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Sample records for body displaying diurnal

  1. Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2009-07-16

    The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism.

  2. Imaging of ultraweak spontaneous photon emission from human body displaying diurnal rhythm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kobayashi

    Full Text Available The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. The diurnal changes in photon emission might be linked to changes in energy metabolism.

  3. Imaging of Ultraweak Spontaneous Photon Emission from Human Body Displaying Diurnal Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Masaki Kobayashi; Daisuke Kikuchi; Hitoshi Okamura

    2009-01-01

    The human body literally glimmers. The intensity of the light emitted by the body is 1000 times lower than the sensitivity of our naked eyes. Ultraweak photon emission is known as the energy released as light through the changes in energy metabolism. We successfully imaged the diurnal change of this ultraweak photon emission with an improved highly sensitive imaging system using cryogenic charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We found that the human body directly and rhythmically emits light. T...

  4. Does the Neuroprotective Role of Anandamide Display Diurnal Variations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Martinez-Vargas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system is a component of the neuroprotective mechanisms that an organism displays after traumatic brain injury (TBI. A diurnal variation in several components of this system has been reported. This variation may influence the recovery and survival rate after TBI. We have previously reported that the recovery and survival rate of rats is higher if TBI occurs at 1:00 than at 13:00. This could be explained by a diurnal variation of the endocannabinoid system. Here, we describe the effects of anandamide administration in rats prior to the induction of TBI at two different times of the day: 1:00 and 13:00. We found that anandamide reduced the neurological damage at both times. Nevertheless, its effects on bleeding, survival, food intake, and body weight were dependent on the time of TBI. In addition, we analyzed the diurnal variation of the expression of the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R in the cerebral cortex of both control rats and rats subjected to TBI. We found that CB1R protein was expressed more during the day, whereas its mRNA level was higher during the night. We did not find a diurnal variation for the CB2R. In addition, we also found that TBI increased CB1R and CB2R in the contralateral hemisphere and disrupted the CB1R diurnal cycle.

  5. Does the Neuroprotective Role of Anandamide Display Diurnal Variations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Vargas, Marina; Morales-Gomez, Julio; Gonzalez-Rivera, Ruben; Hernandez-Enriquez, Carla; Perez-Arredondo, Adan; Estrada-Rojo, Francisco; Navarro, Luz

    2013-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system is a component of the neuroprotective mechanisms that an organism displays after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A diurnal variation in several components of this system has been reported. This variation may influence the recovery and survival rate after TBI. We have previously reported that the recovery and survival rate of rats is higher if TBI occurs at 1:00 than at 13:00. This could be explained by a diurnal variation of the endocannabinoid system. Here, we describe the effects of anandamide administration in rats prior to the induction of TBI at two different times of the day: 1:00 and 13:00. We found that anandamide reduced the neurological damage at both times. Nevertheless, its effects on bleeding, survival, food intake, and body weight were dependent on the time of TBI. In addition, we analyzed the diurnal variation of the expression of the cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R in the cerebral cortex of both control rats and rats subjected to TBI. We found that CB1R protein was expressed more during the day, whereas its mRNA level was higher during the night. We did not find a diurnal variation for the CB2R. In addition, we also found that TBI increased CB1R and CB2R in the contralateral hemisphere and disrupted the CB1R diurnal cycle. PMID:24287910

  6. Midline thalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons display diurnal variation in resting membrane potentials, conductances, and firing patterns in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaj, Miloslav; Zhang, Li; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2012-01-01

    Neurons in the rodent midline thalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVT) receive inputs from brain stem and hypothalamic sites known to participate in sleep-wake and circadian rhythms. To evaluate possible diurnal changes in their excitability, we used patch-clamp techniques to record and examine the properties of neurons in anterior PVT (aPVT) in coronal rat brain slices prepared at zeitgeber time (ZT) 2–6 vs. ZT 14–18 and recorded at ZT 8.4 ± 0.2 (day) vs. ZT 21.2 ± 0.2 (night), the subjective quiet vs. aroused states, respectively. Compared with neurons recorded during the day, neurons from the night period were significantly more depolarized and exhibited a lower membrane conductance that in part reflected loss of a potassium-mediated conductance. Furthermore, these neurons were also significantly more active, with tonic and burst firing patterns. Neurons from each ZT period were assessed for amplitudes of two conductances known to contribute to bursting behavior, i.e., low-threshold-activated Ca2+ currents (IT) and hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih). Data revealed that amplitudes of both IT and Ih were significantly larger during the night period. In addition, biopsy samples from the night period revealed a significant increase in mRNA for Cav3.1 and Cav3.3 low-threshold Ca2+ channel subtypes. Neurons recorded from the night period also displayed a comparative enhancement in spontaneous bursting at membrane potentials of approximately −60 mV and in burst firing consequent to hyperpolarization-induced low-threshold currents and depolarization-induced current pulses. These novel in vitro observations reveal that midline thalamic neurons undergo diurnal changes in their IT, Ih, and undefined potassium conductances. The underlying mechanisms remain to be characterized. PMID:22219029

  7. Wearable wireless tactile display for virtual interactions with soft bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eFrediani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe here a wearable, wireless, compact and lightweight tactile display, able to mechanically stimulate the fingertip of users, so as to simulate contact with soft bodies in virtual environments. The device was based on dielectric elastomer actuators, as high-performance electromechanically active polymers. The actuator was arranged at the user’s fingertip, integrated within a plastic case, which also hosted a compact high-voltage circuitry. A custom-made wireless control unit was arranged on the forearm and connected to the display via low-voltage leads. We present the structure of the device and a characterization of it, in terms of electromechanical response and stress relaxation. Furthermore, we present results of a psychophysical test aimed at assessing the ability of the system to generate different levels of force that can be perceived by users.

  8. A Full Body Steerable Wind Display for a Locomotion Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sandip D; Fisher, Charles J; Lefler, Price; Desai, Aditya; Chakravarthy, Shanthanu; Pardyjak, Eric R; Minor, Mark A; Hollerbach, John M

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the Treadport Active Wind Tunnel (TPAWT)-a full-body immersive virtual environment for the Treadport locomotion interface designed for generating wind on a user from any frontal direction at speeds up to 20 kph. The goal is to simulate the experience of realistic wind while walking in an outdoor virtual environment. A recirculating-type wind tunnel was created around the pre-existing Treadport installation by adding a large fan, ducting, and enclosure walls. Two sheets of air in a non-intrusive design flow along the side screens of the back-projection CAVE-like visual display, where they impinge and mix at the front screen to redirect towards the user in a full-body cross-section. By varying the flow conditions of the air sheets, the direction and speed of wind at the user are controlled. Design challenges to fit the wind tunnel in the pre-existing facility, and to manage turbulence to achieve stable and steerable flow, were overcome. The controller performance for wind speed and direction is demonstrated experimentally.

  9. Serum Levels of Human MIC-1/GDF15 Vary in a Diurnal Pattern, Do Not Display a Profile Suggestive of a Satiety Factor and Are Related to BMI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Wang-Wei Tsai

    Full Text Available The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem. More recent studies in germline gene deleted mice also suggest that this cytokine may play a role in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis. To further characterize the role of MIC-1/GDF15 in physiological regulation of energy homeostasis in man, we have examined diurnal and food associated variation in serum levels and whether variation in circulating levels relate to BMI in human monozygotic twin pairs. We found that the within twin pair differences in serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels were significantly correlated with within twin pair differences in BMI, suggesting a role for MIC-1/GDF15 in the regulation of energy balance in man. MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels altered slightly in response to a meal, but comparison with variation its serum levels over a 24 hour period suggested that these changes are likely to be due to bimodal diurnal variation which can alter serum MIC-1/GDF15 levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy homeostasis in man, most probably due to actions on long-term regulation of energy homeostasis.

  10. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  11. Age-congruency and contact effects in body expression recognition from point-light displays (PLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermens, Frouke; Willmott, Alexander P.

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of older people’s body expressions is a crucial social skill. We here investigate how age, not just of the observer, but also of the observed individual, affects this skill. Age may influence the ability to recognize other people’s body expressions by changes in one’s own ability to perform certain action over the life-span (i.e., an own-age bias may occur, with best recognition for one’s own age). Whole body point light displays of children, young adults and older adults (>70 years) expressing six different emotions were presented to observers of the same three age-groups. Across two variations of the paradigm, no evidence for the predicted own-age bias (a cross-over interaction between one’s own age and the observed person’s age) was found. Instead, experience effects were found with children better recognizing older actors’ expressions of ‘active emotions,’ such as anger and happiness with greater exposure in daily life. Together, the findings suggest that age-related changes in one own’s mobility only influences body expression categorization in young children who interact frequently with older adults. PMID:27994986

  12. Infrared thermoimages display of body surface temperature reaction in experimental cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zhang; Yuan-Gen Zhu; Shu-You Wang; Hui-Min Ma; Yan-Yan Ye; Wei-Xing Fu; Wei-Guo Hu

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To display the thermoirnages of the body surface inexperimental cholecystitis, to observe the body surfacetemperature reaction in visceral disorders, and to study if the theory of body surface-viscera correlation is true and the mechanism of temperature changes along the meridians. METHODS: By injecting bacteria ssuspension into the stricturebile duct and gallbladder, 21 rabbits were prepared as acutepyogenic cholangiocholecystitis models, with another 8rabbits prepared by the same process except withoutinjection of bacteria suspension as control. The body surfaceinfrared thermoimages were continuously observed on thehair shaven rabbit skin with AGA-782 thermovision 24 hbefore, 1-11 d after and (2,3 wk) 4 wk after the operation witha total of over 10 records of thermoimages.RESULTS: Twelve cases out of 21 rabbits with cholecystitisrevealed bi-lsteral longitudinal high temperature lines in itstrunk; with negative findings in the control group. The high-temperature line appeared on d l-d2, first in the right trunk,after the preparation of the model, about 7 d after the modelpreparation, the lines appeared at the left side too,persisting for 4 wk. The hyper-temperature line revealed 1.1-2.7 ℃ higher than before the model preparation, 0.7-2.5 ℃higher than the surrounding skin. The length of the hightemperature line might reach a half length of the body trunk,or as long as the whole body itself.CONCLUSION: The appearance of the longitudinal hightemperature lines st the lateral aspects of the trunk in theexperimental group is directly bound up with theexperimental animals pyogenic cholecystitis, with itsrunning course quite similar to that of the GallbladderChannel of Foot Shaoyang, but different to the zones ofhyperalgesia and site of referred pain in cholecystitis.

  13. Diurnal Cycle Computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, Curt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doutriaux, Charles [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Directory /export_backup/covey1/CMIP5/Precipitation/DiurnalCycle/GridpointTimeseries/CMCCBCM_etal/ on crunchy.llnl.gov contains Python / UV-CDAT scripts compositeDiurnalStatistics.py and fourierDiurB nalAllGrid.py. compositeDiurnalStatistics.py reads high-time-frequency climate data from one or more years and computes 24 hour composite-mean and composite-standard-deviation cycles for one requested month.

  14. Thrombospondin 2-null mice display an altered brain foreign body response to polyvinyl alcohol sponge implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Weiming; Kyriakides, Themis R, E-mail: themis.kyriakides@yale.ed [Vascular Biology and Therapeutics Program, Departments of Pathology and Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06519 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Thrombospondin (TSP)-2 is a matricellular protein that participates in the processes of tissue repair and the foreign body response. In addition, TSP2 has been shown to influence synaptogenesis and recovery of the brain following stroke. In the present study we investigated the response following the implantation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges in the brain. PVA sponges were implanted into the brain cortex of wild type and TSP2-null mice for a period of 4 and 8 weeks and the response was analyzed by histochemistry and quantitative immunohistochemistry. TSP2 expression was detected in the interstices of the sponge and co-localized with the extracellular matrix and astrocytes. PVA sponge invasion in TSP2-null mice was characterized by dense deposition of extracellular matrix and increased invasion of reactive astrocytes and macrophages/microglia. Furthermore, the angiogenic response was elevated and the detection of mouse serum albumin (MSA) in the brain cortex indicated excessive vessel leakage, suggesting that TSP2 plays a role in the repair/maintenance of the blood brain barrier. Finally, immunostaining demonstrated an increase in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Taken together, our observations support a role for TSP2 as critical determinant of the brain response to biomaterials.

  15. Displaying the researched body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    In Heirloom, artist Gina Czarnecki and scientist John Hunt grow portraits of the artist’s daughters from their own cells, onto glass casts of their faces. This required the development of novel scien- tific techniques to allow the growth of human cells in a gallery. Heirloom was exhibited at Medi...

  16. Photoperiod affects the diurnal rhythm of hippocampal neuronal morphology of Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    Individuals of many species can regulate their physiology, morphology, and behavior in response to annual changes of day length (photoperiod). In mammals, the photoperiodic signal is mediated by a change in the duration of melatonin, leading to alterations in gene expressions, neuronal circuits, and hormonal secretion. The hippocampus is one of the most plastic structures in the adult brain and hippocampal neuronal morphology displays photoperiod-induced differences. Because the hippocampus is important for emotional and cognitive behaviors, photoperiod-driven remodeling of hippocampal neurons is implicated in seasonal differences of affect, including seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in humans. Because neuronal architecture is also affected by the day-night cycle in several brain areas, we hypothesized that hippocampal neuronal morphology would display a diurnal rhythm and that day length would influence that rhythm. In the present study, we examined diurnal and seasonal differences in hippocampal neuronal morphology, as well as mRNA expression of the neurotrophic factors (i.e., brain-derived neurotrophic factor [Bdnf], tropomyosin receptor kinase B [trkB; a receptor for BDNF], and vascular endothelial growth factor [Vegf]) and a circadian clock gene, Bmal1, in the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters. Diurnal rhythms in total length of dendrites, the number of primary dendrites, dendritic complexity, and distance of the furthest intersection from the cell body were observed only in long-day animals; however, diurnal rhythms in the number of branch points and mean length of segments were observed only in short-day animals. Spine density of dendrites displayed diurnal rhythmicity with different peak times between the CA1 and DG subregions and between long and short days. These results indicate that photoperiod affects daily morphological changes of hippocampal neurons and the daily rhythm of spine density, suggesting the possibility that photoperiod-induced adjustments

  17. Modelling of diurnal cycle under climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliseev, A.V.; Bezmenov, K.V.; Demchenko, P.F.; Mokhov, I.I.; Petoukhov, V.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics

    1995-12-31

    The observed diurnal temperature range (DTR) displays remarkable change during last 30 years. Land air DTR generally decreases under global climate warming due to more significant night minimum temperature increase in comparison with day maximum temperature increase. Atmosphere hydrological cycle characteristics change under global warming and possible background aerosol atmosphere content change may cause essential errors in the estimation of DTR tendencies of change under global warming. The result of this study is the investigation of cloudiness effect on the DTR and blackbody radiative emissivity diurnal range. It is shown that in some cases (particularly in cold seasons) it results in opposite change in DTR and BD at doubled CO{sub 2} atmosphere content. The influence of background aerosol is the same as the cloudiness one

  18. Diurnal variation of blood ketone bodies in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients: the relationship to serum C-peptide immunoreactivity and free insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, E

    1990-01-01

    We examined whether the rise in ketone body concentration around midnight and in the early morning was due to the lack of free insulin (IRI) or excess of insulin counterregulatory hormones such as human growth hormone (hGH), cortisol and glucagon in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients and whether the monitoring of blood ketone body concentration was clinically useful as an index of metabolic control for deciding to increase or decrease the insulin dose in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Serum levels of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-OHBA), acetoacetate (AcAc) and 3-OHBA/AcAc ratio before breakfast were significantly increased in insulin-treated NIDDM patients with well-controlled fasting plasma glucose levels and IDDM patients compared to those in normal subjects. Mirror image diurnal changes were found between serum concentrations of 3-OHBA and serum C-peptide or free IRI in normal subjects and NIDDM patients treated with diet alone or sulfonylurea during the 24-hour daily profiles. However, there were no correlations between 3-OHBA and free IRI in the NIDDM patients treated with insulin and IDDM patients who had a much larger increase in the mean concentration of serum 3-OHBA at 6 a.m. caused by a low concentration of free IRI. Counterregulatory hormones were not increased in IDDM patients compared to normal subjects in the early morning. Cortisol/free IRI and hGH/free IRI molar ratios were significantly increased in NIDDM and IDDM patients compared to normal subjects in the early morning, but glucagon/free IRI molar ratio was not changed between IDDM and normal subjects. In conclusion, the early morning rising of ketone body concentration in insulin-treated diabetic patients, particularly IDDM patients, is due to the absolute lack of free IRI and/or the relative lack of free IRI to the levels of hGH or cortisol, and the monitoring of 3-OHBA is clinically useful as a more sensitive index of metabolic

  19. Patterning of anteroposterior body axis displayed in the expression of Hox genes in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Mani; Omori, Akihito; Kurokawa, Daisuke; Akasaka, Koji

    2015-09-01

    The presence of an anteroposterior body axis is a fundamental feature of bilateria. Within this group, echinoderms have secondarily evolved pentameral symmetric body plans. Although all echinoderms present bilaterally symmetric larval stages, they dramatically rearrange their body axis and develop a pentaradial body plan during metamorphosis. Therefore, the location of their anteroposterior body axis in adult forms remains a contentious issue. Unlike other echinoderms, sea cucumbers present an obvious anteroposterior axis not rearranged during metamorphosis, thus representing an interesting group to study their anteroposterior axis patterning. Hox genes are known to play a broadly conserved role in anteroposterior axis patterning in deuterostomes. Here, we report the expression patterns of Hox genes from early development to pentactula stage in sea cucumber. In early larval stages, five Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox11/13a, and AjHox11/13b) were expressed sequentially along the archenteron, suggesting that the role of anteroposterior patterning of the Hox genes is conserved in bilateral larvae of echinoderms. In doliolaria and pentactula stages, eight Hox genes (AjHox1, AjHox5, AjHox7, AjHox8, AjHox9/10, AjHox11/13a, AjHox11/13b, and AjHox11/13c) were expressed sequentially along the digestive tract, following a similar expression pattern to that found in the visceral mesoderm of other bilateria. Unlike other echinoderms, pentameral expression patterns of AjHox genes were not observed in sea cucumber. Altogether, we concluded that AjHox genes are involved in the patterning of the digestive tract in both larvae and metamorphosis of sea cucumbers. In addition, the anteroposterior axis in sea cucumbers might be patterned like that of other bilateria.

  20. Diurnal Ensemble Surface Meteorology Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Excel file containing diurnal ensemble statistics of 2-m temperature, 2-m mixing ratio and 10-m wind speed. This Excel file contains figures for Figure 2 in the...

  1. Diurnal variation of mountain waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Worthington

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain waves could be modified as the boundary layer varies between stable and convective. However case studies show mountain waves day and night, and above e.g. convective rolls with precipitation lines over mountains. VHF radar measurements of vertical wind (1990–2006 confirm a seasonal variation of mountain-wave amplitude, yet there is little diurnal variation of amplitude. Mountain-wave azimuth shows possible diurnal variation compared to wind rotation across the boundary layer.

  2. Developmental changes in emotion recognition from full-light and point-light displays of body movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick D Ross

    Full Text Available To date, research on the development of emotion recognition has been dominated by studies on facial expression interpretation; very little is known about children's ability to recognize affective meaning from body movements. In the present study, we acquired simultaneous video and motion capture recordings of two actors portraying four basic emotions (Happiness Sadness, Fear and Anger. One hundred and seven primary and secondary school children (aged 4-17 and 14 adult volunteers participated in the study. Each participant viewed the full-light and point-light video clips and was asked to make a forced-choice as to which emotion was being portrayed. As a group, children performed worse than adults for both point-light and full-light conditions. Linear regression showed that both age and lighting condition were significant predictors of performance in children. Using piecewise regression, we found that a bilinear model with a steep improvement in performance until 8.5 years of age, followed by a much slower improvement rate through late childhood and adolescence best explained the data. These findings confirm that, like for facial expression, adolescents' recognition of basic emotions from body language is not fully mature and seems to follow a non-linear development. This is in line with observations of non-linear developmental trajectories for different aspects of human stimuli processing (voices and faces, perhaps suggesting a shift from one perceptual or cognitive strategy to another during adolescence. These results have important implications to understanding the maturation of social cognition.

  3. Nonlinear interaction between the diurnal and semidiurnal tides: Terdiurnal and diurnal secondary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, H.; Vial, F.; Manson, A. H.; Giraldez, R.; Masseboeuf, M.

    1989-01-01

    Many years of measurements obtained using French meteor radars at Garchy (latitude 47 N) and Montpazier (latitude 44 N) are used to show the existence of an 8 hour oscillation. Some examples of the structure of this wave are displayed and compared with measurements performed at Saskatoon (latitude 52 N) and Budrio (latitude 45 N). This wave can be interpreted as the solar driven terdiurnal tide, or as the result of the nonlinear interaction between the diurnal and semidiurnal tides. Both hypotheses are tested with numerical models. Incidentally, the possible existence of a 24 hour wave resulting from this interaction is also studied.

  4. Biochemical markers identify influences on bone and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis - the effect of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA involves changes in both bone and cartilage. These processes might be associated under some circumstances. This study investigated correlations between bone and cartilage degradation in patients with OA as a function of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation. Methods This study was a 2-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study including 37 postmenopausal women and 36 men, aged 57-75 years, with painful knee OA, and a KL-score of I - III. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment arms: 0.6 mg or 0.8 mg oral sCT, or placebo given twice-daily for 14 days. Correlations between gender, KL score, or BMI and the bone resorption marker, serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX-I, or the cartilage degradation marker, urine C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II (CTX-II were investigated. Results At baseline, biomarkers indicated women with OA experienced higher bone and cartilage degradation than men. CTX-I levels were significantly higher, and CTX-II levels only marginally higher, in women than in men (p = 0.04 and p = 0.06, respectively. Increasing KL score was not correlated with bone resorption, but was significantly associated with the cartilage degradation CTX-II marker in both men and women (p = 0.007. BMI was significantly and negatively correlated to the bone resorption marker CTX-I, r = -0.40 (p = 0.002, but showed only a borderline positive correlation to CTX-II, r = 0.25 (p = 0.12. Before morning treatments on days 1 and 14, no correlation was seen between CTX-I and CTX-II in either the sCT or placebo group. However, oral sCT and food intake induced a clear correlation between these bone and cartilage degradation markers. Four hours after the first sCT dose on treatment days 1 and 14, a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p p = 0.02, but not on day 14. Conclusion Bone resorption was higher in

  5. Effects of stressor controllability on diurnal physiological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S; Christianson, John P; Maslanik, Thomas M; Maier, Steve F; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Fleshner, Monika

    2013-03-15

    Disruptions in circadian and diurnal rhythms are associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders and stressor exposure can disrupt these rhythms. The controllability of the stressor can modulate various behavioral and neurochemical responses to stress. Uncontrollable, but not controllable, stress produces behaviors in rats that resemble symptoms of anxiety and depression. Whether acute stress-induced disruptions in physiological rhythms are sensitive to controllability of the stressor, however, remains unknown. To examine the role of controllability in diurnal rhythm disruption, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with Data Sciences International (DSI) biotelemetry devices. Real-time measurements were obtained before, during and after exposure to a controllable or yoked uncontrollable stressor. Controllable and uncontrollable stress equally disrupted diurnal rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature but not heart rate. The diurnal heart rate the day following stressor exposure was flattened to a greater extent and was significantly higher in rats with control over stress suggesting a relationship between stressor controllability and the heart rate response. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that acute stress-induced disruptions in diurnal physiological rhythms likely contribute little to the behavioral and affective consequences of stress that are sensitive to stressor controllability.

  6. Three-dimensional reconstruction and display of embryoid body-like structure%三维重构展示类胚体样结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晓涛; 郑馨; 钟嘉泳; 张志鹏; 李震; 蔡冬青

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stem cells have been widely studied and are considered as important cells for cell therapy since stem cells are capable of proliferation and differentiation. It is believed that three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and display of stem cells and tissues is important to better understand the mechanisms of proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. OBJECTIVE: To reveal and analyze embryoid body-like tissue structure using 3D-reconstruction technique. METHODS: Differentiated embryoid body-like tissue structure was used as a model. Immunofluorescent staining combined with Z-axis consecutive image capture and 3D-reconstruction were used to reveal and analyze differentiated embryoid body-like cardiac myocyte tissue.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Methods used in this study were able to reveal 3D-reconstruction of embryoid body-like tissue structure. Reconstructed 3D model could be rotated at any angle. After iso-surface processing under certain color channel, spatial relationship of cardiac troponin I positive tissue structure and nucleus could be displayed on related color channel or at any angle dimension. It was found that the nuclei were included in the differentiated embryoid body-like cardiac myocyte tissue. The results of present study documented that differentiated embryoid body-like cardiac myocyte tissue was able to reveal and analyze using the 3D-reconstruction technique.%背景:干细胞因其具有增殖能力及分化潜能,被认为是实施细胞治疗的重要细胞而被广泛研究.实现干细胞与组织三维结构的展示与分析,对阐明干细胞增殖与分化的机制有重要意义.目的:探讨实现对经分化的类胚体样组织结构进行三维重构展示的方法.方法:以来源于骨骼肌干细胞经诱导具有三维立体结构的类胚体作为实验对象,利用多色免疫荧光染色结合Z轴连续图像采集和三维重构技术,对经分化的类胚体样组织结构进行三维重构展示.结果与结论:

  7. Aging, health behaviors, and the Diurnal rhythm and awakening response of salivary cortisol

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Phillips, Anna C.; Carroll, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the awakening response and diurnal rhythm of cortisol in young versus older adults in relation to health behaviours. Older adults displayed significantly reduced cortisol upon awakening, a lower cortisol awakening response and a flatter diurnal profile represented by a reduced area under the curve and cortisol slope. There was also a significant interaction of age, cortisol and diet; younger adults with a higher fat and lower fruit and vegetable intake exhibited the flatte...

  8. Diurnal distribution of sunshine probability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinli, S.

    1982-01-01

    The diurnal distribution of the sunshine probability is essential for the predetermination of average irradiances and illuminances by solar radiation on sloping surfaces. The most meteorological stations have only monthly average values of the sunshine duration available. It is, therefore, necessary to compute the diurnal distribution of sunshine probability starting from the average monthly values. It is shown how the symmetric component of the distribution of the sunshine probability which is a consequence of a ''sidescene effect'' of the clouds can be calculated. The asymmetric components of the sunshine probability depending on the location and the seasons and their influence on the predetermination of the global radiation are investigated and discussed.

  9. Quasi-Biennial Oscillation signatures in the diurnal tidal winds over Cachoeira Paulista

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues de Araujo, Luciana; Jacobi, Christoph; Batista, Paulo; Lima, Lourivaldo

    2016-07-01

    The solar diurnal tidal plays an important role in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region at low latitudes, in which its amplitude for horizontal winds maximizes around 20 degrees. The tides are excited in the lower atmosphere and stratosphere and can be affected by short and long-term local variations during their upward propagation. In this work, the meteor winds obtained over Cachoeira Paulista (22.7° S, 45.0° W), Brazil, have been used to investigate interannual variability in the amplitude of the diurnal tidal winds. The monthly diurnal tidal displays year to year variations. Amplitudes are strongest when the equatorial quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) at the 30 mb level is eastward. This behavior can be observed in all seasons in the meridional component, whilst it is more clearly expressed during austral autumn in the zonal component, just when the diurnal tidal is strongest at this latitude.

  10. Diurnal internal tides detected in the Adriatic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihanovic, H. [Hydrographic Inst. of the Republic of Croatia, Split (Croatia); Orlic, M.; Pasaric, Z. [Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Inst., Univ. of Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Strong diurnal oscillations, documented by temperature data that were collected along a submarine cliff on the Lastovo Island (southern Adriatic), are studied and compared with sea level and wind measurements at Dubrovnik and Komiza (island of Vis). Three thermistors were deployed at the depths of 15, 22 and 36 m between March 2001 and March 2002. Pronounced diurnal temperature oscillations were detected at 15 and 22 m during the stratified season. The correlation between the sea surface and thermocline displacements was highest in June 2001, when diurnal wind changes were not significant, while diurnal sea level oscillations achieved annual maxima. Thermocline oscillations were in phase with sea level changes. The range of diurnal sea surface variability was close to 19 cm, while the range of corresponding thermocline variability was about 5.4 m. The findings summarize the outcome of the first dedicated study of internal tides in the Adriatic. (orig.)

  11. Seasonal resonance of diurnal coastal trapped waves in the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, Stefanie; Darelius, Elin

    2017-01-01

    The summer enhancement of diurnal tidal currents at the shelf break in the southern Weddell Sea is studied using velocity measurements from 29 moorings during the period 1968 to 2014. Kinetic energy associated with diurnal tidal frequencies is largest at the shelf break and decreases rapidly with distance from it. The diurnal tidal energy increases from austral winter to summer by, on average, 50 %. The austral summer enhancement is observed in all deployments. The observations are compared to results from an idealised numerical solution of the properties of coastal trapped waves (CTWs) for a given bathymetry, stratification and an along-slope current. The frequency at which the dispersion curve for mode 1 CTWs displays a maximum (i.e. where the group velocity is zero and resonance is possible) is found within or near the diurnal frequency band, and it is sensitive to the stratification in the upper part of the water column and to the background current. The maximum of the dispersion curve is shifted towards higher frequencies, above the diurnal band, for weak stratification and a strong background current (i.e. austral winter-like conditions) and towards lower frequencies for strong upper-layer stratification and a weak background current (austral summer). The seasonal evolution of hydrography and currents in the region is inferred from available mooring data and conductivity-temperature-depth profiles. Near-resonance of diurnal tidal CTWs during austral summer can explain the observed seasonality in tidal currents.

  12. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US. Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. The GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited diurnal fluctuations in summertime. The summertime PBM diurnal pattern displayed daily maxima in the early afternoon and lower mixing ratios at night, implying photochemical production of PBM in summer.

  13. Atmospheric diurnal and semi-diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Mannucci

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal and semi-diurnal variations, driven by solar forcing, are two fundamental modes in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology Ionosphere and Climate provide rather uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal and semi-diurnal variations of both temperature and refractivity from two-year (2007–2008 COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal and semi-diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity decreases with altitude from a local maximum in the planetary boundary layer and reaches the minimum around 14 km and then further increase amplitude in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from upper troposphere to the stratopause with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. Below 500 hPa (~5.5 km, seasonal variations of the peak diurnal amplitude in the tropics follow the solor forcing change in latitude, while at 30 km the seasonal pattern reverses with the diurnal amplitude peaking at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. Polar regions shows large diurnal variations in the stratosphere with strong seasonal variations and the cause(s of these variations require further investigations.

  14. Diurnal Reflectance Changes in Vegetation Observed with AVIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Ustin, S. L.

    1998-01-01

    focused on day-to-day changes in water use, especially for agricultural applications. Ustin et al. showed seasonal changes in canopy water content in chaparral shrub could be estimated using optical methods. Vanderbilt et al. followed asymmetric diurnal changes in the reflectance of a walnut orchard, but could not attribute specific reflectance changes to specific changes in canopy architecture or physiology. Forests and shrub lands in California experience prolonged periods of drought, sometimes extending six months without precipitation. The conifer and evergreen chaparral communities common to the foothill region around the central valley of California retain their foliage throughout the summer and have low transpiration rates despite high net radiation and temperature conditions. In contrast, grasslands and drought resistant deciduous species in the same habitat are seasonally dormant in summer. Because of differences in the mechanisms of drought tolerance, rooting depth and physiology between different plant communities in the region, it is likely that they display differences in diurnal water relations. The presence of diverse plant communities provides an opportunity to investigate possible diurnal landscape patterns in water relations that could be observed by an airborne hyperspectral scanner. This investigation of AVIRIS data collected over forest and shrub land represents the continuation of a prior investigation involving spectral mixture analysis of diurnal effects in the same AVIRIS data set.

  15. Diurnal and semi-diurnal tidal currents in the deep mid-Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shetye, S.R.

    Current meter records from two depths, approximately 1000 m, at three mooring in the deep mid-Arabian Sea were used to study tidal components. Tidal ellipses for the semi-diurnal (M2, S2 and K2) and the diurnal (K1 and P1) tidal constituents have...

  16. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin in trained and untrained subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Dela, F; Hippe, E

    1993-01-01

    .0001] and a lower mean body mass index [BMI, 21.7 (SEM 0.7) kg.m-2 versus 24.4 (SEM 0.6) kg.m-2, P = 0.02]. Each subject was followed individually for 24 h as they performed their normal daily activities. Venous blood samples were collected from awakening (0 min) until the end of the 24-h period (1440 min). Both T......The diurnal variations of serum-erythropoietin concentration ([s-EPO]) were investigated in six physically trained (T) and eight untrained (UT) men. The T subjects had a higher mean maximal oxygen uptake than UT subjects [75.7 (SEM 1.6) ml.min-1.kg-1 versus 48.3 (SEM 1.4) ml.min-1.kg-1, P ....05]. The mean 24-h [s-EPO] were 14.5 (SEM 1.0) U.l-1 and 14.9 (SEM 0.9) U.l-1 in T and UT, respectively (P > 0.05). The individual mean 24-h [s-EPO] were not correlated to body mass, BMI or maximal oxygen uptaken. Significant diurnal variations in [s-EPO] occurred in these healthy subjects irrespective...

  17. Climatology of diurnal tide and its long-term variability in the lower middle atmosphere over a tropical station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P. Vinay; Dutta, Gopa; Mohammad, Salauddin; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    2016-07-01

    ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-interim) data of winds for two solar cycles (1991-2012) are harmonically analyzed to delineate the characteristics and variability of diurnal tide over a tropical site (13.5° N, 79.5° E). The diurnal cycle horizontal winds measured by Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E) mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar between May 2005 and April 2006 have been used to compute 24 h tidal amplitudes and phases and compared with the corresponding results obtained from ERA winds. The climatological diurnal tidal amplitudes and phases have been estimated from surface to ˜33 km using ERA interim data. The amplitudes and phases obtained in the present study are found to compare reasonably well with Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM-09). Diurnal tides show larger amplitudes in the lower troposphere below 5 km during summer and in the mid-stratosphere mainly during equinoctial months and early winter. Water vapor and convection in the lower troposphere are observed to play major roles in exciting 24-h tide. Correlations between diurnal amplitude and integrated water vapor and between diurnal amplitude and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) are 0.59 and -0.34, respectively. Ozone mixing ratio correlates (ρ = 0.66) well with diurnal amplitude and shows annual variation in the troposphere whereas semi-annual variation is observed at stratospheric heights with stronger peaks in equinoctial months. A clear annual variation of diurnal amplitude is displayed in the troposphere and interannual variability becomes prominent in the stratosphere which could be partly due to the influence of equatorial stratospheric QBO. The influence of solar activity on diurnal oscillations is found to be insignificant.

  18. Diurnal oscillations of soybean circadian clock and drought responsive genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marcolino-Gomes

    Full Text Available Rhythms produced by the endogenous circadian clock play a critical role in allowing plants to respond and adapt to the environment. While there is a well-established regulatory link between the circadian clock and responses to abiotic stress in model plants, little is known of the circadian system in crop species like soybean. This study examines how drought impacts diurnal oscillation of both drought responsive and circadian clock genes in soybean. Drought stress induced marked changes in gene expression of several circadian clock-like components, such as LCL1-, GmELF4- and PRR-like genes, which had reduced expression in stressed plants. The same conditions produced a phase advance of expression for the GmTOC1-like, GmLUX-like and GmPRR7-like genes. Similarly, the rhythmic expression pattern of the soybean drought-responsive genes DREB-, bZIP-, GOLS-, RAB18- and Remorin-like changed significantly after plant exposure to drought. In silico analysis of promoter regions of these genes revealed the presence of cis-elements associated both with stress and circadian clock regulation. Furthermore, some soybean genes with upstream ABRE elements were responsive to abscisic acid treatment. Our results indicate that some connection between the drought response and the circadian clock may exist in soybean since (i drought stress affects gene expression of circadian clock components and (ii several stress responsive genes display diurnal oscillation in soybeans.

  19. The Diurnal Cycle over the Maritime Continent and its Interaction with the MJO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, A. J.; Peatman, S.; Baranowski, D. B.; Stevens, D. P.; Heywood, K. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Schmidtko, S.

    2014-12-01

    The complex land-sea distribution and topography of the maritime continent acts to disrupt or even completely block the eastward propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific. This leads to changes in tropical latent heat release and subsequent impacts on global circulation. Convection over the maritime continent is dominated by the diurnal cycle. Where the mean diurnal cycle is strong (over the islands and surrounding seas), 80% of the MJO precipitation signal in the maritime continent is accounted for by changes in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle. The canonical view of the MJO as the smooth eastward propagation of a large-scale precipitation envelope also breaks down over the islands of the Maritime Continent. Instead, a vanguard of precipitation jumps ahead of the main body by approximately 6 days or 2000 km. Hence, there can be enhanced precipitation over Sumatra, Borneo or New Guinea when the large-scale MJO envelope over the surrounding ocean is one of suppressed precipitation. This behaviour is discussed in terms of an interaction between the diurnal cycle and the MJO circulation. The diurnal cycle is also strong in the ocean. Seaglider measurements taken during the CINDY/DYNAMO campaign show the existence of a diurnal warm layer in the upper few metres of the ocean. This has a significant effect on the surface fluxes, of an order of Watts per square metre. The diurnal warm layer is favoured during the inactive phase of the MJO and may act to help precondition the atmosphere to convection. The activities of the MJO Task Force and Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project will be discussed in this context.

  20. Cone photopigments in nocturnal and diurnal procyonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G H; Deegan, J F

    1992-10-01

    Procyonids are small, New World carnivores distributed among some 6 genera. Electroretinogram (ERG) flicker photometry was used to measure the spectra of the cone photopigments for members of two nocturnal species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the kinkajou (Potos flavus), and a diurnal species, the coati (Nasua nasua). Each of the 3 has a class of cone photopigment with maximum sensitivity in the middle to long wavelengths. The spectral positioning of this cone is different for the three. Whereas the raccoon and kinkajou are monochromatic, the diurnal coati is a dichromat having an additional class of cone photopigment with peak sensitivity close to 433 nm.

  1. Diurnal and circadian variation of sleep and alertness in men vs. naturally cycling women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Diane B; Shechter, Ari; Boudreau, Philippe; Begum, Esmot Ara; Ng Ying-Kin, Ng Mien Kwong

    2016-09-27

    This study quantifies sex differences in the diurnal and circadian variation of sleep and waking while controlling for menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptive use. We compared the diurnal and circadian variation of sleep and alertness of 8 women studied during two phases of the menstrual cycle and 3 women studied during their midfollicular phase with that of 15 men. Participants underwent an ultradian sleep-wake cycle (USW) procedure consisting of 36 cycles of 60-min wake episodes alternating with 60-min nap opportunities. Core body temperature (CBT), salivary melatonin, subjective alertness, and polysomnographically recorded sleep were measured throughout this procedure. All analyzed measures showed a significant diurnal and circadian variation throughout the USW procedure. Compared with men, women demonstrated a significant phase advance of the CBT but not melatonin rhythms, as well as an advance in the diurnal and circadian variation of sleep measures and subjective alertness. Furthermore, women experienced an increased amplitude of the diurnal and circadian variation of alertness, mainly due to a larger decline in the nocturnal nadir. Our results indicate that women are likely initiating sleep at a later circadian phase than men, which may be one factor contributing to the increased susceptibility to sleep disturbances reported in women. Lower nighttime alertness is also observed, suggesting a physiological basis for a greater susceptibility to maladaptation to night shift work in women.

  2. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  3. Diurnally entrained anticipatory behavior in archaea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Whitehead

    Full Text Available By sensing changes in one or few environmental factors biological systems can anticipate future changes in multiple factors over a wide range of time scales (daily to seasonal. This anticipatory behavior is important to the fitness of diverse species, and in context of the diurnal cycle it is overall typical of eukaryotes and some photoautotrophic bacteria but is yet to be observed in archaea. Here, we report the first observation of light-dark (LD-entrained diurnal oscillatory transcription in up to 12% of all genes of a halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. Significantly, the diurnally entrained transcription was observed under constant darkness after removal of the LD stimulus (free-running rhythms. The memory of diurnal entrainment was also associated with the synchronization of oxic and anoxic physiologies to the LD cycle. Our results suggest that under nutrient limited conditions halophilic archaea take advantage of the causal influence of sunlight (via temperature on O(2 diffusivity in a closed hypersaline environment to streamline their physiology and operate oxically during nighttime and anoxically during daytime.

  4. Seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric mercury across the US determined from AMNet monitoring data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Speciated atmospheric mercury observations collected over the period from 2008 to 2010 at the Environmental Protection Agency and National Atmospheric Deposition Program Atmospheric Mercury Network sites (AMNet were analyzed for its spatial, seasonal, and diurnal characteristics across the US Median values of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM and particulate bound mercury (PBM at 11 different AMNet sites ranged from 148–226 ppqv (1.32–2.02 ng m−3, 0.05–1.4 ppqv (0.47–12.4 pg m−3 and 0.18–1.5 ppqv (1.61–13.7 pg m−3, respectively. Common characteristics of these sites were the similar median levels of GEM as well as its seasonality, with the highest mixing ratios occurring in winter and spring and the lowest in fall. However, discernible differences in monthly average GEM were as large as 30 ppqv, which may be caused by sporadic influence from local emission sources. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GEM occurred in the summer. Seven rural sites displayed similar GEM summer diurnal patterns, in that the lowest levels appeared in the early morning, and then the GEM mixing ratio increased after sunrise and reached its maxima at noon or in the early afternoon. However, sites in Utah (UT96, UT97 and New York (NY95 showed a distinctly different pattern, with the lowest mixing ratios appearing in the afternoon and the highest mixing ratios at night. Unlike GEM, GOM exhibited higher mixing ratios in spring and summer. The largest diurnal variation amplitude of GOM occurred in spring for most AMNet sites. GOM diurnal minima appeared before sunrise and maxima appeared in the afternoon, and the variation in magnitude for all seasons at most monitoring sites fell in the range of 0 to 2 ppqv, except the Utah sites (up to 5 ppqv. The increased GOM mixing ratio in the afternoon indicated a photochemically driven oxidation of GEM resulting in GOM formation. PBM exhibited

  5. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Atmospheric Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfeng Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high ambient ozone concentrations have become one of the major regional air quality issues in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, as key precursors of ozone, were found to be the limiting factor in photochemical ozone formation for large areas in the PRD. For source apportioning of NMHCs as well as ozone pollution control strategies, it is necessary to obtain typical seasonal and diurnal patterns of NMHCs with a large pool of field data. To date, few studies have focused on seasonal and diurnal variations of NMHCs in urban areas of Guangzhou. This study explored the seasonal variations of most hydrocarbons concentrations with autumn maximum and spring minimum in Guangzhou. The diurnal variations of most anthropogenic NMHCs typically showed two-peak pattern with one at 8:00 in the morning and another at 20:00 in the evening, both corresponding to traffic rush hours in Guangzhou, whereas isoprene displayed a different bimodal diurnal curve. Propene, ethene, m, p-xylene and toluene were the four largest contributors to ozone formation in Guangzhou, based on the evaluation of individual NMHCs’ photochemical reactivity. Therefore, an effective strategy for controlling ozone pollution may be achieved by the reduction of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou.

  6. A diurnal animation of thermal images from a day-night pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, K.

    2000-01-01

    Interpretation of thermal images is often complicated because the physical property information is contained in both the spatial and temporal variations of the data and thermal models are necessary to extract and display this information. A linearized radiative transfer solution to the surface flux has been used to derive a function that is invariant with respect to thermal inertia. This relationship makes it possible to predict the temperature variation at any time in the diurnal cycle using only two distinct measurements (e.g., noon and midnight). An animation can then be constructed from a pair of day-night images to view both the spatial and temporal temperature changes throughout the diurnal cycle. A more complete solution for the invariant function, using the method of Laplace transforms and based on the linearized solution, was introduced. These results indicate that the linear model does not provide a sufficiently accurate estimate. Using standard conditions (latitude 30??, solar declination 0??, acquisition times at noon and midnight), this new relationship was used to predict temperature throughout the diurnal cycle to an rms error of 0.2??C, which is close to the system noise of most thermal scanners. The method was further extended to include the primary effects of topographic slope with similar accuracy. The temperature was computed at 48 equally spaced times in the diurnal cycle with this algorithm using a co-registered day and night TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) data pair (330 pixels, 450 lilies) acquired of the Carlin, Nevada, area and a co-registered DEM (Digital Elevation Model). (Any reader can view the results by downloading the animation file from an identified tip site). The results illustrate the power of animation to display subtle temporal and spatial temperature changes, which can provide clues to structural controls and material property differences. This 'visual change' approach could significantly increase the use of

  7. Chronotype and diurnal patterns of positive affect and affective neural circuitry in primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Brant P; Germain, Anne; Nofzinger, Eric A; Kupfer, David J; Krafty, Robert T; Rothenberger, Scott D; James, Jeffrey A; Bi, Wenzhu; Buysse, Daniel J

    2012-10-01

    While insomnia is a well-established risk factor for the initial onset, recurrence or relapse of affective disorders, the specific characteristics of insomnia that confer risk remain unclear. Patients with insomnia with an evening chronotype may be one particularly high-risk group, perhaps due to alterations in positive affect and its related affective circuitry. We explored this possibility by comparing diurnal patterns of positive affect and the activity of positive affect-related brain regions in morning- and evening-types with insomnia. We assessed diurnal variation in brain activity via the relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose uptake by using [(18) F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography during morning and evening wakefulness. We focused on regions in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum, which have been consistently linked with positive affect and reward processing. As predicted, chronotypes differed in their daily patterns in both self-reported positive affect and associated brain regions. Evening-types displayed diurnal patterns of positive affect characterized by phase delay and smaller amplitude compared with those of morning-types with insomnia. In parallel, evening-types showed a reduced degree of diurnal variation in the metabolism of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the striatum, as well as lower overall metabolism in these regions across both morning and evening wakefulness. Taken together, these preliminary findings suggest that alterations in the diurnal activity of positive affect-related neural structures may underlie differences in the phase and amplitude of self-reported positive affect between morning and evening chronotypes, and may constitute one mechanism for increased risk of mood disorders among evening-type insomniacs.

  8. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  9. Diurnal tides in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A 2D numerical model with a space grid of about 14 km is applied to calculate diurnal tidal constituents K(1) and O(1) in the Arctic Ocean. Calculated corange and cotidal charts show that along the continental slope, local regions of increased sea level amplitude, highly variable phase and enhanced currents occur. It is shown that in these local regions, shelf waves (topographic waves) of tidal origin are generated. In the Arctic Ocean and Northern Atlantic Ocean more than 30 regions of enhanced currents are identified. To prove the near-resonant interaction of the diurnal tides with the local bottom topography, the natural periods of oscillations for all regions have been calculated. The flux of energy averaged over the tidal period depicts the gyres of semitrapped energy, suggesting that the shelf waves are partially trapped over the irregularities of the bottom topography. It is shown that the occurrence of near-resonance phenomenon changes the energy flow in the tidal waves. First, the flux of energy from the astronomical sources is amplified in the shelf wave regions, and afterwards the tidal energy is strongly dissipated in the same regions.

  10. The contribution of the pineal gland on daily rhythms and masking in diurnal grass rats, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Agha, Amna A; Groves, Thomas K H; Gall, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both. Removing the pineal gland had no effect on the hourly distribution of activity across a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or on the patterns of sleep-like behavior at night. Masking effects of light at night on activity were also not significantly different in pinealectomized and control grass rats, as 1h pulses of light stimulated increases in activity of sham and pinealectomized animals to a similar extent. In addition, the circadian regulation of activity was unaffected by the surgical condition of the animals. Our results suggest that the pineal gland does not contribute to diurnality in the grass rat, thus highlighting the complexity of temporal niche transitions. The current data raise interesting questions about how and why genetic and neural mechanisms linking melatonin to sleep regulatory systems might vary among mammals that reached a diurnal niche via parallel and independent pathways.

  11. California's wind energy resource: seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal characteristics, and variability on several time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbach, D. K.; Cayan, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    Decades worth of observational data are used to analyze the annual cycle, relevant synoptic climatology, and diurnal patterns of wind in California's major wind generation regions. Wind records near the wind farms at San Gorgonio and Tehachapi passes, Southern California, and Solano County, Northern California near Sacramento are employed. The in situ data are complemented by global reanalysis, 10-km dynamically downscaled regional reanalysis, and other weather station and buoy data. Each site shows preferred wind directions dictated by local orographic forcing as well as different peaks in wind speed and direction distribution in each season, which are explained in terms of climatological circulation patterns. All have greater wind energy in the warmer months, although the northern site peaks later in the summer, more in phase with the temperature cycle but lagging the cycle in zonal SLP gradient that the other sites align with. The dominant patterns associated with high winds, classified with self-organizing maps, feature a North Pacific SLP high and western North American low. The interplay between synoptic forcing and local circulations is also explored. Local circulations are especially important in the warm months when mesoscale SLP gradients are set up by diurnal heating. The northernmost site displays sharp diurnal wind increases as remnants of a sea breeze propagate inland to the site and amplify the wind induced by the cross-valley SLP gradient.

