Sample records for body destruction explain

  1. Can solid body destruction explain abundance discrepancies in planetary nebulae?

    CERN Document Server

    Henney, William J


    In planetary nebulae, abundances of oxygen and other heavy elements derived from optical recombination lines are systematically higher than those derived from collisionally excited lines. We investigate the hypothesis that the destruction of solid bodies may produce pockets of cool, high-metallicity gas that could explain these abundance discrepancies. Under the assumption of maximally efficient radiative ablation, we derive two fundamental constraints that the solid bodies must satisfy in order that their evaporation during the planetary nebula phase should generate a high enough gas phase metallicity. A local constraint implies that the bodies must be larger than tens of meters, while a global constraint implies that the total mass of the solid body reservoir must exceed a few hundredths of a solar mass. This mass greatly exceeds the mass of any population of comets or large debris particles expected to be found orbiting evolved low- to intermediate-mass stars. We therefore conclude that contemporaneous sol...

  2. Button cell in oesophagus: An unusual destructive foreign body a case report. (United States)

    Kakkar, Sanjiv; Makker, Jugesh


    A case of button cell lodged in oesophagus is reported. The button cells are potentially destructive foreign bodies due to damage caused by leakage of harmful chemicals and their capability to generate electric current. The mucosal damage starts early and may lead to life threatening complications in long standing cases. Removal of these should be accorded highest priority to prevent complications.

  3. Neural Correlates of Body and Face Perception Following Bilateral Destruction of the Primary Visual Cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan eVan den Stock


    Full Text Available Non-conscious visual processing of different object categories was investigated in a rare patient with bilateral destruction of the visual cortex (V1 and clinical blindness over the entire visual field. Images of biological and non-biological object categories were presented consisting of human bodies, faces, butterflies, cars, and scrambles. Behaviorally, only the body shape induced higher perceptual sensitivity, as revealed by signal detection analysis. Passive exposure to bodies and faces activated amygdala and superior temporal sulcus. In addition, bodies also activated the extrastriate body area, insula, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC and cerebellum. The results show that following bilateral damage to the primary visual cortex and ensuing complete cortical blindness, the human visual system is able to process categorical properties of human body shapes. This residual vision may be based on V1-independent input to body-selective areas along the ventral stream, in concert with areas involved in the representation of bodily states, like insula, OFC and cerebellum.

  4. Explaining rigid dieting in normal-weight women: the key role of body image inflexibility. (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Trindade, Inês A; Martinho, Ana


    Restrictive dieting is an increasing behavior presented by women in modern societies, independently of their weight. There are several known factors that motivate diet, namely a sense of dissatisfaction with one's body and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance. However, dieting seems to have a paradoxical effect and has been considered a risk factor for weight gain and obesity in women and for maladaptive eating. Nevertheless, the study of the emotional regulation processes that explain the adoption of inflexible and rigid eating behaviors still remains little explored. In this line, the present study aims to explore why normal-weight women engage in highly rigid and inflexible diets. We hypothesize that body and weight dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons based on physical appearance explain the adoption of inflexible eating rules, through the mechanisms of body image inflexibility. The current study comprised 508 normal-weight female college students. Path analyses were conducted to explore the study's hypotheses. Results revealed that the model explained 43 % of inflexible eating and revealed excellent fit indices. Furthermore, the unwillingness to experience unwanted events related to body image (body image inflexibility) mediated the impact of body dissatisfaction and unfavorable social comparisons on the adoption of inflexible eating rules. This study highlights the relevance of body image inflexibility to explain rigid eating attitudes, and it seems to be an important avenue for the development of interventions focusing on the promotion of adaptive attitudes towards body image and eating in young women.

  5. Effects of the Size of Cosmological N-body Simulations on Physical Quantities – II: Halo Formation and Destruction Rate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayanti Prasad


    In this study we show how errors due to finite box size affect formation and the destruction rate for haloes in cosmological N-body simulations. In an earlier study we gave an analytic prescription of finding the corrections in the mass function. Following the same approach, in this paper we give analytical expressions for corrections in the formation rate, destruction rate and the rate of change in comoving number density, and compute their expected values for the power law ( = -2) and LCDM models.

  6. Can Clinical Assessment of Locomotive Body Function Explain Gross Motor Environmental Performance in Cerebral Palsy? (United States)

    Sanz Mengibar, Jose Manuel; Santonja-Medina, Fernando; Sanchez-de-Muniain, Paloma; Canteras-Jordana, Manuel


    Gross Motor Function Classification System has discriminative purposes but does not assess short-term therapy goals. Locomotion Stages (LS) classify postural body functions and independent activity components. Assessing the relation between Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Locomotion Stages will make us understand if clinical assessment can explain and predict motor environmental performance in cerebral palsy. A total of 462 children were assessed with both scales. High reliability and strong negative correlation (-0.908) for Gross Motor Function Classification System and Locomotion Stages at any age was found. Sensitivity was 83%, and specificity and positive predictive value were 100% within the same age range. Regression analysis showed detailed probabilities for the realization of the Gross Motor Function Classification System depending on the Locomotion Stages and the age group. Postural body function measure with Locomotion Stages is reliable, sensitive, and specific for gross motor function and able to predict environmental performance.

  7. Explaining the presence of perennial liquid water bodies in the firn of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers Munneke, P.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; van Angelen, J.H.; Forster, R.R.


    Recent observations have shown that the firn layer on the Greenland Ice Sheet features subsurface bodies of liquid water at the end of the winter season. Using a model with basic firn hydrology, thermodynamics, and compaction in one dimension, we find that a combination of moderate to strong surface

  8. Saltation-threshold model can explain aeolian features on low-air-density planetary bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Pähtz, Thomas


    Knowledge of the minimal fluid speeds at which sediment transport can be sustained is crucial for understanding whether underwater landscapes exposed to water streams and wind-blown loose planetary surfaces can be altered. It also tells us whether surface features, such as ripples and dunes, can evolve. Here, guided by state-of-the-art numerical simulations, we propose an analytical model predicting the minimal fluid speeds required to sustain sediment transport in a Newtonian fluid. The model results are consistent with measurements and estimates of the transport threshold in water and Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. Furthermore, it predicts reasonable wind speeds to sustain aeolian sediment transport ("saltation") on the low-air-density planetary bodies Triton, Pluto, and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (comet). This offers an explanation for possible aeolian surface features photographed on these bodies during space missions.

