. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein


    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  12. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * DICHROIC DYES * Chemical Structure * Chemical and Photochemical Stability * THEORETICAL MODELLING * DEFECTS CAUSED BY PROLONGED LIGHT IRRADIATION * CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PHOTOSTABILITY * OTHER PARAMETERS AFFECTING PHOTOSTABILITY * CELL PREPARATION * DICHROIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Of Dyes * Absorbance, Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Measurements * IMPACT OF DYE STRUCTURE AND LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A DICHROIC MIXTURE * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio * EFFECT OF LENGTH OF DICHROIC DYES ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE BREADTH OF DYE ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE HOST ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE ORDER PARAMETER OF DYES IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST * IMPACT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * Temperature Range * Viscosity * Dielectric Constant and Anisotropy * Refractive Indices and Birefringence * solubility43,153-156 * Absorption Wavelength and Auxochromic Groups * Molecular Engineering of Dichroic Dyes * OPTICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND LIFE PARAMETERS * Colour And CIE Colour space120,160-166 * CIE 1931 COLOUR SPACE * CIE 1976 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * CIE UNIFORM COLOUR SPACES & COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE120,160-166 * Electro-Optical Parameters120 * LUMINANCE * CONTRAST AND CONTRAST RATIO * SWITCHING SPEED * Life Parameters and Failure Modes * DICHROIC MIXTURE FORMULATION * Monochrome Mixture * Black Mixture * ACHROMATIC BLACK MIXTURE FOR HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Effect of Illuminant on Display Colour * Colour of the Field-On State * Effect of Dye Linewidth * Optimum Centroid Wavelengths * Effect of Dye Concentration * Mixture Formulation Using More Than Three Dyes * ACHROMATIC MIXTURE FOR WHITE-TAYLOR TYPE DISPLAYS * HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Theoretical Modelling * Threshold Characteristic * Effects of Dye Concentration on Electro-optical Parameters * Effect of Cholesteric Doping * Effect of Alignment

  13. Stereo Painting Display Devices (United States)

    Shafer, David


    The Spanish Surrealist artist Salvador Dali has recently perfected the art of producing two paintings which are stereo pairs. Each painting is separately quite remarkable, presenting a subject with the vivid realism and clarity for which Dali is famous. Due to the surrealistic themes of Dali's art, however, the subjects preser.ted with such naturalism only exist in his imagination. Despite this considerable obstacle to producing stereo art, Dali has managed to paint stereo pairs that display subtle differences of coloring and lighting, in addition to the essential perspective differences. These stereo paintings require a display method that will allow the viewer to experience stereo fusion, but which will not degrade the high quality of the art work. This paper gives a review of several display methods that seem promising in terms of economy, size, adjustability, and image quality.

  14. Body Weight - Multiple Languages (United States)

    ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Body Weight - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... PDF Health Information Translations Spanish (español) Expand Section Body Weight: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  15. Effect of static and dynamic stretching on the diurnal variations of jump performance in soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Chtourou

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study addressed the lack of data on the effect of different types of stretching on diurnal variations in vertical jump height - i.e., squat-jump (SJ and countermovement-jump (CMJ. We hypothesized that dynamic stretching could affect the diurnal variations of jump height by producing a greater increase in short-term maximal performance in the morning than the evening through increasing core temperature at this time-of-day. METHODS: Twenty male soccer players (age, 18.6±1.3 yrs; height, 174.6±3.8 cm; body-mass, 71.1±8.6 kg; mean ± SD completed the SJ and CMJ tests either after static stretching, dynamic stretching or no-stretching protocols at two times of day, 07:00 h and 17:00 h, with a minimum of 48 hours between testing sessions. One minute after warming-up for 5 minutes by light jogging and performing one of the three stretching protocols (i.e., static stretching, dynamic stretching or no-stretching for 8 minutes, each subject completed the SJ and CMJ tests. Jumping heights were recorded and analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (3 [stretching]×2 [time-of-day]. RESULTS: The SJ and CMJ heights were significantly higher at 17:00 than 07:00 h (p<0.01 after the no-stretching protocol. These daily variations disappeared (i.e., the diurnal gain decreased from 4.2±2.81% (p<0.01 to 1.81±4.39% (not-significant for SJ and from 3.99±3.43% (p<0.01 to 1.51±3.83% (not-significant for CMJ after dynamic stretching due to greater increases in SJ and CMJ heights in the morning than the evening (8.4±6.36% vs. 4.4±2.64%, p<0.05 for SJ and 10.61±5.49% vs. 6.03±3.14%, p<0.05 for CMJ. However, no significant effect of static stretching on the diurnal variations of SJ and CMJ heights was observed. CONCLUSION: Dynamic stretching affects the typical diurnal variations of SJ and CMJ and helps to counteract the lower morning values in vertical jump height.

  16. Drivers license display system (United States)

    Prokoski, Francine J.


    Carjackings are only one of a growing class of law enforcement problems associated with increasingly violent crimes and accidents involving automobiles plays weapons, drugs and alcohol. Police traffic stops have become increasingly dangerous, with an officer having no information about a vehicle's potentially armed driver until approaching him. There are 15 million alcoholics in the US and 90 percent of them have drivers licenses. Many of them continue driving even after their licenses have ben revoked or suspended. There are thousands of unlicensed truck drivers in the country, and also thousands who routinely exceed safe operating periods without rest; often using drugs in an attempt to stay alert. MIKOS has developed the Drivers License Display Systems to reduce these and other related risks. Although every state requires the continuous display of vehicle registration information on every vehicle using public roads, no state yet requires the display of driver license information. The technology exists to provide that feature as an add-on to current vehicles for nominal cost. An initial voluntary market is expected to include: municipal, rental, and high value vehicles which are most likely to be mis-appropriated. It is anticipated that state regulations will eventually require such systems in the future, beginning with commercial vehicles, and then extending to high risk drivers and eventually all vehicles. The MIKOS system offers a dual-display approach which can be deployed now, and which will utilize all existing state licenses without requiring standardization.

  17. ATV: Image display tool (United States)

    Barth, Aaron J.; Schlegel, David; Finkbeiner, Doug; Colley, Wesley; Liu, Mike; Brauher, Jim; Cunningham, Nathaniel; Perrin, Marshall; Roe, Henry; Weaver, Hal


    ATV displays and analyses astronomical images using the IDL image-processing language. It allows interactive control of the image scaling, color table, color stretch, and zoom, with support for world coordinate systems. It also does point-and-click aperture photometry, simple spectral extractions, and can produce publication-quality postscript output images.

  18. Digital Holography Display (2) (United States)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Asundi, A.; Yu, Yang; Xiao, Zhen Zhong

    This paper describes the extension work from the last Digital Holography Projector System. From the developed works shows that, some unforeseen factors have created the difficulties for the system alignment. Such factors are the DMD frame rate, light source and diffractive zero order. It is really the challenging development works to achieve the virtual 3D model display on the high speed rotation screen. The three most key factors are emphasizing: 1) The display device's frame rate; 2) The light source orientation angle; and 3) The zero order filtering optic. 1) This device's is the digital micro mirror, in short is DMD. It is the high speed switching device has developed by the most recent technology. The switching frame rate can go up as high as 291fps. At first, the 8 bits depth file must be digitalized and stored for DMD onboard Ram. The digitalized data are transmitting from the PC USB to DMD onboard Ram. Instead of the data are downloading directly from the PC to DVI or VGA during display, this downloading method cause slower down the display speed, which is the common frame rate of 30 Hz. Next, the onboard Ram data then transfer to the DMD mirror's for display, at the 8 bits 291 fps speed. At this frame rate, the display 2D image can almost cover for 10 of out of the 360 0 in 1 revolution. 2) This laser light source must be installed such that free for orientated in any arbitrary angle from 220 to 450. Which is normalized to the DMD mirrors and the brief sketch show on figure (a). The purpose of orientated the light source is ensure that multi diffractive order would be reflected straight from the mirrors. (This multi diffractive order is the phenomenon of the digital micro mirror's characteristic). This mean, the reconstruct images would be followed the DMD normalized direction reflected up to fibre conduit. Moreover, this orientated method install of the laser light source is making space for other optical lenses or device driver/controller. Because, all

  19. Presenting directions with a vibrotactile torso display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van


    Vibrotactile displays covering the torso present spatial information in an intuitive way since the stimuli are directly mapped to the body coordinates; left is left, front is front, etc. The present study investigated the direction in the horizontal plane to which a specific torso location is mapped

  20. Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts


    Full Text Available We show the annual climatology of the diurnal cycle, stratified by opaque cloud, using the full hourly resolution of the Canadian Prairie data. The opaque cloud field itself has distinct cold and warm season diurnal climatologies; with a near-sunrise peak of cloud in the cold season and an early afternoon peak in the warm season. There are two primary climate states on the Canadian Prairies, separated by the freezing point of water, because a reflective surface snow cover acts as a climate switch. Both cold and warm season climatologies can be seen in the transition months of November, March and April with a large difference in mean temperature. In the cold season with snow, the diurnal ranges of temperature and relative humidity increase quasi-linearly with decreasing cloud, and increase from December to March with increased solar forcing. The warm season months, April to September, show a homogeneous coupling to the cloud cover, and a diurnal cycle of temperature and humidity that depends only on net longwave. Our improved representation of the diurnal cycle shows that the warm season coupling between diurnal temperature range and net longwave is weakly quadratic through the origin, rather than the linear coupling shown in earlier papers. We calculate the conceptually important 24-h imbalances of temperature and relative humidity (and other thermodynamic variables as a function of opaque cloud cover. In the warm season under nearly clear skies, there is a warming of +2oC and a drying of -6% over the 24-h cycle, which is about 12% of their diurnal ranges. We summarize results on conserved variable diagrams and explore the impact of surface windspeed on the diurnal cycle in the cold and warm seasons. In all months, the fall in minimum temperature is reduced with increasing windspeed, which reduces the diurnal temperature range. In July and August, there is an increase of afternoon maximum temperature and humidity at low windspeeds, and a

  1. Specific diurnal EMG activity pattern observed in occlusal collapse patients: relationship between diurnal bruxism and tooth loss progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehisa Kawakami

    Full Text Available AIM: The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group, six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group, and six young control subjects (YC group were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. RESULTS: Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (p<0.01. ROC curve analysis suggested that the number of diurnal phasic episodes might be used to predict bite collapsing tooth loss. CONCLUSION: Extensive bite loss might be related to diurnal masticatory muscle parafunction but not to parafunction during sleep. CLINICAL RELEVANCE SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR STUDY: Although mandibular parafunction has been implicated in stomatognathic system breakdown, a causal relationship has not been established because scientific modalities to evaluate parafunctional activity have been lacking. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used a newly developed EMG recording system that evaluates masseter muscle activity throughout the day. Our results challenge the stereotypical idea of nocturnal bruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for

  2. Progress in Research on Diurnal and Semidiurnal Earth Rotation Change (United States)

    Xu, Xueqing


    We mainly focus on the progress of research on high frequency changes in the earth rotation. Firstly, we review the development course and main motivating factors of the diurnal and semidiurnal earth rotation change. In recent decades, earth orientation has been monitored with increasing accuracy by advanced space-geodetic techniques, including lunar and satellite laser ranging, very long baseline interferometry and the global positioning system. We are able to obtain the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP, polar motion and rotation rate changes) by even 1 to 2 hours observation data, form which obvious diurnal and semidiurnal signals can be detected, and compare them with the predicted results by the ocean model. Both the amplitude and phase are in good agreement in the main diurnal and semidiurnal wave frequency, especially for the UT1, whose compliance is 90%, and 60% for polar motion, there are 30% motivating factor of the diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion have not been identified. Then we comprehensively review the different types of global ocean tidal correction models since the last eighties century, as well as the application research on diurnal and semidiurnal polar motion and UT1, the current ocean tidal correction models have 10% to 20% uncertainty, and need for further refinement.

  3. Unsolicited displays of insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Catherine E.


    This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part...... in these activities in small groups together with a specialized preschool teacher. One pervasive feature of this kind of data is the ongoing orientation to, and guidance from the adult towards the children on what the main business of their interaction is - what they relevantly are doing. In this light, the paper......: Unsolicited displays may lead to side sequences, they may lead to a shift in the main business of the talk, or they may be explicitly or implicitly ignored. The paper discusses whether and how these unsolicited displays of understanding then can be thought of as leading to opportunities for (language...

  4. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per


    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  5. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  6. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Orby, P.V.; Skjoth, C. A.


    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  7. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langel, Jennifer L; Smale, Laura; Esquiva, Gema


    The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsica......The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells...... projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), pretectum, and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed...... in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical....

  8. SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extent & Implications in Atmospheric Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.


    The project Sea Surface Temperature Diurnal Variability: Regional Extent and Implications in Atmospheric Modeling (SSTDV: R.EX.- IM.A.M.) was initiated within the framework of the European Space Agency's Support to Science Element (ESA STSE). The main focus is twofold: i) to characterize...... and quantify regional diurnal warming from the experimental MSG/SEVIRI hourly SST fields, for the period 2006-2012. ii) To investigate the impact of the increased SST temporal resolution in the atmospheric model WRF, in terms of modeled 10-m winds and surface heat fluxes. Withing this context, 3 main tasks...... SST variability on atmospheric modeling is the prime goal of the third and final task. This will be examined by increasing the temporal resolution of the SST initial conditions in WRF and by evaluating the WRF included diurnal scheme. Validation of the modeled winds will be performed against 10m ASAR...

  9. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display (United States)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.


    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  10. Diurnal Salivary Alpha-amylase Dynamics among Dementia Family Caregivers (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Granger, Douglas A.; Kim, Kyungmin; Klein, Laura C.; Almeida, David M.; Zarit, Steven H.


    Objective The study examined diurnal regulation of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) in association with daily stressors, adult day services (ADS) use, and other caregiving characteristics. Methods A sample of 165 family caregivers of individuals with dementia (IWD) completed an 8-day diary study. Caregivers provided 5 saliva samples across the 8 days. On some days, caregivers provided all or most of the care. On other days, their relative attended ADS for part of the day. A 3-level unconditional linear spline model was fit to describe the typical sAA diurnal rhythms. Predictors were then added to the unconditional model to test the hypotheses on ADS use and daily stressors. Results Daily ADS use did not have an effect on diurnal sAA regulation. However, controlling for daily ADS use, greater ADS use over the 8 days was associated with a more prominent rise between 30 minutes after wake-up and before lunch, and a more prominent decline between before lunch and late afternoon. Fewer ADS days were associated with a more flattened sAA diurnal rhythm. Additionally, greater daily care-related stressor exposures had a within-person association with lower sAA levels in the late afternoon. Care-related stressor exposures had significant within- and between-person associations with sAA diurnal slopes. Furthermore, daily positive experiences had a significant between-person association with sAA diurnal slopes. Conclusions Caring for a disabled family member may heighten the vulnerability to potential physiological conditions. Respite from care stressors from ADS use may have some biobehavioral benefits on sAA regulations. PMID:27786517

  11. Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Diurnal/Circadian Transcriptomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Boyle

    Full Text Available From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its connection to help regulate diurnal physiology. One potential reason is the sheer size of the output network. Diurnal/circadian transcriptomic studies are reporting that around 10% of the expressed genome is rhythmically controlled. Zebrafish is an important model system for the study of the core circadian mechanism in vertebrate. As Zebrafish share more than 70% of its genes with human, it could also be an additional model in addition to rodent for exploring the diurnal/circadian output with potential for translational relevance. Here we performed comparative diurnal/circadian transcriptome analysis with established mouse liver and other tissue datasets. First, by combining liver tissue sampling in a 48h time series, transcription profiling using oligonucleotide arrays and bioinformatics analysis, we profiled rhythmic transcripts and identified 2609 rhythmic genes. The comparative analysis revealed interesting features of the output network regarding number of rhythmic genes, proportion of tissue specific genes and the extent of transcription factor family expression. Undoubtedly, the Zebrafish model system will help identify new vertebrate outputs and their regulators and provides leads for further characterization of the diurnal cis-regulatory network.

  12. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes. (United States)

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P


    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore


    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  14. The global surface composition of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus by Rosetta/VIRTIS. II) Diurnal and seasonal variability (United States)

    Ciarniello, M.; Raponi, A.; Capaccioni, F.; Filacchione, G.; Tosi, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Kappel, D.; Rousseau, B.; Arnold, G.; Capria, M. T.; Barucci, M. A.; Quirico, E.; Longobardo, A.; Kuehrt, E.; Mottola, S.; Erard, S.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Leyrat, C.; Migliorini, A.; Zinzi, A.; Palomba, E.; Schmitt, B.; Piccioni, G.; Cerroni, P.; Ip, W.-H.; Rinaldi, G.; Salatti, M.


    VIRTIS-M observations of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko acquired from 2014 August to 2015 May have been analysed to investigate surface temporal variability at both seasonal and diurnal scales. The measured reflectance spectra are studied by means of comet spectral indicators (CSI) such as slopes in the visible and infrared ranges, and 3.2 μm band area and band centre. CSI maps derived from data acquired at different heliocentric distances (from 3.62 to 1.72 au) along the inbound leg of the comet's orbit are used to infer surface water ice abundance. We measure a global scale enrichment of water ice from 2014 August to 2015 May across the body of the comet, along with variability at small spatial scale, possibly related with the local insolation conditions. Analysis of water ice diurnal variability is performed on 2014 August observations. Water ice appears at the border of receding shadows in the neck of the comet (Hapi), sublimating in less than 1 h, after exposure to sunlight. As similar variability is not observed in other regions of the comet, we interpreted this as the expression of a diurnal cycle of sublimation and re-condensation of water ice, triggered by sudden shadowing produced on the neck by the body and the head of the nucleus.

  15. [Development and research of temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display]. (United States)

    Fan, Shounian; Jiang, Chenxi; Cai, Yunchang; Pan, Yangzhong; Yang, Tianhe; Wu, Qiang; Zheng, Yaxi; Liu, Xiaoqiao; Li, Shiying


    A temporary demand pacemaker with electrocardiosignal display is introduced in this paper. Double way low-noise electrocardiosignal preamplifier, amplitude limiter, high and low pass filter, 50 Hz notch filter, TTL level generator and stimulating pulse formation circuit are components of the hardware electrocircuit. The demand pacing and the electrocardiosignal display are separately controlled by the software in which the double microcontrollers communications technique is used. In this study, liquid crystal display is firstly used in body surface electrocardiosignal display or intracardial electrophysiologic signal display when the temporary demand pacemaker is installed and put into use. The machine has proven clinically useful and can be of wide appliation.

  16. The moderating role of meaning in life in the relationship between perceived stress and diurnal cortisol. (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Kozusznik, Malgorzata W


    Previous studies have suggested that meaning in life may buffer the negative effects of stress. This study is the first to investigate the moderating role of meaning in life in the relationship between the perception of stress and diurnal cortisol in two independent samples of healthy adults. In study 1 (n = 172, men = 82, women = 90, age range = 21-55 years, mean age = 37.58 years), the results of moderated regression analyses revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between overall perceived stress in the past month and both diurnal cortisol levels (area-under-the-curve with respect to the ground; AUCg) and the diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) only in individuals with low levels of meaning in life conceptualized as the degree to which one engages in activities that are personally valued and important. In study 2 (n = 259, men = 125, women = 134, age range = 18-54 years, mean age = 29.06 years), we found a non-significant interaction term between meaning in life conceptualized as having goals and a sense of excitement regarding one's future and perception of stress in a model of both adjusted AUCg and DCS. The results were independent of age, sex, body mass index, education, and race. The results shed light on the importance and the complexity of the construct of meaning in life and offer a possible explanation for why some people who face stressors may be more vulnerable than others to developing stress-related health problems.

  17. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska


    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  18. Imbalance in the diurnal salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio in men with severe obstructive sleep apnea: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mihaela Ghiciuc

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The complex relationship between sleep disorders and hormones could lead to alterations in the production of cortisol and testosterone in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal trajectories of salivary free-testosterone, free-cortisol and their ratio (T/C. METHODS: Ten subjects newly diagnosed with OSA, based on nocturnal polysomnography evaluation and excessive daytime sleepiness, and seven matched controls were consecutively recruited. Cortisol and testosterone were measured in salivary samples collected upon awakening, at noon and in the evening. The psychometric evaluation of anxiety/depression and referred sexual function disturbances was performed to evaluate the presence of neuropsychological comorbidities. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The main finding was that OSA subjects displayed hypocortisolism upon awakening and a significant reduction in testosterone concentration in the evening in comparison with the control group, which has maintained the physiological testosterone and cortisol diurnal fluctuation, with higher hormone concentrations in the morning and lower concentrations in the evening. The use of data from multiple diurnal measurements rather than a single point allowed the detection of T/C ratio changes of opposite signs at the beginning and end of the day: the OSA subjects had a higher T/C ratio than the controls in the morning, while their T/C ratio was significantly lower than that of the controls in the evening. The imbalances in the anabolic-catabolic diurnal equilibrium suggest that OSA is associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, potentially an underlying cause of some of the neuropsychological comorbidities observed in OSA patients.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LIS 0.1 Degree Very High Resolution Gridded Lightning Diurnal Climatology (VHRDC) dataset consists of gridded diurnal climatologies of total lightning flash...

  20. Daytime passerine migrants over the Sahara — are these diurnal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When crossing the Sahara it was expected that nocturnal migrants would continue their flight into the day. We investigated whether migration taking place in the Sahara during daytime comprises the normal diurnal migrant species or the nocturnal ones prolonging their flight into the day. Birds departing from the Sahel in ...

  1. Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 119; Issue 5. Diurnal ... North American Mesoscale (NAM)model forecasts for the summers of 2004 to 2006 were evaluated using observations. ... This feature is attributed to model physics not capturing cloud –radiation interaction processes dominant during nights.

  2. Diurnal Fluctuations in Rectal Temperature of Sahel Goats During ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were performed on 10 adult Sahel goats with the aim of determining their diurnal temperature fluctuations during the hot dry season. The rectal temperatures (RT) were recorded with a standard clinical thermometer every hour from 06:00 to 19:00 hours. The RT of goats rose gradually from its minimum value of ...

  3. Diurnal Fluctuations in Rectal Temperature of Local Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were performed on 10 local Chickens with the aim of determining their diurnal temperature fluctuations during the hot dry season (April) in Maiduguri, Borno State. The rectal temperatures (RT) were recorded with a standard clinical thermometer every hour from 06.00 to 19.00 hours. The RT of the chickens rose ...

  4. Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region. 591. Figure 16. WRF forecast local 10 m winds for 1900 Z on 10 August 2001. the analysis should be done with more stations to draw a more robust conclusion on the success of the NAM model. 5. Numerical simulation of convection,. 9–11 August 2001.

  5. 40 CFR 86.133-96 - Diurnal emission test. (United States)


    ... Section 86.133-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... emissions from the running loss and hot soak tests is not required as preparation for the diurnal emission... analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1233-96 - Diurnal emission test. (United States)


    ... Section 86.1233-96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... emissions from the running loss and hot soak tests is not required as preparation for the diurnal emission... analysis. If the 4-minute sample period is inadequate to collect a sample of sufficient concentration to...

  7. Heliospheric Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays; Diurnal Variability Abstract Details (United States)

    Kalu, D. F.; Okpala, K. C.


    We have studied the variability of Cosmic rays flux during solar quiet days at mid and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. By using the five (5) quietest days for each month and the five disturbed days for each month, the monthly mean diurnal variation of cosmic ray anisotropy have been derived for the period 1999-2015, which covers part of cycles 23, and cycle 24. This study seeks to understand the heliospheric contribution to the variation of these Cosmic rays on quietest days, three stations (Inuvik, Moscow, Rome) Neutron Monitors were employed. This study seeks to understand the important features of the high latitude and mid latitude diurnal wave, and how solar and geomagnetic activity may be influencing the wave characteristics. Cosmic ray wave characteristics were obtained by discrete Fourier transform (DFT). The mean, diurnal amplitude, phase and dispersion for each month's diurnal wave were calculated and profiled. There was clear indication that the terrestrial effect on the variability of the monthly mean was more associated with geomagnetic activity rather than rigidity of the cosmic rays. Correlation of the time series of these wave characteristic with solar and geomagnetic activity index showed better association with solar activity.

  8. Diurnal and Night Change in Greenhouse's Microclimatic Condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data of climate parameters were collected and analyzed to determine night and diurnal change of solar radiation, air temperature and humidity inside greenhouse, temperature and humidity difference between inside and outside air of a greenhouse, the temperature difference between the soil and the inside air and the ...

  9. Modelling the diurnal variability of SST and its vertical extent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.; Donlon, Craig J.


    of the water column where most of the heat is absorbed and where the exchange of heat and momentum with the atmosphere occurs. During day-time and under favourable conditions of low winds and high insolation, diurnal warming of the upper layer poses challenges for validating and calibrating satellite sensors...

  10. Diurnal dynamics of water quality parameters in an aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recirculating greenwater aquaculture technology is an appropriate method for producing commercial quantities of tilapia in areas where water is scarce. Greenwater systems achieve better fish production, more than 90% water recycling and nutrient utilization. This study was designed to address the diurnal dynamics of ...

  11. Diurnal Variation in the Basal Emission Rate of Isoprene (United States)

    Jennifer Funk; Clive G. Jones; Christine J. Baker; Heather M. Fuller; Christian P. Giardina; Manuel T. Lerdua


    Isoprene is emitted from numerous plant species and profoundly influences tropospheric chemistry. Due to the short lifetime of isoprene in the atmosphere, developing an understanding of emission patterns at small time scales is essential for modeling regional atmospheric chemistry processes. Previous studies suggest that diurnal fluctuations in isoprene emission may be...

  12. Diurnal Effects on Serum Testosterone and Spermiogram of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has shown that there are diurnal effects on serum testosterone concentrations. We therefore suggest that these effects be taken into consideration during natural breeding program(s) as sexual activity or increased libido is probably better expressed during the cooler periods of the day. Nigerian Veterinary Journal ...

  13. Sleep EEG spectral analysis in a diurnal rodent : Eutamias sibiricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    1. Sleep was studied in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus, chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes. Analysis of the distribution of wakefulness, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over the 24 h period (LD 12:12) showed that total sleep time was 27.5%

  14. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenie van den Engel-Hoek; Johanna Kalf; Bastiaan Bloem; George Borm; Machiel Zwarts; Bert de Swart; Marten Munneke


    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  15. Ecological consequences of diurnal flooding in tidal freshwater wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, A.; Wassen, M.J.


    Diurnal flooding can be observed in the upper end of tidal estuaries, where flooding water originating from the river is constantly fresh. Here, the input from the river is confronted with a tidal wave, so that the sand banks, mud flats, low and high marshes and tidal forests are flooded mostly

  16. 3D display system using monocular multiview displays (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Saruta, Kazuki; Takeda, Kazutoki


    A 3D head mounted display (HMD) system is useful for constructing a virtual space. The authors have researched the virtual-reality systems connected with computer networks for real-time remote control and developed a low-priced real-time 3D display for building these systems. We developed a 3D HMD system using monocular multi-view displays. The 3D displaying technique of this monocular multi-view display is based on the concept of the super multi-view proposed by Kajiki at TAO (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan) in 1996. Our 3D HMD has two monocular multi-view displays (used as a visual display unit) in order to display a picture to the left eye and the right eye. The left and right images are a pair of stereoscopic images for the left and right eyes, then stereoscopic 3D images are observed.

  17. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America (United States)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Clara, Bianchi


    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 70 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) belonging to Central and South America, which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, and diverse relieves, therefore the patterns of IWV diurnal variations are very different for each station. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). Firstly, our work study the main characteristics of the IWV diurnal cycle (and for surface temperature, T) obtained for all stations together, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). First and second PCA modes highlight the global main behaviors of IWV variability for all stations. The first mode on IWV represent the 70% of the variability and could be related to the surface evapotranspiration, while the second mode (27 % of the variability) is practically in counter phase to T variability (its first mode represent the 97% of the variability), therefore this mode could be related to breeze regime. Then, every station is separately analyzed and seasonal and local variations (relative to the relives) are detected, these results spotlight, among other characteristics, the sea and mountain breeze regime. This presentation shows the first analysis of IWV diurnal cycle performed over Central and South America and another original characteristic is PCA technique employed to infer the results. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl

  18. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Displays (United States)

    Doane, J. William

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT * PDLC MATERIALS PREPARATION * Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) * Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) * Solvent induced phase separation (SIPS) * Encapsulation (NCAP) * RESPONSE VOLTAGE * Dielectric and resistive effects * Radial configuration * Bipolar configuration * Other director configurations * RESPONSE TIME * DISPLAY CONTRAST * Light scattering and index matching * Incorporation of dyes * Contrast measurements * PDLC DISPLAY DEVICES AND INNOVATIONS * Reflective direct view displays * Large-scale, flexible displays * Switchable windows * Projection displays * High definition spatial light modulator * Haze-free PDLC shutters: wide angle view displays * ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  19. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children. (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M


    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal, Diurnal, and Solar-Cycle Variations of Electron Density at Two West Africa Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ouattara


    Full Text Available We analyse the variability of foF2 at two West Africa equatorial ionization anomaly stations (Ouagadougou and Dakar during three solar cycles (from cycle 20 to cycle 22, that is, from 1966 to 1998 for Ouagadougou and from 1971 to 1997 for Dakar. We examine the effect of the changing levels of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation with sunspot number. The study shows high correlation between foF2 and sunspot number (Rz. The correlation coefficient decreases from cycle 20 to cycle 21 at both stations. From cycle 21 to cycle 22 it decreases at Ouagadougou station and increases at Dakar station. The best correlation coefficient, 0.990, is obtained for Dakar station during solar cycle 22. The seasonal variation displays equinoctial peaks that are asymmetric between March and September. The percentage deviations of monthly average data from one solar cycle to another display variability with respect to solar cycle phase and show solar ultraviolet radiation variability with solar cycle phase. The diurnal variation shows a noon bite out with a predominant late-afternoon peak except during the maximum phase of the solar cycle. The diurnal Ouagadougou station foF2 data do not show a significant difference between the increasing and decreasing cycle phases, while Dakar station data do show it, particularly for cycle 21. The percentage deviations of diurnal variations from solar-minimum conditions show more ionosphere during solar cycle 21 at both stations for all three of the other phases of the solar cycle. There is no significant variability of ionosphere during increasing and decreasing solar cycle phases at Ouagadougou station, but at Dakar station there is a significant variability of ionosphere during these two solar-cycle phases.

  1. Defense Display Strategy and Roadmaps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hopper, Darrel G


    ...). Continuing thrusts include a variety of Service-led programs to develop micro-displays for virtual image helmet-/rifle-mounted systems for pilots and soldiers, novel displays, materials, and basic research...

  2. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana


    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  3. Web Extensible Display Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominski, Ryan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Larrieu, Theodore L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)


    Jefferson Lab's Web Extensible Display Manager (WEDM) allows staff to access EDM control system screens from a web browser in remote offices and from mobile devices. Native browser technologies are leveraged to avoid installing and managing software on remote clients such as browser plugins, tunnel applications, or an EDM environment. Since standard network ports are used firewall exceptions are minimized. To avoid security concerns from remote users modifying a control system, WEDM exposes read-only access and basic web authentication can be used to further restrict access. Updates of monitored EPICS channels are delivered via a Web Socket using a web gateway. The software translates EDM description files (denoted with the edl suffix) to HTML with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) following the EDM's edl file vector drawing rules to create faithful screen renderings. The WEDM server parses edl files and creates the HTML equivalent in real-time allowing existing screens to work without modification. Alternatively, the familiar drag and drop EDM screen creation tool can be used to create optimized screens sized specifically for smart phones and then rendered by WEDM.

  4. Model independent result on possible diurnal effect in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabei, R.; D'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; Belli, P.; Cappella, F.; D'Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D.; Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G.; Incicchitti, A.; Montecchia, F.; Ye, Z.P.


    The results obtained in the search for possible diurnal effect in the single-hit low energy data collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 (total exposure 1.04 ton x year) deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN are presented. At the present level of sensitivity the presence of any significant diurnal variation and of diurnal time structures in the data can be excluded for both the cases of solar and sidereal time. In particular, the diurnal modulation amplitude expected, because of the Earth diurnal motion, on the basis of the DAMA dark matter annual modulation results is below the present sensitivity. (orig.)

  5. Model independent result on possible diurnal effect in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)


    The results obtained in the search for possible diurnal effect in the single-hit low energy data collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 (total exposure 1.04 ton x year) deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN are presented. At the present level of sensitivity the presence of any significant diurnal variation and of diurnal time structures in the data can be excluded for both the cases of solar and sidereal time. In particular, the diurnal modulation amplitude expected, because of the Earth diurnal motion, on the basis of the DAMA dark matter annual modulation results is below the present sensitivity. (orig.)

  6. Multiple origin of diurnality in geckos: evidence from eye lens crystallins (United States)

    Röll, Beate


    The large lizard family Gekkonidae comprises about 90 genera (1000 species). While most geckos are nocturnal, the members of about 15 genera are diurnal. All of these species are 'tertiarily' diurnal, i.e. they are descended from 'secondarily' nocturnal ancestors. They have adapted to a diurnal lifestyle in quite different ways, as can be deduced by the crystallin proteins in their lenses. Evaluation of the heterogeneous lens crystallin compositions of diurnal geckos reveals that there are at least three lineages that regained diurnality independently.

  7. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.


    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  8. Prediction of the antidepressant response to total sleep deprivation by diurnal variation of mood. (United States)

    Reinink, E; Bouhuys, N; Wirz-Justice, A; van den Hoofdakker, R


    The relationship between diurnal variation of mood and response to total sleep deprivation (TSD) was investigated in 131 depressed patients. This response was related to (1) the diurnal variation on the day before TSD as assessed by self-ratings of mood, and (2) the propensity to produce diurnal variations (the "diurnality") as assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Three types of diurnality are distinguished: morning type (the propensity to feel better in the morning), evening type (the propensity to feel better in the evening), and a nondiurnal type. The results show that diurnality does predict the mood response to TSD. The direction of diurnality is decisive: patients who have the propensity to feel better in the evening benefit more from TSD than other patients.

  9. Diurnal variation of the serum leptin concentration in patients with anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoving, R.K.; Vinten, Jørgen; Handberg, A.


    , however, this has been reported to be absent in normal weighted amenorrheic athletes. Anorexia nervosa is associated with multiple endocrine abnormalities. Hypothalamic amenorrhoea often precedes the weight loss and may persist after weight recovery. We hypothesized that leptin could be involved...... in the regulation of eating behaviour and gonadal function in anorexia nervosa. DESIGN: We measured the concentration of leptin in serum samples taken after an overnight fast in 18 female anorexia nervosa patients and 11 controls. To study diurnal variation, eight patients and 11 controls were hospitalized for 24 h...... and had a standardized diet at regular times. Seven blood samples were obtained at 4 h intervals from each subject. PATIENTS: The patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa. The mean body mass index for the patients was 14.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and for controls 20.3 +/- 1.7 kg/m2. RESULTS...

  10. Average diurnal variation of summer lightning over the Florida peninsula (United States)

    Maier, L. M.; Krider, E. P.; Maier, M. W.


    Data derived from a large network of electric field mills are used to determine the average diurnal variation of lightning in a Florida seacoast environment. The variation at the NASA Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station area is compared with standard weather observations of thunder, and the variation of all discharges in this area is compared with the statistics of cloud-to-ground flashes over most of the South Florida peninsula and offshore waters. The results show average diurnal variations that are consistent with statistics of thunder start times and the times of maximum thunder frequency, but that the actual lightning tends to stop one to two hours before the recorded thunder. The variation is also consistent with previous determinations of the times of maximum rainfall and maximum rainfall rate.