  12. Diurnal fluctuations of cocaine and potential precursors in leaves of Erythroxylum coca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E L

    1993-01-01

    Cocaine is abundant in leaves of Erythroxylum coca var. coca Lam. Consequently, cocaine and two of its early biosynthetic precursors were monitored for 24 h to determine whether they fluctuated diurnally. E. coca was grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber in soil at pH 3.5. After 17.5 months of growth, leaves not less than 35 days old were harvested every 2 and 4 h for 24 h for arginine, phenylalanine and cocaine content, respectively. The content of cocaine was determined by GC/MS and amino acid content by HPLC. Diurnal fluctuation of cocaine occurred during the 24 h cycle. Cocaine was highest in leaves of E. coca at 8 and 16 h where its content was 7.67 and 9.45 mg.g-1 dry weight, respectively. Arginine and phenylalanine in leaves of E. coca also displayed diurnal rhythmic patterns of fluctuation. The content of arginine declined from hours 6 to 12 and increased to the highest content at 13 h (21.8 mg.g-1 dry weight). Overall, phenylalanine content was lower than arginine, but had two peak periods of accumulation during the 24 h cycle, occurring at 8 and 14 h. The content of phenylalanine in leaves of E. coca during the peak hours was 6.98 and 6.54 mg.g-1 dry weight, respectively.

  13. Endocrine and metabolic diurnal rhythms in young adult men born small vs appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Saltbæk, Pernille N; Friedrichsen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    for 24 h, to measure levels of glucose, free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides (TG), insulin, C-peptide, leptin, resistin, ghrelin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), incretins (GLP-1 and GIP), and inflammatory markers (TNF-α and IL-6) in 13 young men born SGA and 11 young men born AGA. RESULTS...... variations in levels of blood glucose, plasma TG, FFA, insulin, C-peptide, GLP-1, GIP, leptin, visfatin, TNF-α, IL-6 and PAI-1. The variation in FFA levels differed between the groups during the evening. Plasma ghrelin and glucagon levels did not display diurnal variations. CONCLUSIONS: Young men born SGA...

  14. Children's Diurnal Cortisol Activity during the First Year of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Jung; Lamb, Michael E.; Kappler, Gregor; Ahnert, Lieselotte

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined 4- to 5-year-old British children's diurnal cortisol activity during their first year of school. The children's cortisol was measured before enrollment (baseline), upon enrollment, and both 3 and 6 months after enrollment. On each day, cortisol was sampled four times, providing information about the diurnal amount of…

  15. Diurnal Emotional States Impact the Sleep Course.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Delannoy

    Full Text Available Diurnal emotional experiences seem to affect several characteristics of sleep architecture. However, this influence remains unclear, especially for positive emotions. In addition, electrodermal activity (EDA, a sympathetic robust indicator of emotional arousal, differs depending on the sleep stage. The present research has a double aim: to identify the specific effects of pre-sleep emotional states on the architecture of the subsequent sleep period; to relate such states to the sympathetic activation during the same sleep period.Twelve healthy volunteers (20.1 ± 1.0 yo. participated in the experiment and each one slept 9 nights at the laboratory, divided into 3 sessions, one per week. Each session was organized over three nights. A reference night, allowing baseline pre-sleep and sleep recordings, preceded an experimental night before which participants watched a negative, neutral, or positive movie. The third and last night was devoted to analyzing the potential recovery or persistence of emotional effects induced before the experimental night. Standard polysomnography and EDA were recorded during all the nights.Firstly, we found that experimental pre-sleep emotional induction increased the Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep rate following both negative and positive movies. While this increase was spread over the whole night for positive induction, it was limited to the second half of the sleep period for negative induction. Secondly, the valence of the pre-sleep movie also impacted the sympathetic activation during Non-REM stage 3 sleep, which increased after negative induction and decreased after positive induction.Pre-sleep controlled emotional states impacted the subsequent REM sleep rate and modulated the sympathetic activity during the sleep period. The outcomes of this study offer interesting perspectives related to the effect of diurnal emotional influences on sleep regulation and open new avenues for potential practices designed to

  16. The influence of high and low levels of estrogen on diurnal urine regulation in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bie Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex hormones have a pronounced effect on arginine vasopressin (AVP, and therefore on the diurnal water homeostasis. Low and high levels of plasma-estradiol as seen in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle may therefore alter the diurnal regulation of urine production. Furthermore the structural resemblance of oxytocin to vasopressin has led to speculations about the possible antidiuretic properties of oxytocin under normal physiological conditions. To elucidate the influence of high and low p-estradiol on the regulation of the diurnal urine production, 15 normal menstruating women (21–33 y underwent two circadian in-patient investigations, both situated in follicular phase. Methods Admitting the participants solely in the follicular phase resulted in high and low plasma-estradiol whereas plasma-progesterone was similar. Urine and blood samples were taken at predetermined time points to determine plasma AVP, plasma oxytocin, plasma aldosterone, plasma natriuretic peptide (ANP, urinary solute excretions, and urinary excretions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2 and aquaporin-2 (AQP-2. Blood pressure was measured every hour. Results Plasma AVP, plasma aldosterone and plasma ANP were unaffected by the different levels of estradiol. All had marked circadian variations whereas oxytocin did not display any circadian rhythm. High estradiol resulted in lower p-osmolality and p-sodium reflecting the downward resetting of the osmoreceptors. Oxytocin did not correlate with either diuresis or urine osmolality. The diurnal urine production was similar in the two groups as were urine osmolality, excretion of PGE-2 and AQP-2. AQP-2 does not have a circadian rhythm and is not significantly correlated to either AVP or oxytocin under normal physiological conditions. Conclusion High and low level of estradiol has no influence on the circadian rhythm of AVP or the subsequent urine production. High p-estradiol resets the osmoreceptors for AVP

  17. Chronic ethanol consumption disrupts diurnal rhythms of hepatic glycogen metabolism in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Uduak S.; Swain, Telisha M.; Filiano, Ashley N.; Gamble, Karen L.; Young, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption has been shown to significantly decrease hepatic glycogen content; however, the mechanisms responsible for this adverse metabolic effect are unknown. In this study, we examined the impact chronic ethanol consumption has on time-of-day-dependent oscillations (rhythms) in glycogen metabolism processes in the liver. For this, male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control or ethanol-containing liquid diet for 5 wk, and livers were collected every 4 h for 24 h and analyzed for changes in various genes and proteins involved in hepatic glycogen metabolism. Glycogen displayed a robust diurnal rhythm in the livers of mice fed the control diet, with the peak occurring during the active (dark) period of the day. The diurnal glycogen rhythm was significantly altered in livers of ethanol-fed mice, with the glycogen peak shifted into the inactive (light) period and the overall content of glycogen decreased compared with controls. Chronic ethanol consumption further disrupted diurnal rhythms in gene expression (glycogen synthase 1 and 2, glycogenin, glucokinase, protein targeting to glycogen, and pyruvate kinase), total and phosphorylated glycogen synthase protein, and enzyme activities of glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, the rate-limiting enzymes of glycogen metabolism. In summary, these results show for the first time that chronic ethanol consumption disrupts diurnal rhythms in hepatic glycogen metabolism at the gene and protein level. Chronic ethanol-induced disruption in these daily rhythms likely contributes to glycogen depletion and disruption of hepatic energy homeostasis, a recognized risk factor in the etiology of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25857999

  18. Diurnal signals in length-of-day changes and their geophysical excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindelegger, Michael; Böhm, Johannes; Salstein, David

    2014-05-01

    State-of-the-art determinations of short period Earth rotation variations from long-term space geodetic observations all report an as-yet unexplained LOD (length-of-day) perturbation of roughly 4 microseconds at the principal diurnal frequency corresponding to 1 cycle per solar day. The present study gives a detailed account of this signal component in terms of its possible geophysical excitation from the atmosphere and oceans, including both a direct effect due to pure atmosphere dynamics as well as an indirect effect associated with the oceans' response to diurnal air pressure variations. In particular, we assemble multi-year excitation estimates from a number of modern-day meteorological analysis systems and different hydrodynamic time-stepping solutions for the oceans. A simultaneous application of two legitimate modeling approaches - using either mass and motion terms of fluid angular momentum or pressure and friction torques acting on the Earth's crust - allows for an examination of the balance relationship existing between torques and the angular momentum derivative within each model. Significant violations of this constraint for each of the atmospheric analysis systems mainly originate from seemingly deficient mass term values and cast doubt on the validity of those estimates for sub-diurnal Earth rotation studies. On the contrary, oceanic angular momentum changes are well balanced by the pressure torque on the bathymetry. In light of these results and after thoroughly discussing possible consistency issues between various model estimates, a combined excitation term is constructed on the basis of atmospheric torques and oceanic angular momentum. The obtained solution displays a sufficiently close agreement with observed diurnal changes in LOD, and by virtue of the computed pressure and friction torques, this result can be augmented by a regional analysis of the underlying angular momentum transfer in the axial direction between the solid Earth and its fluid

  19. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  20. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  1. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  2. Does raising morning rectal temperature to evening levels offset the diurnal variation in muscle force production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Ben J; Pullinger, Samuel A; Kerry, Jonathan W; Robinson, William R; Reilly, Tom P; Robertson, Colin M; Waterhouse, James M

    2013-05-01

    Muscle force production and power output in active males, regardless of the site of measurement (hand, leg, or back), are higher in the evening than in the morning. This diurnal variation is attributed to motivational, peripheral and central factors, and higher core and, possibly, muscle temperatures in the evening. This study investigated whether increasing morning rectal temperatures to evening resting values, by active or passive warm-ups, leads to muscle force production and power output becoming equal to evening values in motivated subjects. Ten healthy active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.2 ± 1.9 yrs; body mass, 75.4 ± 8 kg; height, 1.76 ± .06 m) completed the study, which was approved by the University Ethics Committee. The subjects were familiarized with the techniques and protocol and then completed four sessions (separated by at least 48 h): control morning (07:30 h) and evening (17:30 h) sessions (with an active 5-min warm-up) and then two further sessions at 07:30 h but proceeded by an extended active or passive warm-up to raise rectal temperature to evening values. These last two sessions were counterbalanced in order of administration. During each trial, three measures of handgrip strength, isokinetic leg strength measurements (of knee flexion and extension at 1.05 and 4.19 rad.s(-1) through a 90° range of motion), and four measures of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) on an isometric ergometer (utilizing the twitch-interpolation technique) were performed. Rectal and intra-aural temperatures, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal comfort (TC) were measured. Measurements were made after the subjects had reclined for 30 min and after the warm-ups and prior to the measurement of handgrip and isokinetic and isometric ergometry. Muscle temperature was taken after the warm-up and immediately before the isokinetic and MVC measurements. Warm-ups were either active (cycle ergometer at 150 W) or passive (resting in a room at 35 °C, relative

  3. Impact of land convection on temperature diurnal variation in the tropical lower stratosphere inferred from COSMIC GPS radio occultations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Khaykin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Following recent studies evidencing the influence of deep convection on the chemical composition and thermal structure of the tropical lower stratosphere, we explore its impact on the temperature diurnal variation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the high-resolution COSMIC GPS radio-occultation temperature measurements spanning from 2006 through 2011. The temperature in the lowermost stratosphere over land during summer displays a marked diurnal cycle characterized by an afternoon cooling. This diurnal cycle is shown collocated with most intense land convective areas observed by the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM precipitation radar and in phase with the maximum overshooting occurrence frequency in late afternoon. Two processes potentially responsible for that are identified: (i non-migrating tides, whose physical nature is internal gravity waves, and (ii local cross-tropopause mass transport of adiabatically cooled air by overshooting turrets. Although both processes can contribute, only the lofting of adiabatically cooled air is well captured by models, making it difficult to characterize the contribution of non-migrating tides. The impact of deep convection on the temperature diurnal cycle is found larger in the southern tropics, suggesting more vigorous convection over clean rain forest continents than desert areas and polluted continents in the northern tropics.

  4. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominiek Vangansbeke

    Full Text Available The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae. We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  5. Evaluation of the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure under dehydration due to fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Baser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations under dehydration conditions and the relationship between the intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure. Methods: The intraocular pressures (IOP, body weights, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP of 36 fasting healthy volunteers were recorded at 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. in the Ramadan of 2014 and two weeks after it. The data were analyzed using paired Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: As the results demonstrated, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were 2.67±1.33 mmHg, 9.44±8.02 mmHg, 3.33±5.94 mmHg, and 0.90±0.46 kg during the fasting period, respectively. In addition, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were -0.33±1.4 mmHg (P=0.001, 0.55±7.25mmHg (P=0.003, -3.33±5.94 mmHg (P=0.001, and 0.12±0.45 kg (P=0.001 during the control period, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the diurnal IOP and SBP differences (r=0.517, P=0.028. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the current study, the total fluid volume might have a more dominant effect on IOP peaks than the sympathetic system activity. Furthermore, the SBP was found to correlate with the IOP.

  6. Diurnal cortisol rhythms in Tsimane' Amazonian foragers: new insights into ecological HPA axis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Colleen H

    2012-02-01

    Although a growing body of research has documented important pathways by which the HPA axis mediates the interface between the psychosocial world and individual health, there is a paucity of data from nonwestern populations, particularly from those populations with distinct nutritional and infectious disease ecologies. The specific objectives of this study are: (1) to document variation in diurnal cortisol rhythms among the Tsimane', a remote population in the Bolivian Amazon, (2) to explore this variation by age and by gender, and (3) to compare diurnal rhythms from this study to other population based studies of cortisol conducted in industrialized nations. Salivary cortisol samples were collected twice daily, immediately upon waking and before bed, for three consecutive days from 303 participants (age 1.6-82 years, 1564 samples) in conjunction with the Tsimane' Amazonian Panel Study (TAPS). Cortisol rhythms showed strong age effects across the developmental span, with basal levels and slopes increasing into adulthood, although individuals older than 60 years demonstrated a precipitous flattening of the diurnal slope. Cortisol profiles were elevated in adult females compared to their age-matched male counterparts, and diurnal slopes, as well as mean cortisol concentrations among the Tsimane' were the lowest reported in any population based study of HPA axis function. Although the within-population variation in cortisol profiles was consistent with the established correlates of time of day, age, and sex, the between-population comparisons revealed dramatically lower levels of HPA activity among the Tsimane'. This study provides a benchmark against which to reference cortisol levels from industrialized populations, and expands the range of documented variation in HPA axis function in a nonwestern context.

  7. 基于Kinect体感识别技术在LED显示屏上的应用%Application of Based on Kinect Body Recognition Technology to LED Display Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆

    2014-01-01

    nowadays, the LED display screen has been widely used in the industries of advertising, commercial real estate and etc. However the traditional LED display can be only a single display of scheduled videos, photos and texts, which is difficult to catch people's eyes .Therefore, the interactive LED display is emerging, it can not only change its display content by somatosensory recognition, but also realize human-computer interaction through actions and gestures. This article is to research the application of somatosensory recognition technology based on Kinect in the LED display, which has wide application prospects.%现今,LED显示屏已经广泛的运用在广告及商业地产等行业中。但是传统的LED显示屏只能单一的显示预设好的视频或图片、文字内容,很难抓人眼球。因此,新兴的交互式LED显示屏应运而生,其可以通过体感识别来改变播放内容甚至还能通过动作、手势实现人机交互。本文研究的是基于Kinect体感识别技术在LED显示屏上的应用,具有广阔的实际应用前景。

  8. Diurnal variations of summer precipitation in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian; YU RuCong; WANG JianJie

    2008-01-01

    Climatic characteristics and secular trends of diurnal variations of summer precipitation in Beijing are studied using hourly self-recording rain-gauge data during 1961-2004. The results show that both rainfall amount and rainfall frequency present high values from late afternoon to early morning and reach the minima around noon. Two separate peaks can be identified in the high value period, one in the late afternoon and the other in the early morning. Taking the rainfall duration into account, it is found that the rainfall during late afternoon to midnight mainly comes from the short-duration rainfall events (an event of 1-6 hours in duration), while the rainfall during midnight to early morning is ac-cumulated mostly by the long-duration rainfall events (an event that lasts longer than 6 hours). In the recent 40 years, the summer precipitation in Beijing has been considerably restructured. The total rainfall amount of short-duration events has increased significantly, while the total rainfall amount of long-duration events has decreased.

  9. Diurnal variation of tropospheric temperature at a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Revathy

    Full Text Available The vertical velocity in the troposphere-lower stratosphere region measured using MST radar has been utilized to evaluate the temperature profile in the region. The diurnal variation of the tropospheric temperature on one day in August 1998 at the tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E has been studied using the MST radar technique. The diurnal variation of the temperature revealed a prominent diurnal variation with the peak in the afternoon hours increasingly delayed in altitude. The tropopause temperature and altitude exhibited a clear diurnal cycle.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere - composition and chemistry; instruments and technique

  10. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ...... be obtained by shining light from the backside of the workpiece. When there is no light from the backside, the front surface seems totally untouched. This was achieved by laser ablation with ultra-short pulses.......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  11. Diurnal course of photosynthesis in Myriophyllum spicatum and Oedogonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, M.D. (Texas Christian Univ., Ft. Worth); Adams, M.S.; Titus, J.; Stone, W.

    1975-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of photosynthesis were determined for Myriophyllum and Oedogonium in Lake Wingra, Wisconsin, on four dates in 1971 and two in 1972. Photosynthesis was measured by the carbon-14 technique. Mid-day photosynthetic depression was observed on some dates, but not on others. Photosynthesis was also studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The possible influence of internal rhythms, light, and nutrients on diurnal photosynthesis patterns is discussed.

  12. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langel, Jennifer L; Smale, Laura; Esquiva, Gema;

    2015-01-01

    The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsica...... in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical....

  13. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  14. Diurnal Variation of Precipitation During MC3E Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Di; Matsui, Toshi; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Hou, Arthur; Rienecker, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The diurnal variation of precipitation processes in the United States (US) is well recognized but incompletely understood (Cabone et al. 2002). The diurnal cycle of precipitation has been studied using surface rainfall data, radar reflectivity data, and satellite-derived cloudiness and precipitation (Wallace 1975; Dai et al. 1999; Carbone et al. 2002; Carbone and Tuttle, 2008; Parker and Ahijevych, 2007; Matsui et al. 2010 and others). These observations indicate that the summer-time precipitation most of the North America and typically feature late-afternoon precipitation maxima. These diurnal variation of precipitation can also be generally categorized into three different types: 1) afternoon rainfall maxima due to mesoscale and local circulations over the south and east of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys, 2) nocturnal rainfall maxima from eastward-propagating mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) over the Lee side of Rocky Mountain regions and 3) afternoon rainfall maxima in the Appalachian Mountains, and then propagate eastward toward the coast. The main objective of this paper is to use a regional cloud-scale model with very high-resolution (i.e., WRF) to examine the WRF ability to simulate diurnal variation of precipitation. Specifically, the study will (1) identify the physical processes responsible to diurnal variation of precipitation, (2) examine the sensitivity of resolution (2, 6, 18, and 30 km) to model simulated diurnal variation of precipitation and (3) identify the relationships between microphysics and cumulus parameterization schemes.

  15. Atmospheric diurnal variations observed with GPS radio occultation soundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation, driven by solar forcing, is a fundamental mode in the Earth's weather and climate system. Radio occultation (RO measurements from the six COSMIC satellites (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate provide nearly uniform global coverage with high vertical resolution, all-weather and diurnal sampling capability. This paper analyzes the diurnal variations of temperature and refractivity from three-year (2007–2009 COSMIC RO measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere between 30° S and 30° N. The RO observations reveal both propagating and trapped vertical structures of diurnal variations, including transition regions near the tropopause where data with high vertical resolution are critical. In the tropics the diurnal amplitude in refractivity shows the minimum around 14 km and increases to a local maximum around 32 km in the stratosphere. The upward propagating component of the migrating diurnal tides in the tropics is clearly captured by the GPS RO measurements, which show a downward progression in phase from stratopause to the upper troposphere with a vertical wavelength of about 25 km. At ~32 km the seasonal variation of the tidal amplitude maximizes at the opposite side of the equator relative to the solar forcing. The vertical structure of tidal amplitude shows strong seasonal variations and becomes asymmetric along the equator and tilted toward the summer hemisphere in the solstice months. Such asymmetry becomes less prominent in equinox months.

  16. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  17. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  18. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  19. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  20. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  1. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  2. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  3. Effect of static and dynamic stretching on the diurnal variations of jump performance in soccer players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Chtourou

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The present study addressed the lack of data on the effect of different types of stretching on diurnal variations in vertical jump height - i.e., squat-jump (SJ and countermovement-jump (CMJ. We hypothesized that dynamic stretching could affect the diurnal variations of jump height by producing a greater increase in short-term maximal performance in the morning than the evening through increasing core temperature at this time-of-day. METHODS: Twenty male soccer players (age, 18.6±1.3 yrs; height, 174.6±3.8 cm; body-mass, 71.1±8.6 kg; mean ± SD completed the SJ and CMJ tests either after static stretching, dynamic stretching or no-stretching protocols at two times of day, 07:00 h and 17:00 h, with a minimum of 48 hours between testing sessions. One minute after warming-up for 5 minutes by light jogging and performing one of the three stretching protocols (i.e., static stretching, dynamic stretching or no-stretching for 8 minutes, each subject completed the SJ and CMJ tests. Jumping heights were recorded and analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures (3 [stretching]×2 [time-of-day]. RESULTS: The SJ and CMJ heights were significantly higher at 17:00 than 07:00 h (p<0.01 after the no-stretching protocol. These daily variations disappeared (i.e., the diurnal gain decreased from 4.2±2.81% (p<0.01 to 1.81±4.39% (not-significant for SJ and from 3.99±3.43% (p<0.01 to 1.51±3.83% (not-significant for CMJ after dynamic stretching due to greater increases in SJ and CMJ heights in the morning than the evening (8.4±6.36% vs. 4.4±2.64%, p<0.05 for SJ and 10.61±5.49% vs. 6.03±3.14%, p<0.05 for CMJ. However, no significant effect of static stretching on the diurnal variations of SJ and CMJ heights was observed. CONCLUSION: Dynamic stretching affects the typical diurnal variations of SJ and CMJ and helps to counteract the lower morning values in vertical jump height.

  4. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  5. OSCILLATOR: A system for analysis of diurnal leaf growth using infrared photography combined with wavelet transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bours Ralph

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of leaf movement is an important tool for characterising the effects of environmental signals and the circadian clock on plant development. Analysis of leaf movement is currently restricted by the attachment of sensors to the plant or dependent upon visible light for time-lapse photography. The study of leaf growth movement rhythms in mature plants under biological relevant conditions, e.g. diurnal light and dark conditions, is therefore problematic. Results Here we present OSCILLATOR, an affordable system for the analysis of rhythmic leaf growth movement in mature plants. The system contains three modules: (1 Infrared time-lapse imaging of growing mature plants (2 measurement of projected distances between leaf tip and plant apex (leaf tip tracking growth-curves and (3 extraction of phase, period and amplitude of leaf growth oscillations using wavelet analysis. A proof-of-principle is provided by characterising parameters of rhythmic leaf growth movement of different Arabidopsis thaliana accessions as well as of Petunia hybrida and Solanum lycopersicum plants under diurnal conditions. The amplitude of leaf oscillations correlated to published data on leaf angles, while amplitude and leaf length did not correlate, suggesting a distinct leaf growth profile for each accession. Arabidopsis mutant accession Landsberg erecta displayed a late phase (timing of peak oscillation compared to other accessions and this trait appears unrelated to the ERECTA locus. Conclusions OSCILLATOR is a low cost and easy to implement system that can accurately and reproducibly quantify rhythmic growth of mature plants for different species under diurnal light/dark cycling.

  6. Panoramic projection avionics displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanash, Michael H.

    2003-09-01

    Avionics projection displays are entering production in advanced tactical aircraft. Early adopters of this technology in the avionics community used projection displays to replace or upgrade earlier units incorporating direct-view CRT or AMLCD devices. Typical motivation for these upgrades were the alleviation of performance, cost and display device availability concerns. In these systems, the upgraded (projection) displays were one-for-one form / fit replacements for the earlier units. As projection technology has matured, this situation has begun to evolve. The Lockheed-Martin F-35 is the first program in which the cockpit has been specifically designed to take advantage of one of the more unique capabilities of rear projection display technology, namely the ability to replace multiple small screens with a single large conformal viewing surface in the form of a panoramic display. Other programs are expected to follow, since the panoramic formats enable increased mission effectiveness, reduced cost and greater information transfer to the pilot. Some of the advantages and technical challenges associated with panoramic projection displays for avionics applications are described below.

  7. Annual Climatology of the Diurnal Cycle on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan K Betts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We show the annual climatology of the diurnal cycle, stratified by opaque cloud, using the full hourly resolution of the Canadian Prairie data. The opaque cloud field itself has distinct cold and warm season diurnal climatologies; with a near-sunrise peak of cloud in the cold season and an early afternoon peak in the warm season. There are two primary climate states on the Canadian Prairies, separated by the freezing point of water, because a reflective surface snow cover acts as a climate switch. Both cold and warm season climatologies can be seen in the transition months of November, March and April with a large difference in mean temperature. In the cold season with snow, the diurnal ranges of temperature and relative humidity increase quasi-linearly with decreasing cloud, and increase from December to March with increased solar forcing. The warm season months, April to September, show a homogeneous coupling to the cloud cover, and a diurnal cycle of temperature and humidity that depends only on net longwave. Our improved representation of the diurnal cycle shows that the warm season coupling between diurnal temperature range and net longwave is weakly quadratic through the origin, rather than the linear coupling shown in earlier papers. We calculate the conceptually important 24-h imbalances of temperature and relative humidity (and other thermodynamic variables as a function of opaque cloud cover. In the warm season under nearly clear skies, there is a warming of +2oC and a drying of -6% over the 24-h cycle, which is about 12% of their diurnal ranges. We summarize results on conserved variable diagrams and explore the impact of surface windspeed on the diurnal cycle in the cold and warm seasons. In all months, the fall in minimum temperature is reduced with increasing windspeed, which reduces the diurnal temperature range. In July and August, there is an increase of afternoon maximum temperature and humidity at low windspeeds, and a

  8. Specific Diurnal EMG Activity Pattern Observed in Occlusal Collapse Patients: Relationship between Diurnal Bruxism and Tooth Loss Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shigehisa; Kumazaki, Yohei; Manda, Yosuke; Oki, Kazuhiro; Minagi, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Aim The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. Materials and Methods Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group), six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group), and six young control subjects (YC group) were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG) of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. Results Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (p<0.01). ROC curve analysis suggested that the number of diurnal phasic episodes might be used to predict bite collapsing tooth loss. Conclusion Extensive bite loss might be related to diurnal masticatory muscle parafunction but not to parafunction during sleep. Clinical Relevance: Scientific rationale for study Although mandibular parafunction has been implicated in stomatognathic system breakdown, a causal relationship has not been established because scientific modalities to evaluate parafunctional activity have been lacking. Principal findings This study used a newly developed EMG recording system that evaluates masseter muscle activity throughout the day. Our results challenge the stereotypical idea of nocturnal bruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. Practical implications The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for the prognostic

  9. Specific diurnal EMG activity pattern observed in occlusal collapse patients: relationship between diurnal bruxism and tooth loss progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehisa Kawakami

    Full Text Available AIM: The role of parafunctional masticatory muscle activity in tooth loss has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to reveal the characteristic activity of masseter muscles in bite collapse patients while awake and asleep. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six progressive bite collapse patients (PBC group, six age- and gender-matched control subjects (MC group, and six young control subjects (YC group were enrolled. Electromyograms (EMG of the masseter muscles were continuously recorded with an ambulatory EMG recorder while patients were awake and asleep. Diurnal and nocturnal parafunctional EMG activity was classified as phasic, tonic, or mixed using an EMG threshold of 20% maximal voluntary clenching. RESULTS: Highly extended diurnal phasic activity was observed only in the PBC group. The three groups had significantly different mean diurnal phasic episodes per hour, with 13.29±7.18 per hour in the PBC group, 0.95±0.97 per hour in the MC group, and 0.87±0.98 per hour in the YC group (p<0.01. ROC curve analysis suggested that the number of diurnal phasic episodes might be used to predict bite collapsing tooth loss. CONCLUSION: Extensive bite loss might be related to diurnal masticatory muscle parafunction but not to parafunction during sleep. CLINICAL RELEVANCE SCIENTIFIC RATIONALE FOR STUDY: Although mandibular parafunction has been implicated in stomatognathic system breakdown, a causal relationship has not been established because scientific modalities to evaluate parafunctional activity have been lacking. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used a newly developed EMG recording system that evaluates masseter muscle activity throughout the day. Our results challenge the stereotypical idea of nocturnal bruxism as a strong destructive force. We found that diurnal phasic masticatory muscle activity was most characteristic in patients with progressive bite collapse. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The incidence of diurnal phasic contractions could be used for

  10. Trend, seasonal and diurnal variations of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The concentration of atmospheric CO2 in Beijing increased rapidly at a mean growth rate of 3.7%@a?1 from 1993 to 1995. After displaying a peak of (409.7±25.9) ?mol@mol?1 in 1995, it decreased slowly. Both the almost stable anthropogenic CO2 source and increasing biotic CO2 sink contribute to the drop of CO2 concentration from 1995 to 2000. The seasonal variation of CO2 concentration exhibits a clear cycle with a maximum in winter, averaging (426.8±20.6) ?mol@mol?1, and a minimum in summer, averaging (369.1±6.1) ?mol@mol?1. The seasonal variation of CO2 concentration is mainly controlled by phenology. The mean diurnal variation of atmospheric CO2 concentration for a year in Beijing is highly clear: daily maximum CO2 concentration usually occurs at night, but daily minimum CO2 concentration does in the daytime, with a mean diurnal difference more than 34.7 ?mol@mol?1. It has been revealed that the interannual variations of atmospheric CO2 concentration in winter and autumn regulated the interannual trend of atmospheric CO2, whereas the interannual variation of CO2 concentration in summer affected the general tendency of atmospheric CO2 in a less degree.

  11. Circadian rhythms in glucose and lipid metabolism in nocturnal and diurnal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Jha, Pawan; Challet, Etienne; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2015-12-15

    Most aspects of energy metabolism display clear variations during day and night. This daily rhythmicity of metabolic functions, including hormone release, is governed by a circadian system that consists of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN) and many secondary clocks in the brain and peripheral organs. The SCN control peripheral timing via the autonomic and neuroendocrine system, as well as via behavioral outputs. The sleep-wake cycle, the feeding/fasting rhythm and most hormonal rhythms, including that of leptin, ghrelin and glucocorticoids, usually show an opposite phase (relative to the light-dark cycle) in diurnal and nocturnal species. By contrast, the SCN clock is most active at the same astronomical times in these two categories of mammals. Moreover, in both species, pineal melatonin is secreted only at night. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by central and peripheral clock mechanisms. Most experimental knowledge comes from studies in nocturnal laboratory rodents. Nevertheless, we will also mention some relevant findings in diurnal mammals, including humans. It will become clear that as a consequence of the tight connections between the circadian clock system and energy metabolism, circadian clock impairments (e.g., mutations or knock-out of clock genes) and circadian clock misalignments (such as during shift work and chronic jet-lag) have an adverse effect on energy metabolism, that may trigger or enhancing obese and diabetic symptoms.

  12. Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuqi; Wang, Lixin; Loh, Dawn H; Colwell, Christopher S; Taché, Yvette; Reue, Karen; Arnold, Arthur P

    2015-09-01

    We measured diurnal rhythms of food intake, as well as body weight and composition, while varying three major classes of sex-biasing factors: activational and organizational effects of gonadal hormones, and sex chromosome complement (SCC). Four Core Genotypes (FCG) mice, comprising XX and XY gonadal males and XX and XY gonadal females, were either gonad-intact or gonadectomized (GDX) as adults (2.5months); food intake was measured second-by-second for 7days starting 5weeks later, and body weight and composition were measured for 22weeks thereafter. Gonadal males weighed more than females. GDX increased body weight/fat of gonadal females, but increased body fat and reduced body weight of males. After GDX, XX mice had greater body weight and more fat than XY mice. In gonad-intact mice, males had greater total food intake and more meals than females during the dark phase, but females had more food intake and meals and larger meals than males during the light phase. GDX reduced overall food intake irrespective of gonad type or SCC, and eliminated differences in feeding between groups with different gonads. Diurnal phase of feeding was influenced by all three sex-biasing variables. Gonad-intact females had earlier onset and acrophase (peak) of feeding relative to males. GDX caused a phase-advance of feeding, especially in XX mice, leading to an earlier onset of feeding in GDX XX vs. XY mice, but earlier acrophase in GDX males relative to females. Gonadal hormones and SCC interact in the control of diurnal rhythms of food intake.

  13. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... with the rapidly evolving positioning techniques, a new category of position-dependent, map-based services to be introduced. The report consists of the following parts: Part I: Categorization of handheld devices, Part II: Cartographic design for small-display devices, Part III: Study on the GiMoDig Client ? Portal...... Appendix E consisting of confidential material and Appendix F with examples.   The work has resulted in a small device categorisation, a cartographic design specification for a small-display device for a specified navigation task as well as a comparison between OpenLS and an in house developed protocol...

  14. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  15. Impact of resolving the diurnal cycle in an ocean-atmosphere GCM. Pt. 2. A diurnally coupled CGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernie, D.J. [Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter (United Kingdom); University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Numeriques, IPSL, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches, Paris (France); Guilyardi, E. [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom); Numeriques, IPSL, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches, Paris (France); Madec, G. [Numeriques, IPSL, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat, Experimentation et Approches, Paris (France); Slingo, J.M.; Woolnough, S.J.; Cole, J. [University of Reading, National Centre for Atmospheric Science-Climate, Department of Meteorology, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Coupled ocean atmosphere general circulation models (GCM) are typically coupled once every 24 h, excluding the diurnal cycle from the upper ocean. Previous studies attempting to examine the role of the diurnal cycle of the upper ocean and particularly of diurnal SST variability have used models unable to resolve the processes of interest. In part 1 of this study a high vertical resolution ocean GCM configuration with modified physics was developed that could resolve the diurnal cycle in the upper ocean. In this study it is coupled every 3 h to atmospheric GCM to examine the sensitivity of the mean climate simulation and aspects of its variability to the inclusion of diurnal ocean-atmosphere coupling. The inclusion of the diurnal cycle leads to a tropics wide increase in mean sea surface temperature (SST), with the strongest signal being across the equatorial Pacific where the warming increases from 0.2 C in the central and western Pacific to over 0.3 C in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Much of this warming is shown to be a direct consequence of the rectification of daily mean SST by the diurnal variability of SST. The warming of the equatorial Pacific leads to a redistribution of precipitation from the Inter tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) toward the equator. In the western Pacific there is an increase in precipitation between Papa new guinea and 170 E of up to 1.2 mm/day, improving the simulation compared to climatology. Pacific sub tropical cells are increased in strength by about 10%, in line with results of part 1 of this study, due to the modification of the exchange of momentum between the equatorially divergent Ekman currents and the geostropic convergence at depth, effectively increasing the dynamical response of the tropical Pacific to zonal wind stresses. During the spring relaxation of the Pacific trade winds, a large diurnal cycle of SST increases the seasonal warming of the equatorial Pacific. When the trade winds then re-intensify, the increase in

  16. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  17. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    81/2X 11- 10 -9 .8 display using a large advertising alphanimeric ( TCI ) has been added to the front of the optical box used in the F-4 aircraft for HUD...properties over a wide range of tempera - tures, including normal room temperature. What are Liquid Crystals? Liquid crystals have been classified in three...natic fanctions and to present data needed for the semi- automatic and manual control of system functions. Existing aircraft using CRT display

  18. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  19. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  20. Diurnal variations in water vapor over Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, Amalia; Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal variations in atmospheric integrated water vapor (IWV) are studied employing IWV estimates, with a 30 minutes sampling rate, derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) observations during the period 2007-2013. The analysis was performed in 73 GNSS tracking sites (GPS + GLONASS) which have more than 5 years of data. The selected area involves different climate types, from polar to tropical, with different diurnal variations of the integrated total humidity content. There are many processes that could induce diurnal variations in atmospheric water vapor (Dai et al, 1999 a,b), the most relevant causes are: surface evapotranspiration, atmospheric large-scale vertical motion, atmospheric low-level moisture convergence and precipitation and vertical mixing (which affects the vertical distribution of water vapor but does not affect the IWV). The numerical tools, Singular Value Decomposition and classical Multidimensional Scaling methods, are used to study these variations, considering the measurements made at each stations, as sample in the analysis. The aim of this investigation is to identify the IWV variability with respect to the local time associated to the different climate regions. In order to improve our analysis, all available weather information, such as radiosondes measurements (which are few), measurements of pressure and temperature and Numerical Weather Models reanalysis data, are used. Reference: Dai, A., K. E. Trenberth, and T. R. Karl, 1999 a: Effects of clouds, soil moisture, precipitation and water vapor on diurnal temperature range. J. Climate, 12, 2451-2473. Dai, A., F. Giorgi, and K. E. Trenberth, 1999 b: Observed and model simulated precipitation diurnal cycle over the contiguous United States.J. Geophys. Res., 104, 6377-6402. KEYWORDS: water vapor, diurnal cycle, GNSS

  1. Assessing the diurnal variability of pharmaceutical and personal care products in a full-scale activated sludge plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado, R. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); ESTS-IPS, Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal do Instituto Politecnico de Setubal, Rua Vale de Chaves, Campus do IPS, Estefanilha, 2910-761 Setubal (Portugal); Marques, R. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. da Republica (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Noronha, J.P. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Mexia, J.T. [Center of Mathematic Applications, Mathematics Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Carvalho, G. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. da Republica (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Oehmen, A., E-mail: adriano@dq.fct.unl.pt [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Reis, M.A.M. [REQUIMTE/CQFB, Chemistry Department, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2011-10-15

    An intensive sampling campaign has been carried out in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to assess the dynamics of the influent pharmaceutical active compounds (PhAC) and musks. The mass loadings of these compounds in wastewater influents displayed contrasting diurnal variations depending on the compound. The musks and some groups of PhACs tended to follow a similar diurnal trend as compared to macropollutants, while the majority of PhACs followed either the opposite trend or no repeatable trend. The total musk loading to the WWTP was 0.74 {+-} 0.25 g d{sup -1}, whereas the total PhAC mass loading was 84.7 {+-} 63.8 g d{sup -1}. Unlike the PhACs, the musks displayed a high repeatability from one sampling day to the next. The range of PhAC loadings in the influent to WWTPs can vary several orders of magnitude from one day or week to the next, representing a challenge in obtaining data for steady-state modelling purposes. - Highlights: > Investigated the variations in influent wastewater pharmaceutical and musk loadings. > A high number of different pharmaceutical and musk compounds was analysed. > Many pharmaceutical groups displayed different characteristic patterns. > A representative steady-state pattern was observable for musks, not pharmaceuticals. > The results are relevant to the design of sampling campaigns for modelling purposes. - The diurnal variations of pharmaceuticals and musks were studied in an activated sludge plant, where the loadings of the musks were more repeatable than the pharmaceuticals.

  2. Trial of Oral Metoclopramide on Diurnal Bruxism of Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Ho Sung; Seo, Mi Ri

    2013-01-01

    Bruxism is a diurnal or nocturnal parafunctional activity that includes tooth clenching, bracing, gnashing, and grinding. The dopaminergic system seems to be the key pathophysiology of bruxism and diminution of dopaminergic transmission at the prefrontal cortex seems to induce it. We report two patients with diurnal bruxism in whom a bilateral frontal lobe injury resulted from hemorrhagic stroke or traumatic brain injury. These patients' bruxism was refractory to bromocriptine but responded to low-dose metoclopramide therapy. We propose that administering low doses of metoclopramide is possibly a sound method for treating bruxism in a brain injury patient with frontal lobe hypoperfusion on positron emission tomography imaging. PMID:24466522

  3. SST Diurnal Variability: Regional Extent & Implications in Atmospheric Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    and quantify regional diurnal warming from the experimental MSG/SEVIRI hourly SST fields, for the period 2006-2012. ii) To investigate the impact of the increased SST temporal resolution in the atmospheric model WRF, in terms of modeled 10-m winds and surface heat fluxes. Withing this context, 3 main tasks...... regional diurnal warming over the SEVIRI disk, a SEVIRI derived reference field representative of the well mixed night-time conditions is required. Different methodologies are tested and the results are validated against SEVIRI pre-dawn SSTs and in situ data from moored and drifting buoys....

  4. Diurnality, nocturnality, and the evolution of primate visual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankel-Simons, F; Rasmussen, D T

    2008-01-01

    Much of the recent research on the evolution of primate visual systems has assumed that a minimum number of shifts have occurred in circadian activity patterns over the course of primate evolution. The evolutionary origins of key higher taxonomic groups have been interpreted by some researchers as a consequence of a rare shift from nocturnality to diurnality (e.g., Anthropoidea) or from diurnality to nocturnality (e.g., Tarsiidae). Interpreting the evolution of primate visual systems with an ecological approach without parsimony constraints suggests that the evolutionary transitions in activity pattern are more common than what would be allowed by parsimony models, and that such transitions are probably less important in the origin of higher level taxa. The analysis of 17 communities of primates distributed widely around the world and through geological time shows that primate communities consistently contain both nocturnal and diurnal forms, regardless of the taxonomic sources of the communities. This suggests that primates in a community will adapt their circadian pattern to fill empty diurnal or nocturnal niches. Several evolutionary transitions from one pattern to the other within narrow taxonomic groups are solidly documented, and these cases probably represent a small fraction of such transitions throughout the Cenozoic. One or more switches have been documented among platyrrhine monkeys, Malagasy prosimians, Eocene omomyids, Eocene adapoids, and early African anthropoids, with inconclusive but suggestive data within tarsiids. The interpretation of living and extinct primates as fitting into one of two diarhythmic categories is itself problematic, because many extant primates show significant behavioral activity both nocturnally and diurnally. Parsimony models routinely interpret ancestral primates to have been nocturnal, but analyses of morphological and genetic data indicate that they may have been diurnal, or that early primate radiations were likely to

  5. Diurnal Variations in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Horizontal and Vertical Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Hu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In general, measurements of solar ultraviolet (UV radiation are related to horizontal surfaces. While the hu­mans walking and standing outdoors expose to the natural solar UV radiation, their eyes, cheeks, extremities, trunks, or many other anatomical sites are close to vertical plane and random orient to different directions. In this study, we character­ized the diurnal variations in solar UV on horizontal and vertical plane which may be helpful to obtain more relevant informa­tion on UV exposure of humans."nMethods: The were measured using Solar-UV Sensors in Shenyang (41°51′N, 123°27′E and Sanya (18°19'N, 109°42'E, PR China."nResults As the well known, the diurnal variations in solar UV on horizontal plane in a sunny day exhibited unimodal distribu­tions, reached a single UV peak exposure at around solar noon. However, the diurnal variations on vertical plane presented bimodal distributions, with two peaks in summer in Shenyang and Sanya, and a unimodal distribution in winter in Shenyang. In spring and autumn in Shenyang, the UV exposure around noon were slightly flat with no significant peaks but relative high. When the Solar Elevation Angle (SEA is about 40°, the vertical plane may potentially receiving maximal unweighted total solar UV radiation exposures."nConclusion: The results potentially showed that the protection of some vertical and near-vertical anatomical sites of human body from high UV exposure should not only focused on the periods of before and after noon especially in high SEA places.  

  6. Regulation of diurnal variation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovár, J; Lenícek, M; Zimolová, M; Vítek, L; Jirsa, M; Pitha, J

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key regulatory enzyme of bile acid synthesis, displays a pronounced diurnal variation. To better understand the regulation of CYP7A1 activity, three day-long examinations were carried out in 12 healthy men. The concentrations of 7alpha-hydroxycholest-4-en-3-one (C4), a surrogate marker of CYP7A1 activity, bile acids (BA), insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, triglycerides, and cholesterol were measured in serum in 90-min intervals from 7 AM till 10 PM. To lower and to increase BA concentration during the study, the subjects received cholestyramine and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), respectively, in two examinations. No drug was used in the control examination. There was a pronounced diurnal variation of C4 concentration with a peak around 1 PM in most of the subjects. The area under the curve (AUC) of C4 concentration was five times higher and three times lower when subjects were treated with cholestyramine and CDCA, respectively. No relationship was found between AUC of C4 and AUC of BA concentration, but AUC of C4 correlated positively with that of insulin. Moreover, short-term treatment with cholestyramine resulted in about 10 % suppression of glycemia throughout the day. Our results suggest that insulin is involved in the regulation of diurnal variation of CYP7A1 activity in humans.

  7. Solar diurnal anisotropy measured using muons in GRAPES-3 experiment in 2006

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Mohanty; D Atri; S R Dugad; S K Gupta; B Hariharan; Y Hayashi; A Jain; S Kawakami; S D Morris; P K Nayak; A Oshima; B S Rao

    2013-08-01

    The GRAPES-3 experiment at Ooty contains a large-area (560 m2) tracking muon detector. This detector consists of 16 modules, each 35 m2 in area, that are grouped into four supermodules of 140 m2 each. The threshold energy of muons is $\\sec()$ GeV along a direction with zenith angle and the angular resolution of the muon detector is 6°. Typically, it records ∼ 4 × 109 muons every day. The muon detector has been operating uninterruptedly since 2001, thus providing a high statistics record of the cosmic ray flux as a function of time over one decade. However, prior to using these data, the muon rate has to be corrected for two important atmospheric effects, namely, variations in atmospheric pressure and temperature. Because of the near equatorial location of Ooty (11.4°N), the seasonal variations in the atmospheric temperature are relatively small and shall be ignored here. Due to proximity to the equator, the pressure changes at Ooty display a dominant 12 h periodic behaviour in addition to other seasonal changes. Here, we discuss various aspects of a novel method for accurate pressure measurement and subsequent corrections applied to the GRAPES-3 muon data to correct these pressure-induced variations. The pressure-corrected muon data are used to measure the profile of the solar diurnal anisotropy during 2006. The data, when divided into four segments, display significant variation both in the amplitude (∼ 45%) and phase (∼42 m) of the solar diurnal anisotropy during 2006, which was a period of relatively low solar activity.

  8. Presenting directions with a vibrotactile torso display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2005-01-01

    Vibrotactile displays covering the torso present spatial information in an intuitive way since the stimuli are directly mapped to the body coordinates; left is left, front is front, etc. The present study investigated the direction in the horizontal plane to which a specific torso location is mapped

  9. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  10. Successful Use of the Nocturnal Urine Alarm for Diurnal Enuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friman, Patrick C.; Vollmer, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    A urine alarm, typically used to treat nocturnal enuresis, was effectively used to treat diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder. The study indicated that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at three-month and…

  11. Ecological consequences of diurnal flooding in tidal freshwater wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, A.; Wassen, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Diurnal flooding can be observed in the upper end of tidal estuaries, where flooding water originating from the river is constantly fresh. Here, the input from the river is confronted with a tidal wave, so that the sand banks, mud flats, low and high marshes and tidal forests are flooded mostly twic

  12. Diurnal Changes in Angular Sensitivity of Crab Photoreceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leggett, L.M.W.; Stavenga, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The electrophysiological and anatomical consequences of diurnal changes in screening pigment position were investigated in the apposition eye of the portunid crab Scylla serrata. Intracellular recordings revealed that the acceptance angles of dark-adapted photoreceptors enlarged up to four-fold at n

  13. Diurnal variation of von Willebrand factor in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timm, Annette; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Jørgensen, Henrik L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) in plasma is a central element in assessing von Willebrand disease (VWD). VWF activity is known to vary, which has partly been ascribed to biological and preanalytical variation. However, a possible diurnal expression of VWF has not been tho...

  14. Sleep EEG spectral analysis in a diurnal rodent : Eutamias sibiricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIJK, DJ; DAAN, S

    1989-01-01

    1. Sleep was studied in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus, chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes. Analysis of the distribution of wakefulness, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep over the 24 h period (LD 12:12) showed that total sleep time was 27.5%

  15. On the diurnal ranges of sea surface temperature (SST) in the north Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Nasnodkar, N.; Rajesh, G.; Joseph, K.J.; Suresh, I.; Almeida, A.M.

    This paper describes the variability in the diurnal range of SST in the north Indian Ocean using in situ measurements and tests the suitability of simple regression models in estimating the diurnal range. SST measurements obtained from 1556 drifting...

  16. Diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Isaac; Arkin, Philip; Ferraro, Ralph; Eriksson, Patrick; Fetzer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Despite the importance of water vapor especially in the tropical region, the diurnal variations of water vapor have not been completely investigated in the past due to the lack of adequate observations. Measurements from Sondeur Atmosphérique du Profil d'Humidité Intertropicale par Radiométrie (SAPHIR) onboard the low inclination Megha-Tropiques satellite with frequent daily revisits provide a valuable dataset for investigating the diurnal and spatial variation of tropospheric relative humidity in the tropical region. In this study, we first transformed SAPHIR observations into layer-averaged relative humidity, then partitioned the data based on local observation time into 24 bins with a grid resolution of one degree. Afterwards, we fitted Fourier series to the binned data. Finally, the mean, amplitude, and diurnal peak time of relative humidity in tropical regions were calculated for each grid point using either the measurements or Fourier series. The results were separately investigated for different SAPHIR channels as well as for relative humidity with respect to both liquid and ice phases. The results showed that the wet and dry regions are, respectively, associated with convective and subsidence regions which is consistent with the previous studies. The mean tropospheric humidity values reported in this study are generally 10 to 15 % higher than those reported using infrared observations which is because of strict cloud screening for infrared measurements. The results showed a large inhomogeneity in diurnal variation of tropospheric relative humidity in tropical region. The diurnal amplitude was larger over land than over ocean and the oceanic amplitude was larger over convective regions than over subsidence regions. The results showed that the diurnal amplitude is less than 10 % in middle and upper troposphere, but it is up to 30 % in lower troposphere over land. Although the peak of RH generally occurs over night or in early morning, there are several

  17. Work stress models and diurnal cortisol variations: The SALVEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Alain; Juster, Robert-Paul; Durand, Pierre; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess components, subscales, and interactions proposed by the popular Job Demand-Control (JDC), Job Demand-Control-Support (JDCS), and Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) work stress models in relation to diurnal variation of the stress hormone cortisol. Participants included 401 day-shift workers employed from a random sampling of 34 Canadian workplaces. Questionnaires included the Job Content Questionnaire to measure psychological demands, decision latitude, and social support as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire to measure effort, reward, and overcommitment. Salivary cortisol was collected on 2 working days at awaking, +30 min after awaking, 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Multilevel regressions with 3 levels (time of day, workers, workplaces) were performed. Results revealed that JDC, JDCS and ERI interactions were not statistically associated with variations in diurnal cortisol concentrations. By contrast when assessing specific work stress subscales, increased psychological demands were linked to decreased bedtime cortisol, increased job recognition was linked to increased cortisol +30 min after waking and at bedtime, and finally increased overcommitment was linked to increased awakening cortisol and decreased cortisol at 1400h, 1600h, and bedtime. Sex moderation effects principally among men were additionally detected for psychological demands, total social support, and supervisor support. Our findings suggest that components and subsubscales of these popular work stress models rather than theorized interactions are more meaningful in explaining diurnal cortisol variations. In particular, psychological demands, job recognition, overcommitment, and to a lesser extent social support at work are the most significant predictors of diurnal cortisol variation in this large sample of Canadian workers. Importantly, the overall effect sizes of these subscales that explained diurnal cortisol concentrations were weak.