  9. Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene. (United States)

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K


    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to the investigation, and the destructive nature of a screening test must be considered when only a small amount of material is available. The ability to characterize an unknown stain at the scene of the crime without having to wait for results from a laboratory is another very critical step in the development of forensic body fluid analysis. Driven by the importance for forensic applications, body fluid identification methods have been extensively developed in recent years. The systematic analysis of these new developments is vital for forensic investigators to be continuously educated on possible superior techniques. Significant advances in laser technology and the development of novel light detectors have dramatically improved spectroscopic methods for molecular characterization over the last decade. The application of this novel biospectroscopy for forensic purposes opens new and exciting opportunities for the development of on-field, non-destructive, confirmatory methods for body fluid identification at a crime scene. In addition, the biospectroscopy methods are universally applicable to all body fluids unlike the majority of current techniques which are valid for individual fluids only. This article analyzes the current methods being used to identify body fluid stains including blood, semen, saliva, vaginal fluid, urine, and sweat, and also focuses on new techniques that have been developed in the last 5-6 years. In addition, the potential of new biospectroscopic techniques based on Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy is evaluated for rapid, confirmatory, non-destructive identification of a body

  10. The unusual gamma-ray burst GRB 101225A explained as a minor body falling onto a neutron star. (United States)

    Campana, S; Lodato, G; D'Avanzo, P; Panagia, N; Rossi, E M; Della Valle, M; Tagliaferri, G; Antonelli, L A; Covino, S; Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G; Melandri, A; Pian, E; Salvaterra, R; Cusumano, G; D'Elia, V; Fugazza, D; Palazzi, E; Sbarufatti, B; Vergani, S D


    The tidal disruption of a solar-mass star around a supermassive black hole has been extensively studied analytically and numerically. In these events, the star develops into an elongated banana-shaped structure. After completing an eccentric orbit, the bound debris falls into the black hole, forming an accretion disk and emitting radiation. The same process may occur on planetary scales if a minor body passes too close to its star. In the Solar System, comets fall directly into our Sun or onto planets. If the star is a compact object, the minor body can become tidally disrupted. Indeed, one of the first mechanisms invoked to produce strong gamma-ray emission involved accretion of comets onto neutron stars in our Galaxy. Here we report that the peculiarities of the 'Christmas' gamma-ray burst (GRB 101225A) can be explained by a tidal disruption event of a minor body around an isolated Galactic neutron star. This would indicate either that minor bodies can be captured by compact stellar remnants more frequently than occurs in the Solar System or that minor-body formation is relatively easy around millisecond radio pulsars. A peculiar supernova associated with a gamma-ray burst provides an alternative explanation.

  11. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function. (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang


    Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.

  12. The ecological validity of laboratory cycling: Does body size explain the difference between laboratory- and field-based cycling performance? (United States)

    Jobson, S A; Nevill, A M; Palmer, G S; Jeukendrup, A E; Doherty, M; Atkinson, G


    Previous researchers have identified significant differences between laboratory and road cycling performances. To establish the ecological validity of laboratory time-trial cycling performances, the causes of such differences should be understood. Hence, the purpose of the present study was to quantify differences between laboratory- and road-based time-trial cycling and to establish to what extent body size [mass (m) and height (h)] may help to explain such differences. Twenty-three male competitive, but non-elite, cyclists completed two 25 mile time-trials, one in the laboratory using an air-braked ergometer (Kingcycle) and the other outdoors on a local road course over relatively flat terrain. Although laboratory speed was a reasonably strong predictor of road speed (R2 = 69.3%), a significant 4% difference (P cycling speed was identified (laboratory vs. road speed: 40.4 +/- 3.02 vs. 38.7 +/- 3.55 km x h(-1); mean +/- s). When linear regression was used to predict these differences (Diff) in cycling speeds, the following equation was obtained: Diff (km x h(-1)) = 24.9 - 0.0969 x m - 10.7 x h, R2 = 52.1% and the standard deviation of residuals about the fitted regression line = 1.428 (km . h-1). The difference between road and laboratory cycling speeds (km x h(-1)) was found to be minimal for small individuals (mass = 65 kg and height = 1.738 m) but larger riders would appear to benefit from the fixed resistance in the laboratory compared with the progressively increasing drag due to increased body size that would be experienced in the field. This difference was found to be proportional to the cyclists' body surface area that we speculate might be associated with the cyclists' frontal surface area.

  13. Body size and geographic range do not explain long term variation in fish populations: a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to testing assembly processes in stream fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jacquemin

    Full Text Available We combine evolutionary biology and community ecology to test whether two species traits, body size and geographic range, explain long term variation in local scale freshwater stream fish assemblages. Body size and geographic range are expected to influence several aspects of fish ecology, via relationships with niche breadth, dispersal, and abundance. These traits are expected to scale inversely with niche breadth or current abundance, and to scale directly with dispersal potential. However, their utility to explain long term temporal patterns in local scale abundance is not known. Comparative methods employing an existing molecular phylogeny were used to incorporate evolutionary relatedness in a test for covariation of body size and geographic range with long term (1983 - 2010 local scale population variation of fishes in West Fork White River (Indiana, USA. The Bayesian model incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty and correlated predictors indicated that neither body size nor geographic range explained significant variation in population fluctuations over a 28 year period. Phylogenetic signal data indicated that body size and geographic range were less similar among taxa than expected if trait evolution followed a purely random walk. We interpret this as evidence that local scale population variation may be influenced less by species-level traits such as body size or geographic range, and instead may be influenced more strongly by a taxon's local scale habitat and biotic assemblages.

  14. Explaining the Positive Relationship Between Fourth-Grade Children's Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch) (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.