  11. Seasonal and diurnal variability of Mars water-ice clouds (United States)

    Christensen, Philip R.; Zurek, Richard W.; Jaramillo, L. L.


    The diurnal and seasonal behavior of cloud opacity and frequency of occurrence was studied using an atlas of cloud occurrences compiled from the Viking IRTM (Infrared Thermal Mapper) data set. It was found that in some areas the behavior of water appeared to repeat in the zonal mean. However, this interpretation is complicated by both poor coverage and the variability of dust and clouds. As a result, the extent and nature of interannual variability remains unclear.

  12. Diurnal and seasonal variations of surface water vapour density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diurnal and seasonal variations of surface water vapour density over some meteorological stations in Nigeria. ... Ife Journal of Science ... the three Sahelian stations, was 5.29±0.39; while during the rainy season, they were 21.72±1.22, 19.60±0.12 and 19.47±0.07 for the Southern, Midland and Northern regions respectively.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Diurnal/Circadian Transcriptomes


    Boyle, Greg; Richter, Kerstin; Priest, Henry D.; Traver, David; Mockler, Todd C.; Chang, Jeffrey T.; Kay, Steve A.; Breton, Ghislain


    From photosynthetic bacteria to mammals, the circadian clock evolved to track diurnal rhythms and enable organisms to anticipate daily recurring changes such as temperature and light. It orchestrates a broad spectrum of physiology such as the sleep/wake and eating/fasting cycles. While we have made tremendous advances in our understanding of the molecular details of the circadian clock mechanism and how it is synchronized with the environment, we still have rudimentary knowledge regarding its...

  14. Augmenting digital displays with computation (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  15. Display Parameters and Requirements (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  16. Prenatal exposure to diurnal temperature variation and early childhood pneumonia. (United States)

    Zeng, Ji; Lu, Chan; Deng, Qihong


    Childhood pneumonia is one of the leading single causes of mortality and morbidity in children worldwide, but its etiology still remains unclear. We investigate the association between childhood pneumonia and exposure to diurnal temperature variation (DTV) in different timing windows. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2,598 children aged 3-6 years in Changsha, China. The lifetime prevalence of pneumonia was assessed by a questionnaire administered by the parents. Individual exposure to DTV during both prenatal and postnatal periods was estimated. Logic regression models was used to examine the association between childhood pneumonia and DTV exposure in terms of odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Lifetime prevalence of childhood pneumonia in preschool children in Changsha was high up to 38.6%. We found that childhood pneumonia was significantly associated with prenatal DTV exposure, with adjusted OR (95%CI) =1.19 (1.02-1.38), particularly during the second trimester. However, childhood pneumonia not associated with postnatal DTV exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that boys are more susceptible to the pneumonia risk of diurnal temperature variation than girls. We further observed that the prevalence of childhood pneumonia was decreased in recent years as DTV shrinked. Early childhood pneumonia was associated with prenatal exposure to the diurnal temperature variation (DTV) during pregnancy, particularly in the second trimester, which suggests fetal origin of childhood pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Familial circadian rhythm disorder in the diurnal primate, Macaca mulatta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V Zhdanova

    Full Text Available In view of the inverse temporal relationship of central clock activity to physiological or behavioral outputs in diurnal and nocturnal species, understanding the mechanisms and physiological consequences of circadian disorders in humans would benefit from studies in a diurnal animal model, phylogenetically close to humans. Here we report the discovery of the first intrinsic circadian disorder in a family of diurnal non-human primates, the rhesus monkey. The disorder is characterized by a combination of delayed sleep phase, relative to light-dark cycle, mutual desynchrony of intrinsic rhythms of activity, food intake and cognitive performance, enhanced nighttime feeding or, in the extreme case, intrinsic asynchrony. The phenotype is associated with normal length of intrinsic circadian period and requires an intact central clock, as demonstrated by an SCN lesion. Entrainment to different photoperiods or melatonin administration does not eliminate internal desynchrony, though melatonin can temporarily reinstate intrinsic activity rhythms in the animal with intrinsic asynchrony. Entrainment to restricted feeding is highly effective in animals with intrinsic or SCN lesion-induced asynchrony. The large isolated family of rhesus macaques harboring the disorder provides a powerful new tool for translational research of regulatory circuits underlying circadian disorders and their effective treatment.

  18. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.


    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  19. Prototyping user displays using CLIPS (United States)

    Kosta, Charles P.; Miller, Ross; Krolak, Patrick; Vesty, Matt


    CLIPS is being used as an integral module of a rapid prototyping system. The prototyping system consists of a display manager for object browsing, a graph program for displaying line and bar charts, and a communications server for routing messages between modules. A CLIPS simulation of a physical model provides dynamic control of the user's display. Currently, a project is well underway to prototype the Advanced Automation System (AAS) for the Federal Aviation Administration.

  20. High-Resolution Profiling of a Synchronized Diurnal Transcriptome from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Reveals Continuous Cell and Metabolic Differentiation. (United States)

    Zones, James Matt; Blaby, Ian K; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Umen, James G


    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a useful model organism for investigating diverse biological processes, such as photosynthesis and chloroplast biogenesis, flagella and basal body structure/function, cell growth and division, and many others. We combined a highly synchronous photobioreactor culture system with frequent temporal sampling to characterize genome-wide diurnal gene expression in Chlamydomonas. Over 80% of the measured transcriptome was expressed with strong periodicity, forming 18 major clusters. Genes associated with complex structures and processes, including cell cycle control, flagella and basal bodies, ribosome biogenesis, and energy metabolism, all had distinct signatures of coexpression with strong predictive value for assigning and temporally ordering function. Importantly, the frequent sampling regime allowed us to discern meaningful fine-scale phase differences between and within subgroups of genes and enabled the identification of a transiently expressed cluster of light stress genes. Coexpression was further used both as a data-mining tool to classify and/or validate genes from other data sets related to the cell cycle and to flagella and basal bodies and to assign isoforms of duplicated enzymes to their cognate pathways of central carbon metabolism. Our diurnal coexpression data capture functional relationships established by dozens of prior studies and are a valuable new resource for investigating a variety of biological processes in Chlamydomonas and other eukaryotes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Specific diurnal EMG activity pattern observed in occlusal collapse patients: relationship between diurnal bruxism and tooth loss progression. (United States)

    Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kumazaki, Yohei; Manda, Yosuke; Oki, Kazuhiro; Minagi, Shogo


    The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group), six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group), and six young control subjects (YC group) were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG) of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (pstability.

  2. Tropical Cyclone Diurnal Cycle as Observed by TRMM (United States)

    Leppert, Kenneth D., II; Cecil, D. J.


    Using infrared satellite data, previous work has shown a consistent diurnal cycle in the pattern of cold cloud tops around mature tropical cyclones. In particular, an increase in the coverage by cold cloud tops often occurs in the inner core of the storm around the time of sunset and subsequently propagates outward to several hundred kilometers over the course of the following day. This consistent cycle may have important implications for structure and intensity changes of tropical cyclones and the forecasting of such changes. Because infrared satellite measurements are primarily sensitive to cloud top, the goal of this study is to use passive and active microwave measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR), respectively, to examine and better understand the tropical cyclone diurnal cycle throughout a larger depth of the storm's clouds. The National Hurricane Center's best track dataset was used to extract all PR and TMI pixels within 1000 km of each tropical cyclone that occurred in the Atlantic basin between 1998-2011. Then the data was composited according to radius (100-km bins from 0-1000 km) and local standard time (LST; 3-hr bins). Specifically, PR composites involved finding the percentage of pixels with reflectivity greater than or equal to 20 dBZ at various heights (i.e., 2-14 km in increments of 2 km) as a function of radius and time. The 37- and 85- GHz TMI channels are especially sensitive to scattering by precipitation-sized ice in the mid to upper portions of clouds. Hence, the percentage of 37- and 85-GHz polarization corrected temperatures less than various thresholds were calculated using data from all storms as a function of radius and time. For 37 GHz, thresholds of 260 K, 265 K, 270 K, and 275 K were used, and for 85 GHz, thresholds of 200-270 K in increments of 10 K were utilized. Note that convection forced by the interactions of a tropical cyclone with land (e.g., due

  3. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo


    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  4. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke


    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  5. Displays: Entering a New Dimension (United States)

    Starkman, Neal


    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  6. Software for graphic display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlov, A.A.


    In this paper some aspects of graphic display systems are discussed. The design of a display subroutine library is described, with an example, and graphic dialogue software is considered primarily from the point of view of the programmer who uses a high-level language. (Auth.)

  7. Lack of diurnal rhythm of low molecular weight insulin-like growth factor binding protein in patients with Cushing's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degerblad, M.; Povoa, G.; Thoren, M.; Wivall, I.-L.; Hall, K.


    A specific radioimmunoassay with antibodies raised against the 25 kD insulin-like growth factor binding protein (25 kD IGFBP) in amniotic fluid was used to measure levels of cross-reacting protein in human serum and plasma. Plasma samples collected continually at 20-min intervals during 24-h in 6 healthy adults revealed a distinct diurnal rhythm in the concentration of 25 kD IGFBP. The lowest levels (9-13 μg/l) were found between 13.00 and 24.00 h with a rise after midnight to maximum levels (23-71 μg/l) between 03.00 and 09.00 h. There was no relation between the patterns of GH and 25 kD IGFBP. In 3 patients with active Cushing's disease, the levels of 25 kD IGFBP in plasma samples collected during 12 h. 19.00-07.00 h, were generally low and without nocturnal variations. One of the patients studied after extirpation of a pituitary adenoma displayed a nocturnal rhythm with maximum levels of 25 kD IGFBP between 03.00 and 07.00 h. Eight patients treated with stereotactic pituitary irradiation owing to Cushing's disease also showed a distinct nocturnal increase of 25 kD IGFBP. The results indicate the existence of a diurnal rhythm of 25 kD IGFBP in adults. Further, low levels and lack of diurnal rhythm of 25 kD IGFBP are demonstrated in Cushing's disease. (author)

  8. Diurnal cortisol rhythms and child growth: exploring the life history consequences of HPA activation among the Tsimane'. (United States)

    Nyberg, Colleen H; Leonard, William R; Tanner, Susan; McDade, Thomas; Huanca, Tomas; Godoy, Ricardo A


    Although psychosocial stress has also been implicated as a contributor to growth failure by imposing energetic constraints during development, the direct physiological pathways by which these life history trade-offs are imposed are not well understood. This study explores associations between diurnal cortisol rhythms and differential patterns of linear child growth among the Tsimane, a horticulturalist and foraging society in the Bolivian Amazon. Waking and bedtime salivary cortisol samples (n = 243) were collected from 53 Tsimane' children ages 1.6-6 over 3 days as part of a larger study of developmental trajectories in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dynamics. Anthropometric measurements and survey data were collected in conjunction with the Tsimane' Amazonian panel study (TAPS). Among children under the age of 6, diurnal rhythms in stunted versus nonstunted children vary dramatically: stunted children display elevated cortisol at both the AM (P = 0.03) and PM (P = 0.02) collection points. Multilevel regression analysis demonstrates an inverse relationship between cortisol and height-for-age z-score status (P = 0.00), which is mediated, in part, by infection (P = 0.00), and is strongest among male children (n.s.). Moreover, the poorest statural growth is exhibited among children with high cortisol living in more acculturated Tsimane' communities, a proxy for a more adverse developmental milieu. This study reports a small, but significant, life history cost of elevated diurnal cortisol rhythms on linear growth among Tsimane' children, and provides critical insight into the developmental origins of health differentials among an indigenous Amazonian population experiencing rapid lifestyle changes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Seasonal Cycle of the Near-Surface Diurnal Wind Field Over the Bay of La Paz, Mexico (United States)

    Turrent, Cuauhtémoc; Zaitsev, Oleg


    The results of numerical simulations of the troposphere over the Bay of La Paz, calculated for the months of January, April, July and October during the period 2006-2010 with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF v3.5) regional model, are used to describe the seasonal features of the diurnal cycle of planetary boundary-layer winds. Two distinct near-surface diurnal flows with strong seasonal variability were identified: (1) a nocturnal and matutinal breeze directed from the subtropical Pacific Ocean, over the Baja California peninsula and the Bay of La Paz, into the Gulf of California that is associated with the regional sea-surface temperature difference between those two major water bodies; and (2) a mid to late afternoon onshore sea-breeze related to the peninsula's daily cycle of insolation heating that evolves with counter-clockwise rotation over the Bay of La Paz. The model results reveal the interaction over Baja California of opposing afternoon sea-breeze fronts that originate from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California, with a convergence line forming over the peaks of the peninsula's topography and the associated presence of a closed vertical circulation cell over the Bay of La Paz and the adjacent Gulf. The collision of the opposing sea-breeze fronts over the narrow peninsula drives convection that is relatively weak due to the reduced heat source and only appears to produce precipitation sporadically. The spatial structure of the sea-breeze fronts over the Bay of La Paz region is complex due to shoreline curvature and nearby topographic features. A comparison of the numerical results with available meteorological near-surface observations indicates that the modelling methodology adequately reproduced the observed features of the seasonal variability of the local planetary boundary-layer diurnal wind cycle and confirms that the low-level atmospheric circulation over the Bay of La Paz is dominated by kinetic energy in the diurnal band

  10. To 'display' or not to 'display'- that is the peptide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C


    Full Text Available -6935 3. Ezaki, E., Tsukio, M., Takagi, M., and Imanaka, T. 1998. Display of heterologous gene products on the Escherichia coli cell surface as fusion proteins with flagellin. J. Ferment. Bioeng. 86: 500-503 4. Kondo, A. and Ueda, M. 2004. Yeast crll...-surface display-applications of molecular display. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 64: 28-40 5. Kuwajima, G., Asaka, J.-I., Fujiwara, T., Fujiwara, T., Nakano, K., Kondoh, E. 1988. Presentation of an antigenic determinant from hen egg-white lysozyme...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work

  12. Children's Control/Display Stereotypes. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S; Tai, Judy P C


    Objective The aim of this study was to determine control/display stereotypes for children of a range of ages and development of these stereotypes with age. Background Little is known about control/display stereotypes for children of different ages and the way in which these stereotypes develop with age. This study is part of a program to determine the need to design differentially for these age groups. Method We tested four groups of children with various tasks (age groups 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, 14 to 16), with about 30 in each group. Examples of common tasks were opening a bottle, turning on taps, and allocating numbers to keypads. More complex tasks involved rotating a control to move a display in a requested direction. Results Tasks with which different age groups were familiar showed no effect of age group. Different control/display arrangements generally showed an increase in stereotype strength with age, with dependence on the form of the control/display arrangement. Two-dimensional arrangements, with the control on the same plane as the display, had higher stereotype strength than three-dimensional arrangements for all age groups, suggesting an effect of familiarity with controls and displays with increasing age. Conclusion Children's control/display stereotypes do not differ greatly from those of adults, and hence, design for children older than 5 years of age, for control/display stereotypes, can be the same as that for adult populations. Application When designing devices for children, the relationship between controls and displays can be as for adult populations, for which there are considerable experimental data.

  13. Diurnal cycles in water quality across the periodic table (United States)

    Kirchner, James


    Diurnal cycles in water quality can provide important clues to the processes that regulate aquatic chemistry, but they often are masked by longer-term, larger-amplitude variability, making their detection and quantification difficult. Here I outline methods that can detect diurnal cycles even when they are massively obscured by statistically ill-behaved noise. I demonstrate these methods using high-frequency water quality data from the Plylimon catchment in mid-Wales (Neal et al., 2013; Kirchner and Neal, 2013). Several aspects combine to make the Plynlimon data set unique worldwide. Collected at 7-hour intervals, the Plynlimon data set is much more densely sampled than typical long-term weekly or monthly water quality data. This 7-hour sampling was also continued for two years, much longer than typical intensive sampling campaigns, and the resulting time series encompass a wide range of climatic and hydrological conditions. Furthermore, each sample was analyzed for a wide range of solutes with diverse sources in the natural environment. However, the 7-hour sampling frequency is both coarse and irregular in comparison to diurnal cycles, making their detection and quantification difficult. Nonetheless, the methods outlined here enable detection of statistically significant diurnal cycles in over 30 solutes at Plynlimon, including alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), alkaline earths (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba), transition metals (Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb), nonmetals (B, NO3, Si, As, and Se), lanthanides and actinides (La, Ce, Pr, and U), as well as total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Gran alkalinity, pH, and electrical conductivity. These solutes span every row of the periodic table, and more than six orders of magnitude in concentration. Many of these diurnal cycles are subtle, representing only a few percent, at most, of the total variance in the concentration time series. Nonetheless they are diagnostically useful

  14. Physiological and Molecular Response of Ostrich to the Seasonal and Diurnal Variations in Egyptian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.H.; Khalifa, H.H; Elaroussi, M.A.; Elsayed, M.A.; Basuony, H.A.


    Twelve immature ostrich›s birds, 7 months old were used to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature variation and diurnal effect on response changes of some physiological and chemical parameters. All birds were reared out doors and exposed to daily ambient temperatures fluctuations during summer and winter. Blood samples were taken twice, one in the morning at 7 Am and once in the afternoon at 3 Pm during a representative 7 hot days of June (summer) (40±2ºC) and the 7 cold days of January (winter) (18±2ºC). Serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, sodium, potassium, uric acid concentrations and aldosterone level were determined. The amount of total body water (TBW) and serum heat shock proteins (HSP) were estimated. Serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations in ostrich were significantly decreased, while uric acid concentration and aldosterone hormone level were significantly increased in summer as compared in winter during both at morning and at afternoon periods. Concerning the diurnal variation, serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium concentrations and aldosterone hormone level in ostrich were significantly increased, while uric acid concentration was significantly decreased at morning as compared at afternoon during both summer and winter seasons. TBW was significantly higher in summer season by 15.04% than winter season. It is concluded from the present study that heat or cold stress has a negative effect on most of the parameters studied and we recommend must be supplement diet with some nutrients like vitamins C, and E, sodium bicarbonate or yeast to overcome the negative effect and to better perform under such conditions

  15. Diurnal Preference Predicts Phase Differences in Expression of Human Peripheral Circadian Clock Genes. (United States)

    Ferrante, Andrew; Gellerman, David; Ay, Ahmet; Woods, Kerri Pruitt; Filipowicz, Allan Michael; Jain, Kriti; Bearden, Neil; Ingram, Krista Kenyon


    Circadian rhythms play an integral role in human behavior, physiology and health. Individual differences in daily rhythms (chronotypes) can affect individual sleep-wake cycles, activity patterns and behavioral choices. Diurnal preference, the tendency towards morningness or eveningness among individuals, has been associated with interpersonal variation in circadian clock-related output measures, including body temperature, melatonin levels and clock gene mRNA in blood, oral mucosa, and dermal fibroblast cell cultures. Here we report gene expression data from two principal clock genes sampled from hair follicle cells, a peripheral circadian clock. Hair follicle cells from fourteen individuals of extreme morning or evening chronotype were sampled at three time points. RNA was extracted and quantitative PCR assays were used to measure mRNA expression patterns of two clock genes, Per3 and Nr1d2. We found significant differences in clock gene expression over time between chronotype groups, independent of gender or age of participants. Extreme evening chronotypes have a delay in phase of circadian clock gene oscillation relative to extreme morning types. Variation in the molecular clockwork of chronotype groups represents nearly three-hour phase differences (Per3: 2.61 hours; Nr1d2: 3.08 hours, both: 2.86) in circadian oscillations of these clock genes. The measurement of gene expression from hair follicles at three time points allows for a direct, efficient method of estimating phase shifts of a peripheral circadian clock in real-life conditions. The robust phase differences in temporal expression of clock genes associated with diurnal preferences provide the framework for further studies of the molecular mechanisms and gene-by-environment interactions underlying chronotype-specific behavioral phenomena, including social jetlag.

  16. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy: energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals


    van der Vinne, V.; Gorter, J.A.; Riede, S.J.; Hut, R.A.


    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The circadian thermo-energetics (CTE) hypothesis predicts that diurnal activity patterns reduce daily energy expenditure (DEE) compared with nocturnal activity patterns. Here, we tested the CTE hypothesis b...

  17. Modeling the diurnal tide with dissipation derived from UARS/HRDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Geller


    Full Text Available This paper uses dissipation values derived from UARS/HRDI observations in a recently published diurnal-tide model. These model structures compare quite well with the UARS/HRDI observations with respect to the annual variation of the diurnal tidal amplitudes and the size of the amplitudes themselves. It is suggested that the annual variation of atmospheric dissipation in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere is a major controlling factor in determining the annual variation of the diurnal tide.

  18. Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Meinander


    Full Text Available The relevance of snow for climate studies is based on its physical properties, such as high surface reflectivity. Surface ultraviolet (UV albedo is an essential parameter for various applications based on radiative transfer modeling. Here, new continuous measurements of the local UV albedo of natural Arctic snow were made at Sodankylä (67°22'N, 26°39'E, 179 m a.s.l. during the spring of 2007. The data were logged at 1-min intervals. The accumulation of snow was up to 68 cm. The surface layer thickness varied from 0.5 to 35 cm with the snow grain size between 0.2 and 2.5 mm. The midday erythemally weighted UV albedo ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 in the accumulation period, and from 0.5 to 0.7 during melting. During the snow melt period, under cases of an almost clear sky and variable cloudiness, an unexpected diurnal decrease of 0.05 in albedo soon after midday, and recovery thereafter, was detected. This diurnal decrease in albedo was found to be asymmetric with respect to solar midday, thus indicating a change in the properties of the snow. Independent UV albedo results with two different types of instruments confirm these findings. The measured temperature of the snow surface was below 0°C on the following mornings. Hence, the reversible diurnal change, evident for ~1–2 h, could be explained by the daily metamorphosis of the surface of the snowpack, in which the temperature of the surface increases, melting some of the snow to liquid water, after which the surface freezes again.

  19. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.


    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions. (United States)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark


    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms.

  1. Concerted diurnal patterns in riverine nutrient concentrations and physical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholefield, David; Le Goff, Thierry; Braven, Jim; Ebdon, Les; Long, Terry; Butler, Mark


    Several long-term sets of hourly nitrate concentration data were obtained through deployment of a nitrate sensor in an upper reach of the River Taw, a small moorland-fed river in the South West of the UK. Examination of the data obtained during periods of low flow and the absence of rainfall in the catchment revealed the presence of marked diurnal cycles, which were in concert and negatively correlated with diurnal cycles in water temperature. After verifying that these cycles were natural, an intensive 90-h field monitoring campaign was conducted, in which river water was sampled hourly and immediately analysed in the laboratory for molybdate-reactive phosphorus (P), nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and pH. Coincident measurements of water temperature, river discharge and solar energy were also taken at, or close to, the site. All measurements revealed diurnal patterns and all patterns were concerted. The cycles of P, nitrate, nitrite, and discharge had two maxima and minima per 24 h, while the cycle of water temperature had one, with a maximum at 20.00 and a minimum at 08.00. The amplitudes of the cycles of P and nitrate were each about 30% of the mean values, while the amplitude of the nitrite cycle was as great as 80% of the mean value on occasions. Both biological and physical mechanisms for the cycling could operate through water temperature and/or incident radiation to account for the observed phenomenon, but there remains uncertainty of which is the more important. The observations have important implications for both the accuracy of pollution assessment in rivers and the physiological rhythms of riverine organisms

  2. Diurnal regulation of scent emission in rose flowers. (United States)

    Hendel-Rahmanim, Keren; Masci, Tania; Vainstein, Alexander; Weiss, David


    Previous studies have shown diurnal oscillation of scent emission in rose flowers with a peak during the day (Helsper in Planta 207:88-95, 1998; Picone in Planta 219:468-478, 2004). Here, we studied the regulation of scent production and emission in Rosa hybrida cv. Fragrant Cloud during the daily cycle and focused on two terpenoid compounds, germacrene D and geranyl acetate, whose biosynthetic genes have been characterized by us previously. The emission of geranyl acetate oscillated during the daily light/dark cycle with a peak early in the light period. A similar daily fluctuation was found in the endogenous level of this compound and in the expression of its biosynthetic gene, alcohol acetyl transferase (RhAAT). The rhythmic expression of RhAAT continued under conditions of constant light or darkness, indicating regulation by the endogenous circadian clock. However, the accumulation and emission of geranyl acetate ceased under continuous light. Our results suggest that geranyl acetate production is limited by the level of its substrate geraniol, which is suppressed under constant light conditions. The emission of germacrene D also oscillated during the daily cycle with a peak early in the light period. However, the endogenous level of this compound and the expression of its biosynthetic gene germacrene D synthase (RhGDS) were constant throughout the day. The diurnal oscillation of germacrene D emission ceased under continuous light, suggesting direct regulation by light. Our results demonstrate the complexity of the diurnal regulation of scent emission: although the daily emission of most scent compounds is synchronized, various independently evolved mechanisms control the production, accumulation and release of different volatiles.

  3. Diurnal Variation of Radon Concentration in the Postojna Cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoric, A.; Vaupotic, J.


    Postojna Cave, with 20 km of galleries, is the longest known cave system and also the largest of about 20 show caves in Slovenia and one of the most visited show caves in the world. It is well known that high concentrations of radon are common in karstic caves, although quantities of uranium (238U) in limestone are rather low. The reason for this is low natural ventilation of the underground cavities. Tectonic faults constitute an additional source of radon. Variations of radon concentration in cave air arise from a balance of the emission from cave surfaces and drip waters, decay in cave air, and exchange with the outside atmosphere. Because of its elevated radon concentrations, Postojna Cave has been under permanent radon survey since 1995. The influence of meteorological conditions on the radon levels and their temporal variations depends mostly on the shape of the cave, and the number and directions of cracks, corridors and fissures connecting the cave rooms with the outside atmosphere. The driving force for air movement in horizontal caves, and thus the inflow of fresh air and release of the cave air to the atmosphere, is the temperature difference between the cave air and outdoors, which causes seasonal pattern of radon concentration in the cave with high levels in summer and low in winter. However, on a daily scale different behaviour of radon can be observed at different locations in the cave. In this paper diurnal variation of radon concentration at two locations is presented and discussed. Postojna Cave is a horizontal cave with a stable yearly temperature around 10 degrees of @C. Continuous measurements of radon concentration were carried out from 2005 to 2010 at two locations along the guided tourist trail. Radon concentration was measured with Radim 5 WP monitors (SMM Company, Prague, Czech Republic) with sampling frequency once an hour. The evaluation of five-year radon monitoring at two sites in the Postojna Cave reveals significant diurnal and

  4. Circular displays: control/display arrangements and stereotype strength with eight different display locations. (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R


    Two experiments are reported that were designed to investigate control/display arrangements having high stereotype strengths when using circular displays. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (2010). (Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 54: 1022-1026). In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer (1998. Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41(6), 864-880) Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann and Chan (2013). The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1620-1624). The initial indicator position (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock) had a major effect on control/display stereotype strength for many of the six controls tested. Best display/control arrangements are listed for each of the different control types (rotational and translational) and for the planes on which they are mounted. Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. Display/control arrangements having high stereotype strength are listed for four initial indicator positions. These arrangements are best for design purposes.

  5. Diurnal effects of prior heat stress exposure on sprint and endurance exercise capacity in the heat. (United States)

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Goto, Heita; Goto, Takayuki; Shirato, Minayuki


    Active individuals often perform exercises in the heat following heat stress exposure (HSE) regardless of the time-of-day and its variation in body temperature. However, there is no information concerning the diurnal effects of a rise in body temperature after HSE on subsequent exercise performance in a hot environnment. This study therefore investigated the diurnal effects of prior HSE on both sprint and endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Eight male volunteers completed four trials which included sprint and endurance cycling tests at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. At first, volunteers completed a 30-min pre-exercise routine (30-PR): a seated rest in a temperate environment in AM (AmR) or PM (PmR) (Rest trials); and a warm water immersion at 40 °C to induce a 1 °C increase in core temperature in AM (AmW) or PM (PmW) (HSE trials). Volunteers subsequently commenced exercise at 0800 h in AmR/AmW and at 1700 h in PmR/PmW. The sprint test determined a 10-sec maximal sprint power at 5 kp. Then, the endurance test was conducted to measure time to exhaustion at 60% peak oxygen uptake. Maximal sprint power was similar between trials (p = 0.787). Time to exhaustion in AmW (mean±SD; 15 ± 8 min) was less than AmR (38 ± 16 min; p temperature was higher from post 30-PR to 6 min into the endurance test in AmW and PmW than AmR and PmR (p temperature during the endurance test was greater in AmR than AmW and PmW (p Mean skin temperature was higher from post 30-PR to 6 min into the endurance test in HSE trials than Rest trials (p Mean body temperature was higher from post 30-PR to 6 min into the endurance test in AmW and PmW than AmR and PmR (p radiant, dry and evaporative heat losses were greater on HSE trials than on Rest trials (p temperature by prior HSE has the diurnal effects on endurance exercise capacity but not on sprint exercise capacity in the heat. Moreover, prior HSE reduces endurance exercise capacity in AM, but not in PM. This

  6. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  7. 10-inch planar optic display (United States)

    Beiser, Leo; Veligdan, James T.


    A planar optic display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (1 to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A digital micromirror device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  8. Integrated Display & Environmental Awareness System (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is the development of a head mounted display for use in operations here on Earth and in Space. The technology would provide various means of...

  9. Cumulus moistening, the diurnal cycle, and large-scale tropical dynamics (United States)

    Ruppert, James H., Jr.

    Observations and modeling techniques are employed to diagnose the importance of the diurnal cycle in large-scale tropical climate. In the first part of the study, soundings, radar, and surface flux measurements collected in the Indian Ocean DYNAMO experiment (Dynamics of the Madden--Julian Oscillation, or MJO) are employed to study MJO convective onset. According to these observations, MJO onset takes place as follows: moistening of the low--midtroposphere is accomplished by cumuliform clouds that deepen as the drying by large-scale subsidence and horizontal advection simultaneously wane. This relaxing of subsidence is tied to decreasing column radiative cooling, which links back to the evolving cloud population. A new finding from these observations is the high degree to which the diurnal cycle linked to air-sea and radiative fluxes invigorates clouds and drives column moistening each day. This diurnally modulated cloud field exhibits pronounced mesoscale organization in the form of open cells and horizontal convective rolls. Based on these findings, it is hypothesized that the diurnal cycle and mesoscale cloud organization represent two manners in which local convective processes promote more vigorous day-to-day tropospheric moistening than would otherwise occur. A suite of model tests are carried out in the second part of the study to 1) test the hypothesis that the diurnal cycle drives moistening on longer timescales, and 2) better understand the relative roles of diurnally varying sea surface temperature (SST) and direct atmospheric radiative heating in the diurnal cycle of convection. Moist convection is explicitly represented in the model, the diurnal cycle of SST is prescribed, and cloud-interactive radiation is simulated with a diurnal cycle in shortwave heating. The large-scale dynamics are parameterized using the spectral weak temperature gradient (WTG) technique recently introduced by Herman and Raymond. In this scheme, external (i.e., large


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the diurnal variations on selected physical and physiological parameters such as speed, explosive power, resting heart rate and breath holding time among college students. To achieve the purpose of this study, a total of twenty players (n=20 from Government Arts College, Salem were selected as subjects To study the diurnal variation of the players on selected physiological and performance variables, the data were collected 4 times a day with every four hours in between the times it from 6.00 to 18.00 hours were selected as another categorical variable. One way repeated measures (ANOVA was used to analyze the data. If the obtained F-ratio was significant, Seheffe’s post-hoc test was used to find out the significant difference if anyamong the paired means. The level of significance was fixed at.05 level. It has concluded that both physical and physiological parameters were significantly deferred with reference to change of temperature in a day

  11. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies. (United States)

    Meacham, Katherine; Sirault, Xavier; Quick, W Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert


    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. The diurnal order of the image in Dracula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vescia Zanini


    Full Text Available the article analyses images from Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula having as a main theoretical frame the Diurnal regime of the Image, proposed by Gilbert Durand in The Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary and presented by Durand himself as the “order of antithesis”. By presenting the main kinds of images proposed by Durand in binary pairs (theriomorphic and diæretic, nyctomorphic and spectacular, catamorphic and ascensional, the analysis proposed here aims at staying in tune with both the theoretical approach and the context of production of the novel. Victorian England at the end of the nineteenth century was a time of anxieties, fears and doubts, recurrent in the Victorian cultural production as a whole and well-depicted in Dracula, a work where binary oppositions also seem to be recurrent: life and death, good and evil, moral and desire, among others. The focus is on how the main character is perceived by the other characters, which ultimately affects our perception as readers. Images related to animals, colors, weapons and movements are also included in the analysis. The conclusion points out that the Diurnal Order is a prolific and coherent approach towards an understanding of Bram Stoker’s vampire novel.

  13. SMLTM simulations of the diurnal tide: comparison with UARS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Akmaev


    Full Text Available Wind and temperature observations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS reveal strong seasonal variations of tides, a dominant component of the MLT dynamics. Simulations with the Spectral mesosphere/lower thermosphere model (SMLTM for equinox and solstice conditions are presented and compared with the observations. The diurnal tide is generated by forcing specified at the model lower boundary and by in situ absorption of solar radiation. The model incorporates realistic parameterizations of physical processes including various dissipation processes important for propagation of tidal waves in the MLT. A discrete multi-component gravity-wave parameterization has been modified to account for seasonal variations of the background temperature. Eddy diffusion is calculated depending on the gravity-wave energy deposition rate and stability of the background flow. It is shown that seasonal variations of the diurnal-tide amplitudes are consistent with observed variations of gravity-wave sources in the lower atmosphere.

  14. Deep greedy learning under thermal variability in full diurnal cycles (United States)

    Rauss, Patrick; Rosario, Dalton


    We study the generalization and scalability behavior of a deep belief network (DBN) applied to a challenging long-wave infrared hyperspectral dataset, consisting of radiance from several manmade and natural materials within a fixed site located 500 m from an observation tower. The collections cover multiple full diurnal cycles and include different atmospheric conditions. Using complementary priors, a DBN uses a greedy algorithm that can learn deep, directed belief networks one layer at a time and has two layers form to provide undirected associative memory. The greedy algorithm initializes a slower learning procedure, which fine-tunes the weights, using a contrastive version of the wake-sleep algorithm. After fine-tuning, a network with three hidden layers forms a very good generative model of the joint distribution of spectral data and their labels, despite significant data variability between and within classes due to environmental and temperature variation occurring within and between full diurnal cycles. We argue, however, that more questions than answers are raised regarding the generalization capacity of these deep nets through experiments aimed at investigating their training and augmented learning behavior.

  15. SMLTM simulations of the diurnal tide: comparison with UARS observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Akmaev

    Full Text Available Wind and temperature observations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS reveal strong seasonal variations of tides, a dominant component of the MLT dynamics. Simulations with the Spectral mesosphere/lower thermosphere model (SMLTM for equinox and solstice conditions are presented and compared with the observations. The diurnal tide is generated by forcing specified at the model lower boundary and by in situ absorption of solar radiation. The model incorporates realistic parameterizations of physical processes including various dissipation processes important for propagation of tidal waves in the MLT. A discrete multi-component gravity-wave parameterization has been modified to account for seasonal variations of the background temperature. Eddy diffusion is calculated depending on the gravity-wave energy deposition rate and stability of the background flow. It is shown that seasonal variations of the diurnal-tide amplitudes are consistent with observed variations of gravity-wave sources in the lower atmosphere.