  18. Diurnal cycle of convection during the CAIPEEX 2011 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resmi, EA; Malap, Neelam; Kulkarni, Gayatri; Murugavel, P.; Nair, Sathy; Burger, Roelof; Prabha, Thara V.

    2016-10-01

    The diurnal cycle of convective storm events is investigated in the study with the help of C-band radar reflectivity data during the Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement Experiment (CAIPEEX 2011) in combination with other ground-based observations. A threshold reflectivity of 25 dBZ is used to identify the initiation of storms. Observations from collocated sensors such as a microwave radiometer profiler, water vapor measurement from eddy covariance system, and wind lidar measurements are used to investigate the characteristic features and diurnal cycle of convectively initiated storms from 21st September to 5th November 2011. The maximum reflectivity follows a normal distribution with a mean value of 40 dBZ. The cloud depth over the domain varied between 5 and 15 km corresponding to a range of reflectivity of 30-50 dBZ values. In the diurnal cycle, double maximum in the precipitation flux is noted—one during the afternoon hours associated with the diurnal heating and the other in the nocturnal periods. The nocturnal precipitation maximum is attributed to initiation of several single-cell storms (of congestus type) with a duration that is larger than the storms initiated during the daytime. The convective available potential energy (CAPE) showed a diurnal variation and was directly linked with the surface level water vapor content. The high CAPE favored single storms with a reflectivity >40 dBZ and higher echo top heights. In the evening or late night hours, a nocturnal low-level jet present over the location together with the reduced stability above the cloud base favored enhancement of low-level moisture, CAPE, and further initiation of new convection. The study illustrated how collocated observations could be used to study storm initiation and associated thermodynamic features.

  19. Virtual Auditory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    timbre , intensity, distance, room modeling, radio communication Virtual Environments Handbook Chapter 4 Virtual Auditory Displays Russell D... musical note “A” as a pure sinusoid, there will be 440 condensations and rarefactions per second. The distance between two adjacent condensations or...and complexity are pitch, loudness, and timbre respectively. This distinction between physical and perceptual measures of sound properties is an

  20. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  1. Virtual acoustic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Elizabeth M.

    1991-01-01

    A 3D auditory display can potentially enhance information transfer by combining directional and iconic information in a quite naturalistic representation of dynamic objects in the interface. Another aspect of auditory spatial clues is that, in conjunction with other modalities, it can act as a potentiator of information in the display. For example, visual and auditory cues together can reinforce the information content of the display and provide a greater sense of presence or realism in a manner not readily achievable by either modality alone. This phenomenon will be particularly useful in telepresence applications, such as advanced teleconferencing environments, shared electronic workspaces, and monitoring telerobotic activities in remote or hazardous situations. Thus, the combination of direct spatial cues with good principles of iconic design could provide an extremely powerful and information-rich display which is also quite easy to use. An alternative approach, recently developed at ARC, generates externalized, 3D sound cues over headphones in realtime using digital signal processing. Here, the synthesis technique involves the digital generation of stimuli using Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTF's) measured in the two ear-canals of individual subjects. Other similar approaches include an analog system developed by Loomis, et. al., (1990) and digital systems which make use of transforms derived from normative mannikins and simulations of room acoustics. Such an interface also requires the careful psychophysical evaluation of listener's ability to accurately localize the virtual or synthetic sound sources. From an applied standpoint, measurement of each potential listener's HRTF's may not be possible in practice. For experienced listeners, localization performance was only slightly degraded compared to a subject's inherent ability. Alternatively, even inexperienced listeners may be able to adapt to a particular set of HRTF's as long as they provide adequate

  2. A LONGITUDINAL-STUDY OF DIURNAL MOOD VARIATION IN DEPRESSION - CHARACTERISTICS AND SIGNIFICANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GORDIJN, MCM; BEERSMA, DGM; BOUHUYS, AL; REININK, E; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1994-01-01

    The course of 39 depressed in-patients' daily mood was recorded by means of frequent self-ratings during their entire stay (in total 3718 days). The frequency of diurnal variations largely varies between subjects without clear dichotomy in 'diurnal' and 'non-diurnal' subjects and the occurrence of d

  3. Seasonal, Diurnal, and Solar-Cycle Variations of Electron Density at Two West Africa Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ouattara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the variability of foF2 at two West Africa equatorial ionization anomaly stations (Ouagadougou and Dakar during three solar cycles (from cycle 20 to cycle 22, that is, from 1966 to 1998 for Ouagadougou and from 1971 to 1997 for Dakar. We examine the effect of the changing levels of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation with sunspot number. The study shows high correlation between foF2 and sunspot number (Rz. The correlation coefficient decreases from cycle 20 to cycle 21 at both stations. From cycle 21 to cycle 22 it decreases at Ouagadougou station and increases at Dakar station. The best correlation coefficient, 0.990, is obtained for Dakar station during solar cycle 22. The seasonal variation displays equinoctial peaks that are asymmetric between March and September. The percentage deviations of monthly average data from one solar cycle to another display variability with respect to solar cycle phase and show solar ultraviolet radiation variability with solar cycle phase. The diurnal variation shows a noon bite out with a predominant late-afternoon peak except during the maximum phase of the solar cycle. The diurnal Ouagadougou station foF2 data do not show a significant difference between the increasing and decreasing cycle phases, while Dakar station data do show it, particularly for cycle 21. The percentage deviations of diurnal variations from solar-minimum conditions show more ionosphere during solar cycle 21 at both stations for all three of the other phases of the solar cycle. There is no significant variability of ionosphere during increasing and decreasing solar cycle phases at Ouagadougou station, but at Dakar station there is a significant variability of ionosphere during these two solar-cycle phases.

  4. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  5. Diurnal variation of the serum leptin concentration in patients with anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Vinten, J; Handberg, A

    1998-01-01

    , however, this has been reported to be absent in normal weighted amenorrheic athletes. Anorexia nervosa is associated with multiple endocrine abnormalities. Hypothalamic amenorrhoea often precedes the weight loss and may persist after weight recovery. We hypothesized that leptin could be involved...... in the regulation of eating behaviour and gonadal function in anorexia nervosa. DESIGN: We measured the concentration of leptin in serum samples taken after an overnight fast in 18 female anorexia nervosa patients and 11 controls. To study diurnal variation, eight patients and 11 controls were hospitalized for 24 h...... and had a standardized diet at regular times. Seven blood samples were obtained at 4 h intervals from each subject. PATIENTS: The patients fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for anorexia nervosa. The mean body mass index for the patients was 14.2 +/- 2.3 kg/m2 and for controls 20.3 +/- 1.7 kg/m2. RESULTS...

  6. Model independent result on possible diurnal effect in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2014-03-15

    The results obtained in the search for possible diurnal effect in the single-hit low energy data collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 (total exposure 1.04 ton x year) deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN are presented. At the present level of sensitivity the presence of any significant diurnal variation and of diurnal time structures in the data can be excluded for both the cases of solar and sidereal time. In particular, the diurnal modulation amplitude expected, because of the Earth diurnal motion, on the basis of the DAMA dark matter annual modulation results is below the present sensitivity. (orig.)

  7. Thermal aspect of the diurnal variation of tropical convective and stratiform rainfall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Xiao-Peng; Li Xiao-Fan

    2011-01-01

    The diurnal variation of radiation plays a key role in determining the diurnal variations of tropical oceanic convective and stratiform rainfall,and the examination of such a relationship requires a direct link between the radiation term in a heat budget and the surface rain rate in a cloud budget.Thus,the thermally related surface rainfall budgets derived from the combination of cloud and heat budgets are analysed with two-dimensional equilibrium cloud-resolving model simulation data to study the effects of sea surface temperature (SST) and cloud radiative,and microphysical processes on the diurnal variations of convective and stratiform rainfall.The results show that the increase in SST,the inclusion of diurnal variation of SST and the exclusion of cloud radiative processes increase negative diurnal anomalies of heat divergence over rainfall-free regions during the nighttime through changing the vertical structures of diurnal anomaly of radiation in the troposphere.The strengthened negative diurnal anomalies of heat divergence over rainfallfree regions enhance positive diurnal anomalies of heat divergence over convective regions,which intensifies the positive diurnal anomaly of convective rainfall.The exclusion of microphysical effects of ice clouds increases the negative diurnal anomaly of heat divergence over rainfall-free regions during the nighttime through reducing latent heat; this appears to enhance the positive diurnal anomaly of heat divergence over raining stratiform regions,and thus stratiform rainfall.

  8. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  9. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  10. Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

    2013-06-17

    Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.

  11. De-noising Diurnal Variation Data in Geomagnetic Field Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onovughe, E.

    2017-01-01

    Ground based geomagnetic observatory series have been used to investigate and describe the residuals between a continuous geomagnetic field model and observed diurnal variation for noise-removal of signal due to external field of magnetospheric ring current sources. In all the observatories studied, the residuals in the X-direction consistently show the noisiest signal. Results show that the residuals in the X-direction correlates closely with the RC-index, suggesting an origin from unmodelled external field variation. Notable cross-correlation is also seen between the residuals and the RC-index at zero-lag. Removal/reduction of this unmodelled signal enhances resolution of fine-scale detail in diurnal variation studies.

  12. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Lou Langel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP as neurotransmitters. PACAP is useful for the study of central ipRGC projections because, in the retina, it is found exclusively within melanopsin cells. Little is known about the central projections of ipRGCs in diurnal species. Here, we first characterized these cells in the retina of the diurnal Nile grass rat using immunohistochemistry (IHC. The same basic subtypes of melanopsin cells that have been described in other mammals were present, but nearly 25% of them were displaced, primarily in its superior region. PACAP was present in 87.7% of all melanopsin cells, while 97.4% of PACAP cells contained melanopsin. We then investigated central projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, pretectum and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed with injections of cholera toxin subunit β coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 in one eye and Alexa Flour 594 in the other, combined with IHC staining of PACAP. These studies also revealed that the ventral and dorsal LGN and the caudal olivary pretectal nucleus receive less innervation from ipRGCs than that reported in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical.

  13. Central melanopsin projections in the diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, Jennifer L; Smale, Laura; Esquiva, Gema; Hannibal, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) as neurotransmitters. PACAP is useful for the study of central ipRGC projections because, in the retina, it is found exclusively within melanopsin cells. Little is known about the central projections of ipRGCs in diurnal species. Here, we first characterized these cells in the retina of the diurnal Nile grass rat using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The same basic subtypes of melanopsin cells that have been described in other mammals were present, but nearly 25% of them were displaced, primarily in its superior region. PACAP was present in 87.7% of all melanopsin cells, while 97.4% of PACAP cells contained melanopsin. We then investigated central projections of ipRGCs by examining the distribution of immunoreactive PACAP fibers in intact and enucleated animals. This revealed evidence that these cells project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), pretectum, and superior colliculus. This distribution was confirmed with injections of cholera toxin subunit β coupled with Alexa Fluor 488 in one eye and Alexa Fluor 594 in the other, combined with IHC staining of PACAP. These studies also revealed that the ventral and dorsal LGN and the caudal olivary pretectal nucleus receive less innervation from ipRGCs than that reported in nocturnal rodents. Overall, these data suggest that although ipRGCs and their projections are very similar in diurnal and nocturnal rodents, they may not be identical.

  14. Polarity effect in electrovibration for tactile display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A; Nammi, Krishnakant; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Tyler, Mitchell E; Haase, Steven J; Beebe, David J

    2006-10-01

    Electrovibration is the tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons who are blind. Previous models for the electrovibration transduction mechanism are based on a parallel-plate capacitor in which the electrostatic force is insensitive to polarity. We present experimental data showing that electrovibratory perceptual sensitivity to positive pulses is less than that for negative or biphasic pulses and propose that this disparity may be due to the asymmetric electrical properties of human skin. We furthermore propose using negative pulses for insulated tactile displays based on electrovibration because their sensory thresholds were found to be more stable than for waveforms incorporating positive pulses.

  15. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  16. Tropical Cyclone Diurnal Cycle as Observed by TRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, Kenneth D., II; Cecil, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    Using infrared satellite data, previous work has shown a consistent diurnal cycle in the pattern of cold cloud tops around mature tropical cyclones. In particular, an increase in the coverage by cold cloud tops often occurs in the inner core of the storm around the time of sunset and subsequently propagates outward to several hundred kilometers over the course of the following day. This consistent cycle may have important implications for structure and intensity changes of tropical cyclones and the forecasting of such changes. Because infrared satellite measurements are primarily sensitive to cloud top, the goal of this study is to use passive and active microwave measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR), respectively, to examine and better understand the tropical cyclone diurnal cycle throughout a larger depth of the storm's clouds. The National Hurricane Center's best track dataset was used to extract all PR and TMI pixels within 1000 km of each tropical cyclone that occurred in the Atlantic basin between 1998-2011. Then the data was composited according to radius (100-km bins from 0-1000 km) and local standard time (LST; 3-hr bins). Specifically, PR composites involved finding the percentage of pixels with reflectivity greater than or equal to 20 dBZ at various heights (i.e., 2-14 km in increments of 2 km) as a function of radius and time. The 37- and 85- GHz TMI channels are especially sensitive to scattering by precipitation-sized ice in the mid to upper portions of clouds. Hence, the percentage of 37- and 85-GHz polarization corrected temperatures less than various thresholds were calculated using data from all storms as a function of radius and time. For 37 GHz, thresholds of 260 K, 265 K, 270 K, and 275 K were used, and for 85 GHz, thresholds of 200-270 K in increments of 10 K were utilized. Note that convection forced by the interactions of a tropical cyclone with land (e.g., due

  17. Diurnal profiles of hypothalamic energy balance gene expression with photoperiod manipulation in the Siberian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Claire; Moar, Kim M; Logie, Tracy J; Ross, Alexander W; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G

    2008-04-01

    Hypothalamic energy balance genes have been examined in the context of seasonal body weight regulation in the Siberian hamster. Most of these long photoperiod (LD)/short photoperiod (SD) comparisons have been of tissues collected at a single point in the light-dark cycle. We examined the diurnal expression profile of hypothalamic genes in hamsters killed at 3-h intervals throughout the light-dark cycle after housing in LD or SD for 12 wk. Gene expression of neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, proopiomelanocortin, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, long-form leptin receptor, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3, melanocortin-3 receptor, melanocortin-4 receptor, and the clock gene Per1 as control were measured by in situ hybridization in hypothalamic nuclei. Effects of photoperiod on gene expression and leptin levels were generally consistent with previous reports. A clear diurnal variation was observed for Per1 in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in both photoperiods. Temporal effects on expression of energy balance genes were restricted to long-form leptin receptor in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus, where similar diurnal expression profiles were observed, and melanocortin-4 receptor in the paraventricular nucleus; these effects were only observed in LD hamsters. There was no variation in serum leptin concentration. The 24-h profiles of hypothalamic energy balance gene expression broadly confirm photoperiodic differences that were observed previously, based on single time point comparisons, support the growing consensus that these genes have a limited role in seasonal body weight regulation, and further suggest limited involvement in daily rhythms of food intake.

  18. Seasonal Cycle of the Near-Surface Diurnal Wind Field Over the Bay of La Paz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrent, Cuauhtémoc; Zaitsev, Oleg

    2014-05-01

    The results of numerical simulations of the troposphere over the Bay of La Paz, calculated for the months of January, April, July and October during the period 2006-2010 with the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF v3.5) regional model, are used to describe the seasonal features of the diurnal cycle of planetary boundary-layer winds. Two distinct near-surface diurnal flows with strong seasonal variability were identified: (1) a nocturnal and matutinal breeze directed from the subtropical Pacific Ocean, over the Baja California peninsula and the Bay of La Paz, into the Gulf of California that is associated with the regional sea-surface temperature difference between those two major water bodies; and (2) a mid to late afternoon onshore sea-breeze related to the peninsula's daily cycle of insolation heating that evolves with counter-clockwise rotation over the Bay of La Paz. The model results reveal the interaction over Baja California of opposing afternoon sea-breeze fronts that originate from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California, with a convergence line forming over the peaks of the peninsula's topography and the associated presence of a closed vertical circulation cell over the Bay of La Paz and the adjacent Gulf. The collision of the opposing sea-breeze fronts over the narrow peninsula drives convection that is relatively weak due to the reduced heat source and only appears to produce precipitation sporadically. The spatial structure of the sea-breeze fronts over the Bay of La Paz region is complex due to shoreline curvature and nearby topographic features. A comparison of the numerical results with available meteorological near-surface observations indicates that the modelling methodology adequately reproduced the observed features of the seasonal variability of the local planetary boundary-layer diurnal wind cycle and confirms that the low-level atmospheric circulation over the Bay of La Paz is dominated by kinetic energy in the diurnal band

  19. Diurnal cycles in water quality across the periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, James

    2014-05-01

    Diurnal cycles in water quality can provide important clues to the processes that regulate aquatic chemistry, but they often are masked by longer-term, larger-amplitude variability, making their detection and quantification difficult. Here I outline methods that can detect diurnal cycles even when they are massively obscured by statistically ill-behaved noise. I demonstrate these methods using high-frequency water quality data from the Plylimon catchment in mid-Wales (Neal et al., 2013; Kirchner and Neal, 2013). Several aspects combine to make the Plynlimon data set unique worldwide. Collected at 7-hour intervals, the Plynlimon data set is much more densely sampled than typical long-term weekly or monthly water quality data. This 7-hour sampling was also continued for two years, much longer than typical intensive sampling campaigns, and the resulting time series encompass a wide range of climatic and hydrological conditions. Furthermore, each sample was analyzed for a wide range of solutes with diverse sources in the natural environment. However, the 7-hour sampling frequency is both coarse and irregular in comparison to diurnal cycles, making their detection and quantification difficult. Nonetheless, the methods outlined here enable detection of statistically significant diurnal cycles in over 30 solutes at Plynlimon, including alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs), alkaline earths (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba), transition metals (Al, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb), nonmetals (B, NO3, Si, As, and Se), lanthanides and actinides (La, Ce, Pr, and U), as well as total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), Gran alkalinity, pH, and electrical conductivity. These solutes span every row of the periodic table, and more than six orders of magnitude in concentration. Many of these diurnal cycles are subtle, representing only a few percent, at most, of the total variance in the concentration time series. Nonetheless they are diagnostically useful

  20. A statistical model of diurnal variation in human growth hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, Elizabeth B.; Adler, Gail K.; Jin, Moonsoo; Maliszewski, Anne M.; Brown, Emery N.

    2003-01-01

    The diurnal pattern of growth hormone (GH) serum levels depends on the frequency and amplitude of GH secretory events, the kinetics of GH infusion into and clearance from the circulation, and the feedback of GH on its secretion. We present a two-dimensional linear differential equation model based on these physiological principles to describe GH diurnal patterns. The model characterizes the onset times of the secretory events, the secretory event amplitudes, as well as the infusion, clearance, and feedback half-lives of GH. We illustrate the model by using maximum likelihood methods to fit it to GH measurements collected in 12 normal, healthy women during 8 h of scheduled sleep and a 16-h circadian constant-routine protocol. We assess the importance of the model components by using parameter standard error estimates and Akaike's Information Criterion. During sleep, both the median infusion and clearance half-life estimates were 13.8 min, and the median number of secretory events was 2. During the constant routine, the median infusion half-life estimate was 12.6 min, the median clearance half-life estimate was 11.7 min, and the median number of secretory events was 5. The infusion and clearance half-life estimates and the number of secretory events are consistent with current published reports. Our model gave an excellent fit to each GH data series. Our analysis paradigm suggests an approach to decomposing GH diurnal patterns that can be used to characterize the physiological properties of this hormone under normal and pathological conditions.

  1. Diurnal variations in the UV albedo of arctic snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Meinander

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of snow for climate studies is based on its physical properties, such as high surface reflectivity. Surface ultraviolet (UV albedo is an essential parameter for various applications based on radiative transfer modeling. Here, new continuous measurements of the local UV albedo of natural Arctic snow were made at Sodankylä (67°22'N, 26°39'E, 179 m a.s.l. during the spring of 2007. The data were logged at 1-min intervals. The accumulation of snow was up to 68 cm. The surface layer thickness varied from 0.5 to 35 cm with the snow grain size between 0.2 and 2.5 mm. The midday erythemally weighted UV albedo ranged from 0.6 to 0.8 in the accumulation period, and from 0.5 to 0.7 during melting. During the snow melt period, under cases of an almost clear sky and variable cloudiness, an unexpected diurnal decrease of 0.05 in albedo soon after midday, and recovery thereafter, was detected. This diurnal decrease in albedo was found to be asymmetric with respect to solar midday, thus indicating a change in the properties of the snow. Independent UV albedo results with two different types of instruments confirm these findings. The measured temperature of the snow surface was below 0°C on the following mornings. Hence, the reversible diurnal change, evident for ~1–2 h, could be explained by the daily metamorphosis of the surface of the snowpack, in which the temperature of the surface increases, melting some of the snow to liquid water, after which the surface freezes again.

  2. Moored surface buoy observations of the diurnal warm layer

    KAUST Repository

    Prytherch, J.

    2013-09-01

    An extensive data set is used to examine the dynamics of diurnal warming in the upper ocean. The data set comprises more than 4700 days of measurements at five sites in the tropics and subtropics, obtained from surface moorings equipped to make comprehensive meteorological, incoming solar and infrared radiation, and high-resolution subsurface temperature (and, in some cases, velocity) measurements. The observations, which include surface warmings of up to 3.4°C, are compared with a selection of existing models of the diurnal warm layer (DWL). A simple one-layer physical model is shown to give a reasonable estimate of both the magnitude of diurnal surface warming (model-observation correlation 0.88) and the structure and temporal evolution of the DWL. Novel observations of velocity shear obtained during 346 days at one site, incorporating high-resolution (1 m) upper ocean (5-15 m) acoustic Doppler current profile measurements, are also shown to be in reasonable agreement with estimates from the physical model (daily maximum shear model-observation correlation 0.77). Physics-based improvements to the one-layer model (incorporation of rotation and freshwater terms) are discussed, though they do not provide significant improvements against the observations reported here. The simplicity and limitations of the physical model are used to discuss DWL dynamics. The physical model is shown to give better model performance under the range of forcing conditions experienced across the five sites than the more empirical models. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Photosynthetic Diurnal Variation of Soybean Cultivars with High Photosynthetic Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAN Wei-qun; DU Wei-guang; ZHANG Gui-ru; LUAN Xiao-yan; GE Qiao-ying; HAO Nai-bin; CHEN Yi

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic characters were investigated among soybean cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency and high yield. The results indicated that: 1) There were significant differences in photosynthetic rate (Ph) and dark respiration rate (DR) under saturation light intensity and appropriate temperature.2) There were a little difference in light compensation point among them. Photo flux density (PFD) were mong the cultivars. Diurnal variation of Pn was shown a curve with two peaks. 4) The cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency were subjected less to photoinhibition than that with high yield. Critical temperatures of photoinhibition in high photosynthetic efficiency cultivars were higher than that of high yield.

  4. Diurnal rhythm of melatonin binding in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitinen, J.T.; Castren, E.; Vakkuri, O.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    We used quantitative in vitro autoradiography to localize and characterize 2-/sup 125/I-melatonin binding sites in the rat suprachiasmatic nuclei in relation to pineal melatonin production. In a light:dark cycle of 12:12 h, binding density exhibited significant diurnal variation with a peak at the dark-light transition and a trough 12 hours later. Saturation studies suggested that the decreased binding at light-dark transition might be due to a shift of the putative melatonin receptor to a low affinity state.

  5. DIURNAL CHANGES IN THE ACIDITY OF BRYOPHYLLUM CALYCINUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, F G

    1925-07-20

    1. It has been shown that there is a diurnal change in the H ion concentration in Bryophyllum calycinum corresponding approximately to the total acidity changes. The H ion concentration increases at night and decreases during the day. 2. Light is the main factor in causing the decrease in acidity, though it also occurs in the dark. but much more slowly. 3. External oxygen tension does not seem to influence the acidity of the plant, nor does it influence the decomposition of the extracted juice.

  6. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  7. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  8. On the diurnal ranges of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) in the north Indian Ocean

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S C Shenoi; N Nasnodkar; G Rajesh; K Jossia Joseph; I Suresh; A M Almeida

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the variability in the diurnal range of SST in the north Indian Ocean using in situ measurements and tests the suitability of simple regression models in estimating the diurnal range.SST measurements obtained from 1556 drifting and 25 moored buoys were used to determine the diurnal range of SSTs.The magnitude of diurnal range of SST was highest in spring and lowest in summer monsoon.Except in spring,nearly 75 –80%of the observations reported diurnal range below 0.5°C.The distributions of the magnitudes of diurnal warming across the three basins of north Indian Ocean (Arabian Sea,Bay of Bengal and Equatorial Indian Ocean)were similar except for the differences between the Arabian Sea and the other two basins during November-February (winter monsoon)and May.The magnitude of diurnal warming that depended on the location of temperature sensor below the water level varied with seasons.In spring,the magnitude of diurnal warming diminished drastically with the increase in the depth of temperature sensor.The diurnal range estimated using the drifting buoy data was higher than the diurnal range estimated using moored buoys fitted with temperature sensors at greater depths. A simple regression model based on the peak solar radiation and average wind speed was good enough to estimate the diurnal range of SST at ∼1.0 m in the north Indian Ocean during most of the seasons except under low wind-high solar radiation conditions that occur mostly during spring. The additional information on the rate of precipitation is found to be redundant for the estimation of the magnitude of diurnal warming at those depths.

  9. Data Display in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Verdinelli PsyD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual displays help in the presentation of inferences and conclusions and represent ways of organizing, summarizing, simplifying, or transforming data. Data displays such as matrices and networks are often utilized to enhance data analysis and are more commonly seen in quantitative than in qualitative studies. This study reviewed the data displays used by three prestigious qualitative research journals within a period of three years. The findings include the types of displays used in these qualitative journals, the frequency of use, and the purposes for using visual displays as opposed to presenting data in text.

  10. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  11. Anomalous diurnal variation of atmospheric potential gradient and air-Earth current density observed at Maitri, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeeva, K.; Gurubaran, S.; Williams, E. R.; Kamra, A. K.; Sinha, A. K.; Guha, A.; Selvaraj, C.; Nair, K. U.; Dhar, Ajay

    2016-11-01

    The scope of this paper is to explore the mechanisms operating over Maitri (70.76°S, 11.74°E, 117 m above mean sea level), a coastal Antarctic station, that produce an anomalous fair-weather diurnal pattern of the atmospheric electric potential gradient (PG) and air-Earth current density (AEC). The anomaly in the diurnal variations of AEC and the PG is displaying an ostensible minimum at 10 UT and a diminished response to the thunderstorm over the African continent in the 14-16 UT time frame. The data sets (2005-2014, except 2012) of the PG, and to some extent, AEC, from Maitri, are used to explore this anomaly. It follows that the fair-weather electrical phenomena over Maitri can be ascribed to global electrified convection on the one hand and to regional phenomena like convection due to the replacement of warm air by katabatic winds on the other hand. The katabatic winds originate on the polar plateau and blow from 130° at Maitri which are likely to transport various elements from the mountain slopes, and space charge from the polar plateau is expected to produce various disturbances in the PG and AEC monitored over the coastal Antarctica. This mechanism may be responsible for peaks in the early UT hours and also for the anomalous behavior of atmospheric electrical parameters observed at Maitri. Maitri data are compared with that of Carnegie cruise and Vostok to explain the source of anomaly.

  12. Diurnal Solar Energy Conversion and Photoprotection in Rice Canopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meacham, Katherine; Sirault, Xavier; Quick, W Paul; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Furbank, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Genetic improvement of photosynthetic performance of cereal crops and increasing the efficiency with which solar radiation is converted into biomass has recently become a major focus for crop physiologists and breeders. The pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence technique (PAM) allows quantitative leaf level monitoring of the utilization of energy for photochemical light conversion and photoprotection in natural environments, potentially over the entire crop lifecycle. Here, the diurnal relationship between electron transport rate (ETR) and irradiance was measured in five cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa) in canopy conditions with PAM fluorescence under natural solar radiation. This relationship differed substantially from that observed for conventional short term light response curves measured under controlled actinic light with the same leaves. This difference was characterized by a reduced curvature factor when curve fitting was used to model this diurnal response. The engagement of photoprotective processes in chloroplast electron transport in leaves under canopy solar radiation was shown to be a major contributor to this difference. Genotypic variation in the irradiance at which energy flux into photoprotective dissipation became greater than ETR was observed. Cultivars capable of higher ETR at midrange light intensities were shown to produce greater leaf area over time, estimated by noninvasive imaging.

  13. The diurnal order of the image in Dracula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vescia Zanini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available the article analyses images from Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula having as a main theoretical frame the Diurnal regime of the Image, proposed by Gilbert Durand in The Anthropological Structures of the Imaginary and presented by Durand himself as the “order of antithesis”. By presenting the main kinds of images proposed by Durand in binary pairs (theriomorphic and diæretic, nyctomorphic and spectacular, catamorphic and ascensional, the analysis proposed here aims at staying in tune with both the theoretical approach and the context of production of the novel. Victorian England at the end of the nineteenth century was a time of anxieties, fears and doubts, recurrent in the Victorian cultural production as a whole and well-depicted in Dracula, a work where binary oppositions also seem to be recurrent: life and death, good and evil, moral and desire, among others. The focus is on how the main character is perceived by the other characters, which ultimately affects our perception as readers. Images related to animals, colors, weapons and movements are also included in the analysis. The conclusion points out that the Diurnal Order is a prolific and coherent approach towards an understanding of Bram Stoker’s vampire novel.

  14. Termite mounds harness diurnal temperature oscillations for ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hunter; Ocko, Samuel; Mahadevan, L

    2015-09-15

    Many species of millimetric fungus-harvesting termites collectively build uninhabited, massive mound structures enclosing a network of broad tunnels that protrude from the ground meters above their subterranean nests. It is widely accepted that the purpose of these mounds is to give the colony a controlled microclimate in which to raise fungus and brood by managing heat, humidity, and respiratory gas exchange. Although different hypotheses such as steady and fluctuating external wind and internal metabolic heating have been proposed for ventilating the mound, the absence of direct in situ measurement of internal air flows has precluded a definitive mechanism for this critical physiological function. By measuring diurnal variations in flow through the surface conduits of the mounds of the species Odontotermes obesus, we show that a simple combination of geometry, heterogeneous thermal mass, and porosity allows the mounds to use diurnal ambient temperature oscillations for ventilation. In particular, the thin outer flutelike conduits heat up rapidly during the day relative to the deeper chimneys, pushing air up the flutes and down the chimney in a closed convection cell, with the converse situation at night. These cyclic flows in the mound flush out CO2 from the nest and ventilate the colony, in an unusual example of deriving useful work from thermal oscillations.

  15. Diurnal Cycles of Tree Mass Obtained Using Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, R. A.; Niemeier, J. J.; Kruger, A.; Lintz, H. E.; Kleinknecht, G. J.; Miller, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    We used a non-invasive technique to estimate the mass of trees using accelerometers. The technique was inspired by Selker et al., 2011 who performed experiments with an oak tree to estimate the time-varying canopy mass. The technique consists of placing an accelerometer on the trunk of a live tree. The resonance frequency is related to the mass of the tree. Wind drives the tree and the accelerometer data are analyzed to obtain estimates of the resonance frequency and mass of the tree. In addition to wind speed and direction, we also collected ambient temperature and rain accumulation using co-located instruments. We collected data for 3 months using several accelerometers configured for different sampling rates. Analysis of the data revealed diurnal cycles in temperature, wind speed, and tree mass derived from the tree resonance frequency. We used the Welch method for power spectral density estimation to obtain hourly estimates of the tree resonance frequency. Our hypothesis is that the mass diurnal cycle is related to the tree water content.

  16. The Effect of Diurnal Variations on Ionospheric Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelle, Roger V.; Koskinen, Tommi; Withers, Paul; Schinder, Paul J.; Moses, Julianne I.; Mueller-Wodarg, Ingo

    2016-10-01

    Radio occultations are a powerful technique for the study of atmospheres and ionospheres by planetary spacecraft. For missions to the outer solar system, the occultations always probe the terminator region of the planet. The analysis of radio occultations typically assumes symmetry along the ray path in the horizontal direction about the tangent point. While this is an excellent assumption for the neutral atmosphere where the scale length of horizontal gradients is large, it is suspect for the ionosphere where electron densities decrease rapidly from day to night. Diurnal variations in peak electron density are often several orders of magnitude and may occur over a region of a few degrees. We investigate the consequences of diurnal variations on ionospheric occultations with a ray tracing calculation for the angular deflection and frequency residual of the radio wave. The calculations are based on photochemical/diffusion models for the ionospheres of Saturn and Titan. Differences from analysis based on the assumption of horizontal symmetry are most pronounced in the bottom side ionosphere where chemical time constants are short.

  17. ANALYSIS THE DIURNAL VARIATIONS ON SELECTED PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. MAHABOOBJAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the diurnal variations on selected physical and physiological parameters such as speed, explosive power, resting heart rate and breath holding time among college students. To achieve the purpose of this study, a total of twenty players (n=20 from Government Arts College, Salem were selected as subjects To study the diurnal variation of the players on selected physiological and performance variables, the data were collected 4 times a day with every four hours in between the times it from 6.00 to 18.00 hours were selected as another categorical variable. One way repeated measures (ANOVA was used to analyze the data. If the obtained F-ratio was significant, Seheffe’s post-hoc test was used to find out the significant difference if anyamong the paired means. The level of significance was fixed at.05 level. It has concluded that both physical and physiological parameters were significantly deferred with reference to change of temperature in a day

  18. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1996-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the diurnal variations of serum-erythropoietin concentration (serum-EPO) observed in normoxia also exist in hypoxia. The study also attempted to investigate the regulation of EPO production during sustained hypoxia. Nine subjects were investigated at sea level...... and during 4 days at an altitude of 4350 m. Median sea level serum-EPO concentration was 6 (range 6-13) U.l-1. Serum-EPO concentration increased after 18 and 42 h at altitude, [58 (range 39-240) and 54 (range 36-340) U.l-1, respectively], and then decreased after 64 and 88 h at altitude [34 (range 18...... in 2, 3 diphosphoglycerate. After 64 h at altitude, six of the nine subjects had down-regulated their serum-EPO concentrations so that median values were three times above those at sea level. These six subjects had significant diurnal variations of serum-EPO concentration at sea level; the nadir...

  19. A stochastic differential equation model of diurnal cortisol patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. N.; Meehan, P. M.; Dempster, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Circadian modulation of episodic bursts is recognized as the normal physiological pattern of diurnal variation in plasma cortisol levels. The primary physiological factors underlying these diurnal patterns are the ultradian timing of secretory events, circadian modulation of the amplitude of secretory events, infusion of the hormone from the adrenal gland into the plasma, and clearance of the hormone from the plasma by the liver. Each measured plasma cortisol level has an error arising from the cortisol immunoassay. We demonstrate that all of these three physiological principles can be succinctly summarized in a single stochastic differential equation plus measurement error model and show that physiologically consistent ranges of the model parameters can be determined from published reports. We summarize the model parameters in terms of the multivariate Gaussian probability density and establish the plausibility of the model with a series of simulation studies. Our framework makes possible a sensitivity analysis in which all model parameters are allowed to vary simultaneously. The model offers an approach for simultaneously representing cortisol's ultradian, circadian, and kinetic properties. Our modeling paradigm provides a framework for simulation studies and data analysis that should be readily adaptable to the analysis of other endocrine hormone systems.

  20. Diurnal variation of zooplankton in Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb Ahmad Bhat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal dynamics of the vertical distribution of zooplankton was studied in Bhoj Wetland, Bhopal. Vertical distribution of the zooplankton community in general showed a clear diurnal variation in the water column of a typical stratified lake. Zooplankton concentration was found to be high at the surface layer during night hours with peak abundance around the middle of the night and another peak was observed just before sunrise, followed by a rapid nadir after sunrise. Zooplankton can offset the loss of daytime foraging opportunity by moving up into the water column to graze at night, when predation by visual predators is greatly reduced and it can be also attributed to light intensity which is responsible for vertical migration during the twenty four hour cycles. Among different classes, cladocerans and the copepod showed nocturnal migration conversely rotifers, had a relatively uniform distribution throughout the water column Out of the twenty three species, Bosmina species and Cyclops species ascended at night and descended during day hours, however, Keratella cochlearis showed uniformity in distribution throughout the water column during the study.

  1. Diurnal temperature asymmetries and fog at Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, William A.; He, Dianze

    2015-07-01

    A variety of methods are available to calculate daily mean temperature. We explore how the difference between two commonly used methods provides insight into the local climate of Churchill, Manitoba. In particular, we found that these differences related closely to seasonal fog. A strong statistically significant correlation was found between the fog frequency (hours per day) and the diurnal temperature asymmetries of the surface temperature using the difference between the min/max and 24-h methods of daily temperature calculation. The relationship was particularly strong for winter, spring and summer. Autumn appears to experience the joint effect of fog formation and the radiative effect of snow cover. The results of this study suggests that subtle variations of diurnality of temperature, as measured in the difference of the two mean temperature methods of calculation, may be used as a proxy for fog detection in the Hudson Bay region. These results also provide a cautionary note for the spatial analysis of mean temperatures using data derived from the two different methods particularly in areas that are fog prone.

  2. Diurnal Thermal Tides in a Non-synchronized Hot Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Pin-Gao

    2009-01-01

    We perform a linear analysis to investigate the dynamical response of a non-synchronized hot Jupiter to stellar irradiation. In this work, we consider the diurnal Fourier harmonic of the stellar irradiation acting at the top of a radiative layer of a hot Jupiter with no clouds and winds. In the absence of the Coriolis force, the diurnal thermal forcing can excite internal waves propagating into the planet's interior when the thermal forcing period is longer than the sound crossing time of the planet's surface. When the Coriolis effect is taken into consideration, the latitude-dependent stellar heating can excite weak internal waves (g modes) and/or strong baroclinic Rossby waves (buoyant r modes) depending on the asynchrony of the planet. When the planet spins faster than its orbital motion (i.e. retrograde thermal forcing), these waves carry negative angular momentum and are damped by radiative loss as they propagate downwards from the upper layer of the radiative zone. As a result, angular momentum is trans...

  3. Hearing in a diurnal, mute butterfly, Morpho peleides (Papilionoidea, Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Karla A; Lucas, Kathleen M; Yack, Jayne E

    2008-06-10

    Butterflies use visual and chemical cues when interacting with their environment, but the role of hearing is poorly understood in these insects. Nymphalidae (brush-footed) butterflies occur worldwide in almost all habitats and continents, and comprise more than 6,000 species. In many species a unique forewing structure--Vogel's organ--is thought to function as an ear. At present, however, there is little experimental evidence to support this hypothesis. We studied the functional organization of Vogel's organ in the common blue morpho butterfly, Morpho peleides, which represents the majority of Nymphalidae in that it is diurnal and does not produce sounds. Our results confirm that Vogel's organ possesses the morphological and physiological characteristics of a typical insect tympanal ear. The tympanum has an oval-shaped outer membrane and a convex inner membrane. Associated with the inner surface of the tympanum are three chordotonal organs, each containing 10-20 scolopidia. Extracellular recordings from the auditory nerve show that Vogel's organ is most sensitive to sounds between 2-4 kHz at median thresholds of 58 dB SPL. Most butterfly species that possess Vogel's organ are diurnal, and mute, so bat detection and conspecific communication can be ruled out as roles for hearing. We hypothesize that Vogel's organs in butterflies such as M. peleides have evolved to detect flight sounds of predatory birds. The evolution and taxonomic distribution of butterfly hearing organs are discussed.

  4. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  5. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  6. X-1 on display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1949-01-01

    A Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1 series aircraft on display at an Open House at NACA Muroc Flight Test Unit or High-Speed Flight Research Station hangar on South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California. (The precise date of the photo is uncertain, but it is probably before 1948.) The instrumentation that was carried aboard the aircraft to gather data is on display. The aircraft data was recorded on oscillograph film that was read, calibrated, and converted into meaningful parameters for the engineers to evaluate from each research flight. In the background of the photo are several early U.S. jets. These include several Lockheed P-80 Shooting Stars, which were used as chase planes on X-1 flights; two Bell P-59 Airacomets, the first U.S. jet pursuit aircraft (fighter in later parlance); and a prototype Republic XP-84 Thunderjet. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for eXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant

  7. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  8. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  9. Global distributions of diurnal and semi-diurnal tides: observations from HRDI-UARS of the MLT region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    Full Text Available HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Interferometer-UARS winds data have been analyzed in 4° latitude by 10° longitude cells at 96 km to obtain global contour maps of solar-tidal amplitudes and phases, and also mean winds. The solstices June–July (1993, December–January (1993–1994, and one equinox September–October (1994 are shown. 

    The 24-h diurnal tide that maximizes near the 20–25° latitude has significant seasonal changes with equinoctial maxima, and very clear longitudinal variability. Maxima are very clear over the oceans. In contrast, the 12-h semi-diurnal tides that maximize near the 40–55° latitude have very strong seasonal changes with winter maxima, and more modest longitudinal changes. The similarities with MLT (mesosphere-lower thermosphere radar observations (90 km and the GSWM (Global Scale Wave Model are very satisfactory. The mean winds are consistent with expectations and show clear poleward flow from summer to winter hemispheres in the solstices.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides Radio science (remote sensing

  10. Miniature information displays: primary applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-04-01

    Positioned to replace current liquid crystal display technology in many applications, miniature information displays have evolved to provide several truly portable platforms for the world's growing personal computing and communication needs. The technology and functionality of handheld computer and communicator systems has finally surpassed many of the standards that were originally established for desktop systems. In these new consumer electronics, performance, display size, packaging, power consumption, and cost have always been limiting factors for fabricating genuinely portable devices. The rapidly growing miniature information display manufacturing industry is making it possible to bring a wide range of highly anticipated new products to new markets.

  11. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  12. Diurnal secretion profiles of growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N A; Pijl, H; Frölich, M; Roelfsema, F; Roos, R A C

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a massive loss of both hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurones was found in the hypothalamus of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Because both hypocretin and MCH play a key role in the regulation of sleep, energy homeostasis and autonomic function, partly by modulation of the somatotrophic, thyrotrophic and lactotrophic axes, neuroendocrine dysregulation may contribute to some of the non-motor features of PD. In eight de novo, medication-free PD patients and eight age-, sex- and body mass index-matched controls, we measured serum levels of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin every 10 min for 24 h. Auto-deconvolution, cosinor and approximate entropy analysis were applied to quantify GH, TSH and prolactin secretion rates, diurnal rhythmicity, as well as regularity of hormone release. Sleep was polygraphically-recorded throughout the night. Total 24-h secretion of GH (191 ± 31 versus 130 ± 39 mU/l/24 h), TSH (38 ± 9 versus 36 ± 2 mU/l/24 h) and prolactin (102 ± 14 versus 116 ± 17 μg/l/24 h), as well as their diurnal rhythmicity and regularity of release, were not significantly different between PD patients and controls (all P ≥ 0.12). Fasting levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 were also unaltered in PD patients. However, free thyroxine (T(4) ) levels were significantly higher in PD patients compared to controls (16.19 ± 0.80 versus 13.88 ± 0.40 pmol/l; P = 0.031). In PD patients, prolactin levels were related to disease duration (r = 0.76, P = 0.028), whereas both GH (r = -0.91, P = 0.002) and free T(4) (r = -0.71, P = 0.050) levels correlated inversely with body fat content. Apart from a mild increase in free T(4) levels, we found no indications for altered somatotrophic, thyrotrophic and lactotrophic axes activity in early-stage PD patients.

  13. Daily diurnal variation in admissions for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Shane

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Many vascular events, such as myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident, demonstrate a circadian pattern of presentation. Blood pressure is intimately related to these pathologies and is the one physiological variable consistently associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. It also demonstrates a diurnal variation. The purpose of this study was to determine if rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) exhibits a diurnal variation. METHODS: A retrospective cohort-based study was performed to determine the timing of presentation of RAAA to the vascular unit of Cork University Hospital over a 15-year period. Time of admission, symptom onset, and co-morbidities such as hypertension were noted. Fournier\\'s analysis and chi-squared analysis were performed. To ameliorate possible confounding factors, patients admitted with perforated peptic ulcers were examined in the same manner. RESULTS: A total of 148 cases of RAAA were identified, with a male preponderance (71.7% [124] male versus 29.3% [44] female patients) and a mean age of 74.4 +\\/- 7.2 years at presentation. 70.9% (105) were known to have hypertension, 52.2% (77) were current smokers, and 46.8% (69) were being treated for chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD). Time of symptom onset was recorded in 88.5% (131) of patients. There was a marked early morning peak in RAAA admissions, with the highest number of RAAA being admitted between 08.00 and 09.59. A second, smaller peak was observed at 14.00-15.59. These findings were suggestive of diurnal variation. [chi(2) =16.75, p < 0.003]. Some 40% (59) of patients were admitted between 00.00 and 06.00, an incidence significantly higher than for other time periods (06.00-12.00, 12.00-18.00, and 18.00-24.00) [chi(2) = 18.72; df = 3; p < 0.0003]. A significantly higher number of patients admitted between 00.00 and 06.00 were known hypertensives (chi(2) = 7.94; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest a distinct

  14. Diurnal cycling of urban aerosols under different weather regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorič, Asta; Drinovec, Luka; Močnik, Griša; Remškar, Maja; Vaupotič, Janja; Stanič, Samo

    2016-04-01

    A one month measurement campaign was performed in summer 2014 in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia (population 280,000), aiming to study temporal and spatial distribution of urban aerosols and the mixing state of primary and secondary aerosols. Two background locations were chosen for this purpose, the first one in the city center (urban background - KIS) and the second one in the suburban background (Brezovica). Simultaneous measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle number size distribution of submicron aerosols (PM1) were conducted at both locations. In the summer season emission from traffic related sources is expected to be the main local contribution to BC concentration. Concentrations of aerosol species and gaseous pollutants within the planetary boundary layer are controlled by the balance between emission sources of primary aerosols and gases, production of secondary aerosols, chemical reactions of precursor gases under solar radiation and the rate of dilution by mixing within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) as well as with tropospheric air. Only local emission sources contribute to BC concentration during the stable PBL with low mixing layer height, whereas during the time of fully mixed PBL, regionally transported BC and other aerosols can contribute to the surface measurements. The study describes the diurnal behaviour of the submicron aerosol at the urban and suburban background location under different weather regimes. Particles in three size modes - nucleation (black carbon concentrations were observed at the urban background (KIS) than at the suburban background location (Brezovica). Significant diurnal pattern of total particle concentration and black carbon concentration was observed at both locations, with a distinct morning and late afternoon peak. As a consequence of different PBL dynamics and atmospheric processes (photochemical effects, humidity, wind speed and direction), diurnal profile differs for sunny, cloudy and rainy days

  15. Annual and diurnal African biomass burning temporal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roberts

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning emissions. Here we conduct the first analysis of one full year of geostationary active fire detections and fire radiative power data recorded over Africa at 15-min temporal resolution and a 3 km sampling distance (at the sub-satellite point by the SEVIRI imaging radiometer onboard the Meteosat-8 satellite. We use these data to provide new insights into the rates and totals of African open biomass burning, particularly into the extremely strong seasonal and diurnal cycles that exist across the continent. We find peak daily biomass combustion totals are 9 and 6 million tonnes per day in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres respectively, and total fuel consumption between February 2004 and January 2005 is at least 855 million tonnes. Analysis is carried out with regard to fire pixel temporal persistence, and we note that the majority of African fires are detected only once in consecutive 15 min imaging slots, indicating the importance of optimizing the fire pixel detection strategy performance. An investigation of the variability of the diurnal fire cycle is carried out with respect to 20 land cover types, and whilst differences are noted between land covers, the diurnal characteristics for a given land cover type are similar in both African hemispheres. We compare the FRP-derived biomass combustion estimates to burned-areas, both at the scale of individual fires and over the entire continent at a 1-degree spatial scale. Fuel consumption estimates are found to be less than 2 kg/m2 for almost all land cover types, and for savanna grasslands where literature values are commonly reported the FRP-derived median fuel consumption estimate of 309 g/m2 appears reasonable. From mid-2008, geostationary FRP data of the type presented here will become available to interested users continuously and in near real-time from the EUMETSAT Land Surface Analysis Satellite

  16. Annual and diurnal african biomass burning temporal dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roberts

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning emissions. Here we conduct the first analysis of one full year of geostationary active fire detections and fire radiative power data recorded over Africa at 15-min temporal interval and a 3 km sub-satellite spatial resolution by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI imaging radiometer onboard the Meteosat-8 satellite. We use these data to provide new insights into the rates and totals of open biomass burning over Africa, particularly into the extremely strong seasonal and diurnal cycles that exist across the continent. We estimate peak daily biomass combustion totals to be 9 and 6 million tonnes of fuel per day in the northern and southern hemispheres respectively, and total fuel consumption between February 2004 and January 2005 is estimated to be at least 855 million tonnes. Analysis is carried out with regard to fire pixel temporal persistence, and we note that the majority of African fires are detected only once in consecutive 15 min imaging slots. An investigation of the variability of the diurnal fire cycle is carried out with respect to 20 different land cover types, and whilst differences are noted between land covers, the fire diurnal cycle characteristics for most land cover type are very similar in both African hemispheres. We compare the Fire Radiative Power (FRP derived biomass combustion estimates to burned-areas, both at the scale of individual fires and over the entire continent at a 1-degree scale. Fuel consumption estimates are found to be less than 2 kg/m2 for all land cover types noted to be subject to significant fire activity, and for savanna grasslands where literature values are commonly reported the FRP-derived median fuel consumption estimate of 300 g/m2 is well within commonly quoted values. Meteosat-derived FRP data of the type presented here is now available freely to interested users continuously and in near

  17. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy: energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, V.; Gorter, J.A.; Riede, S.J.; Hut, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The circa

  18. Diurnality as an energy-saving strategy : energetic consequences of temporal niche switching in small mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Gorter, Jenke A; Riede, Sjaak J; Hut, Roelof A

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous daily (circadian) rhythms allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in the environment. Most mammals are specialized to be active during the night (nocturnal) or day (diurnal). However, typically nocturnal mammals become diurnal when energetically challenged by cold or hunger. The circa

  19. Diurnal Course of Gas Exchange and Water Use Efficiency of Platycladus orientalis in the Semiarid Region of the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jinghui; He Kangning; Wang Baitian; Guo Jianghong; Zhang Weiqiang; Yin Jing

    2006-01-01

    The daily gas exchange,stomatal conductance,and water use efficiency of Platycladus orientalis in the test field of Fangshan county of Shanxi Province in the semiarid region of the Loess Plateau were measured with portable Li-6200 gas analysis system in natural conditions.The results showed that the diurnal course of net photosynthetic rate displayed a two-peak pattern,that of stomatal conductance displayed a hollow pattern,and that of transpiration rate displayed a signal-peak pattern.Water use efficiency culminated in the early morning.On the basis of two criteria of stomatal limitation of photosynthesis suggested by Farquhar and Sharkey,the predominant limiting factor of photosynthesis was the stomatal conductance of stomatal limitation in the morning (10:00-12:00).However,the midday depression of photosynthesis at noon (12:00-14:00) and the decrease in photosynthesis in the afternoon (16:00-18:00) were the results of nonstomatal limitation,such as low carboxylation capacity of the leaf mesophyll.