    Background: A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of…

  15. Integrating the Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge into Higher Education: Eight AAFCS-Accredited Universities Explain Their Process (United States)

    Reiboldt, Wendy; Stanley, M. Sue; Coffey, Kitty R.; Whaley, Heather M.; Yazedjian, Ani; Yates, Amy M.; Kihm, Holly; Wanga, Pamela E.; Martin, Lynda; Olle, Mary; Anderson, Melinda


    This article features eight AAFCS-accredited academic units in higher education that illustrate how the Family and Consumer Sciences Body of Knowledge (FCS-BOK) can be integrated into program curricula and educational procedures or structures. Contributors represent the following educational institutions (in alphabetical order): (1) California…

  16. Does consumption of processed foods explain disparities in the body weight of individuals? The case of Guatemala. (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay


    Overweight/obesity, caused by the 'nutrition transition', is identified as one of the leading risk factors for non-communicable mortality. The nutrition transition in developing countries is associated with a major shift from the consumption of staple crops and whole grains to highly and partially processed foods. This study examines the contribution of processed foods consumption to the prevalence of overweight/obesity in Guatemala using generalized methods of moments (GMM) regression. The results show that all other things remaining constant, a 10% point increase in the share of partially processed foods from the total household food expenditure increases the BMI of family members (aged 10 years and above) by 3.95%. The impact of highly processed foods is much stronger. A 10% point increase in the share of highly processed food items increases the BMI of individuals by 4.25%, ceteris paribus. The results are robust when body weight is measured by overweight/obesity indicators. These findings suggest that increasing shares of partially and highly processed foods from the total consumption expenditure could be one of the major risk factors for the high prevalence of overweight/obesity in the country.

  17. Explaining away the body: experiences of supernaturally caused touch and touch on non-hand objects within the rubber hand illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Hohwy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically

  18. Can lifestyle factors explain why body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio increase with increasing tobacco consumption? The Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, C; Toft, U; Jørgensen, Torben


    , height, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Self-reported tobacco consumption and lifestyle variables (dietary quality, energy intake, physical activity in leisure time and alcohol consumption) were registered. RESULTS: Daily smokers had a significantly lower BMI and significantly higher WH...... ratio than never smokers (Ptobacco consumption (Ptobacco consumption. The association between increasing WH ratio and increasing tobacco consumption was largely explained...... consumption, but these factors did largely explain the increasing WH ratio. The relationship between BMI and tobacco consumption is complex, and the public needs to be informed that smoking is not a 'diet'....

  19. Body size and pubertal development explain ethnic differences in structural geometry at the femur in Asian, Hispanic and white early adolescent girls living in the US (United States)

    Variation in structural geometry is present in adulthood, but when this variation arises and what influences this variation prior to adulthood remains poorly understood. Ethnicity is commonly the focus of research of skeletal integrity and appears to explain some of the variation in quantification o...

  20. Non-destructive determination of uranium, thorium and 40K in tobacco and their implication on radiation dose levels to the human body. (United States)

    Landsberger, S; Lara, R; Landsberger, S G


    The naturally occurring radionuclides of (235)U, (238)U and (232)Th and their daughter products are a potential major source of anthropogenic radiation to tobacco smokers. Often overlooked is the presence of (40)K in tobacco and its implication to radiation dose accumulation in the human body. In this study, these three radiation sources have been determined in four typical US cigarettes using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA reactions of (238)U(n,γ)(239)U, (232)Th(n,γ)(233)Th and (41)K(n,γ)(42)K were used to determine (235)U, (238)U and (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The activity of (238)U can easily be determined by epithermal NAA of the (238)U(n,γ)(239)U reaction, and the activity of (235, 234)U can easily be deduced. Using isotopic ratios, the activity due to (40)K was found by the determined concentrations of (41)K (also by epithermal neutrons) in the bulk material. Each gram of total potassium yields 30 Bq of (40)K. The annual effective dose for smokers using 20 cigarettes per day was calculate to be 14.6, 137 and 9 μSv y(-1) for (238,235,) (234)U, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. These values are significantly lower that the dose received from (210)Po except for (232)Th.

  1. Non-destructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, B.; John, V.


    This text covers, the underlying principles and some major applications of non-destructive inspection methods. Complete chapters are devoted to each of the following: liquid penetration inspection, magnetic particle inspection, electrical testing, ultrasonic testing and radiography. The concluding chapter introduces the reader to some of the more recent developments in non-destructive inspection.

  2. Low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance independently explain substantial parts of the association between body fat and serum C3: The CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wlazlo, N.; Greevenbroek, van M.M.J.; Ferreira, I.; Jansen, E.J.H.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Bravenboer, B.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) in adiposity-related increases in serum complement factor 3 (C3). Although C3 has been linked to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, and C3 levels are closely related to body fat, the underlying m

  3. Can ethnic background differences in children's body composition be explained by differences in energy balance-related behaviors? A mediation analysis within the energy-project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Fernández-Alvira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In affluent countries, children from non-native ethnicity have in general less favourable body composition indicators and energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs than children from native ethnicity. However, differences between countries have been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A school-based survey among 10-12 years old children was conducted in seven European countries with a standardized protocol. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured; engagement in EBRBs was self-reported. For those countries with significant ethnic differences in body composition (Greece and the Netherlands, multilevel mediation analyses were conducted, to test the mediating effect of the EBRBs in the association between ethnic background and body composition indicators. Analyses were adjusted for gender and age, and for parental education in a later step. Partial mediation was found for sugared drinks intake and sleep duration in the Greek sample, and breakfast in the Dutch sample. A suppression effect was found for engagement in sports activites in the Greek sample. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ethnic differences in children's body composition were partially mediated by differences in breakfast skipping in the Netherlands and sugared drinks intake, sports participation and sleep duration in Greece.

  4. The Social and Economic Dimensions of Destructive Fishing Activities in the South coast of Kenya.


    Munyi, F.


    The social and economic dimensions of destructive fishing activities were studied in the multi-gear fishery of the southern Kenya coast. The objectives were to determine causes and effects of destructive fishing activities, the extent of occurrence of these activities, the social and economic factors that explain the continued existence of destructive fishing techniques, and the measures to deter the destructive fishing practices in the area. Fishing gears identified to be destructive in orde...