  16. Seasonal and diurnal calling patterns of Ross and leopards (United States)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Rowney, Gayle A.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.


    The temporal calling patterns of two Antarctic pack ice seals, the leopard and Ross seal, were examined. This included seasonal onset and decline of calling (coinciding with their breeding season) as well as diurnal changes. Understanding of calling behavior has important implications for acoustic surveying, since this allows the number of calls to be related to an index of the number of animals present and to estimate abundance. The monthly changes in diurnal calling and haul-out patterns (measured via satellite telemetry) were compared. Underwater acoustic recordings were made between 14 October 2003 and 10 January 2004 off Mawson, Eastern Antarctica (660 44.243S and 690 48.748E). Recordings were made using an Acoustics Recording Package (ARP by Dr. John Hildebrand, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA) which is designed to sit on the seafloor and passively record acoustic signals. The package was deployed at a depth of 1320.7 m. The sampling rate was 500 Hz and the effective bandwidth from 10 to 250 Hz, covering the bandwidth of only the low-frequency calls of the Ross and leopard seal.

  17. The Influence of Roof Material on Diurnal Urban Canyon Breathing (United States)

    Abuhegazy, Mohamed; Yaghoobian, Neda


    Improvements in building energy use, air quality in urban canyons and in general urban microclimates require understanding the complex interaction between urban morphology, materials, climate, and inflow conditions. Review of the literature indicates that despite a long history of valuable urban microclimate studies, more comprehensive approaches are needed to address energy, and heat and flow transport in urban areas. In this study, a more comprehensive simulation of the diurnally varying street canyon flow and associated heat transport is numerically investigated, using Large-eddy Simulation (LES). We use computational modeling to examine the impact of diurnal variation of the heat fluxes from urban surfaces on the air flow and temperature distribution in street canyons with a focus on the role of roof materials and their temperature footprints. A detailed building energy model with a three-dimensional raster-type geometry provides urban surface heat fluxes as thermal boundary conditions for the LES to determine the key aero-thermodynamic factors that affect urban street ventilation.

  18. Extensive Regulation of Diurnal Transcription and Metabolism by Glucocorticoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Weger


    Full Text Available Altered daily patterns of hormone action are suspected to contribute to metabolic disease. It is poorly understood how the adrenal glucocorticoid hormones contribute to the coordination of daily global patterns of transcription and metabolism. Here, we examined diurnal metabolite and transcriptome patterns in a zebrafish glucocorticoid deficiency model by RNA-Seq, NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-based methods. We observed dysregulation of metabolic pathways including glutaminolysis, the citrate and urea cycles and glyoxylate detoxification. Constant, non-rhythmic glucocorticoid treatment rescued many of these changes, with some notable exceptions among the amino acid related pathways. Surprisingly, the non-rhythmic glucocorticoid treatment rescued almost half of the entire dysregulated diurnal transcriptome patterns. A combination of E-box and glucocorticoid response elements is enriched in the rescued genes. This simple enhancer element combination is sufficient to drive rhythmic circadian reporter gene expression under non-rhythmic glucocorticoid exposure, revealing a permissive function for the hormones in glucocorticoid-dependent circadian transcription. Our work highlights metabolic pathways potentially contributing to morbidity in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, even under glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Moreover, we provide mechanistic insight into the interaction between the circadian clock and glucocorticoids in the transcriptional regulation of metabolism.

  19. Extensive Regulation of Diurnal Transcription and Metabolism by Glucocorticoids. (United States)

    Weger, Benjamin D; Weger, Meltem; Görling, Benjamin; Schink, Andrea; Gobet, Cédric; Keime, Céline; Poschet, Gernot; Jost, Bernard; Krone, Nils; Hell, Rüdiger; Gachon, Frédéric; Luy, Burkhard; Dickmeis, Thomas


    Altered daily patterns of hormone action are suspected to contribute to metabolic disease. It is poorly understood how the adrenal glucocorticoid hormones contribute to the coordination of daily global patterns of transcription and metabolism. Here, we examined diurnal metabolite and transcriptome patterns in a zebrafish glucocorticoid deficiency model by RNA-Seq, NMR spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-based methods. We observed dysregulation of metabolic pathways including glutaminolysis, the citrate and urea cycles and glyoxylate detoxification. Constant, non-rhythmic glucocorticoid treatment rescued many of these changes, with some notable exceptions among the amino acid related pathways. Surprisingly, the non-rhythmic glucocorticoid treatment rescued almost half of the entire dysregulated diurnal transcriptome patterns. A combination of E-box and glucocorticoid response elements is enriched in the rescued genes. This simple enhancer element combination is sufficient to drive rhythmic circadian reporter gene expression under non-rhythmic glucocorticoid exposure, revealing a permissive function for the hormones in glucocorticoid-dependent circadian transcription. Our work highlights metabolic pathways potentially contributing to morbidity in patients with glucocorticoid deficiency, even under glucocorticoid replacement therapy. Moreover, we provide mechanistic insight into the interaction between the circadian clock and glucocorticoids in the transcriptional regulation of metabolism.

  20. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns (United States)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.


    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  1. Global distributions of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides: observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    Full Text Available HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Interferometer-UARS winds data have been analyzed in 4° latitude by 10° longitude cells at 96 km to obtain global contour maps of solar-tidal amplitudes and phases, and also mean winds. The solstices June–July (1993, December–January (1993–1994, and one equinox September–October (1994 are shown. 

    The 24-h diurnal tide that maximizes near the 20–25° latitude has significant seasonal changes with equinoctial maxima, and very clear longitudinal variability. Maxima are very clear over the oceans. In contrast, the 12-h semi-diurnal tides that maximize near the 40–55° latitude have very strong seasonal changes with winter maxima, and more modest longitudinal changes. The similarities with MLT (mesosphere-lower thermosphere radar observations (90 km and the GSWM (Global Scale Wave Model are very satisfactory. The mean winds are consistent with expectations and show clear poleward flow from summer to winter hemispheres in the solstices.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides Radio science (remote sensing

  2. Global distributions of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides: observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson


    Full Text Available HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Interferometer-UARS winds data have been analyzed in 4° latitude by 10° longitude cells at 96 km to obtain global contour maps of solar-tidal amplitudes and phases, and also mean winds. The solstices June–July (1993, December–January (1993–1994, and one equinox September–October (1994 are shown.  The 24-h diurnal tide that maximizes near the 20–25° latitude has significant seasonal changes with equinoctial maxima, and very clear longitudinal variability. Maxima are very clear over the oceans. In contrast, the 12-h semi-diurnal tides that maximize near the 40–55° latitude have very strong seasonal changes with winter maxima, and more modest longitudinal changes. The similarities with MLT (mesosphere-lower thermosphere radar observations (90 km and the GSWM (Global Scale Wave Model are very satisfactory. The mean winds are consistent with expectations and show clear poleward flow from summer to winter hemispheres in the solstices.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides Radio science (remote sensing

  3. A nonlinear relationship of generalized and central obesity with diurnal cortisol secretion in the Whitehall II study. (United States)

    Kumari, Meena; Chandola, Tarani; Brunner, Eric; Kivimaki, Mika


    Evidence for an association of measures of generalized and central obesity with salivary cortisol secretion is equivocal. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and salivary cortisol. The design was a cross-sectional study of BMI, waist circumference, and salivary cortisol from phase 7 (2002-2004) of the Whitehall II study. The occupational cohort was originally recruited in 1985-1988. Participants included 2915 men and 1041 women aged 50-74 yr with complete information on height, weight and waist circumference, and cortisol secretion. Saliva samples were taken on waking, waking plus 0.5, 2.5, 8, and 12 h, and bedtime for the assessment of cortisol. The cortisol awakening response and slope in diurnal secretion were calculated. After adjustment for age, sex, social position, waking time, and time since waking of sample collection, increasing central and generalized obesity was associated with lower waking cortisol (P = 0.001). U-shaped associations were apparent between diurnal slope in salivary cortisol and both BMI and waist circumference (P cortisol were associated with highest (>31 kg/m(2)) and lowest (levels of BMI, and the steepest slopes were apparent for those with BMI of 26 kg/m(2), independently of the 12 covariates examined. No associations were apparent for the cortisol awakening response (P > 0.05). The associations of measures of generalized and central obesity with diurnal slope in salivary cortisol are not linear in older adults. These nonlinear associations may explain previously described mixed findings.

  4. Diurnal periodicity in the activity of the common sole, solea vulgaris quensel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruuk, H.


    1. 1. The diurnal rhythm in the trawl catch of Solea vulgaris Quensel gave rise to this investigation into the diurnal activity rhythm of the fish. 2. 2. Periodicity in the food intake of the Sole in its natural habitat was studied by analyses of the contents of the intestines. Food intake

  5. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy : energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Gorter, Jenke A; Riede, Sjaak J; Hut, Roelof A

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The

  6. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy: energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, V.; Gorter, J.A.; Riede, S.J.; Hut, R.A.


    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The

  7. The influence of diurnal temperature variation on degree-day accumulation and insect life history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Chen

    Full Text Available Ectotherms, such as insects, experience non-constant temperatures in nature. Daily mean temperatures can be derived from the daily maximum and minimum temperatures. However, the converse is not true and environments with the same mean temperature can exhibit very different diurnal temperate ranges. Here we apply a degree-day model for development of the grape berry moth (Paralobesia viteana, a significant vineyard pest in the northeastern USA to investigate how different diurnal temperature range conditions can influence degree-day accumulation and, hence, insect life history. We first consider changes in diurnal temperature range independent of changes in mean temperatures. We then investigate grape berry moth life history under potential climate change conditions, increasing mean temperature via variable patterns of change to diurnal temperature range. We predict that diurnal temperature range change can substantially alter insect life history. Altering diurnal temperature range independent of the mean temperature can affect development rate and voltinism, with the magnitude of the effects dependent on whether changes occur to the daily minimum temperature (Tmin, daily maximum temperature (Tmax, or both. Allowing for an increase in mean temperature produces more marked effects on life history but, again, the patterns and magnitude depend on the nature of the change to diurnal temperature range together with the starting conditions in the local environment. The study highlights the importance of characterizing the influence of diurnal temperature range in addition to mean temperature alone.

  8. Diurnal variation in blood parameters in the chicken in the hot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variations in the levels of these parameters throughout the 24 hours were determined. Thirteen out of the parameters measured showed significant diurnal variations. These include RBC, PCV, Hb, MVC, WBC, Na+, K+, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALP, GPT and GGT. Keywords: Diurnal variation; blood picture; chicken.

  9. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The variability of sea surface temperature (SST) is widely studied due to its large impact on ocean–atmosphere interaction. Kawai and Wada. (2007) provides an excellent review on the impor- tance of the diurnal variability of SST on air– sea interaction. Diurnal variations in the SST affect longer time-scale variability events ...

  10. Annual and diurnal african biomass burning temporal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roberts


    Full Text Available Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning emissions. Here we conduct the first analysis of one full year of geostationary active fire detections and fire radiative power data recorded over Africa at 15-min temporal interval and a 3 km sub-satellite spatial resolution by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI imaging radiometer onboard the Meteosat-8 satellite. We use these data to provide new insights into the rates and totals of open biomass burning over Africa, particularly into the extremely strong seasonal and diurnal cycles that exist across the continent. We estimate peak daily biomass combustion totals to be 9 and 6 million tonnes of fuel per day in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively, and total fuel consumption between February 2004 and January 2005 is estimated to be at least 855 million tonnes. Analysis is carried out with regard to fire pixel temporal persistence, and we note that the majority of African fires are detected only once in consecutive 15 min imaging slots. An investigation of the variability of the diurnal fire cycle is carried out with respect to 20 different land cover types, and whilst differences are noted between land covers, the fire diurnal cycle characteristics for most land cover type are very similar in both African hemispheres. We compare the Fire Radiative Power (FRP derived biomass combustion estimates to burned-areas, both at the scale of individual fires and over the entire continent at a 1-degree scale. Fuel consumption estimates are found to be less than 2 kg/m2 for all land cover types noted to be subject to significant fire activity, and for savanna grasslands where literature values are commonly reported the FRP-derived median fuel consumption estimate of 300 g/m2 is well within commonly quoted values. Meteosat-derived FRP data of the type presented here is now available freely to interested users continuously and in near

  11. Estimation of evaporation from equilibrium diurnal boundary layer humidity (United States)

    Salvucci, G.; Rigden, A. J.; Li, D.; Gentine, P.


    Simplified conceptual models of the convective boundary layer as a well mixed profile of potential temperature (theta) and specific humidity (q) impinging on an initially stably stratified linear potential temperature profile have a long history in atmospheric sciences. These one dimensional representations of complex mixing are useful for gaining insights into land-atmosphere interactions and for prediction when state of the art LES approaches are infeasible. As previously shown (e.g. Betts), if one neglects the role of q in bouyancy, the framework yields a unique relation between mixed layer Theta, mixed layer height (h), and cumulative sensible heat flux (SH) throughout the day. Similarly assuming an initially q profile yields a simple relation between q, h, and cumulative latent heat flux (LH). The diurnal dynamics of theta and q are strongly dependent on SH and the initial lapse rates of theta (gamma_thet) and q (gamma q). In the estimation method proposed here, we further constrain these relations with two more assumptions: 1) The specific humidity is the same at the start of the period of boundary layer growth and at the collapse; and 2) Once the mixed layer reaches the LCL, further drying occurs proportionally to the deardorff convective velocity scale (omega) multiplied by q. Assumption (1) is based on the idea that below the cloud layer, there are no sinks of moisture within the mixed layer (neglecting lateral humidity divergence). Thus the net mixing of dry air aloft with evaporation from the surface must balance. Inclusion of the simple model of moisture loss above the LCL into the bulk-CBL model allows definition of an equilibrium humidity (q) condition at which the diurnal cycle of q repeats (i.e. additions of q from surface balance entrainment of dry air from above). Surprisingly, this framework allows estimation of LH from q, theta, and estimated net radiation by solving for the value of Evaporative Fraction (EF) for which the diurnal cycle of q

  12. Daily diurnal variation in admissions for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Shane


    BACKGROUND: Many vascular events, such as myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident, demonstrate a circadian pattern of presentation. Blood pressure is intimately related to these pathologies and is the one physiological variable consistently associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. It also demonstrates a diurnal variation. The purpose of this study was to determine if rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) exhibits a diurnal variation. METHODS: A retrospective cohort-based study was performed to determine the timing of presentation of RAAA to the vascular unit of Cork University Hospital over a 15-year period. Time of admission, symptom onset, and co-morbidities such as hypertension were noted. Fournier\\'s analysis and chi-squared analysis were performed. To ameliorate possible confounding factors, patients admitted with perforated peptic ulcers were examined in the same manner. RESULTS: A total of 148 cases of RAAA were identified, with a male preponderance (71.7% [124] male versus 29.3% [44] female patients) and a mean age of 74.4 +\\/- 7.2 years at presentation. 70.9% (105) were known to have hypertension, 52.2% (77) were current smokers, and 46.8% (69) were being treated for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD). Time of symptom onset was recorded in 88.5% (131) of patients. There was a marked early morning peak in RAAA admissions, with the highest number of RAAA being admitted between 08.00 and 09.59. A second, smaller peak was observed at 14.00-15.59. These findings were suggestive of diurnal variation. [chi(2) =16.75, p < 0.003]. Some 40% (59) of patients were admitted between 00.00 and 06.00, an incidence significantly higher than for other time periods (06.00-12.00, 12.00-18.00, and 18.00-24.00) [chi(2) = 18.72; df = 3; p < 0.0003]. A significantly higher number of patients admitted between 00.00 and 06.00 were known hypertensives (chi(2) = 7.94; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest a distinct

  13. Diurnal variation and reliability of the urine lactate concentration after maximal exercise. (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Stefanos; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Sougioultzis, Michail; Kabasakalis, Athanasios; Mougios, Vassilis


    The postexercise urine lactate concentration is a novel valid exercise biomarker, which has exhibited satisfactory reliability in the morning hours under controlled water intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diurnal variation of the postexercise urine lactate concentration and its reliability in the afternoon hours. Thirty-two healthy children (11 boys and 21 girls) and 23 adults (13 men and 10 women) participated in the study. All participants performed two identical sessions of eight 25 m bouts of maximal freestyle swimming executed every 2 min with passive recovery in between. These sessions were performed in the morning and afternoon and were separated by 3-4 days. Adults performed an additional afternoon session that was also separated by 3-4 days. All swimmers drank 500 mL of water before and another 500 mL after each test. Capillary blood and urine samples were collected before and after each test for lactate determination. Urine creatinine, urine density and body water content were also measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used as a reliability index between the morning and afternoon tests, as well as between the afternoon test and retest. Swimming performance and body water content exhibited excellent reliability in both children and adults. The postexercise blood lactate concentration did not show diurnal variation, showing a good reliability between the morning and afternoon tests, as well as high reliability between the afternoon test and retest. The postexercise urine density and lactate concentration were affected by time of day. However, when lactate was normalized to creatinine, it exhibited excellent reliability in children and good-to-high reliability in adults. The postexercise urine lactate concentration showed high reliability between the afternoon test and retest, independent of creatinine normalization. The postexercise blood and urine lactate concentrations were significantly correlated in all

  14. TIMP3 is a CLOCK-dependent diurnal gene that inhibits the expression of UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes. (United States)

    Park, Sunyoung; Kim, Kyuhan; Bae, Il-Hong; Lee, Sung Hoon; Jung, Jiyong; Lee, Tae Ryong; Cho, Eun-Gyung


    As the outermost physical barrier of an organism, the skin is diurnally exposed to UV radiation (UVR). Recent studies have revealed that the skin exhibits a circadian rhythm in various functions, and this oscillation is disturbed and reset via a strong environmental cue, the UVR. However, a molecular link between circadian perturbation by UVR and UVR-induced cellular responses has not been investigated. We identified tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase ( TIMP)- 3 as a novel circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK)-dependent diurnal gene by using a CLOCK-knockdown strategy in human keratinocytes. Among dozens of identified transcripts down-regulated by CLOCK knockdown, TIMP3 displayed a rhythmic expression in a CLOCK-dependent manner, in which the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)-1, and IL-8, were inversely regulated. Upon UVB exposure, the expression of CLOCK and TIMP3 was down-regulated, which led to an up-regulation of secretion of MMP1 and TNF-α proteins and in the transcription of CXCL1 and IL-8 via CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)-α. UVB-induced TNF-α secretion increased further or decreased by knockdown or overexpression of TIMP3, respectively, as well as by CLOCK. As a novel CLOCK-dependent diurnal gene, TIMP3 inhibits the expression of inflammatory cytokines that are up-regulated by UV irradiation in human keratinocytes. Thus, our work suggests a molecular link between circadian perturbation by UVR and UVR-induced inflammation.-Park, S., Kim, K., Bae, I.-H., Lee, S. H., Jung, J., Lee, T. R., Cho, E.-G. TIMP3 is a CLOCK-dependent diurnal gene that inhibits the expression of UVB-induced inflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes.

  15. Expert system controlled image display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swett, H.A.; Fisher, P.; Mutalik, P.


    Conventional medical expert systems deliver advice as text (a diagnosis, list, recommendation, or discussion). This may be quite useful in some areas of medical decision making but has distinct limitations in such a visually oriented discipline as diagnostic imaging, where decisions often depend on pattern recognition and the appreciation of subtle morphologic features. We are developing an expert system that displays groups of images as part of its intelligent output. This system uses a rule-based strategy to select images for display. They may be displayed because they share a common feature, cluster of features, or clinical history. Such a system may be useful as a diagnostic aid or for continuing medical education. It is likely to have particular value in the setting of picture archiving and communication systems

  16. Individual Differences in Diurnal Preference and Time-of-Exercise Interact to Predict Exercise Frequency. (United States)

    Hisler, Garrett C; Phillips, Alison L; Krizan, Zlatan


    Diurnal preference (and chronotype more generally) has been implicated in exercise behavior, but this relation has not been examined using objective exercise measurements nor have potential psychosocial mediators been examined. Furthermore, time-of-day often moderates diurnal preference's influence on outcomes, and it is unknown whether time-of-exercise may influence the relation between chronotype and exercise frequency. The current study examined whether individual differences in diurnal preference ("morningness-eveningness") predict unique variance in exercise frequency and if commonly studied psychosocial variables mediate this relation (i.e., behavioral intentions, internal exercise control, external exercise control, and conscientiousness). Moreover, the study sought to test whether individuals' typical time-of-exercise moderated the impact of diurnal preference on exercise frequency. One hundred twelve healthy adults (mean age = 25.4; SD = 11.6 years) completed baseline demographics and then wore Fitbit Zips® for 4 weeks to objectively measure exercise frequency and typical time-of-exercise. At the end of the study, participants also self-reported recent exercise. Diurnal preference predicted both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency. When evaluating mediators, only conscientiousness emerged as a partial mediator of the relation between diurnal preference and self-reported exercise. In addition, time-of-exercise moderated diurnal preference's relation to both self-reported exercise and Fitbit-recorded exercise frequency such that diurnal preference predicted higher exercise frequency when exercise occurred at a time that was congruent with one's diurnal preference. Based on these findings, diurnal preference is valuable, above and beyond other psychological constructs, in predicting exercise frequency and represents an important variable to incorporate into interventions seeking to increase exercise.

  17. Drag and drop display & builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab


    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  18. Presumed symbolic use of diurnal raptors by Neanderthals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugène Morin

    Full Text Available In Africa and western Eurasia, occurrences of burials and utilized ocher fragments during the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene are often considered evidence for the emergence of symbolically-mediated behavior. Perhaps less controversial for the study of human cognitive evolution are finds of marine shell beads and complex designs on organic and mineral artifacts in early modern human (EMH assemblages conservatively dated to ≈ 100-60 kilo-years (ka ago. Here we show that, in France, Neanderthals used skeletal parts of large diurnal raptors presumably for symbolic purposes at Combe-Grenal in a layer dated to marine isotope stage (MIS 5b (≈ 90 ka and at Les Fieux in stratigraphic units dated to the early/middle phase of MIS 3 (60-40 ka. The presence of similar objects in other Middle Paleolithic contexts in France and Italy suggest that raptors were used as means of symbolic expression by Neanderthals in these regions.

  19. Providing Diurnal Sky Cover Data at ARM Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebe, Dimitri I. [Solmirus Corporation, Colorado Springs, CO (United States)


    The Solmirus Corporation was awarded two-year funding to perform a comprehensive data analysis of observations made during Solmirus’ 2009 field campaign (conducted from May 21 to July 27, 2009 at the ARM SGP site) using their All Sky Infrared Visible Analyzer (ASIVA) instrument. The objective was to develop a suite of cloud property data products for the ASIVA instrument that could be implemented in real time and tailored for cloud modelers. This final report describes Solmirus’ research and findings enabled by this grant. The primary objective of this award was to develop a diurnal sky cover (SC) data product utilizing the ASIVA’s infrared (IR) radiometrically-calibrated data and is described in detail. Other data products discussed in this report include the sky cover derived from ASIVA’s visible channel and precipitable water vapor, cloud temperature (both brightness and color), and cloud height inferred from ASIVA’s IR channels.

  20. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.


    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  1. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Kuras


    Full Text Available Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR. Healthy adults aged 18–65 (n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R2 = 0.21, as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R2 = 0.22, but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R2 = 0.12. Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  2. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity. (United States)

    Kuras, Yuliya I; Assaf, Naomi; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Fiksdal, Alexander; Rohleder, Nicolas


    Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR). Healthy adults aged 18-65 ( n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R 2 = 0.21), as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R 2 = 0.22), but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R 2 = 0.12). Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  3. Monthly and diurnal variations of limnological conditions of two ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKM Fazlur Rahaman


    Full Text Available A study on monthly and diurnal changes of limnological conditions of two ponds was conducted in the Bangladesh Agricultural University campus, Mymensingh. The research work was performed by studying the limnological parameters such as transparency, temperature, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, pH, total alkalinity, nitrate-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus and plankton. Diurnal variations of physico-chemical factors were studied fortnightly at 6 hrs intervals at 6 a.m., 12 noon, 6 p.m. and 12 midnight. The amounts of transparency, dissolved oxygen and pH were higher during winter months than in summer months in both the ponds. Transparency, water temperature, total alkalinity, NO3-N and PO4-P were higher during summer months than in winter months in both the ponds. But the amount of free carbon dioxide was higher during winter months than in summer months in pond 1 while in pond 2 the amount of free carbon dioxide was higher during summer months than in winter months. Qualitative and quantitative monthly variations of phytoplankton and zooplankton were observed in both the ponds during the study period. The highest amount of dissolved oxygen, pH and total alkalinity were recorded at 6 p.m. and the lowest amounts of those at 6 a.m. in both the ponds. The highest temperature was recorded at 12 noon and the lowest at 12 midnight. But the highest amount of free carbon dioxide was recorded at 6 a.m. and the lowest at 6 p.m. in both the ponds. All the factors showed appreciable diel variations throughout the study period, which indicate that the ponds are productive.

  4. Effects of season and diurnal period on the body physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2001) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Diurnal variations in the outcomes of instrumented gait and quiet standing balance assessments and their association with falls history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doheny, Emer P; Greene, Barry R; Foran, Timothy; Cunningham, Clodagh; Fan, Chie Wei; Kenny, Rose Anne


    One in three adults aged over 65 falls every year, resulting in enormous costs to society. Incidents of falling vary with time of day, peaking in the early morning. The aim of this study was to determine if the ability of instrumented gait and balance assessments to discriminate between participants based on their falls history varies diurnally. Body-worn sensors were used during a 3 m gait assessment and a series of quiet standing balance tests. Each assessment was performed four times during a single day under supervised conditions in the participant's homes. 40 adults aged over 60 years (19 fallers) participated in this study. A range of parameters were derived for each assessment, and the ability of each parameter to discriminate between fallers and non-fallers at each recording time was examined. The effect of falls history on single support time varied significantly with recording time, with a significantly reduced single support time observed at the first and last recording session of the day. Differences were observed between fallers and non-fallers for a range of other gait parameters; however, these effects did not vary with assessment time. The quiet standing assessments examined in this study revealed significant variations with falls history; however, the sensitivity of the examined quiet standing assessments to falls risk does not appear to be time dependent. These results indicate that, with the exception of single support time, the association of gait and quiet standing balance parameters with falls risk does not vary diurnally. (paper)

  6. Static antennae act as locomotory guides that compensate for visual motion blur in a diurnal, keen-eyed predator. (United States)

    Zurek, Daniel B; Gilbert, Cole


    High visual acuity allows parallel processing of distant environmental features, but only when photons are abundant enough. Diurnal tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) have acute vision for insects and visually pursue prey in open, flat habitats. Their fast running speed causes motion blur that degrades visual contrast, forces stop-and-go pursuit and potentially impairs obstacle detection. We demonstrate here that vision is insufficient for obstacle detection during running, and show instead that antennal touch is both necessary and sufficient for obstacle detection. While running, tiger beetle vision appears to be photon-limited in a way reminiscent of animals in low-light habitats. Such animals often acquire wide-field spatial information through mechanosensation mediated by longer, more mobile appendages. We show that a nocturnal tiger beetle species waves its antennae in elliptical patterns typical of poorly sighted insects. While antennae of diurnal species are also used for mechanosensation, they are rigidly held forward with the tips close to the substrate. This enables timely detection of path obstructions followed by an increase in body pitch to avoid collision. Our results demonstrate adaptive mechanosensory augmentation of blurred visual information during fast locomotion, and suggest that future studies may reveal non-visual sensory compensation in other fast-moving animals.

  7. Real Time Sonic Boom Display (United States)

    Haering, Ed


    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  8. Evaluation of Digital Mammography Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pisano, Etta


    .... We have developed a mammography workstation that is easy to use and fast. The observer studies that will determine the diagnostic accuracy and acceptability of the digital mammograms and the soft copy display are presently under way and the results will be known by the end of the year, 1999.

  9. Information retrieval and display system (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.


    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  10. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia


    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  11. Modern Display Technologies and Applications (United States)


    laboratory models of display devices have been demonstrated, such devices are not yet being considered for produccion . It is not apparent that they will...e.g. 1,1’-diheptyl - 4,4’ bipyridil brnmide ( salt with an organic cation-); commonly used in an aqueous solution and subsequently electrochemically

  12. Book Display as Adult Service. (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.


    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  13. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts. (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.


    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  14. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL


    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  15. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.


    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  16. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm


    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  17. Ruggedized Full-Color Flexible OLED Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hack, Michael


    .... The team comprised Universal Display Corporation, Princeton University, the University of Southern California, Penn State University, L3 Displays and Vitex Systems, and was led by Universal Display Corporation (PI: Michael Hack...

  18. Colorful displays signal male quality in a tropical anole lizard (United States)

    Cook, Ellee G.; Murphy, Troy G.; Johnson, Michele A.


    Parasites influence colorful ornaments and their behavioral display in many animal hosts. Because coloration and display behavior are often critical components of communication, variation in these traits may have important implications for individual fitness, yet it remains unclear whether such traits are signals of quality in many taxa. We investigated the association between ectoparasitic mite load and the color and behavioral use of the throat fan (dewlap) by male Anolis brevirostris lizards. We found that heavily parasitized lizards exhibited lower body condition, duller dewlaps, and less frequent dewlap displays than less parasitized individuals. Our results thus suggest that highly parasitized individuals invest less in both ornamental color and behavioral display of that color. Because the two components of the signal simultaneously provide information on male quality, this study provides novel support for the long-standing hypothesis that colorful traits may function as social or sexual signals in reptiles.

  19. Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystal Displays. (United States)

    Lu, Zhijian

    Reflective cholesteric displays have two states at zero field, a Bragg reflecting planar texture and a weakly scattering focal conic texture. The performance of such a display depends on the stability and optical property of these textures. In this dissertation, various surface alignment layers are studied in order to optimize display performance and to understand physical and optical properties. Results show that non-homogeneous alignment layers fracture the planar texture and produce a multidomain structure as well as stabilize the focal conic texture. In the multidomain structure, the orientations of helical axes are distributed about the normal of the display cell, resulting in a wide viewing angle. The reflecting properties of the multidomain planar texture are quantitatively modeled using Berreman's 4 x 4 formalism. A gaussian type function adequately describe the helical axis orientation distribution. When the alignment condition is varied from tangential to homeotropic, the orientation of the helical axes becomes more broadly distributed. Reflective displays with high contrast ratios and wide viewing angles are achieved by using tilted or homeotropic alignment layers. The switching mechanism between the two stable textures of the reflective displays is of great importance not only for designing drive scheme but also for understanding the fundamental dynamics of the texture transitions. Planar texture can be transformed into focal conic texture directly by applying a relatively low field. The transition from focal conic to planar texture can only be realized by first switching the cholesteric liquid crystals into the homeotropic texture and then allowing the homeotropic texture to relax to the planar texture. In the relaxation, a transient planar texture with pitch, {K_{33 }over K_{22}}P_ {o} is observed by using optical reflection measurement. The transition time from the homeotropic texture to the transient planar texture is on the order of 1 ms and is

  20. Satellite, climatological, and theoretical inputs for modeling of the diurnal cycle of fire emissions (United States)

    Hyer, E. J.; Reid, J. S.; Schmidt, C. C.; Giglio, L.; Prins, E.


    The diurnal cycle of fire activity is crucial for accurate simulation of atmospheric effects of fire emissions, especially at finer spatial and temporal scales. Estimating diurnal variability in emissions is also a critical problem for construction of emissions estimates from multiple sensors with variable coverage patterns. An optimal diurnal emissions estimate will use as much information as possible from satellite fire observations, compensate known biases in those observations, and use detailed theoretical models of the diurnal cycle to fill in missing information. As part of ongoing improvements to the Fire Location and Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) fire monitoring system, we evaluated several different methods of integrating observations with different temporal sampling. We used geostationary fire detections from WF_ABBA, fire detection data from MODIS, empirical diurnal cycles from TRMM, and simple theoretical diurnal curves based on surface heating. Our experiments integrated these data in different combinations to estimate the diurnal cycles of emissions for each location and time. Hourly emissions estimates derived using these methods were tested using an aerosol transport model. We present results of this comparison, and discuss the implications of our results for the broader problem of multi-sensor data fusion in fire emissions modeling.

  1. Contribution of diurnal and nocturnal insects to the pollination of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae) in southwestern China. (United States)

    Luo, Chang W; Huang, Zachary Y; Chen, Xiao M; Li, Kun; Chen, You; Sun, Yong Y


    Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is being increasingly planted worldwide, but questions remain regarding its pollination biology. This study examined the contribution of diurnal and nocturnal insects to the pollination of monoecious J. curcas, through its floral biology, pollination ecology, and foraging behavior of potential pollinators. Nectar production of both male and female flowers peaked in the morning, declined in the afternoon, and rapidly bottomed during the night in all of their anthesis days. The diurnal visitors to the flowers of J. curcas are bees and flies, and the nocturnal visitors are moths. Flowers received significantly more visits by diurnal insects than by nocturnal insects. Through bagging flowers during night or day or both or exclusion, we compared fruit and seed production caused by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators. Both nocturnal and diurnal visitors were successful pollinators. However, flowers exposed only to nocturnal visitors produced less fruits than those exposed only to diurnal visitors. Thus, diurnal pollinators contribute more to seed production by J. curcas at the study site.

  2. Mice Lacking EGR1 Have Impaired Clock Gene (BMAL1) Oscillation, Locomotor Activity, and Body Temperature. (United States)

    Riedel, Casper Schwartz; Georg, Birgitte; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Hannibal, Jens; Fahrenkrug, Jan


    Early growth response transcription factor 1 (EGR1) is expressed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) after light stimulation. We used EGR1-deficient mice to address the role of EGR1 in the clock function and light-induced resetting of the clock. The diurnal rhythms of expression of the clock genes BMAL1 and PER1 in the SCN were evaluated by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization. We found no difference in the expression of PER1 mRNA between wildtype and EGR1-deficient mice; however, the daily rhythm of BMAL1 mRNA was completely abolished in the EGR1-deficient mice. In addition, we evaluated the circadian running wheel activity, telemetric locomotor activity, and core body temperature of the mice. Loss of EGR1 neither altered light-induced phase shifts at subjective night nor affected negative masking. Overall, circadian light entrainment was found in EGR1-deficient mice but they displayed a reduced locomotor activity and an altered temperature regulation compared to wild type mice. When placed in running wheels, a subpopulation of EGR1-deficient mice displayed a more disrupted activity rhythm with no measurable endogenous period length (tau). In conclusion, the present study provides the first evidence that the circadian clock in the SCN is disturbed in mice deficient of EGR1.