  20. Exaggerated displays do not improve mounting success in male seaweed flies Fucellia tergina (Diptera: Anthomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmott, Ruth; Briffa, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Signals of individual quality are assumed to be difficult to exaggerate, either because they are directly linked to underlying traits (indices) or because they are costly to perform (handicaps). In practise advertisement displays may consist of conventional and costly components, for instance where a morphological structure related to body size is used in visual displays. In this case, there is the potential for dishonest displays, due to the population level variance around the relationship between body size and display structures. We examine the use of wing flicking displays that we observed in situ in a strandline dwelling seaweed fly Fucellia tergina, using overall body size and the size of their eyes as underlying indicators of condition. Males displayed far more frequently than females, and were also observed to frequently mount other flies, a behaviour that was rare in females. The rate of display was greater for males that had positive residual values from relationships between wing length and body length. In other words those males with larger than expected wings for their underlying quality displayed more frequently, indicating that these displays are open to exaggeration. Males with larger than expected wings (for the size of their body or eyes), however, mounted less frequently. We suggest that small bodied males are less successful in terms of mounting, but that those small males with relatively large wings may attempt to compensate for this through increased display effort.

  1. Impact of land-sea breezes at different scales on the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wan-Ru; Wang, Shih-Yu

    2014-10-01

    The formation mechanism of diurnal rainfall in Taiwan is commonly recognized as a result of local forcings involving solar thermal heating and island-scale land-sea breeze (LSB) interacting with orography. This study found that the diurnal variation of the large-scale circulation over the East Asia-Western North Pacific (EAWNP) modulates considerably the diurnal rainfall in Taiwan. It is shown that the interaction between the two LSB systems—the island-scale LSB and the large-scale LSB over EAWNP—facilitates the formation of the early morning rainfall in western Taiwan, afternoon rainfall in central Taiwan, and nighttime rainfall in eastern Taiwan. Moreover, the post-1998 strengthening of a shallow, low-level southerly wind belt along the coast of Southeast China appears to intensify the diurnal rainfall activity in Taiwan. These findings reveal the role of the large-scale LSB and its long-term variation in the modulation of local diurnal rainfall.

  2. MF radar observations of the diurnal tide over Syowa, Antarctica (69° S, 40° E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tomikawa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of the diurnal tide in the Antarctic mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT are investigated using 10 years of medium frequency (MF radar data from Syowa Station (69° S, 39.6° E. Seasonal variations and height dependence of the diurnal amplitude and phase of zonal and meridional winds are mostly consistent with previous studies using the other Antarctic station data. The meridional momentum flux due to the diurnal tide shows a seasonal variation clearly different between above and below 90 km, which has never been reported in the literature. Finally, a cause of some discrepancy in the characteristics of the diurnal tide between the observation and simulation (i.e., GSWM-02 is discussed. It implies that the realistic representation of gravity waves in the simulation is crucial for realistic modeling of the diurnal tide.

  3. A study of diurnal variation of indoor radon concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R.C.; Kandari, M.S.; Negi, M.S. [H.N.B. Garhwal Univ. (India); Choubey, V.M.

    2000-06-01

    Since there are scarce data of diurnal variation of indoor radon levels in houses, authors measured it in different types of houses in Budhakedar (B, mud houses) and Tehri (T, ordinary concrete ones) of Garhwal Himalaya in comparison with environmental parameters. The portable AlphaGUARD (M/S Genitron Instr.) which having an ionization chamber detector, used for measurement was kept inside the houses for about 24 hr to record the levels of radon and environmental variables like air temperature. The indoor radon concentration for a well-ventilated house was found to vary largely within 24 hr. The concentrations in February 1998 were 40-784 Bq/m{sup 3} in B and 12-338 Bq/m{sup 3} in T inside the houses, the latter of which was found affected by the environmental parameters. Radon concentrations in mud houses were higher than those in T. (K.H.)

  4. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  5. Using a 1-D model to reproduce diurnal SST signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    of measurement. A generally preferred approach to bridge the gap between in situ and remotely obtained measurements is through modelling of the upper ocean temperature. This ESA supported study focuses on the implementation of the 1 dimensional General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), in order to resolve...... profiles, along with the selection of the coefficients for the 2-band parametrisation of light’s penetration in the water column, hold a key role in the agreement of the modelled output with observations. To improve the surface heat budget and the distribution of heat, the code was modified to include...... Institution Upper Ocean Processes Group archive. The successful implementation of the new parametrisations is verified while the model reproduces the diurnal signals seen from in situ measurements. Special focus is given to testing and validation of different set-ups using campaign data from the Atlantic...

  6. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  7. [Diurnal and seasonal variations of energy balance over Horqin meadow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-dong; Guan, De-Xin; Yuan, Feng-Hui; Ren, Yan; Wang, An-Zhi; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wu, Jia-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Based on the measurements of eddy flux and micrometeorological factors, this paper analyzed the diurnal and seasonal variations of energy balance over Horqin meadow. The results showed that annual energy balance ratio (EBR) of the eddy covariance system was 0.77, and EBR was biggest in growing season, middle in bare soil period and smallest in snow-covered period. Diurnal variations of energy components all presented bell-shaped curves. The peak of net radiation appeared around 12:00 and peaks of other components slightly lagged. Seasonal variation of net radiation presented a single-peak curve, and the annual average was 5.71 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Seasonal variation of latent heat flux was similar to that of net radiation, and the annual average was 2.84 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Seasonal variation of sensible heat flux presented a double-peak curve, and the peaks appeared in April and September, respectively. Annual averaged sensible heat flux was 1.87 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1). Maximum soil heat flux (3.47 MJ x m(-2) x d(-1)) appeared in April, and the soil heat flux became negative after September. Annual budget ratios of energy components presented a decreasing order of latent heat flux, sensible heat flux and soil heat flux, which accounted for 49.8%, 35.8% and 3.1% of net radiation, respectively. Seasonal variation of Bowen ratio (beta) presented a 'U' shape, and the annual average was 1.61. beta was small (0.18) and relatively stable in growing season, while it was large (2.39) and fluctuated severely in non-growing season.

  8. Diurnal emissivity dynamics in bare versus biocrusted sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, O.

    2015-12-01

    Land surface emissivity (LSE) in the thermal infrared depends mainly on the ground cover and on changes in soil moisture. The LSE is a critical variable that affects the prediction accuracy of geophysical models requiring land surface temperature as an input, highlighting the need for an accurate derivation of LSE. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that diurnal changes in emissivity, as detected from space, are larger for areas mostly covered by biocrusts (composed mainly of cyanobacteria) than for bare sand areas. The LSE dynamics were monitored from geostationary orbit by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) over a sand dune field in a coastal desert region extending across both sides of the Israel-Egypt political borderline. Different land-use practices by the two countries have resulted in exposed, active sand dunes on the Egyptian side (Sinai), and dunes stabilized by biocrusts on the Israeli side (Negev). Since biocrusts adsorb more moisture from the atmosphere than bare sand does, and LSE is affected by the soil moisture, diurnal fluctuations in LSE were larger for the crusted dunes in the 8.7 μm channel. This phenomenon is attributed to water vapor adsorption by the sand / biocrust particles. The results indicate that LSE is sensitive to minor changes in soil water content caused by water vapor adsorption and can, therefore, serve as a tool for quantifying this effect, which has a large spatial impact. As biocrusts cover vast regions in deserts worldwide, this discovery has repercussions for LSE estimations in deserts around the globe, and these LSE variations can potentially have considerable effects on geophysical models from local to regional scales.

  9. Diurnal emissivity dynamics in bare versus biocrusted sand dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenstein, Offer; Agam, Nurit; Serio, Carmine; Masiello, Guido; Venafra, Sara; Achal, Stephen; Puckrin, Eldon; Karnieli, Arnon

    2015-02-15

    Land surface emissivity (LSE) in the thermal infrared depends mainly on the ground cover and on changes in soil moisture. The LSE is a critical variable that affects the prediction accuracy of geophysical models requiring land surface temperature as an input, highlighting the need for an accurate derivation of LSE. The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that diurnal changes in emissivity, as detected from space, are larger for areas mostly covered by biocrusts (composed mainly of cyanobacteria) than for bare sand areas. The LSE dynamics were monitored from geostationary orbit by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) over a sand dune field in a coastal desert region extending across both sides of the Israel-Egypt political borderline. Different land-use practices by the two countries have resulted in exposed, active sand dunes on the Egyptian side (Sinai), and dunes stabilized by biocrusts on the Israeli side (Negev). Since biocrusts adsorb more moisture from the atmosphere than bare sand does, and LSE is affected by the soil moisture, diurnal fluctuations in LSE were larger for the crusted dunes in the 8.7 μm channel. This phenomenon is attributed to water vapor adsorption by the sand/biocrust particles. The results indicate that LSE is sensitive to minor changes in soil water content caused by water vapor adsorption and can, therefore, serve as a tool for quantifying this effect, which has a large spatial impact. As biocrusts cover vast regions in deserts worldwide, this discovery has repercussions for LSE estimations in deserts around the globe, and these LSE variations can potentially have considerable effects on geophysical models from local to regional scales.

  10. Three-dimensional display technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain's power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies.

  11. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  12. Acrobatic courtship display coevolves with brain size in manakins (Pipridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Willow R; Houck, Justin T; Giuliano, Claire E; Day, Lainy B

    2015-01-01

    Acrobatic display behaviour is sexually selected in manakins (Pipridae) and can place high demands on many neural systems. Manakin displays vary across species in terms of behavioural complexity, differing in number of unique motor elements, production of mechanical sounds, cooperation between displaying males, and construction of the display site. Historically, research emphasis has been placed on neurological specializations for vocal aspects of courtship, and less is known about the control of physical, non-vocal displays. By examining brain evolution in relation to extreme acrobatic feats such as manakin displays, we can vastly expand our knowledge of how sexual selection acts on motor behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that sexual selection for complex motor displays has selected for larger brains across the Pipridae. We found that display complexity positively predicts relative brain weight (adjusted for body size) after controlling for phylogeny in 12 manakin species and a closely related flycatcher. This evidence suggests that brain size has evolved in response to sexual selection to facilitate aspects of display such as motor, sensorimotor, perceptual, and cognitive abilities. We show, for the first time, that sexual selection for acrobatic motor behaviour can drive brain size evolution in avian species and, in particular, a family of suboscine birds.

  13. Tuning the diurnal natural daylight with phosphor converted white LED – Advent of new phosphor blend composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hwa [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute, Force4 Corp., Daechon-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-470 (Korea, Republic of); Arunkumar, Paulraj [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung Hyok; Yoon, Ho Shin [Research Institute, Force4 Corp., Daechon-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-470 (Korea, Republic of); Im, Won Bin, E-mail: imwonbin@jnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300, Yongbong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Designed phosphor blend that mimics diurnal daylight for health benefits. • Developed new phosphor blend composition that mimics natural sunlight under near UV. • The phosphor blend also exhibits high CRI (≥90) under blue LED excitation. • Fabricated WLED exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with daylight at 4500 K. • While ∼39.2% spectral resemblance were observed for YAG:Ce{sup 3+} at 4500 K. - Abstract: We demonstrate the feasibility of developing phosphor converted white LED (pc-WLED) that mimics diurnal natural daylight with the newly designed phosphor blend in the color temperature (CCT) 2700–6000 K for health benefits. Natural daylight (sunlight) spectrum possesses broad emission in the visible region and closely approximates black body radiator, with color rendition index (CRI) of 100 under wide CCT (2500–6500 K). Current white light LEDs although are efficient and durable, they are not broad enough compared to daylight. We report new phosphor blend based on Sr{sub 3}MgSi{sub 2}O{sub 8}:Eu{sup 2+} blue phosphor with broad emission and high CRI ≥ 96 under both near UV and blue excitation. The fabricated WLED has exhibited ∼91% spectral resemblance with natural daylight compared to 39.2% for YAG:Ce{sup 3+} white LED at 4500 K. The developed phosphor blend tunes the spectrum in wider CCT and would be a prospective candidate for full spectrum daylight WLED.

  14. Localization and diurnal expression of mRNA encoding the β1-adrenoceptor in the rat pineal gland: an in situ hybridization study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Morten; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Morgan, K.C.;

    1997-01-01

    Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)......Anatomy, neurobiology, adrenoceptors, diurnal rhythms, in situ hybridization, pineal gland, rat (Wistar)...

  15. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  16. Diurnal brooding behavior of long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin; Wang, Peng-Cheng; Lü, Lei; Zhang, Zheng-Wang; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ji-Liang; Li, Jian-Qiang; Xi, Bo; Zhu, Jia-Gui; Du, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-18

    Brooding is a major breeding investment of parental birds during the early nestling stage, and has important effects on the development and survival of nestlings. Investigating brooding behavior can help to understand avian breeding investment strategies. From January to June in 2013 and 2014, we studied the brooding behaviors of long-tailed tits (Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis) in Dongzhai National Nature Reserve, Henan Province, China. We analyzed the relationships between parental diurnal brooding duration and nestling age, brood size, temperature, relative breeding season, time of day and nestling frequencies during brooding duration. Results showed that female and male long-tailed tit parents had different breeding investment strategies during the early nestling stage. Female parents bore most of the brooding investment, while male parents performed most of the nestling feedings. In addition, helpers were not found to brood nestlings at the two cooperative breeding nests. Parental brooding duration was significantly associated with the food delivered to nestlings (F=86.10, df=1, 193.94, Ptit nestlings might be able to maintain their own body temperature by this age. In addition, brooding duration was affected by both brood size (F=12.74, df=1, 32.08, P=0.001) and temperature (F=5.83, df=1, 39.59, P=0.021), with it being shorter in larger broods and when ambient temperature was higher.

  17. Effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Fumi; Ogata, Hitomi; Omi, Naomi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Hibi, Masanobu; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest an association between breakfast skipping and body weight gain, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. Time when meal is consumed affects postprandial increase in energy expenditure and blood glucose, and breakfast skipping may reduce 24 h energy expenditure and elevate blood glucose level. The present study evaluated the effect of breakfast skipping on diurnal variation of energy metabolism and blood glucose. The skipped breakfast was compensated by following big meals at lunch and supper. In a randomized repeated-measure design with or without breakfast, eight males stayed twice in a room-size respiratory chamber. Blood glucose was recorded with a continuous glucose monitoring system. Breakfast skipping did not affect 24 h energy expenditure, fat oxidation and thermic effect of food, but increased overall 24 h average of blood glucose (83 ± 3 vs 89 ± 2 mg/dl, P breakfast skipping. These observations suggest that changes in glucose homeostasis precede that of energy balance, in the potential sequence caused by breakfast skipping, if this dietary habit has any effect on energy balance.:

  18. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S. K.; Bhat, M.; David, J.

    2011-01-01

    The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT) professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N = 147) were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (P < 0.05) and work experience (P < 0.05) were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR]  = 5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3) was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR = 0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43) than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city. PMID:22190934

  19. Work, Stress, and Diurnal Bruxism: A Pilot Study among Information Technology Professionals in Bangalore City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the prevalence of diurnal bruxism among information technology (IT professionals and explored plausible predictors associated with the parafunctional habit. A cross-sectional study was designed and IT professionals were invited to participate. The inclusion criteria composed of participants in service for at least one year, having natural dentition, no history of cervical or facial injury and not undergoing orthodontic therapy. The participants (N=147 were interviewed by a trained interviewer to record information. A pre-tested questionnaire that included questions related to work, stress symptoms and diurnal bruxism was completed by each participant. The prevalence of self-reported diurnal bruxism was 59%. Bivariate analyses revealed that work (<0.05 and work experience (<0.05 were significantly associated with self-reported diurnal bruxism. In the binary logistic regression analysis stress (Odds Ratio [OR] =5.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 2.6–13.3 was identified to be a strong predictor of diurnal bruxism. Professionals with 11 or more years of experience were less likely to report diurnal bruxism (OR=0.04, 95% CI 0.00–0.43 than those with 1 to 5 years of work experience. The study revealed that stress and less work experience were associated with diurnal bruxism among IT professionals in Bangalore city.

  20. Sensitivity of Amazonian TOA flux diurnal cycle composite monthly variability to choice of reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, J. Brant; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2016-05-01

    Amazonian deep convection experiences a strong diurnal cycle driven by the cycle in surface sensible heat flux, which contributes to a significant diurnal cycle in the top of the atmosphere (TOA) radiative flux. Even when accounting for seasonal variability, the TOA flux diurnal cycle varies significantly on the monthly timescale. Previous work shows evidence supporting a connection between variability in the convective and radiative cycles, likely modulated by variability in monthly atmospheric state (e.g., convective instability). The hypothesized relationships are further investigated with regression analysis of the radiative diurnal cycle and atmospheric state using additional meteorological variables representing convective instability and upper tropospheric humidity. The results are recalculated with three different reanalyses to test the reliability of the results. The radiative diurnal cycle sensitivity to upper tropospheric humidity is about equal in magnitude to that of convective instability. In addition, the results are recalculated with the data subdivided into the wet and dry seasons. Overall, clear-sky radiative effects have a dominant role in radiative diurnal cycle variability during the dry season. Because of this, even in a convectively active region, the clear-sky radiative effects must be accounted for in order to fully explain the monthly variability in diurnal cycle. Finally, while there is general agreement between the different reanalysis-based results when examining the full data time domain (without regard to time of year), there are significant disagreements when the data are divided into wet and dry seasons. The questionable reliability of reanalysis data is a major limitation.

  1. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  2. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays - Deprecated

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset is up-to-date but newer better data can be retrieved at: https://data.energystar.gov/dataset/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Displays/xsyb-v8gs Certified models...

  4. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  5. Assessing the diurnal cycle of precipitation in a multi-scale climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Pritchard

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A promising result that has emerged from the new Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF approach to atmospheric modeling is a global improvement in the daily timing of peak precipitation over the continents, which is suggestive of improved moist dynamics at diurnal timescales overall. We scrutinize the simulated seasonal composite diurnal cycle of precipitation in an MMF developed by the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP using a comprehensive suite of diurnal cycle diagnostics including traditional harmonic analysis, and non-traditional diagnostics such as the broadness of the peak precipitation in the mean summer day, reduced dimension transect analysis, and animations of the full spatial and temporal variability of the composite mean summer day. Precipitation in the MMF is evaluated against multi-satellite merged satellite data and a control simulation with a climate model that employs conventional cloud and boundary layer parameterizations. Our analysis highlights several improved features of the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the multi-scale climate model: It is less sinusoidal over the most energetic diurnal rainfall regimes, more horizontally inhomogeneous within continents and oceans, and more faithful to observed structural transitions in the composite diurnal cycle chronology straddling coastlines than the conventional climate model. A regional focus on North America links a seasonal summer dry bias over the continental United States in the CMMAP MMF at T42 resolution to its inability to capture diurnally propagating precipitation signals associated with organized convection in the lee of the Rockies. The chronology of precipitation events elsewhere in the vicinity of North America is improved in the MMF, especially over sea breeze circulation regions along the eastern seaboard and the Gulf of Mexico, as well as over the entirety of the Gulf Stream. Comparison of the convective heating and moistening

  6. Reproducibility of summertime diurnal precipitation over northern Eurasia simulated by CMIP5 climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, N.; Takayabu, Y. N.

    2015-12-01

    Reproducibility of diurnal precipitation over northern Eurasia simulated by CMIP5 climate models in their historical runs were evaluated, in comparison with station data (NCDC-9813) and satellite data (GSMaP-V5). We first calculated diurnal cycles by averaging precipitation at each local solar time (LST) in June-July-August during 1981-2000 over the continent of northern Eurasia (0-180E, 45-90N). Then we examined occurrence time of maximum precipitation and a contribution of diurnally varying precipitation to the total precipitation.The contribution of diurnal precipitation was about 21% in both NCDC-9813 and GSMaP-V5. The maximum precipitation occurred at 18LST in NCDC-9813 but 16LST in GSMaP-V5, indicating some uncertainties even in the observational datasets. The diurnal contribution of the CMIP5 models varied largely from 11% to 62%, and their timing of the precipitation maximum ranged from 11LST to 20LST. Interestingly, the contribution and the timing had strong negative correlation of -0.65. The models with larger diurnal precipitation showed precipitation maximum earlier around noon. Next, we compared sensitivity of precipitation to surface temperature and tropospheric humidity between 5 models with large diurnal precipitation (LDMs) and 5 models with small diurnal precipitation (SDMs). Precipitation in LDMs showed high sensitivity to surface temperature, indicating its close relationship with local instability. On the other hand, synoptic disturbances were more active in SDMs with a dominant role of the large scale condensation, and precipitation in SDMs was more related with tropospheric moisture. Therefore, the relative importance of the local instability and the synoptic disturbances was suggested to be an important factor in determining the contribution and timing of the diurnal precipitation. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by Green Network of Excellence (GRENE) Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology

  7. A parameter study of the effect of the diurnal cycle on the atmospheric dynamics of slowly-rotating planets using a simple GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Read, Peter L.

    2016-10-01

    The large set of discovered exoplanets provides a multitude of possible planetary characteristics that need to be understood. To analyse and compare the dominant contributions to their atmospheric circulation in the most general way, it is beneficial to study the properties of different circulation regimes with reference to non-dimensional parameter spaces. Our work is concerned with the nonlinear responses to the diurnal heating cycle and their impact on the broader circulation in order to understand the emergence and maintenance of equatorial super-rotation in atmospheres of bodies similar to Venus and Titan.We use a hierarchy of simple GCMs with increasing temporal resolution in thermal forcing (i.e. annually averaged, seasonal cycle, diurnal cycle) using a simple 2-band, semi-gray radiation scheme for a terrestrial-style planetary atmosphere. In our parameter space we vary key parameters such as the thermal Rossby number (planetary rotation rate), the Greenhouse parameter (the ratio between short- and long-wave optical thickness), the thermal inertia of the surface, and atmospheric equilibrium time-scale. The resulting circulations show an increased equatorial super-rotating wind due to the diurnal cycle when the atmosphere is heated at the top. We investigate and quantify the accelerating effect of the thermal tides.

  8. Diurnal variations of serum erythropoietin at sea level and altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, T; Poulsen, T D; Fogh-Andersen, N;

    1996-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the diurnal variations of serum-erythropoietin concentration (serum-EPO) observed in normoxia also exist in hypoxia. The study also attempted to investigate the regulation of EPO production during sustained hypoxia. Nine subjects were investigated at sea level...... and during 4 days at an altitude of 4350 m. Median sea level serum-EPO concentration was 6 (range 6-13) U.l-1. Serum-EPO concentration increased after 18 and 42 h at altitude, [58 (range 39-240) and 54 (range 36-340) U.l-1, respectively], and then decreased after 64 and 88 h at altitude [34 (range 18......-290) and 31 (range 17-104) U.l-1, respectively]. These changes of serum-EPO concentration were correlated to the changes in arterial blood oxygen saturation (r = -0.60, P = 0.0009), pH (r = 0.67, P = 0.003), and in-vivo venous blood oxygen half saturation tension (r = -0.68, P = 0.004) but not to the changes...

  9. Diurnal variation in exercise responses in angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, M; Pollard, C M; Nunan, T O

    1982-01-01

    Thirty caucasian male patients with stable angina were investigated in two groups of nine and one group of 12. Nine normal subjects were also studied. Patients in the first group (on no treatment) underwent symptom-limited exercise electrocardiography at 0800, 1200, and 1600 hours on the same day. Their heart rates and ST segment displacements at 1600 hours were significantly greater than at 0800 hours and the same phenomenon was seen in the second group who had been receiving propranolol 40 mg four times a day. A similar effect was noted for ST segment displacement but not for heart rate in the third group (on no treatment) tested at 0800 hours and 1600 hours on separate days, two to three weeks apart. Normal control subjects showed no diurnal variation in heart rate and their heart rate responses at 1600 hours were reduced by propranolol. The observations show a circadian variation in the ST segment response to exercise in patients with angina and a possible training effect on heart rate with multiple exercise testing on the same day. This variation is associated with a reduction in vagal parasympathetic tone to the heart and should be taken into account in the assessment of patients with angina and in particular when comparing responses to treatment. PMID:7201319

  10. Diurnal modulation signal from dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, R

    2014-01-01

    We consider a simple generic dissipative dark matter model: a hidden sector featuring two dark matter particles charged under an unbroken $U(1)'$ interaction. Previous work has shown that such a model has the potential to explain dark matter phenomena on both large and small scales. In this framework, the dark matter halo in spiral galaxies features nontrivial dynamics, with the halo energy loss due to dissipative interactions balanced by a heat source. Ordinary supernovae can potentially supply this heat provided kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength $\\epsilon \\sim 10^{-9}$. This type of kinetically mixed dark matter can be probed in direct detection experiments. Importantly, this self-interacting dark matter can be captured within the Earth and shield a dark matter detector from the halo wind, giving rise to a diurnal modulation effect. We estimate the size of this effect for detectors located in the Southern hemisphere, and find that the modulation is large ($\\gtrsim 10\\%$) for a wide range of pa...

  11. Diurnal variation of precipitation over the Carolina Sandhills region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Wootten; S Raman; A Sims

    2010-10-01

    The Carolina Sandhills are known to have an area of maximum precipitation on its western boundary during the summer mainly due to differences in soil types.Statistical analysis was performed on summer precipitation data from automated weather stations in the Carolinas,along the Sandhills for the years 2001 to 2006.Statistically significant difference was observed between the day and night precipitation amounts.A case study also revealed the diurnal pattern of convective precipitation. North American Mesoscale (NAM)model forecasts for the summers of 2004 to 2006 were evaluated using observations.The model underpredicted precipitation significantly during nights. A numerical simulation using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF)model was performed for August 9 –11,2001 and the forecasts were compared with observed precipitation data.The model precipitation forecasts were better for daytime as compared to the night.This feature is attributed to model physics not capturing cloud –radiation interaction processes dominant during nights. Although this study is for a specific region in the US,results are applicable for other regions for similar conditions.

  12. Diurnal changes of earthquake activity and geomagnetic Sq-variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duma

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistic analyses demonstrate that the probability of earthquake occurrence in many earthquake regions strongly depends on the time of day, that is on Local Time (e.g. Conrad, 1909, 1932; Shimshoni, 1971; Duma, 1997; Duma and Vilardo, 1998. This also applies to strong earthquake activity. Moreover, recent observations reveal an involvement of the regular diurnal variations of the Earth’s magnetic field, commonly known as Sq-variations, in this geodynamic process of changing earthquake activity with the time of day (Duma, 1996, 1999. In the article it is attempted to quantify the forces which result from the interaction between the induced Sq-variation currents in the Earth’s lithosphere and the regional Earth’s magnetic field, in order to assess the influence on the tectonic stress field and on seismic activity. A reliable model is obtained, which indicates a high energy involved in this process. The effect of Sq-induction is compared with the results of the large scale electromagnetic experiment "Khibiny" (Velikhov, 1989, where a giant artificial current loop was activated in the Barents Sea.

  13. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, H.R. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system, and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  14. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S.; Williams, H. R.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system; and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  15. Diurnal modulation signal from dissipative hidden sector dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Foot

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a simple generic dissipative dark matter model: a hidden sector featuring two dark matter particles charged under an unbroken U(1′ interaction. Previous work has shown that such a model has the potential to explain dark matter phenomena on both large and small scales. In this framework, the dark matter halo in spiral galaxies features nontrivial dynamics, with the halo energy loss due to dissipative interactions balanced by a heat source. Ordinary supernovae can potentially supply this heat provided kinetic mixing interaction exists with strength ϵ∼10−9. This type of kinetically mixed dark matter can be probed in direct detection experiments. Importantly, this self-interacting dark matter can be captured within the Earth and shield a dark matter detector from the halo wind, giving rise to a diurnal modulation effect. We estimate the size of this effect for detectors located in the Southern hemisphere, and find that the modulation is large (≳10% for a wide range of parameters.

  16. Winter habitat associations of diurnal raptors in Californias Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolrno, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Hooper, S.L.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    The wintering raptors of California's Central Valley are abundant and diverse. Despite this, little information exists on the habitats used by these birds in winter. We recorded diurnal raptors along 19 roadside survey routes throughout the Central Valley for three consecutive winters between 2007 and 2010. We obtained data sufficient to determine significant positive and negative habitat associations for the White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus), Bald Eagle {Haliaeetus leucocephalus), Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Rough-legged Hawk (Buteo lagopus), American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), and Prairie Falcon (Falco mexicanus). The Prairie Falcon and Ferruginous and Rough-legged hawks showed expected strong positive associations with grasslands. The Bald Eagle and Northern Harrier were positively associated not only with wetlands but also with rice. The strongest positive association for the White-tailed Kite was with wetlands. The Red-tailed Hawk was positively associated with a variety of habitat types but most strongly with wetlands and rice. The American Kestrel, Northern Harrier, and White-tailed Kite were positively associated with alfalfa. Nearly all species were negatively associated with urbanized landscapes, orchards, and other intensive forms of agriculture. The White-tailed Kite, Northern Harrier, Redtailed Hawk, Ferruginous Hawk, and American Kestrel showed significant negative associations with oak savanna. Given the rapid conversion of the Central Valley to urban and intensive agricultural uses over the past few decades, these results have important implications for conservation of these wintering raptors in this region.

  17. Diurnal cortisol rhythms among Latino immigrants in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires Erica C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most commonly used stress biomarkers is cortisol, a glucocorticoid hormone released by the adrenal glands that is central to the physiological stress response. Free cortisol can be measured in saliva and has been the biomarker of choice in stress studies measuring the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Chronic psychosocial stress can lead to dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function and results in an abnormal diurnal cortisol profile. Little is known about objectively measured stress and health in Latino populations in the United States, yet this is likely an important factor in understanding health disparities that exist between Latinos and whites. The present study was designed to measure cortisol profiles among Latino immigrant farmworkers in Oregon (USA, and to compare quantitative and qualitative measures of stress in this population. Our results indicate that there were no sex differences in average cortisol AUCg (area under the curve with respect to the ground over two days (AvgAUCg; males = 1.38, females = 1.60; P = 0.415. AUCg1 (Day 1 AUCg and AvgAUCg were significantly negatively associated with age in men (PPPP

  18. Examining a solar climate link in diurnal temperature ranges

    CERN Document Server

    Laken, Benjamin A; Shahbaz, Tariq; Pallé, Enric; 10.1029/2012JD17683

    2012-01-01

    A recent study has suggested a link between the surface level diurnal temperature range (DTR) and variations in the cosmic ray (CR) flux. As the DTR is an effective proxy for cloud cover, this result supports the notion that widespread cloud changes may be induced by the CR flux. If confirmed, this would have significant implications for our understanding of natural climate forcings. Here, we perform a detailed investigation of the relationships between DTR and solar activity (total solar irradiance and the CR flux) from more than 60 years of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and observations from meteorological station data. We find no statistically significant evidence to suggest that the DTR is connected to either long-term solar periodicities (11 or 1.68 year) or short-term (daily-timescale) fluctuations in solar activity, and we attribute previous reports on the contrary to an incorrect estimation of the statistical significance of the data. If a CR-DTR relationship exists, based on the estimated noise in DTR co...

  19. Listening to music affects diurnal variation in muscle power output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtourou, H; Chaouachi, A; Hammouda, O; Chamari, K; Souissi, N

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music while warming-up on the diurnal variations of power output during the Wingate test. 12 physical education students underwent four Wingate tests at 07:00 and 17:00 h, after 10 min of warm-up with and without listening to music. The warm-up consisted of 10 min of pedalling at a constant pace of 60 rpm against a light load of 1 kg. During the Wingate test, peak and mean power were measured. The main finding was that peak and mean power improved from morning to afternoon after no music warm-up (pmusic warm-up. Moreover, peak and mean power were significantly higher after music than no music warm-up during the two times of testing. Thus, as it is a legal method and an additional aid, music should be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions, especially in the morning competitive events.

  20. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  1. Diurnal hydrochemical variations in a karst spring and two ponds, Maolan Karst Experimental Site, China: Biological pump effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Liu, Zaihua; Macpherson, G. L.; Yang, Rui; Chen, Bo; Sun, Hailong

    2015-03-01

    A karst spring and two downstream ponds fed by the spring at the Maolan Karst Experimental Site, Guizhou Province, China, were used to investigate the effect of submerged plants on the CO2-H2O-CaCO3 system during a time of spring base flow in summer when underwater photosynthesis was strongest. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) were recorded at 15 min intervals for a period of 30 h (12:00 29 August-18:00 30 August, 2012). [Ca2+], [HCO3-], CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and saturation index of calcite (SIC) were estimated from the high-frequency measurements. Water samples were also collected three times a day (early morning, midday and evening) for δ13CDIC determination. A floating CO2-flux monitoring chamber was used to measure CO2 flux at the three locations. Results show that there was little or no diurnal variation in the spring water parameters. In the midstream pond with flourishing submerged plants, however, all parameters show distinct diurnal changes: temperature, pH, DO, SIc, δ13CDIC increased during the day and decreased at night, while EC, [HCO3-], [Ca2+], and pCO2 behaved in the opposite sense. In addition, maximum DO values (16-23 mg/L) in the midstream pond at daytime were two to three times those of water equilibrated with atmospheric O2, indicating strong aquatic photosynthesis. The proposed photosynthesis is corroborated by the low calculated pCO2 of 20-200 ppmv, which is much less than atmospheric pCO2. In the downstream pond with fewer submerged plants but larger volume, all parameters displayed similar trends to the midstream pond but with much less change, a pattern that we attribute to the lower biomass/water volume ratio. The diurnal hydrobiogeochemical variations in the two ponds depended essentially on illumination, indicating that photosynthesis and respiration by the submerged plants are the dominant controlling processes. The large loss of DIC between the spring and midstream pond, attributed to

  2. Ecotypic variability in the metabolic response of seeds to diurnal hydration-dehydration cycles and its relationship to seed vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Sikron, Noga; Gendler, Tanya; Kazachkova, Yana; Barak, Simon; Grafi, Gideon; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Fait, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Seeds in the seed bank experience diurnal cycles of imbibition followed by complete dehydration. These conditions pose a challenge to the regulation of germination. The effect of recurring hydration-dehydration (Hy-Dh) cycles were tested on seeds from four Arabidopsis thaliana accessions [Col-0, Cvi, C24 and Ler]. Diurnal Hy-Dh cycles had a detrimental effect on the germination rate and on the final percentage of germination in Col-0, Cvi and C24 ecotypes, but not in the Ler ecotype, which showed improved vigor following the treatments. Membrane permeability measured by ion conductivity was generally increased following each Hy-Dh cycle and was correlated with changes in the redox status represented by the GSSG/GSH (oxidized/reduced glutathione) ratio. Among the ecotypes, Col-0 seeds displayed the highest membrane permeability, whilst Ler was characterized by the greatest increase in electrical conductivity following Hy-Dh cycles. Following Dh 2 and Dh 3, the respiratory activity of Ler seeds significantly increased, in contrast to the other ecotypes, indicative of a dramatic shift in metabolism. These differences were associated with accession-specific content and patterns of change of (i) cell wall-related laminaribiose and mannose; (ii) fatty acid composition, specifically of the unsaturated oleic acid and α-linoleic acid; and (iii) asparagine, ornithine and the related polyamine putrescine. Furthermore, in the Ler ecotype the content of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates fumarate, succinate and malate increased in response to dehydration, in contrast to a decrease in the other three ecotypes. These findings provide a link between seed respiration, energy metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, nitrogen mobilization and membrane permeability and the improved germination of Ler seeds following Hy-Dh cycles.

  3. Variability in diurnal testosterone, exposure to violence, and antisocial behavior in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckins, Melissa K; Susman, Elizabeth J

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide evidence of an association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone over 1 year, lifetime exposure to violence, and the manifestation of antisocial behavior in 135 pubertal-aged adolescents across 1 year. Adolescents' sex and lifetime history of violence exposure moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior. Furthermore, sex-stratified analyses revealed that lifetime history of exposure to violence moderated the association between within-person variability in diurnal testosterone and antisocial behavior in females only. This report is unique in that it illuminates sex differences in within-person associations among exposure to violence, individual variability in diurnal testosterone, and antisocial behavior.

  4. Seasonal effect on the diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field registered in Huancayo Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, Domingo

    2016-01-01

    In this article we study the seasonal effect on the diurnal variation of the geomagnetic field registered in the Huancayo Observatory, located in the Magnetic Equator, which is driven by "ionospheric currents" and its counterpart induced by "telluric currents". Huancayo Observatory has the highest amplitude in the diurnal variation, because of being in the Magnetic Equator and under the "Equatorial Electrojet". We present the pattern of seasonal variation in diurnal variation of components X, Y and Z, the same as confirmed by previous works since 1940. The effect of solar activity cycle of about 11 years in the diurnal variation is also confirmed; it is observed that amplitudes are greater in the maximum of solar activity.

  5. Evaluation of the sensitivity of the Amazonian diurnal cycle to convective intensity in reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itterly, Kyle F.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2017-02-01

    Model parameterizations of tropical deep convection are unable to reproduce the observed diurnal and spatial variability of convection in the Amazon, which contributes to climatological biases in the water cycle and energy budget. Convective intensity regimes are defined using percentiles of daily minimum 3-hourly averaged outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This study compares the observed spatial variability of convective diurnal cycle statistics for each regime to MERRA-2 and ERA-Interim (ERA) reanalysis data sets. Composite diurnal cycle statistics are computed for daytime hours (06:00-21:00 local time) in the wet season (December-January-February). MERRA-2 matches observations more closely than ERA for domain averaged composite diurnal statistics—specifically precipitation. However, ERA reproduces mesoscale features of OLR and precipitation phase associated with topography and the propagation of the coastal squall line. Both reanalysis models are shown to underestimate extreme convection.

  6. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,ihep.ac.cn/

  7. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  8. The diurnal cycle of clouds and precipitation : an evaluation of multiple data sources

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifroth, Uwe Anton

    2016-01-01

    Clouds and precipitation are essential climate variables. Because of their high spatial and temporal variability, their observation and modeling is difficult. In this thesis multiple observational data sources, including satellite data and station data are globally analyzed to understand the distribution and variability of clouds and precipitation, while a special focus is on the diurnal cycle of both variables. Substantial diurnal cycles of clouds and precipitation are observed in the tropic...

  9. Medical Devices; Ophthalmic Devices; Classification of the Diurnal Pattern Recorder System. Final order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the diurnal pattern recorder system into class II (special controls). The special controls that will apply to the device are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the diurnal pattern recorder system's classification. The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  10. PROGRAMMABLE DISPLAY PUSHBUTTON LEGEND EDITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Programmable Display Pushbutton (PDP) is a pushbutton device available from Micro Switch which has a programmable 16 x 35 matrix of LEDs on the pushbutton surface. Any desired legends can be displayed on the PDPs, producing user-friendly applications which greatly reduce the need for dedicated manual controls. Because the PDP can interact with the operator, it can call for the correct response before transmitting its next message. It is both a simple manual control and a sophisticated programmable link between the operator and the host system. The Programmable Display Pushbutton Legend Editor, PDPE, is used to create the LED displays for the pushbuttons. PDPE encodes PDP control commands and legend data into message byte strings sent to a Logic Refresh and Control Unit (LRCU). The LRCU serves as the driver for a set of four PDPs. The legend editor (PDPE) transmits to the LRCU user specified commands that control what is displayed on the LED face of the individual pushbuttons. Upon receiving a command, the LRCU transmits an acknowledgement that the message was received and executed successfully. The user then observes the effect of the command on the PDP displays and decides whether or not to send the byte code of the message to a data file so that it may be called by an applications program. The PDPE program is written in FORTRAN for interactive execution. It was developed on a DEC VAX 11/780 under VMS. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 12800 bytes. It requires four Micro Switch PDPs and two RS-232 VAX 11/780 terminal ports. The PDPE program was developed in 1985.

  11. Colorful displays signal male quality in a tropical anole lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellee G.; Murphy, Troy G.; Johnson, Michele A.

    2013-10-01

    Parasites influence colorful ornaments and their behavioral display in many animal hosts. Because coloration and display behavior are often critical components of communication, variation in these traits may have important implications for individual fitness, yet it remains unclear whether such traits are signals of quality in many taxa. We investigated the association between ectoparasitic mite load and the color and behavioral use of the throat fan (dewlap) by male Anolis brevirostris lizards. We found that heavily parasitized lizards exhibited lower body condition, duller dewlaps, and less frequent dewlap displays than less parasitized individuals. Our results thus suggest that highly parasitized individuals invest less in both ornamental color and behavioral display of that color. Because the two components of the signal simultaneously provide information on male quality, this study provides novel support for the long-standing hypothesis that colorful traits may function as social or sexual signals in reptiles.

  12. An ethogram of body patterning behavior in the biomedically and commercially valuable squid Loligo pealei off Cape Cod, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, R T; Maxwell, M R; Shashar, N; Loew, E R; Boyle, K L

    1999-08-01

    Squids have a wide repertoire of body patterns; these patterns contain visual signals assembled from a highly diverse inventory of chromatic, postural, and locomotor components. The chromatic components reflect the activity of dermal chromatophore organs that, like the postural and locomotor muscles, are controlled directly from the central nervous system. Because a thorough knowledge of body patterns is fundamental to an understanding of squid behavior, we have compiled and described an ethogram (a catalog of body patterns and associated behaviors) for Loligo pealei. Observations of this species were made over a period of three years (> or = 440 h) and under a variety of behavioral circumstances. The natural behavior of the squid was filmed on spawning grounds off Cape Cod (northwestern Atlantic), and behavioral trials in the laboratory were run in large tanks. The body pattern components--34 chromatic (including 4 polarization components), 5 postural, and 12 locomotor--are each described in detail. Eleven of the most common body patterns are also described. Four of them are chronic, or long-lasting, patterns for crypsis; an example is Banded Bottom Sitting, which produces disruptive coloration against the substrate. The remaining seven patterns are acute; they are mostly used in intraspecific communication among spawning squids. Two of these acute patterns--Lateral Display and Mate Guarding Pattern--are used during agonistic bouts and mate guarding; they are visually bright and conspicuous, which may subject the squids to predation; but we hypothesize that schooling and diurnal activity may offset the disadvantage presented by increased visibility to predators. The rapid changeability and the diversity of body patterns used for crypsis and communication are discussed in the context of the behavioral ecology of this species.

  13. Computational multi-projection display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seokil; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Seungjae; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-04-18

    A computational multi-projection display is proposed by employing a multi-projection system combining with compressive light field displays. By modulating the intensity of light rays from a spatial light modulator inside a single projector, the proposed system can offer several compact views to observer. Since light rays are spread to all directions, the system can provide flexible positioning of viewpoints without stacking projectors in vertical direction. Also, if the system is constructed properly, it is possible to generate view images with inter-pupillary gap and satisfy the super multi-view condition. We explain the principle of the proposed system and verify its feasibility with simulations and experimental results.

  14. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  15. Simulation of the Universal-Time Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Charging Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackerras, D.; Darvenzia, M.; Orville, R. E.; Williams, E. R.; Goodman, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    A global lightning model that includes diurnal and annual lightning variation, and total flash density versus latitude for each major land and ocean, has been used as the basis for simulating the global electric circuit charging rate. A particular objective has been to reconcile the difference in amplitude ratios [AR=(max-min)/mean] between global lightning diurnal variation (AR approx. = 0.8) and the diurnal variation of typical atmospheric potential gradient curves (AR approx. = 0.35). A constraint on the simulation is that the annual mean charging current should be about 1000 A. The global lightning model shows that negative ground flashes can contribute, at most, about 10-15% of the required current. For the purpose of the charging rate simulation, it was assumed that each ground flash contributes 5 C to the charging process. It was necessary to assume that all electrified clouds contribute to charging by means other than lightning, that the total flash rate can serve as an indirect indicator of the rate of charge transfer, and that oceanic electrified clouds contribute to charging even though they are relatively inefficient in producing lightning. It was also found necessary to add a diurnally invariant charging current component. By trial and error it was found that charging rate diurnal variation curves in Universal time (UT) could be produced with amplitude ratios and general shapes similar to those of the potential gradient diurnal variation curves measured over ocean and arctic regions during voyages of the Carnegie Institute research vessels.

  16. Diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land uses on Taihang Mountain, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qihong; Chang, Jianguo; Hou, Ke

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the diurnal variation in soil respiration under different land use types on Taihang Mountain, North China, and to understand its response to environmental factors (e.g., soil temperature and moisture) and forest management. Diurnal variations in soil respiration from plantations (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujuba), naturally regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla), grasslands (Bothriochloa ischaemum), and farmlands (winter wheat/summer maize) were measured using an LI-8100 automated soil CO2 flux system from May 2012 to April 2013. The results indicated that land use type had a significant effect on the diurnal variation of soil respiration. The diurnal soil respiration from farmlands was highest, followed by Ziziphus jujube, R. pseudoacacia, P. granatum, the lower soil CO2 efflux was found from B. ischaemum and V. negundo var. heterophylla. The diurnal soil respiration across different land use types was significantly affected by soil temperature and moisture, and their interaction. Precipitation-stimulated soil respiration increased more in soil with low water content and less in soil with high water content. The lower diurnal soil respiration from naturally regenerated forests suggests that naturally regenerated vegetation is the optimal vegetation type for reducing global warming.

  17. Metabolic cycles are linked to the cardiovascular diurnal rhythm in rats with essential hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The loss of diurnal rhythm in blood pressure (BP is an important predictor of end-organ damage in hypertensive and diabetic patients. Recent evidence has suggested that two major physiological circadian rhythms, the metabolic and cardiovascular rhythms, are subject to regulation by overlapping molecular pathways, indicating that dysregulation of metabolic cycles could desynchronize the normal diurnal rhythm of BP with the daily light/dark cycle. However, little is known about the impact of changes in metabolic cycles on BP diurnal rhythm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that feeding-fasting cycles could affect the diurnal pattern of BP, we used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR which develop essential hypertension with disrupted diurnal BP rhythms and examined whether abnormal BP rhythms in SHR were caused by alteration in the daily feeding rhythm. We found that SHR exhibit attenuated feeding rhythm which accompanies disrupted rhythms in metabolic gene expression not only in metabolic tissues but also in cardiovascular tissues. More importantly, the correction of abnormal feeding rhythms in SHR restored the daily BP rhythm and was accompanied by changes in the timing of expression of key circadian and metabolic genes in cardiovascular tissues. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the metabolic cycle is an important determinant of the cardiovascular diurnal rhythm and that disrupted BP rhythms in hypertensive patients can be normalized by manipulating feeding cycles.