  5. Explaining embodied cognition results. (United States)

    Lakoff, George


    From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working with neuroscientists, computer scientists, and experimental psychologists, have been developing a neural theory of thought and language (NTTL). Central to NTTL are the following ideas: (a) we think with our brains, that is, thought is physical and is carried out by functional neural circuitry; (b) what makes thought meaningful are the ways those neural circuits are connected to the body and characterize embodied experience; (c) so-called abstract ideas are embodied in this way as well, as is language. Experimental results in embodied cognition are seen not only as confirming NTTL but also explained via NTTL, mostly via the neural theory of conceptual metaphor. Left behind more than three decades ago is the old idea that cognition uses the abstract manipulation of disembodied symbols that are meaningless in themselves but that somehow constitute internal "representations of external reality" without serious mediation by the body and brain. This article uniquely explains the connections between embodied cognition results since that time and results from cognitive linguistics, experimental psychology, computational modeling, and neuroscience.

  6. Destructive Interference of Dualities

    CERN Document Server

    Wotzasek, C


    We show that the fusion of two (diffeomorphism) invariant self-dual scalars described by right and left chiral-WZW actions, produces a Hull non-mover field. After fusion, right and left moving modes disappear from the spectrum, displaying in this way the phenomenon of (destructive) quantum interference of dualities.

  7. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner (United States)


    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  8. Metabolic responses to high-fat diets rich in n-3 or n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in mice selected for either high body weight or leanness explain different health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuernberg Karin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that diets high in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA confer health benefits by improving insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissue. Methods The present study investigates metabolic responses in two different lines of mice either selected for high body weight (DU6 leading to rapid obesity development, or selected for high treadmill performance (DUhTP leading to a lean phenotype. At 29 days of age the mice were fed standard chow (7.2% fat, 25.7% protein, or a high-fat diet rich in n-3 PUFA (n-3 HFD, 27.7% fat, 19% protein or a high-fat diet rich in n-6 PUFA (n-6 HFD, 27.7% fat, 18.6% protein for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of these PUFA-rich high-fat diets on the fatty acid profile and on the protein expression of key components of insulin signalling pathways. Results Plasma concentrations of leptin and insulin were higher in DU6 in comparison with DUhTP mice. The high-fat diets stimulated a strong increase in leptin levels and body fat only in DU6 mice. Muscle and liver fatty acid composition were clearly changed by dietary lipid composition. In both lines of mice n-3 HFD feeding significantly reduced the hepatic insulin receptor β protein concentration which may explain decreased insulin action in liver. In contrast, protein kinase C ζ expression increased strongly in abdominal fat of n-3 HFD fed DUhTP mice, indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Conclusions A diet high in n-3 PUFA may facilitate a shift from fuel deposition in liver to fuel storage as fat in adipose tissue in mice. Tissue specific changes in insulin sensitivity may describe, at least in part, the health improving properties of dietary n-3 PUFA. However, important genotype-diet interactions may explain why such diets have little effect in some population groups.

  9. Destruction of the galactic globular cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    Gnedin, O Y; Gnedin, Oleg Y; Ostriker, Jeremiah P


    We investigate the dynamical evolution of the Galactic Globular Cluster System in considerably greater detail than has been done hitherto, finding that destruction rates are significantly larger than given by previous estimates. More than half of the present clusters (52%-58% for the OC galactic model, and 75%-86% for the BSS model) will be destroyed in the next Hubble time. For the evolution of individual clusters we use a Fokker-Planck code including two-body relaxation, tidal truncation of clusters, compressive gravitational shocks while clusters pass through the Galactic disk, and tidal shocks due to passage close to the bulge. Gravitational shocks are treated comprehensively, using a recent result by Kundic & Ostriker (1995) that the shock-induced relaxation term, driving an additional dispersion of energies, is generally more important than the usual energy shift term. We discuss some implications for a past history of the Globular Cluster System, and the initial distribution of the destruction time...

  10. Innovation in Non Destructive Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, C.H.P.


    In many established companies the pace of innovation is low. The Non-Destructive Testing sector is an example of a sector where the pace of innovation is very slow. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) refers to the set of non-invasive activities used to determine the condition of objects or installations

  11. Further evidence for the super-catastrophic destruction of asteroids at small yet nontrivial perihelion distances (United States)

    Granvik, Mikael


    For the past two decades or so the consensus in the near-Earth-object (NEO) community was that the majority of the NEOs are destroyed when they plunge into the Sun (Farinella et al. 1994, Nature 371, 314). There is now growing evidence suggesting that NEOs are completely destroyed at nontrivial distances from the Sun as proposed by Granvik et al. (2016, Nature 530, 303). The majority of meteor streams at small perihelion distances lack obvious parent bodies (Brown et al. 2010, Icarus 207, 66), potentially suggesting that the remaining fragments are too small to be telescopically detected from the Earth. Furthermore, orbital estimates for meter-scale Earth-impactors based on airburst observations show that the space interior to the orbit of Mercury is essentially void of objects in that size range and this cannot be explained by observational selection effects (Brown et al. 2016, Icarus 266, 96). This suggest that the remaining fragments must be substantially less than one meter in diameter. The mechanism(s) that could cause such a complete destruction of the parent asteroid is currently not well understood. The analysis by Granvik et al. (2016) found that smaller NEOs are destroyed at larger distances and that the albedo estimates by NEOWISE imply that NEOs with low albedos are destroyed at larger distances compared to their high-albedo counterparts. The discovery of the first asteroid in the process of being destroyed (Knight et al. 2016, ApJL 823(1), L6) and an ongoing observation campaign targeting NEOs at small perihelion distances will hopefully lead to further insight regarding the destruction mechanism. I will synthesize what is currently known about the destruction of asteroids at small perihelion distances, and explain how these super-catastrophic disruptions may be used to statistically constrain the interior structure of asteroids.