  3. Psychogenic fever: how psychological stress affects body temperature in the clinical population (United States)

    Oka, Takakazu


    Psychogenic fever is a stress-related, psychosomatic disease especially seen in young women. Some patients develop extremely high core body temperature (Tc) (up to 41°C) when they are exposed to emotional events, whereas others show persistent low-grade high Tc (37–38°C) during situations of chronic stress. The mechanism for psychogenic fever is not yet fully understood. However, clinical case reports demonstrate that psychogenic fever is not attenuated by antipyretic drugs, but by psychotropic drugs that display anxiolytic and sedative properties, or by resolving patients' difficulties via natural means or psychotherapy. Animal studies have demonstrated that psychological stress increases Tc via mechanisms distinct from infectious fever (which requires proinflammatory mediators) and that the sympathetic nervous system, particularly β3-adrenoceptor-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue, plays an important role in the development of psychological stress-induced hyperthermia. Acute psychological stress induces a transient, monophasic increase in Tc. In contrast, repeated stress induces anticipatory hyperthermia, reduces diurnal changes in Tc, or slightly increases Tc throughout the day. Chronically stressed animals also display an enhanced hyperthermic response to a novel stress, while past fearful experiences induce conditioned hyperthermia to the fear context. The high Tc that psychogenic fever patients develop may be a complex of these diverse kinds of hyperthermic responses. PMID:27227051

  4. Transparent stereoscopic display and application (United States)

    Ranieri, Nicola; Seifert, Hagen; Gross, Markus


    Augmented reality has become important to our society as it can enrich the actual world with virtual information. Transparent screens offer one possibility to overlay rendered scenes with the environment, acting both as display and window. In this work, we review existing transparent back-projection screens for the use with active and passive stereo. Advantages and limitations are described and, based on these insights, a passive stereoscopic system using an anisotropic back-projection foil is proposed. To increase realism, we adapt rendered content to the viewer's position using a Kinect tracking system, which adds motion parallax to the binocular cues. A technique well known in control engineering is used to decrease latency and increase frequency of the tracker. Our transparent stereoscopic display prototype provides immersive viewing experience and is suitable for many augmented reality applications.

  5. Interactive displays in medical art (United States)

    Mcconathy, Deirdre Alla; Doyle, Michael


    Medical illustration is a field of visual communication with a long history. Traditional medical illustrations are static, 2-D, printed images; highly realistic depictions of the gross morphology of anatomical structures. Today medicine requires the visualization of structures and processes that have never before been seen. Complex 3-D spatial relationships require interpretation from 2-D diagnostic imagery. Pictures that move in real time have become clinical and research tools for physicians. Medical illustrators are involved with the development of interactive visual displays for three different, but not discrete, functions: as educational materials, as clinical and research tools, and as data bases of standard imagery used to produce visuals. The production of interactive displays in the medical arts is examined.

  6. Reconfigurable Auditory-Visual Display (United States)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor); Anderson, Mark R. (Inventor); McClain, Bryan (Inventor); Miller, Joel D. (Inventor)


    System and method for visual and audible communication between a central operator and N mobile communicators (N greater than or equal to 2), including an operator transceiver and interface, configured to receive and display, for the operator, visually perceptible and audibly perceptible signals from each of the mobile communicators. The interface (1) presents an audible signal from each communicator as if the audible signal is received from a different location relative to the operator and (2) allows the operator to select, to assign priority to, and to display, the visual signals and the audible signals received from a specified communicator. Each communicator has an associated signal transmitter that is configured to transmit at least one of the visual signals and the audio signal associated with the communicator, where at least one of the signal transmitters includes at least one sensor that senses and transmits a sensor value representing a selected environmental or physiological parameter associated with the communicator.

  7. Game engines and immersive displays (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc


    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  8. Diurnal Lhc gene expression is present in many but not all species of the plant kingdom. (United States)

    Oberschmidt, O; Hücking, C; Piechulla, B


    The diurnal and circadian expression of light-harvesting genes (Lhc) is well documented for many plant species of the 'Angiospermae' division. Here we present the diurnal mRNA levels of species of the Gymnospermae, Pteridophyta, Bryophyta and Phycophyta divisions. Except for four Coniferophytina species, diurnal Lhc mRNA accumulation is detected in fern, moss and algae, supporting the idea that the concept of 'ciracadian clock'-controlled gene expression is an ancient process. Possible reasons why plants need the 'circadian clock' control mechanism are discussed.

  9. Using a 1-D model to reproduce the diurnal variability of SST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.; Donlon, Craig J.


    preferred approach to bridge the gap between in situ and remotely sensed measurements and obtain diurnal warming estimates at large spatial scales is modeling of the upper ocean temperature. This study uses the one-dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) to resolve diurnal signals identified from...... forcing fields and is able to resolve daily SST variability seen both from satellite and in situ measurements. As such, and due to its low computational cost, it is proposed as a candidate model for diurnal variability estimates....

  10. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob


    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  11. Family income and appraisals of parental conflict as predictors of psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol in emerging adulthood. (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Hostinar, Camelia E


    The goal of the current study was to provide the first investigation of whether appraisals of parental marital conflict mediate associations of family income with emerging adult psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol production. Participants were 178 college students who provided 3 saliva samples across the day and reported their family income, adjustment (depressive symptoms, perceived daily stress, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems), and appraisals of their parents' conflict (including perceptions of frequency, intensity, resolution, stability, as well as perceived threat and self-blame for conflict). Results indicated that emerging adults from low-income families reported more-negative conflict appraisals, which in turn predicted lower levels of adjustment; there was no association between income and patterns of cortisol production across the day. However, emerging adults who felt responsible for their parents' conflict displayed cortisol levels that were lower early in the day, with a tendency toward blunted cortisol slopes across the day; those who appraised their parents' conflict less negatively displayed a more normative pattern of cortisol production. These results suggest that effects of family income on psychological adjustment are explained, in part, by appraisals of parental conflict, particularly of appraisals of conflict as threatening, whereas self-blame conflict appraisals have main effects on cortisol, and predict a dysregulated and potentially maladaptive pattern of cortisol production across the day for emerging adults.

  12. Origin of the Animal Circadian Clock: Diurnal and Light-Entrained Gene Expression in the Sponge Amphimedon queenslandica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Jindrich


    Full Text Available The circadian clock is a molecular network that coordinates organismal behavior and physiology with daily environmental changes in the day-night cycle. In eumetazoans (bilaterians + cnidarians, this network appears to be largely conserved, yet different from other known eukaryotic circadian networks. To determine if the eumetazoan circadian network has an older origin, we ask here whether orthologs comprising this network are expressed in a manner consistent with a role in regulating circadian patterns in a representative of an earlier-branching animal lineage, the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica. The A. queenslandica genome encodes orthologs of many eumetazoan circadian genes, including two cryptochrome genes that encode flavoproteins, three Timeout genes, and two PAR-bZIP and seven bHLH-PAS transcription factor genes. There is no apparent Cycle ortholog, although we can identify three closely related ARNT genes. Of the putative circadian genes, only AqPARa and AqCry2 have a consistent oscillating diurnal expression profile, and the rhythmic expression of both these genes is partially lost when the animals are exposed to constant light or darkness. Expression of the other putative circadian genes, in particular AqClock, is neither diurnally-oscillating nor light-dependent. AqPARa and AqCry2 are also temporally and spatially co-expressed throughout embryonic and larval development. Transcripts of these genes are enriched first in cells comprising the larval posterior pigment ring, which is a simple photosensory organ that is responsible for the negative phototactic behavior displayed by larvae, and subsequently in the larval epithelial and subepithelial layers. The combined findings of no clear Cycle ortholog and of PAR-bZIP and cryptochrome being the only orthologs expressed in a pattern consistent with a circadian role suggests that either (i the ancestral metazoan circadian network was simpler than the eumetazoan network, or (ii that this

  13. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; van der Vet, P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, Antinus; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.


    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display

  14. Diurnal, semidiurnal, and fortnightly tidal components in orthotidal proglacial rivers. (United States)

    Briciu, Andrei-Emil


    The orthotidal rivers are a new concept referring to inland rivers influenced by gravitational tides through the groundwater tides. "Orthotidal signals" is intended to describe tidal signals found in inland streamwaters (with no oceanic input); these tidal signals were locally generated and then exported into streamwaters. Here, we show that orthotidal signals can be found in proglacial rivers due to the gravitational tides affecting the glaciers and their surrounding areas. The gravitational tides act on glacier through earth and atmospheric tides, while the subglacial water is affected in a manner similar to the groundwater tides. We used the wavelet analysis in order to find tidally affected streamwaters. T_TIDE analyses were performed for discovering the tidal constituents. Tidal components with 0.95 confidence level are as follows: O1, PI1, P1, S1, K1, PSI1, M2, T2, S2, K2, and MSf. The amplitude of the diurnal tidal constituents is strongly influenced by the daily thermal cycle. The average amplitude of the semidiurnal tidal constituents is less altered and ranges from 0.0007 to 0.0969 m. The lunisolar synodic fortnightly oscillation, found in the time series of the studied river gauges, is a useful signal for detecting orthotidal rivers when using noisier data. The knowledge of the orthotidal oscillations is useful for modeling fine resolution changes in rivers.

  15. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.


    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  16. Diurnal modulation signal from dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Foot


    Full Text Available We consider a simple generic dissipative dark matter model: a hidden sector featuring two dark matter particles charged under an unbroken U(1′ interaction. Previous work has shown that such a model has the potential to explain dark matter phenomena on both large and small scales. In this framework, the dark matter halo in spiral galaxies features nontrivial dynamics, with the halo energy loss due to dissipative interactions balanced by a heat source. Ordinary supernovae can potentially supply this heat provided kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ϵ∼10−9. This type of kinetically mixed dark matter can be probed in direct detection experiments. Importantly, this self-interacting dark matter can be captured within the Earth and shield a dark matter detector from the halo wind, giving rise to a diurnal modulation effect. We estimate the size of this effect for detectors located in the Southern hemisphere, and find that the modulation is large (≳10% for a wide range of parameters.

  17. Unravelling Diurnal Asymmetry of Surface Temperature in Different Climate Zones. (United States)

    Vinnarasi, R; Dhanya, C T; Chakravorty, Aniket; AghaKouchak, Amir


    Understanding the evolution of Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR), which has contradicting global and regional trends, is crucial because it influences environmental and human health. Here, we analyse the regional evolution of DTR trend over different climatic zones in India using a non-stationary approach known as the Multidimensional Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (MEEMD) method, to explore the generalized influence of regional climate on DTR, if any. We report a 0.36 °C increase in overall mean of DTR till 1980, however, the rate has declined since then. Further, arid deserts and warm-temperate grasslands exhibit negative DTR trends, while the west coast and sub-tropical forest in the north-east show positive trends. This transition predominantly begins with a 0.5 °C increase from the west coast and spreads with an increase of 0.25 °C per decade. These changes are more pronounced during winter and post-monsoon, especially in the arid desert and warm-temperate grasslands, the DTR decreased up to 2 °C, where the rate of increase in minimum temperature is higher than the maximum temperature. We conclude that both maximum and minimum temperature increase in response to the global climate change, however, their rates of increase are highly local and depend on the underlying climatic zone.

  18. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq-variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duma


    Full Text Available Statistic analyses demonstrate that the probability of earthquake occurrence in many earthquake regions strongly depends on the time of day, that is on Local Time (e.g. Conrad, 1909, 1932; Shimshoni, 1971; Duma, 1997; Duma and Vilardo, 1998. This also applies to strong earthquake activity. Moreover, recent observations reveal an involvement of the regular diurnal variations of the Earth’s magnetic field, commonly known as Sq-variations, in this geodynamic process of changing earthquake activity with the time of day (Duma, 1996, 1999. In the article it is attempted to quantify the forces which result from the interaction between the induced Sq-variation currents in the Earth’s lithosphere and the regional Earth’s magnetic field, in order to assess the influence on the tectonic stress field and on seismic activity. A reliable model is obtained, which indicates a high energy involved in this process. The effect of Sq-induction is compared with the results of the large scale electromagnetic experiment "Khibiny" (Velikhov, 1989, where a giant artificial current loop was activated in the Barents Sea.

  19. Listening to music affects diurnal variation in muscle power output. (United States)

    Chtourou, H; Chaouachi, A; Hammouda, O; Chamari, K; Souissi, N


    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music while warming-up on the diurnal variations of power output during the Wingate test. 12 physical education students underwent four Wingate tests at 07:00 and 17:00 h, after 10 min of warm-up with and without listening to music. The warm-up consisted of 10 min of pedalling at a constant pace of 60 rpm against a light load of 1 kg. During the Wingate test, peak and mean power were measured. The main finding was that peak and mean power improved from morning to afternoon after no music warm-up (pmusic warm-up. Moreover, peak and mean power were significantly higher after music than no music warm-up during the two times of testing. Thus, as it is a legal method and an additional aid, music should be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions, especially in the morning competitive events. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change. (United States)

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon


    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species.

  1. Study on the Diurnal Variation of the Plasma Immunoreactive Glucagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Kyu; Hong, Kee Suk; Kim, Byoung Kook; Koh, Chang Soon; Chung, June Key; Kim, Eui Chong


    It is well known that glucagon, like insulin, is very important in the moment-to-moment control of the homeostasis of glucose, and of amino acids. Glucagon has been shown to have potent glycogenolytic, gluconeogenic and lipolytic activities. Attention to its role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia has been also advanced recently. To evaluate the diurnal variation of plasma glucagon concentration, we measured serum glucose, insulin, and plasma glucagon every 30 minutes or every hour in 7 normal Korean adults. Results were as follows: 1) Although plasma glucagon concentration showed wide individual variations, it had a tendency to decrease after meals. After lunch and dinner, plasma glucagon concentration had gradually declined and reached its nadir at postprandial 2-2.5 hours. The minimal level of plasma glucagon was at 4 A.M. 2) Serum insulin:plasma glucagon ratios were increased promptly after meals. Especially after lunch, its peak was prominent (3.65 ± 1. 95). The minimal level of serum insulin:plasma glucagon ratio appeared at 6 A.M.

  2. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results (United States)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S.; Williams, H. R.


    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system; and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  3. Impact of Diurnal Variation of Winds on Coastal Waves off South East Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P G Remya


    Full Text Available The land-sea breeze systems, the most interesting phenomena observed at coastal regions, have significant impact on the costal wave characteristics. Present study also focuses the diurnal variations of winds and its impact on wave parameters like significant wave height and mean wave period off Ennore port located in the south east coast of India The impact of the diurnal variation of winds on complex wave patterns in the coastal regions of Indian Ocean have been addressed earlier also. In the present study an attempt has been made to explore the impact of diurnal variation of winds on coastal waves using numerical model forced with European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF and National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP blended wind fields. It has been observed that most of the time, the ECMWF blended wind field reproduces the diurnal variation.

  4. Diurnal variation in glycogen phosphorylase activity in rat liver. A quantitative histochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frederiks, W. M.; Marx, F.; Bosch, K. S.


    The diurnal variations of the glycogen content and of glycogen phosphorylase activity in periportal and pericentral areas of rat liver parenchyma have been analyzed in periodic acid Schiff (PAS)-stained cryostat sections using quantitative microdensitometry. Glycogen content and phosphorylase

  5. Diurnal Variation over the Tropical Monsoon Regions During Northern Summer 1991

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jimenez, Greg


    This study examines diurnal variation of convection over western India, the Bay of Bengal, Indochina and the northern South China Sea during the 1991 northern summer monsoon using combined Japanese (GMS) and Indian (INSAT...

  6. Diurnal variation of summer precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau. A cloud-resolving simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianyu; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Minghuan [China Meteorological Administration, Wuhan (China). Wuhan Inst. of Heavy Rain; Wang, Huijuan [Weather Modification Office of Hubei Province, Wuhan (China)


    In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model was used to simulate the diurnal variation in summer precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) at a cloudresolving scale. Compared with the TRMM, precipitation data shows that the model can well simulate the diurnal rainfall cycle with an overall late-afternoon maximum precipitation in the central TP and a nighttime maximum in the southern edge. The simulated diurnal variations in regional circulation and thermodynamics are in good correspondence with the precipitation diurnal cycles in the central and southern edge of TP, respectively. A possible mechanism responsible for the nocturnal precipitation maximum in the southern edge has been proposed, indicating the importance of the TP in regulating the regional circulation and precipitation. (orig.)

  7. Endocrine and metabolic diurnal rhythms in young adult men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Saltbæk, Pernille N; Friedrichsen, Martin


    for 24 h, to measure levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG), insulin, C-peptide, leptin, resistin, ghrelin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), incretins (GLP-1 and GIP), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) in 13 young men born SGA and 11 young men born AGA. RESULTS......: Repeated measurements analyses were used to analyze the diurnal variations and differences between groups. The SGA subjects had increased 24-h glucose (P=0.03), glucagon (P=0.03) and resistin (P=0.003) levels with no difference in diurnal rhythms compared with AGA controls. We found significant diurnal...... exhibit elevated 24-h blood glucose, and plasma glucagon and resistin levels with no major differences in diurnal rhythms of these or other key metabolic hormones, substrates or inflammatory markers implicated in the origin of adiposity and T2D....

  8. A longitudinal study of diurnal mood variation in depression; characteristics and significance. (United States)

    Gordijn, M C; Beersma, D G; Bouhuys, A L; Reinink, E; Van den Hoofdakker, R H


    The course of 39 depressed in-patients' daily mood was recorded by means of frequent self-ratings during their entire stay (in total 3718 days). The frequency of diurnal variations largely varies between subjects without clear dichotomy in 'diurnal' and 'non-diurnal' subjects and the occurrence of diurnal variations is rather irregular. Mood variability measures rather than average daily mood improvement correlate with the response to sleep deprivation. These observations do not support theories of chronobiological rhythm disturbances in depression. It is argued that depressed subjects largely vary in susceptibility to stimuli. Signals generated by the biological clock or by processes related to the sleep-wake cycle are considered examples of such stimuli.

  9. Corrigendum: Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span. (United States)


    Original article: Zilioli, S., Slatcher, R. B., Chi, P., Li, X., Zhao, J., & Zhao, G. (2016). Childhood adversity, self-esteem, and diurnal cortisol profiles across the life span. Psychological Science, 27, 1249-1265. doi:10.1177/0956797616658287.

  10. Seasonal and diurnal variability of thermal structure in the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.; Chandramohan, P.

    Seasonal and diurnal variability of thermal structure in the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam has been examined in relation to the flow field and surface winds utilizing the hourly data of temperature and currents taken at a fixed location over a...

  11. DP: Parameter Display Page Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.


    The Parameter Display Page program (DP) is a Motif/X11-based program to allow easily configured, dynamic device and process variable monitoring and manipulation in the EPICS environment. DP provides a tabular data format for interactive viewing and manipulation of device and process variable statistics, as well as formatted PostScript output to files and printers. DP understands and operates in two (unfortunately disjoint at this time) namespaces in the EPICS environment ''devices'' and ''process variables''. The higher level namespace of devices includes Composite and Atomic Devices registered via the Device Access server; the lower level (flat) namespace is that of normal Process Variables accessible via Channel Access

  12. Diurnal cortisol slopes and mental and physical health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Adam, Emma K; Quinn, Meghan E; Tavernier, Royette; McQuillan, Mollie T; Dahlke, Katie A; Gilbert, Kirsten E


    Changes in levels of the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol from morning to evening are referred to as diurnal cortisol slopes. Flatter diurnal cortisol slopes have been proposed as a mediator between chronic psychosocial stress and poor mental and physical health outcomes in past theory and research. Surprisingly, neither a systematic nor a meta-analytic review of associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and health has been conducted to date, despite extensive literature on the topic. The current systematic review and meta-analysis examined associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and physical and mental health outcomes. Analyses were based on 179 associations from 80 studies for the time period up to January 31, 2015. Results indicated a significant association between flatter diurnal cortisol slopes and poorer health across all studies (average effect size, r=0.147). Further, flatter diurnal cortisol slopes were associated with poorer health in 10 out of 12 subtypes of emotional and physical health outcomes examined. Among these subtypes, the effect size was largest for immune/inflammation outcomes (r=0.288). Potential moderators of the associations between diurnal cortisol slopes and health outcomes were examined, including type of slope measure and study quality indices. The possible roles of flatter slopes as either a marker or a mechanism for disease etiology are discussed. We argue that flatter diurnal cortisol slopes may both reflect and contribute to stress-related dysregulation of central and peripheral circadian mechanisms, with corresponding downstream effects on multiple aspects of biology, behavior, and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Diurnal Pattern Recorder System. Final order. (United States)


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the diurnal pattern recorder system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the diurnal pattern recorder system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  14. Dry season and diurnal surveys of phylloplane fungi of Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria


    J. A. Okhuoya; C. O. Ahweyevu


    Monthly and diurnal variation of phylloplane fungi of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) leaves were studied over a period of four months in the dry season, using two culturing methods. Composite fungal population was the highest in April and the lowest in February. Serial dilution method recorded the higher number of fungal spores than ballistospore method. Mature leaves were found to have more fungal spores than premature and young leaves. Spore concentration on the leaves showed diurnal periodici...

  15. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.


    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Display of album of user selected coronal/ sagital/ transverse orthogonal slices, 3) Display of three orthogonal slices through user selected point, 4) Display of a set of orthogonal slices generated in the user-selected volume, 5) Generation and display of 3-D shaded surface. 6) Generation of volume data and display along with the 3-D shaded surface, 7) Side by side display orthogonal slices of two 3-D objects. Displaying a set of two-dimensional slices of a 3-D reconstructed object through shows all the defects but lacks the 3-D perspective. Display of shaded surface lacks the ability to show the embedded defects. Volume display -combining the 3-D surface and gray level volume data is perhaps the best form of display. This report describes these forms of display along with the theory. (author)

  16. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.


    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  17. Long-term stability of diurnal salivary cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns. (United States)

    Skoluda, Nadine; La Marca, Roberto; Gollwitzer, Mario; Müller, Andreas; Limm, Heribert; Marten-Mittag, Birgitt; Gündel, Harald; Angerer, Peter; Nater, Urs M


    This study aimed to investigate long-term stability and variability of diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase patterns. Diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns were assessed on a single workday with three waves of measurement across a total time period of 24months in 189 participants. Separate hierarchical linear models were analyzed, with and without a number of potential predictor variables (age, BMI, smoking, chronic stress, stress reactivity). While low long-term stability was found in diurnal cortisol, the stability of diurnal alpha-amylase was moderate across the time period of 24months. Several predictor variables had a positive impact on diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase secretion patterns averaged across waves. Our findings underpin the notion that long-term stability is not necessarily warranted in longitudinal studies. It is important to choose an appropriate study design when attempting to disentangle clinically and biologically relevant changes from naturally occurring variations in diurnal cortisol and alpha-amylase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coastal-trapped behavior of the diurnal internal tide at O'ahu, Hawai'i (United States)

    Smith, Katharine A.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Carter, Glenn S.


    The influence of rotation on the structure and propagation of internal tides around O'ahu, Hawai'i is investigated using in situ observations and a tidally forced, primitive equation model with realistic bathymetry and stratification. Particular attention is given to the diurnal internal tide, which largely has been de-emphasized in previous studies of the region because of the dominance of the semidiurnal internal tide but has been determined by recent studies to be a significant contributor to baroclinic variability. Though both diurnal and semidiurnal internal tides are generated primarily over Ka'ena Ridge to the northwest of the island, the diurnal internal tide propagates clockwise around the island as an imperfectly trapped wave, while the semidiurnal internal tide propagates away from the ridge, unaffected by rotation. The diurnal and semidiurnal internal tides fall into the superinertial frequency range; however, the diurnal frequency apparently is sufficiently close to inertial (˜ 1.4f) for rotation to affect internal tide propagation. The in situ observations support the model finding that diurnal trapping provides the primary source of baroclinic variability along the eastern coast of the island, a stretch of coastline otherwise sheltered from the internal tide energy generated over the Hawaiian Ridge. The findings in Hawai'i suggest that coastal trapping of superinertial internal tides may be a significant source of variability and mixing in other nearshore systems around the world.

  19. Analysis of the Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Obtained From Different Numerical Models (United States)

    Jánský, Jaroslav; Lucas, Greg M.; Kalb, Christina; Bayona, Victor; Peterson, Michael J.; Deierling, Wiebke; Flyer, Natasha; Pasko, Victor P.


    This work analyzes different current source and conductivity parameterizations and their influence on the diurnal variation of the global electric circuit (GEC). The diurnal variations of the current source parameterizations obtained using electric field and conductivity measurements from plane overflights combined with global Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite data give generally good agreement with measured diurnal variation of the electric field at Vostok, Antarctica, where reference experimental measurements are performed. An approach employing 85 GHz passive microwave observations to infer currents within the GEC is compared and shows the best agreement in amplitude and phase with experimental measurements. To study the conductivity influence, GEC models solving the continuity equation in 3-D are used to calculate atmospheric resistance using yearly averaged conductivity obtained from the global circulation model Community Earth System Model (CESM). Then, using current source parameterization combining mean currents and global counts of electrified clouds, if the exponential conductivity is substituted by the conductivity from CESM, the peak to peak diurnal variation of the ionospheric potential of the GEC decreases from 24% to 20%. The main reason for the change is the presence of clouds while effects of 222Rn ionization, aerosols, and topography are less pronounced. The simulated peak to peak diurnal variation of the electric field at Vostok is increased from 15% to 18% from the diurnal variation of the global current in the GEC if conductivity from CESM is used.

  20. Diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land uses on Taihang Mountain, North China (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qihong; Chang, Jianguo; Hou, Ke


    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming.

  1. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.


    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation

  2. Nanobody-Displaying Flagellar Nanotubes. (United States)

    Klein, Ágnes; Kovács, Mátyás; Muskotál, Adél; Jankovics, Hajnalka; Tóth, Balázs; Pósfai, Mihály; Vonderviszt, Ferenc


    In this work we addressed the problem how to fabricate self-assembling tubular nanostructures displaying target recognition functionalities. Bacterial flagellar filaments, composed of thousands of flagellin subunits, were used as scaffolds to display single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) on their surface. As a representative example, an anti-GFP nanobody was successfully inserted into the middle part of flagellin replacing the hypervariable surface-exposed D3 domain. A novel procedure was developed to select appropriate linkers required for functional internal insertion. Linkers of various lengths and conformational properties were chosen from a linker database and they were randomly attached to both ends of an anti-GFP nanobody to facilitate insertion. Functional fusion constructs capable of forming filaments on the surface of flagellin-deficient host cells were selected by magnetic microparticles covered by target GFP molecules and appropriate linkers were identified. TEM studies revealed that short filaments of 2-900 nm were formed on the cell surface. ITC and fluorescent measurements demonstrated that the fusion protein exhibited high binding affinity towards GFP. Our approach allows the development of functionalized flagellar nanotubes against a variety of important target molecules offering potential applications in biosensorics and bio-nanotechnology.

  3. Optical display for radar sensing (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee


    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  4. Body Hair (United States)

    ... Home Body Puberty Body hair Body hair Even before you get your first period , you ... removing pubic hair Ways to get rid of hair top Removing body hair can cause skin irritation, ...

  5. The visual system of diurnal raptors: updated review. (United States)

    González-Martín-Moro, J; Hernández-Verdejo, J L; Clement-Corral, A


    Diurnal birds of prey (raptors) are considered the group of animals with highest visual acuity (VA). The purpose of this work is to review all the information recently published about the visual system of this group of animals. A bibliographic search was performed in PubMed. The algorithm used was (raptor OR falcon OR kestrel OR hawk OR eagle) AND (vision OR «visual acuity» OR eye OR macula OR retina OR fovea OR «nictitating membrane» OR «chromatic vision» OR ultraviolet). The search was restricted to the «Title» and «Abstract» fields, and to non-human species, without time restriction. The proposed algorithm located 97 articles. Birds of prey are endowed with the highest VA of the animal kingdom. However most of the works study one individual or a small group of individuals, and the methodology is heterogeneous. The most studied bird is the Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), with an estimated VA of 140 cycles/degree. Some eagles are endowed with similar VA. The tubular shape of the eye, the large pupil, and a high density of photoreceptors make this extraordinary VA possible. In some species, histology and optic coherence tomography demonstrate the presence of 2foveas. The nasal fovea (deep fovea) has higher VA. Nevertheless, the exact function of each fovea is unknown. The vitreous contained in the deep fovea could behave as a third lens, adding some magnification to the optic system. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Diurnal temperature range over Europe between 1950 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Makowski


    Full Text Available It has been widely accepted that diurnal temperature range (DTR decreased on a global scale during the second half of the twentieth century. Here we show however, that the long-term trend of annual DTR has reversed from a decrease to an increase during the 1970s in Western Europe and during the 1980s in Eastern Europe. The analysis is based on the high-quality dataset of the European Climate Assessment and Dataset Project, from which we selected approximately 200 stations covering the area bordered by Iceland, Algeria, Turkey and Russia for the period 1950 to 2005. We investigate national and regional annual means as well as the pan-European mean with respect to trends and reversal periods. 17 of the 24 investigated regions including the pan-European mean show a statistical significant increase of DTR since 1990 at the latest. Of the remaining 7 regions, two show a non-significant increase, three a significant decrease and two no significant trend. Changes in DTR are affected by both surface shortwave and longwave radiation, the former of which has undergone a change from dimming to brightening in the period considered. Consequently, we discuss the connections between DTR, shortwave radiation and sulfur emissions which are thought to be amongst the most important factors influencing the incoming solar radiation through the primary and secondary aerosol effect. We find reasonable agreement between trends in SO2 emissions, radiation and DTR in areas affected by high pollution. Consequently, we conclude that the trends in DTR could be mostly determined by changes in emissions and the associated changes in incoming solar radiation.

  7. Cyanobacteria gene and protein sequences in diurnal oscillation metabolic processes (United States)

    Tremberger, George, Jr.; Holden, T.; Cheung, E.; Dehipawala, S.; Gadura, N.; Golebiewska, U.; Valentin, K.; Smulczeski, M.; Satizabal, W.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.


    Daytime photosynthesis and nighttime nitrogen fixation metabolic processes have been reported in the bacterium, Cyanothece 51142. The organism's auto-fluorescence with 532 nm excitation would place cyanobacteria at the forefront in the remote sensing of microbial activity in astrobiology. The sensitivity of nitrogenase to oxygen was studied in terms of sequence nucleotide fluctuation. A nucleotide sequence fractal dimension can be calculated from a numerical series consisting of the atomic numbers of each nucleotide. The fractal dimension and Shannon entropy form a two-dimensional measure that is useful in assessing evolutionary pressures. The studied sequences include nitrogenase iron protein NifH, nitrogenase molybdenum-iron protein alpha chain NifD and beta chain NifK. The photosynthesis-lacking UCYN-A cyanobacterium as reported recently in the journal, Nature, was observed to have the lowest entropy with relatively high fractal dimension values in the studied NifH, NifD and NifH sequences. The fractal dimension of NifH sequences correlates with the NifD sequence values with an R-square of 0.91 (N = 8). The Shannon mononucleotide entropy of NifD sequences correlates with the NifK sequence values with an R-square value of 0.92 (N = 8). The observed strong correlation suggests the presence of gradual evolutionary pressure among the studied cyanobacteria, and throws light on the reported paradox in evolution for the case of UCYN-A. The results show that diurnal oscillation metabolic processes in cyanobacteria (including the photosynthesis-deficient case) are not associated with extraordinary evolutionary pressures and thus are processes consistent with putative astrobiological organisms.

  8. Diurnal thermal analysis of microencapsulated PCM-concrete composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Alexander M.; Sant, Gaurav; Pilon, Laurent


    Highlights: • Transient heat conduction across microencapsulated PCM-concrete walls was simulated. • Equivalent homogeneous wall with effective thermal properties was rigorously derived. • Adding PCM to the wall increases daily energy savings and delays peak thermal load. • Energy savings is maximum when PCM melting temperature equals indoor temperature. • Energy savings are limited in extreme climates but time delay can be large. - Abstract: This paper examines the benefits of adding microencapsulated phase change material (PCM) to concrete used in building envelopes to reduce energy consumption and costs. First, it establishes that the time-dependent thermal behavior of microencapsulated PCM-concrete composite walls can be accurately predicted by an equivalent homogeneous wall with appropriate effective thermal properties. The results demonstrate that adding microencapsulated PCM to concrete resulted in a reduction and a time-shift in the maximum heat flux through the composite wall subjected to diurnal sinusoidal outdoor temperature and solar radiation heat flux. The effects of the PCM volume fraction, latent heat of fusion, phase change temperature and temperature window, and outdoor temperature were evaluated. Several design rules were established including (i) increasing the PCM volume fraction and/or enthalpy of phase change increased the energy flux reduction and the time delay, (ii) the energy flux reduction was maximized when the PCM phase change temperature was close to the desired indoor temperature, (iii) the optimum phase change temperature to maximize the time delay increased with increasing average outdoor temperature, (iv) in extremely hot or cold climates, the thermal load could be delayed even though the reduction in daily energy flux was small, and (v) the choice of phase change temperature window had little effect on the energy flux reduction and on the time delay. This analysis can serve as a framework to design PCM composite walls

  9. Minimalism context-aware displays. (United States)

    Cai, Yang


    Despite the rapid development of cyber technologies, today we still have very limited attention and communication bandwidth to process the increasing information flow. The goal of the study is to develop a context-aware filter to match the information load with particular needs and capacities. The functions include bandwidth-resolution trade-off and user context modeling. From the empirical lab studies, it is found that the resolution of images can be reduced in order of magnitude if the viewer knows that he/she is looking for particular features. The adaptive display queue is optimized with real-time operational conditions and user's inquiry history. Instead of measuring operator's behavior directly, ubiquitous computing models are developed to anticipate user's behavior from the operational environment data. A case study of the video stream monitoring for transit security is discussed in the paper. In addition, the author addresses the future direction of coherent human-machine vision systems.

  10. A quantitative analysis of the diurnal evolution of Ionospheric Alfvén resonator magnetic resonance features and calculation of changing IAR parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Hebden


    Full Text Available Resonance features of the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR can be observed in pulsation magnetometer data from Sodankylä, Finland using dynamic spectra visualizations. IAR resonance features were identified on 13 of 30 days in October 1998, with resonance structures lasting for 3 or more hours over 10 intervals. The diurnal evolution of the harmonic features was quantified for these 10 intervals using a manual cursor-clicking technique. The resonance features displayed strong linear relationships between harmonic frequency and harmonic number for all of the time intervals studied, enabling a homogeneous cavity model for the IAR to be adopted to interpret the data. This enabled the diurnal variation of the effective size of the IAR to be obtained for each of the 10 time intervals. The average effective size was found to be 530 km, and to have an average variation of 32% over each time interval: small compared to the average variation in Alfvén velocity of 61%. Thus the diurnal variation of the harmonics is chiefly caused by the changing plasma density within the IAR due to changing insolation. This study confirms Odzimek (2004 that the dominating factor affecting the IAR eigenfrequencies is the variation in the Alfvén velocity at the F-layer ion-density peak, with the changing IAR size affecting the IAR eigenfrequencies to a smaller extent. Another IAR parameter was derived from the analysis of the IAR resonance features associated with the phase matching structure of the standing waves in the IAR. This parameter varied over the time intervals studied by 20% on average, possibly due to changing ionospheric conductivity. Keywords. Ionosphere (Auroral ionosphere;Wave propagation – Radio science (Electromagnetic noise and interference

  11. Development and Evaluation of an Educational Display for Older Adults: Journey through Health (United States)

    Jung, Seung Eun; Hermann, Janice; Parker, Stephany; Smith, Brenda J.