  18. Spatial variation in pollinator-mediated selection on phenology, floral display and spur length in the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapurlat, Elodie; Ågren, Jon; Sletvold, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Spatial variation in plant-pollinator interactions may cause variation in pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits, but to establish this link conclusively experimental studies are needed. We quantified pollinator-mediated selection on flowering phenology and morphology in four populations of the fragrant orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, and compared selection mediated by diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in two of the populations. Variation in pollinator-mediated selection explained most of the among-population variation in the strength of directional and correlational selection. Pollinators mediated correlational selection on pairs of display traits, and on one display trait and spur length, a trait affecting pollination efficiency. Only nocturnal pollinators selected for longer spurs, and mediated stronger selection on the number of flowers compared with diurnal pollinators in one population. The two types of pollinators caused correlational selection on different pairs of traits and selected for different combinations of spur length and number of flowers. The results demonstrate that spatial variation in interactions with pollinators may result in differences in directional and correlational selection on floral traits in a plant with a semi-generalized pollination system, and suggest that differences in the relative importance of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators can cause variation in selection.

  19. Spatial patterns in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. H. Holmes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structural difference in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle (DTC over land resulting from choice of measuring device or model framework. It is shown that the timing can be reliably estimated from temporally sparse observations acquired from a constellation of low Earth orbiting satellites given record lengths of at least three months. Based on a year of data, the spatial patterns of mean DTC timing are compared between Ka-band temperature estimates, geostationary thermal infrared (TIR temperature estimates and numerical weather prediction model output from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO. It is found that the spatial patterns can be explained by vegetation effects, sensing depth differences and more speculatively the orientation of orographic relief features. In absolute terms, the GMAO model puts the peak of the DTC on average at 12:50 local solar time, 23 min before TIR with a peak temperature at 13:13. Since TIR is the shallowest observation of the land surface, this small difference represents a structural error that possibly affects the models ability to assimilate observations that are closely tied to the DTC. For non-desert areas, the Ka-band observations have only a small delay of about 15 min with the TIR observations which is in agreement with their respective theoretical sensing depth. The results of this comparison provide insights into the structural differences between temperature measurements and models, and can be used as a first step to account for these differences in a coherent way.

  20. Adrenal-dependent diurnal modulation of conditioned fear extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Chun, Lauren E; Fardi, Sara; Hinds, Laura R; Spencer, Robert L

    2015-06-01

    Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with altered conditioned fear extinction expression and impaired circadian function including dysregulation of glucocorticoid hormone secretion. We examined in adult male rats the relationship between conditioned fear extinction learning, circadian phase, and endogenous glucocorticoids (CORT). Rats maintained on a 12h light:dark cycle were trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions (conditioned fear acquisition and 2 extinction sessions) that were administered during either the rats' active or inactive circadian phase. In an initial experiment we found that rats at both circadian phases acquired and extinguished auditory cue conditioned fear to a similar degree in the first extinction session. However, rats trained and tested at zeitgeber time-16 (ZT16) (active phase) showed enhanced extinction memory expression during the second extinction session compared to rats trained and tested at ZT4 (inactive phase). In a follow-up experiment, adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham surgery rats were similarly trained and tested across 3 separate daily sessions at either ZT4 or ZT16. ADX had no effect on conditioned fear acquisition or conditioned fear memory. Sham ADX rats trained and tested at ZT16 exhibited better extinction learning across the two extinction sessions compared to all other groups of rats. These results indicate that conditioned fear extinction learning is modulated by time of day, and this diurnal modulation requires the presence of adrenal hormones. These results support an important role of CORT-dependent circadian processes in regulating conditioned fear extinction learning, which may be capitalized upon to optimize effective treatment of PTSD.

  1. Autostereoscopic display with eye tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Takao; Hoon, Kyung; Ha, Yong Soo; Kim, Sung-Sik; Son, Jung-Young

    2002-05-01

    Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking having wide viewing zone and bright image was fabricated. The image of display is projected to retinal through several optical components. We calculated optical system for wider viewing zone by using Inverse-Ray Trace Method. The viewing zone of first model is 155mm (theoretical value: 161mm). We could widen viewing zone by controlling paraxial radius of curvature of spherical mirror, the distance between lenses and so on. The viewing zone of second model is 208mm. We used two spherical mirrors to obtain twice brightness. We applied eye-tracking system to the display system. Eye recognition is based on neural network card based on ZICS technology. We fabricated Auto-stereoscopic 21-inch display with eye tracking. We measured viewing zone based on illumination area. The viewing zone was 206mm, which was close to theoretical value. We could get twice brightness also. We could see 3D image according to position without headgear.

  2. Graphics Display of Foreign Scripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, John R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Graphics Project for Foreign Language Learning at the University of Pennsylvania, which has developed ways of displaying foreign scripts on microcomputers. Character design on computer screens is explained; software for graphics, printing, and language instruction is discussed; and a text editor is described that corrects optically…

  3. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  4. Verbal Modification via Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Edmun B.; Wallace-Childers, La Donna

    1977-01-01

    The inability of foreign language students to produce acceptable approximations of new vowel sounds initiated a study to devise a real-time visual display system whereby the students could match vowel production to a visual pedagogical model. The system used amateur radio equipment and a standard oscilloscope. (CHK)

  5. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  6. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  7. Book Display as Adult Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew S.

    1997-01-01

    Defines book display as an adult service as choosing and positioning adult books from the library collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access, including contrasting missions, genre grouping, weeding, problems, and dimensions. (Author/LRW)

  8. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  9. Lower glycemic load meals reduce diurnal glycemic oscillations in women with risk factors for gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Goletzke, Janina; Brodie, Shannon; Atkinson, Fiona S; Markovic, Tania P; Ross, Glynis P; Buyken, Anette; Brand-Miller, Jennie P

    2017-01-01

    Objective Maternal glycemia plays a key role in fetal growth. We hypothesized that lower glycemic load (GL) meals (lower glycemic index, modestly lower carbohydrate) would substantially reduce day-long glucose variability in women at risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Research design and methods A crossover study of 17 women (mean±SD age 34.8±4 years; gestational weeks 29.3±1.3; body mass index 23.8±4.7 kg/m2) who consumed a low GL or a high GL diet in random order, 1-day each, over 2 consecutive days. Diets were energy-matched and fiber-matched with 5 meals per 24 hours. All food was provided. Continuous glucose monitoring was used to assess diurnal glycemia. Results Maternal glucose levels were 51% lower on the low GL day with lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC±SEM 549±109 vs 1120±198 mmol/L min, p=0.015). Glycemic variability was significantly lower on the low GL day, as demonstrated by a lower average SD (0.7±0.1 vs 0.9±0.1, p<0.001) and lower mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (2.1±0.2 vs 2.7±0.2 mmol/L, p<0.001). Conclusions A lower GL meal plan in pregnancy acutely halves day-long maternal glucose levels and reduces glucose variability, providing further evidence to support the utility of a low GL diet in pregnancy.

  10. Solar-forced diurnal regulation of cave drip rates via phreatophyte evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleborn, Katie; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Baker, Andy; Navarre, Owen

    2016-11-01

    We present results of a detailed study of drip rate variations at 12 drip discharge sites in Glory Hole Cave, New South Wales, Australia. Our novel time series analysis, using the wavelet synchrosqueezed transform, reveals pronounced oscillations at daily and sub-daily frequencies occurring in 8 out of the 12 monitored sites. These oscillations were not spatially or temporally homogenous, with different drip sites exhibiting such behaviour at different times of year in different parts of the cave. We test several hypotheses for the cause of the oscillations, including variations in pressure gradients between karst and cave due to cave breathing effects or atmospheric and earth tides, variations in hydraulic conductivity due to changes in viscosity of water with daily temperature oscillations, and solar-driven daily cycles of vegetative (phreatophytic) transpiration. We conclude that the only hypothesis consistent with the data and hydrologic theory is that daily oscillations are caused by solar-driven pumping by phreatophytic trees which are abundant at the site. The daily oscillations are not continuous and occur sporadically in short bursts (2-14 days) throughout the year due to non-linear modification of the solar signal via complex karst architecture. This is the first indirect observation leading to the hypothesis of tree water use in cave drip water. It has important implications for karst hydrology in regards to developing a new protocol to determine the relative importance of trends in drip rate, such as diurnal oscillations, and how these trends change over timescales of weeks to years. This information can also be used to infer karst architecture. This study demonstrates the importance of vegetation on recharge dynamics, information that will inform both process-based karst models and empirical estimation approaches. Our findings support a growing body of research exploring the impact of trees on speleothem paleoclimate proxies.

  11. Diurnal Variation of Hormonal and Lipid Biomarkers in a Molecular Epidemiology-Like Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda W M van Kerkhof

    Full Text Available Many molecular epidemiology studies focusing on high prevalent diseases, such as metabolic disorders and cancer, investigate metabolic and hormonal markers. In general, sampling for these markers can occur at any time-point during the day or after an overnight fast. However, environmental factors, such as light exposure and food intake might affect the levels of these markers, since they provide input for the internal time-keeping system. When diurnal variation is larger than the inter-individual variation, time of day should be taken into account. Importantly, heterogeneity in diurnal variation and disturbance of circadian rhythms among a study population might increasingly occur as a result of our increasing 24/7 economy and related variation in exposure to environmental factors (such as light and food.The aim of the present study was to determine whether a set of often used biomarkers shows diurnal variation in a setting resembling large molecular epidemiology studies, i.e., non-fasted and limited control possibilities for other environmental influences.We show that markers for which diurnal variation is not an issue are adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol and high-density lipoprotein. For all other tested markers diurnal variation was observed in at least one gender (cholesterol, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, testosterone, triglycerides, total triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone or could not reliably be detected (human growth hormone.Thus, studies investigating these markers should take diurnal variation into account, for which we provide some options. Furthermore, our study indicates the need for investigating diurnal variation (in literature or experimentally before setting up studies measuring markers in routine and controlled settings, especially since time-of-day likely matters for many more

  12. Cloud cover diurnal cycles in satellite data and regional climate model simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifroth, Uwe; Ahrens, Bodo [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. for Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences; Hollmann, Rainer [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The amount and diurnal cycle of cloud cover play an important role in the energy and water cycle of the earth-atmosphere system and influence the radiation budget of the earth. Due to its importance and the challenging nature of its quantification, cloud cover is considered the biggest uncertainty factor in climate modeling. There is a clear need for reliable cloud datasets suitable for climate model evaluation studies. This study analyzes two datasets of cloud cover and its diurnal cycle derived from satellite observations by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) and by EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) in Africa and Europe. Two regions, Europe and the subtropical southern Atlantic Ocean, were identified as offering distinct cloud cover diurnal cycles reasonably observed by both satellite datasets. In these regions, simulations by the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (CCLM) were evaluated in terms of cloud cover and its diurnal cycle during the time period of 1990 to 2007. Results show that the satellite derived cloud diurnal cycles largely agree, while discrepancies occur under extreme conditions like in the Sahara region. The CCLM is able to simulate the diurnal cycle observed consistently in the two satellite datasets in the South-Atlantic ocean, but not in Europe. CCLM misses the afternoon maximum cloud cover in Summer in Europe, which implies deficiencies in the parameterization of convection and in the treatment of surface-atmosphere interactions. The simulation of the diurnal cycle of the more stratiform cloud cover over the subtropical Atlantic was satisfactory in CCLM. (orig.)

  13. Decreased daytime illumination leads to anxiety-like behaviors and HPA axis dysregulation in the diurnal grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Deats, Sean P; Soler, Joel; Lonstein, Joseph S; Yan, Lily

    2016-03-01

    The impact of ambient light on mood and anxiety is best exemplified in seasonal affective disorder, in which patients experience depression and anxiety in winter when there is less light in the environment. However, the brain mechanisms underlying light-dependent changes in affective state remain unclear. Our previous work revealed increased depression-like behaviors in the diurnal Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) housed in a dim light-dark (dim-LD) cycle as compared to the controls housed in a bright light-dark (bright-LD) condition. As depression is often comorbid with anxiety and is associated with dysregulation of the body's stress response system, the present study examined the anxiety-like behaviors as well as indicators of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning in the grass rats. Animals housed in dim-LD showed increased anxiety-like behaviors compared to bright-LD controls, as revealed by fewer entries and less time spent at the center in the open field test and more marbles buried during the marble-burying test. Following the marble-burying test, dim-LD animals showed higher plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels and hippocampal Fos expression. Although the daily CORT rhythm was comparable between bright-LD and dim-LD groups, the day/night variation of corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus was diminished in dim-LD animals. In addition, glucocorticoid receptor and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA expression were higher in the hippocampus of dim-LD animals. The results suggest that in diurnal species, reduced daytime illumination can lead to increased anxiety-like behaviors and altered HPA axis functioning, providing insights into the link between decreased environmental illumination and negative emotion.

  14. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  15. Characterization of the rotating display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, J W; Fahey, F H; Harkness, B A; Eggli, D F; Balseiro, J; Ziessman, H A

    1988-09-01

    The rotating display is a useful method for reviewing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) data. This study evaluated the requirements for a subjectively pleasing and useful implementation of this technique. Twelve SPECT data sets were modified and viewed by several observers who recorded the minimum framing rates for apparent smooth rotation, 3D effect, effects of image size, and other parameters. The results showed that a minimum of 16 frames was needed for a useful display. Smaller image sizes and more frames were preferred. The recommended minimal framing rate for a 64-frame study is 16-17 frames per second and for a 32-frame study, 12-13 frames per second. Other enhancements also were useful.

  16. Displays for future intermediate UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel; Metzler, James; Blakesley, David; Rister, Courtney; Nuhu, Abdul-Razak

    2008-04-01

    The Dedicated Autonomous Extended Duration Airborne Long-range Utility System (DAEDALUS) is a prototype Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that won the 2007 AFRL Commander's Challenge. The purpose of the Commander's Challenge was to find an innovative solution to urgent warfighter needs by designing a UAV with increased persistence for tactical employment of sensors and communication systems. DAEDALUS was chosen as a winning prototype by AFRL, AFMC and SECAF. Follow-on units are intended to fill an intermediate role between currently fielded Tier I and Tier II UAV's. The UAV design discussed in this paper, including sensors and displays, will enter Phase II for Rapid Prototype Development with the intent of developing the design for eventual production. This paper will discuss the DAEDALUS UAV prototype system, with particular focus on its communications, to include the infrared sensor and electro-optical camera, but also displays, specifically man-portable.

  17. Interactive display of polygonal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, P.M.

    1977-10-01

    Interactive computer graphics is an excellent approach to many types of applications. It is an exciting method of doing geographic analysis when desiring to rapidly examine existing geographically related data or to display specially prepared data and base maps for publication. One such program is the interactive thematic mapping system called CARTE, which combines polygonal base maps with statistical data to produce shaded maps using a variety of shading symbolisms on a variety of output devices. A polygonal base map is one where geographic entities are described by points, lines, or polygons. It is combined with geocoded data to produce special subject or thematic maps. Shading symbolisms include texture shading for areas, varying widths for lines, and scaled symbols for points. Output devices include refresh and storage CRTs and auxiliary Calcomp or COM hardcopy. The system is designed to aid in the quick display of spatial data and in detailed map design.

  18. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  19. Modern Display Technologies and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    conventional tubes, LSI circuitry offers the possibility of correcting some of the deficiencies in electron-optic perform- ance and may lead to acceptable...certain ceramic materials such as PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) can be utilized for display applications. PLZT is transparent in the visible...consuming power (3.8.12). 3.8.4.2 State of development, Magnetic particles have been made of polyethylene with powdered Strontium ferrite as a filler

  20. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...... people comment on projects. Our work explores the usage of interactive technologies as enablers for the appropriation of an otherwise invisible infrastructure....

  1. Proof nets for display logic

    CERN Document Server

    Moot, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores several extensions of proof nets for the Lambek calculus in order to handle the different connectives of display logic in a natural way. The new proof net calculus handles some recent additions to the Lambek vocabulary such as Galois connections and Grishin interactions. It concludes with an exploration of the generative capacity of the Lambek-Grishin calculus, presenting an embedding of lexicalized tree adjoining grammars into the Lambek-Grishin calculus.

  2. Multiview synthesis for autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Gökçe.; Bhaskaran, Vasudev

    2013-09-01

    Autostereoscopic (AS) displays spatially multiplex multiple views, providing a more immersive experience by enabling users to view the content from different angles without the need of 3D glasses. Multiple views could be captured from multiple cameras at different orientations, however this could be expensive, time consuming and not applicable to some applications. The goal of multiview synthesis in this paper is to generate multiple views from a stereo image pair and disparity map by using various video processing techniques including depth/disparity map processing, initial view interpolation, inpainting and post-processing. We specifically emphasize the need for disparity processing when there is no depth information is available that is associated with the 2D data and we propose a segmentation based disparity processing algorithm to improve disparity map. Furthermore we extend the texture based 2D inpainting algorithm to 3D and further improve the hole-filling performance of view synthesis. The benefit of each step of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated with comparison to state of the art algorithms in terms of visual quality and PSNR metric. Our system is evaluated in an end-to-end multi view synthesis framework where only stereo image pair is provided as input to the system and 8 views are outputted and displayed in 8-view Alioscopy AS display.

  3. Body fluids, circadian blood pressure and plasma renin during growth hormone administration: a placebo-controlled study with two growth hormone doses in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Frandsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Side effects that can be related to fluid retention are common during the initial phases of growth hormone (GH) administration. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in body fluid compartments, diurnal blood pressure and plasma renin concentration during GH administration...... of treatment a significant increase in renin (p = 0.03) was observed. Mean diurnal blood pressure levels remained unchanged, whereas mean diurnal heart rate (min-1) increased significantly (placebo, 75 +/- 3.6; 3 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.2; 6 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.7; p

  4. Influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of normal and waxy barley starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Avi; Annor, George; Vamadevan, Varatharajan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of diurnal photosynthetic activity on the morphology, molecular composition, crystallinity, and gelatinization properties of normal barley starch (NBS) and waxy barley starch (WBS) granules from plants cultivated in a greenhouse under normal diurnal (16h light...... that normal barley starch is less influenced by the diurnal photosynthetic lighting regime than amylose-free barley starch suggesting a role of amylose to prevent structural disorder and increase starch granule robustness against environmental cues....

  5. Long-term Reliability of Diurnal Intraocular Pressure Patterns in Healthy Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yeoun Sook; Park, In Ki; Shin, Ko Un

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the long-term repeatability of diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) patterns in healthy Asian subjects without glaucoma. Methods Twenty-three eyes in 23 healthy Asian subjects without glaucoma underwent diurnal IOP measurements using Goldmann applanation tonometry every 2 hours from 9 AM to 11 PM during two visits that were 8 weeks apart. To validate repeatability between visits, we calculated intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) mean IOP, peak IOP, minimum IOP, and IOP fluctuation at each time point and expressed the results as the difference between peak IOP and minimum IOP or as the standard deviation of all diurnal IOP values in the diurnal IOP curve. Results IOP repeatability was excellent at all time points, with ICCs ranging from 0.812 to 0.946 (p 929). However, IOP fluctuations showed poor repeatability, with an ICC lower than 0.15. Conclusions Long-term repeatability of diurnal IOP patterns in healthy Asian subjects was excellent. These findings suggest that IOP measurements at standardized times of the day will be useful for assessing the effectiveness of glaucoma therapy.

  6. Did Adult Diurnal Activity Influence the Evolution of Wing Morphology in Opoptera Butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, C M; Heine, K B

    2016-02-01

    The butterfly genus Opoptera includes eight species, three of which have diurnal habits while the others are crepuscular (the usual activity period for members of the tribe Brassolini). Although never measured in the field, it is presumed that diurnal Opoptera species potentially spend more time flying than their crepuscular relatives. If a shift to diurnal habits potentially leads to a higher level of activity and energy expenditure during flight, then selection should operate on increased aerodynamic and energetic efficiency, leading to changes in wing shape. Accordingly, we ask whether diurnal habits have influenced the evolution of wing morphology in Opoptera. Using phylogenetically independent contrasts and Wilcoxon rank sum tests, we confirmed our expectation that the wings of diurnal species have higher aspect ratios (ARs) and lower wing centroids (WCs) than crepuscular congeners. These wing shape characteristics are known to promote energy efficiency during flight. Three Opoptera wing morphotypes established a priori significantly differed in AR and WC values. The crepuscular, cloud forest dweller Opoptera staudingeri (Godman & Salvin) was exceptional in having an extended forewing tip and the highest AR and lowest WC within Opoptera, possibly to facilitate flight in a cooler environment. Our study is the first to investigate how butterfly wing morphology might evolve as a response to a behavioral shift in adult time of activity.

  7. An effective approach to evaluate GCM simulated diurnal variation of clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxing; Wang, Wei-Chyung

    2016-10-01

    Cloud radiative effects strongly depend on diurnal variations of insolation and cloud radiative properties. In general circulation models (GCMs), even when the daily-mean cloud properties agree with observations, errors in cloud diurnal cycle can still significantly impact the shortwave radiation and induce model biases. However, this aspect is overlooked in GCM evaluation and intercomparison programs (e.g., Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5)), which mainly consider the daily-mean cloud fraction. This study presents a simple approach of using a diagnostic parameter, the "effective-daytime cloud fraction" which accounts for the concurrent variation of clouds and insolation, to reveal GCM biases in cloud diurnal variations. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated by the significant biases of cloud diurnal cycle in the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis when compared with that in the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) data. It is thus suggested that the parameter be included as one of the GCM diagnostics for evaluating cloud diurnal cycle in model intercomparisons.

  8. Diurnal variability in orthostatic tachycardia: implications for the postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Jordan A; Garland, Emily M; Biaggioni, Italo; Black, Bonnie K; Ling, John F; Shibao, Cyndya A; Robertson, David; Raj, Satish R

    2012-01-01

    Patients with POTS (postural tachycardia syndrome) have excessive orthostatic tachycardia (>30 beats/min) when standing from a supine position. HR (heart rate) and BP (blood pressure) are known to exhibit diurnal variability, but the role of diurnal variability in orthostatic changes of HR and BP is not known. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that there is diurnal variation of orthostatic HR and BP in patients with POTS and healthy controls. Patients with POTS (n=54) and healthy volunteers (n=26) were admitted to the Clinical Research Center. Supine and standing (5 min) HR and BP were obtained in the evening on the day of admission and in the following morning. Overall, standing HR was significantly higher in the morning (102±3 beats/min) than in the evening (93±2 beats/min; Porthostatic BP in POTS. A greater number of subjects met the POTS HR criterion in the morning compared with the evening (P=0.008). There was significant diurnal variability in orthostatic tachycardia, with a great orthostatic tachycardia in the morning compared with the evening in both patients with POTS and healthy subjects. Given the importance of orthostatic tachycardia in diagnosing POTS, this diurnal variability should be considered in the clinic as it may affect the diagnosis of POTS.

  9. Gestures to Intuitively Control Large Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fikkert, F.W.; Vet, van der P.E.; Rauwerda, H.; Breit, T.; Nijholt, A.; Sales Dias, M.; Gibet, S.; Wanderley, M.W.; Bastos, R.

    2009-01-01

    Large displays are highly suited to support discussions in empirical science. Such displays can display project results on a large digital surface to feed the discussion. This paper describes our approach to closely involve multidisciplinary omics scientists in the design of an intuitive display con

  10. Development and Evaluation of an Educational Display for Older Adults: Journey through Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Seung Eun; Hermann, Janice; Parker, Stephany; Smith, Brenda J.

    2015-01-01

    The Journey Through Health educational display was developed using the Health Belief Model and provided information on how the Dietary Guidelines Consumer Brochure messages can positively influence nutrition and physical activity choices to prevent or delay age-related changes throughout the body. The display consisted of 12 posters, educational…

  11. Review of Defense Display Research Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Programs Flat Panel Autostereoscopic N-perspective 3D High Definition DMD Digital Projector Light Piping & Quantum Cavity Displays Solid State Laser...Megapixel Displays • Size Commonality • 67 % Weight Reduction • > 200 sq. in. per Display 20-20 Vision Simulators True 3D , sparse symbols Foldable Display...megapixel 2D and True 3D Display Technology 25M & T3D FY02-FY06 New service thrusts

  12. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  13. Exhaustion measured by the SF-36 vitality scale is associated with a flattened diurnal cortisol profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindeberg, Sara I; Eek, Frida; Lindbladh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The possible association between stress-related exhaustion and reduced activity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is increasingly in focus. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exhaustion measured in a non-patient population is associated with alterations in diurnal...... cortisol profile. The study population included 78 working individuals. The study group was dichotomised into exhausted and non-exhausted groups by means of the SF-36 vitality scale. Salivary cortisol was measured at three times during 1 workday: at awakening, 30min after awakening, and in the evening....... The results showed that diurnal cortisol variation was significantly reduced in exhausted individuals. The difference in cortisol variation was mainly due to lowered morning cortisol in the exhausted group. Differences in cortisol levels at each sampling time or in mean diurnal output of cortisol were...

  14. Diurnal freeze/thaw cycles of the ground surface on the Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG MeiXue; YAO TanDong; GOU XiaoHua; HIROSE Nozomu; FUJII Hide Yuki; HAO LiSheng; D.F.LEVIA

    2007-01-01

    The exchange of energy and water between the lithosphere and atmosphere mainly takes place at the ground surface. Therefore, freeze/thaw condition at the ground surface is an important factor in examining the interactions between the land surface and atmosphere. Based on the observation data obtained by CEOP/CAMP-Tibet, the diurnal freeze/thaw cycles of the ground surface near Naqu, central Tibetan Plateau was preliminarily analyzed. The results show that the surface layer was completely frozen for approximately one month. However, the time that the ground surface experienced diurnal freeze/thaw cycles was about 6 months. The high frequency of freeze/thaw cycles at the ground surface significantly influences water and energy exchanges between ground and atmosphere over half a year. The interaction processes between the ground and atmosphere under different soil conditions (such as complete thaw, complete freeze and diurnal freeze/thaw cycles) are issues worthy of further examination.

  15. Diurnal change of gas exchange of Rhodiola sachalinensis transplanted from different habitats in Changbai Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎秀峰; 李晶; 王玉杰; 祖元刚

    2000-01-01

    Rhodiola sachalinensis growing in the different habitats, such as Xiaotianchi plot (altitude 1800 m), Tree line plot (altitude 2000 m) and Tianwenfeng plot (altitude 2325 m) of Changbai Mountain (northern slop) were transplanted to Harbin Experimental Farm for determining its gas exchange. The study results indicated that the diurnal changes of gas exchange of Rh. sachalinensis transplanted from different habitats were still different though the morphological appearance of the newly sprouted above-ground part had become more similar. For net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and apparent quantum yield (AQY), the diurnal change curves of Rh. sachalinensis transplanted from the three plots were similar, but the data value were different. For the dark respiration rate (Rd), transpiration rate (Tr) and water use efficiency (WUE), diurnal change curves of the three plots were obviously different.

  16. Retrograde diurnal motion of the instantaneous rotation axis observed by a large ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W.

    2017-01-01

    Ring laser gyroscope technique directly senses the Earth's instantaneous rotation pole (IRP), whose polar motion contains strong retrograde diurnal components induced by external torques due to the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun. The first direct measurement of this retrograde diurnal motion with three large ring lasers was reported by Schreiber et al. (J Geophys Res 109(B18):B06405, significant increase in precision and stability of ring laser gyroscopes; however, precise determination of amplitude and phase at main partial waves has not been given in the literature. In this paper, I will report on determination of the retrograde diurnal motion of the IRP at main partial waves (Oo_1, J_1, K_1, M_1, O_1, Q_1) by the ring laser "G", located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  17. Improving Langley calibrations by reducing diurnal variations of aerosol Ångström parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kreuter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Errors in the sun photometer calibration constant lead to artificial diurnal variations, symmetric around solar noon, of the retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD and the associated Ångström exponent α and its curvature γ. We show in simulations that within the uncertainty of state-of-the-art Langley calibrations, these diurnal variations of α and γ can be significant in low AOD conditions, while those of AOD are negligible. We implement a weighted Monte Carlo method of finding an improved calibration constant by minimizing the diurnal variations in α and γ and apply the method to sun photometer data of a clear day in Innsbruck, Austria. The results show that our method can be used to improve the calibrations in two of the four wavelength channels by up to a factor of 3.6.

  18. Improving Langley calibrations by reducing diurnal variations of aerosol Ångström parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kreuter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Errors in the sun photometer calibration constant lead to artificial diurnal variations, symmetric around solar noon, of the retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD and the associated Ångström exponent α and its curvature γ. We show in simulations that within the uncertainty of state-of-the-art Langley calibrations, these diurnal variations of α and γ can be significant in low AOD conditions, while those of AOD are negligible. We implement a weighted Monte-Carlo method of finding an improved calibration constant by minimizing the diurnal variations in α and γ and apply the method to sun photometer data of a clear day in Innsbruck, Austria. The results show that our method can be used to improve the calibrations in two of the four wavelength channels by up to a factor of 3.6.

  19. Carbon isotope evidence for diurnal variations in methanogenesis in freshwater lake sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrysek, Mariusz Orion

    1995-02-01

    Diurnal variations in the 13C/12C ratio in bubble methane have been observed in shallow water lake sediments at Lake Piaseczno, Poland. Measurements in August 1993 and September 1992 show that values are lowest in the early morning, and highest in the afternoon, ranging from a minimum of -63.1 at 03:30 on August 30, 1993 to a maximum of -47.5 at 15:30 on August 29, 1993. The minimum values were apparently caused by an enhanced CO 2H 2 methanogenesis pathway. The maximum values occur when the CO 2 pool decreases and acetic acid fermentation becomes relatively more important. Seasonal variation and seasonal variations in the magnitude of the diurnal variations in the δ 13CH 4 value may depend on temperature and the day-to-night time ratio, of the diurnal cycle.

  20. Diurnal cortisol amplitude and fronto-limbic activity in response to stressful stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham-Bussel, Amy C; Root, James C; Butler, Tracy; Tuescher, Oliver; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Weisholtz, Daniel S; Pavony, Michelle; Silverman, Michael E; Goldstein, Martin S; Altemus, Margaret; Cloitre, Marylene; Ledoux, Joseph; McEwen, Bruce; Stern, Emily; Silbersweig, David

    2009-06-01

    The development and exacerbation of many psychiatric and neurologic conditions are associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as measured by aberrant levels of cortisol secretion. Here we report on the relationship between the amplitude of diurnal cortisol secretion, measured across 3 typical days in 18 healthy individuals, and blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) response in limbic fear/stress circuits, elicited by in-scanner presentation of emotionally negative stimuli, specifically, images of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. Results indicate that subjects who secrete a greater amplitude of cortisol diurnally demonstrate less brain activation in limbic regions, including the amygdala and hippocampus/parahippocampus, and hypothalamus during exposure to traumatic WTC-related images. Such initial findings can begin to link our understanding, in humans, of the relationship between the diurnal amplitude of a hormone integral to the stress response, and those neuroanatomical regions that are implicated as both modulating and being modulated by that response.

  1. Retrograde diurnal motion of the instantaneous rotation axis observed by a large ring laser gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, W.

    2016-07-01

    Ring laser gyroscope technique directly senses the Earth's instantaneous rotation pole (IRP), whose polar motion contains strong retrograde diurnal components induced by external torques due to the gravitational attraction of the Moon and Sun. The first direct measurement of this retrograde diurnal motion with three large ring lasers was reported by Schreiber et al. (J Geophys Res 109(B18):B06405, 2004). Since then many technical improvements led to a significant increase in precision and stability of ring laser gyroscopes; however, precise determination of amplitude and phase at main partial waves has not been given in the literature. In this paper, I will report on determination of the retrograde diurnal motion of the IRP at main partial waves (Oo_1, J_1, K_1, M_1, O_1, Q_1 ) by the ring laser "G", located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  2. Diurnal variation of marine stratocumulus over San Nicolas Island during the FIRE IFO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.; Blaskovic, M.

    1990-01-01

    Preliminary analysis was made of data collected at San Nicolas Island during the Intensive Field Observation (IFO) phase of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Program's Regional Experiment (FIRE). Of particular interest was an examination of a distinct diurnal variation in the cloud properties, despite an apparent absence of diurnal forcing from the surface. Direct or indirect radiative modulation of such clouds, as proposed by Fravalo at el. (1981) and Turton and Nicholls (1987) indeed seems likely. Preliminary observational evidence for diurnal change in the marine stratocumulus adjacent to San Nicolas Island is presented. A comparison is then made between the observed behavior and predictions from theoretical models of the interactive effect of radiation on boundary layer clouds.

  3. Sand rats see the light: short photoperiod induces a depression-like response in a diurnal rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einat, Haim; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Eilam, David

    2006-10-02

    The present study examined the effect of simulated change in day length on the behavior of a diurnal rodent, the fat sand rat (a species of gerbil). Animals were housed under a short photoperiod (5/19 light/dark cycle) for 3 weeks and compared with controls living under a 12/12 light/dark cycle. All sand rats then underwent the forced swim test for depression-like behavior, and the open-field test for overall activity. Sand rats exposed to the short photoperiod displayed a significantly earlier sinking in the swim test, but there was no difference between their open-field activity compared with controls. Taking these responses as indicative of depression-like behavior, we suggest that a short photoperiod may induce affective-like changes, and that the sand rat may thus offer an appropriate animal model to explore the effect of photoperiod on normal, and perhaps also abnormal, seasonal mood changes (e.g., SAD), which in humans is a prevalent disorder, with winter depression episodes and spring/summer remissions.

  4. Diurnal patterns of salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol secretion in female adolescent tennis players after 16 weeks of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filaire, Edith; Ferreira, Jose Pedro; Oliveira, Miguel; Massart, Alain

    2013-07-01

    We examined the effects of 16 weeks of training on diurnal pattern of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), cortisol, and the ratio of sAA over cortisol (AOC) in 12 national adolescent female tennis players. Stress and recovery were also evaluated using the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire for Athletes-RESTQ-Sport. Data were collected after a 2-week rest (January, W0), and 4 months after W0 (W16). Subjects collected five saliva samples throughout a day. While all participants displayed the previously shown decrease after awakening in adolescents at W0, they showed a rise in the alpha-amylase awakening response and a higher alpha-amylase activity output (pcortisol we found subjects having a low overall output of salivary cortisol (pSport-specific recovery score. Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that increase of training load during the study period induced asymmetry activation between the two stress systems, in relation to psychological alterations and performance decrease. These results provide encouragement to continue exploring the impact of training program using a psychobiological approach among young athletes in order to prevent fatigue and preserve the health of these athletes.

  5. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    ­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-May......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...... and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move...

  6. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  7. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  8. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  9. Research of the diurnal soil respiration dynamic in two typical vegetation communities in Tianjin estuarine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Meng, W. Q.; Li, H. Y.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the differences and diurnal variations of soil respiration in different vegetation communities in coastal wetland is to provide basic reliable scientific evidence for the carbon "source" function of wetland ecosystems in Tianjin.Measured soil respiration rate which changed during a day between two typical vegetation communities (Phragmites australis, Suaeda salsa) in coastal wetland in October, 2015. Soil temperature and moisture were measured at the same time. Each of the diurnal curves of soil temperature in two communities had a single peak value, and the diurnal variations of soil moisture showed a "two peak-one valley" trend. The diurnal dynamic of soil respiration under the two communities had obvious volatility which showed a single peak form with its maximum between 12:00-14:00 and minimum during 18:00. The diurnal average of soil respiration rate in Phragmites australis communities was 3.37 times of that in Suaeda salsa communities. Significant relationships were found by regression analysis among soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration rate in Suaeda salsa communities. There could be well described by exponential models which was y = -0.245e0.105t between soil respiration rate and soil temperature, by quadratic models which was y = -0.276×2 + 15.277× - 209.566 between soil respiration rate and soil moisture. But the results of this study showed that there were no significant correlations between soil respiration and soil temperature and soil moisture in Phragmites australis communities (P > 0.05). Therefore, under the specific wetland environment conditions in Tianjin, soil temperature and moisture were not main factors influencing the diurnal variations of soil respiration rate in Phragmites australis communities.

  10. Changes in the Diurnal Cycles of Precipitation over Eastern China in the Past 40 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Weihua; YU Rucong; LI Jian

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the interdecadal changes in the diurnal variability of summer (June August) precipitation over eastern China during the period 1966 2005 using hourly station rain gauge data.The results revealed that rainfall diurnal variations experienced significant interdecadal changes.Over the area to the south of the Yangtze River,as well as the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers,the percentages of morning rainfall (0000-1200 LST) to total rainfall in terms of amount,frequency and intensity,all exhibited increasing interdecadal trends.On the contrary,over North China,decreasing trends were found.As a result,diurnal rainfall peaks also presented pronounced interdecadal variations.Over the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers,there were 16 out of 46 stations with afternoon (1200 0000 LST) frequency peaks in the first 20 years of the 40-year period of study,while only eight remained in the latter 20 years.In North China,seven stations experienced the opposite changes,which accounted for about 21% of the total number of stations.The possible causes for the interdecadal changes in diurnal features were discussed.As the rainfall in the active monsoon period presents morning diurnal peaks,with afternoon peaks in the break period,the decrease (increase) of rainfall in the active monsoon period over North China (the area south of the Yangtze River and the area between the Yangtze and Yellow Rivers) may contribute to interdecadal changes in diurnal rainfall variability.

  11. Scale interactions on diurnal toseasonal timescales and their relevanceto model systematic errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Examples of current research into systematic errors in climate models are used to demonstrate the importance of scale interactions on diurnal,intraseasonal and seasonal timescales for the mean and variability of the tropical climate system. It has enabled some conclusions to be drawn about possible processes that may need to be represented, and some recommendations to be made regarding model improvements. It has been shown that the Maritime Continent heat source is a major driver of the global circulation but yet is poorly represented in GCMs. A new climatology of the diurnal cycle has been used to provide compelling evidence of important land-sea breeze and gravity wave effects, which may play a crucial role in the heat and moisture budget of this key region for the tropical and global circulation. The role of the diurnal cycle has also been emphasized for intraseasonal variability associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO. It is suggested that the diurnal cycle in Sea Surface Temperature (SST during the suppressed phase of the MJO leads to a triggering of cumulus congestus clouds, which serve to moisten the free troposphere and hence precondition the atmosphere for the next active phase. It has been further shown that coupling between the ocean and atmosphere on intraseasonal timescales leads to a more realistic simulation of the MJO. These results stress the need for models to be able to simulate firstly, the observed tri-modal distribution of convection, and secondly, the coupling between the ocean and atmosphere on diurnal to intraseasonal timescales. It is argued, however, that the current representation of the ocean mixed layer in coupled models is not adequate to represent the complex structure of the observed mixed layer, in particular the formation of salinity barrier layers which can potentially provide much stronger local coupling between the atmosphere and ocean on diurnal to intraseasonal timescales.

  12. On the sensitivity of the diurnal cycle in the Amazon to convective intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itterly, Kyle F.; Taylor, Patrick C.; Dodson, Jason B.; Tawfik, Ahmed B.

    2016-07-01

    Climate and reanalysis models contain large water and energy budget errors over tropical land related to the misrepresentation of diurnally forced moist convection. Motivated by recent work suggesting that the water and energy budget is influenced by the sensitivity of the convective diurnal cycle to atmospheric state, this study investigates the relationship between convective intensity, the convective diurnal cycle, and atmospheric state in a region of frequent convection—the Amazon. Daily, 3-hourly satellite observations of top of atmosphere (TOA) fluxes from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System Ed3a SYN1DEG and precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 data sets are collocated with twice daily Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive observations from 2002 to 2012 and hourly flux tower observations. Percentiles of daily minimum outgoing longwave radiation are used to define convective intensity regimes. The results indicate a significant increase in the convective diurnal cycle amplitude with increased convective intensity. The TOA flux diurnal phase exhibits 1-3 h shifts with convective intensity, and precipitation phase is less sensitive. However, the timing of precipitation onset occurs 2-3 h earlier and the duration lasts 3-5 h longer on very convective compared to stable days. While statistically significant changes are found between morning atmospheric state and convective intensity, variations in upper and lower tropospheric humidity exhibit the strongest relationships with convective intensity and diurnal cycle characteristics. Lastly, convective available potential energy (CAPE) is found to vary with convective intensity but does not explain the variations in Amazonian convection, suggesting that a CAPE-based convective parameterization will not capture the observed behavior without incorporating the sensitivity of convection to column humidity.

  13. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  14. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation.

  15. Diurnal rhythm in serum levels of inhibin B in normal men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E; Olsson, C; Petersen, J H

    1999-01-01

    Inhibin B is a testicular glycoprotein that is secreted from the Sertoli cells and believed to play a role in FSH secretion. We characterized the diurnal profile of serum inhibin B and the relation to gonadotropins and testicular steroids. Serum inhibin B was measured in 13 healthy normal male......-dimensional time-series analyses revealed a statistically significant influence of testosterone on inhibin B. In addition, estradiol and inhibin B had a significant influence on one another. In conclusion, we found a significant diurnal variation in inhibin B levels in normal men, with a pattern of higher values...

  16. Effect of Diurnally Cyclic Temperature on the Performance of a Continuous Mix Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Concentrated livestock production is a major contributor to environmental problems through the production of large quantity of husks on relatively small land area. Anaerobic digestion represents a valuable means of cover by these husks into methane while reducing manure pollution problems. Methodology: An experimental apparatus, including data acquisition and control system, was developed and used to investigate the effects of two diurnally cyclic temperature ranges (20-40 and 15-25°C and four levels of hydraulic retention times (25, 20, 15 and 10 d on the performance of anaerobic reactors operated on screened dairy manure. Results: The reactor temperature exhibited a lag relative to the chamber temperature. For the 20-40°C temperature cycles, the average lag at the maximum chamber temperature was 3.75 h while the lag at the minimum chamber temperature was 4.37 h. For the 15-25°C temperature cycle, the average lag at maximum chamber temperatures was 3.61 while the lag of the minimum chamber temperature was 4.34 h. The effluent solids content, total Kjeldahl nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen concentrations were not adversely affected by the reactor diurnally cyclic temperature. The observed values of these parameters compared fairly well with the values obtained by other researchers. The effluent total solids, volatile suspended solids, TKN, NH4-N and methane content of the biogas diurnally cyclic patterns were out of phase with the diurnally cyclic pattern of the reactor temperature by about 12 h under most of the investigated operating conditions. The pH and the carbon dioxide content of the biogas all exhibited a diurnally cyclic pattern which was in phase with the reactor diurnally cyclic temperature. The reductions in total solids, total suspended solids, fixed suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and methane yield were all significantly affected by the diurnal temperature range and hydraulic

  17. A diurnal study of the electrical structure of the equatorial middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croskey, C. L.; Hale, L. C.; Mitchell, J. D.; Muha, D.; Maynard, N. C.

    1985-10-01

    Electrical parameters measured from 115 km down to below 20 km during the Project Condor campaign at the Punta Lobos Rocket Range near Lima, Peru, are presented. Ten rocket-launched payloads measured electrical conductivity. A strong diurnal influence due to solar ultraviolet radiation is shown. Nine of the payloads also measured electric fields. No large mesospheric vertical electric fields are found in the data. A calculation of the dc global conduction current density at 18 km is smaller than previously measured at low latitudes and does not show the conventional diurnal variation.

  18. Radiation balance at the surface in the city of São Paulo, Brazil: diurnal and seasonal variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, M.J.; Oliveira, de A.P.; Soares, J.; Codato, G.; Wilde Barbaro, E.; Escobedo, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to describe the diurnal and seasonal variations of the radiation balance components at the surface in the city of São Paulo based on observations carried out during 2004. Monthly average hourly values indicate that the amplitudes of the diurnal cycles of net radiation (

  19. A note on eating behaviour of dairy cows at different stocking systems - diurnal rhythm and effects of ambient temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Tamminga, S.; Elgersma, A.

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was aimed at studying the diurnal rhythm of dairy cows eating behaviour at different stocking systems, and quantifying the effect of daily ambient temperature on this diurnal rhythm. In two experiments carried out in the summer of 2003 in The Netherlands, eight dairy cows were offere

  20. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  1. 3D whole body scanners revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Haar, F.B. ter

    2013-01-01

    An overview of whole body scanners in 1998 (H.A.M. Daanen, G.J. Van De Water. Whole body scanners, Displays 19 (1998) 111-120) shortly after they emerged to the market revealed that the systems were bulky, slow, expensive and low in resolution. This update shows that new developments in sensing and

  2. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...... presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research....

  3. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2008-01-01

    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  4. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  5. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  6. ProPath Display Process Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This API displays an overview of the process including the description, goals, associated roles (linked to their detailed information). It also displays all of the...

  7. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  8. Is there a diurnal variation in repeated sprint ability on a non-motorised treadmill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullinger, Samuel A; Brocklehurst, Emma L; Iveson, Reece P; Burniston, Jatin G; Doran, Dominic A; Waterhouse, James M; Edwards, Ben J

    2014-04-01

    In active males, muscle force production and short-term (RSA), as would be relevant to football, for example. A controlled laboratory protocol using a non-motorised treadmill has been used to investigate whether daily variation in RSA is present in highly motivated athletes. Twenty active males (mean ± SD: age, 21.0 ± 2.2 yrs; maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text] max), 60.8 ± 4.8 ml kg min(-1); body mass, 77.02 ± 10.5 kg and height, 1.79 ± 0.07 m) volunteered and completed two sessions counterbalanced in order of administration (separated by >48 h): a morning (M, 07:30 h) and evening (E, 17:30 h) session. Both sessions included a 5-min active warm-up on a motorised treadmill at 10 km h(-1) followed by three task-specific warm-up sprints at 50%, 70% and 80%, respectively, on a non-motorised treadmill. During each trial, 10 × 3 s repeated sprints with 30 s recoveries were performed on the non-motorised treadmill. Rectal (Trec) and muscle temperature measurements (Tm) were taken after subjects had reclined for 30 min at the start of the protocol, and again after the active warm-up. Values of heart rate, thermal comfort (TC), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and effort were measured throughout. Blood samples were taken at rest, after the sprints and 5-min post sprints. Data were analysed using a GLM with repeated measures. Trec and Tm values were higher at rest in the evening than the morning (0.46 °C and 0.57 °C, respectively, p p > 0.05). All subjects reported maximal values for "effort" for each sprint. There were significant positive correlations between Trec and Tm, Trec and RPE, TC and all measures of RSA performance. However, there was no correlation between fatigue index for peak power output or peak velocity and Trec. In summary, in this population of motivated subjects, time-of-day effects were seen in resting Trec and Tm values and all performance measures of RSA, in partial agreement with past research. The diurnal variation in Trec and Tm

  9. Global evaluation of ammonia bidirectional exchange and livestock diurnal variation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidirectional air–surface exchange of ammonia (NH3) has been neglected in many air quality models. In this study, we implement the bidirectional exchange of NH3 in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. We also introduce an updated diurnal variability scheme for NH3...

  10. Biodegradation of Toluene under seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of soil-water temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yadav, B.K.; Shrestha, S.R.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    An increasing interest in bioremediation of hydrocarbon polluted sites raises the question of the influence of seasonal and diurnal changes on soil-water temperature on biodegradation of BTEX, a widespread group of (sub)-surface contaminants. Therefore, we investigated the impact of a wide range of

  11. Diurnal variation of surface ozone in mountainous areas: Case study of Mt. Huang, East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Jin, Lianji; Zhao, Tianliang; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Bin; Shan, Yunpeng; Guo, Xiaomei; Tan, Chenghao; Gao, Jinhui; Wang, Haoliang

    2015-12-15

    To explore the variations in atmospheric environment over mountainous areas, measurements were made from an intensive field observation at the summit of Mt. Huang (30.13°N, 118.15°E, 1841m above sea level), a rural site located in East China, from June to August 2011. The measurements revealed a diurnal change of surface O3 with low concentrations during the daytime and high concentrations during the nighttime. The causes of diurnal O3 variations over the mountain peak in East China were investigated by using a fairly comprehensive WRF-Chem and HYSPLIT4 modeling approach with observational analysis. By varying model inputs and comparing the results to a baseline modeling and actual air quality observations, it is found that nearby ozone urban/anthropogenic emission sources were contributing to a nighttime increase in mountaintop ozone levels due to a regional transport lag and residual layer effects. Positive correlation of measured O3 and CO concentrations suggested that O3 was associated with anthropogenic emissions. Sensitivity modeling experiments indicated that local anthropogenic emissions had little impact on the diurnal pattern of O3. The diurnal pattern of O3 was mainly influenced by regional O3 transport from the surrounding urban areas located 100-150km away from the summit, with a lag time of 10h for transport.

  12. Reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii (Cactaceae): the role of nocturnal and diurnal pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Baes, P; Saravia, M; Sühring, S; Godínez-Alvarez, H; Zamar, M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the reproductive biology of Echinopsis terscheckii, a species endemic to northwest Argentina that has nocturnal flowers. We expected that this species had a generalised pollination system, with moths and diurnal visitors as the primary pollinators. To test this, we studied the floral biology, breeding system and floral visitors of this species and the effectiveness of nocturnal and diurnal visitors. Floral biology was defined based on floral morphology, floral cycle and nectar production of the flowers. The breeding system and relative contributions of diurnal and nocturnal visitors to fruit and seed set were analysed through field experiments. E. terscheckii flowers opened at sunset and closed the following day. The peak of nectar production occurred at midnight. Flowers were determined to be self-incompatible. Moths, bees and birds were identified as floral visitors. Moths were the most frequent visitors at night, whereas bees were the most frequent visitors during the day. Fruit production by diurnal pollinators was less than that by nocturnal pollinators; among all floral visitors, moths were the most effective pollinators. We have demonstrated for the first time that moths are the primary pollinators of columnar cacti of the genus Echinopsis. Our results suggest that moths might be important pollinators of columnar cactus species with nocturnal flowers in the extra-tropical deserts of South America.