  12. Computer jargon explained

    CERN Document Server

    Enticknap, Nicholas


    Computer Jargon Explained is a feature in Computer Weekly publications that discusses 68 of the most commonly used technical computing terms. The book explains what the terms mean and why the terms are important to computer professionals. The text also discusses how the terms relate to the trends and developments that are driving the information technology industry. Computer jargon irritates non-computer people and in turn causes problems for computer people. The technology and the industry are changing so rapidly; it is very hard even for professionals to keep updated. Computer people do not

  13. The wireless internet explained

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoton, John


    The Wireless Internet Explained covers the full spectrum of wireless technologies from a wide range of vendors, including initiatives by Microsoft and Compaq. The Wireless Internet Explained takes a practical look at wireless technology. Rhoton explains the concepts behind the physics, and provides an overview that clarifies the convoluted set of standards heaped together under the umbrella of wireless. It then expands on these technical foundations to give a panorama of the increasingly crowded landscape of wireless product offerings. When it comes to actual implementation the book gives abundant down-to-earth advice on topics ranging from the selection and deployment of mobile devices to the extremely sensitive subject of security.Written by an expert on Internet messaging, the author of Digital Press''s successful Programmer''s Guide to Internet Mail and X.400 and SMTP: Battle of the E-mail Protocols, The Wireless Internet Explained describes and evaluates the current state of the fast-growing and crucial...

  14. The destruction of organic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, T T


    International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book

  15. Innovation in Non Destructive Testing


    Wassink, C.H.P.


    In many established companies the pace of innovation is low. The Non-Destructive Testing sector is an example of a sector where the pace of innovation is very slow. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) refers to the set of non-invasive activities used to determine the condition of objects or installations without causing any damage. Many of the technologies used in NDT are also used in medical diagnosis, for example X-Ray photos and ultrasonic echoes. In NDT, however, they are used on plants, pipeli...

  16. Quits, layoffs, and job destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W; Broersma, L


    We examine the quit-layoff distinction and its implications for job destruction from the employer's perspective. Using a set of panel data of Dutch firms, we get the following results. First, in addition to layoffs, quits contribute to the speed of downward adjustment of labour. Second, about 22% of

  17. Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Vujičić, Milan


    Linear Algebra Thoroughly Explained provides a comprehensive introduction to the subject suitable for adoption as a self-contained text for courses at undergraduate and postgraduate level. The clear and comprehensive presentation of the basic theory is illustrated throughout with an abundance of worked examples. The book is written for teachers and students of linear algebra at all levels and across mathematics and the applied sciences, particularly physics and engineering. It will also be an invaluable addition to research libraries as a comprehensive resource book for the subject.

  18. Definition, classification and treatment of destructive fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Guo-jun; QU Zhi-guo; LIU Zhuo; CHEN Yuan


    Destructive injury is defined as a very serious damage both to the bone and the soft tissues. But in clinical practice we found that in some fracture cases, the damage to soft tissues is not as severe as "destructive injury" indicates, whereas comminuted fractures still cannot show the severity of bone damage. Therefore we proposed a new term "destructive fractures" after combining the definition of destructive injury with typical clinic cases. Destructive fractures refer to the fractures whose osseous tissues are damaged too seriously to be repaired, but soft tissues, nerves and veins are less severely injured and can be repaired. From the year 2001 to 2010, 75 cases of destructive fractures were admitted in our department. According to whether the fractures interlinked with the external environment, together with the fracture sites, they were divided into 6 types: al type, closed diaphysis destructive fracture; a2 type, open diaphysis destructive fracture; b1 type, closed joint-involved destructive fracture; b2 type,open joint-involved destructive fracture; cl type, closed mixed destructive fracture; c2 type, open mixed destructive fracture. Corresponding clinical treatments were conducted for each type.The new classification criterion of destructivefracture is simple and practical and thus can be used as an important guide to make reasonable treatment plans for destructive fractures.

  19. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher, E-mail: [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)


    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  20. Explaining moral religions. (United States)

    Baumard, Nicolas; Boyer, Pascal


    Moralizing religions, unlike religions with morally indifferent gods or spirits, appeared only recently in some (but not all) large-scale human societies. A crucial feature of these new religions is their emphasis on proportionality (between deeds and supernatural rewards, between sins and penance, and in the formulation of the Golden Rule, according to which one should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself). Cognitive science models that account for many properties of religion can be extended to these religions. Recent models of evolved dispositions for fairness in cooperation suggest that proportionality-based morality is highly intuitive to human beings. The cultural success of moralizing movements, secular or religious, could be explained based on proportionality.

  1. Explaining wartime rape. (United States)

    Gottschall, Jonathan


    In the years since the first reports of mass rapes in the Yugoslavian wars of secession and the genocidal massacres in Rwanda, feminist activists and scholars, human rights organizations, journalists, and social scientists have dedicated unprecedented efforts to document, explain, and seek solutions for the phenomenon of wartime rape. While contributors to this literature agree on much, there is no consensus on causal factors. This paper provides a brief overview of the literature on wartime rape in historical and ethnographical societies and a critical analysis of the four leading explanations for its root causes: the feminist theory, the cultural pathology theory, the strategic rape theory, and the biosocial theory. The paper concludes that the biosocial theory is the only one capable of bringing all the phenomena associated with wartime rape into a single explanatory context.

  2. Matlab for engineers explained

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafsson, Fredrik


    This book is written for students at bachelor and master programs and has four different purposes, which split the book into four parts: 1. To teach first or early year undergraduate engineering students basic knowledge in technical computations and programming using MATLAB. The first part starts from first principles and is therefore well suited both for readers with prior exposure to MATLAB but lacking a solid foundational knowledge of the capabilities of the system and readers not having any previous experience with MATLAB. The foundational knowledge gained from these interactive guided tours of the system will hopefully be sufficient for an effective utilization of MATLAB in the engineering profession, in education and in research. 2. To explain the foundations of more advanced use of MATLAB using the facilities added the last couple of years, such as extended data structures, object orientation and advanced graphics. 3. To give an introduction to the use of MATLAB in typical undergraduate courses in elec...