    The Journey Through Health educational display was developed using the Health Belief Model and provided information on how the Dietary Guidelines Consumer Brochure messages can positively influence nutrition and physical activity choices to prevent or delay age-related changes throughout the body. The display consisted of 12 posters, educational…

  12. Diurnal Variation of Hormonal and Lipid Biomarkers in a Molecular Epidemiology-Like Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda W M van Kerkhof

    Full Text Available Many molecular epidemiology studies focusing on high prevalent diseases, such as metabolic disorders and cancer, investigate metabolic and hormonal markers. In general, sampling for these markers can occur at any time-point during the day or after an overnight fast. However, environmental factors, such as light exposure and food intake might affect the levels of these markers, since they provide input for the internal time-keeping system. When diurnal variation is larger than the inter-individual variation, time of day should be taken into account. Importantly, heterogeneity in diurnal variation and disturbance of circadian rhythms among a study population might increasingly occur as a result of our increasing 24/7 economy and related variation in exposure to environmental factors (such as light and food.The aim of the present study was to determine whether a set of often used biomarkers shows diurnal variation in a setting resembling large molecular epidemiology studies, i.e., non-fasted and limited control possibilities for other environmental influences.We show that markers for which diurnal variation is not an issue are adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol and high-density lipoprotein. For all other tested markers diurnal variation was observed in at least one gender (cholesterol, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, testosterone, triglycerides, total triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone or could not reliably be detected (human growth hormone.Thus, studies investigating these markers should take diurnal variation into account, for which we provide some options. Furthermore, our study indicates the need for investigating diurnal variation (in literature or experimentally before setting up studies measuring markers in routine and controlled settings, especially since time-of-day likely matters for many more

  13. Correlation between the water drinking test and modified diurnal tension curve in untreated glaucomatous eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo Vasconcelos-Moraes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the correlation and agreement between the intraocular pressure peaks detected during the water drinking test and the modified diurnal tension curve in untreated glaucomatous eyes. INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that the intraocular pressure peaks detected during the water drinking test predict the peaks observed during a 24-hour diurnal tension curve. A more feasible and practical test for assessing intraocular pressure peaks in glaucomatous eyes during office hours would be of great clinical utility. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving open angle glaucoma patients without anti-glaucoma medication submitted to the modified diurnal tension curve and water drinking test on the same day. The intraocular pressure peaks during the water drinking test and the modified diurnal tension curve were reported and compared. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the correlation and agreement between intraocular pressure peak measurements. RESULTS: The correlation between intraocular pressure peaks during the water drinking test and modified diurnal tension curve was significant and strong (Pearson's Correlation Coefficient r=0.780, p<0.0001. Limited agreement was observed between these measurements. Eighty-two percent of intraocular pressure peaks were higher during the water drinking test than the modified diurnal tension curve. DISCUSSION: These findings suggest that the water drinking test may be used as tool to assess risk factors for glaucomatous patients. CONCLUSION: Intraocular pressure peaks detected during the water drinking test could be used in clinical practice to both estimate the peaks observed during the modified diurnal tension curve and assess the status of the eye's outflow facility.

  14. Solar-forced diurnal regulation of cave drip rates via phreatophyte evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Coleborn


    Full Text Available We present results of a detailed study of drip rate variations at 12 drip discharge sites in Glory Hole Cave, New South Wales, Australia. Our novel time series analysis, using the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, reveals pronounced oscillations at daily and sub-daily frequencies occurring in 8 out of the 12 monitored sites. These oscillations were not spatially or temporally homogenous, with different drip sites exhibiting such behaviour at different times of year in different parts of the cave. We test several hypotheses for the cause of the oscillations, including variations in pressure gradients between karst and cave due to cave breathing effects or atmospheric and earth tides, variations in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in viscosity of water with daily temperature oscillations, and solar-driven daily cycles of vegetative (phreatophytic transpiration. We conclude that the only hypothesis consistent with the data and hydrologic theory is that daily oscillations are caused by solar-driven pumping by phreatophytic trees which are abundant at the site. The daily oscillations are not continuous and occur sporadically in short bursts (2–14 days throughout the year due to non-linear modification of the solar signal via complex karst architecture. This is the first indirect observation leading to the hypothesis of tree water use in cave drip water. It has important implications for karst hydrology in regards to developing a new protocol to determine the relative importance of trends in drip rate, such as diurnal oscillations, and how these trends change over timescales of weeks to years. This information can also be used to infer karst architecture. This study demonstrates the importance of vegetation on recharge dynamics, information that will inform both process-based karst models and empirical estimation approaches. Our findings support a growing body of research exploring the impact of trees on speleothem paleoclimate proxies.

  15. Diurnal Fluctuations of Verticality Perception – Lesser Precision Immediately after Waking up in the Morning (United States)

    Schwarz, Aline J.; Straumann, Dominik; Tarnutzer, Alexander A.


    Internal estimates of direction of gravity are continuously updated by integrating vestibular, visual and proprioceptive input, and prior experience about upright position. Prolonged static roll-tilt biases perceived direction of gravity by adaptation of peripheral sensors and central structures. We hypothesized that in the morning after sleep, estimates of direction of gravity [assessed by the subjective visual vertical (SVV)] are less precise than in the evening because of adaptation to horizontal body position and lack of prior knowledge about upright position. Using a mobile SVV-measuring device, verticality perception was assessed in seven healthy human subjects on 7 days in the morning immediately after waking up and in the evening while sitting upright. Paired t-tests were applied to analyze diurnal changes in SVV trial-to-trial variability. Average SVV variability in the morning was significantly larger than in the evening (1.9 ± 0.6° vs. 0.9 ± 0.3°, p = 0.002). SVV accuracy was not significantly different (−1.2 ± 0.9° vs. −0.4 ± 0.4°, morning vs. evening, p = 0.058) and was within normal range (±2.3°) in all but one subject. A good night’s sleep has a profound effect on the brain’s ability to estimate direction of gravity. Resulting variability was significantly worse after waking up reaching values more than twice as large as in the evening while there was no significant impact on SVV accuracy. We hypothesize that lacking prior knowledge, adaptation of peripheral sensors, and lower levels of arousal and cerebral metabolism contribute to such impoverished estimates. Our observations have considerable clinical impact as they indicate an increased risk for falls and fall-related injuries in the morning. PMID:26388837

  16. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service. (United States)


    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.55 Display service. Industry member reimbursements to retailers for setting up product...

  17. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  18. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  19. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten


    Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper...... discusses aspects of process display design taking into account both the designer's and the operator's points of view. Three aspects are emphasized: the operator tasks, the display content and the display form. The distinction between these three aspects is the basis for proposing an outline for a display...... design method that matches the industrial practice of modular plant design and satisfies the needs of reusability of display design solutions. The main considerations in display design in the industry are to specify the operator's activities in detail, to extract the information the operators need from...

  20. X-Windows Widget for Image Display (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.


    XvicImage is a high-performance XWindows (Motif-compliant) user interface widget for displaying images. It handles all aspects of low-level image display. The fully Motif-compliant image display widget handles the following tasks: (1) Image display, including dithering as needed (2) Zoom (3) Pan (4) Stretch (contrast enhancement, via lookup table) (5) Display of single-band or color data (6) Display of non-byte data (ints, floats) (7) Pseudocolor display (8) Full overlay support (drawing graphics on image) (9) Mouse-based panning (10) Cursor handling, shaping, and planting (disconnecting cursor from mouse) (11) Support for all user interaction events (passed to application) (12) Background loading and display of images (doesn't freeze the GUI) (13) Tiling of images.

  1. Diurnal activity budgeting of Large Whistling Teal Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816 (Anseriformes: Anatidae in Deepor Beel wetlands, Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Das


    Full Text Available Diurnal activity budgets of the Large Whistling Teal Dendrocygna bicolor were quantified in Deepor Beel wetlands from March 2007 to January 2008. The study revealed that the Large Whistling Teal utilized 36.1% of time in resting, 37.1% in locomotion, 21.8% of diurnal time in feeding and 3.9% of diurnal time for preening activity. The teal spent <1% time in each, of alert and aggressive behaviours.

  2. Arctic and Antarctic diurnal and seasonal variations of snow albedo from multiyear Baseline Surface Radiation Network measurements


    Wang, Xianwei; Zender, Charles S


    This study analyzes diurnal and seasonal variations of snow albedo at four Baseline Surface Radiation Network stations in the Arctic and Antarctica from 2003 to 2008 to elucidate similarities and differences in snow albedo diurnal cycles across geographic zones and to assess how diurnal changes in snow albedo affect the surface energy budget. At the seasonal scale, the daily albedo for the perennial snow at stations South Pole and Georg von Neumayer in Antarctica has a similar symmetric varia...

  3. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobell, D


    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  4. Mesoscale Influences of Wind Farms Throughout a Diurnal Cycle (United States)

    Fitch, A. C.; Lundquist, J. K.; Olson, J. B.


    Few observations are available to give insight into the interaction between large wind farms and the boundary layer. As wind farm deployment increases, questions are arising on the potential impact on meteorology within and downwind of large wind farms. While large-eddy simulation can provide insight into the detailed interaction between individual turbines and the boundary layer, to date it has been too computationally expensive to simulate wind farms with large numbers of turbines and the resulting wake far downstream. Mesoscale numerical weather prediction models provide the opportunity to investigate the flow in and around large wind farms as a whole, and the resulting impact on meteorology. To this end, we have implemented a wind farm parameterization in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, which represents wind turbines by imposing a momentum sink on the mean flow; converting kinetic energy into electricity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The parameterization improves upon previous models, basing the atmospheric drag of turbines on the thrust coefficient of a modern commercial turbine. In addition, the source of TKE varies with wind speed, reflecting the amount of energy extracted from the atmosphere by the turbines that does not produce electrical energy. We simulate a wind farm covering 10x10 km over land, consisting of 100 turbines each of nominal power output of 5 MW. Results will be presented showing how the wake structure varies dramatically over a diurnal cycle characteristic of a region in the Great Plains of the US, where wind farm deployment is planned. At night, a low-level jet forms within the rotor area, which is completely eliminated by energy extraction within the wind farm. The deep stable layer and lack of higher momentum air aloft at this time maximises the wind deficit and the length of the wake. The presentation will discuss the maximum reduction of wind speed within and downwind from the farm, and the wake e

  5. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino


    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  6. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  7. Variability of Diurnal Temperature Range During Winter Over Western Himalaya: Range- and Altitude-Wise Study (United States)

    Shekhar, M. S.; Devi, Usha; Dash, S. K.; Singh, G. P.; Singh, Amreek


    The current trends in diurnal temperature range, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, mean temperature, and sun shine hours over different ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya during winter have been studied. Analysis of 25 years of data shows an increasing trend in diurnal temperature range over all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya during winter, thereby confirming regional warming of the region due to present climate change and global warming. Statistical studies show significant increasing trend in maximum temperature over all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya. Minimum temperature shows significant decreasing trend over Pir Panjal and Shamshawari range and significant increasing trend over higher altitude of Western Himalaya. Similarly, sunshine hours show significant decreasing trend over Karakoram range. There exists strong positive correlation between diurnal temperature range and maximum temperature for all the ranges and altitudes of Western Himalaya. Strong negative correlation exists between diurnal temperature range and minimum temperature over Shamshawari and Great Himalaya range and lower altitude of Western Himalaya. Sunshine hours show strong positive correlation with diurnal temperature range over Pir Panjal and Great Himalaya range and lower and higher altitudes.

  8. Regimes of Diurnal Variation of Summer Rainfall over Subtropical East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan W.; Lin W.; Yu, R.; Zhang, M.; Chen, H.; Li, J.


    Using hourly rain gauge records and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 from 1998 to 2006, the authors present an analysis of the diurnal characteristics of summer rainfall over subtropical East Asia. The study shows that there are four different regimes of distinct diurnal variation of rainfall in both the rain gauge and the satellite data. They are located over the Tibetan Plateau with late-afternoon and midnight peaks, in the western China plain with midnight to early-morning peaks, in the eastern China plain with double peaks in late afternoon and early morning, and over the East China Sea with an early-morning peak. No propagation of diurnal phases is found from the land to the ocean across the coastlines. The different diurnal regimes are highly correlated with the inhomogeneous underlying surface, such as the plateau, plain, and ocean, with physical mechanisms consistent with the large-scale 'mountain-valley' and 'land-sea' breezes and convective instability. These diurnal characteristics over subtropical East Asia can be used as diagnostic metrics to evaluate the physical parameterization and hydrological cycle of climate models over East Asia.

  9. Diurnal variation in gravity wave activity at low and middle latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Andrioli


    Full Text Available We employ a modified composite day extension of the Hocking (2005 analysis method to study gravity wave (GW activity in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using 4 meteor radars spanning latitudes from 7° S to 53.6° S. Diurnal and semidiurnal modulations were observed in GW variances over all sites. Semidiurnal modulation with downward phase propagation was observed at lower latitudes mainly near the equinoxes. Diurnal modulations occur mainly near solstice and, except for the zonal component at Cariri (7° S, do not exhibit downward phase propagation. At a higher latitude (SAAMER, 53.6° S these modulations are only observed in the meridional component where we can observe diurnal variation from March to May, and semidiurnal, during January, February, October (above 88 km and November. Some of these modulations with downward phase progression correlate well with wind shear. When the wind shear is well correlated with the maximum of the variances the diurnal tide has its largest amplitudes, i.e., near equinox. Correlations exhibiting variations with tidal phases suggest significant GW-tidal interactions that have different characters depending on the tidal components and possible mean wind shears. Modulations that do not exhibit phase variations could be indicative of diurnal variations in GW sources.

  10. Remote display performance for wireless healthcare computing. (United States)

    Lai, Albert Max; Nieh, Jason; Laine, Andrew; Starren, Justin


    Organizations are beginning to recognize that health care providers are highly mobile and optimal care requires providing access to a large and dynamic body of information wherever the provider and patient are. Remote display protocols (RDP) are one way that organizations are using to deliver healthcare applications to mobile users. While many organizations have begun to use RDPs to deliver real-time access to health care information to clinicians, little formal work has been done to evaluate the performance or the effectiveness of thin-client computing with health care applications. This study examines the performance of wireless thin-client tablets with two web-based clinical applications, a text-centric, graphics-poor EMR and a graphic-rich image analysis program. The study compares the performance of two popular RDP implementations, Citrix and Microsoft Remote Desktop, with the performance of a traditional web browser in a wireless environment. For both applications, the RDPs demonstrated both higher speed and reduced bandwidth requirements than the web browser.

  11. Dietary Intake, Eating Behaviors, and Diurnal Patterns of Salivary Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Secretion Among Professional Young Adult Female Tennis Players. (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Massart, Alain; Hua, Jiewen; Le Scanff, Christine


    The aims of study were to examine the eating behaviors among 26 professional female tennis players and to assess the diurnal patterns of stress hormones through the measurement of awakening and diurnal profiles of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol concentrations. Eating behaviors were assessed through three questionnaires (Eating Attitudes Test-26; Eating Disorders Inventory 2; and Body Shape Questionnaire), food intake by a 7-day diet record, and menstrual status by questionnaire. Perceived stress scale and anxiety state were also evaluated. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min, 60 min, and 12 hr post awakening after 6-days' rest. Forty-six percent of tennis players presented Disordered Eating attitudes (DE) (n = 12) with a lower body mass index, and higher state anxiety as compared with the group without DE. No differences in the Perceived Stress Scale scores were noted. Mean energy intake, protein and carbohydrates intakes were lower (p consequences of these modifications on health remain to be elucidated.

  12. Optical advantages in retinal scanning displays (United States)

    Urey, Hakan


    Virtual Retinal DisplayTM technology is a retinal scanning display (RSD) technology being developed at Microvision, Inc., for a variety of applications including microdisplays. An RSD scans a modulated light beam onto a viewer's retina to produce a perceived image. Red, green and blue light sources, such as lasers, laser diodes or LEDs combine with Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs to make the RSD very well suited for head-worn and helmet-mounted displays (HMD). This paper compares the features of RSD technology to other display technologies such as the cathode ray tubes or matrix-based displays for HMD and other wearable display applications, and notes important performance advantages due to the number of pixel- generating elements. Also discussed are some fundamental optical limitations for virtual displays used in the HMD applications.

  13. Toner display based on particle control technologies (United States)

    Kitamura, Takashi


    Toner Display is based on an electrical movement of charged particles. Two types of black toner and white particles charged in the different electric polarity are enclosed between two electrodes. The particle movement is controlled by the external electric field applied between two transparent electrodes. The toner is collected to the electrode by an electrostatic force across the insulating layer to display a black image. The toners can be put back to the counter electrode by applying a reverse electric field, and white solid image is displayed. We have studied on the movement of three color particles independently to display color image in Toner Display. Two positively charged color particles with different amount of charge to mass ratio and negatively charged white particles were enclosed in the toner display cell. Yellow, cyan and white images were displayed by an application of voltage.

  14. Foreign Body (United States)

    ... Pediatrics Common Questions, Quick Answers Foreign Body Donna D'Alessandro, M.D. Lindsay Huth, B. ... I call the doctor? What is a foreign body? A foreign body is when an object is ...

  15. Conceptual design of industrial process displays. (United States)

    Pedersen, C R; Lind, M


    Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper discusses aspects of process display design taking into account both the designer's and the operator's points of view. Three aspects are emphasized: the operator tasks, the display content and the display form. The distinction between these three aspects is the basis for proposing an outline for a display design method that matches the industrial practice of modular plant design and satisfies the needs of reusability of display design solutions. The main considerations in display design in the industry are to specify the operator's activities in detail, to extract the information the operators need from the plant design specification and documentation, and finally to present this information. The form of the display is selected from existing standardized display elements such as trend curves, mimic diagrams, ecological interfaces, etc. Further knowledge is required to invent new display elements. That is, knowledge about basic visual means of presenting information and how humans perceive and interpret these means and combinations. This knowledge is required in the systematic selection of graphical items for a given display content. The industrial part of the method is first illustrated in the paper by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is

  16. Diurnal and circadian expression profiles of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Andrés, Fernando; Kanehara, Kazue; Liu, Yu-chi; Coupland, George; Dörmann, Peter


    Glycerolipid composition in plant membranes oscillates in response to diurnal change. However, its functional significance remained unclear. A recent discovery that Arabidopsis florigen FT binds diurnally oscillating phosphatidylcholine molecules to promote flowering suggests that diurnal oscillation of glycerolipid composition is an important input in flowering time control. Taking advantage of public microarray data, we globally analyzed the expression pattern of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis under long-day, short-day, and continuous light conditions. The results revealed that 12 genes associated with glycerolipid metabolism showed significant oscillatory profiles. Interestingly, expression of most of these genes followed circadian profiles, suggesting that glycerolipid biosynthesis is partially under clock regulation. The oscillating expression profile of one representative gene, PECT1, was analyzed in detail. Expression of PECT1 showed a circadian pattern highly correlated with that of the clock-regulated gene GIGANTEA. Thus, our study suggests that a considerable number of glycerolipid biosynthetic genes are under circadian control.

  17. SST diurnal variability in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; Hasager, Charlotte Bay


    Five years of sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from a geostationary platform are utilised to identify and characterise diurnal warming in the North and Baltic Seas. Observations from the Spinning Enhanced Visible Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation satellite...... temperature anomalies. The best night-time reference field candidate is demonstrated to be an average of 3days of satellite observations from local midnight to 0300. When compared against night-time in situ measurements from various locations, mean biases are found in the order of ±0.1K and standard deviation...... (σ) between 0.4K and 0.9K. The 5year record with daytime temperature anomalies is used to derive robust statistical description of duration, spatial extent, proximity to coast and water depth of the diurnal warming events. Seasonal and inter-annual variations in the diurnal warming are also...

  18. Scale interactions on diurnal toseasonal timescales and their relevanceto model systematic errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yang


    Full Text Available Examples of current research into systematic errors in climate models are used to demonstrate the importance of scale interactions on diurnal,intraseasonal and seasonal timescales for the mean and variability of the tropical climate system. It has enabled some conclusions to be drawn about possible processes that may need to be represented, and some recommendations to be made regarding model improvements. It has been shown that the Maritime Continent heat source is a major driver of the global circulation but yet is poorly represented in GCMs. A new climatology of the diurnal cycle has been used to provide compelling evidence of important land-sea breeze and gravity wave effects, which may play a crucial role in the heat and moisture budget of this key region for the tropical and global circulation. The role of the diurnal cycle has also been emphasized for intraseasonal variability associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO. It is suggested that the diurnal cycle in Sea Surface Temperature (SST during the suppressed phase of the MJO leads to a triggering of cumulus congestus clouds, which serve to moisten the free troposphere and hence precondition the atmosphere for the next active phase. It has been further shown that coupling between the ocean and atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales leads to a more realistic simulation of the MJO. These results stress the need for models to be able to simulate firstly, the observed tri-modal distribution of convection, and secondly, the coupling between the ocean and atmosphere on diurnal to intraseasonal timescales. It is argued, however, that the current representation of the ocean mixed layer in coupled models is not adequate to represent the complex structure of the observed mixed layer, in particular the formation of salinity barrier layers which can potentially provide much stronger local coupling between the atmosphere and ocean on diurnal to intraseasonal timescales.

  19. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) Over the Indian Peninsula (United States)

    Muhsin, M.; Sunilkumar, S. V.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Krishna Murthy, B. V.; Parameswaran, K.


    Seasonal and diurnal variations in the thermal structure of the troposphere and lower stratosphere with special reference to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are studied using data from 3 h interval radiosonde launches carried out simultaneously from Trivandrum (8.5°N, 76.9°E) and Gadanki (13.5°N,79°E) during December 2010 to March 2014. TTL is defined as the region extending from the level of minimum stability (LMinS) to the level of maximum stability (LMaxS). Above the cold point tropopause (CPT), temperature showed warm anomaly (4-5 K) during summer monsoon (June-September) and cold anomaly (up to -4 K) during winter (December-February). The temperature in the troposphere showed a clear diurnal variation (±0.5 K) with a cold anomaly during early morning and warm anomaly during the day in all the seasons. At Gadanki, the diurnal temperature anomaly in the lower stratosphere showed its phase propagating downward with time, whereas at Trivandrum such variations are not clearly evident. At diurnal timescales, the TTL showed significant variations at LMinS (0.5-1.5 km/5-7 K) and smaller variations at CPT (0.2-0.5 km/2-3 K). In general, the amplitude of the diurnal component is greater than the semidiurnal component for all the TTL parameters, and these amplitudes are relatively larger at Trivandrum than at Gadanki. The observed diurnal variations could be the manifestation of tidal oscillations and/or due to the influence of local convection. Correlation analysis between different TTL parameters indicated a slow transition from a governing adiabatic process in the TTL base to a diabatic process at the TTL top.

  20. Consequences of incongruency in diurnally varying resources for seedlings of Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae). (United States)

    Cavender-Bares, J M; Voss, P B; Bazzaz, F A


    The incongruency of diurnally varying resources essential to plants may detrimentally affect plants early in their development as indicated by reduced water use efficiency and carbon gain. Typical diurnal patterns of light and CO(2) availability in a midsized temperate herbaceous or forest gap were simulated in specially designed growth chambers. A sinusoidally varying CO(2) treatment (400 ppm minimum, 800 ppm maximum) approximated the diurnal cycle of CO(2) at the soil surface, while a steady-state CO(2) treatment (600 ppm) with the same average CO(2 )concentration provided a control. Crossed with these two CO(2) treatments were two light regimes, one with 3 h of high light (850 μmol·m·s) in the morning (west side of a gap), and the other with 3 h of high light in the afternoon (east side). All treatments received baseline low light (55 μmol·m·s) for 14 h during the day. Rumex crispus was selected as a model species because of its rosette leaves, which grow close to the ground where diurnal CO(2 )variation is greatest. The relative timing of diurnal variations in light and CO(2) significantly affected seedling water use efficiency, carbon gain, and morphology. Total biomass, photosynthetic rates, daily integrated carbon, water use efficiency, and leaf area were enhanced by morning exposure to high light. Seedlings that were exposed to peak values of light and CO(2) incongruently, i.e., those plants receiving intense afternoon light with diurnally varying CO(2), were detrimentally affected relative to control plants receiving intense afternoon light with steady-state CO(2). The results of this experiment indicate that the incongruent availability of required resources-such as light and CO(2)-can detrimentally affect performance relative to when resources are congruent. These contrasting resource regimes can occur on the east and west side of gaps.

  1. Relationship between the global electric circuit and electrified cloud parameters at diurnal, seasonal, and interannual timescales (United States)

    Lavigne, Thomas; Liu, Chuntao; Deierling, Wiebke; Mach, Douglas


    In the early 1900s, J. W. Whipple began to validate C. T. R. Wilson's global electric circuit (GEC) hypothesis by correlating the diurnal variation of global thunder days with the diurnal variation of the fair weather electric field measured by the Carnegie Cruise. This study applies 16+ years of precipitation feature (PF) data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, including lightning data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor, alongside 12 years of electric field measurements from Vostok, Antarctica, to further examine this relationship. Joint diurnal-seasonal variations of the electric field are introduced and compared with a variety of PF parameters that are potentially related to the GEC. All tested PF parameters showed significant correlations to the electric field on the joint seasonal-diurnal timescale, with the flash rate and volume of 30 dBZ between the -5°C and -35°C isotherms showing the best linear correlations with R2 values of 0.67 and 0.62, respectively. Furthermore, these relationships are analyzed during the two different phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Results show different seasonal-diurnal variations of the electric field during El Niño and La Niña periods, with enhancements in the electric field between the months of January through April at 16-24 UTC in La Niña years. A similar trend is shown in global PF parameters, indicating relationships between the variations seen in the fair weather electric field and the variations of global PFs at diurnal, seasonal, and interannual timescales. This provides further evidence that PFs around the globe have a direct connection to the GEC.

  2. Impact of assimilation window length on diurnal features in a Mars atmospheric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao


    Full Text Available Effective simulation of diurnal variability is an important aspect of many geophysical data assimilation systems. For the Martian atmosphere, thermal tides are particularly prominent and contribute much to the Martian atmospheric circulation, dynamics and dust transport. To study the Mars diurnal variability and Mars thermal tides, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars Global Climate Model with the 4D-local ensemble transform Kalman filter (4D-LETKF is used to perform an analysis assimilating spacecraft temperature retrievals. We find that the use of a ‘traditional’ 6-hr assimilation cycle induces spurious forcing of a resonantly enhanced semi-diurnal Kelvin waves represented in both surface pressure and mid-level temperature by forming a wave 4 pattern in the diurnal averaged analysis increment that acts as a ‘topographic’ stationary forcing. Different assimilation window lengths in the 4D-LETKF are introduced to remove the artificially induced resonance. It is found that short assimilation window lengths not only remove the spurious resonance, but also push the migrating semi-diurnal temperature variation at 50 Pa closer to the estimated ‘true’ tides even in the absence of a radiatively active water ice cloud parameterisation. In order to compare the performance of different assimilation window lengths, short-term to mid-range forecasts based on the hour 00 and 12 assimilation are evaluated and compared. Results show that during Northern Hemisphere summer, it is not the assimilation window length, but the radiatively active water ice clouds that influence the model prediction. A ‘diurnal bias correction’ that includes bias correction fields dependent on the local time is shown to effectively reduce the forecast root mean square differences between forecasts and observations, compensate for the absence of water ice cloud parameterisation and enhance Martian atmosphere prediction. The implications of these results for

  3. On the diurnal ranges of sea surface temperature (SST) in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nasnodkar, N.; Rajesh, G.; Joseph, K.J.; Suresh, I.; Almeida, A.M.

    satellite-based microwave and infrared sen- sors, indicated that a simple model of diurnal warming as a function of local time, wind speed and solar radiation can account for most of the diurnal warming (Gentemann et al 2003; Stuart–Menteth et al 2003... in 0.2 ◦ C bins according to their magni- tudes varying from −0.5 ◦ Cto2.1 ◦ C. The ΔSSTs that exceeded 2.1 ◦ Cweregroupedinthe>2.1 ◦ C bin. The bin width of 0.2 ◦ C was chosen consider- ing the measurement accuracy of temperature sen- sors attached...

  4. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  5. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)


    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  6. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young


    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  7. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.


    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation

  8. Influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of normal and waxy barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Vamadevan, Varatharajan


    This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light...

  9. Future Directions for Astronomical Image Display (United States)

    Mandel, Eric


    In the "Future Directions for Astronomical Image Displav" project, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO) evolved our existing image display program into fully extensible. cross-platform image display software. We also devised messaging software to support integration of image display into astronomical analysis systems. Finally, we migrated our software from reliance on Unix and the X Window System to a platform-independent architecture that utilizes the cross-platform Tcl/Tk technology.

  10. Elemental and organic carbon in the urban environment of Athens. Seasonal and diurnal variations and estimates of secondary organic carbon. (United States)

    Grivas, G; Cheristanidis, S; Chaloulakou, A


    Elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC) hourly concentrations were measured continuously, at an urban location in central Athens, Greece, for an 8-month period (January-August). Average concentrations of 2.2 μgC m(-3) and 6.8 μgC m(-3) were observed, for EC and OC, respectively. The combined contribution of carbonaceous compounds (EC plus organic matter) to PM(10) was calculated at 26%. The seasonal variability of EC was limited, while OC mean concentrations were significantly higher (by 23%), during the warm months (May-August). The weekly variation followed a different pattern, with the weekend decrease of EC levels (25%) being more pronounced than of OC (14%). EC produced a bimodal diurnal cycle, with the morning rush hour traffic mode prevailing. The OC mean circadian variation displayed those peaks as well. However, midday-to-afternoon presence of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was strongly indicated. The conditional probability function was used to assess the impact of wind direction. High EC, OC levels were linked to southern flows, which during summer are mainly related to the appearance of sea breeze circulation. The temporal variation of EC, OC and their correlation patterns with primary and secondary gaseous pollutants, suggested that, although primary emissions affected both fractions, SOA formation is an important factor to be accounted for, especially during the photochemical season. Secondary organic carbon was estimated using the EC tracer method and orthogonal regression on OC, EC hourly concentration data. The average contributions of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to OC were calculated at 20.9% for the cold period and 30.3% for the warm period. Maximum values of 58% and 91% were estimated for daily and hourly contributions, respectively. The SOC diurnal variations suggested photochemical formation throughout the year, intensified during summer months, with the correlation coefficient between SOC and the sum of oxidants (NO(2+)O(3)) reaching

  11. Diurnal cycle of methane flux from a lake, with high emissions during nighttime caused by convection in the water (United States)

    Podgrajsek, E.; Sahlee, E.; Rutgersson, A.


    Many studies have stressed the importance of lakes as major contributors of methane to the atmosphere (e.g. Bastviken et al 2011). However there is still a lack of continuous long time flux measurements over lakes as well as poor understanding of the magnitude of methane fluxes through ebullition and vegetation pathways. In this study the Eddy covariance method has been used for measuring methane fluxes from a lake in central Sweden. At several occasions during the long time measuring campaign (autumn 2010-autumn 2012), a diurnal cycle of methane, with high fluxes during night and low during day, has been captured. Some of the high flux events during nighttime were comparable in magnitude to what previously only been measured from vegetation regions in lakes at these latitudes (e.g. Kankaala et al 2004) and from tropical reservoirs (e.g. Bastviken 2009). During these occasions the difference between air and water temperature (ΔT=Ta-Tw) also displayed an diurnal cycle, with ΔT being positive during day and negative during night with the corresponding change in the sensible heat flux i.e. negative during daytime and positive during nighttime. The high nighttime methane fluxes could be explained with this difference in air and water temperature, which will cool the water surface during night, creating convective mixing in the lake, while during daytime the water will be stably stratified. Temperature measurements made at different vertical levels in the lake water confirm this water stratification. The nighttime convective mixing may act to disturb the bottom water, triggering methane ebullition events and bringing methane rich water up to the surface, which can be emitted to the atmosphere. With this study we want to emphasis the necessity of introducing also complex physical processes when estimating air-water exchange fluxes and also measure methane fluxes not only at few occasions during daytime but also during night and for longer measuring periods. References


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati


    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision. 

  13. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays (United States)

    Amundson, Karl


    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  14. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M


    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  15. Digital image display system for emergency room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, R.C.; Lane, T.J.; Miax, L.S.


    This paper reports on a digital image display system for the emergency room (ER) in a major trauma hospital. Its objective is to reduce radiographic image delivery time to a busy ER while simultaneously providing a multimodality capability. Image storage, retrieval, and display will also be facilitated with this system. The system's backbone is a token-ring network of RISC and personal computers. The display terminals are higher- function RISC computers with 1,024 2 color or gray-scale monitors. The PCs serve as administrative terminals. Nuclear medicine, CT, MR, and digitized film images are transferred to the image display system

  16. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz


    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  17. Comparison of diurnal blood pressure and urine production between people with and without chronic spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Goh, Min Yin; Millard, Melinda S; Wong, Edmund C K; Berlowitz, David J; Graco, Marnie; Schembri, Rachel M; Brown, Douglas J; Frauman, Albert G; O'Callaghan, Christopher J


    Observational study. To quantify diurnal blood pressure (BP) patterns and nocturnal hypertension and to measure diurnal urine production in people with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI), compared with controls without SCI. Chronic SCI population in the community in Victoria, Australia. Participants were recruited by advertisement, and sustained SCI at least a year prior or were healthy able-bodied volunteers. Participants underwent ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), measurement of urine production, and completed questionnaires regarding orthostatic symptoms. Comparisons were made between participants with tetraplegia or paraplegia and able-bodied controls. Participants with night:day systolic BP 100% as reverse dippers. Groups with tetraplegia (n = 51) and paraplegia (n = 33) were older (42.1 ± 15 and 41.1 ± 15 vs. 32.4 ± 13 years, mean ± s.d.) and had a higher prevalence of males (88 and 85% vs. 60%) than controls (n = 52). The average BP was 110.8 ± 1.5/64.4 ± 1.2 mmHg, 119.4 ± 2.1/69.8 ± 1.5 mmHg, and 118.1 ± 1.4/69.8 ± 1.0 mmHg in tetraplegia, paraplegia, and controls, respectively. Of participants with tetraplegia, paraplegia and controls, reverse dipping was observed in 45, 13, and 2% (p < 0.001), while nocturnal hypertension was observed in 13, 23, and 18%, respectively (p = 0.48). A reduction in nocturnal urine flow rate compared with the day was observed in paraplegia and controls, but not tetraplegia. Similar to the effects of acute SCI, chronic SCI, specifically tetraplegia, also causes isolated nocturnal hypertension, reverse dipping, orthostatic intolerance, and nocturnal polyuria. Cardiovascular risk management and assessment of orthostatic symptoms should include ABPM.

  18. Effect of display location on control-display stereotype strength for translational and rotational controls with linear displays. (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R


    Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of control type and display location, relative to the operator, on the strength of control/display stereotypes. The Worringham and Beringer Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann E.R., and Chan A.H.S. 2013). "The Worringham and Beringer 'Visual Field' Principle for Rotary Controls. Ergonomics." 56 (10): 1620-1624) indicated that, for a number of different control types (rotary and lever) on different planes, there should be no significant effect of the display location relative to the seated operator. Past data were surveyed and stereotype strengths listed. Experiments filled gaps where data are not available. Six different control types and seven display locations were used, as in the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (Wickens, C.D., Keller, J.W., and Small, R.L. (2010). "Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT)." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting September 2010, 54: 1022-1026). Control/display arrangements with high stereotype strengths were evaluated yielding data for designers of complex control/display arrangements where the control and display are in different planes and for where the operator is moving. It was found possible to predict display/control arrangements with high stereotype strength, based on past data. Practitioner Summary: Controls and displays in complex arrangements need to have high compatibility. These experiments provide arrangements for six different controls (rotary and translational) and seven different display locations relative to the operator.

  19. Factors determining the diurnal dynamics of blooming of chosen plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow


    Full Text Available The paper attempts to synthesize the determinants which may influence the diurnal rhythm of blooming. Additionally, I tried to explore and bring together topics that concern blooming and have always been considered separately because of their origin in different disciplines. The following species were included: Hydrangea arborescens L. subsp. discolor (Raf., H. paniculata Sieb., Viburnum opulus L., Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L., Adonis vernalis L., Aster saggitifolius Willd., Taraxacum officinale L. Chelidonium majus L. The taxons were observed in Lublin (51008' - 51018' N and 21027' - 21041' E in the years 2001-2007. The blooming of species was determined at least for two vegetation seasons. During observations all flowers developed in one-hour intervals were counted. The diurnal dynamics of blooming differs among species and is modified by different endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous determinants of diurnal dynamics of blooming are morphological diversity of flowers (fertility or sterility within species or heterostyly. The different pattern of blooming succour different mechanisms which prevent self-pollination (Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L.. The abiotic factors, such as day length and temperature during the vegetation season, influence the change in the process of diurnal dynamics of blooming (e. g. Taraxacum officinale, Chelidonium majus.