  13. An evaluation of mass flux closures for diurnal cycles of shallow cumulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neggers, R.A.J.; Siebesma, A.P.; Lenderink, G.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Three closure methods for the mass flux at cloud base in shallow cumulus convection are critically examined for the difficult case of a diurnal cycle over land. The closure methods are first evaluated against large-eddy simulations (LESs) by diagnosing all parameters appearing in the closure equatio

  14. Diurnal and seasonal variation of the brain serotonin system in healthy male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Granville J; Schain, Martin; Almeida, Rita; Lundberg, Johan; Cselényi, Zsolt; Borg, Jacqueline; Varrone, Andrea; Farde, Lars; Cervenka, Simon

    2015-05-15

    The mammalian circadian clock underlies both diurnal and seasonal changes in physiology, and its function is thought to be disturbed in both seasonal and non-seasonal depression. In humans, molecular imaging studies have reported seasonal changes in the serotonin system. Despite the role of the circadian clock in generating seasonal physiological changes, however, diurnal variation of serotonin receptors and transporters has never been directly studied in humans. We used positron emission tomography to examine diurnal and seasonal changes in the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor and serotonin transporter in two large cohorts of healthy male subjects, employing a cross-sectional design. In 56 subjects measured with [(11)C]WAY-100635, we observed diurnal increases in the availability of 5-HT1A receptors in the cortex. In 40 subjects measured with [(11)C]MADAM, a decrease in 5-HTT was observed in the midbrain across the day. We also found seasonal changes in the 5-HT1A receptor in serotonin projection regions, with higher availability on days with a longer duration of daylight. Our observation that serotonin receptor and transporter levels may change across the day in humans is corroborated by experimental research in rodents. These findings have important implications for understanding the relationship between the circadian and serotonin systems in both the healthy brain and in affective disorders, as well as for the design of future molecular imaging studies.

  15. A diurnal reflectance model using grass: Surface-substrate interaction and inverse solution - October 16, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report an analysis of canopy reflectance (ρ) experiment, using hand-held radiometer to measure distribution of biomass in a grass field. The analysis: 1) separates the green-fraction from thatch and soil background, 2) accounts for the changing diurnal ρ with the sun elevation...

  16. Retinular fine structure in compound eyes of diurnal and nocturnal sphingid moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, E

    1982-01-01

    Retinular fine structure has been compared in the superposition compound eyes of three sphingid moths, one nocturnal, Cechenena, and two diurnal, Cephonodes and Macroglossum. Cechenena and Cephonodes have tiered retinas with three kinds of retinular cells: two distal, six regular and one basal. The distal retinular cells in Cechenena are special in having a complex partially intracellular rhabdomere not present in Cephonodes. Macroglossum lacks the distal retinular cell. In Cephonodes a unique rhabdom type, formed by the six regular retinular cells in the middle region of the retinula, is divided into three separate longitudinal plates arranged closely parallel to one another. Their constituent microvilli are consequently all nearly unidirectional. The ratio of rhabdom volume to retinular cell volume in the two diurnal sphingids is 10-27%; this is about the same as that (25%) of skipper butterflies, but significantly smaller than in the nocturnal Cechenena (60%). In the diurnal sphingids retinular cell membranes show elongate meandering profiles with septate junctions between adjacent retinular cells. From the comparative fine structure of their eyes the diurnal sphingids and the skippers would appear to be phylogenetically closely related.

  17. Combined effects of surface conditions, boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on diurnal SOA evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.H.H.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Kabat, P.; Jimenez, J.L.; Farmer, D.K.; Heerwaarden, van C.C.; Mammarella, I.

    2012-01-01

    We study the combined effects of land surface conditions, atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and chemistry on the diurnal evolution of biogenic secondary organic aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer, using a model that contains the essentials of all these components. First, we evaluate the mod

  18. Diurnal Cortisol Profile in Williams Syndrome in Novel and Familiar Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam Diane; Tomarken, Andrew J.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with high rates of anxiety and social issues. We examined diurnal cortisol, a biomarker of the stress response, in adults with WS in novel and familiar settings, and compared these profiles to typically developing (TD) adults. WS and TD participants had similar profiles in…

  19. Emotional attentional control predicts changes in diurnal cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial stressor

    OpenAIRE

    Lenaert, Bert; Barry, Tom; Schruers, Koen; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis irregularities have been associated with several psychological disorders. Hence, the identification of individual difference variables that predict variations in HPA-axis activity represents an important challenge for psychiatric research. We investigated whether self-reported attentional control in emotionally demanding situations prospectively predicted changes in diurnal salivary cortisol secretion following exposure to a prolonged psychosocial str...

  20. Temporal patterns, heterogeneity, and stability of diurnal cortisol rhythms in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomarken, Andrew J; Han, Gloria T; Corbett, Blythe A

    2015-12-01

    The current study used a multifaceted approach to assess whether children with ASD have a distinctive diurnal rhythm of cortisol that differentiates them from typically developing (TD) peers and whether sub-groups of ASD children can be identified with unique diurnal profiles. Salivary cortisol was sampled at four time points during the day (waking, 30-min post-waking, afternoon, and evening) across three days in a sample of 36 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 27 typically developing (TD) peers. Between-group comparisons on both mean levels and featural components of diurnal cortisol indicated elevated evening cortisol and a dampened linear decline across the day in the ASD group. No differences were evident on the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Group-based trajectory modeling indicated that a subgroup (25%) of ASD children demonstrated an attenuated linear decline while the cortisol trajectory of the second subgroup was indistinguishable from that of the TD group. Intraclass correlations indicated that, when aggregated across days, cortisol measures were generally stable over the interval assessed. There were few significant relations between cortisol measures or sub-groups and measures of stress, temperament, and symptoms. Results encourage follow-up studies to investigate the functional significance, heterogeneity and longer-term stability of diurnal cortisol profiles in children with ASD.

  1. Physiological and transcriptional responses of anaerobic chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to diurnal temperature cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebly, M.; De Ridder, D.; De Hulster, E.A.; De la Torre Cortes, P.; Pronk, J.T.; Daran-Lapujade, P.A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Diurnal temperature cycling is an intrinsic characteristic of many exposed microbial ecosystems. However, its influence on yeast physiology and the yeast transcriptome has not been studied in detail. In this study, 24-h sinusoidal temperature cycles, oscillating between 12°C and 30°C, were imposed o

  2. Diurnal variation in degradation of phytic acid by plant phytase in the pig stomach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, P.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Mroz, Z.; Beynen, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of plant phytase on the gastric degradation of phytic acid and digestibilities of DM and P, and their diurnal variation were evaluated in pigs from 90 to 115 kg BW fitted with simple duodenal T-cannulas. Three diets were fed to three pigs in four collection periods according to a cross-o

  3. Diurnal Regulation of the Brassinosteroid-Biosynthetic CPD Gene in Arabidopsis1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancos, Simona; Szatmári, Anna-Mária; Castle, Julie; Kozma-Bognár, László; Shibata, Kyomi; Yokota, Takao; Bishop, Gerard J.; Nagy, Ferenc; Szekeres, Miklós

    2006-01-01

    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are essential for normal photomorphogenesis. However, the mechanism by which light controls physiological functions via BRs is not well understood. Using transgenic plants carrying promoter-luciferase reporter gene fusions, we show that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the BR-biosynthetic CPD and CYP85A2 genes are under diurnal regulation. The complex diurnal expression profile of CPD is determined by dual, light-dependent, and circadian control. The severely decreased expression level of CPD in phytochrome-deficient background and the red light-specific induction in wild-type plants suggest that light regulation of CPD is primarily mediated by phytochrome signaling. The diurnal rhythmicity of CPD expression is maintained in brassinosteroid insensitive 1 transgenic seedlings, indicating that its transcriptional control is independent of hormonal feedback regulation. Diurnal changes in the expression of CPD and CYP85A2 are accompanied by changes of the endogenous BR content during the day, leading to brassinolide accumulation at the middle of the light phase. We also show that CPD expression is repressed in extended darkness in a BR feedback-dependent manner. In the dark the level of the bioactive hormone did not increase; therefore, our data strongly suggest that light also influences the sensitivity of plants to BRs. PMID:16531479

  4. Diurnal regulation of the brassinosteroid-biosynthetic CPD gene in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancos, Simona; Szatmári, Anna-Mária; Castle, Julie; Kozma-Bognár, László; Shibata, Kyomi; Yokota, Takao; Bishop, Gerard J; Nagy, Ferenc; Szekeres, Miklós

    2006-05-01

    Plant steroid hormones, brassinosteroids (BRs), are essential for normal photomorphogenesis. However, the mechanism by which light controls physiological functions via BRs is not well understood. Using transgenic plants carrying promoter-luciferase reporter gene fusions, we show that in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) the BR-biosynthetic CPD and CYP85A2 genes are under diurnal regulation. The complex diurnal expression profile of CPD is determined by dual, light-dependent, and circadian control. The severely decreased expression level of CPD in phytochrome-deficient background and the red light-specific induction in wild-type plants suggest that light regulation of CPD is primarily mediated by phytochrome signaling. The diurnal rhythmicity of CPD expression is maintained in brassinosteroid insensitive 1 transgenic seedlings, indicating that its transcriptional control is independent of hormonal feedback regulation. Diurnal changes in the expression of CPD and CYP85A2 are accompanied by changes of the endogenous BR content during the day, leading to brassinolide accumulation at the middle of the light phase. We also show that CPD expression is repressed in extended darkness in a BR feedback-dependent manner. In the dark the level of the bioactive hormone did not increase; therefore, our data strongly suggest that light also influences the sensitivity of plants to BRs.

  5. Dichromatic vision in a fruit bat with diurnal proclivities: the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Amanda D; Danosi, Christina F; McCracken, Gary F; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2014-12-01

    A nocturnal bottleneck during mammalian evolution left a majority of species with two cone opsins, or dichromatic color vision. Primate trichromatic vision arose from the duplication and divergence of an X-linked opsin gene, and is long attributed to tandem shifts from nocturnality to diurnality and from insectivory to frugivory. Opsin gene variation and at least one duplication event exist in the order Chiroptera, suggesting that trichromatic vision could evolve under favorable ecological conditions. The natural history of the Samoan flying fox (Pteropus samoensis) meets these conditions--it is a large bat that consumes nectar and fruit and demonstrates strong diurnal proclivities. It also possesses a visual system that is strikingly similar to that of primates. To explore the potential for opsin gene duplication and divergence in this species, we sequenced the opsin genes of 11 individuals (19 X-chromosomes) from three South Pacific islands. Our results indicate the uniform presence of two opsins with predicted peak sensitivities of ca. 360 and 553 nm. This result fails to support a causal link between diurnal frugivory and trichromatic vision, although it remains plausible that the diurnal activities of P. samoensis have insufficient antiquity to favor opsin gene renovation.

  6. Factors determining the diurnal dynamics of blooming of chosen plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to synthesize the determinants which may influence the diurnal rhythm of blooming. Additionally, I tried to explore and bring together topics that concern blooming and have always been considered separately because of their origin in different disciplines. The following species were included: Hydrangea arborescens L. subsp. discolor (Raf., H. paniculata Sieb., Viburnum opulus L., Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L., Adonis vernalis L., Aster saggitifolius Willd., Taraxacum officinale L. Chelidonium majus L. The taxons were observed in Lublin (51008' - 51018' N and 21027' - 21041' E in the years 2001-2007. The blooming of species was determined at least for two vegetation seasons. During observations all flowers developed in one-hour intervals were counted. The diurnal dynamics of blooming differs among species and is modified by different endogenous and exogenous factors. The endogenous determinants of diurnal dynamics of blooming are morphological diversity of flowers (fertility or sterility within species or heterostyly. The different pattern of blooming succour different mechanisms which prevent self-pollination (Chaenomeles japonica Lindl., Knautia arvensis L.. The abiotic factors, such as day length and temperature during the vegetation season, influence the change in the process of diurnal dynamics of blooming (e. g. Taraxacum officinale, Chelidonium majus.

  7. A Combined Infrared and Microwave Technique for Studying the Diurnal Variation of Rainfall Over Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Xu, L.; Adler, R. F.; Anagnostou, E.; Rickenbach, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present results from the application of a satellite infrared (IR) technique for estimating rainfall over northern South America. Our main objectives are to examine the diurnal variability of rainfall and to investigate the relative contributions from the convective and stratiform components. Additional information is contained in the original.

  8. The Diurnal Temperature Cycle and Its Relation to Boundary-Layer Structure During the Morning Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzler, G.

    2014-05-01

    The morning portion of the near-surface diurnal temperature cycle is analyzed in combination with heat-flux and vertical temperature-gradient data. During summer, mean diurnal cycles of temperature rates-of-change show periods that can be related to defined points of the morning transition (MT). The start of the MT is clearly marked with a temperature discontinuity, apparent even on individual days, while the end of the transition is apparent only when using averages over many days. The findings concerning the timing of the MT using temperature cycle analysis correspond well with studies using heat-flux measurements. Mean diurnal cycles of temperature rates-of-change for stations in different urban and valley positions show differences that can partly be explained by apparent effects of the surroundings. For the valley situation, the timing differences and their relation to station position in the valley are generally plausible, while urban effects on the diurnal cycle are apparent but less distinct, which may be due to the small number of stations used. The results indicate that warming already begins before heat-flux crossover, which is the current definition of the beginning of the MT. This definition should be extended to include the phase between the temperature rate-of-change crossover and heat-flux crossover, which represents the early part of the MT before warming reaches instrument level.

  9. Effect of clomipramine on sleep and EEG power spectra in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, D.J.; Strijkstra, A.; Daan, S.; Beersma, D.G.M.; Hoofdakker, R.H. van den

    1991-01-01

    Sleep was recorded in the diurnal rodent Eutamias sibiricus, chronically implanted with EEG and EMG electrodes. The tricyclic antidepressant drug clomipramine suppressed the duration of REM sleep and EEG power density in the frequencies between 1.5 and 13.5 Hz in nonREM sleep. During the administrat

  10. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  11. 27 CFR 6.83 - Product displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industry member of giving or selling product displays to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce... costs are excluded. (2) All product displays must bear conspicuous and substantial advertising matter on... address of the retailer may appear on the product displays. (3) The giving or selling of such...

  12. Emerging Large-Screen Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    1255, Santa Clara, CA. 25. Williams, R. D., and F. Garcia, 1988, "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System," Society for Information...K. Miyaji, 1989, " 3D Display using Laser and Moving Screen, Japan Display 1989, Paper P3-5. 27. Sterling, R. D., R. D. TeKolste, J. M. Haggerty, T. C

  13. The diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost in normal-tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seibold LK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leonard K Seibold, Malik Y KahookDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado Eye Center, Aurora, CO, USAPurpose: To determine the diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost with sofZia® (Travatan Z® [TZ] on intraocular pressure (IOP and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG.Methods: Twenty-seven subjects with NTG were admitted to an inpatient sleep laboratory for three 24-hour sessions monitoring IOP, blood pressure (BP, and heart rate every 2 hours in the habitual position (diurnal period: upright; nocturnal period: supine. Baseline IOP and OPP levels were compared to those during active treatment with TZ and 3 days after stopping the medication. OPP was calculated as 2/3 [diastolic BP + 1/3 (systolic BP – diastolic BP] – IOP.Results: TZ significantly reduced the mean diurnal and nocturnal IOP levels compared to baseline at all time points. During treatment, mean IOP decreased from 17.1±3.4 to 14.7±3.0 mmHg during the diurnal period (P<0.01 and from 19.9±3.6 to 18.8±3.5 mmHg during the nocturnal period (P<0.01. Once treatment was discontinued, mean IOP remained at levels significantly less than baseline during both the diurnal (15.6±3.2 mmHg and nocturnal (18.7±3.7 mmHg periods. Mean OPP was not significantly changed with treatment during either period. Conclusion: In this population of NTG patients, TZ significantly lowers IOP at all time points throughout the diurnal and nocturnal periods. The treatment effect on IOP endures for up to 3 days after the last dose. Treatment did not significantly improve OPP.Keywords: ocular perfusion pressure, intraocular pressure, 24-hour, diurnal, nocturnal, sofZia®

  14. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Moreira-Arce

    Full Text Available Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in

  15. Diurnal Human Activity and Introduced Species Affect Occurrence of Carnivores in a Human-Dominated Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Arce, Dario; Vergara, Pablo M; Boutin, Stan

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal human activity and domestic dogs in agro-forestry mosaics should theoretically modify the diurnal habitat use patterns of native carnivores, with these effects being scale-dependent. We combined intensive camera trapping data with Bayesian occurrence probability models to evaluate both diurnal and nocturnal patterns of space use by carnivores in a mosaic of land-use types in southern Chile. A total of eight carnivores species were recorded, including human-introduced dogs. During the day the most frequently detected species were the culpeo fox and the cougar. Conversely, during the night, the kodkod and chilla fox were the most detected species. The best supported models showed that native carnivores responded differently to landscape attributes and dogs depending on both the time of day as well as the spatial scale of landscape attributes. The positive effect of native forest cover at 250 m and 500 m radius buffers was stronger during the night for the Darwin's fox and cougar. Road density at 250 m scale negatively affected the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s fox, whereas at 500 m scale roads had a stronger negative effect on the diurnal occurrence of Darwin´s foxes and cougars. A positive effect of road density on dog occurrence was evidenced during both night and day. Patch size had a positive effect on cougar occurrence during night whereas it affected negatively the occurrence of culpeo foxes and skunks during day. Dog occurrence had a negative effect on Darwin's fox occurrence during day-time and night-time, whereas its negative effect on the occurrence of cougar was evidenced only during day-time. Carnivore occurrences were not influenced by the proximity to a conservation area. Our results provided support for the hypothesis that diurnal changes to carnivore occurrence were associated with human and dog activity. Landscape planning in our study area should be focused in reducing both the levels of diurnal human activity in native forest remnants

  16. Dysregulation of the cortisol diurnal rhythm following prenatal alcohol exposure and early life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Kaitlyn; Rasmussen, Carmen; Oberlander, Tim F; Loock, Christine; Pei, Jacqueline; Andrew, Gail; Reynolds, James; Weinberg, Joanne

    2016-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is impacted by a multitude of pre- and postnatal factors. Developmental programming of HPA axis function by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been demonstrated in animal models and in human infants, but remains understudied in older children and adolescents. Moreover, early life adversity (ELA), which occurs at higher rates in children with PAE than in non-exposed children, may also play a role in programming the stress response system. In a cohort of children and adolescents with PAE and ELA (PAE + ELA), we evaluated HPA function through assessment of diurnal cortisol activity compared to that in typically developing controls, as well as the associations among specific ELAs, adverse outcomes, protective factors, and diurnal cortisol. Morning and evening saliva samples were taken under basal conditions from 42 children and adolescents (5-18 years) with PAE + ELA and 43 typically developing controls. High rates of ELA were shown among children with PAE, and significantly higher evening cortisol levels and a flatter diurnal slope were observed in children with PAE + ELA, compared to controls. Medication use in the PAE + ELA group was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, which were comparable to controls. Complex associations were found among diurnal cortisol patterns in the PAE + ELA group and a number of ELAs and later adverse outcomes, whereas protective factors were associated with more typical diurnal rhythms. These results complement findings from research on human infants and animal models showing dysregulated HPA function following PAE, lending weight to the suggestion that PAE and ELA may interact to sensitize the developing HPA axis. The presence of protective factors may buffer altered cortisol regulation, underscoring the importance of early assessment and interventions for children with FASD, and in particular, for the many children with FASD who also have ELA.

  17. The Effects of the Diurnal Atmospheric Variability on Entry, Descent and Landing on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceta, D.

    2014-12-01

    Landing on Mars is extremely challenging task due to the fact that the Martian atmosphere is the most hostile environment in the Solar system to perform the entry, descent and landing (EDL) process, because it is thick enough to create substantial heating of the entry vehicle but not thick enough to reduce its velocity to the one necessary for safe landing. Beside this, the atmosphere is very dynamic mainly due to high eccentricity of the Martian orbit, obliquity of the orbital to the equatorial plane and close alignment of the winter solstice and the orbital perihelion. Although seasonal variations of atmospheric parameters are significantly larger than the diurnal, it is very important to analyze diurnal cycles as they can significantly change vertical and horizontal atmospheric profiles in very short time intervals. This can present a serious threat to missions which have very precise timings and specific requirements such as the requirement for the daytime landing to enable ground images acquisition during the descent and landing phase. A 3-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integration routine was combined with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) to identify the dependence of the EDL profiles on the diurnal cycles of atmospheric parameters throughout the Martian year. The obtained results show that the influence of the diurnal cycles is the largest at the equator and decreases relatively symmetrically towards the poles with a slightly stronger influence in the northern hemisphere. Also, there is a significant influence of the orbital position of Mars on the effect of diurnal atmospheric variations which causes that, around the orbital perihelion and winter solstice, there is some kind of inversion of the dependance of optimal entry timing on latitude of the landing site comparing to the rest of the Martian year.

  18. Development of a variational data assimilation system for the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    While, J.; Martin, M.

    2013-06-01

    A variational data assimilation system based on an incremental 4D-Var approach is proposed for use with a zero-dimensional model of the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST). Traditional 4D-Var, which seeks to find the initial state of a system, is not appropriate for diurnal SST which is a wind and heat flux driven system that has only a limited memory of its prior state. Instead the proposed assimilation system corrects both the initial SST and the heat and wind fluxes applied throughout the day. The assimilation system is tested using ensembles in a set of idealized twin experiments. In these tests controlling parameters are varied around reasonable "default" values with the quality of the analyses assessed against a known "truth". Within our tests data assimilation is shown to improve diurnal SST under most circumstances. Analyzed heat fluxes are also sometimes improved, although the improvement is much less than that observed for diurnal SST. The system was not found to improve the wind stress. The only circumstances where diurnal SST was not found to be improved by the assimilation were where either observational errors were large (greater than 0.5 K in our tests), or biases in the observations were too big (less than -0.3 K or greater than 0.2 K). The non-Gaussian behavior of the wind stress was found to have an impact on the assimilation in low-wind conditions and under these conditions the best analyses were obtained by artificially inflating the observation error.

  19. The effects of the diurnal atmospheric variability on entry, descent and landing on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marčeta D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Landing on Mars is extremely challenging task due to the fact that the Martian atmosphere is the most hostile environment in the Solar system to perform the entry, descent and landing (EDL process, because it is thick enough to create substantial heating of the entry vehicle but not thick enough to reduce its velocity to the one necessary for safe landing. Beside this, the atmosphere is very dynamic mainly due to high eccentricity of the Martian orbit, obliquity of the orbital to the equatorial plane and close alignment of the winter solstice and the orbital perihelion. Although seasonal variations of atmospheric parameters are significantly larger than the diurnal, it is very important to analyze diurnal cycles as they can significantly change vertical and horizontal atmospheric profiles in very short time intervals. This can present a serious threat to missions which have very precise timings and specific requirements such as the requirement for the daytime landing to enable ground images acquisition during the descent and landing phase. A 3-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integration routine was combined with the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM to identify the dependence of the EDL profiles on the diurnal cycles of atmospheric parameters throughout the Martian year. The obtained results show that the influence of the diurnal cycles is the largest at the equator and decreases relatively symmetrically towards the poles with a slightly stronger influence in the northern hemisphere. Also, there is a significant influence of the orbital position of Mars on the effect of diurnal atmospheric variations which causes that, around the orbital perihelion and winter solstice, there is some kind of inversion of the dependance of optimal entry timing on latitude of the landing site comparing to the rest of the Martian year. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176002

  20. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  1. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  2. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...... of, for example, how rheumatoid arthritis sufferers view their treatment, how decisions are made in simulated emergencies, and how therapists and homeopaths use distributed language and cognition with their clients....

  3. Body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  4. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  5. Microspheres in Plasma Display Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Filling small bubbles of molten glass with gases is just as difficult as it sounds, but the technical staff at NASA is not known to shy away from a difficult task. When Microsphere Systems, Inc. (MSI), of Ypsilanti, Michigan, and Imaging Systems Technology, Inc. (IST), of Toledo, Ohio, were trying to push the limits of plasma displays but were having difficulty with the designs, NASA s Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) assembled key personnel at Glenn Research Center and Ohio State University for a brainstorming session to come up with a solution for the companies. They needed a system that could produce hollow, glass micro-sized spheres (microspheres) that could be filled with a variety of gasses. But the extremely high temperature required to force the micro-sized glass bubbles to form at the tip of a metal nozzle resulted in severe discoloration of the microspheres. After countless experiments on various glass-metal combinations, they had turned to the GMCI for help. NASA experts in advanced metals, ceramics, and glass concluded that a new design approach was necessary. The team determined that what was needed was a phosphate glass composition that would remain transparent, and they went to work on a solution. Six weeks later, using the design tips from the NASA team, Tim Henderson, president of MSI, had designed a new system in which all surfaces in contact with the molten glass would be ceramic instead of metal. Meanwhile, IST was able to complete a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and supply a potential customer with samples of the microspheres for evaluation as filler materials for high-performance insulations.

  6. Disruption of the sleep-wake cycle and diurnal fluctuation of β-amyloid in mice with Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jee Hoon; Huang, Yafei; Bero, Adam W; Kasten, Tom; Stewart, Floy R; Bateman, Randall J; Holtzman, David M

    2012-09-05

    Aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain begins to occur years before the clinical onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Before Aβ aggregation, concentrations of extracellular soluble Aβ in the interstitial fluid (ISF) space of the brain, which are regulated by neuronal activity and the sleep-wake cycle, correlate with the amount of Aβ deposition in the brain seen later. The amount and quality of sleep decline with normal aging and to a greater extent in AD patients. How sleep quality as well as the diurnal fluctuation in Aβ change with age and Aβ aggregation is not well understood. We report a normal sleep-wake cycle and diurnal fluctuation in ISF Aβ in the brain of the APPswe/PS1δE9 mouse model of AD before Aβ plaque formation. After plaque formation, the sleep-wake cycle markedly deteriorated and diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ dissipated. As in mice, diurnal fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid Aβ in young adult humans with presenilin mutations was also markedly attenuated after Aβ plaque formation. Virtual elimination of Aβ deposits in the mouse brain by active immunization with Aβ(42) normalized the sleep-wake cycle and the diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ. These data suggest that Aβ aggregation disrupts the sleep-wake cycle and diurnal fluctuation of Aβ. Sleep-wake behavior and diurnal fluctuation of Aβ in the central nervous system may be functional and biochemical indicators, respectively, of Aβ-associated pathology.

  7. Diurnal variations and source apportionment of ozone at the summit of Mount Huang, a rural site in Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J; Zhu, B; Xiao, H; Kang, H; Hou, X; Yin, Y; Zhang, L; Miao, Q

    2017-03-01

    Comprehensive measurements were conducted at the summit of Mount (Mt.) Huang, a rural site located in eastern China during the summer of 2011. They observed that ozone showed pronounced diurnal variations with high concentrations at night and low values during daytime. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate the ozone concentrations at Mt. Huang in June 2011. With processes analysis and online ozone tagging method we coupled into the model system, the causes of this diurnal pattern and the contributions from different source regions were investigated. Our results showed that boundary layer diurnal cycle played an important role in driving the ozone diurnal variation. Further analysis showed that the negative contribution of vertical mixing was significant, resulting in the ozone decrease during the daytime. In contrast, ozone increased at night owing to the significant positive contribution of advection. This shifting of major factor between vertical mixing and advection formed this diurnal variation. Ozone source apportionment results indicated that approximately half was provided by inflow effect of ozone from outside the model domain (O3-INFLOW) and the other half was formed by ozone precursors (O3-PBL) emitted in eastern, central, and southern China. In the O3-PBL, 3.0% of the ozone was from Mt. Huang reflecting the small local contribution (O3-LOC) and the non-local contributions (O3-NLOC) accounted for 41.6%, in which ozone from the southerly regions contributed significantly, for example, 9.9% of the ozone originating from Jiangxi, representing the highest geographical contributor. Because the origin and variation of O3-NLOC was highly related to the diurnal movements in boundary layer, the similar diurnal patterns between O3-NLOC and total ozone both indicated the direct influence of O3-NLOC and the importance of boundary layer diurnal variations in the formation of such distinct diurnal ozone variations

  8. Diurnal variation of hepatic antioxidant gene expression in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qiao Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study was aimed to examine circadian variations of hepatic antioxidant components, including the Nrf2- pathway, the glutathione (GSH system, antioxidant enzymes and metallothionein in mouse liver. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adult mice were housed in light- and temperature-controlled facilities for 2 weeks, and livers were collected every 4 h during the 24 h period. Total RNA was isolated, purified, and subjected to real-time RT-PCR analysis. Hepatic mRNA levels of Nrf2, Keap1, Nqo1 and Gclc were higher in the light-phase than the dark-phase, and were female-predominant. Hepatic GSH presented marked circadian fluctuations, along with glutathione S-transferases (GST-α1, GST-µ, GST-π and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1. The expressions of GPx1, GST-µ and GST-π mRNA were also higher in females. Antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1, catalase (CAT, cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 and heme oxygenase-1 (Ho-1 showed circadian rhythms, with higher expressions of Cox-2 and CAT in females. Metallothionein, a small non-enzymatic antioxidant protein, showed dramatic circadian variation in males, but higher expression in females. The circadian variations of the clock gene Brain and Muscle Arnt-like Protein-1(Bmal1, albumin site D-binding protein (Dbp, nuclear receptor Rev-Erbα (Nr1d1, period protein (Per1 and Per2 and cryptochrome 1(Cry1 were in agreement with the literature. Furthermore, acetaminophen hepatotoxicity is more severe when administered in the afternoon when hepatic GSH was lowest. CONCLUSIONS: Circadian variations and gender differences in transcript levels of antioxidant genes exist in mouse liver, which could affect body responses to oxidative stress at different times of the day.

  9. Diurnal Variability in the Martian Atmosphere Inferred from Nearly Coincident Profiles at Semidiurnal Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Long-term monitoring of the Martian atmosphere by mapping instruments on sun-synchronous polar orbiters with slight orbital inclinations has two underutilized advantages for studying diurnal variability in atmospheric structure. First, the orbital pattern implies that the nightside orbit will be followed ~ 12 hours later by a dayside orbit that intersects it. That dayside orbit will be followed by a nightside orbit that itself intersects the dayside orbit ~ 12 hours previously at another point. These intersection points mostly occur in the tropics. At the poles, orbit convergence produces a similar effect, such that these semidiurnally separated orbits will have a number of nearly coincident observations in space that sample diurnal change in time. For limb sounders like the Mars Climate Sounder on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO-MCS), the horizontal resolution of the instrument at the limb may be comparable to the spatial separation between portions of sequentially intersecting dayside/nightside orbits. Indeed, this width (if simultaneously iterated) would resolve wavenumber 100 structures at the Equator. In other words, the characteristics of the instrument and orbiter combine to allow local, semidiurnal sampling of the atmosphere at synoptic or greater scales. This can be helpful at resolving diurnal and perhaps longitudinal variability when retrievals are typically successful on the nightside at different longitudes than they are successful on the dayside. Second, long-term monitoring allows fortuiitous observation of useful examples of interannual variability in the behavior of the atmosphere. Here, we will present a study of diurnal variability in the vertical dust distribution and other aspects of the atmospheric structure of Mars that makes use of the observational advantages of MRO-MCS as well as the fortuitous occurrence of a Mars Year without significant regional or global dust storm activity: the year before the landing of the Mars Science Laboratory

  10. Diurnal warming in shallow coastal seas: Observations from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Minnett, P. J.; Berkelmans, R.; Hendee, J.; Manfrino, C.

    2014-07-01

    A good understanding of diurnal warming in the upper ocean is important for the validation of satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) against in-situ buoy data and for merging satellite SSTs taken at different times of the same day. For shallow coastal regions, better understanding of diurnal heating could also help improve monitoring and prediction of ecosystem health, such as coral reef bleaching. Compared to its open ocean counterpart which has been studied extensively and modeled with good success, coastal diurnal warming has complicating localized characteristics, including coastline geometry, bathymetry, water types, tidal and wave mixing. Our goal is to characterize coastal diurnal warming using two extensive in-situ temperature and weather datasets from the Caribbean and Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Results showed clear daily warming patterns in most stations from both datasets. For the three Caribbean stations where solar radiation is the main cause of daily warming, the mean diurnal warming amplitudes were about 0.4 K at depths of 4-7 m and 0.6-0.7 K at shallower depths of 1-2 m; the largest warming value was 2.1 K. For coral top temperatures of the GBR, 20% of days had warming amplitudes >1 K, with the largest >4 K. The bottom warming at shallower sites has higher daily maximum temperatures and lower daily minimum temperatures than deeper sites nearby. The averaged daily warming amplitudes were shown to be closely related to daily average wind speed and maximum insolation, as found in the open ocean. Diurnal heating also depends on local features including water depth, location on different sections of the reef (reef flat vs. reef slope), the relative distance from the barrier reef chain (coast vs. lagoon stations vs. inner barrier reef sites vs. outer rim sites); and the proximity to the tidal inlets. In addition, the influence of tides on daily temperature changes and its relative importance compared to solar radiation was quantified by

  11. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  12. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  13. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  14. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... categories of display types are proposed. The problems involved in specification and invention of a supervisory display are analysed and conclusions from these problems are made. It is concluded that the design method proposed provides a framework for the progress of the display design and is useful in pin......-pointing the actual problems. The method was useful in reducing the number of existing displays that could fulfil the requirements of the supervision task. The method provided at the same time a framework for dealing with the problems involved in inventing new displays based on structured analysis. However...

  15. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  16. Career development: domestic display as imperial, anthropological, and social trophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintle, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing the dynamics of collection and display in the colonial context, this essay considers the South Asian artifacts collected by Sir Richard Carnac Temple, Chief Commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands from 1894-1904. Temple exhibited the teak carvings, body adornments, and hunting tools that he amassed throughout his career in his home, The Nash, which became the foundation of his public persona as a triumphant colonial chief, a "shining light" in the emerging discipline of anthropology, and a wealthy, upper-class lord of the manor. The politics of consumption, decoration, and self-creation converge in The Nash, offering a glimpse into how material objects removed from India during the late nineteenth century were consumed in Britain and how domestic display contributed to the formation of British identity.

  17. Matrix-addressable electrochromic display cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beni, G.; Schiavone, L. M.

    1981-04-01

    We report an electrochromic display cell with intrinsic matrix addressability. The cell, based on a sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) and a tantalum-oxide hysteretic counterelectrode, has electrochromic parameters (i.e., response times, operating voltages, and contrast) similar to those of other SIROF display devices, but in addition, has short-circuit memory and voltage threshold. Memory and threshold are sufficiently large to allow, in principle, multiplexing of electrochromic display panels of large-screen TV pixel size.

  18. Laser Based 3D Volumetric Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Literature, Costa Mesa, CA July 1983. 3. "A Real Time Autostereoscopic Multiplanar 3D Display System", Rodney Don Williams, Felix Garcia, Jr., Texas...8217 .- NUMBERS LASER BASED 3D VOLUMETRIC DISPLAY SYSTEM PR: CD13 0. AUTHOR(S) PE: N/AWIU: DN303151 P. Soltan, J. Trias, W. Robinson, W. Dahlke 7...laser generated 3D volumetric images on a rotating double helix, (where the 3D displays are computer controlled for group viewing with the naked eye

  19. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    In post-revolution Iran, the sacred notion of martyrdom has been transformed into a routine act of government – a moral sign of order and state sovereignty. Moving beyond the debates of the secularisation of the sacred and the making sacred of the secular, this article argues that the moment...... of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  20. Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, Barry G.; Schwarz, Adam J.

    2000-03-01

    A comprehensive study of approaches to three-dimensional visualization by volumetric display systems This groundbreaking volume provides an unbiased and in-depth discussion on a broad range of volumetric three-dimensional display systems. It examines the history, development, design, and future of these displays, and considers their potential for application to key areas in which visualization plays a major role. Drawing substantially on material that was previously unpublished or available only in patent form, the authors establish the first comprehensive technical and mathematical formalization of the field, and examine a number of different volumetric architectures. System level design strategies are presented, from which proposals for the next generation of high-definition predictable volumetric systems are developed. To ensure that researchers will benefit from work already completed, they provide: * Descriptions of several recent volumetric display systems prepared from material supplied by the teams that created them * An abstract volumetric display system design paradigm * An historical summary of 90 years of development in volumetric display system technology * An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of many of the systems proposed to date * A unified presentation of the underlying principles of volumetric display systems * A comprehensive bibliography Beautifully supplemented with 17 color plates that illustrate volumetric images and prototype displays, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems is an indispensable resource for professionals in imaging systems development, scientific visualization, medical imaging, computer graphics, aerospace, military planning, and CAD/CAE.

  1. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  2. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  3. Pengaruh Display Produk pada Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision.

  4. Framework for effective use of multiple displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiong; Kimber, Don; Zhao, Frank; Huang, Jeffrey

    2005-10-01

    Meeting environments, such as conference rooms, executive briefing centers, and exhibition spaces, are now commonly equipped with multiple displays, and will become increasingly display-rich in the future. Existing authoring/presentation tools such as PowerPoint, however, provide little support for effective utilization of multiple displays. Even using advanced multi-display enabled multimedia presentation tools, the task of assigning material to displays is tedious and distracts presenters from focusing on content. This paper describes a framework for automatically assigning presentation material to displays, based on a model of the quality of views of audience members. The framework is based on a model of visual fidelity which takes into account presentation content, audience members' locations, the limited resolution of human eyes, and display location, orientation, size, resolution, and frame rate. The model can be used to determine presentation material placement based on average or worst case audience member view quality, and to warn about material that would be illegible. By integrating this framework with a previous system for multi-display presentation [PreAuthor, others], we created a tool that accepts PowerPoint and/or other media input files, and automatically generates a layout of material onto displays for each state of the presentation. The tool also provides an interface allowing the presenter to modify the automatically generated layout before or during the actual presentation. This paper discusses the framework, possible application scenarios, examples of the system behavior, and our experience with system use.

  5. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  6. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  7. Seasonal and diurnal variability in historical warming due to the urbanization of Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shiori; Sato, Tomonori; Sasaki, Tomonori

    2015-06-01

    The influence of historical urbanization on warming trends observed on Hokkaido Island (Japan) is discussed with an emphasis on seasonally and diurnally differential responses of air temperature to urban effects. Two numerical experiments using past and current land use scenarios successfully simulated the observed temperature trends, showing a greater rate of warming in winter than in summer and a greater increase in daily minimum than daily maximum temperatures. The results suggest that seasonal and diurnal variations in the thermal structure of the planetary boundary layer play a leading role in determining the warming rate of surface air. Under strongly stable stratification, anomalous heating within the urban canopy dissipates into a near-surface shallow layer, resulting in increased daily minimum temperatures during winter. In summer, however, anomalous urban heating due to increased Bowen ratios is attenuated by vertical mixing in the convective daytime boundary layer, suppressing the impact of urban heating on surface warming.

  8. Diurnal variation and dispersion in QT interval in cirrhosis: relation to haemodynamic changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig; Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    with cirrhosis, undergoing a haemodynamic investigation. 24-h 12 lead Holter monitoring provided information on QT and heart rate variability. RESULTS: Mean QT(C) was above upper normal limit (440 ms(1/2)) in eleven patients (47%) and significantly higher than in controls (441 vs 400 ms(1/2), p...=0.03-0.001). No diurnal variation of QT(disp) was found in cirrhosis. Heart rate variability was reduced with a significant relation to central hypovolaemia (r=0.55, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-four hours QT(C) is prolonged in a substantial fraction of patients with cirrhosis, but with normal...... diurnal variation. The combination of long QT(C) and normal QT(disp) suggests delayed myocyte repolarisation on the cellular level, rather than temporal and spatial heterogeneity in the myocardial wall....

  9. Dependence of Upper Atmosphere Photochemistry on the Shape of the Diurnal Cycle of the Photolysis Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A photochemical model of the atmosphere constitutes a non-linear, non-autonomous dynamical system, enforced by the Earth's rotation. Some studies have shown that the region of the mesopause tends towards non-linear responses such as period-doubling cascades and chaos. In these studies, simple approximations for the diurnal variations of the photolysis rates are assumed. The goal of this article is to investigate what happens if the more realistic, calculated photolysis rates are introduced. It is found that,if the usual approximations-sinusoidal and step fiunctions-are assumed, the responses of the system are similar: it converges to a 2-day periodic solution. If the more realistic, calculated diurnal cycle is introduced, a new 4-day subharmonic appear.

  10. Ten-Year Climatology of Summertime Diurnal Rainfall Rate Over the Conterminous U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Toshihisa; Mocko, David; Lee, Myong-In; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Suarez, Max J.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    2010-01-01

    Diurnal cycles of summertime rainfall rates are examined over the conterminous United States, using radar-gauge assimilated hourly rainfall data. As in earlier studies, rainfall diurnal composites show a well-defined region of rainfall propagation over the Great Plains and an afternoon maximum area over the south and eastern portion of the United States. Zonal phase speeds of rainfall in three different small domains are estimated, and rainfall propagation speeds are compared with background zonal wind speeds. Unique rainfall propagation speeds in three different regions can be explained by the evolution of latent-heat theory linked to the convective available potential energy, than by gust-front induced or gravity wave propagation mechanisms.

  11. KINETIC MODELLING OF CONTINUOUS-MIX ANAEROBIC REACTORS OPERATING UNDER DIURNALLY CYCLIC TEMPERATURE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Echiegu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-culture dynamic model which incorporated the effects of diurnally cyclic temperature was developed and used to predict the dynamic response of anaerobic reactors operated on dairy manure under two diurnally cyclic temperature ranges of 20-40°C and 15-25°C which represent the summer and winter in Nigeria. The digesters were operated at various hydraulic retention times and solid concentrations and some useful kinetic parameters were determined. The model predicted biogas production, volatile solid reduction, methane yield and treatment efficiency with reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.70 to 0.90. The model, however, under-predicted the cell mass concentration in the reactor probably because the Volatile Suspended Solid (VSS, which was used as the estimator of the actual cell mass concentration in the reactor, was not a good indicator of the active cell mass concentration in anaerobic reactors operating on dairy manure.

  12. Modelled and Observed Diurnal SST Signals: "SSTDV:R.EX.-IM.A.M." Project Preliminary Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Høyer, Jacob; LeBorgne, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some of the preliminary results from the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). During this phase...... of the project, the focus is on the regional extend of diurnal variability. Particularly, extensive sensitivity tests regarding the definition of SSTfound fields show that using only quality 5 SEVIRI data results in warmer foundation fields SSTfound while there is an added ∼0.2 K variability when using multi...... Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM) is applied. Preliminary results show that the initial temperature profiles may give a warmer start-up in the model while the light extinction scheme is a controlling factor for the amplitude and vertical extend of the daily signal....

  13. Diurnal/Inertial Oscillations on the West Florida Shelf in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, E. V.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    Oscillations of diurnal/inertial frequency on the West Florida Shelf in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico are thought to be seasonally important for mixing the shelf waters because of their tendency to have large vertical shear and to be quite energetic. Such oscillations are also thought to seasonally affect the ecology of the region through daily vertical thermocline migration. The presentation will focus on some novel findings about the diurnal/inertial coastal current fluctuations based on unique observational and modeled data sets on the West Florida Shelf. The properties of the oscillations, including spatial and temporal characteristics, and mechanisms of generation and propagation will be discussed. This presentation is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Ocean Sciences Postdoctoral Research Fellowship under Grant OCE-1421180 (E. V. Maksimova).

  14. Diurnal activity patterns of farm mink (Mustela vison) subjected to different feeding routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen H

    2008-01-01

    Diurnal patterns and time courses of activity and feed availability were investigated in three generations of farmed mink (2003-2005) subjected to three different feedings routines; normal farm feeding (close to average ad libitum), ad libitum, and restricted feeding. The mink were fed daily at h12...... on different feeding schedules. The diurnal activity rhythm in both the farm fed and the ad libitum fed mink consisted of three activity peaks; one around sunrise, one prior to feeding time, and one around sunset. However, the restrictively fed mink decreased their activity in the morning when feed...... was not available and increased their activity up to expected feeding time at noon and again around sunset. When feeding was postponed, the restrictively fed mink increased their activity up to expected feeding time, whereas the ad libitum or farm fed mink did not. The results indicate that mink fed restrictively...

  15. The complexity of diagnosing postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: influence of the diurnal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jangsup; Lee, Han Sang; Byun, Jung-Ick; Sunwoo, Jun-Sang; Shin, Jung-Won; Lim, Jung-Ah; Kim, Tae-Joon; Shin, Yong-Won; Lee, Keon-Joo; Jeon, Daejong; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Ki-Young; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-03-01

    We investigated how the diagnosis of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) would be changed due to diurnal variability in orthostatic tachycardia. The orthostatic vital sign test was administered to each patient twice, in the afternoon of the day of admission and the next morning (n = 113). Forty-six patients were diagnosed with POTS, and the remaining 67 patients were assigned to non-POTS group. Heart rate increments after standing were larger in the morning than in the afternoon in every group (all P orthostatic vital sign test. Orthostatic intolerance symptoms were provoked in only 45.7% of the POTS patients, more frequently in the morning. In conclusion, diurnal variability in hemodynamic parameters and provoked symptoms significantly challenged the diagnosis of POTS.

  16. Ozone Diurnal Variation in the PBL at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory During Summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, M.; Alvarez, R. J. _II, II; Brewer, A.; Brown, S. S.; Carrion, W.; Delgado, R.; De Young, R.; Huang, G.; Johnson, B.; Kuang, S.; Langford, A. O.; Lundquist, J. K.; McGee, T. J.; Pliutau, D.; Senff, C. J.; Sullivan, J. T.; Sumnicht, G. K.; Twigg, L.; Wang, L.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the diurnal variation of PBL ozone at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in July 2014 using multiple observations, including three ozone DIALs, several wind Doppler lidars, free-launched and tethered ozonesondes, and in-situ measurements on the BAO tower. Three mobile lidars from the Tropospheric Ozone Lidar NETwork (TOLNET) provide high spatial and temporal ozone profiles from near surface to the top of the troposphere. The combination of multiple observations will provide detailed structure of the diurnal variation of ozone. This ozone information will help the satellite and modeling communities to study the character of lower tropospheric ozone for the improvements of satellite retrieval and air-quality models. In addition, a Large-Eddy Simulation model will calculate ozone in the mixed layer to explain the processes responsible for the observations.

  17. Variability of radiatively forced diurnal cycle of intense convection in the tropical west pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, W.M.; Sheaffer, J.D.; Thorson, W.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Strong differences occur in daytime versus nighttime (DVN) net radiative cooling in clear versus cloudy areas of the tropical atmosphere. Daytime average cooling is approximately -0.7{degrees}C/day, whereas nighttime net tropospheric cooling rates are about -1.5{degrees}C/day, an approximately two-to-one difference. The comparatively strong nocturnal cooling in clear areas gives rise to a diurnally varying vertical circulation and horizontal convergence cycle. Various manifestations of this cyclic process include the observed early morning heavy rainfall maxima over the tropical oceans. The radiatively driven DVN circulation appears to strongly modulate the resulting diurnal cycle of intense convection which creates the highest, coldest cloudiness over maritime tropical areas and is likely a fundamental mechanism governing both small and large scale dynamics over much of the tropical environment.

  18. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate...... the impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening...... hours: 7am-3pm). Each patient's arrival time and time of blood sampling were registered. The impact of resting time and the time of day for all components was analysed using simple linear regression. The "maximum allowable bias" was used as quality indicator for the change in reference interval. RESULTS...

  19. Arabidopsis florigen FT binds to diurnally oscillating phospholipids that accelerate flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuki; Andrés, Fernando; Kanehara, Kazue; Liu, Yu-chi; Dörmann, Peter; Coupland, George

    2014-04-04

    Arabidopsis FT protein is a component of florigen, which transmits photoperiodic flowering signals from leaf companion cells to the shoot apex. Here, we show that FT specifically binds phosphatidylcholine (PC) in vitro. A transgenic approach to increase PC levels in vivo in the shoot meristem accelerates flowering whereas reduced PC levels delay flowering, demonstrating that PC levels are correlated with flowering time. The early flowering is related to FT activity, because expression of FT-effector genes is increased in these plants. Simultaneous increase of FT and PC in the shoot apical meristem further stimulates flowering, whereas a loss of FT function leads to an attenuation of the effect of increased PC. Specific molecular species of PC oscillate diurnally, and night-dominant species are not the preferred ligands of FT. Elevating night-dominant species during the day delays flowering. We suggest that FT binds to diurnally changing molecular species of PC to promote flowering.

  20. Sleep hygiene awareness: its relation to sleep quality and diurnal preference

    OpenAIRE

    Voinescu, Bogdan Ioan; Szentagotai-Tatar, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep hygiene is a core component for psychological treatments of insomnia and essential for maintaining a satisfactory sleep. Our study aimed to measure the sleep hygiene awareness and the self-reported quality of sleep among three age groups (young adults, adults and middle-aged adults) and to determine their relation. We also measured their relation with diurnal preference. Methods Using an online questionnaire, we surveyed six hundred fifty two participants, recruited nationwid...

  1. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  2. Influence of dynamical equatorial flattening and orientation of a triaxial core on prograde diurnal polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rong; Shen, WenBin

    2016-04-01

    The noise floor of empirical models of diurnal Earth Rotation could reach as low as 1μas as shown by several recent studies. In another aspect, the differences between these empirical models with the theoretical model predictions given by IERS Convention (2010) for certain diurnal frequencies are more than 10 μas (e.g. K1). The traxiality of the core is ignored in the theoretical model given by IERS Convention (2010) because it is highly uncertain. To explain the difference between the empirical model and theoretical model, we consider the possible influence of a triaxial core. We use the difference between empirical models and theoretical model predictions given by IERS Convention (2010) as input to invert the traxiality parameter of the core. In the inversion, we assume the ocean tide response obeys the admittance theory. So extra six admittance parameters are introduced to model the difference between smooth responses inferred from empirical models and that given by theoretical model predictions from IERS Convention (2010). The results show that adding core triaxiality into the theoretical model could narrow the difference between empirical model and theoretical model at diurnal frequencies. The residual of amplitude becomes smaller. For a set of tide components consisting of seven diurnal frequencies (Q1, O1, M1, P1, K1, J1, Oo1), the root mean square of the residual of this set have decreased from more than 10μas to 2˜3μas for most of the empirical models. As for the dynamical equatorial flattening of the core, estimates inverted based on different empirical models are consistent within standard deviation. The results also suggest that the principal axes of the triaxial core does not coincidence with the principal axes of the whole Earth. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant No. 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41210006, 41504019).