  3. Non-destructive measurement of cultural property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Yoshimitsu [Tokyo National Research Inst. of Cultural Properties, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Conservation Science


    Non-destructive analytical method is favored for the measurement of samples from the field of cultural properties. Among many scientific methods, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and X-ray diffraction method are frequently applied in this field. X-ray fluorescence spectrometer is the main method for the measurement of chemical composition of cultural properties when sample is not taken out. It is the most important concept during the measurement, that samples should be kept in the safety condition without any difficulty or defect. Because a sample from the field of cultural properties could not be cut or could not be laid down in some cases, instruments should be improved to admit these samples and conditions. It is one of the solutions for this point to equip a large sample chamber in the instrument. Several new instruments with large sample chamber which was specially designed for the cultural properties were explained. Applications of these instruments were also explained for the real archaeological and historical samples. Even the measurements is not quantitative and qualitative analysis only, the results is evaluated to be valuable for the understanding of the samples. The micro focus X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was also applied in this field. The method gave not only the ordinary chemical composition but also the structure of the samples by mapping. (author)

  4. Definition, classification and treatment of destructive fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FANG Guo-jun


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Destructive injury is defined as a very serious damage both to the bone and the soft tissues. But in clinical practice we found that in some fracture cases, the damage to soft tissues is not as severe as 揹estructive injury?indicates, whereas comminuted fractures still cannot show the severity of bone damage. Therefore we proposed a new term 揹estructive fractures?after combining the definition of destructive injury with typical clinic cases. Destructive fractures refer to the fractures whose osseous tissues are damaged too seriously to be repaired, but soft tissues, nerves and veins are less severely injured and can be repaired. From the year 2001 to 2010, 75 cases of destructive fractures were admitted in our department. According to whether the fractures interlinked with the external environment, together with the fracture sites, they were divided into 6 types: a1 type, closed diaphysis destructive fracture; a2 type, open diaphysis destructive fracture; b1 type, closed joint-involved destructive fracture; b2 type, open joint-involved destructive fracture; c1 type, closed mixed destructive fracture; c2 type, open mixed destructive fracture. Corresponding clinical treatments were conducted for each type.The new classification criterion of destructive fracture is simple and practical and thus can be used as an important guide to make reasonable treatment plans for destructive fractures. Key words: Fracture, bone; Classification; Therapeutics

  5. Tabagismo e variação ponderal: a fisiopatologia e genética podem explicar esta associação? Smoking and changes in body weight: can physiopathology and genetics explain this association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Chatkin


    Full Text Available O tabagismo é a principal causa de morte prevenível na maioria dos países, inclusive no Brasil. Parar de fumar é uma estratégia importante para reduzir a morbidade e mortalidade associada às doenças tabaco-relacionadas. Sabe-se da relação inversa entre uso de nicotina e peso corporal, onde o índice de massa corporal tende a ser menor em fumantes quando comparados aos não fumantes. Além disso, abstinência tabágica resulta em aumento de peso, sendo que ex-fumantes geralmente aumentam de 5 a 6 kg, mas cerca de 10% adquirem mais de 10 kg. O tratamento farmacológico para a cessação do tabagismo pode atenuar este ganho de peso. O aumento de peso na cessação do tabagismo como contributório à epidemia de obesidade é pouco estudado. Nos EUA, calcula-se que a fração do problema atribuível à cessação do tabagismo seja de 6% para homens e 3,2% para mulheres. Os mecanismos não são claros, mas há evidências mostrando que a dopamina e serotonina diminuem a ingestão alimentar. A administração de nicotina por qualquer via eleva agudamente os níveis destes neurotransmissores no cérebro, causando menor necessidade de ingestão energética e diminuindo o apetite. Além disso, a nicotina tem efeito direto no metabolismo do tecido adiposo, influenciando a taxa de ganho ponderal após a cessação do tabagismo. A leptina, grelina e neuropeptídio Y são peptídeos que podem contribuir para esta relação inversa entre nicotina e índice de massa corporal, em um papel ainda não determinado como conseqüente ou causador das variações ponderais.Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of death in most countries, including Brazil. Smoking cessation is an important strategy for reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with tobacco-related diseases. An inverse relationship between nicotine use and body weight has been reported, in which body weight tends to be lower among smokers than among nonsmokers. Smoking abstinence

  6. Nilotinib-Associated Destructive Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhalia Bakerywala


    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently an important drug class in the treatment of leukemia. They represent targeted cancer therapy and have become the treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukemia. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes expressed in multiple tissues and are involved in several signaling pathways influencing cellular growth. Below we describe a patient who developed an unusual complication of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: thyrotoxicosis due to destructive thyroiditis. We review the pathophysiology of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunction particularly with regard to new second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  7. Creative destruction and export patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Kvedaras, Virmantas; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller


    varieties obsolete. For a given technology (variety) production costs decrease after an infant period due to learning. While all firms are assumed to be symmetric in a life-cycle perspective, at a given point in time firms of different ages differ in productivity, firm size, product quality, and export...... behavior. The model highlights a process of creative destruction, which allows firms to produce in a finite span of periods determined by the intensity of product and process innovations. The model predicts a wide range of export behavior of the individual firm during its life cycle depending...

  8. Nilotinib-Associated Destructive Thyroiditis (United States)

    Bakerywala, Suhalia; Schwarcz, Monica D.; Goldberg, Michael D.; Valiquette, Guy; Weiss, Irene A.


    Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently an important drug class in the treatment of leukemia. They represent targeted cancer therapy and have become the treatment of choice in chronic myeloid leukemia. Tyrosine kinases are enzymes expressed in multiple tissues and are involved in several signaling pathways influencing cellular growth. Below we describe a patient who developed an unusual complication of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy: thyrotoxicosis due to destructive thyroiditis. We review the pathophysiology of tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced thyroid dysfunction particularly with regard to new second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:26064704

  9. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence. (United States)

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos


    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  10. Seismic damage and destructive potential of seismic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Petrazzuoli


    Full Text Available This paper has been written within a research framework investigating the destructive potential of seismic events. The elastic response spectra seem insufficient to explain the behaviour of structures subject to large earthquakes in which they experience extensive plastic deformations. Recent works emphasise that there were many difficulties in the definition of a single pararneter linked to the destl-uctive potential of an earthquake. In this work a study on the effect of frequency content on structural damage has been carried out. The behaviour of two different elastoplastic oscillators has been analysed, considering several artificial earthquakes. The results obtained suggest a method for evaluating the destructive seismic potential of an earthquake through the response spectra ad the frequency content of the signal. and through the mechai~ical characteristics of the structures within the analysed area.