  20. Diurnal changes of remote sensing reflectance over Chesapeake Bay: Observations from the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (United States)

    Zhang, Minwei; Hu, Chuanmin; Cannizzaro, Jennifer; Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Janz, Scott J.


    Using hyperspectral data collected by the Airborne Compact Atmospheric Mapper (ACAM) and a shipborne radiometer in Chesapeake Bay in July-August 2011, this study investigates diurnal changes of surface remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Atmospheric correction of ACAM data is performed using the traditional "black pixel" approach through radiative transfer based look-up-tables (LUTs) with non-zero Rrs in the near-infrared (NIR) accounted for by iterations. The ACAM-derived Rrs was firstly evaluated through comparison with Rrs derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer satellite measurements, and then validated against in situ Rrs using a time window of ±1 h or ±3 h. Results suggest that the uncertainties in ACAM-derived Rrs are generally comparable to those from MODIS satellite measurements over coastal waters, and therefore may be used to assess whether Rrs diurnal changes observed by ACAM are realistic (i.e., with changes > 2 × uncertainties). Diurnal changes observed by repeated ACAM measurements reaches up to 66.8% depending on wavelength and location and are consistent with those from the repeated in situ Rrs measurements. These findings suggest that once airborne data are processed using proper algorithms and validated using in situ data, they are suitable for assessing diurnal changes in moderately turbid estuaries such as Chesapeake Bay. The findings also support future geostationary satellite missions that are particularly useful to assess short-term changes.

  1. Diurnal variations in blood phenylalanine of PKU infants under different feeding regimes. (United States)

    van Rijn, Margreet; Hoeksma, Marieke; Sauer, Pieter J J; Modderman, Pim; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; van Spronsen, Francjan J


    In phenylketonuria (PKU) patients, diurnal fluctuations of blood phenylalanine (Phe) are different from healthy individuals. Until now this pattern has been studied in PKU patients over one year of age. The aim of this observational study was to investigate diurnal patterns in PKU infants under one year of age receiving both the natural protein and Phe-free formula at the same time or in an alternating feeding scheme. In 7 PKU infants (aged 3-8 months), diurnal variations in blood Phe concentrations were recorded: on day A they received natural protein and Phe-free formula combined in each feeding; on day B they received these in an alternating feeding scheme. The number of feedings, total protein, and energy intake was similar on both study days. Blood samples were taken before each feeding. The means (± SD) of the difference between the individual minimum and maximum blood Phe concentrations were 81(± 50) μmol/L and 104(± 26) μmol/L on days A and B, respectively (n.s.). Fifty and 30% of the samples were below target range for age (120 μmol/L), while only 3% and 6% were above target range (360 μmol/L) on days A and B respectively (n.s.). Both feeding regimes, i.e. the natural protein and Phe-free formula combined in each feeding or alternating, resulted in comparable diurnal fluctuations of blood Phe concentrations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings (United States)

    Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.


    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

  3. Impact of diurnal variation in vegetation water content on radar backscatter of maize during water stress (United States)

    van Emmerik, Tim; Steele-Dunne, Susan; Judge, Jasmeet; van de Giesen, Nick


    Microwave emission and backscatter of vegetated surfaces are influenced by vegetation water content (VWC), which varies in response to availability of soil moisture in the root zone. Understanding the influence of diurnal VWC dynamics on radar backscatter will improve soil moisture retrievals using microwave remote sensing, and will provide insight into the potential use for radar to directly monitor vegetation water status. The goal of this research is to investigate the effect of diurnal variation in VWC of an agricultural canopy on backscatter for different radar configurations. Water stress was induced in a corn (Zea mays) canopy near Citra, Florida, between September 1 and October 20, 2013. Diurnal destructive samples from the canopy were collected to determine leaf, stalk and total VWC. Water stress was quantified by calculating the evaporation deficit and measuring the soil water tension. The water-cloud model was used to model the influence of VWC and soil moisture variations on backscatter for a range of frequencies, polarizations and incidence angles. Furthermore, radar backscatter time series was simulated to show the effect of water stress on the diurnal variation in backscatter due to VWC. Results of this study show the very significant effects that VWC dynamics have on radar backscatter. We also highlight the potential for vegetation and soil water status monitoring using microwave remote sensing.

  4. The diurnal vertical dynamics of cape hake and their potential prey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cephalopods. Together with their cohabitant potential prey, hake are known to undertake diurnal vertical migrations, aggregating near the bottom during daylight, but migrating off the bottom at night. An attempt to determine the ... predation dominating. This may indicate a feeding strategy where vision is not important.

  5. Diurnal Albedo Variations of the Martian North Polar Water Ice Cap (United States)

    Troy, R. F.; Bass, D.


    Presentation of findings regarding diurnal variations in the north polar water ice cap of Mars as part of a larger study of the interannual and seasonal variations of the Martian north polar water ice cap. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Diurnal variation in degradation of phytic acid by plant phytase in the pig stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, P.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Mroz, Z.; Beynen, A.C.


    The effects of plant phytase on the gastric degradation of phytic acid and digestibilities of DM and P, and their diurnal variation were evaluated in pigs from 90 to 115 kg BW fitted with simple duodenal T-cannulas. Three diets were fed to three pigs in four collection periods according to a

  7. Global evaluation of ammonia bidirectional exchange and livestock diurnal variation schemes (United States)

    Bidirectional air–surface exchange of ammonia (NH3) has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bidirectional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3...

  8. Diurnal modulation of pacemaker potentials and calcium current in the mammalian circadian clock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennartz, C.M.A.; De Jeu, M.T.G.; Bos, N.P.A.; Schaap, J.; Geurtsen, A.M.S.


    The central biological clock of the mammalian brain is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This hypothalamic region contains neurons that generate a circadian rhythm on a single-cell basis. Clock cells transmit their circadian timing signals to other brain areas by diurnal modulation of their

  9. A Combined Infrared and Microwave Technique for Studying the Diurnal Variation of Rainfall Over Amazonia (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Xu, L.; Adler, R. F.; Anagnostou, E.; Rickenbach, T. M.


    In this paper we present results from the application of a satellite infrared (IR) technique for estimating rainfall over northern South America. Our main objectives are to examine the diurnal variability of rainfall and to investigate the relative contributions from the convective and stratiform components. Additional information is contained in the original.

  10. Biodegradation of Toluene under seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of soil-water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Shrestha, S.R.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.


    An increasing interest in bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites raises the question of the influence of seasonal and diurnal changes on soil-water temperature on biodegradation of BTEX, a widespread group of (sub)-surface contaminants. Therefore, we investigated the impact of a wide range of

  11. Diurnal activity patterns of Walia ibex (Capra ibex Walie) in Simien ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diurnal activity patterns of Walia Ibex (Capra ibex walie) were carried out in Simien Mountains National Park between September 2004 and February 2005 by selecting two sites (Site-I and II). Focal sampling technique and direct observations were used to collect the data. Peaks in daily activity occurred near sunrise and ...

  12. Diurnal rainfall variability over the Upper Blue Nile Basin: a remote sensing based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rientjes, T.H.M.; Haile, A.T.; Fenta, A.A.


    In this study we aim to assess the diurnal cycle of rainfall across the Upper Blue Nile (UBN) basin using satellite observations from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Seven years (2002-2008) of Precipitation Radar (PR) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) data are used and analyses are based

  13. Inter-comparison of satellite rainfall products for representing rainfall diurnal cycle over the Nile basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, A.T.; Haile, Alemseged Tamiru; Habib, Emad; Elsaadani, Mohamed; Rientjes, T.H.M.


    In this study, the authors inter-compared the performance of three satellite-rainfall products in representing the diurnal cycle of rain occurrence and rain rate over the Nile basin in eastern Africa. These products are the real time (RT) and post-real-time (PRT) (bias adjusted) versions of Tropical

  14. Chronotype and diurnal cortisol profile in working women: differences between work and leisure days. (United States)

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew


    The influence of chronotype on the diurnal profile of salivary cortisol was examined in a sample of 187 healthy women: 21 evening chronotype, 24 morning chronotype and 142 intermediate chronotype. Saliva samples were collected at waking, 30 min post-awakening, at 1000 h, 1200 h, 1500 h, 1700 h and at bedtime on one work and one leisure day. Several components of the diurnal profile were examined including the cortisol awakening response, the total cortisol output and the diurnal profile on both the work and the leisure day, a significant main effect of time emerged (both pworking day. However, on the leisure day, total cortisol output was greater in evening-types than intermediate or morning-types, after adjustment for covariates (p=0.029). The present data indicate that chronotype has a limited impact on the diurnal cortisol profile of healthy women, and may be somewhat impervious to individual preferences for morning or evening activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nonphotic entrainment in a diurnal mammal, the European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Roelof A.; Mrosovsky, N.; Daan, Serge


    Entrainment by nonphotic, activity-inducing stimuli has been investigated in detail in nocturnal rodents, but little is known about nonphotic entrainment in diurnal animals. Comparative studies would offer the opportunity to distinguish between two possibilities. (1) If nonphotic phase shifts depend

  16. Diurnal ozone cycle in the tropical and subtropical marine boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, A.T.J. de; Lelieveld, J.


    A conceptual analysis of diurnal ozone (O3 ) changes in the marine boundary layer (MBL) is presented. Such changes are most pronounced downwind of O3 sources in tropical and subtropical latitudes, and during summer at higher latitudes. Previously, it has been assumed that daytime photochemical O3

  17. Diurnal effects of anoxia on the metabolome of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Fragner, Lena; Holmer, Marianne


    We investigated the response, adaptation and tolerance mechanisms of the temperate seagrass Zostera marina to water column anoxia. We exposed Z. marina to a diurnal light/dark cycle under anoxia and assessed the metabolic response by measuring the metabolome with gas chromatography coupled to mass...

  18. The diurnal variation in urine acidification differs between normal individuals and uric acid stone formers (United States)

    Cameron, Mary Ann; Maalouf, Naim M.; Poindexter, John; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Sakhaee, Khashayar; Moe, Orson W.


    Many biologic functions follow circadian rhythms driven by internal and external cues that synchronize and coordinate organ physiology to diurnal changes in the environment and behavior. Urinary acid-base parameters follow diurnal patterns and it is thought these changes are due to periodic surges in gastric acid secretion. Abnormal urine pH is a risk factor for specific types of nephrolithiasis and uric acid stones are typical of excessively low urine pH. Here we placed 9 healthy volunteers and 10 uric acid stone formers on fixed metabolic diets to study the diurnal pattern of urinary acidification. All showed clear diurnal trends in urinary acidification but none of the patterns were affected by inhibitors of the gastric proton pump. Uric acid stone formers had similar patterns of change through the day but their urine pH was always lower compared to healthy volunteers. Uric acid stone formers excreted more acid (normalized to acid ingestion) with the excess excreted primarily as titratable acid rather than ammonium. Urine base excretion was also lower in uric acid stone formers (normalized to base ingestion) along with lower plasma bicarbonate concentrations during part of the day. Thus, increased net acid presentation to the kidney and the preferential use of buffers, other than ammonium, result in much higher concentrations of un-dissociated uric acid throughout the day and consequently an increased risk of uric acid stones. PMID:22297671

  19. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization (United States)

    Douglas C. Morton; Jeremy Rubio; Bruce D. Cook; Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry; Marcos Longo; Hyeungu Choi; Maria Hunter; Michael Keller


    The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART...

  20. On the Diurnal Periodicity of Representative Earthquakes in Greece: Comparison of Data from Different Observation Systems (United States)

    Desherevskii, A. V.; Sidorin, A. Ya.


    Due to the initiation of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network (HUSN) in late 2007, the quality of observation significantly improved by 2011. For example, the representative magnitude level considerably has decreased and the number of annually recorded events has increased. The new observational system highly expanded the possibilities for studying regularities in seismicity. In view of this, the authors revisited their studies of the diurnal periodicity of representative earthquakes in Greece that was revealed earlier in the earthquake catalog before 2011. We use 18 samples of earthquakes of different magnitudes taken from the catalog of Greek earthquakes from 2011 to June 2016 to derive a series of the number of earthquakes for each of them and calculate its average diurnal course. To increase the reliability of the results, we compared the data for two regions. With a high degree of statistical significance, we have obtained that no diurnal periodicity can be found for strongly representative earthquakes. This finding differs from the estimates obtained earlier from an analysis of the catalog of earthquakes at the same area for 1995-2004 and 2005-2010, i.e., before the initiation of the Hellenic Unified Seismic Network. The new results are consistent with the hypothesis of noise discrimination (observational selection) explaining the cause of the diurnal variation of earthquakes with different sensitivity of the seismic network in daytime and nighttime periods.

  1. Diurnal variations in bacterial and viral production in Cochin estuary, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Jasna, V.; Haridevi, C.K.; Jina, S.; Greeshma, M.; Breezy, J.; Nair, M.

    of bacterial production (BP) and viral production (VP) with respect to primary production over a diurnal period in Cochin estuary. Time series measurements were made every 2 h for 12 h (6 a.m.–6 p.m.) during periods of low and high salinities. The light...

  2. Diurnal Variation of Tropical Ice Cloud Microphysics: Evidence from Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager Polarimetric Measurements (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zeng, Xiping; Wu, Dong L.; Li, Xiaowen


    The diurnal variation of tropical ice clouds has been well observed and examined in terms of the occurring frequency and total mass but rarely from the viewpoint of ice microphysical parameters. It accounts for a large portion of uncertainties in evaluating ice clouds' role on global radiation and hydrological budgets. Owing to the advantage of precession orbit design and paired polarized observations at a high-frequency microwave band that is particularly sensitive to ice particle microphysical properties, 3 years of polarimetric difference (PD) measurements using the 166 GHz channel of Global Precipitation Measurement Microwave Imager (GPM-GMI) are compiled to reveal a strong diurnal cycle over tropical land (30°S-30°N) with peak amplitude varying up to 38%. Since the PD signal is dominantly determined by ice crystal size, shape, and orientation, the diurnal cycle observed by GMI can be used to infer changes in ice crystal properties. Moreover, PD change is found to lead the diurnal changes of ice cloud occurring frequency and total ice mass by about 2 h, which strongly implies that understanding ice microphysics is critical to predict, infer, and model ice cloud evolution and precipitation processes.

  3. Effect of clomipramine on sleep and EEG power spectra in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, D.J.; Strijkstra, A.; Daan, S.; Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den


    Sleep was recorded in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus, chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes. The tricyclic antidepressant drug clomipramine suppressed the duration of REM sleep and EEG power density in the frequencies between 1.5 and 13.5 Hz in nonREM sleep. During the

  4. Diurnal hysteresis between soil CO2 and soil temperature is controlled by soil water content (United States)

    Diego A. Riveros-Iregui; Ryan E. Emanuel; Daniel J. Muth; L. McGlynn Brian; Howard E. Epstein; Daniel L. Welsch; Vincent J. Pacific; Jon M. Wraith


    Recent years have seen a growing interest in measuring and modeling soil CO2 efflux, as this flux represents a large component of ecosystem respiration and is a key determinant of ecosystem carbon balance. Process-based models of soil CO2 production and efflux, commonly based on soil temperature, are limited by nonlinearities such as the observed diurnal hysteresis...

  5. ESA STSE “SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extend - Implications in Atmospheric Modelling”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna

    The diurnal variability of SST, driven by the coincident occurrence of low enough wind and solar heating, has been observed in various regions of the global ocean [4, 5, 6]. Atmospheric, oceanic and climate models are not adequately resolving the daily SST cycle, resulting in biases of the total...

  6. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry


    BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate the imp...

  7. Diurnal patterns of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 fixation in orchard grown Torreya taxifolia (Arn.). (United States)

    Anita C. Koehn; Robert L. Doudrick


    Diurnal patterns of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 fixation in orchard measurements were taken on sunny days in October 1996, on three Torreya taxifolia (Arn.) plants grown in an open canopy orchard. Information from chlorophyll fluorescence quenching analysis indicated that during periods of highest light intensity and temperatures there were...

  8. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A simple regression model based on the peak solar radiation and average wind speed was good enough to estimate the diurnal range of SST at ∼1.0 m in the north Indian Ocean during most of the seasons except under low wind-high solar radiation conditions that occur mostly during spring. The additional information on ...

  9. Radial frequency diagram (sunflower) for the analysis of diurnal cycle parameters: Solar energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Božnar, Marija Zlata; Grašič, Boštjan; Mlakar, Primož; Soares, Jacyra; Pereira de Oliveira, Amauri; Costa, Tássio Santos


    Graphical abstract: A new type of graphical presentation showing diurnal cycle of solar energy forecast. The application is possible for other parameters related to weather and green energy production. - Highlights: • The diurnal cycle of solar energy is important for the management of the electrical grid. • A solar plant’s average production depends on the statistical features of solar radiation. • The new tool – the “sunflower”, is proposed for solar energy availability representation. • The sunflower identifies and quantifies information with a clear diurnal cycle. • The sunflower diagram has been developed from the “wind rose” diagram. - Abstract: Many meteorological parameters present a natural diurnal cycle because they are directly or indirectly dependent on sunshine exposure. The solar radiation diurnal pattern is important to energy production, agriculture, prognostic models, health and general climatology. This article aims at introducing a new type of radial frequency diagram – hereafter called sunflower – for the analysis of solar radiation data in connection with energy production and also for climatological studies. The diagram is based on two-dimensional data sorting. Firstly data are sorted into classes representing hours in a day. Then the data in each hourly class is sorted into classes of the observed variable values. The relative frequencies of the value classes are shown as sections on each hour’s segment in a radial diagram. The radial diagram forms a unique pattern for each analysed dataset. Therefore it enables the quick detection of features and the comparison of several such patterns belonging to the different datasets being analysed. The sunflower diagram enables a quick and comprehensive understanding of the information about diurnal cycle of the solar radiation data. It enables in a graphical form, quick screening and long-term statistics of huge data quantities when searching for their diurnal features and

  10. Diurnal variability of inner-shelf circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions (United States)

    Lamas, L.; Peliz, A.; Dias, J.; Oliveira, P. B.; Angélico, M. M.; Castro, J. J.; Fernandes, J. N.; Trindade, A.; Cruz, T.


    The nearshore circulation in the lee of a cape under upwelling conditions was studied using in-situ data from 3 consecutive summers (2006-2008). Focus was given to a period between 20 July and 04 August 2006 to study the diurnal variability of the cross-shelf circulation. This period was chosen because it had a steady upwelling-favourable wind condition modulated by a diurnal cycle much similar to sea breeze. The daily variability of the observed cross-shelf circulation consisted of three distinct periods: a morning period with a 3-layer vertical structure with onshore velocities at mid-depth, a mid-day period where the flow is reversed and has a 2-layer structure with onshore velocities at the surface and offshore flow below, and, lastly, in the evening, a 2-layer period with intensified offshore velocities at the surface and onshore flow at the bottom. The observed cross-shelf circulation showed a peculiar vertical shape and diurnal variability different from several other systems described in literature. We hypothesize that the flow reversal of the cross-shelf circulation results as a response to the rapid change of the wind magnitude and direction at mid-day with the presence of the cape north of the mooring site influencing this response. A numerical modelling experiment exclusively forced by winds simulated successfully most of the circulation at the ADCP site, especially the mid-day reversal and the evening's upwelling-type structure. This supports the hypothesis that the cross-shelf circulation at diurnal timescales is mostly wind-driven. By analysing the 3D circulation in the vicinity of Cape Sines we came to the conclusion that the diurnal variability of the wind and the flow interaction with topography are responsible for the circulation variability at the ADCP site, though only a small region in the south of the cape showed a similar diurnal variability. The fact that the wind diurnally undergoes relaxation and intensification strongly affects the

  11. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö


    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  12. Variations of body temperature and metabolism during entrance into cold lethargy in the bat Myotis myotis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heldmaier, Gerhard


    Bats of temperate zones which hibernate during winter become cold-lethargic during their diurnal rest time even in summer. At the end of their nocturnal activity period they show a drop in body temperature close to ambient temperature (M. myotis, cf. Pohl, 1961). This takes place periodically even

  13. Coordinated Displays to Assist Cyber Defenders (United States)


    checks: Detecting satisficing to increase statistical power. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 45, 867-872. Scarfone, K., & Mell, P. (2007...regardless of display condition (coordinated or uncoordinated). METHOD Participants & Experimental Design In this experiment, 46 people (19...previous experience in cyber defense. Experimental Design This study featured a single experimental factor, display condition, and a control

  14. Symbols for cockpit displays of traffic information (United States)


    A web-based study assessed pilots ability to learn and remember traffic symbols that may be shown on a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). These displays convey data obtained from Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS B) and rela...

  15. Three digit octal display for microprocessor

    CERN Document Server

    Nicola, B


    The function of the described circuit is to drive a seven segment display in a strobed way. The decoder is timeshared between the 3 digits in the display, and digit and data selection is made by a modulo three counter using JK flip flops. (0 refs).

  16. Microlaser-based three-dimensional display (United States)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Bergstedt, Robert; Hargis, David E.; Higley, Paul D.


    Three dimensional (3D) displays are critical for viewing complex multi-dimensional information and for viewing representations of the three dimensional real world. A teaming arrangement between Laser Power Corporation (LPC) and Specialty Devices, Inc. (SDI) has led to the feasibility demonstration of a directly-viewed three dimensional volumetric display. LPC has developed red, green, and blue (RGB) diode pumped solid state microlaser display technology for use as a high resolution, high brightness display engine for the three dimensional display. Concurrently, SDI has developed a unique technology for viewing high resolution three dimensional volumetric images without external viewing aids (eye wear). When coupled to LPC's display engine, the resultant all solid state three dimensional display presets a true, physical three dimensionality which is directly viewable from all angles by multiple viewers without additional viewing equipment (eye wear). The resultant volumetric display will further enable applications such as the 'virtual sandbox,' visualization of radar and sonar data, air traffic control, remote surgery and diagnostics, and CAD workstations.

  17. Ribosome display for improved biotherapeutic molecules. (United States)

    Rothe, Achim; Hosse, Ralf J; Power, Barbara E


    Ribosome display presents an innovative in vitro technology for the rapid isolation and evolution of high-affinity peptides or proteins. Displayed proteins are bound to and recovered from target molecules in multiple rounds of selection in order to enrich for specific binding proteins. No transformation step is necessary, which could lead to a loss of library diversity. A cycle of display and selection can be performed in one day, enabling the existing gene repertoire to be rapidly scanned. Proteins isolated from the panning rounds can be further modified through random or directed molecular evolution for affinity maturation, as well as selected for characteristics such as protein stability, folding and functional activity. Recently, the field of display technologies has become more prominent due to the generation of new scaffolds for ribosome display, isolation of high-affinity human antibodies by phage display, and their implementation in the discovery of novel protein-protein interactions. Applications for this technology extend into the broad field of antibody engineering, proteomics, and synthetic enzymes for diagnostics and therapeutics in cancer, autoimmune and infectious diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory disorders. This review highlights the role of ribosome display in drug discovery, discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system, and attempts to predict the future impact of ribosome display technology on the development of novel engineered biopharmaceutical products for biological therapies.

  18. Assessment of OLED displays for vision research (United States)

    Cooper, Emily A.; Jiang, Haomiao; Vildavski, Vladimir; Farrell, Joyce E.; Norcia, Anthony M.


    Vision researchers rely on visual display technology for the presentation of stimuli to human and nonhuman observers. Verifying that the desired and displayed visual patterns match along dimensions such as luminance, spectrum, and spatial and temporal frequency is an essential part of developing controlled experiments. With cathode-ray tubes (CRTs) becoming virtually unavailable on the commercial market, it is useful to determine the characteristics of newly available displays based on organic light emitting diode (OLED) panels to determine how well they may serve to produce visual stimuli. This report describes a series of measurements summarizing the properties of images displayed on two commercially available OLED displays: the Sony Trimaster EL BVM-F250 and PVM-2541. The results show that the OLED displays have large contrast ratios, wide color gamuts, and precise, well-behaved temporal responses. Correct adjustment of the settings on both models produced luminance nonlinearities that were well predicted by a power function (“gamma correction”). Both displays have adjustable pixel independence and can be set to have little to no spatial pixel interactions. OLED displays appear to be a suitable, or even preferable, option for many vision research applications. PMID:24155345

  19. Nucleic acid secondary structure prediction and display.


    Stüber, K


    A set of programs has been developed for the prediction and display of nucleic acid secondary structures. Information from experimental data can be used to restrict or enforce secondary structural elements. The predictions can be displayed either on normal line printers or on graphic devices like plotters or graphic terminals.

  20. Volumetric, dashboard-mounted augmented display (United States)

    Kessler, David; Grabowski, Christopher


    The optical design of a compact volumetric display for drivers is presented. The system displays a true volume image with realistic physical depth cues, such as focal accommodation, parallax and convergence. A large eyebox is achieved with a pupil expander. The windshield is used as the augmented reality combiner. A freeform windshield corrector is placed at the dashboard.

  1. Studying Diurnal Variations of Aerosols with NASA MERRA-2 Reanalysis Data (United States)

    Shen, Suhung; Ostrenga, Dana M.; Zeng, Jian; Vollmer, Bruce E.


    Aerosols play an important role in atmospheric dynamics, climate variations, and Earth's energy cycle by altering the radiation balance in the atmosphere through interaction with clouds, providing fertilizer for forests and canopy, and as a supply of iron to the ocean over long time periods. Studies suggest that much of the feedback between dust aerosols and dynamics is associated with diurnal and synoptic scale variability. However, the lack of sub-daily resolution of aerosols from satellite observations makes it difficult to study the diurnal characteristics, especially over tropical and subtropical regions. Investigation of this topic utilizes over 37 years of simulated global aerosol products from NASA atmospheric reanalysis, in the second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) data set, available from NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC). MERRA-2 covers the period 1980-present, and is continuing as an ongoing climate analysis. Aerosol assimilation is included throughout the period, using data from MODIS, MISR, AERONET, and AVHRR (in the pre-EOS period). The aerosols are assimilated using the MERRA-2 aerosol model, which interacts directly with radiation parameterization, and is radiatively coupled with atmospheric model dynamics in the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5). Hourly, monthly, and monthly diurnal data are available at spatial resolution of 0.5o x 0.625o (latitude x longitude). By using MERRA-2 hourly and monthly diurnal products, different aerosol diurnal variabilities are observed over North America, Africa, Asia, and Australia, that may be due to different meteorological conditions and aerosol sources. The presentation will also provide an overview of MERRA-2 data services at GES DISC, such as how to find and download data, and how to quickly visualize and analyze data online with Giovanni.

  2. Diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity I. Two approaches to the study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, J.W.; Venkatesan, D.; Lanzerotti, L.J.; Maclennan, C.G.


    The investigation has been carried out over the past two decades by either of two approaches: the traditional Fourier series method and the more recently introduced power spectral method. A comparison of the two approaches is essential to the proper understanding of the results derived from them. The present study, for the first time, adopts both approaches for investigating the data from the Sulfur Mountain super neutron monitor for the period of mid-December 1965 to April 1966 (extending over five solar rotations), when interplanetary magnetic field data from Pioneer 6 were also available. Problems relating to the analyses of both data sets on a day-to-day basis and on a statistical basis over a number of days are discussed. The power spectral analysis method cannot provide information on the phase of the diurnal variation or information on the diurnal amplitude on a day-to-day basis. This method provides excellent estimates of the diurnal anisotropy amplitude provides a measure of the ambient anisotropy amplitude. The Fourier series method can yield reliable measures of the amplitude and phase on a day-to-day basis, provided the time series is reasonably stationary. This method cannot estimate the ambient anisotropy amplitude which, for small amplitudes, contributes to large uncertainties in the Fourier coefficients. We find that there is a general agreement between the observed diurnal variation and that predicted theoretically. However, for most of the periods examined the ratio of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient to the parallel diffusion coefficient is rather small (K 1 /K < or approx. =0.1). As such the diurnal variation amplitude is generally most sensitive to the interplanetary field direction and the solar wind velocity and not to the calculated values of the diffusion coefficients. Further tests of the theory are discussed

  3. Diurnal and spatial variation of remotely sensed precipitation over Indian region (United States)

    Rajan, D.; Iyengar, G. R.; Mitra, A. K.


    The climate of India is dominated by monsoon systems. The remotely sensed estimates obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) are used to examine the most of the Indian monsoon systems. This study deals with the diurnal and spatial variation of precipitation over the Indian region. The precipitation data from TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), blended from a variety of sources (including rain gauges over land) and having both daily and 3- hourly output are being used for evaluation of the Numerical Weather Prediction models Basu (2007) of National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting. The precipitation obtained from TRMM 3B42 for this study period has a spatial resolution of 0.25º X 0.25º latitude-longitude. The 3-hourly averaged values are centered at the middle of each 3 hr period. South Asian regions are dominated by seasonal climatic fluctuations and the major rainy season is the southwest monsoon season. In addition to the seasonal fluctuations, Indian summer monsoon is modulated by diurnal fluctuations; nature of diurnal variation of rainfall varies from place to place and depends upon the locations, topography of the region. Diurnal variation of rain-rate, frequency of rain, conditional rain rate, and maximum and minimum rain occurrence is studied. Over Indian tropical region, maximum rainfall over land and Bay of Bengal regions is observed during the late-afternoon and early-morning period, respectively. Drizzle or less rainfall occur frequently in the morning over most land areas, whereas convective activity occurs during the afternoon. The model predicted diurnal cycle of precipitation peaks too early (by ~3h) and the amplitude is too strong over Indian land region and tropical ocean region.

  4. Water stress induced breakdown of carbon-water relations: indicators from diurnal FLUXNET patterns (United States)

    Nelson, Jacob; Carvalhais, Nuno; Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Jung, Martin


    Understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles is currently hampered by an uncertainty in how to capture the large variety of plant responses to drought across climates, ecological strategies, and environments. In FLUXNET, many sites do not uniformly report the ancillary variables needed to study drought response physiology such as soil moisture, sap flux, or species composition. In this sense, the use of diurnal patters to derive clues on ecosystem water limitation responses at a daily resolution from an existing dataset could prove valuable, if nothing less than a benchmark to test current hypotheses. To this end, we propose two data-driven indicators derived directly from the eddy covariance data and based on expected physiological responses to hydraulic and non-stomatal limitations. Hydraulic limitations are proxied using the normalized diurnal centroid, which measures the degree to which the flux of ET is shifted toward the morning. Non-stomatal limitations are characterized by the Diurnal Water:Carbon Index (DWCI), which measures the degree of coupling between daily ET and GPP fluxes. Globally, we found significantly high frequencies of morning shifted days in dry/Mediterranean climates and savanna plant functional types (PFT), whereas high frequencies of decoupling were found in dry climates and grassland/savanna PFTs. Overall, both the diurnal centroid and DWCI were associated with high net radiation and low latent energy. Using three water use efficiency (WUE) models, we found the mean difference between expected and observed WUE to be 0.09 to -0.23 umol/mmol and -0.42 to -0.49 umol/mmol for decoupled and morning shifted days respectively, indicating an increase in WUE associated with the metrics that the models were unable to capture. Furthermore we discuss the application of diurnal centroid and DWCI to methods of evapotranspiration partitioning and estimation of ecosystem isohydricity.

  5. The effects of the diurnal atmospheric variability on entry, descent and landing on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčeta D.


    Full Text Available Landing on Mars is extremely challenging task due to the fact that the Martian atmosphere is the most hostile environment in the Solar system to perform the entry, descent and landing (EDL process, because it is thick enough to create substantial heating of the entry vehicle but not thick enough to reduce its velocity to the one necessary for safe landing. Beside this, the atmosphere is very dynamic mainly due to high eccentricity of the Martian orbit, obliquity of the orbital to the equatorial plane and close alignment of the winter solstice and the orbital perihelion. Although seasonal variations of atmospheric parameters are significantly larger than the diurnal, it is very important to analyze diurnal cycles as they can significantly change vertical and horizontal atmospheric profiles in very short time intervals. This can present a serious threat to missions which have very precise timings and specific requirements such as the requirement for the daytime landing to enable ground images acquisition during the descent and landing phase. A 3-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integration routine was combined with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM to identify the dependence of the EDL profiles on the diurnal cycles of atmospheric parameters throughout the Martian year. The obtained results show that the influence of the diurnal cycles is the largest at the equator and decreases relatively symmetrically towards the poles with a slightly stronger influence in the northern hemisphere. Also, there is a significant influence of the orbital position of Mars on the effect of diurnal atmospheric variations which causes that, around the orbital perihelion and winter solstice, there is some kind of inversion of the dependance of optimal entry timing on latitude of the landing site comparing to the rest of the Martian year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002

  6. Combined diurnal variations of discharge and hydrochemistry of the Isunnguata Sermia outlet, Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Graly, Joseph; Harrington, Joel; Humphrey, Neil


    In order to examine daily cycles in meltwater routing and storage in the Isunnguata Sermia outlet of the Greenland Ice Sheet, variations in outlet stream discharge and in major element hydrochemistry were assessed over a 6-day period in July 2013. Over 4 days, discharge was assessed from hourly photography of the outlet from multiple vantages, including where midstream naled ice provided a natural gauge. pH, electrical conductivity, suspended sediment, and major element and anion chemistry were measured in samples of stream water collected every 3 h.Photography and stream observations reveal that although river width and stage have only slight diurnal variation, there are large diurnal changes in discharge shown by the doubling in width of what we term the active channel, which is characterized by large standing waves and fast flow. The concentration of dissolved solutes follows a sinusoidal diurnal cycle, except for large and variable increases in dissolved solutes during the stream's waning flow. Solute concentrations vary by ˜ 30 % between diurnal minima and maxima. Discharge maxima and minima lag temperature and surface melt by 3-7 h; diurnal solute concentration minima and maxima lag discharge by 3-6 h.This phase shift between discharge and solute concentration suggests that during high flow, water is either encountering more rock material or is stored in longer contact with rock material. We suggest that expansion of a distributed subglacial hydrologic network into seldom accessed regions during high flow could account for these phenomena, and for a spike of partial silicate reaction products during waning flow, which itself suggests a pressure threshold-triggered release of stored water.

  7. Plasma Display at the Liberty Science Center (United States)

    Bruder, Dan; Gilligan, Nick; Tarman, Lisa; Ferris, Pamella; Morgan, James; Delooper, John; Zwicker, Andrew


    The Liberty Science Center (LSC) is the largest (300,000 sq. ft.) education resource in the New Jersey -- New York City region. PPPL in collaboration with the LSC has had a display at the center since 2007 More than 1.5 million visitors have come to the museum since the plasma display has been introduced. The plasma display has had significant use during that time frame. During the summer of 2009 a redesigned plasma exhibit was created by a student teacher-team using the lessons learned from the existing exhibit. The display includes a DC glow discharge tube with a permanent external magnet allowing visitors to manipulate the plasma and see how plasma can be used for fusion research. The goal of the display is to allow an individual to see a plasma and understand the potential benefits of fusion energy.

  8. Developing an integrated digitizing and display surface (United States)

    Hipple, James D.; Wedding, Daniel K.; Wedding, Donald K., Sr.