  3. Observations of seasonal and diurnal glacier velocities at Mount Rainier, Washington, using terrestrial radar interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, K. E.; Shean, D. E.; Campbell, A.; Fahnestock, M.; Malone, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present surface velocity maps derived from repeat terrestrial radar interferometry (TRI) measurements and use these time series to examine seasonal and diurnal dynamics of alpine glaciers at Mount Rainier, Washington. We show that the Nisqually and Emmons glaciers have small slope-parallel velocities near the summit ( 10 km range can be used to investigate spatial and temporal variability of alpine glacier dynamics over large areas, including hazardous and inaccessible areas.

  4. Observations of seasonal and diurnal glacier velocities at Mount Rainier, Washington using terrestrial radar interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    K. E. Allstadt; Shean, D. E.; Campbell, A.; M. Fahnestock; S. D. Malone

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially continuous velocity maps using repeat terrestrial radar interferometry (TRI) measurements to examine seasonal and diurnal dynamics of alpine glaciers at Mount Rainier, Washington. We show that the Nisqually and Emmons glaciers have small slope-parallel velocities near the summit (< 0.2 m day−1), high velocities over their upper and central regions (1.0–1.5 m day−1), and stagnant debris-covered regions near the terminus (< 0.05 m day...

  5. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the arctic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteors are an important source for (a the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere. We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out. Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon but all three radiants were detected.

  6. Diurnal and Seasonal Patterns of Methane Emissions from a Dairy Operation in North China Plain

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In China, dairy cattle managed in collective feedlots contribute about 30% of the milk production and are believed to be an important contributor to national methane emissions. Methane emissions from a collective dairy feedlot in North China Plain (NCP) were measured during the winter, spring, summer, and fall seasons with open-path lasers in combination with an inverse dispersion technique. Methane emissions from the selected dairy feedlot were characterized by an apparent diurnal pattern wi...

  7. A redox-regulated chloroplast protein phosphatase binds to starch diurnally and functions in its accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lubomir N. Sokolov; Dominguez-Solis, Jose R.; Allary, Anne-Laure; Buchanan, Bob B.; Luan, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Starch is the ultimate storage molecule formed in the photosynthetic fixation of carbon dioxide by chloroplasts. Starch accumulates during the day and is degraded at night to intermediates that are exported to heterotrophic organs. The mechanism by which diurnal cycles control the transitory biosynthesis and degradation of chloroplast starch has long remained a mystery. We now report evidence that a dual-specificity protein phosphatase, DSP4, binds to starch granules during the day and dissoc...

  8. No PTSD-related differences in diurnal cortisol profiles of genocide survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Eckart, Cindy; Engler, Harald; Riether, Carsten; Kolassa, Stephan; Elbert, Thomas; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with reduced cortisol levels. Opposing results have been interpreted as resulting from methodological differences between studies.We investigated the diurnal profile of salivary cortisol in a population of highly traumatized adult males from Rwanda with and without PTSD, who spent the whole day of examination together under amaximally standardized schedule. Besides the detection of PTSDrelated alterations in cortisol release we aimed at...

  9. Sex hormones adjust "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Raymond, Catherine; Desrochers, Alexandra Bisson; Bourdon, Olivier; Durand, Nadia; Wan, Nathalie; Pruessner, Jens C; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in stress hormone functions are presumed to depend on sex hormones. And yet, surprisingly few psychoneuroendocrine studies actually assess within-sex variations of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone when investigating sex-specific activities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this methodological study of 204 healthy adults (60 men), we assessed whether cortisol profiles would differ between the sexes when unadjusted or adjusted for basal sex hormones among both sexes. Reactive cortisol was sampled using 6 saliva samples measured every 10-min as part of the Trier Social Stress Test that generally activates cortisol among men more than women. Diurnal cortisol was sampled over two days at (1) awakening, (2) 30-min thereafter, (3) 1400 h, (4) 1600 h, and (5) bedtime. Sex hormones were collected at baseline before the psychosocial stressor and on two occasions during diurnal cortisol assessment. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance controlled for key covariates in analyses unadjusted or adjusted for sex hormones. Results revealed that men had higher reactive cortisol than women in unadjusted analysis, but this sex difference was attenuated when adjusting for sex hormones. While diurnal cortisol showed no sex differences in unadjusted models, adjusting for sex hormones revealed that women have higher morning cortisol. Correlations using area under the curve formulae revealed intriguing sex-specific associations with progesterone in men and testosterone in women that we propose have implications for social and affective neuroscience. In summary, our results reveal that adjusting for sex hormones alters "sex-specific" reactive and diurnal cortisol profiles.

  10. Resolution dependence of the simulated precipitation and diurnal cycle over the Maritime Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; Taschetto, Andréa S.; Gupta, Alex Sen; Argüeso, Daniel; Masson, Sébastien; Cai, Wenju

    2016-08-01

    The Maritime Continent is a region of intense rainfall characterised by a strong diurnal cycle. This study investigates the sensitivity of rainfall characteristics to resolution in a coupled regional climate model configuration, in particular focusing on processes that modulate the diurnal cycle. Model biases are resolution dependent. Increasing resolution from 3/4° to 1/4° improves the mean state sea surface temperature and precipitation biases. However, at higher resolutions (1/12°) rainfall becomes too strong in most areas. Daily maximum rainfall is simulated about 2-4 h earlier than in observations over both the land and the ocean, with only small improvements over high topography at higher resolution. We develop a technique to examine cross-coastal processes associated with the rainfall diurnal cycle along all coastlines. This is used to investigate the sensitivity of the diurnal cycle to resolution and to the direction of the prevailing wind. During offshore prevailing winds, most land rainfall is confined near the coastline and associated with a shallow land-sea breeze circulation at all resolution (though rainfall partly develops directly inland at 1/12°). During onshore prevailing winds, rainfall propagates from the coastline to the island interior at 1/4° and 1/12°, whereas it appears directly over the island interior at 3/4°, and this is associated with a deep convective cell across the coastline for all resolutions. Oceanic rainfall propagates far offshore during offshore prevailing winds at all resolutions, whereas it tends to remain confined near the coastline under onshore prevailing winds condition, particularly at higher resolution.

  11. Practical limitations on the use of diurnal temperature signals to quantify groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin; Lautz, Laura K.; Buckley, Sean F.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater upwelling to streams creates unique habitat by influencing stream water quality and temperature; upwelling zones also serve as vectors for contamination when groundwater is degraded. Temperature time series data acquired along vertical profiles in the streambed have been applied to simple analytical models to determine rates of vertical fluid flux. These models are based on the downward propagation characteristics (amplitude attenuation and phase-lag) of the surface diurnal signal. Despite the popularity of these models, there are few published characterizations of moderate-to-strong upwelling. We attribute this limitation to the thermodynamics of upwelling, under which the downward conductive signal transport from the streambed interface occurs opposite the upward advective fluid flux. Governing equations describing the advection–diffusion of heat within the streambed predict that under upwelling conditions, signal amplitude attenuation will increase, but, counterintuitively, phase-lag will decrease. Therefore the extinction (measurable) depth of the diurnal signal is very shallow, but phase lag is also short, yielding low signal to noise ratio and poor model sensitivity. Conversely, amplitude attenuation over similar sensor spacing is strong, yielding greater potential model sensitivity. Here we present streambed thermal time series over a range of moderate to strong upwelling sites in the Quashnet River, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The predicted inverse relationship between phase-lag and rate of upwelling was observed in the field data over a range of conditions, but the observed phase-lags were consistently shorter than predicted. Analytical solutions for fluid flux based on signal amplitude attenuation return results consistent with numerical models and physical seepage meters, but the phase-lag analytical model results are generally unreasonable. Through numerical modeling we explore reasons why phase-lag may have been over-predicted by the

  12. Investigation of diurnal patterns in vertical distributions of pollen in the lower troposphere using LIDAR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Noh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal patterns in pollen vertical distributions in the lower troposphere were investigated by the LIDAR remote sensing technique. Meteorological and pollen concentration data was measured at the surface using a Burkard 7 day recording volumetric spore sampler. An aerosol extinction coefficient and depolarization ratio of 532 nm was obtained from LIDAR measurements in spring (4 May–2 June 2009 in Gwagnju, Korea. Depolarization ratios from 0.08 to 0.14 were observed only in daytime (09:00–17:00 local time (LT during high pollen concentration days from 4 to 9 May. Vertical distributions in the depolarization ratio with time showed a specific diurnal pattern. Depolarization ratios, which varied from 0.08 to 0.14, were measured near the surface in the morning. High depolarization ratios were detected even up to 2.0 km between 12:00 and 14:00 LT but subsequently were observed only close to the surface after 17:00 LT. Low values of depolarization ratios (≤ 0.05 were detected after 18:00 LT until next morning. During the measurement period, the daily variations in the high depolarization ratios close to the surface showed good agreement with those in surface pollen concentrations, which implies that high depolarization ratios can be attributed to high pollen concentrations. The diurnal characteristics in high values of depolarization ratios were closely associated with turbulent transport, which can be caused by increasing temperature and wind speed and decreasing relative humidity. Continuously measured diurnal and vertical characteristics of pollen data can be further used to enhance the accuracy of the pollen-forecasting model via data assimilation studies.

  13. Parents Function and Behavioral Disorders in Children with and without Diurnal Voiding Dysfunction: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diurnal voiding dysfunction is one of the most common causes of pediatric urology clinic admissions. It can cause behavioral problems for children and their parents. We lunch this study to compare the parents’ function and children’s behavior problem in pediatric patients suffering from diurnal voiding dysfunction referring Arak Amir Kabir hospital. Materials and Methods: To perform this case-control study, we recruit 116 children with diurnal voiding dysfunction and compared them with other 116 children non-affected children aged between 5 to 16 years old. The child behavior checklist (CBCL4/18 for children behavior assessment and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF for the evaluation of their parent’s behavior was completed by the parents. Data was analyzed using ANOVA, qualitative variables and χ2 formula. Results: Among 116 patient with voiding dysfunction, 10 case (8.6% showed behavioral problem while this figure was 3 case (2.6% in the control group, denoting a significant difference (p=0.04. Moreover 20 children (17.2% in the case group and 9 children (7.8% in the control group had internalizing problem (p=0.02. Twenty two children (19% with voiding dysfunction and 8 children (6.9% in the healthy group had externalizing problem which was also a significant difference (p=0.01. As a significant difference (0.01, the parent’s average stress and behavior scores in case and control group were 3.65 and 3.76, respectively. Conclusion: The higher prevalence of behavioral problem in the children suffering from diurnal voiding dysfunction and their parent’s functional impairment highlights the importance of early parent’s intervention for early treatment and subsequently prevention of future behavioral problem in their sibling.

  14. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2015-01-01

    levels by about plus or minus 10% from the mesor. The lack of a rapid and substantial postprandial increase in MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels suggests that MIC1/GDF15 is unlikely to act as a satiety factor. Taken together, our findings suggest that MIC-1/GDF15 may be a physiological regulator of energy...

  15. Serum levels of human MIC-1/GDF15 vary in a diurnal pattern, do not display a profile suggestive of a satiety factor and are related to BMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Vicky Wang-Wei; Macia, Laurence; Feinle-Bisset, Christine;

    2015-01-01

    The TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15 circulates in the blood of healthy humans. Its levels rise substantially in cancer and other diseases and this may sometimes lead to development of an anorexia/cachexia syndrome. This is mediated by a direct action of MIC-1/GDF15 on feeding centres...

  16. Quantifying Diurnal Cloud Radiative Effects by Cloud Type in the Tropical Western Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Long, Charles N.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2015-06-01

    Cloud radiative effects are examined using long-term datasets collected at the three Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facilities in the tropical western Pacific. We quantify the surface radiation budget, cloud populations, and cloud radiative effects by partitioning the data by cloud type, time of day, and as a function of large scale modes of variability such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phase and wet/dry seasons at Darwin. The novel facet of our analysis is that we break aggregate cloud radiative effects down by cloud type across the diurnal cycle. The Nauru cloud populations and subsequently the surface radiation budget are strongly impacted by ENSO variability whereas the cloud populations over Manus only shift slightly in response to changes in ENSO phase. The Darwin site exhibits large seasonal monsoon related variations. We show that while deeper convective clouds have a strong conditional influence on the radiation reaching the surface, their limited frequency reduces their aggregate radiative impact. The largest source of shortwave cloud radiative effects at all three sites comes from low clouds. We use the observations to demonstrate that potential model biases in the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and mean cloud frequency would lead to larger errors in the surface energy budget compared to biases in the timing of the diurnal cycle of cloud frequency. Our results provide solid benchmarks to evaluate model simulations of cloud radiative effects in the tropics.

  17. Global Electric Circuit Diurnal Variation Derived from Storm Overflight and Satellite Optical Lightning Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bateman, M. J.; Bailey, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    We have combined analyses of over 1000 high altitude aircraft observations of electrified clouds with diurnal lightning statistics from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and Optical Transient Detector (OTD) to produce an estimate of the diurnal variation in the global electric circuit. Using basic assumptions about the mean storm currents as a function of flash rate and location, and the global electric circuit, our estimate of the current in the global electric circuit matches the Carnegie curve diurnal variation to within 4% for all but two short periods of time. The agreement with the Carnegie curve was obtained without any tuning or adjustment of the satellite or aircraft data. Mean contributions to the global electric circuit from land and ocean thunderstorms are 1.1 kA (land) and 0.7 kA (ocean). Contributions to the global electric circuit from ESCs are 0.22 kA for ocean storms and 0.04 kA for land storms. Using our analysis, the mean total conduction current for the global electric circuit is 2.0 kA.

  18. Large Eddy Simulation of the Diurnal Cycle in Southeast Pacific Stratocumulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, P; Bretherton, C

    2008-03-03

    This paper describes a series of 6 day large eddy simulations of a deep, sometimes drizzling stratocumulus-topped boundary layer based on forcings from the East Pacific Investigation of Climate (EPIC) 2001 field campaign. The base simulation was found to reproduce the observed mean boundary layer properties quite well. The diurnal cycle of liquid water path was also well captured, although good agreement appears to result partially from compensating errors in the diurnal cycles of cloud base and cloud top due to overentrainment around midday. At other times of the day, entrainment is found to be proportional to the vertically-integrated buoyancy flux. Model stratification matches observations well; turbulence profiles suggest that the boundary layer is always at least somewhat decoupled. Model drizzle appears to be too sensitive to liquid water path and subcloud evaporation appears to be too weak. Removing the diurnal cycle of subsidence had little effect on simulated cloud albedo. Simulations with changed droplet concentration and drizzle susceptibility showed large liquid water path differences at night, but differences were quite small at midday. Droplet concentration also had a significant impact on entrainment, primarily through droplet sedimentation feedback rather than through drizzle processes.

  19. Diurnal cycle of the dust instantaneous direct radiative forcing over the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Osipov, S.

    2015-08-27

    In this study we attempted to better quantify radiative effects of dust over the Arabian Peninsula and their dependence on input parameters. For this purpose we have developed a stand-alone column radiation transport model coupled with the Mie, T-matrix and geometric optics calculations and driven by reanalysis meteorological fields and atmospheric composition. Numerical experiments were carried out for a wide range of aerosol optical depths, including extreme values developed during the dust storm on 18–20 March 2012. Comprehensive ground-based observations and satellite retrievals were used to estimate aerosol optical properties, validate calculations and carry out radiation closure. The broadband surface albedo, fluxes at the bottom and top of the atmosphere as well as instantaneous dust radiative forcing were estimated both from the model and observations. Diurnal cycle of the shortwave instantaneous dust direct radiative forcing was studied for a range of aerosol and surface characteristics representative of the Arabian Peninsula. Mechanisms and parameters responsible for diurnal variability of the radiative forcing were evaluated. We found that intrinsic variability of the surface albedo and its dependence on atmospheric conditions, along with anisotropic aerosol scattering, are mostly responsible for diurnal effects.

  20. From dusk till dawn: nocturnal and diurnal pollination in the epiphyte Tillandsia heterophylla (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodríguez, P A; Krömer, T; García-Franco, J G; MacSwiney G, M C

    2016-01-01

    In order to compare the effectiveness of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the reproductive biology and pollinators of Tillandsia heterophylla E. Morren, an epiphytic tank bromeliad endemic to southeastern Mexico. Since anthesis in T. heterophylla is predominantly nocturnal but lasts until the following day, we hypothesised that this bromeliad would receive visits from both diurnal and nocturnal visitors, but that nocturnal visitors would be the most effective pollinators, since they arrive first to the receptive flower, and that bats would be the most frequent nocturnal visitors, given the characteristics of the nectar. Flowering of T. heterophylla began in May and lasted until July. The species is fully self-compatible, with an anthesis that lasts for ca. 15-16 h. Mean volume of nectar produced per flower was 82.21 μl, with a mean sugar concentration of 6.33%. The highest volume and concentration of nectar were found at 20:00 h, with a subsequent decline in both to almost zero over the following 12-h period. T. heterophylla has a generalist pollination system, since at least four different morphospecies of visitors pollinate its flowers: bats, moths, hummingbirds and bees. Most of the pollinating visits corresponded to bats and took place in the early evening, when stigma receptivity had already begun; making bats the probable pollinator on most occasions. However, diurnal pollinators may be important as a 'fail-safe' system by which to guarantee the pollination of T. heterophylla.

  1. Hydroxyl in the stratosphere and mesosphere – Part 1: Diurnal variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Minschwaner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in hydroxyl (OH in the stratosphere and mesosphere are analyzed using measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The primary driver for OH diurnal variations is the ultraviolet actinic flux that initiates the photochemical production of reactive hydrogen species. The magnitude of this flux is governed largely by changes in solar zenith angle (SZA throughout the day, and OH diurnal variations are well approximated by an exponential function of the secant of SZA. Measured OH concentrations are fit to a function of the form exp[−βsec(SZA], where the parameter β is a function of altitude. We examine the magnitude of β and show that it is related to the optical depths of ultraviolet absorption by ozone and molecular oxygen. Values of β from SLIMCAT model simulations show the same vertical structure as those from MLS and the average level of agreement between model and measurements is 6%. The vertical profile of β from MLS can be represented by a simple analytic formulation involving the ozone and water vapor photodissociation rates. This formulation is used to infer the altitude dependence of the primary production mechanisms for OH: the reaction of excited-state atomic oxygen with water vapor versus the direct photodissociation of water vapor.

  2. Observed diurnal variation changes of Jakarta precipitation from 144 available meteorological records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto, Siswanto; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; van den Hurk, Bart; Jilderda, Rudmer

    2013-04-01

    Using a long available meteorological observation for almost 114 years hourly and daily record from Jakarta Observatory, the temporal heterogeneity of climate trends and its variability over Jakarta, Indonesia has been studied. The analyses showed that the number of wet days has decreased between 1880 and 2010, while the precipitation exceeding 50 mm is observed to be slightly increased. An increased trend of heavy rainfall in the 80% and 95% percentile between April and September was detected. Diurnal variation of Jakarta precipitation and temperature changed markedly. In the wet season (DJF), the morning rainfall has increased in intensity, while in other seasons; delayed amplitude of late afternoon rainfall peak is observed. The diurnal variation of night time temperature considerably increased while daytime temperature remains similar. Changes in temporal characteristics of light and heavy precipitation, as well as the diurnal variation of precipitation and temperature lead to hypotheses concerning anthropogenic influence. Some theoretical arguments on Urban Heat Island and aerosol effect precipitation could be linked to our results. Jakarta is a metropolitan city where its development is characterized by mixing of many different land uses and economic activities, including large-scale housing projects, industrial estates, and agricultural activities. In the future, the separation of local response to large scale and local changes will be investigated.

  3. The impact of diurnal variations of air traffic on contrail radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Stuber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We combined high resolution aircraft flight data from the EU Fifth Framework Programme project AERO2k with analysis data from the ECMWF's integrated forecast system to calculate diurnally resolved 3-D contrail cover. We scaled the contrail cover in order to match observational data for the Bakan area (eastern-Atlantic/western-Europe.

    We found that less than 40% of the global distance travelled by aircraft is due to flights during local night time. Yet, due to the cancellation of shortwave and longwave effects during daytime, night time flights contribute a disproportional 60% to the global annual mean forcing. Under clear sky conditions the night flights contribute even more disproportionally at 76%. There are pronounced regional variations in night flying and the associated radiative forcing. Over parts of the North Atlantic flight corridor 75% of air traffic and 84% of the forcing occurs during local night, whereas only 35% of flights are during local night in South-East Asia, yet these contribute 68% of the radiative forcing. In general, regions with a significant local contrail radiative forcing are also regions for which night time flights amount to less than half of the daily total of flights. Therefore, neglecting diurnal variations in air traffic/contrail cover by assuming a diurnal mean contrail cover can over-estimate the global mean radiative forcing by up to 30%.

  4. Hydroxyl in the stratosphere and mesosphere – Part 1: Diurnal variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Minschwaner

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in hydroxyl (OH in the stratosphere and mesosphere are analyzed using measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS. The primary driver for OH diurnal variations is the ultraviolet actinic flux that initiates photochemical reactions which produce OH. The magnitude of this flux is governed largely by changes in solar zenith angle (SZA throughout the day, and OH diurnal variations are well approximated by an exponential function of the secant of SZA. Measured OH concentrations are fit to a function of the form exp[−βsec(SZA], where the parameter β is a function of altitude. We examine the magnitude of β and show that it is related to the optical depths of ultraviolet absorption by ozone and oxygen. Comparison of β values obtained from SLIMCAT model simulations with those derived from MLS observations shows very good agreement. The vertical profile of β from MLS can be represented by a simple analytic formulation involving the ozone and water vapor photodissociation rates. This formulation is used to infer the altitude dependence of the primary production mechanisms for OH: the reaction of excited-state atomic oxygen with water vapor versus the direct photodissociation of water vapor.

  5. A Modeling Study of Diurnal Rainfall Variations during the 21-Day Period of TOGA COARE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Shouting; CUI Xiaopeng; Xiaofan LI

    2009-01-01

    The surface rainfall processes and diurnal variations associated with tropical oceanic convection are examined by analyzing a surface rainfall equation and thermal budget based on hourly zonal-mean data from a series of two-dimensional cloud-resolving simulations.The model is integrated for 21 days with imposed large-scale vertical velocity,zonal wind,and horizontal advection obtained from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) in the control experiment.Diurnal analysis shows that the infrared radiative cooling after sunset,as well as the advective cooling associated with imposed large-scale ascending motion,destabilize the atmosphere and release convective available potential energy to energize nocturnal convective development.Substantial local atmospheric drying is associated with the nocturnal rainfall peak in early morning,which is a result of the large condensation and deposition rates in the vapor budget.Sensitivity experiments show that diurnal variations of radiation and large-scale forcing can produce a nocturnal rainfall peak through infrared and advective cooling,respectively.

  6. The Role of Nitric Oxide in Memory is Modulated by Diurnal Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Gage

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important neuromodulatory role in the olfactory system. This modulation has been suggested to be particularly important for olfactory learning and memory in the antennal lobe (the primary olfactory network in invertebrates. We are using the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, to further investigate the role of NO in olfactory memory. Recent findings suggest that NO affects short-term memory traces and that NO concentration fluctuates with the light cycle. This gives rise to the hypothesis that NO may be involved in the connection between memory and circadian rhythms. In this study, we explore the role of diurnal time and NO in memory by altering the time of day when associative-olfactory conditioning is performed. We find a strong effect of NO on short-term memory, and two surprising effects of diurnal time. We find that (1 at certain time points, NO affects longer traces of memory in addition to short-term memory, and (2 when conditioning is performed close to the light cycle switches—both from light to dark and dark to light—NO does not significantly affect memory at all. These findings suggest an intriguing functional role for NO in olfactory conditioning that is modulated as a function of diurnal time.

  7. Diurnal anisotropy of cosmic rays during intensive solar activity for the period 2001-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezari, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.

    2016-07-01

    The diurnal variation of cosmic ray intensity, based on the records of two neutron monitor stations at Athens (Greece) and Oulu (Finland) for the time period 2001 to 2014, is studied. This period covers the maximum and the descending phase of the solar cycle 23, the minimum of the solar cycles 23/24 and the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24.These two stations differ in their geographic latitude and magnetic threshold rigidity. The amplitude and phase of the diurnal anisotropy vectors have been calculated on annual and monthly basis. From our analysis it is resulted that there is a different behaviour in the characteristics of the diurnal anisotropy during the different phases of the solar cycle, depended on the solar magnetic field polarity, but also during extreme events of solar activity, such as Ground Level Enhancements and cosmic ray events, such as Forbush decreases and magnetospheric events. These results may be useful to Space Weather forecasting and especially to Biomagnetic studies.

  8. Mathematical modelling of the diurnal regulation of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Pulido, Pablo; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    Isoprenoid molecules are essential elements of plant metabolism. Many important plant isoprenoids, such as chlorophylls, carotenoids, tocopherols, prenylated quinones and hormones are synthesised in chloroplasts via the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here we develop a mathematical model of diurnal regulation of the MEP pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. We used both experimental and theoretical approaches to integrate mechanisms potentially involved in the diurnal control of the pathway. Our data show that flux through the MEP pathway is accelerated in light due to the photosynthesis-dependent supply of metabolic substrates of the pathway and the transcriptional regulation of key biosynthetic genes by the circadian clock. We also demonstrate that feedback regulation of both the activity and the abundance of the first enzyme of the MEP pathway (1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, DXS) by pathway products stabilizes the flux against changes in substrate supply and adjusts the flux according to product demand under normal growth conditions. These data illustrate the central relevance of photosynthesis, the circadian clock and feedback control of DXS for the diurnal regulation of the MEP pathway.

  9. Diurnal Rhythms Result in Significant Changes in the Cellular Protein Complement in the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockel, Jana; Jacobs, Jon M.; Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Welsh, Eric A.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-02-22

    Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ,30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for,5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms.

  10. Diurnal Rhythms Result in Significant Changes in the Cellular Protein Complement in the Cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitigala, Thanura R.; Liberton, Michelle; Welsh, Eric A.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Koppenaal, David W.; Smith, Richard D.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ∼30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for ∼5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms. PMID:21364985

  11. Diurnal rhythms result in significant changes in the cellular protein complement in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stöckel

    Full Text Available Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ∼30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for ∼5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms.

  12. Diurnal rhythms result in significant changes in the cellular protein complement in the cyanobacterium Cyanothece 51142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Jana; Jacobs, Jon M; Elvitigala, Thanura R; Liberton, Michelle; Welsh, Eric A; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Gritsenko, Marina A; Nicora, Carrie D; Koppenaal, David W; Smith, Richard D; Pakrasi, Himadri B

    2011-02-22

    Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 is a diazotrophic cyanobacterium notable for its ability to perform oxygenic photosynthesis and dinitrogen fixation in the same single cell. Previous transcriptional analysis revealed that the existence of these incompatible cellular processes largely depends on tightly synchronized expression programs involving ∼30% of genes in the genome. To expand upon current knowledge, we have utilized sensitive proteomic approaches to examine the impact of diurnal rhythms on the protein complement in Cyanothece 51142. We found that 250 proteins accounting for ∼5% of the predicted ORFs from the Cyanothece 51142 genome and 20% of proteins detected under alternating light/dark conditions exhibited periodic oscillations in their abundances. Our results suggest that altered enzyme activities at different phases during the diurnal cycle can be attributed to changes in the abundance of related proteins and key compounds. The integration of global proteomics and transcriptomic data further revealed that post-transcriptional events are important for temporal regulation of processes such as photosynthesis in Cyanothece 51142. This analysis is the first comprehensive report on global quantitative proteomics in a unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacterium and uncovers novel findings about diurnal rhythms.

  13. Target Detection over the Diurnal Cycle Using a Multispectral Infrared Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Ji, Zheng; Li, Na; Gu, Jianrong; Li, Yansong

    2016-12-29

    When detecting a target over the diurnal cycle, a conventional infrared thermal sensor might lose the target due to the thermal crossover, which could happen at any time throughout the day when the infrared image contrast between target and background in a scene is indistinguishable due to the temperature variation. In this paper, the benefits of using a multispectral-based infrared sensor over the diurnal cycle have been shown. Firstly, a brief theoretical analysis on how the thermal crossover influences a conventional thermal sensor, within the conditions where the thermal crossover would happen and why the mid-infrared (3~5 μm) multispectral technology is effective, is presented. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this technology is also described and we describe how the prototype design and multispectral technology is employed to help solve the thermal crossover detection problem. Thirdly, several targets are set up outside and imaged in the field experiment over a 24-h period. The experimental results show that the multispectral infrared imaging system can enhance the contrast of the detected images and effectively solve the failure of the conventional infrared sensor during the diurnal cycle, which is of great significance for infrared surveillance applications.

  14. Effect of diurnal temperature difference on lipid accumulation and development in Calanus sinicus (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Konglin; Sun, Song

    2016-08-01

    Calanus sinicus, the dominant copepod in the Yellow Sea, develops a large oil sac in late spring to prepare for over-summering in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The lipid accumulation mechanism for the initiation of over-summering is unknown. Here, we cultured C3 copepodites at four constant temperatures (10, 13, 16, and 19°C) and at three temperature regimes that mimicked the temperature variations experienced during diurnal vertical migration (10-13°C, 10-16°C, and 10-19°C) for 18 days to explore the effects of temperature differences on copepod development and lipid accumulation. C. sinicus stored more lipid at low than at high temperatures. A diurnal temperature difference (10-16°C and 10-19°C) promoted greater lipid accumulation (1.9-2.1 times) than a constant temperature of either 16°C or 19°C, by reducing the energy cost at colder temperatures and lengthening copepodite development. Thereafter, the lipid reserve supported gonad development after final molting. Only one male developed in these experiments. This highly female-skewed sex ratio may have been the result of the monotonous microalgae diet fed to the copepodites. This study provides the first evidence that diurnal temperature differences may promote lipid accumulation in C. sinicus, and provides a foundation for future investigations into the mechanisms involved in over-summering in the YSCWM.

  15. Diurnal variability of heat fluxes over the coastal waters off Visakhapatnam during post-monsoon and winter seasons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramu, Ch V.; Bharathi, G.; Sadhuram, Y.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    Diurnal variability of heat fluxes in the coastal waters of Visakhapatnam has been studied during post-monsoon (Oct, 2006) and winter (Jan-Feb, 2007) seasons utilizing the surface meteorological data and radiation measurements on-board CRV Sagar...

  16. Diurnal Variations of Air Pollution and Atmospheric Boundary Layer Structure in Beijing During Winter 2000/2001

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Li; XU Xiangde; DING Guoan; ZHOU Mingyu; CHENG Xinghong

    2005-01-01

    The diurnal variations of gaseous pollutants and the dynamical and thermodynamic structures of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in the Beijing area from January to March 2001 are analyzed in this study using data from the Beijing City Air Pollution Observation Field Experiment (BECAPEX). A heavy pollution day (22 February) and a good air quality day (24 February) are selected and individually analyzed and compared to reveal the relationships between gaseous pollutants and the diurnal variations of the ABL. The results show that gaseous pollutant concentrations exhibit a double-peak-double-valley-type diurnal variation and have similar trends but with different magnitudes at different sites in Beijing. The diurnal variation of the gaseous pollutant concentrations is closely related to (with a 1-2 hour delay of)changes in the atmospheric stability and the mean kinetic energy in the ABL.

  17. The effect of the number of consecutive night shifts on diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Garde, Anne Helene; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge from field studies on how many consecutive night shifts are required for adaptation of diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV) to night work. METHODS: A systematic search of the databases Pub......Med and Web of Science resulted in 18 studies selected for review. RESULTS: Cortisol was measured in five studies, melatonin in 11 studies and HRV in four studies. Diurnal rhythms were assessed by use of several different measures based on three to eight samples per day for cortisol and melatonin and 24-h...... to night work had not occurred after two consecutive night shifts, whereas a small number found evidence for full adaptation after seven consecutive night shifts based on diurnal rhythms in cortisol and melatonin. CONCLUSION: There are methodological differences in the field studies analyzing diurnal...

  18. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  19. Methods for Selecting Phage Display Antibody Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Acevedo, Ricardo; Diez, Paula; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Maria; Degano, Rosa Maria; Ibarrola, Nieves; Gongora, Rafael; Orfao, Alberto; Fuentes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The selection process aims sequential enrichment of phage antibody display library in clones that recognize the target of interest or antigen as the library undergoes successive rounds of selection. In this review, selection methods most commonly used for phage display antibody libraries have been comprehensively described.

  20. Teacher Portfolios: Displaying the Art of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2004-01-01

    A portfolio can convey a teacher's beliefs, knowledge and skills. An artist uses a portfolio to display artistic talent, and a teacher can use his or her portfolio to display teaching talent and teaching style. A teacher's portfolio may be used to obtain new employment, to document teaching accomplishments in order to receive a promotion or tenure…

  1. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  2. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways of supp...

  3. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separat

  4. Extraction and Analysis of Display Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Chris; Moye, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    The Display Audit Suite is an integrated package of software tools that partly automates the detection of Portable Computer System (PCS) Display errors. [PCS is a lap top computer used onboard the International Space Station (ISS).] The need for automation stems from the large quantity of PCS displays (6,000+, with 1,000,000+ lines of command and telemetry data). The Display Audit Suite includes data-extraction tools, automatic error detection tools, and database tools for generating analysis spread sheets. These spread sheets allow engineers to more easily identify many different kinds of possible errors. The Suite supports over 40 independent analyses, 16 NASA Tech Briefs, November 2008 and complements formal testing by being comprehensive (all displays can be checked) and by revealing errors that are difficult to detect via test. In addition, the Suite can be run early in the development cycle to find and correct errors in advance of testing.

  5. 2D/3D switchable displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, T.; de Zwart, S. T.; Willemsen, O. H.; Hiddink, M. G. H.; IJzerman, W. L.

    2006-02-01

    A prerequisite for a wide market acceptance of 3D displays is the ability to switch between 3D and full resolution 2D. In this paper we present a robust and cost effective concept for an auto-stereoscopic switchable 2D/3D display. The display is based on an LCD panel, equipped with switchable LC-filled lenticular lenses. We will discuss 3D image quality, with the focus on display uniformity. We show that slanting the lenticulars in combination with a good lens design can minimize non-uniformities in our 20" 2D/3D monitors. Furthermore, we introduce fractional viewing systems as a very robust concept to further improve uniformity in the case slanting the lenticulars and optimizing the lens design are not sufficient. We will discuss measurements and numerical simulations of the key optical characteristics of this display. Finally, we discuss 2D image quality, the switching characteristics and the residual lens effect.

  6. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  7. An interactive multiview 3D display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoxing; Geng, Zheng; Zhang, Mei; Dong, Hui

    2013-03-01

    The progresses in 3D display systems and user interaction technologies will help more effective 3D visualization of 3D information. They yield a realistic representation of 3D objects and simplifies our understanding to the complexity of 3D objects and spatial relationship among them. In this paper, we describe an autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system with capability of real-time user interaction. Design principle of this autostereoscopic multiview 3D display system is presented, together with the details of its hardware/software architecture. A prototype is built and tested based upon multi-projectors and horizontal optical anisotropic display structure. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of this novel 3D display and user interaction system.

  8. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...

  9. Influence of observed diurnal cycles of aerosol optical depth on aerosol direct radiative effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF or aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE. The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally. We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather small and it was relatively small even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant effect on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on

  10. Influence of Observed Diurnal Cycles of Aerosol Optical Depth on Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arola, A.; Eck, T. F.; Huttunen, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Lindfors, A. V.; Myhre, G.; Smirinov, A.; Tripathi, S. N.; Yu, H.

    2013-01-01

    The diurnal variability of aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be significant, depending on location and dominant aerosol type. However, these diurnal cycles have rarely been taken into account in measurement-based estimates of aerosol direct radiative forcing (ADRF) or aerosol direct radiative effect (ADRE). The objective of our study was to estimate the influence of diurnal aerosol variability at the top of the atmosphere ADRE estimates. By including all the possible AERONET sites, we wanted to assess the influence on global ADRE estimates. While focusing also in more detail on some selected sites of strongest impact, our goal was to also see the possible impact regionally.We calculated ADRE with different assumptions about the daily AOD variability: taking the observed daily AOD cycle into account and assuming diurnally constant AOD. Moreover, we estimated the corresponding differences in ADREs, if the single AOD value for the daily mean was taken from the the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra or Aqua overpass times, instead of accounting for the true observed daily variability. The mean impact of diurnal AOD variability on 24 h ADRE estimates, averaged over all AERONET sites, was rather small and it was relatively small even for the cases when AOD was chosen to correspond to the Terra or Aqua overpass time. This was true on average over all AERONET sites, while clearly there can be much stronger impact in individual sites. Examples of some selected sites demonstrated that the strongest observed AOD variability (the strongest morning afternoon contrast) does not typically result in a significant impact on 24 h ADRE. In those cases, the morning and afternoon AOD patterns are opposite and thus the impact on 24 h ADRE, when integrated over all solar zenith angles, is reduced. The most significant effect on daily ADRE was induced by AOD cycles with either maximum or minimum AOD close to local noon. In these cases, the impact on 24 h ADRE was

  11. Diurnal resting in brown lemurs in a dry deciduous forest, northwestern Madagascar: implications for seasonal thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki

    2012-07-01

    Decreased activity has been reported in both nocturnal and diurnal primates during the prolonged dry season in western Madagascar, and this has been interpreted as a reaction to the severe environment, with its food scarcity and/or thermal stress. Several day-active lemurs rest more as trees defoliate, although the reason for this is unclear. To understand the mechanism underpinning the diurnal resting of lemurs in seasonal deciduous forests, I observed common brown lemurs (Eulemur fulvus fulvus) for one year in Ankarafantsika National Park, northwestern Madagascar. In Ankarafantsika, despite high fruit availability during the dry season, brown lemurs are known to engage in diurnal resting. To examine the effects of thermal factors and defoliation on lemur inactivity, I recorded the activity of a troop at 1 min intervals, hourly ambient temperature, daily rainfall, and weather during observations (06:00-18:00). I quantified the amount of leaves biweekly for 680 trees. I tested correlations between percentages of resting time and each factor across hours during the day and across seasons. During the rainy season, resting time did not differ between sunny and cloudy days, and lemurs were active throughout the daytime. At the hourly level during the dry season, lemurs rested exclusively at midday, apparently at peak sunlight intensity rather than at peak ambient temperature. At seasonal level, percentages of total resting time from 08:00 to 16:00 were greater during dry season (81.9%) than during rainy season (62.6%), and percentages increased as ambient temperatures increased. Defoliation was related to seasonal decrease in weekly rainfall, which served as an index of water retained in the forest. Defoliation probably reflected aridification as well as the penetration of sunlight into the forest. Diurnal resting increased as both the amount of leaves and weekly rainfall decreased seasonally. These results suggest that heat stress under dry conditions may promote

  12. Diurnal variation in rates of calcification and carbonate sediment dissolution in Florida Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Halley, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Water quality and circulation in Florida Bay (a shallow, subtropical estuary in south Florida) are highly dependent upon the development and evolution of carbonate mud banks distributed throughout the Bay. Predicting the effect of natural and anthropogenic perturbations on carbonate sedimentation requires an understanding of annual, seasonal, and daily variations in the biogenic and inorganic processes affecting carbonate sediment precipitation and dissolution. In this study, net calcification rates were measured over diurnal cycles on 27 d during summer and winter from 1999 to 2003 on mud banks and four representative substrate types located within basins between mud banks. Substrate types that were measured in basins include seagrass beds of sparse and intermediate density Thalassia sp., mud bottom, and hard bottom communities. Changes in total alkalinity were used as a proxy for calcification and dissolution. On 22 d (81%), diurnal variation in rates of net calcification was observed. The highest rates of net carbonate sediment production (or lowest rates of net dissolution) generally occurred during daylight hours and ranged from 2.900 to -0.410 g CaCO3 m-2 d-1. The lowest rates of carbonate sediment production (or net sediment dissolution) occurred at night and ranged from 0.210 to -1.900 g CaCO3 m -2 night-1. During typical diurnal cycles, dissolution during the night consumed an average of 29% of sediment produced during the day on banks and 68% of sediment produced during the day in basins. Net sediment dissolution also occurred during daylight, but only when there was total cloud cover, high turbidity, or hypersalinity. Diurnal variation in calcification and dissolution in surface waters and surface sediments of Florida Bay is linked to cycling of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis and respiration. Estimation of long-term sediment accumulation rates from diurnal rates of carbonate sediment production measured in this study indicates an overall average

  13. Forecasting display technique of human in network virtual environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The simulation of human in the distributed virtual environment is different from the simulation of ve hicle. Due to the human's many joints, to implement the real-time performance of the interaction between the virtual human and the environment, the quantity of information broadcasted in the network will be increased. So with the growing of the quantity of virtual human added to the network, the network burthen would augment rap idly. Therefore, for the simulation of virtual human this paper divides organically the motion parts of the body, which makes those body parts that often interact with the environment are described according to the joints while other parts are described according to the action information. Simultaneity, this paper adopts Dead Reckoning to reduce the quantity of information needed by maintaining the reality motion of virtual human. The experiment indicates that the forecasting display technique can efficiently reduce the network burthen and enhance the inter action of virtual human.

  14. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  15. Crosstalk in stereoscopic displays: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andrew J.

    2012-10-01

    Crosstalk, also known as ghosting or leakage, is a primary factor in determining the image quality of stereoscopic three dimensional (3D) displays. In a stereoscopic display, a separate perspective view is presented to each of the observer's two eyes in order to experience a 3D image with depth sensation. When crosstalk is present in a stereoscopic display, each eye will see a combination of the image intended for that eye, and some of the image intended for the other eye-making the image look doubled or ghosted. High levels of crosstalk can make stereoscopic images hard to fuse and lack fidelity, so it is important to achieve low levels of crosstalk in the development of high-quality stereoscopic displays. Descriptive and mathematical definitions of these terms are formalized and summarized. The mechanisms by which crosstalk occurs in different stereoscopic display technologies are also reviewed, including micropol 3D liquid crystal displays (LCDs), autostereoscopic (lenticular and parallax barrier), polarized projection, anaglyph, and time-sequential 3D on LCDs, plasma display panels and cathode ray tubes. Crosstalk reduction and crosstalk cancellation are also discussed along with methods of measuring and simulating crosstalk.

  16. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  17. New fire diurnal cycle characterizations to improve fire radiative energy assessments made from low-Earth orbit satellites sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andela, N.; Kaiser, J. W.; van der Werf, G. R.; Wooster, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Accurate near real time fire emissions estimates are required for air quality forecasts. To date, most approaches are based on satellite-derived estimates of fire radiative power (FRP), which can be converted to fire radiative energy (FRE) which is directly related to fire emissions. Uncertainties in these FRE estimations are often substantial. This is for a large part because the most often used low-Earth orbit satellite-based instruments like the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) have a relatively poor sampling of the usually pronounced fire diurnal cycle. In this paper we explore the spatial variation of this fire diurnal cycle and its drivers. Specifically, we assess how representing the fire diurnal cycle affects FRP and FRE estimations when using data collected at MODIS overpasses. Using data assimilation we explored three different methods to estimate hourly FRE, based on an incremental sophistication of parameterizing the fire diurnal cycle. We sampled data from the geostationary Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) at MODIS detection opportunities to drive the three approaches. The full SEVIRI time-series, providing full coverage of the diurnal cycle, were used to evaluate the results. Our study period comprised three years (2010-2012), and we focussed on Africa and the Mediterranean basin to avoid the use of potentially lower quality SEVIRI data obtained at very far off-nadir view angles. We found that the fire diurnal cycle varies substantially over the study region, and depends on both fuel and weather conditions. For example, more "intense" fires characterized by a fire diurnal cycle with high peak fire activity, long duration over the day, and with nighttime fire activity are most common in areas of large fire size (i.e., large burned area per fire event). These areas are most prevalent in relatively arid regions. Ignoring the fire diurnal cycle as done currently in some approaches caused structural

  18. Memory effect in ac plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlenk, K.; Obuchowicz, E.

    1993-10-01

    The bistable or `memory' mode of operation of an ac plasma display panel is presented. The difference between dc and ac plasma panel operation from the point of view of memory function is discussed. The graphic ac plasma display with thin film Cr-Cu-Cr electrodes was developed in OBREP and its basic parameters are described. It consists of 36 X 59 picture elements, its outer dimensions are: 76 X 52 mm2 and the screen size is: 49 X 30 mm2. The different dielectric glass materials were applied as dielectric layers and the influence of the properties of these materials on display parameters and memory function was investigated.

  19. Embedded systems for controlling LED matrix displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghescu, Cristina; Drumea, Andrei

    2016-12-01

    LED matrix displays are a common presence in everyday life - they can be found in trains, buses, tramways, office information tables or outdoor media. The structure of the display unit is similar for all these devices, a matrix of light emitting diodes coupled between row and column lines, but there are many options for the display controller that switches these lines. Present paper analyzes different types of embedded systems that can control the LED matrix, based on single board computers, on microcontrollers with different peripheral devices or with programmable logic devices like field programmable gate arrays with implemented soft processor cores. Scalability, easiness of implementation and costs are analyzed for all proposed solutions.

  20. Detection of diurnal variation of tomato transcriptome through the molecular timetable method in a sunlight-type plant factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu eHigashi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The timing of measurement during plant growth is important because many genes are expressed periodically and orchestrate physiological events. Their periodicity is generated by environmental fluctuations as external factors and the circadian clock as the internal factor. The circadian clock orchestrates physiological events such as photosynthesis or flowering and it enables enhanced growth and herbivory resistance. These characteristics have possible applications for agriculture. In this study, we demonstrated the diurnal variation of the transcriptome in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum leaves through molecular timetable method in a sunlight-type plant factory. Molecular timetable method have been developed to detect periodic genes and estimate individual internal body time from these expression profiles in mammals. We sampled tomato leaves every 2 h for 2 d and acquired time-course transcriptome data by RNA-Seq. Many genes were expressed periodically and these expressions were stable across the 1st and 2nd days of measurement. We selected 143 time-indicating genes whose expression indicated periodically, and estimated internal time in the plant from these expression profiles. The estimated internal time was generally the same as the external environment time; however, there was a difference of more than one hour between the two for some sampling points. Furthermore, the stress-responsive genes also showed weakly periodic expression, implying that they were usually expressed periodically, regulated by light–dark cycles as an external factor or the circadian clock as the internal factor, and could be particularly expressed when the plant experiences some specific stress under agricultural situations. This study suggests that circadian clock mediate the optimization for fluctuating environments in the field and it has possibilities to enhance resistibility to stress and floral induction by controlling circadian clock through light supplement and

  1. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  2. Sleep-wake cycle and diurnal fluctuation of amyloid-β as biomarkers of brain amyloid pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jee Hoon; Huang, Yafei; Bero, Adam W.; Kasten, Tom; Stewart, Floy R.; Bateman, Randall J.; Holtzman, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain begins to occur years prior to the clinical onset of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior to Aβ aggregation, levels of extracellular, soluble interstitial fluid (ISF) Aβ, which are regulated by neuronal activity and the sleep-wake cycle, correlate with the amount of Aβ deposition in the brain seen later. The amount and quality of sleep declines with aging and to a greater extent in AD. How sleep quality amount as well as the diurnal fluctuation in Aβ change with age and Aβ aggregation are not well understood. We report that a normal sleep-wake cycle and diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ is present in the brain of APPswe/PS1δE9 mice before Aβ plaque formation. Following plaque formation, the sleep-wake cycle markedly deteriorated and diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ dissipated. As in mice, diurnal fluctuation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Aβ in young adult humans with presenilin mutations was also markedly attenuated with Aβ plaque formation. Virtual elimination of Aβ deposits in the mouse brain by active immunization with Aβ42 normalized the sleep-wake cycle and the diurnal fluctuation of ISF Aβ. These data suggest that Aβ aggregation disrupts the sleep-wake cycle and diurnal fluctuation of Aβ. Sleep-wake behavior and diurnal fluctuation of Aβ in the central nervous system appear to be functional and biochemical markers respectively of Aβ-associated pathology that should be explored in humans diagnostically prior to and following symptom onset and in response to treatment. PMID:22956200

  3. Are tiled display walls needed for astronomy?

    CERN Document Server

    Meade, Bernard F; Manos, Steven; Sinnott, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    Clustering commodity displays into a Tiled Display Wall (TDW) provides a cost-effective way to create an extremely high resolution display, capable of approaching the image sizes now gen- erated by modern astronomical instruments. Astronomers face the challenge of inspecting single large images, many similar images simultaneously, and heterogeneous but related content. Many research institutions have constructed TDWs on the basis that they will improve the scientific outcomes of astronomical imagery. We test this concept by presenting sample images to astronomers and non- astronomers using a standard desktop display (SDD) and a TDW. These samples include standard English words, wide field galaxy surveys and nebulae mosaics from the Hubble telescope. These experiments show that TDWs provide a better environment for searching for small targets in large images than SDDs. It also shows that astronomers tend to be better at searching images for targets than non-astronomers, both groups are generally better when em...