  11. The empty mother: women's fear of their destructive envy. (United States)

    Ellman, C S


    This paper explains the importance of understanding the little girl's envy of her mother and how the resolution of this envy (and her fear of other women's envy) is crucial to a woman's development. I postulate that envy is a universal part of female development (with more or less destructive effects on a woman's personality, depending on the libidinal/sexual components of her attachment to both parents). I hope to show that by interpreting a woman's fear of her destructive envy, one can free her not only to enjoy her own sexuality and to find appropriate ways to express her aggression, but also to be more creative. I believe that guilt about these envious feelings often leads to profound inhibitions and masochistic behavior. Two clinical examples illustrate how envy manifests itself in treatment with a woman analyst, and how the working through of intense envious feelings leads to a greater ability to enjoy one's own capacities without constant fear of retribution.

  12. The same, but different: Stochasticity in binary destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Richard J


    Observations of binaries in clusters tend to be of visual binaries with separations of 10s - 100s au. Such binaries are 'intermediates' and their destruction or survival depends on the exact details of their individual dynamical history. We investigate the stochasticity of the destruction of such binaries and the differences between the initial and processed populations using N-body simulations. We concentrate on Orion Nebula Cluster-like clusters, where the observed binary separation distribution ranges from 62 - 620 au. We find that, starting from the same initial binary population in statistically identical clusters, the number of intermediate binaries that are destroyed after 1 Myr can vary by a factor of >2, and that the resulting separation distributions can be statistically completely different in initially substructured clusters. We also find that the mass ratio distributions are altered (destroying more low mass ratio systems), but not as significantly as the binary fractions or separation distributi...

  13. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction...

  14. [Perspectives on body: embodiment and body image]. (United States)

    Chang, Shiow-Ru; Chao, Yu-Mei Yu


    "Body" is a basic concept of both the natural and human sciences. This extensive review of the literature explores the various philosophical approaches to the body, including empiricism, idealism, existentialism and phenomenology, as well as the relationship between body and mind. Embodiment and body image are the two main concepts of body addressed in this article. Merleau-Ponty's perspective on embodiment, an important new area of theory development, emphasizes that embodiment research must focus on life experiences, such as the study of body image. Using Schilder's framework of psychosocialology, this article provides a comprehensive understanding of the concept of body image and women's perspectives on the "body" in both Western culture and Eastern cultures. Body size and shape significantly influence the self-image of women. Body image is something that develops and changes throughout one's life span and is continually being constructed, destructed, and reconstructed. Personal body image has important psychological effects on the individual, especially women. This integrative review can make a significant contribution to knowledge in this area and, consequently, to related practice and research.

  15. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  16. Dust Destruction Rates and Lifetimes in the Magellanic Clouds (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia


    The nature, composition, abundance, and size distribution of dust in galaxies is determined by the rate at which it is created in the different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetime and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust in these galaxies. We find dust lifetimes of 22+/-13 Myr (30+/-17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 +/- 32 Myr (72 +/- 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass, and the fact that the dust-destroying isolated SNe in the MCs seem to be preferentially occurring in regions with higher than average dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios. We also calculate the supernova rate and the current star formation rate in the MCs, and use them to derive maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). We find that the injection rates are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs. This supports the conclusion that, unless the dust destruction rates have been considerably overestimated, most of the dust must be reconstituted from surviving grains in dense molecular clouds. More generally, we also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio and the ambient gas density and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gall, Christa [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Roman-Duval, Julia, E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.9 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) and 3.0 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.6 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  18. Non-destructive identification of twisted light. (United States)

    Li, Pengyun; Wang, Bo; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong


    The non-destructive identification of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to various applications in the optical information processing. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method to identify non-destructively the OAM by using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our schemes are applicable not only to the case with integer charges, but also to optical vortices with noninteger charges. Our Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the non-destructive identification of twisted light with integer or noninteger topological charges, which has potential applications in the OAM-based data transmission for optical communications.

  19. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir


    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case which is expected from perturbative weakly coupled plasma. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium.

  20. Explaining nascent entrepreneurship across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R. Thurik (Roy); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul)


    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  1. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  2. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)


    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship r

  3. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine (United States)

    ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  4. Indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos - Tsirigotis


    The research results indicate that, as compared with the group of heterosexual individuals, in the group of homosexuals there occurs a worsening in psychological functioning, which may be also manifested by an increased indirect self-destructiveness index. The increased intensity of indirect self-destructiveness in homosexual individuals may be considered a manifestation of worsened psychological functioning. The homosexual individuals look after their health similarly to heterosexuals.

  5. Nonconventional concrete hollow blocks evaluation by destructive and non-destructive testing


    RODRIGUES, M. S.; G.C.S. Ferreira; Shiroma,L.; A.L. Beraldo


    The aim of this study was to evaluate cementitious matrices properties by partial replacement of Portland cement by silica fume (SF) or by rice husk ash (RHA), and their application in nonbearing hollow blocks, tested by destructive and non-destructive methods. The following mixtures were produced: reference (100% of Portland cement) and Portland cement replacement (10% by mass) with SF or RHA. The non-destructive testing showed that the highest values of UPV were obtained for SF-based blocks...

  6. Destruction of a Magnetized Star (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    completely.Amplifying EncountersFor stars that survive their encounter with the black hole, Guillochon and McCourt find that the process of partial disruption and re-accretion can amplify the magnetic field of the star by up to a factor of 20. Repeated encounters of the star with the black hole could amplify the field even more.The authors suggest an interesting implication of this idea: a population of highly magnetized stars may have formed in our own galactic center, resulting from their encounters with the supermassive black hole Sgr A*.A turbulent magnetic field forms after a partial stellar disruption and re-accretion of the tidal tails. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]Effects in DestructionFor stars that are completely shredded and form a tidal stream after their encounter with the black hole, the authors find that the magnetic field geometry straightens within the stream of debris. There, the pressure of the magnetic field eventually dominates over the gas pressure and self-gravity.Guillochon and McCourt find that the fields new configuration isnt ideal for powering jets from the black hole but it is strong enough to influence how the stream interacts with itself and its surrounding environment, likely affecting what we can expect to see from these short-lived events.These simulations have clearly demonstrated the need to further explore the role of magnetic fields in the disruptions of stars by black holes.BonusCheck out the full (brief) video from one of the simulations by Guillochon and McCourt (be sure to watch it in high-res!). It reveals the evolution of a stars magnetic field configuration as the star is partially disrupted by the forces of a supermassive black hole and then re-accretes.CitationJames Guillochon and Michael McCourt 2017 ApJL 834 L19. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/834/2/L19