    The development of an integrated digitizing and display surface, which utilizes touch entry and flat panel display (FPD) technology, is a significant hardware advance in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). Inherent qualities of the FPD, notably the ac gas plasma display, makes such a marriage inevitable. Large diagonal sizes, high resolution color, screen flatness, and monitor thickness are desirable features of an integrated digitizing and display surface. Recently, the GIS literature has addressed a need for such an innovation. The development of graphics displays based on sophisticated technologies include `photorealistic' (or high definition) imaging at resolutions of 2048 X 2048 or greater, palates of 16.7 million colors, formats greater than 30 inches diagonal, and integrated touch entry. In this paper, there is an evaluation of FPDs and data input technologies in the development of such a product.

  9. Display-management system for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.


    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is controlled by 65 local control microcomputers which are supervised by a local network of nine 32-bit minicomputers. Associated with seven of the nine computers are state-of-the-art graphics devices, each with extensive local processing capability. These devices provide the means for an operator to interact with the control software running on the minicomputers. It is critical that the information the operator views accurately reflects the current state of the experiment. This information is integrated into dynamically changing pictures called displays. The primary organizational component of the display system is the software-addressable segment. The segments created by the display creation software are managed by display managers associated with each graphics device. Each display manager uses sophisticated storage management mechanisms to keep the proper segments resident in the local graphics device storage

  10. Body Image (United States)

    ... affect body image Pre-baby body Pregnancy and eating disorders Looking for information on mental health conditions? Visit ... Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during ...

  11. SNS online display technologies for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasemir, K.U.; Chen, X.; Purcell, J.; Danilova, E.


    The ubiquitousness of web clients from personal computers to cell phones results in a growing demand for web-based access to control system data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) we have investigated different technical approaches to provide read access to data in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for a wide variety of web client devices. The core web technology, HTTP, is less than ideal for online control system displays. Appropriate use of Ajax, especially the Long Poll paradigm, can alleviate fundamental HTTP limitations. The SNS Status web uses basic Ajax technology to generate generic displays for a wide audience. The Dashboard uses Long Poll and more client-side Java-Script to offer more customization and faster updates for users that need specialized displays. The Web OPI uses RAP for web access to any BOY display, offering utmost flexibility because users can create their own BOY displays in CSS. These three approaches complement each other. Users can access generic status displays with zero effort, invest time in creating their fully customized displays for the Web OPI, or use the Dashboard as an intermediate solution

  12. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display]. (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi


    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  13. A variable-collimation display system (United States)

    Batchko, Robert; Robinson, Sam; Schmidt, Jack; Graniela, Benito


    Two important human depth cues are accommodation and vergence. Normally, the eyes accommodate and converge or diverge in tandem; changes in viewing distance cause the eyes to simultaneously adjust both focus and orientation. However, ambiguity between accommodation and vergence cues is a well-known limitation in many stereoscopic display technologies. This limitation also arises in state-of-the-art full-flight simulator displays. In current full-flight simulators, the out-the-window (OTW) display (i.e., the front cockpit window display) employs a fixed collimated display technology which allows the pilot and copilot to perceive the OTW training scene without angular errors or distortions; however, accommodation and vergence cues are limited to fixed ranges (e.g., ~ 20 m). While this approach works well for long-range, the ambiguity of depth cues at shorter range hinders the pilot's ability to gauge distances in critical maneuvers such as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). This is the first in a series of papers on a novel, variable-collimation display (VCD) technology that is being developed under NAVY SBIR Topic N121-041 funding. The proposed VCD will integrate with rotary-wing and vertical take-off and landing simulators and provide accurate accommodation and vergence cues for distances ranging from approximately 3 m outside the chin window to ~ 20 m. A display that offers dynamic accommodation and vergence could improve pilot safety and training, and impact other applications presently limited by lack of these depth cues.

  14. In vitro display technologies reveal novel biopharmaceutics. (United States)

    Rothe, Achim; Hosse, Ralf J; Power, Barbara E


    Display technologies are fundamental to the isolation of specific high-affinity binding proteins for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in cancer, neurodegenerative, and infectious diseases as well as autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Applications extend into the broad field of antibody (Ab) engineering, synthetic enzymes, proteomics, and cell-free protein synthesis. Recently, in vitro display technologies have come to prominence due to the isolation of high-affinity human antibodies by phage display, the development of novel scaffolds for ribosome display, and the discovery of novel protein-protein interactions. In vitro display represents an emerging and innovative technology for the rapid isolation and evolution of high-affinity peptides and proteins. So far, only one clinical drug candidate produced by in vitro display technology has been approved by the FDA for use in humans, but several are in clinical or preclinical testing. This review highlights recent advances in various engineered biopharmaceutical products isolated by in vitro display with a focus on the commercial developments.

  15. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul


    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  16. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo


    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  17. The impact of diurnal variability in sea surface temperature on the central Atlantic air-sea CO2 flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Filipiak


    Full Text Available The effect of diurnal variations in sea surface temperature (SST on the air-sea flux of CO2 over the central Atlantic ocean and Mediterranean Sea (60 S–60 N, 60 W–45 E is evaluated for 2005–2006. We use high spatial resolution hourly satellite ocean skin temperature data to determine the diurnal warming (ΔSST. The CO2 flux is then computed using three different temperature fields – a foundation temperature (Tf, measured at a depth where there is no diurnal variation, Tf, plus the hourly ΔSST and Tf, plus the monthly average of the ΔSSTs. This is done in conjunction with a physically-based parameterisation for the gas transfer velocity (NOAA-COARE. The differences between the fluxes evaluated for these three different temperature fields quantify the effects of both diurnal warming and diurnal covariations. We find that including diurnal warming increases the CO2 flux out of this region of the Atlantic for 2005–2006 from 9.6 Tg C a−1 to 30.4 Tg C a−1 (hourly ΔSST and 31.2 Tg C a−1 (monthly average of ΔSST measurements. Diurnal warming in this region, therefore, has a large impact on the annual net CO2 flux but diurnal covariations are negligible. However, in this region of the Atlantic the uptake and outgassing of CO2 is approximately balanced over the annual cycle, so although we find diurnal warming has a very large effect here, the Atlantic as a whole is a very strong carbon sink (e.g. −920 Tg C a−1 Takahashi et al., 2002 making this is a small contribution to the Atlantic carbon budget.

  18. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg


    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... are not well suited for games on public displays. Instead, interruptions should be implicitly supported by the application design....

  19. Adscape: Harvesting and Analyzing Online Display Ads


    Barford, Paul; Canadi, Igor; Krushevskaja, Darja; Ma, Qiang; Muthukrishnan, S.


    Over the past decade, advertising has emerged as the primary source of revenue for many web sites and apps. In this paper we report a first-of-its-kind study that seeks to broadly understand the features, mechanisms and dynamics of display advertising on the web - i.e., the Adscape. Our study takes the perspective of users who are the targets of display ads shown on web sites. We develop a scalable crawling capability that enables us to gather the details of display ads including creatives an...

  20. Diurnal variation in skeletal muscle and liver glycogen in humans with normal health and Type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Macauley, Mavin; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Peter E; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Taylor, Roy


    In health, food carbohydrate is stored as glycogen in muscle and liver, preventing a deleterious rise in osmotically active plasma glucose after eating. Glycogen concentrations increase sequentially after each meal to peak in the evening, and fall to fasting levels thereafter. Skeletal muscle accounts for the larger part of this diurnal buffering capacity with liver also contributing. The effectiveness of this diurnal mechanism has not been previously studied in Type 2 diabetes. We have quantified the changes in muscle and liver glycogen concentration with 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3.0 T before and after three meals consumed at 4 h intervals. We studied 40 (25 males; 15 females) well-controlled Type 2 diabetes subjects on metformin only (HbA1c (glycated haemoglobin) 6.4±0.07% or 47±0.8 mmol/mol) and 14 (8 males; 6 females) glucose-tolerant controls matched for age, weight and body mass index (BMI). Muscle glycogen concentration increased by 17% after day-long eating in the control group (68.1±4.8 to 79.7±4.2 mmol/l; P=0.006), and this change inversely correlated with homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] (r=-0.56; P=0.02). There was no change in muscle glycogen in the Type 2 diabetes group after day-long eating (68.3±2.6 to 67.1±2.0 mmol/mol; P=0.62). Liver glycogen rose similarly in normal control (325.9±25.0 to 388.1±30.3 mmol/l; P=0.005) and Type 2 diabetes groups (296.1±16.0 to 350.5±6.7 mmol/l; Pdiabetes, the major physiological mechanism for skeletal muscle postprandial glycogen storage is completely inactive. This is directly related to insulin resistance, although liver glycogen storage is normal.

  1. Sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns in a cohort of U.S. young adults. (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A; Roberts, Andrea L; Gordon, Allegra R; Sarda, Vishnudas; Missmer, Stacey; Anatale-Tardiff, Laura; Scherer, Emily A


    Sexual minorities in the United States are at elevated risk of bullying, discrimination, and violence victimization, all stressors that have been linked to psychological and behavioral stress responses including depressive and anxious symptoms and substance use. Acute and chronic stressors may also elicit physiologic stress responses, including changes in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between minority sexual orientation and diurnal cortisol patterns. The present study included 1670 young adults ages 18-32 years (69% female, 31% male) from the Growing Up Today Study, a prospective cohort of U.S. youth. Participants provided five saliva samples over one day to estimate diurnal cortisol patterns. Sexual orientation groups included: completely heterosexual with no same-sex partners (referent), completely heterosexual with same-sex partners/mostly heterosexual, and gay/lesbian/bisexual. Covariates included perceived stress and stressful life events in the past month. Sex-stratified multilevel models of log-transformed cortisol values were used to model diurnal cortisol patterns, and generalized estimating equations were used to model area under the curve (AUC), both with respect to ground (AUCg) and increase (AUCi). Among females, sexual minorities reported significantly more stressful life events in the past month than their heterosexual counterparts. In adjusted multilevel models, sexual orientation was not significantly associated with diurnal cortisol patterns or with AUCg or AUCi in either females or males. There were no significant interactions between sexual orientation and stressful life events. Time-varying negative mood was significantly associated with higher cortisol levels across the day for both female and male participants, after adjusting for all covariates. This study from a large cohort of U.S. young adults did not detect a relationship between sexual

  2. Diurnal warming in shallow coastal seas: Observations from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef regions (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Minnett, P. J.; Berkelmans, R.; Hendee, J.; Manfrino, C.


    A good understanding of diurnal warming in the upper ocean is important for the validation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) against in-situ buoy data and for merging satellite SSTs taken at different times of the same day. For shallow coastal regions, better understanding of diurnal heating could also help improve monitoring and prediction of ecosystem health, such as coral reef bleaching. Compared to its open ocean counterpart which has been studied extensively and modeled with good success, coastal diurnal warming has complicating localized characteristics, including coastline geometry, bathymetry, water types, tidal and wave mixing. Our goal is to characterize coastal diurnal warming using two extensive in-situ temperature and weather datasets from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Results showed clear daily warming patterns in most stations from both datasets. For the three Caribbean stations where solar radiation is the main cause of daily warming, the mean diurnal warming amplitudes were about 0.4 K at depths of 4-7 m and 0.6-0.7 K at shallower depths of 1-2 m; the largest warming value was 2.1 K. For coral top temperatures of the GBR, 20% of days had warming amplitudes >1 K, with the largest >4 K. The bottom warming at shallower sites has higher daily maximum temperatures and lower daily minimum temperatures than deeper sites nearby. The averaged daily warming amplitudes were shown to be closely related to daily average wind speed and maximum insolation, as found in the open ocean. Diurnal heating also depends on local features including water depth, location on different sections of the reef (reef flat vs. reef slope), the relative distance from the barrier reef chain (coast vs. lagoon stations vs. inner barrier reef sites vs. outer rim sites); and the proximity to the tidal inlets. In addition, the influence of tides on daily temperature changes and its relative importance compared to solar radiation was quantified by

  3. Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, N.; Harada, M.; Idogaki, T. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)


    This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent (EL) display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  5. Facial Displays Are Tools for Social Influence. (United States)

    Crivelli, Carlos; Fridlund, Alan J


    Based on modern theories of signal evolution and animal communication, the behavioral ecology view of facial displays (BECV) reconceives our 'facial expressions of emotion' as social tools that serve as lead signs to contingent action in social negotiation. BECV offers an externalist, functionalist view of facial displays that is not bound to Western conceptions about either expressions or emotions. It easily accommodates recent findings of diversity in facial displays, their public context-dependency, and the curious but common occurrence of solitary facial behavior. Finally, BECV restores continuity of human facial behavior research with modern functional accounts of non-human communication, and provides a non-mentalistic account of facial displays well-suited to new developments in artificial intelligence and social robotics. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L


    Full Text Available the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD...

  7. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  8. A display to support knowledge based behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.


    This paper reports on a computerized display that has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of iconic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing data for the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such as inherent signal validation

  9. White constancy method for mobile displays (United States)

    Yum, Ji Young; Park, Hyun Hee; Jang, Seul Ki; Lee, Jae Hyang; Kim, Jong Ho; Yi, Ji Young; Lee, Min Woo


    In these days, consumer's needs for image quality of mobile devices are increasing as smartphone is widely used. For example, colors may be perceived differently when displayed contents under different illuminants. Displayed white in incandescent lamp is perceived as bluish, while same content in LED light is perceived as yellowish. When changed in perceived white under illuminant environment, image quality would be degraded. Objective of the proposed white constancy method is restricted to maintain consistent output colors regardless of the illuminants utilized. Human visual experiments are performed to analyze viewers'perceptual constancy. Participants are asked to choose the displayed white in a variety of illuminants. Relationship between the illuminants and the selected colors with white are modeled by mapping function based on the results of human visual experiments. White constancy values for image control are determined on the predesigned functions. Experimental results indicate that propsed method yields better image quality by keeping the display white.

  10. GPS Design Considerations: Displaying Nearest Airport Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Kevin


    Thirty-six participants were tested in a flight simulator on their ability to orient toward the nearest airport, based on the manner in which information was presented on a global positioning system (GPS) display...

  11. Advanced image display systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendler, T.


    Advanced image display systems for the fully digital diagnostic imaging departments of the future will be far more than simple replacements of the traditional film-viewing equipment. The new capabilities of very high resolution and highly dynamic displays offer a userfriendly and problem-oriented way of image interpretation. Advanced harware-, software- and human-machine interaction-concepts have been outlined. A scenario for a future way of handling and displaying images, reflecting a new image viewing paradigm in radiology is sketched which has been realized in an experimental image workstation model in the laboratory which, despite its technical complexity, offers a consistent strategy for fast and convenient interaction with image objects. The perspective of knowledge based techniques for workstation control software with object-oriented programming environments and user- and task-adaptive behavior leads to more advanced display properties and a new quality of userfriendliness. 2 refs.; 5 figs

  12. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  13. Viewpoint adaptive display of HDR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Mantel, Claire


    In this paper viewpoint adaptive display of HDR images incorporating the effects of ambient light is presented and evaluated. LED backlight displays may render HDR images, but while at a global scale a high dynamic range may be achieved, locally the contrast is limited by the leakage of light...... through the LC elements of the display. To render high quality images, the display with backlight dimming can compute the values of the LED backlight and LC elements based on the input image, information about the viewpoint of the observer(s) and information of the ambient light. The goal is to achieve...... the best perceptual reproduction of the specified target image derived from the HDR input image in the specific viewing situation including multiple viewers, possibly having different preferences. An optimization based approach is presented. Some tests with reproduced images are also evaluated subjectively...

  14. A display to support knowledge based behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.


    A computerized display has been created for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) that incorporates information from plant sensors in a thermodynamic model display. The display is designed to provide an operator with an overall view of the plant process as a heat engine. The thermodynamics of the plant are depicted through the use of ionic figures, animated by plant signals, that are related to the major plant components and systems such as the reactor, intermediate heat exchanger, secondary system, evaporators, superheaters, steam system, steam drum, and turbine-generator. This display supports knowledge based reasoning for the operator as well as providing the traditional rule and skill based behavior, and includes side benefits such a inherent signal validation

  15. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix


    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  16. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display (United States)

    ... NWS Watch, Warning, Advisory Display NWS Warnings and Advisories on this map become active links to IWIN ... Flood Watch Coastal/Flood Warning Small Stream Flood Advisory Blizzard Warning Winter Storm Watch Winter Storm Warning ...

  17. Review of Defense Display Research Programs (United States)


    micromirror device (DMD) projection displays, or some future contender, such as organic light emitting diode displays (OLED)—will be installed via...2.3.1 Technology creation successes The crown jewel of the HDS program is the Texas ...Instruments (TI) digital micromirror device (DMD) technology, developed in an $11.3M research effort managed by the Air Force Research Laboratory from 1991

  18. ZTREE - data analysis and graphics display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitch, V.A.


    ZTREE is program complex for the KMD-2 detector data analysis and graphics display. It is program for operating on ZEBRA sequential files (FZ-files). ZTREE has been written in Fortran 77. This Manual describes general purpose commands as well as commands for input into FZ-files, the graphics event display. The descriptions of a simple interface to ZEBRA and the interface to COMIS are given. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Data Display Markup Language (DDML) Handbook (United States)


    2-4 Figure 2-5. Common Name and Location Definitions ........................................................... 2-4 Data Display Markup Language ...DOM document object model DTD document type definition IRIG Inter-range Instrumentation Group MathML Mathematical Markup Language RCC Range...Moreover, the tendency of T&E is towards a plug-and-play-like data acquisition system that requires standard languages and modules for data displays

  20. Computer graphic display of cardiac CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.; Carlsson, E.


    In order to improve spatial conception and quantitative assessment of the cardiac structures based on cardiac computed tomography, methods for computer graphic display were developed. Excised hearts and living dogs with myocardial infarctions were subjected to CT scanning. The data on the scanner tapes were processed to provide isodensity plots, linear section plots, time-weighted integrated isodensity plots as well as topographical density displays and three-dimensional spatial reconstructions of single and multi-layer scans. (orig.)

  1. Autostereoscopic video display with motion parallax (United States)

    Hines, Stephen P.


    Described, is the HinesLab '3DTV,' a 3-dimensional video display which provides true stereo 3-D images, without glasses. Multiple viewers can move in front of the display, seeing true stereo images with motion parallax. Applications include 3-D video arcade games, avionics, engineering workstations, scientific visualization, video phones, and 3-D television. The display is built around a single liquid crystal panel, on which multiple images are projected to a screen where they form the 3-D image. The relationships of objects are confirmed in three dimensional space as the viewer moves through the viewing positions. The HinesLab autostereoscopic technology is transparent to the user. The 3DTV display can be produced economically because it uses a single display panel and conventional optics. The primary advantage of this technique is its simplicity. CGI images are supplied to the monitor with a single video board. Three- dimensional television can be broadcast by a single unmodified television station (NTSC, PAL, SECAM, HDTV, etc.), and recorded and replayed in 3-D with a VCR. From 4 - 21 eye positions can be created, with a range of resolution and viewing angles, limited only by currently available liquid- crystal display technology.

  2. Universe Interactive: Static Displays with Active Components (United States)

    Larson, Michelle B.


    As the World Year of Physics (WYP) approaches, the AAPT WYP Committee would like to encourage everyone to consider ways to engage those around us in celebrating the science that makes us the proud geeks we are. The geek sentiment is my own, and does not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the committee. This paper offers simple and inexpensive astronomy-related ideas for a bulletin-board-type display. The particular ideas presented below are hands-on classroom activities that I've adapted for display purposes. The display is static in that once constructed it does not require a personal facilitator, but each component invites interaction. At the end of the paper I revisit the idea of building a sundial1 as a highly visible and artistic way to engage students and communities in physics. The activities presented here are available for use when constructing your own display. In addition, these examples are meant to illustrate how instructional products might be modified for display purposes, and I encourage others to consider their favorite activities for an interactive display.

  3. A new type of multiview display (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; de la Barré, René


    The common architecture of multi-view autostereoscopic displays assigns a nominal viewing distance. The design affects the convergence of the visible rays at a nominal viewing distance where diamond shaped viewing zones are created. In contrast to this approach, the authors present a new design strategy departing from the geometric relations of common 3D display designs. They show that a beam emitted from a sub-pixel should be rendered with an individual camera direction determined by an algorithm. This algorithm also uses, besides the parameters of the display design, the desired viewing distance and the allowed increments of the camera angle. This enables very flexible designs of autostereoscopic displays. The main difference from the common multiview display is that its design approach enables a continued viewing zone without the usually diamond shaped sweet spots. The algorithm for controlling the rendering and the multiplexing is generic, as well as for integral and multiview design approaches using an image splitter raster. The paper introduces it for autostereoscopic displays with horizontal parallax.

  4. SES cupola interactive display design environment (United States)

    Vu, Bang Q.; Kirkhoff, Kevin R.


    The Systems Engineering Simulator, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, is tasked with providing a real-time simulator for developing displays and controls targeted for the Space Station Freedom. These displays and controls will exist inside an enclosed workstation located on the space station. The simulation is currently providing the engineering analysis environment for NASA and contractor personnel to design, prototype, and test alternatives for graphical presentation of data to an astronaut while he performs specified tasks. A highly desirable aspect of this environment is to have the capability to rapidly develop and bring on-line a number of different displays for use in determining the best utilization of graphics techniques in achieving maximum efficiency of the test subject fulfilling his task. The Systems Engineering Simulator now has available a tool which assists in the rapid development of displays for these graphic workstations. The Display Builder was developed in-house to provide an environment which allows easy construction and modification of displays within minutes of receiving requirements for specific tests.

  5. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang


    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  6. Diurnal modulation due to self-interacting mirror and hidden sector dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.


    Mirror and more generic hidden sector dark matter models can simultaneously explain the DAMA, CoGeNT and CRESST-II dark matter signals consistently with the null results of the other experiments. This type of dark matter can be captured by the Earth and shield detectors because it is self-interacting. This effect will lead to a diurnal modulation in dark matter detectors. We estimate the size of this effect for dark matter detectors in various locations. For a detector located in the northern hemisphere, this effect is expected to peak in April and can be detected for optimistic parameter choices. The diurnal variation is expected to be much larger for detectors located in the southern hemisphere. In particular, if the CoGeNT detector were moved to e.g. Sierra Grande, Argentina then a 5σ dark matter discovery would be possible in around 30 days of operation

  7. Diurnal and seasonal molecular rhythms in human neocortex and their relation to Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Lim, Andrew S P; Klein, Hans-Ulrich; Yu, Lei; Chibnik, Lori B; Ali, Sanam; Xu, Jishu; Bennett, David A; De Jager, Philip L


    Circadian and seasonal rhythms are seen in many species, modulate several aspects of human physiology, including brain functions such as mood and cognition, and influence many neurological and psychiatric illnesses. However, there are few data regarding the genome-scale molecular correlates underlying these rhythms, especially in the human brain. Here, we report widespread, site-specific and interrelated diurnal and seasonal rhythms of gene expression in the human brain, and show their relationship with parallel rhythms of epigenetic modification including histone acetylation, and DNA methylation. We also identify transcription factor-binding sites that may drive these effects. Further, we demonstrate that Alzheimer's disease pathology disrupts these rhythms. These data suggest that interrelated diurnal and seasonal epigenetic and transcriptional rhythms may be an important feature of human brain biology, and perhaps human biology more broadly, and that changes in such rhythms may be consequences of, or contributors to, diseases such as Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Variability of radiatively forced diurnal cycle of intense convection in the tropical west pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W.M.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Thorson, W.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime (DVN) net radiative cooling in clear versus cloudy areas of the tropical atmosphere. Daytime average cooling is approximately -0.7{degrees}C/day, whereas nighttime net tropospheric cooling rates are about -1.5{degrees}C/day, an approximately two-to-one difference. The comparatively strong nocturnal cooling in clear areas gives rise to a diurnally varying vertical circulation and horizontal convergence cycle. Various manifestations of this cyclic process include the observed early morning heavy rainfall maxima over the tropical oceans. The radiatively driven DVN circulation appears to strongly modulate the resulting diurnal cycle of intense convection which creates the highest, coldest cloudiness over maritime tropical areas and is likely a fundamental mechanism governing both small and large scale dynamics over much of the tropical environment.

  9. Ten-Year Climatology of Summertime Diurnal Rainfall Rate Over the Conterminous U.S. (United States)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Mocko, David; Lee, Myong-In; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Suarez, Max J.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.


    Diurnal cycles of summertime rainfall rates are examined over the conterminous United States, using radar-gauge assimilated hourly rainfall data. As in earlier studies, rainfall diurnal composites show a well-defined region of rainfall propagation over the Great Plains and an afternoon maximum area over the south and eastern portion of the United States. Zonal phase speeds of rainfall in three different small domains are estimated, and rainfall propagation speeds are compared with background zonal wind speeds. Unique rainfall propagation speeds in three different regions can be explained by the evolution of latent-heat theory linked to the convective available potential energy, than by gust-front induced or gravity wave propagation mechanisms.

  10. Diurnal rhythm and effect of temperature on oxygen consumption in earthworms, Amynthas gracilis and Pontoscolex corethrurus. (United States)

    Chuang, Shu Chun; Lee, Hsinyu; Chen, Jiun Hong


    Different species of earthworms show distinct patterns of oxygen consumption pattern. Amynthas gracilis has a diurnal rhythm of oxygen consumption, consuming more oxygen at night, whether being incubated at 20, 25, or 30 degrees C. The higher oxygen consumption of A. gracilis is directly related to its behavior, as it shows higher activity at night. In contrast, Pontoscolex corethrurus showed no obvious diurnal rhythms of oxygen consumption or behavior. In addition, its oxygen demand is not related to temperature. A. gracilis has higher oxygen consumption than P. corethrurus at 20 and 30 degrees C. The difference in temperature adaptation of oxygen consumption between these two species may be a strategy by which earthworms adapt to different temperatures. This might explain why A. gracilis disperses on the soil surface at night after a rain, in contrast to P. corethrurus for which such behavior was not been observed.

  11. An interpretation of ion composition diurnal variation deduced from EISCAT observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov


    Full Text Available Physical interpretation is made of the O+/Ne diurnal variations in summer, revealed by Litvine et al. (1998 from the EISCAT observations. It is shown that the observed anti-correlation between the Z50 parameter, corresponding to the transition region between 50% of molecular and atomic ions, and the width Dz of the transition, defined as the altitude width between 10% and 90% of the O+/Ne ratio, can be reproduced in model calculations and the result of different recombination laws (quadratic in the lower and linear in the upper ionosphere as well as diurnal variations in the photo-ionization rates.Key words.Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; modeling and forecasting

  12. MLT winds and diurnal tides at southern low latitudes in the period 1999-2008 (United States)

    Rodrigues de Araujo, Luciana; Takahashi, Hisao; Clemesha, Barclay; Batista, Paulo; Lima, Lourivaldo

    Meteor radar measurements obtained during the time intervals from March 1999 to July 2006 and from September 2007 to October 2008, at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W), Brazil, have been analyzed to investigate long-term trends and solar activity-induced variations in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region (MLT) dynamics. Regression analyses with a dependence on solar activity and time have revealed a possible effect of the solar cycle upon monthly zonal and meridional wind behavior, in which solar activity may have contributed to weaken eastward winds, increase westward and meridional winds in some height ranges and time periods. Diurnal and semidiurnal tide amplitudes also have been analyzed and the results point out that the diurnal tides for solar minimum years are amplifies, whereas the amplitudes for semidiurnal tides showed an opposite behavior.

  13. Dry season and diurnal surveys of phylloplane fungi of Hevea brasiliensis in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Okhuoya


    Full Text Available Monthly and diurnal variation of phylloplane fungi of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis leaves were studied over a period of four months in the dry season, using two culturing methods. Composite fungal population was the highest in April and the lowest in February. Serial dilution method recorded the higher number of fungal spores than ballistospore method. Mature leaves were found to have more fungal spores than premature and young leaves. Spore concentration on the leaves showed diurnal periodicity, with peak period of spores between 12-18 hr. Rubber leaves outside the plantation, had more spores on their surfaces than those shaded by the plantation canopy. The factors responsible for these observations were discussed.

  14. Diurnal rhythm in serum levels of inhibin B in normal men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E; Olsson, C; Petersen, J H


    volunteers (median age, 30 yr) by continuous blood drawing, with sampling every 30 min for 24 h. Blood samples were also analyzed for FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin. We found a significant diurnal variation in inhibin B, with peak values in the early morning and nadirs...... in the late afternoon, followed by gradual increasing nocturnal values. An average decline of 3%/h from 0900 until 1700 h was calculated. Significant cross-correlation was found between inhibin B and testosterone as well as estradiol, whereas no cross-correlation was found between inhibin B and FSH. Two......-dimensional time-series analyses revealed a statistically significant influence of testosterone on inhibin B. In addition, estradiol and inhibin B had a significant influence on one another. In conclusion, we found a significant diurnal variation in inhibin B levels in normal men, with a pattern of higher values...

  15. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva


    cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...... not statistically significant. The results would support the notion that exhaustion is associated with HPA axis hypoactivity as assessed by salivary cortisol. Furthermore, the SF-36 vitality provides a measure of exhaustion that may be useful in epidemiological studies in order to explore long-term health effects...

  16. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk


    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  17. Diurnal Transcriptome and Gene Network Represented through Sparse Modeling in Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Koda


    Full Text Available We report the comprehensive identification of periodic genes and their network inference, based on a gene co-expression analysis and an Auto-Regressive eXogenous (ARX model with a group smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD method using a time-series transcriptome dataset in a model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. To reveal the diurnal changes in the transcriptome in B. distachyon, we performed RNA-seq analysis of its leaves sampled through a diurnal cycle of over 48 h at 4 h intervals using three biological replications, and identified 3,621 periodic genes through our wavelet analysis. The expression data are feasible to infer network sparsity based on ARX models. We found that genes involved in biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, and post-transcriptional modification and photosynthesis are significantly enriched in the periodic genes, suggesting that these processes might be regulated by circadian rhythm in B. distachyon. On the basis of the time-series expression patterns of the periodic genes, we constructed a chronological gene co-expression network and identified putative transcription factors encoding genes that might be involved in the time-specific regulatory transcriptional network. Moreover, we inferred a transcriptional network composed of the periodic genes in B. distachyon, aiming to identify genes associated with other genes through variable selection by grouping time points for each gene. Based on the ARX model with the group SCAD regularization using our time-series expression datasets of the periodic genes, we constructed gene networks and found that the networks represent typical scale-free structure. Our findings demonstrate that the diurnal changes in the transcriptome in B. distachyon leaves have a sparse network structure, demonstrating the spatiotemporal gene regulatory network over the cyclic phase transitions in B. distachyon diurnal growth.

  18. Practical limitations on the use of diurnal temperature signals to quantify groundwater upwelling (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Lautz, Laura K.; Buckley, Sean F.; Lane, John W.


    Groundwater upwelling to streams creates unique habitat by influencing stream water quality and temperature; upwelling zones also serve as vectors for contamination when groundwater is degraded. Temperature time series data acquired along vertical profiles in the streambed have been applied to simple analytical models to determine rates of vertical fluid flux. These models are based on the downward propagation characteristics (amplitude attenuation and phase-lag) of the surface diurnal signal. Despite the popularity of these models, there are few published characterizations of moderate-to-strong upwelling. We attribute this limitation to the thermodynamics of upwelling, under which the downward conductive signal transport from the streambed interface occurs opposite the upward advective fluid flux. Governing equations describing the advection–diffusion of heat within the streambed predict that under upwelling conditions, signal amplitude attenuation will increase, but, counterintuitively, phase-lag will decrease. Therefore the extinction (measurable) depth of the diurnal signal is very shallow, but phase lag is also short, yielding low signal to noise ratio and poor model sensitivity. Conversely, amplitude attenuation over similar sensor spacing is strong, yielding greater potential model sensitivity. Here we present streambed thermal time series over a range of moderate to strong upwelling sites in the Quashnet River, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The predicted inverse relationship between phase-lag and rate of upwelling was observed in the field data over a range of conditions, but the observed phase-lags were consistently shorter than predicted. Analytical solutions for fluid flux based on signal amplitude attenuation return results consistent with numerical models and physical seepage meters, but the phase-lag analytical model results are generally unreasonable. Through numerical modeling we explore reasons why phase-lag may have been over-predicted by the

  19. Annual and diurnal precipitation bimodal distributions as simulated by WRF-based CORDEX-Cetral America (United States)

    Angel, M. C.; Mejia, J.; Chang, H. I.; Ochoa, C. A.; Castro, C. L.


    We examine the ability of a regional climate model (RCM) to simulate the observed annual and diurnal cycles of precipitation over Central America (CA), the Caribbean Sea and NW South America (NWSA). The region's annual cycle is dominated by a bimodal precipitation annual cycle: over CA and the Caribbean, the mid-summer drought suppresses the rainy season in July-August; over the NWSA, and more pronouncedly over the Andes, the ITCZ meridional migration is argue to dominate the bimodal distribution of the annual cycle. The intricate land-ocean distribution, the complex terrain, and the long lasting mesoscale convective systems have been related to intricate bimodal diurnal distribution of precipitation over the far eastern Pacific and NWSA. A CORDEX-CA simulation based on the Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model at 25 km grid size driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the period 1979-2015 was implemented. The simulations were evaluated using surface observations and the research-based High-Resolution Satellite Precipitation Product from TRMM (3B42) and CMORPH. We use spectral analysis to estimate the mean phase and amplitude spatial patterns at annual and diurnal time scales. We further contrast the consistencies and differences using more focus and higher resolution simulations based on WRF and ERA-Interim at 10km and convection-permitting simulations (<4 km grid sizes). The research discusses the flow and orographic dependencies on the ability to adequately simulate the annual and diurnal bimodal distributions of precipitation. These comparisons provide a high-level validation of the WRF-based CORDEX-CA's ability to simulate one of the rainniest region on earth and its basic but challenging small-scale spatial-temporal climate variations.

  20. Arvicanthis ansorgei, a Novel Model for the Study of Sleep and Waking in Diurnal Rodents. (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey; Ruppert, Elisabeth; Calvel, Laurent; Robin-Choteau, Ludivine; Gropp, Claire-Marie; Allemann, Caroline; Reibel, Sophie; Sage-Ciocca, Dominique; Bourgin, Patrice


    Sleep neurobiology studies use nocturnal species, mainly rats and mice. However, because their daily sleep/wake organization is inverted as compared to humans, a diurnal model for sleep studies is needed. To fill this gap, we phenotyped sleep and waking in Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent widely used for the study of circadian rhythms. Video-electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings. Rodent sleep laboratory. Fourteen male Arvicanthis ansorgei, aged 3 mo. 12 h light (L):12 h dark (D) baseline condition, 24-h constant darkness, 6-h sleep deprivation. Wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed similar electrophysiological characteristics as nocturnal rodents. On average, animals spent 12.9 h ± 0.4 awake per 24-h cycle, of which 6.88 h ± 0.3 was during the light period. NREM sleep accounted for 9.63 h ± 0.4, which of 5.13 h ± 0.2 during dark period, and REM sleep for 89.9 min ± 6.7, which of 52.8 min ± 4.4 during dark period. The time-course of sleep and waking across the 12 h light:12 h dark was overall inverted to that observed in rats or mice, though with larger amounts of crepuscular activity at light and dark transitions. A dominant crepuscular regulation of sleep and waking persisted under constant darkness, showing the lack of a strong circadian drive in the absence of clock reinforcement by external cues, such as a running wheel. Conservation of the homeostatic regulation was confirmed with the observation of higher delta power following sustained waking periods and a 6-h sleep deprivation, with subsequent decrease during recovery sleep. Arvicanthis ansorgei is a valid diurnal rodent model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of sleep and so represents a valuable tool for further understanding the nocturnality/diurnality switch. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. Repetitive ritalin treatment modulates the diurnal activity pattern of young SD male rats. (United States)

    Algahim, Mohame Fodhl; Yang, Pamela Boi; Burau, Keith Dean; Swann, Allan Craig; Dafny, Nachum


    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder of children and is treated by psychostimulants. Psychostimulant exposure to children at the time of neuronal development can cause behavioral and physiological changes continuing during adulthood. Most of the studies on psychostimulants investigate the acute effects of the drug. The objective of this study was to investigate whether acute or chronic exposure to methylphenidate (MPD), the drug most often used to treat ADHD in children, will modulate the diurnal activity pattern of young rats. Maintaining the diurnal activity pattern is a physiological process that regulates the internal homeostasis. Dose response protocol was used to study the effect of acute and chronic MPD in four young post natal day 40 (P 40) rat groups, (each N=8), as follows: saline (control) group, and 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg i.p. MPD groups, respectively. The experiment was performed over 11 consecutive days of continuous locomotor activity recording using the open field assay. The data evaluation was divided into four phases as follows: acute, induction, washout and expression phases. There was a dose-dependent increase in the average locomotor activity in the first few hours post-injection. Analysis of the diurnal rhythmic pattern of locomotion in the three dose groups compared to control demonstrated that only the 10.0 mg/kg MPD elicited significant changes in diurnal pattern activity in the washout and the expression phase. In addition, this study indicated that chronic MPD treatment elicits dose dependent anticipation and/or withdrawal and behavioral sensitization.