  4. Fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Daniel Aaron; Melikov, Rustamzhon; Conkar, Deniz; Nur Firat-Karalar, Elif; Nizamoglu, Sedat

    2016-11-01

    The usage time of displays (e.g., TVs, mobile phones, etc) is in general shorter than their functional life time, which worsens the electronic waste (e-waste) problem around the world. The integration of biomaterials into electronics can help to reduce the e-waste problem. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescent protein integrated white LEDs to use as a backlight source for liquid crystal (LC) displays for the first time. We express and purify enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and monomeric Cherry protein (mCherry), and afterward we integrate these proteins as a wavelength-converter on a blue LED chip. The protein-integrated backlight exhibits a high luminous efficacy of 248 lm/Wopt and the area of the gamut covers 80% of the NTSC color gamut. The resultant colors and objects in the image on the display can be well observed and distinguished. Therefore, fluorescent proteins show promise for display applications.

  5. Emerging Technologies of Liquid Crystal Displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sin-Doo Lee; Chang-Jae Yu; Jae-Hong Park; Min-Sik Jung

    2003-01-01

    The general features and the emerging technologies of liquid crystal displays are described from the viewpoints of wide viewing and fast response technologies. The device applications of liquid crystals for optical communications are also described.

  6. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  7. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an extravehicular activity (EVA) information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to advance development of a new...

  8. Night Vision Device and Cockpit Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Night Vision Device and Cockpit Display labevaluates night vision devices and certifies them for use in the fleet. Lab functions supported include: Analysis of...

  9. Precarious manhood and displays of physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Jennifer K; Vandello, Joseph A; Burnaford, Rochelle M; Weaver, Jonathan R; Arzu Wasti, S

    2009-05-01

    The results of three experiments demonstrate that physically aggressive displays are part of men's cultural script for restoring threatened gender status. In Studies 1 and 2, challenges to men's gender status elicited heightened physically aggressive displays, including punching a pad with greater force and selecting an aggressive boxing activity over a nonaggressive puzzle activity. Study 3 established that a public display of aggressive readiness reduced men's anxiety-related cognitions in the wake of a gender threat. This suggests that aggressive displays may function to downregulate negative affect when manhood has been threatened. The discussion considers past research on gender and physical aggression in light of the authors' thesis that manhood, relative to womanhood, is culturally defined as a precarious status that must be actively, even aggressively, defended.

  10. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  11. Tiled large-screen three-dimensional display consisting of frameless multi-view display modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaki, Yasuhiro; Tokoro, Masayuki; Hirabayashi, Kenji

    2014-03-24

    To realize large-screen three-dimensional (3D) displays, frameless multi-view display modules are arranged two-dimensionally. This paper proposes a multi-view display module in which a multi-view flat-panel display is projected onto a screen of the module to provide a frameless screen. The display module consists of a multi-view flat-panel display, an imaging lens, an aperture, a screen lens, and a vertical diffuser. Prototype display modules were constructed having a screen size of 27.3 in., a 3D resolution of 320 × 200, and 144 viewpoints. Four modules were tiled vertically to provide a screen size of 62.4 in. Distortions in the screen imaging and viewpoint generation were corrected.

  12. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogmo, David G.; Black, Billy D.

    1991-01-01

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed.

  13. Military Display Market: Fourth Comprehensive Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    acceleration up to 6g for 1 minute, and operate without degradation when subjected to the vibration environment of the various helicopters for which it...Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD) and Night Vision Goggles ( NVG ), are in excess of 224,000. Of these, some 17,700 are miniature displays, either CRT...have significantly impacted future budgets: The DOD U.S. Global Defense Posture Review and the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure (BRAG) Commission

  14. Routing and advanced display technologies within STOMPM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.; McCune, Justin

    1998-08-01

    This paper will discuss research conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of automated routing, advanced 3D displays and novel interface techniques for interacting with those displays. This research has culminated in the development of the strike optimized mission planing module (STOMPM). The STOMPM testbed incorporates new technologies/results in the aforementioned areas to address the deficiencies in current systems and advance the state of the art in military planing systems.

  15. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F

    2015-02-11

    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  16. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A

    2016-07-01

    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  17. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  18. Dual redundant display in bubble canopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ken; Niemczyk, James

    2010-04-01

    Today's cockpit integrator, whether for state of the art military fast jet, or piston powered general aviation, is striving to utilize all available panel space for AMLCD based displays to enhance situational awareness and increase safety. The benefits of a glass cockpit have been well studied and documented. The technology used to create these glass cockpits, however, is driven by commercial AMLCD demand which far outstrips the combined worldwide avionics requirements. In order to satisfy the wide variety of human factors and environmental requirements, large area displays have been developed to maximize the usable display area while also providing necessary redundancy in case of failure. The AMLCD has been optimized for extremely wide viewing angles driven by the flat panel TV market. In some cockpit applications, wide viewing cones are desired. In bubble canopy cockpits, however, narrow viewing cones are desired to reduce canopy reflections. American Panel Corporation has developed AMLCD displays that maximize viewing area, provide redundancy, while also providing a very narrow viewing cone even though commercial AMLCD technology is employed suitable for high performance AMLCD Displays. This paper investigates both the large area display architecture with several available options to solve redundancy as well as beam steering techniques to also limit canopy reflections.

  19. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  20. A new type of multiview display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; de la Barré, René

    2015-03-01

    The common architecture of multi-view autostereoscopic displays assigns a nominal viewing distance. The design affects the convergence of the visible rays at a nominal viewing distance where diamond shaped viewing zones are created. In contrast to this approach, the authors present a new design strategy departing from the geometric relations of common 3D display designs. They show that a beam emitted from a sub-pixel should be rendered with an individual camera direction determined by an algorithm. This algorithm also uses, besides the parameters of the display design, the desired viewing distance and the allowed increments of the camera angle. This enables very flexible designs of autostereoscopic displays. The main difference from the common multiview display is that its design approach enables a continued viewing zone without the usually diamond shaped sweet spots. The algorithm for controlling the rendering and the multiplexing is generic, as well as for integral and multiview design approaches using an image splitter raster. The paper introduces it for autostereoscopic displays with horizontal parallax.

  1. Diurnal and circadian regulation of a melatonin receptor, MT1, in the golden rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Hiyakawa, Nanae; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro

    2007-01-15

    The golden rabbitfish Siganus guttatus is a reef fish with a restricted lunar-synchronized spawning rhythmicity and releases gametes simultaneously around the first quarter moon period during the spawning season. In order to understand the molecular aspects of the "circa" rhythms in this species, the full-length melatonin receptor (MT1) cDNA was cloned, and its diurnal/circadian regulation was examined. The full-length MT1 cDNA (1257 bp) contained an open reading frame that encodes a protein of 350 amino acids; this protein is highly homologous to MT1 of nonmammalian species. A high expression of MT1 mRNA with a day-night difference was observed in the whole brain, retina, liver, and kidney. When diurnal variations in MT1 mRNA expression in the retina and whole brain were examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, an increase in the mRNA expression was observed during nighttime in both tissues under conditions of light/dark, constant darkness, and constant light. This suggests that MT1 mRNA expression is under circadian regulation. The expression of MT1 mRNA in the cultured pineal gland also showed diurnal variations with high expression levels during nighttime; this suggests that the increased expression level observed in the whole brain is partially of pineal origin. Alternation of light conditions in the pineal gland cultures resulted in the changes in melatonin release into the culture medium as well as MT1 mRNA expression in the pineal gland. The present results suggest that melatonin and its receptors play an important role in the exertion of daily and circadian variations in the neural tissues.

  2. Wake flow variability in a wind farm throughout the diurnal cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkar, Mahdi; Sharifi, Ahmad; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) undergoes substantial changes in its structure and dynamics in the course of a day due to the transient nature of forcing factors such as the surface fluxes of heat and momentum. The non-stationary nature of the mean wind and turbulence in the ABL, associated with the diurnal cycle, can in turn affect the structure of wind turbine wakes and their effects on power losses within wind farms. In this research, large-eddy simulation (LES) is used to study the evolution of the turbine wakes and their effects on power losses inside an idealized finite-size wind farm in the course of two full diurnal cycles. In the LES, turbulent subgrid-scale stresses are modeled using tuning-free Lagrangian scale-dependent dynamic models, while the turbine-induced forces are parameterized using a dynamic actuator disk model with rotation. To minimize the effects of the initial conditions on the results, our analysis is focused on the second diurnal cycle. The simulation results show a strong effect of atmospheric stability on the wind farm wakes and associated power losses. During the night, the relatively low turbulence intensity of the ambient ABL flow results in a relatively slow rate of entrainment of momentum into the wake and, consequently, a slow wake recovery. In contrast, during the day the positive buoyancy flux and associated turbulence production lead to a relatively high turbulence level in the background ABL flow, which enhances turbulent mixing and wake recovery. As a result, the averaged power deficit in the wind farm is found to increase with increasing thermal stability. In particular for that day, the averaged power deficit increased from 28% under the most convective condition to about 66% under the most stable condition.

  3. Covariability in the Monthly Mean Convective and Radiative Diurnal Cycles in the Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Jason B.; Taylor, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal cycle of convective clouds greatly influences the radiative energy balance in convectively active regions of Earth, through both direct presence, and the production of anvil and stratiform clouds. Previous studies show that the frequency and properties of convective clouds can vary on monthly timescales as a result of variability in the monthly mean atmospheric state. Furthermore, the radiative budget in convectively active regions also varies by up to 7 Wm-2 in convectively active regions. These facts suggest that convective clouds connect atmospheric state variability and radiation variability beyond clear sky effects alone. Previous research has identified monthly covariability between the diurnal cycle of CERES-observed top-of-atmosphere radiative fluxes and multiple atmospheric state variables from reanalysis over the Amazon region. ASVs that enhance (reduce) deep convection, such as CAPE (LTS), tend to shift the daily OLR and cloud albedo maxima earlier (later) in the day by 2-3 hr. We first test the analysis method using multiple reanalysis products for both the dry and wet seasons to further investigate the robustness of the preliminary results. We then use CloudSat data as an independent cloud observing system to further evaluate the relationships of cloud properties to variability in radiation and atmospheric states. While CERES can decompose OLR variability into clear sky and cloud effects, it cannot determine what variability in cloud properties lead to variability in the radiative cloud effects. Cloud frequency, cloud top height, and cloud microphysics all contribute to the cloud radiative effect, all of which are observable by CloudSat. In addition, CloudSat can also observe the presence and variability of deep convective cores responsible for the production of anvil clouds. We use these capabilities to determine the covariability of convective cloud properties and the radiative diurnal cycle.

  4. Dopa-sensitive progressive dystonia of childhood with diurnal fluctuations of symptoms: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Dias Gherpelli

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Progressive dystonia with diurnal fluctuations sensitive to levodopa, also known as Segawa's disease, is a rare form of autosomal dominant extrapyramidal disease in the pediatric age group. The dystonic and Parkinson-like symptoms are the main clinical features of the disease and, characteristically but not in all cases, show a diurnal variation. They are absent or present to a lesser extent in the morning, worsening during the day. Treatment with small doses of levodopa results in remission or marked improvement of the symptomatology. We present the case of a 11 years old female patient that developed a dystonic posture in her feet that led her to a tip-toe walking pattern, since the age of 2. Diurnal fluctuations of the symptomatology were noticed by her mother. At 7 years of age she developed a left deviation of the head and an abnormal flexor posture of the left arm. In the next years the symptoms progressed and the fluctuations became less evident. At the age of 10, they were present soon after she woke up in the morning. The neurological examination disclosed a dystonic posturing of the head and left arm, a generalized rigidity of the extremities and a palpebral tremor. Laboratory examinations, including copper and ceruloplasmin, and neuro-imaging studies were negative. She was started on levodopa 150 mg/day with prompt disappearance of the symptomatology. After one-year follow-up she is symptom-free with only 100 mg/day of levodopa. No adverse effect was observed so far.

  5. Diurnal and seasonal carbon balance of four tropical tree species differing in successional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GM. Souza

    Full Text Available This study addressed some questions about how a suitable leaf carbon balance can be attained for different functional groups of tropical tree species under contrasting forest light environments. The study was carried out in a fragment of semi-deciduous seasonal forest in Narandiba county, São Paulo Estate, Brazil. 10-month-old seedlings of four tropical tree species, Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpinioideae and Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae as light-demanding pioneer species, and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Caesalpinioideae and Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl. (Rutaceae as late successional species, were grown under gap and understorey conditions. Diurnal courses of net photosynthesis (Pn and transpiration were recorded with an open system portable infrared gas analyzer in two different seasons. Dark respiration and photorespiration were also evaluated in the same leaves used for Pn measurements after dark adaptation. Our results showed that diurnal-integrated dark respiration (Rdi of late successional species were similar to pioneer species. On the other hand, photorespiration rates were often higher in pioneer than in late successional species in the gap. However, the relative contribution of these parameters to leaf carbon balance was similar in all species in both environmental conditions. Considering diurnal-integrated values, gross photosynthesis (Pgi was dramatically higher in gap than in understorey, regardless of species. In both evaluated months, there were no differences among species of different functional groups under shade conditions. The same was observed in May (dry season under gap conditions. In such light environment, pioneers were distinguished from late successional species in November (wet season, showing that ecophysiological performance can have a straightforward relation to seasonality.

  6. Tracking the diurnal signal of plant water uptake through the hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Theresa; Hassler, Sibylle; Heidbüchel, Ingo; Weiler, Markus; Simard, Sonia; Güntner, Andreas; Heinrich, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Plant water uptake during summer is characterized by strong diurnal fluctuations. As a result a diurnal sink term is imposed on catchment storage, affecting the unsaturated zone, sometimes the saturated zone and even streamflow. Detecting this signal and understanding its propagation through the hydrological system may help to better quantify eco-hydrological connectivity. The extent and strength of the propagation of this signal from plant to soil to ground- and stream water was investigated with a unique setup of 46 field sites in Luxemburg and 15 field sites in Germany. These sites cover a range of geologies, soils, topographies and types of vegetation. Vegetation types include grassland, pine forest (young and old) and different deciduous forest stands. Available data at all sites includes information at high temporal resolution from 3-5 soil moisture profiles, matrix potential, piezometers and sapflow sensors (as proxy for plant water uptake) as well as standard climate data. At sites with access to a stream, discharge or water level is also recorded. Signal strength (amplitude of diurnal fluctuations) can thus be traced through the system and gives an indication of the physical sphere of influence of plant water uptake i.e. the "eco-hydro-connectivity". Temporal dynamics of signal strength furthermore suggest a shifting spatial distribution of root water uptake with time. The analysis of time lags (or phase shifts) between daily fluctuations in temperature, radiation, sapflow, soil water, groundwater and streamflow gives further insights into the processes driving and propagating these signals and inter-site comparison allows for the investigation of local controls.

  7. Diurnal adjustment in ultraviolet sunscreen protection is widespread among higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul W; Flint, Stephan D; Tobler, Mark A; Ryel, Ronald J

    2016-05-01

    The accumulation of ultraviolet (UV)-absorbing compounds (flavonoids and related phenylpropanoids) in the epidermis of higher plants reduces the penetration of solar UV radiation to underlying tissues and is a primary mechanism of acclimation to changing UV conditions resulting from ozone depletion and climate change. Previously we reported that several herbaceous plant species were capable of rapid, diurnal adjustments in epidermal UV transmittance (T UV), but how widespread this phenomenon is among plants has been unknown. In the present study, we tested the generality of this response by screening 37 species of various cultivated and wild plants growing in four locations spanning a gradient of ambient solar UV and climate (Hawaii, Utah, Idaho and Louisiana). Non-destructive measurements of adaxial T UV indicated that statistically significant midday decreases in T UV occurred in 49 % of the species tested, including both herbaceous and woody growth forms, and there was substantial interspecific variation in the magnitude of these changes. In general, plants in Louisiana exhibited larger diurnal changes in T UV than those in the other locations. Moreover, across all taxa, the magnitude of these changes was positively correlated with minimum daily air temperatures but not daily UV irradiances. Results indicate that diurnal changes in UV shielding are widespread among higher plants, vary both within and among species and tend to be greatest in herbaceous plants growing in warm environments. These findings suggest that plant species differ in their UV protection "strategies" though the functional and ecological significance of this variation in UV sunscreen protection remains unclear at present.

  8. Diurnal Variations of Circulating Extracellular Vesicles Measured by Nano Flow Cytometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsty M Danielson

    Full Text Available The identification of extracellular vesicles (EVs as intercellular conveyors of biological information has recently emerged as a novel paradigm in signaling, leading to the exploitation of EVs and their contents as biomarkers of various diseases. However, whether there are diurnal variations in the size, number, and tissue of origin of blood EVs is currently not known, and could have significant implications when using EVs as biomarkers for disease progression. Currently available technologies for the measurement of EV size and number are either time consuming, require specialized equipment, or lack sufficient accuracy across a range of EV sizes. Flow cytometry represents an attractive alternative to these methods; however, traditional flow cytometers are only capable of measuring particles down to 500 nm, which is significantly larger than the average and median sizes of plasma EVs. Utilizing a Beckman Coulter MoFlo XDP flow cytometer with NanoView module, we employed nanoscale flow cytometry (termed nanoFCM to examine the relative number and scatter distribution of plasma EVs at three different time points during the day in 6 healthy adults. Analysis of liposomes and plasma EVs proved that nanoFCM is capable of detecting biologically-relevant vesicles down to 100 nm in size. With this high resolution configuration, we observed variations in the relative size (FSC/SSC distributions and concentration (proportions of EVs in healthy adult plasma across the course of a day, suggesting that there are diurnal variations in the number and size distribution of circulating EV populations. The use of nanoFCM provides a valuable tool for the study of EVs in both health and disease; however, additional refinement of nanoscale flow cytometric methods is needed for use of these instruments for quantitative particle counting and sizing. Furthermore, larger scale studies are necessary to more clearly define the diurnal variations in circulating EVs, and thus

  9. Global transcriptomic analysis of Cyanothece 51142 reveals robust diurnal oscillation of central metabolic processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockel, Jana; Welsh, Eric A.; Liberton, Michelle L.; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh V.; Aurora, Rajeev; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-04-22

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, and the only prokaryotes known to have a circadian cycle. Unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria such as Cyanothece 51142 can fix atmospheric nitrogen, a process exquisitely sensitive to oxygen. Thus, the intracellular environment of Cyanothece oscillates between aerobic and anaerobic conditions during a day-night cycle. This is accomplished by temporal separation of two processes: photosynthesis during the day, and nitrogen fixation at night. While previous studies have examined periodic changes transcript levels for a limited number of genes in Cyanothece and other unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria, a comprehensive study of transcriptional activity in a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium is necessary to understand the impact of the temporal separation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation on global gene regulation and cellular metabolism. We have examined the expression patterns of nearly 5000 genes in Cyanothece 51142 during two consecutive diurnal periods. We found that ~30% of these genes exhibited robust oscillating expression profiles. Interestingly, this set included genes for almost all central metabolic processes in Cyanothece. A transcriptional network of all genes with significantly oscillating transcript levels revealed that the majority of genes in numerous individual pathways, such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and glycogen metabolism, were co-regulated and maximally expressed at distinct phases during the diurnal cycle. Our analyses suggest that the demands of nitrogen fixation greatly influence major metabolic activities inside Cyanothece cells and thus drive various cellular activities. These studies provide a comprehensive picture of how a physiologically relevant diurnal light-dark cycle influences the metabolism in a photosynthetic bacterium

  10. Diurnal variations of humidity and ice water content in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eriksson

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Observational results of diurnal variations of humidity from Odin-SMR and AURA-MLS, and cloud ice mass from Odin-SMR and CloudSat are presented for the first time. Comparisons show that the retrievals of humidity and cloud ice from these three satellite instruments are in good agreement. The retrieved data are combined from four almost evenly distributed times of the day allowing mean values, amplitudes and phases of the diurnal variations around 200 hPa to be estimated. This analysis is applied to six climatologically distinct regions, five located in the tropics and one over the subtropical northern Pacific Ocean. The strongest diurnal cycles are found over tropical land regions, where the amplitude is in the order of 6 %RHi for humidity and 50% for ice mass. The greatest ice mass is for these regions found during the afternoon, and the humidity maximum is observed to lag this peak by ~6 h. Over tropical ocean regions the variations are smaller and the maximum in both ice mass and humidity are found during the early morning. Observed results are compared with output from three climate models (ECHAM, EC-EARTH and CAM3. Direct measurement-model comparisons were not possible because the measured and modelled cloud ice masses represent different quantities. To make a meaningful comparison, the amount of snow had to be estimated from diagnostic parameters of the models. There is a high probability that the models underestimate the average ice mass (below the 1-σ uncertainty. The models show also clear deficiencies when it comes to amplitude and phase of the regional variations, but to a varying degree.

  11. Diurnal variations of humidity and ice water content in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eriksson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational results of diurnal variations of humidity from Odin-SMR and AURA-MLS, and cloud ice mass from Odin-SMR and CloudSat are presented for the first time. Comparisons show that the retrievals of humidity and cloud ice from these two satellite combinations are in good agreement. The retrieved data are combined from four almost evenly distributed times of the day allowing mean values, amplitudes and phases of the diurnal variations around 200 hpa to be estimated. This analysis is applied to six climatologically distinct regions, five located in the tropics and one over the subtropical northern Pacific Ocean. The strongest diurnal cycles are found over tropical land regions, where the amplitude is ~7 RHi for humidity and ~50% for ice mass. The greatest ice mass for these regions is found during the afternoon, and the humidity maximum is observed to lag this peak by ~6 h. Over tropical ocean regions the variations are smaller and the maxima in both ice mass and humidity are found during the early morning. Observed results are compared with output from three climate models (ECHAM, EC-EARTH and CAM3. Direct measurement-model comparisons were not possible because the measured and modelled cloud ice masses represent different quantities. To make a meaningful comparison, the amount of snow had to be estimated from diagnostic parameters of the models. There is a high probability that the models underestimate the average ice mass (outside the 1-σ uncertainty. The models also show clear deficiencies when it comes to amplitude and phase of the regional variations, but to varying degrees.

  12. Monitoring seasonal and diurnal changes in photosynthetic pigments with automated PRI and NDVI sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamon, J. A.; Kovalchuck, O.; Wong, C. Y. S.; Harris, A.; Garrity, S. R.

    2015-07-01

    The vegetation indices normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photochemical reflectance index (PRI) provide indicators of pigmentation and photosynthetic activity that can be used to model photosynthesis from remote sensing with the light-use-efficiency model. To help develop and validate this approach, reliable proximal NDVI and PRI sensors have been needed. We tested new NDVI and PRI sensors, "spectral reflectance sensors" (SRS sensors; recently developed by Decagon Devices, during spring activation of photosynthetic activity in evergreen and deciduous stands. We also evaluated two methods of sensor cross-calibration - one that considered sky conditions (cloud cover) at midday only, and another that also considered diurnal sun angle effects. Cross-calibration clearly affected sensor agreement with independent measurements, with the best method dependent upon the study aim and time frame (seasonal vs. diurnal). The seasonal patterns of NDVI and PRI differed for evergreen and deciduous species, demonstrating the complementary nature of these two indices. Over the spring season, PRI was most strongly influenced by changing chlorophyll : carotenoid pool sizes, while over the diurnal timescale, PRI was most affected by the xanthophyll cycle epoxidation state. This finding demonstrates that the SRS PRI sensors can resolve different processes affecting PRI over different timescales. The advent of small, inexpensive, automated PRI and NDVI sensors offers new ways to explore environmental and physiological constraints on photosynthesis, and may be particularly well suited for use at flux tower sites. Wider application of automated sensors could lead to improved integration of flux and remote sensing approaches for studying photosynthetic carbon uptake, and could help define the concept of contrasting vegetation optical types.

  13. Diurnal microstructural variations in healthy adult brain revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang Jiang

    Full Text Available Biorhythm is a fundamental property of human physiology. Changes in the extracellular space induced by cell swelling in response to the neural activity enable the in vivo characterization of cerebral microstructure by measuring the water diffusivity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. To study the diurnal microstructural alterations of human brain, fifteen right-handed healthy adult subjects were recruited for DTI studies in two repeated sessions (8∶30 AM and 8∶30 PM within a 24-hour interval. Fractional anisotropy (FA, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC, axial (λ// and radial diffusivity (λ⊥ were compared pixel by pixel between the sessions for each subject. Significant increased morning measurements in FA, ADC, λ// and λ⊥ were seen in a wide range of brain areas involving frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes. Prominent evening dominant λ⊥ (18.58% was detected in the right inferior temporal and ventral fusiform gyri. AM-PM variation of λ⊥ was substantially left side hemisphere dominant (p<0.05, while no hemispheric preference was observed for the same analysis for ADC (p = 0.77, λ// (p = 0.08 or FA (p = 0.25. The percentage change of ADC, λ//, λ⊥, and FA were 1.59%, 2.15%, 1.20% and 2.84%, respectively, for brain areas without diurnal diffusivity contrast. Microstructural variations may function as the substrates of the phasic neural activities in correspondence to the environment adaptation in a light-dark cycle. This research provided a baseline for researches in neuroscience, sleep medicine, psychological and psychiatric disorders, and necessitates that diurnal effect should be taken into account in following up studies using diffusion tensor quantities.

  14. Patterns in diurnal airspace use by migratory landbirds along an ecological barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Anna C.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory bird populations and survival are affected by conditions experienced during migration. While many studies and conservation and management efforts focus on terrestrial stoppage and staging areas, the aerial environment through which migrants move also is subjected to anthropogenic impacts with potential consequences to migratory movement and survival. During autumn migration, the northern coastline of Lake Superior acts as an ecological barrier for many landbirds migrating out of the boreal forests of North America. From 24 observation points, we assessed the diurnal movements of birds throughout autumn migration, 2008-2010, within a 210 km by 10 km coastal region along the northern coast of Lake Superior. Several raptor species showed patterns in airspace associated with topographic features such as proximity to the coastline and presence of ridgelines. Funneling movement, commonly used to describe the concentration of raptors along a migratory diversion line that either prevents or enhances migration progress, occurred only for Bald and Golden Eagles. This suggests a "leaky" migration funnel for most migratory raptors (e.g., migrating birds exiting the purported migration corridor). Passerines migrating during the late season showed more spatial and temporal structure in airspace distribution than raptors, including funneling and an association with airspace near the coast. We conclude that a) the diurnal use of airspace by many migratory landbirds is patterned in space and time, b) autumn count sites situated along ecological barriers substantially underestimate the number of raptors due to 'leakage' out of these concentration areas, and c) the magnitude and structure of diurnal passerine movements in airspace have been overlooked. The heavy and structured use of airspace by migratory landbirds, especially the airspace associated with anthropogenic development (e.g., buildings, towers, turbines) necessitates a shift in focus to airspace management and

  15. Physiological, Diurnal and Stress-Related Variability of Cadmium-Metallothionein Gene Expression in Land Snails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini-Martha, Veronika; Niederwanger, Michael; Kopp, Renate; Schnegg, Raimund; Dallinger, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial Roman snail Helix pomatia has successfully adapted to strongly fluctuating conditions in its natural soil habitat. Part of the snail's stress defense strategy is its ability to express Metallothioneins (MTs). These are multifunctional, cysteine-rich proteins that bind and inactivate transition metal ions (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(+)) with high affinity. In Helix pomatia a Cadmium (Cd)-selective, inducible Metallothionein Isoform (CdMT) is mainly involved in detoxification of this harmful metal. In addition, the snail CdMT has been shown to also respond to certain physiological stressors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the physiological and diurnal variability of CdMT gene expression in snails exposed to Cd and non-metallic stressors such as desiccation and oxygen depletion. CdMT gene expression was upregulated by Cd exposure and desiccation, whereas no significant impact on the expression of CdMT was measured due to oxygen depletion. Overall, Cd was clearly more effective as an inducer of the CdMT gene expression compared to the applied non-metallic stressors. In unexposed snails, diurnal rhythmicity of CdMT gene expression was observed with higher mRNA concentrations at night compared to daytime. This rhythmicity was severely disrupted in Cd-exposed snails which exhibited highest CdMT gene transcription rates in the morning. Apart from diurnal rhythmicity, feeding activity also had a strong impact on CdMT gene expression. Although underlying mechanisms are not completely understood, it is clear that factors increasing MT expression variability have to be considered when using MT mRNA quantification as a biomarker for environmental stressors.

  16. Individual-based ant-plant networks: diurnal-nocturnal structure and species-area relationship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Dáttilo

    Full Text Available Despite the importance and increasing knowledge of ecological networks, sampling effort and intrapopulation variation has been widely overlooked. Using continuous daily sampling of ants visiting three plant species in the Brazilian Neotropical savanna, we evaluated for the first time the topological structure over 24 h and species-area relationships (based on the number of extrafloral nectaries available in individual-based ant-plant networks. We observed that diurnal and nocturnal ant-plant networks exhibited the same pattern of interactions: a nested and non-modular pattern and an average level of network specialization. Despite the high similarity in the ants' composition between the two collection periods, ant species found in the central core of highly interacting species totally changed between diurnal and nocturnal sampling for all plant species. In other words, this "night-turnover" suggests that the ecological dynamics of these ant-plant interactions can be temporally partitioned (day and night at a small spatial scale. Thus, it is possible that in some cases processes shaping mutualistic networks formed by protective ants and plants may be underestimated by diurnal sampling alone. Moreover, we did not observe any effect of the number of extrafloral nectaries on ant richness and their foraging on such plants in any of the studied ant-plant networks. We hypothesize that competitively superior ants could monopolize individual plants and allow the coexistence of only a few other ant species, however, other alternative hypotheses are also discussed. Thus, sampling period and species-area relationship produces basic information that increases our confidence in how individual-based ant-plant networks are structured, and the need to consider nocturnal records in ant-plant network sampling design so as to decrease inappropriate inferences.

  17. Diurnal effects of anoxia on the metabolome of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne; Weckwerth, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Environmental metabolomics has become interesting in marine ecological studies. One example is the revealing of new insights in stress response of Zostera marina. This is essential to understand how, at which level and to what extend aquatic plants adapt, tolerate and react to environmental...... stressors. We exposed Z. marina to water column anoxia and assessed the diurnal metabolomic response by GC-TOF-MS based metabolomics identifying 109 known and 217 unknown metabolites. During day time photosynthetic oxygen production prevents severe effects of anoxia on the metabolome (complete set of small...... the applicability of metabolomics to assess environmental stress responses of Zostera marina....

  18. Diurnal effects of anoxia on the metabolome of the seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Fragner, Lena; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the response, adaptation and tolerance mechanisms of the temperate seagrass Zostera marina to water column anoxia. We exposed Z. marina to a diurnal light/dark cycle under anoxia and assessed the metabolic response by measuring the metabolome with gas chromatography coupled to mass...... shunt as such mitigation mechanisms that alleviate pyruvate levels and lead to carbon and nitrogen storage during anoxia. This work demonstrates the applicability of metabolomics to assess low oxygen stress responses of Z. marina and allows us to propose an anoxia recovery model....

  19. Observations of seasonal and diurnal glacier velocities at Mount Rainier, Washington, using terrestrial radar interferometry

    OpenAIRE

    K. E. Allstadt; Shean, D. E.; Campbell, A.; M. Fahnestock; S. D. Malone

    2015-01-01

    We present surface velocity maps derived from repeat terrestrial radar interferometry (TRI) measurements and use these time series to examine seasonal and diurnal dynamics of alpine glaciers at Mount Rainier, Washington. We show that the Nisqually and Emmons glaciers have small slope-parallel velocities near the summit (< 0.2 m day−1), high velocities over their upper and central regions (1.0–1.5 m day−1), and stagnant debris-covered regions near the terminus (< 0.05 m day−1...

  20. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the Arctic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Meteors are an important source for (a the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere.

    We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out.

    Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon. This radiant location should cause most of these

  1. Strato-mesospheric ClO observations by SMILES: error analysis and diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Sato

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine monoxide (ClO is the key species for anthropogenic ozone loss in the middle atmosphere. We observed the ClO diurnal variation using the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES on the International Space Station which has a non sun-synchronous orbit. This is the first global observation of the ClO diurnal variation from the stratosphere up to the mesosphere. The SMILES observation reproduced the diurnal variation of stratospheric ClO, an enhancement during a daytime, as observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS/MLS. Mesospheric ClO has shown a different diurnal behavior with an enhancement during nighttime. The ClO enhancement was found at a pressure of 0.02 hPa (about 70 km with an amplitude of about 100 pptv and reached up to 0.01 hPa (80 km in the zonal mean of 50° N–65° N in January–February 2010. The observation of mesospheric ClO was possible due to the 10–20 times better signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra than those of past microwave/submillimeter-wave limb-emission sounders. We performed a quantitative error analysis for the strato- and mesospheric ClO of the Level-2 research (L2r product version 2.1.5 taking into account all possible error contributions; i.e. errors due to spectrum noise, smoothing and uncertainties in the radiative transfer model and instrument function. The SMILES L2r v2.1.5 ClO data are useful over the range 0.01 and 100 hPa with a total error of 10–30 pptv (about 10% with averaging of 100 profiles. The vertical resolution is 3–5 km and 5–8 km for the stratosphere and mesosphere, respectively. The performance of the SMILES observation opens the new opportunity to investigate ClO up to the mesopause.

  2. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.; Bird, David M.; Varland, Daniel E.; Negro, Juan Jose

    1996-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 42 species of diurnal raptors observed in affected areas in this region. We observed some raptors considered as forest interior species and other open country species foraging and roosting in man-made openings inside the forest.

  3. A framework for global diurnally-resolved observations of Land Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, Darren; Remedios, John

    2014-05-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is the radiative skin temperature of the land, and is one of the key parameters in the physics of land-surface processes on regional and global scales. Being a key boundary condition in land surface models, which determine the surface to atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon; thus influencing cloud cover, precipitation and atmospheric chemistry predictions within Global models, the requirement for global diurnal observations of LST is well founded. Earth Observation satellites offer an opportunity to obtain global coverage of LST, with the appropriate exploitation of data from multiple instruments providing a capacity to resolve the diurnal cycle on a global scale. Here we present a framework for the production of global, diurnally resolved, data sets for LST which is a key request from users of LST data. We will show how the sampling of both geostationary and low earth orbit data sets could conceptually be employed to build combined, multi-sensor, pole-to-pole data sets. Although global averages already exist for individual instruments and merging of geostationary based LST is already being addressed operationally (Freitas, et al., 2013), there are still a number of important challenges to overcome. In this presentation, we will consider three of the issues still open in LST remote sensing: 1) the consistency amongst retrievals; 2) the clear-sky bias and its quantification; and 3) merging methods and the propagation of uncertainties. For example, the combined use of both geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO) data, and both infra-red and microwave data are relatively unexplored but are necessary to make the most progress. Hence this study will suggest what is state-of-the-art and how considerable advances can be made, accounting also for recent improvements in techniques and data quality. The GlobTemperature initiative under the Data User Element of ESA's 4th Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013

  4. Correlates of diurnal sleep patterns in infants of adolescent and adult single mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, P T; Chang, A; Kameshima, S; Bloch, M

    1991-04-01

    Sleep behavior has been related to both child and environmental factors, but the relative importance of these factors is not yet clear. This study was an examination of the relation of diurnal sleep patterns to perinatal risk, infant temperament, home environment, parenting stress, emotional support, and social class. Twenty-three adolescent and 23 single adult mothers and infants were assessed in the home at 4 and 12 months. Percent sleep during the night was most strongly related to parenting stress and variability of night sleep to emotional support. Emotional support mediated effects of stress at 4 months. Results support the value of clinical assessment of sleep behavior.

  5. Diurnal variation of stratospheric chlorine monoxide - A critical test of chlorine chemistry in the ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P. M.; De Zafra, R.; Parrish, A.; Barrett, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based observations of a mm-wave spectral line at 278 GHz have yielded stratospheric chlorine monoxide column density diurnal variation records which indicate that the mixing ratio and column density of this compound above 30 km are about 20 percent lower than model predictions based on 2.1 parts/billion of total stratospheric chlorine. The observed day-to-night variation is, however, in good agreement with recent model predictions, both confirming the existence of a nighttime reservoir for chlorine and verifying the predicted general rate of its storage and retrieval.

  6. Observing Seasonal and Diurnal Hydrometeorological Variability Within a Tropical Alpine Valley: Implications for Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, R. A.; Mark, B. G.

    2007-12-01

    Conditions of glacier recession in the seasonally dry tropical Peruvian Andes motivate research to better constrain the hydrological balance in alpine valleys. There is an outstanding need to better understand the impact of the pronounced tropical hygric seasonality on energy and water budgets within pro-glacial valleys that channel glacier runoff to stream flow. This paper presents a novel embedded network installed in the glacierized Llanganuco valley of the Cordillera Blanca (9°S) comprising eight low-cost, discrete temperature and humidity microloggers ranging from 3470 to 4740 masl and an automatic weather station at 3850 masl. Data are aggregated into distinct dry and wet periods sampled from two full annual cycles (2004-2006) to explore patterns of diurnal and seasonal variability. The magnitude of diurnal solar radiation varies little within the valley between the dry and wet periods, while wet season near-surface air temperatures are cooler. Seasonally characteristic diurnal fluctuations in lapse rate partially regulate convection and humidity. Steep lapse rates during the wet season afternoon promote up-slope convection of warm, moist air and nocturnal rainfall events. Standardized grass reference evapotranspiration (ET0) was estimated using the FAO-56 algorithm of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and compared with estimates of actual ET from the process-based BROOK90 model that incorporates more realistic vegetation parameters. Comparisons of composite diurnal cycles of ET for the wet and dry periods suggest about twice the daily ET0 during the dry period, attributed primarily to the 500% higher vapor pressure deficit and 20% higher daily total solar irradiance. Conversely, the near absence of rainfall during the dry season diminishes actual ET below that of the wet season by two orders of magnitude. Nearly cloud-free daylight conditions are critical for ET during the wet season. We found significant variability of ET with elevation

  7. Diurnal Fluctuations in Higher-Order Aberrations in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Huntjens, B.; Radhakrishnan, H.; Workman, H.; Hosking, S L; O’Donnell, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate diurnal fluctuations in aberrations and blood glucose levels (BGLs) in diabetic patients and control subjects. Methods: Twenty-one type 2 diabetic subjects (age 56 ± 11 years), 20 type 1 diabetic subjects (age 38 ± 15 years) and 20 non-diabetic controls (age 49 ± 23 years) took part in the study. The distribution of refractive errors was similar between groups (p=0.96). Aberrations were measured with an OPD autorefractometer (NIDEK) a...

  8. Modulation, asymmetry and the diurnal variation in axionic dark matter searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Semertzidis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we study possible time dependent effects in Axion Dark Matter searches employing resonant cavities. We find that the width of the resonance, which depends on the axion mean square velocity in the local frame, will show an annual variation due to the motion of the Earth around the sun (modulation. Furthermore, if the experiments become directional, employing suitable resonant cavities, one expects large asymmetries in the observed widths relative to the sun's direction of motion. Due to the rotation of the Earth around its axis, these asymmetries will manifest themselves as a diurnal variation in the observed width.

  9. Modulation, asymmetry and the diurnal variation in axionic dark matter searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semertzidis, Y. [KAIST University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, IBS, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Vergados, J.D., E-mail: vergados@uoi.gr [KAIST University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research, IBS, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    In the present work we study possible time dependent effects in Axion Dark Matter searches employing resonant cavities. We find that the width of the resonance, which depends on the axion mean square velocity in the local frame, will show an annual variation due to the motion of the Earth around the sun (modulation). Furthermore, if the experiments become directional, employing suitable resonant cavities, one expects large asymmetries in the observed widths relative to the sun's direction of motion. Due to the rotation of the Earth around its axis, these asymmetries will manifest themselves as a diurnal variation in the observed width.

  10. Driver Drowsiness Warning System Using Visual Information for Both Diurnal and Nocturnal Illumination Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Javier Flores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, traffic accidents due to human errors cause increasing amounts of deaths and injuries globally. To help reduce the amount of fatalities, in the paper presented here, a new module for Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS which deals with automatic driver drowsiness detection based on visual information and Artificial Intelligence is presented. The aim of this system is to locate, track, and analyze both the drivers face and eyes to compute a drowsiness index, where this real-time system works under varying light conditions (diurnal and nocturnal driving. Examples of different images of drivers taken in a real vehicle are shown to validate the algorithms used.

  11. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  12. Analysis of the Diurnal Pattern of Evaporative Fraction and Its Controlling Factors over Croplands in the Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Da-wen; CHEN He; LEI Hui-min

    2013-01-01

    A key issue of applying remotely sensed data to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) for water management is extrapolating instantaneous latent heat flux (LE) at satellite over-passing time to daily ET total. At present, the most commonly used extrapolation methods have the same assumption that evaporative fraction (EF) can be treated as constant during daytime (so-called EF self-preservation). However, large errors are reported by many documents over various ecosystems with the same approach, which indicates that further analysis of the diurnal pattern of EF is still necessary. The aim of this study is to examine the diurnal pattern of EF under fair weather conditions, then to analyze the dependencies of EF to meteorological and plant factors. Long-term flux observations at four sites over semi-arid and semi-humid climate regions in the northern China are used to analyze the EF diurnal pattern. Results show that the EF self-preservation assumption no longer holds over growing seasons of crops. However, the ratio of reference ET to available energy is almost constant during the daytime, which implies the climate factors do not have much effect on the variability of EF. The analysis of diurnal pattern of air temperature, vapor pressure deficiency (VPD), and relative humidity (RH) confirms the assumption that ET diurnal pattern is mainly influenced by stomatal regulation.

  13. Seasonal and diurnal variability of N{sub 2}O emissions from a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daelman, Matthijs R.J., E-mail: m.r.j.daelman@tudelft.nl [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Department of Biosystems engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Voorthuizen, Ellen M. van [Royal HaskoningDHV, P.O. Box 151, 6500AD Nijmegen (Netherlands); Dongen, Udo G.J.M. van [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands); Volcke, Eveline I.P. [Department of Biosystems engineering, Ghent University, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Loosdrecht, Mark C.M. van [Department of Biotechnology, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-12-01

    During nitrogen removal in conventional activated sludge processes, nitrous oxide can be emitted. With a global warming potential of 298 CO{sub 2}-equivalents it is an important greenhouse gas that affects the sustainability of wastewater treatment. The present study reports nitrous oxide emission data from a 16 month monitoring campaign on a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment. The emission demonstrated a pronounced diurnal and seasonal variability. This variability was compared with the variability of a number of process variables that are commonly available on a municipal wastewater treatment plant. On a seasonal timescale, the occurrence of peaks in the nitrite concentration correlated strongly with the emission. The diurnal trend of the emission coincided with the diurnal trend of the nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the tank, suggesting that suboptimal oxygen concentrations may induce the production of nitrous oxide during both nitrification and denitrification. This study documents an unprecedented dataset that could serve as a reference for further research. - Highlights: • Unique dataset of long-term nitrous oxide emission from activated sludge tanks • Emission exhibited pronounced diurnal variability, superimposed on seasonal trend • Seasonal nitrous oxide emission trend correlated with daily nitrite peaks • Emission’s diurnal trend suggests suboptimal oxygen concentrations as cause.

  14. Diurnal Variations of Summer Precipitation in the Beijing Area and the Possible Effect of Topography and Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Shuiqing; LI Weijing; Deliang CHEN; Jee-Hoon JEONG; GUO Wenli

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the diurnal variations of summer precipitation in the Beijing area by using subdaily precipitation and wind observations. A combined effect of topography and urbanization on the characteristics of diurnal variations was suggested. It was shown that stations located in the plain area exhibited typical night rain peaks, whereas those in the mountainous area exhibited clear afternoon peaks of precipitation diurnal variations. The precipitation peaks were associated with wind fields around the Beijing area, which were found to be highly modulated by mountain-valley circulation and urban-country circulation.The lower-tropospheric wind exhibited a clear diurnal shift in its direction from north at 0800 LST to south at 2000 LST, which reflected mountain-valley circulation. The transitions from valley to mountain wind and the opposite generally happened after sunset and sunrise, respectively, and both occurred earlier for the stations located closer to mountains. By comparing the diurnal variations of precipitation at stations in a northeast suburb, an urban area, and a southwest suburb, it was revealed that the northeast suburb group had the highest normalized rainfall frequency, but the southwest group had the lowest from late afternoon to late evening. On the contrary, in the early morning from about 0200 to 1000 LST, the southwest group and urban group had the highest normalized rainfall frequency. This pattern might originate from the combined effects of mountain-valley topography and urbanization.

  15. Diurnal odor, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide emission profiles of confined swine grower/finisher rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gang; Guo, Huiqing; Peterson, Jonathan; Predicala, Bernardo; Laguë, Claude

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain diurnal variation profiles of odor and gas (ammonia [NH3], hydrogen sulfide [H2S], carbon dioxide [CO2]) concentrations and emission rate (OGCER) from confined swine grower/ finisher rooms under three typical weather conditions (warm, mild, and cold weather) in a year. Two grower/ finisher rooms, one with a fully slatted floor and the other with partially slatted floors, were measured for 2 consecutive days under each weather condition. The results revealed that the diurnal OGCER in the room with a fully slatted floor was 9.2-39.4% higher than that with a partially slatted floor; however, no significant differences in the diurnal OGCER were found between these two rooms, except for the NH3 concentrations in August, the NH3 and H2S concentrations and emissions in October, and odor concentrations and emissions in February (p > 0.05). The OGCER variations presented different diurnal patterns as affected by time of day, season, type of floor, ventilation rate, animal growth cycles, in-house manure storage, and weather conditions. Significant diurnal fluctuations in the OGCER (except for the odor concentrations and H2S emissions) were observed in August (p dispersion modeling to decrease the great incertitude of setback determination using randomly measured data.

  16. Telemetric field studies of body temperature and activity rhythms of Acomys russatus and A. cahirinus in the Judean Desert of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvert, R; Kronfeld, N; Dayan, T; Haim, A; Zisapel, N; Heldmaier, G

    1999-06-01

    Two species of the genus Acomys coexist in arid zones of southern Israel. Acomys russatus is distributed in extremely arid areas, while A. cahirinus is common in both Mediterranean and arid regions. Individuals of both species from a rodent community in the Ein Gedi Nature Reserve were implanted with temperature-sensitive transmitters. Body temperature (T b) rhythms were recorded in free-ranging mice at four different seasons of the year. A. cahirinus (30-45 g) showed a nocturnal rhythm of T b throughout the year. In the activity phase during the night T b increased to 38.2°C. During the day T b decreased to 34°C. This species displayed this pattern in summer also when ambient temperatures rose above T b. The T b of A. russatus (45-65 g) varied between 34.8 and 41°C during the hot season, showing a bimodal temperature rhythm with maximal values in the morning and in the evening. Measurements of activity in this species showed inactivity during the hottest period of a summer day. In winter A. russatus showed no clearly detectable diurnal or ultradian rhythm in T b, which remained constant between narrow limits of 35.2 and 36.8°C.

  17. A comparative analysis of the distribution of immunoreactive orexin A and B in the brains of nocturnal and diurnal rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon Joshua P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The orexins (hypocretins are a family of peptides found primarily in neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Although the orexinergic system is generally thought to be the same across species, the orexins are involved in behaviors which show considerable interspecific variability. There are few direct cross-species comparisons of the distributions of cells and fibers containing these peptides. Here, we addressed the possibility that there might be important species differences by systematically examining and directly comparing the distribution of orexinergic neurons and fibers within the forebrains of species with very different patterns of sleep-wake behavior. Methods We compared the distribution of orexin-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in two nocturnal species (the lab rat, Rattus norvegicus and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus and two diurnal species (the Nile grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus and the degu, Octodon degus. For each species, tissue from the olfactory bulbs through the brainstem was processed for immunoreactivity for orexin A and orexin B (hypocretin-1 and -2. The distribution of orexin-positive cells was noted for each species. Orexin fiber distribution and density was recorded and analyzed using a principal components factor analysis to aid in evaluating potential species differences. Results Orexin-positive cells were observed in the lateral hypothalamic area of each species, though there were differences with respect to distribution within this region. In addition, cells positive for orexin A but not orexin B were observed in the paraventricular nucleus of the lab rat and grass rat, and in the supraoptic nucleus of the lab rat, grass rat and hamster. Although the overall distributions of orexin A and B fibers were similar in the four species, some striking differences were noted, especially in the lateral mammillary nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and flocculus. Conclusion The orexin

  18. Tactile display with dielectric multilayer elastomer actuatorsq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Marc; Lotz, Peter; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2009-03-01

    Tactile perception is the human sensation of surface textures through the vibrations generated by stroking a finger over the surface. The skin responds to several distributed physical quantities. Perhaps the most important are high-frequency vibrations, pressure distributions (static shape) and thermal properties. The integration of tactile displays in man-machine interfaces promises a more intuitive handling. For this reason many tactile displays are developed using different technologies. We present several state-of-the-art tactile displays based on different types of dielectric elastomer actuators to clarify the advantages of our matrix display based on multilayer technology. Using this technology perpendicular and hexagonal arrays of actuator elements (tactile stimulators) can be integrated into a PDMS substrate. Element diameters down to 1 mm allow stimuli at the range of the human two-point-discrimination threshold. Driving the elements by column and row addressing enables various stimulation patterns with a reduced number of feeding lines. The transient analysis determines charging times of the capacitive actuators depending on actuator geometry and material parameters. This is very important to ensure an adequate dynamic characteristic of the actuators to stimulate the human skin by vibrations. The suitability of multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators for actuation in tactile displays has been determined. Beside the realization of a static tactile display - where multilayer DEA are integrated as drives for movable contact pins - we focus on the direct use of DEA as a vibrotactile display. Finally, we present the scenario and achieved results of a recognition threshold test. Even relative low voltages in the range of 800 V generate vibrations with 100% recognition ratio within the group of participants. Furthermore, the frequency dependent characteristic of the determined recognition threshold confirms with established literature.

  19. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M

    2016-10-01

    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...