  2. Diurnal Transcriptome and Gene Network Represented through Sparse Modeling inBrachypodium distachyon. (United States)

    Koda, Satoru; Onda, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Takahagi, Kotaro; Yamaguchi-Uehara, Yukiko; Shimizu, Minami; Inoue, Komaki; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Honda, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Shinto; Nishii, Ryuei; Mochida, Keiichi


    We report the comprehensive identification of periodic genes and their network inference, based on a gene co-expression analysis and an Auto-Regressive eXogenous (ARX) model with a group smoothly clipped absolute deviation (SCAD) method using a time-series transcriptome dataset in a model grass, Brachypodium distachyon . To reveal the diurnal changes in the transcriptome in B. distachyon , we performed RNA-seq analysis of its leaves sampled through a diurnal cycle of over 48 h at 4 h intervals using three biological replications, and identified 3,621 periodic genes through our wavelet analysis. The expression data are feasible to infer network sparsity based on ARX models. We found that genes involved in biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, protein degradation, and post-transcriptional modification and photosynthesis are significantly enriched in the periodic genes, suggesting that these processes might be regulated by circadian rhythm in B. distachyon . On the basis of the time-series expression patterns of the periodic genes, we constructed a chronological gene co-expression network and identified putative transcription factors encoding genes that might be involved in the time-specific regulatory transcriptional network. Moreover, we inferred a transcriptional network composed of the periodic genes in B. distachyon , aiming to identify genes associated with other genes through variable selection by grouping time points for each gene. Based on the ARX model with the group SCAD regularization using our time-series expression datasets of the periodic genes, we constructed gene networks and found that the networks represent typical scale-free structure. Our findings demonstrate that the diurnal changes in the transcriptome in B. distachyon leaves have a sparse network structure, demonstrating the spatiotemporal gene regulatory network over the cyclic phase transitions in B. distachyon diurnal growth.

  3. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the arctic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer


    Full Text Available Meteors are an important source for (a the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere. We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out. Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon but all three radiants were detected.

  4. Diurnal and Nocturnal Activity Time Budgets of Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus) in a Zoological Park


    Denise E. Lukacs; Melanie Poulin; Hayley Besenthal; Otto C. Fad; Stephen P. Miller; James L. Atkinson; Esther J. Finegan


    The diurnal and nocturnal activity time budgets of five adult female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) were studied in a zoological park for two 24-hour, five 14-hour, and one 9-hour observation periods between May and June 2011. Relatively few studies have looked at detailed daytime and nighttime activity time budgets in captive Asian elephants. Continuous observation was used to measure the activity time budgets of at least one focal animal per observation period. The activity time budgets ...

  5. Sleep hygiene awareness: its relation to sleep quality and diurnal preference


    Voinescu, Bogdan Ioan; Szentagotai-Tatar, Aurora


    Background Sleep hygiene is a core component for psychological treatments of insomnia and essential for maintaining a satisfactory sleep. Our study aimed to measure the sleep hygiene awareness and the self-reported quality of sleep among three age groups (young adults, adults and middle-aged adults) and to determine their relation. We also measured their relation with diurnal preference. Methods Using an online questionnaire, we surveyed six hundred fifty two participants, recruited nationwid...

  6. Diurnal and circadian rhythms in the tomato transcriptome and their modulation by cryptochrome photoreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Facella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian clocks are internal molecular time-keeping mechanisms that provide living organisms with the ability to adjust their growth and physiology and to anticipate diurnal environmental changes. Circadian clocks, without exception, respond to light and, in plants, light is the most potent and best characterized entraining stimulus. The capacity of plants to respond to light is achieved through a number of photo-perceptive proteins including cryptochromes and phytochromes. There is considerable experimental evidence demonstrating the roles of photoreceptors in providing light input to the clock. METHODOLOGY: In order to identify genes regulated by diurnal and circadian rhythms, and to establish possible functional relations between photoreceptors and the circadian clock in tomato, we monitored the temporal transcription pattern in plants entrained to long-day conditions, either by large scale comparative profiling, or using a focused approach over a number of photosensory and clock-related genes by QRT-PCR. In parallel, focused transcription analyses were performed in cry1a- and in CRY2-OX tomato genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: We report a large series of transcript oscillations that shed light on the complex network of interactions among tomato photoreceptors and clock-related genes. Alteration of cryptochrome gene expression induced major changes in the rhythmic oscillations of several other gene transcripts. In particular, over-expression of CRY2 had an impact not only on day/night fluctuations but also on rhythmicity under constant light conditions. Evidence was found for widespread diurnal oscillations of transcripts encoding specific enzyme classes (e.g. carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes as well as for post-transcriptional diurnal and circadian regulation of the CRY2 transcript.

  7. How do diurnal long-distance migrants select flight altitude in relation to wind?


    María Mateos-Rodríguez; Felix Liechti


    To save energy and time, migratory birds are expected to select time periods and flight altitudes with favorable wind conditions. In spring 2006, we studied diurnal migration using tracking radar at the Strait of Messina. A total of 1530 radar tracks were analyzed with respect to flight altitude and wind conditions. The tracks included Honey Buzzards, Marsh, Montagu's, and Pallid Harriers, Black Kites, falcons, swallows, swifts, and herons. Maximum flight altitude recorded was 2495 m above gr...

  8. Diurnal and 27 day variations of cosmic rays as registered with the muon telescopes at SWU and BEO – Moussala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, Ivo


    The results from the periodic analysis of the muon telescopes data at South West University and BEO - Moussala are presented. The diurnal and the 27-day variations are clearly visible.. Keywords: cosmic rays, muon telescopes, periodic variations

  9. LIS/OTD 2.5 Degree Low Resolution Diurnal Climatology (LRDC) V2.3.2015 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LIS/OTD 2.5 Degree Low Resolution Diurnal Climatology (LRDC) contains a variety of gridded climatologies of total lightning flash rates obtained from two...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A new capillary gas chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection for the determination of 2-pyrrolidinone was developed. Using quantification based on stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry by monitoring selected ions in the ammonia chemical ionization mode diurnal changes of

  11. The positively phototactic reaction of daphnia magna straus: A contribution to the understanding of diurnal vertical migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringelberg, J.


    The present investigation was aimed at gaining more insight into the physiological mechanism underlying the diurnal vertical migration of planktonic animals. The experiments were carried out on Daphnia magna. Only reactions to decreases in light intensity were studied. Kinetical

  12. The effect of the number of consecutive night shifts on diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Garde, Anne Helene; Kristiansen, Jesper


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge from field studies on how many consecutive night shifts are required for adaptation of diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV) to night work. METHODS: A systematic search of the databases Pub......Med and Web of Science resulted in 18 studies selected for review. RESULTS: Cortisol was measured in five studies, melatonin in 11 studies and HRV in four studies. Diurnal rhythms were assessed by use of several different measures based on three to eight samples per day for cortisol and melatonin and 24-h...... to night work had not occurred after two consecutive night shifts, whereas a small number found evidence for full adaptation after seven consecutive night shifts based on diurnal rhythms in cortisol and melatonin. CONCLUSION: There are methodological differences in the field studies analyzing diurnal...

  13. Salivary alpha-amylase during pregnancy: diurnal course and associations with obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood. (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Granger, Douglas A; Campbell, Tavis; Kaplan, Bonnie


    Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) in pregnant women have not previously been described. The current study employed ecological momentary assessment to examine the association between the diurnal sAA, obstetric history, maternal demographics, and mood during pregnancy. Saliva was self-collected by 83 pregnant women (89% White, age 25.3-43.0 years; mean gestational age 21.9 weeks, range 6-37 weeks; gravida 1-6) at home over three days. Results indicated that current pregnancy (gestational age and fetal sex) and maternal demographics were not related to diurnal sAA. In contrast, a history of previous miscarriage (Parameter = -.17; SE = .05; p history, trait anxiety (Parameter = .16; SE = .04; p pregnancy is sensitive to emotional arousal. Evaluating diurnal patterns of sAA holds promise for advancing understanding of how emotional arousal during pregnancy may affect fetal development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Global Electric Circuit Diurnal Variation Derived from Storm Overflight and Satellite Optical Lightning Datasets (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bateman, M. J.; Bailey, J. C.


    We have combined analyses of over 1000 high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds with diurnal lightning statistics from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to produce an estimate of the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location, and the global electric circuit, our estimate of the current in the global electric circuit matches the Carnegie curve diurnal variation to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Mean contributions to the global electric circuit from land and ocean thunderstorms are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean). Contributions to the global electric circuit from ESCs are 0.22 kA for ocean storms and 0.04 kA for land storms. Using our analysis, the mean total conduction current for the global electric circuit is 2.0 kA.

  15. Diurnal Cycle of Clouds and Precipitation at the ARM SGP Site (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Marchand, R.; Fu, Q.


    Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR) data from Dec. 1996 to Dec. 2010, collected at the U. S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program site in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP), are categorized into clouds (-40dBZe≤reflectivityCRM). Observational and simulated radar reflectivity are compared and further sorted into different atmospheric states identified by Evans (2014). Evans used a neutral network to take ERA-Interim state variables (i.e. horizontal winds, relative humidity, temperature at seven predetermined pressure level and surface pressure) on an 8×8 grid with 1.5º×1.5º spatial resolution centered on the SGP site and found twenty-one atmospheric states which represent specific synoptic conditions. We use these states to study the differences in the diurnal cycle between observations and simulations. Differences in the (mean) annual diurnal cycle between the observations and model are decomposed into errors in the daily mean, errors in the diurnal variation in each state, and errors due to difference in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric states between ERA and the MMF. The magnitude of various error sources is assessed.

  16. Large Eddy Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, P; Bretherton, C


    This paper describes a series of 6 day large eddy simulations of a deep, sometimes drizzling stratocumulus-topped boundary layer based on forcings from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 field campaign. The base simulation was found to reproduce the observed mean boundary layer properties quite well. The diurnal cycle of liquid water path was also well captured, although good agreement appears to result partially from compensating errors in the diurnal cycles of cloud base and cloud top due to overentrainment around midday. At other times of the day, entrainment is found to be proportional to the vertically-integrated buoyancy flux. Model stratification matches observations well; turbulence profiles suggest that the boundary layer is always at least somewhat decoupled. Model drizzle appears to be too sensitive to liquid water path and subcloud evaporation appears to be too weak. Removing the diurnal cycle of subsidence had little effect on simulated cloud albedo. Simulations with changed droplet concentration and drizzle susceptibility showed large liquid water path differences at night, but differences were quite small at midday. Droplet concentration also had a significant impact on entrainment, primarily through droplet sedimentation feedback rather than through drizzle processes.

  17. Diurnal Rhythms Result in Significant Changes in the Cellular Protein Complement in the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockel, Jana; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Welsh, Eric A.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.


    Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ,30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for,5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms.

  18. The Role of Nitric Oxide in Memory is Modulated by Diurnal Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Gage


    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important neuromodulatory role in the olfactory system. This modulation has been suggested to be particularly important for olfactory learning and memory in the antennal lobe (the primary olfactory network in invertebrates. We are using the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to further investigate the role of NO in olfactory memory. Recent findings suggest that NO affects short-term memory traces and that NO concentration fluctuates with the light cycle. This gives rise to the hypothesis that NO may be involved in the connection between memory and circadian rhythms. In this study, we explore the role of diurnal time and NO in memory by altering the time of day when associative-olfactory conditioning is performed. We find a strong effect of NO on short-term memory, and two surprising effects of diurnal time. We find that (1 at certain time points, NO affects longer traces of memory in addition to short-term memory, and (2 when conditioning is performed close to the light cycle switches—both from light to dark and dark to light—NO does not significantly affect memory at all. These findings suggest an intriguing functional role for NO in olfactory conditioning that is modulated as a function of diurnal time.

  19. Diurnal variability of gas phase and surface water ethanol in southeastern North Carolina, USA (United States)

    Kieber, R. J.; Powell, J. P.; Foley, L.; Mead, R. N.; Willey, J. D.; Avery, G. B.


    Diurnal variations in gas phase and surface water concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde were investigated at five locations in southeastern North Carolina, USA. There were distinct diurnal oscillations observed in gas phase concentrations with maxima occurring in late afternoon suggesting that photochemical production is an important process in the cycling of these analytes in the troposphere. The rapid decrease in concentrations after the mid day maximum suggests that there is also an atmospheric photochemical sink for both analytes most likely involving photo produced hydroxyl radicals with a half-life on the order of hours rather than days at ground level. Ethanol concentrations in the surface microlayer taken at the same time as gas phase samples had a very similar diurnal profile suggesting photochemical processes, in addition to atmospheric deposition, play a role in the aqueous phase cycling of both analytes. The concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde increased significantly in flasks containing freshwater collected from the Cape Fear River exposed to simulated sunlight for 6 h underscoring the importance of in situ photochemical production. Results of this study are significant because they represent the first simultaneous analyses of the temporal variability of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in the gas and aqueous phases. These measurements are essential in order to better define the processes involved in the global biogeochemical cycling of ethanol both now and in the future as our use of the biofuel continues to grow.

  20. A Broad-Area Method for the Diurnal Characterisation of Upwelling Medium Wave Infrared Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Hally


    Full Text Available Fire detection from satellite sensors relies on an accurate estimation of the unperturbed state of a target pixel, from which an anomaly can be isolated. Methods for estimating the radiation budget of a pixel without fire depend upon training data derived from the location’s recent history of brightness temperature variation over the diurnal cycle, which can be vulnerable to cloud contamination and the effects of weather. This study proposes a new method that utilises the common solar budget found at a given latitude in conjunction with an area’s local solar time to aggregate a broad-area training dataset, which can be used to model the expected diurnal temperature cycle of a location. This training data is then used in a temperature fitting process with the measured brightness temperatures in a pixel, and compared to pixel-derived training data and contextual methods of background temperature determination. Results of this study show similar accuracy between clear-sky medium wave infrared upwelling radiation and the diurnal temperature cycle estimation compared to previous methods, with demonstrable improvements in processing time and training data availability. This method can be used in conjunction with brightness temperature thresholds to provide a baseline for upwelling radiation, from which positive thermal anomalies such as fire can be isolated.

  1. Diurnal flight behavior of Ichneumonoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) related to environmental factors in a tropical dry forest. (United States)

    González-Moreno, A; Bordera, S; Leirana-Alcocer, J; Delfín-González, H


    The biology and behavior of insects are strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Because some of these factors present a within day variation, they may be causing variations on insect diurnal flight activity, but scant information exists on the issue. The aim of this work was to describe the patterns on diurnal variation of the abundance of Ichneumonoidea and their relation with relative humidity, temperature, light intensity, and wind speed. The study site was a tropical dry forest at Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico; where correlations between environmental factors (relative humidity, temperature, light, and wind speed) and abundance of Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) were estimated. The best regression model for explaining abundance variation was selected using the second order Akaike Information Criterion. The optimum values of temperature, humidity, and light for flight activity of both families were also estimated. Ichneumonid and braconid abundances were significantly correlated to relative humidity, temperature, and light intensity; ichneumonid also showed significant correlations to wind speed. The second order Akaike Information Criterion suggests that in tropical dry conditions, relative humidity is more important that temperature for Ichneumonoidea diurnal activity. Ichneumonid wasps selected toward intermediate values of relative humidity, temperature and the lowest wind speeds; while Braconidae selected for low values of relative humidity. For light intensity, braconids presented a positive selection for moderately high values.

  2. Diurnal cycle of the dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, Sergey


    In this study we attempted to better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula and their dependence on input parameters. For this purpose we have developed a stand-alone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie, T-matrix and geometric optics calculations and driven by reanalysis meteorological fields and atmospheric composition. Numerical experiments were carried out for a wide range of aerosol optical depths, including extreme values developed during the dust storm on 18–20 March 2012. Comprehensive ground-based observations and satellite retrievals were used to estimate aerosol optical properties, validate calculations and carry out radiation closure. The broadband surface albedo, fluxes at the bottom and top of the atmosphere as well as instantaneous dust radiative forcing were estimated both from the model and observations. Diurnal cycle of the shortwave instantaneous dust direct radiative forcing was studied for a range of aerosol and surface characteristics representative of the Arabian Peninsula. Mechanisms and parameters responsible for diurnal variability of the radiative forcing were evaluated. We found that intrinsic variability of the surface albedo and its dependence on atmospheric conditions, along with anisotropic aerosol scattering, are mostly responsible for diurnal effects.

  3. Into the night: camera traps reveal nocturnal activity in a presumptive diurnal primate, Rhinopithecus brelichi. (United States)

    Tan, Chia L; Yang, Yeqin; Niu, Kefeng


    Most living primates exhibit a daytime or nighttime activity pattern. Strict diurnality is thought to be the rule among anthropoids except for owl monkeys. Here we report the diel activity pattern of an Asian colobine, the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey Rhinopithecus brelichi, based on a methodology that relied on using 24-h continuously operating camera traps. We conducted the study in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve in Guizhou, China from March 22 to May 19 and from June 17 to October 14, 2011. After standardizing all time elements to a meridian-based time according to the geographic coordinates of the study site, we showed unequivocally that the monkeys, though predominantly diurnal, exhibited activity beyond daylight hours throughout the study. Specifically, their activity at night and during twilight periods suggests a complex interplay of behavioral adaptations, among others, to living in a temperate environment where day length and food resources fluctuate substantially across seasons. We contend that, under prevailing ecological conditions, so-called strictly diurnal primates may adjust their activity schedule opportunistically in order to increase energy intake. We also discuss the advantages of using camera traps in primate studies, and how the standardized use of meridian-based time by researchers would benefit comparisons of diel activity patterns among primates.

  4. Target Detection over the Diurnal Cycle Using a Multispectral Infrared Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Zhao


    Full Text Available When detecting a target over the diurnal cycle, a conventional infrared thermal sensor might lose the target due to the thermal crossover, which could happen at any time throughout the day when the infrared image contrast between target and background in a scene is indistinguishable due to the temperature variation. In this paper, the benefits of using a multispectral-based infrared sensor over the diurnal cycle have been shown. Firstly, a brief theoretical analysis on how the thermal crossover influences a conventional thermal sensor, within the conditions where the thermal crossover would happen and why the mid-infrared (3~5 μm multispectral technology is effective, is presented. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this technology is also described and we describe how the prototype design and multispectral technology is employed to help solve the thermal crossover detection problem. Thirdly, several targets are set up outside and imaged in the field experiment over a 24-h period. The experimental results show that the multispectral infrared imaging system can enhance the contrast of the detected images and effectively solve the failure of the conventional infrared sensor during the diurnal cycle, which is of great significance for infrared surveillance applications.

  5. Comparison of specific-yield estimates for calculating evapotranspiration from diurnal groundwater-level fluctuations (United States)

    Gribovszki, Zoltán


    Methods that use diurnal groundwater-level fluctuations are commonly used for shallow water-table environments to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) and recharge. The key element needed to obtain reliable estimates is the specific yield (Sy), a soil-water storage parameter that depends on unsaturated soil-moisture and water-table fluxes, among others. Soil-moisture profile measurement down to the water table, along with water-table-depth measurements, can provide a good opportunity to calculate Sy values even on a sub-daily scale. These values were compared with Sy estimates derived by traditional techniques, and it was found that slug-test-based Sy values gave the most similar results in a sandy soil environment. Therefore, slug-test methods, which are relatively cheap and require little time, were most suited to estimate Sy using diurnal fluctuations. The reason for this is that the timeframe of the slug-test measurement is very similar to the dynamic of the diurnal signal. The dynamic characteristic of Sy was also analyzed on a sub-daily scale (depending mostly on the speed of drainage from the soil profile) and a remarkable difference was found in Sy with respect to the rate of change of the water table. When comparing constant and sub-daily (dynamic) Sy values for ET estimation, the sub-daily Sy application yielded higher correlation, but only a slightly smaller deviation from the control ET method, compared with the usage of constant Sy.

  6. The impact of diurnal variations of air traffic on contrail radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stuber


    Full Text Available We combined high resolution aircraft flight data from the EU Fifth Framework Programme project AERO2k with analysis data from the ECMWF's integrated forecast system to calculate diurnally resolved 3-D contrail cover. We scaled the contrail cover in order to match observational data for the Bakan area (eastern-Atlantic/western-Europe.

    We found that less than 40% of the global distance travelled by aircraft is due to flights during local night time. Yet, due to the cancellation of shortwave and longwave effects during daytime, night time flights contribute a disproportional 60% to the global annual mean forcing. Under clear sky conditions the night flights contribute even more disproportionally at 76%. There are pronounced regional variations in night flying and the associated radiative forcing. Over parts of the North Atlantic flight corridor 75% of air traffic and 84% of the forcing occurs during local night, whereas only 35% of flights are during local night in South-East Asia, yet these contribute 68% of the radiative forcing. In general, regions with a significant local contrail radiative forcing are also regions for which night time flights amount to less than half of the daily total of flights. Therefore, neglecting diurnal variations in air traffic/contrail cover by assuming a diurnal mean contrail cover can over-estimate the global mean radiative forcing by up to 30%.

  7. Tracking diurnal changes of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration using fluorescence, gas exchange and hyperspectral remote sensing measurements (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Guanter, L.; Huang, C.


    Photosynthesis and evapotranspiration (ET) are the two most important activities of vegetation and make a great contribution to carbon, water and energy exchanges. Remote sensing provides opportunities for monitoring these processes across time and space. This study focuses on tracking diurnal changes of photosynthesis and evapotranspiration over soybean using multiple measurement techniques. Diurnal changes of both remote sensing-based indicators, including active and passive chlorophyll fluorescence and biophysical-related parameters, including photosynthesis rate (photo) and leaf stomatal conductance (cond), were observed. Results showed that both leaf-level steady-state fluorescence (Fs) and canopy-level solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence were linearly correlated to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime. A double-peak diurnal change curve was observed for leaf-level photo and cond but not for Fs or SIF. Photo and cond showed a strong nonlinear (second-order) correlation, indicating that photosynthesis, which might be remotely sensed by SIF, has the opportunity to track short-term changes of ET. Results presented in this report will be helpful for better understanding the relationship between remote-sensing-based indices and vegetation's biophysical processes.

  8. Mean diurnal variations of noctilucent clouds during 7 years of lidar observations at ALOMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fiedler


    Full Text Available From 1997 to 2003, noctilucent clouds (NLC were observed by lidar above the ALOMAR observatory in Northern Norway (69° N during a total of 1880 measurement hours. This data set contains NLC signatures for 640h, covering all local times, even during the highest solar background conditions. After data limitation imposing a threshold value of 4x10-10m-1sr-1 for the volume backscatter coefficient of the NLC particles, a measure for the cloud brightness, local time dependencies of the NLC occurrence frequency, altitude, and brightness were determined. On average, over the 7 years NLC occurred during the whole day and preferably in the early morning hours, with a maximum occurrence frequency of ~40% between 4 and 7 LT. Splitting the data into weak and strong clouds yields almost identical amplitudes of diurnal and semidiurnal variations for the occurrence of weak clouds, whereas the strong clouds are dominated by the diurnal variation. NLC occurrence, altitude, as well as brightness, show a remarkable persistence concerning diurnal and semidiurnal variations from 1997 to 2003, suggesting that NLC above ALOMAR are significantly controlled by atmospheric tides. The observed mean anti-phase behavior between cloud altitude and brightness is attributed to a phase shift between the semidiurnal components by ~6h. Investigation of data for each individual year regarding the prevailing oscillation periods of the NLC parameters showed different phase relationships, leading to a complex variability in the cloud parameters.

  9. Using Diurnal Temperature Signals to Infer Vertical Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange. (United States)

    Irvine, Dylan J; Briggs, Martin A; Lautz, Laura K; Gordon, Ryan P; McKenzie, Jeffrey M; Cartwright, Ian


    Heat is a powerful tracer to quantify fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater. Temperature time series can be used to estimate pore water fluid flux, and techniques can be employed to extend these estimates to produce detailed plan-view flux maps. Key advantages of heat tracing include cost-effective sensors and ease of data collection and interpretation, without the need for expensive and time-consuming laboratory analyses or induced tracers. While the collection of temperature data in saturated sediments is relatively straightforward, several factors influence the reliability of flux estimates that are based on time series analysis (diurnal signals) of recorded temperatures. Sensor resolution and deployment are particularly important in obtaining robust flux estimates in upwelling conditions. Also, processing temperature time series data involves a sequence of complex steps, including filtering temperature signals, selection of appropriate thermal parameters, and selection of the optimal analytical solution for modeling. This review provides a synthesis of heat tracing using diurnal temperature oscillations, including details on optimal sensor selection and deployment, data processing, model parameterization, and an overview of computing tools available. Recent advances in diurnal temperature methods also provide the opportunity to determine local saturated thermal diffusivity, which can improve the accuracy of fluid flux modeling and sensor spacing, which is related to streambed scour and deposition. These parameters can also be used to determine the reliability of flux estimates from the use of heat as a tracer. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  10. Diurnal variation of melatonin and cortisol is maintained in non-septic intensive care patients. (United States)

    Riutta, Asko; Ylitalo, Pauli; Kaukinen, Seppo


    To study the diurnal variation of melatonin and cortisol in critically ill patients and to assess whether the severity of organ dysfunction, sedation and sympathetic activity correlate with the production of these hormones. Prospective clinical study. Surgical intensive care unit in a university hospital. Forty non-septic patients without brain injury and treatment with adrenergic agonists or corticosteroids. Twenty-five of the patients were sedated with benzodiazepines. None. The pattern of melatonin production was monitored by the determination of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) in urine. The 12-h aMT6s excretions at nights (11.8 +/- 8.9 microg, mean +/- SD) were higher than in the daytime (6.8 +/- 7.5 microg; P cortisol concentrations at noon (524 +/- 276 nmol/l, mean +/- SD) were higher than at midnight (415 +/- 172 nmol/l; P cortisol concentration. The diurnal variation of melatonin and cortisol is maintained in non-septic intensive care unit patients. Benzodiazepines do not impair the diurnal variation of melatonin and cortisol.

  11. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.


    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  12. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter


    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  13. Timing the tides: genetic control of diurnal and lunar emergence times is correlated in the marine midge Clunio marinus. (United States)

    Kaiser, Tobias S; Neumann, Dietrich; Heckel, David G


    The intertidal zone of seacoasts, being affected by the superimposed tidal, diurnal and lunar cycles, is temporally the most complex environment on earth. Many marine organisms exhibit lunar rhythms in reproductive behaviour and some show experimental evidence of endogenous control by a circalunar clock, the molecular and genetic basis of which is unexplored. We examined the genetic control of lunar and diurnal rhythmicity in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), a species for which the correct timing of adult emergence is critical in natural populations. We crossed two strains of Clunio marinus that differ in the timing of the diurnal and lunar rhythms of emergence. The phenotype distribution of the segregating backcross progeny indicates polygenic control of the lunar emergence rhythm. Diurnal timing of emergence is also under genetic control, and is influenced by two unlinked genes with major effects. Furthermore, the lunar and diurnal timing of emergence is correlated in the backcross generation. We show that both the lunar emergence time and its correlation to the diurnal emergence time are adaptive for the species in its natural environment. The correlation implies that the unlinked genes affecting lunar timing and the two unlinked genes affecting diurnal timing could be the same, providing an unexpectedly close interaction of the two clocks. Alternatively, the genes could be genetically linked in a two-by-two fashion, suggesting that evolution has shaped the genetic architecture to stabilize adaptive combinations of lunar and diurnal emergence times by tightening linkage. Our results, the first on genetic control of lunar rhythms, offer a new perspective to explore their molecular clockwork.

  14. diurnal and seasonal water relations of the desert phreatophyte prosopis-glandulosa (honey mesquite) in the Sonoran Desert of California


    Nilsen, E. T.; Sharifi, M. R.; Rundel, P. W.; Jarrell, W. M.; Virginia, R. A.


    Diurnal and Seasonal water relations were monitored in a population of Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana in the Sonoran Desert of southern California. Prosopis glandulosa at this research site acquired its water from a ground water source 4-6 m deep. Measurements of diurnal and seasonal cycles of aboveground environmental conditions, soil moisture, and soil water potential (to 6 m depth) were taken to ascertain environmental water availability and water stress. Leaf water potential, leaf con...

  15. Diurnal variation of tension-type headache intensity and exacerbation: An investigation using computerized ecological momentary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroe


    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds Tension-type headache is a common psychosomatic disease. However, diurnal variation of headache is yet to be clarified, perhaps due to the lack of an appropriate method to investigate it. Like other painful diseases, it would be helpful to know if there is diurnal variation in tension-type headaches, both for managing headaches and understanding their pathophysiology. The aim of this study was to determine if there is diurnal variation in the intensity and exacerbation of tension-type headache. Methods Patients (N = 31 with tension-type headache recorded for one week their momentary headache intensity several times a day and their acute headache exacerbations using a watch-type computer as an electronic diary (computerized ecological momentary assessment. Multilevel modeling was used to test the effects of time of day on momentary headache intensity and on the occurrence of acute exacerbations. Results A significant diurnal variation in momentary headache intensity was shown (P = 0.0005, with the weakest headaches in the morning and a peak in the late afternoon. A between-individual difference in the diurnal pattern was suggested. On-demand medication use was associated with a different diurnal pattern (P = 0.025, suggesting that headache intensity decreases earlier in the evening in subjects who used on-demand medication, while headache subtype, prophylactic medication use, and sex were not associated with the difference. The occurrence of acute headache exacerbation also showed a significant diurnal variation, with a peak after noon (P = 0.0015. Conclusions Tension-type headache was shown to have a significant diurnal variation. The relation to pathophysiology and psychosocial aspects needs to be further explored.

  16. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...... with an analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  17. Ultrarealistic imaging: the future of display holography (United States)

    Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Brotherton-Ratcliffe, David


    Ultrarealistic imaging is the science of producing images that faithfully recreate the light field surrounding an object, such that the unaided eye of a human observer cannot distinguish the difference between the original and the image. Recent technology improvements are now set to transform the fields of both analog and digital display holography, permitting both techniques to operate in the ultrarealistic regime. In particular, ultrarealistic analog holograms have now heralded the serious use of holography in such areas as museum display and cultural heritage protection. These full-color holograms are characterized by a substantially lower noise and a greater spectral fidelity. New recording systems, based on recent diode-pumped solid-state and semiconductor lasers combined with recording materials and processing, have been behind these improvements. Progress in illumination technology, however, has also led to a major reduction in display noise and to a significant increase in the clear image depth and brightness of holograms. Recent progress in one-step direct-write digital holography (DWDH) is now also opening the way to the creation of a new type of ultrarealistic display: the high virtual volume display. This is a large format full-parallax DWDH reflection hologram having a fundamentally larger clear image depth.

  18. High-performance microlasers enable display applications (United States)

    Takeuchi, Eric B.; Hargis, David E.; Bergstedt, Robert; Dion, Al; Hurtado, Randy; Solone, Paul J.


    Recent advances in compact, air-cooled, diode-pumped solid- state visible microlasers have enabled the development of portable laser display systems. In addition to the added benefits of large color gamut, invariant color accuracy, image uniformity, high contrast, and large depth of focus inherent in the microlaser design, the reliability of these all-solid state red-green-blue (RGB) sources make them attractive for display applications. Compact, multi-watt laser modules have been demonstrated for use as a high brightness 'laser light engine' for replacing arc lamps in LCD/DMD type display configurations. Using this 'backlit' approach, a microlaser- based projector has been demonstrated, providing greater than 500 lumens at 1280 X 1024 resolution using reflective AMLCD light valves. Also being developed is an airborne tactical HMD system wherein the laser module is remotely coupled to a subtractive color LCD assembly through an optical fiber to provide a more than 24,000,000 (twenty-four million) cd/m2 luminance for illuminating the LCD assembly. This technology could be applied to a variety of cockpit displays providing sunlight readable illumination for both head-down and head-up backlit display configurations. The advantages of the microlaser technology will enable further applications in other military platforms such as command and control centers, simulators and HMDs. Longer term potential includes high end CAD workstations, entertainment systems, and electronic cinema.

  19. Stereoscopic reconfiguration for 3D displays (United States)

    Houde, Jean-Christophe; Jodoin, Pierre-Marc; Desch"nes, François


    In this paper, we present a method to reconfigure 3D movies in order to minimize distortion when seen on a different display than the one it has been configured for. By their very nature, 3D broadcasts come with a stereoscopic pair to be seen by the left and right eyes. However, according to reasons that we ought to explain in the paper, the cameras used to shoot a movie are calibrated according to specific viewing parameters such as the screen size, the viewing distance and the eye separation. As a consequence, a 3D broadcast seen on a different display (say a home theater or a PC screen) than the one it has been configured for (say an IMAX R screen) will suffer from noticeable distortions. In this paper, we describe the relationship between the size of the 3D display, the position of the observer, and the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the cameras. With this information, we propose a method to reorganize the stereoscopic pair in order to minimize distortion when seen on an arbitrary display. In addition to the raw video pair, our method uses the viewing distance, a rough estimate of the 3D scene, and some basic information on the 3D display. An inpainting technique is used to fill disoccluded areas.

  20. Micro-needle electro-tactile display. (United States)

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Miki, Norihisa


    Haptic feedback is strongly demanded for high-precision robot-assisted surgery and teleoperation. The haptic feedback consists of force and tactile feedback, however tactile feedback has been little studied and the size and weight of the system poses challenges for practical applications. In this paper we propose a sheet-type wearable electro-tactile display which provides tactile sensations to the user as the feedback at a low voltage and power consumption. The display possesses needle-shaped electrodes, which can penetrate through the high-impedance stratum corneum. We developed the fabrication process and, as the first step, we investigated the tactile sensation that can be created to the fingertip by the display. Rough and smooth surfaces were successfully presented to the user. Then, we characterized the tactile display when used on the forearm, in particular, with respect to the spatial resolution. These tactile displays can be used to inform the user of the surface property of the parts of interest, such as tumor tissues, and to guide him in the manipulation of surgery robots.