  7. Gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis


    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the sex (gender differentiation of indirect self-destructiveness intensity and its manifestations, as well as relationships between indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations (categories and the psychological dimensions of masculinity and femininity, also from the point of view of assessing occupational health and safety. Materials and Methods: A population of 558 individuals (399 females and 159 males aged 19–25 (mean age: 22.6 was studied. The Polish version of the “Chronic Self-Destructiveness Scale” (CS-DS by Kelley adapted by Suchańska was used in order to examine indirect self-destructiveness and its manifestations. Gender testing applied the Polish version of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI by Bem in its adaptation by Kuczyńska. Results: Males’ scores are signifi cantly higher than those of females for the majority of CS-DS scales/indices: Indirect Self-Destructiveness (general index, Poor Health Maintenance (A2, Lack of Planfulness (A4, and Helplessness, Passiveness (A5. Moreover, there are statistically signifi cant correlations between CS-DS scales and the masculinity dimension (positive as well as the femininity dimension (negative. Conclusions: Masculinity is a factor that may predispose towards indirectly self-destructive behaviors, while femininity is a factor protecting against those. The study results may prove useful in preventing indirectly and directly self-destructive behaviors as well as in therapy work with the individuals who display such tendencies or have made attempts on their own lives, in particular taking into account their being of a specifi c sex/gender and in the context of work (especially in diffi cult or dangerous conditions or both.

  8. Does market competition explain fairness? (United States)

    Descioli, Peter


    The target article by Baumard et al. uses their previous model of bargaining with outside options to explain fairness and other features of human sociality. This theory implies that fairness judgments are determined by supply and demand but humans often perceive prices (divisions of surplus) in competitive markets to be unfair.

  9. Data and Summaries for Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-Fired Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Table 1 summarizes and explanis the Operating Conditions of the SCR Reactor used in the Benzene-Destruction. Table 2 summarizes and explains the Experimental Design...

  10. A study with high resolution computed tomography of bone destruction in cholesteatoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shigeru; Yamaso, Tatsuya; Higo, Ryusaburo (Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)); Senba, Tetsuo; Iinuma, Yoshitaka


    The modes and incidences of bone destruction in the middle ear cholesteatoma were evaluated by high resolution computed tomography, comparing with chronic otitis media with central perforation (COM) as control. The head of the malleus, the body and long process of the incus were more markedly destroyed in cholesteatoma than in COM with statistical significance. With the further extension of cholesteatoma into the antrum, the tegmen of the aditus ad antrum, the lateral semicircular canal, the handle of the malleus and the Korner's septum were involved in bone destruction. (author).

  11. Entropic destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium


    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Ma, Chong; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang


    Using the AdS/CFT duality, we study the destruction of a rotating heavy quarkonium due to the entropice force in $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM theory and a confining YM theory. It is shown that in both theories increasing the angular velocity leads to decreasing the entropic force. This result implies that the rotating quarkonium dissociates harder than the static case.

  12. Creative Destruction in Libraries: Designing our Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caro Pinto


    Full Text Available In Brief: Joseph Schumpeter defines creative destruction as a “process of industrial mutation that incessantly revolutionizes the economic structure from within, incessantly destroying the old one, incessantly creating a new one.” As libraries struggle with how to position themselves to thrive in the digital age, how can we balance the traditional elements of librarianship like […

  13. Large destructive facial hemangioma in PHACE syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagdeve N


    Full Text Available We report an infant who presented with large facial hemangioma associated with Dandy-Walker cyst and atrial septal defect. This case is peculiar in that the large facial hemangioma in posterior fossa malformations, hemangiomas, arterial anomalies, coarctation of aorta and other cardiac defects (PHACE syndrome resulted in massive tissue destruction.

  14. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil (United States)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.


    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  15. Explaining errors in children's questions. (United States)

    Rowland, Caroline F


    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that, as predicted by some generativist theories [e.g. Santelmann, L., Berk, S., Austin, J., Somashekar, S. & Lust. B. (2002). Continuity and development in the acquisition of inversion in yes/no questions: dissociating movement and inflection, Journal of Child Language, 29, 813-842], questions with auxiliary DO attracted higher error rates than those with modal auxiliaries. However, in wh-questions, questions with modals and DO attracted equally high error rates, and these findings could not be explained in terms of problems forming questions with why or negated auxiliaries. It was concluded that the data might be better explained in terms of a constructivist account that suggests that entrenched item-based constructions may be protected from error in children's speech, and that errors occur when children resort to other operations to produce questions [e.g. Dabrowska, E. (2000). From formula to schema: the acquisition of English questions. Cognitive Liguistics, 11, 83-102; Rowland, C. F. & Pine, J. M. (2000). Subject-auxiliary inversion errors and wh-question acquisition: What children do know? Journal of Child Language, 27, 157-181; Tomasello, M. (2003). Constructing a language: A usage-based theory of language acquisition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. However, further work on constructivist theory development is required to allow researchers to make predictions about the nature of these operations.

  16. Explaining the Evolution of Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Hussain, Azhar; Jones, Edward Samuel


    We provide a comprehensive approach for analyzing the evolution of poverty using Mozambique as a case study. Bringing together data from disparate sources, we develop a novel “back-casting” framework that links a dynamic computable general equilibrium model to a micro-simulation poverty module....... This framework provides a new approach to explaining and decomposing the evolution of poverty, as well as to examining rigorously the coherence between poverty, economic growth, and inequality outcomes. Finally, various simple but useful and rarely-applied approaches to considering regional changes in poverty...

  17. Explaining immigrants’ moves into homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    , employment and family situation, and actual changes, but the importance of these factors differ from Danes. Different immigrant groups have a somewhat lower propensity to move into homeownership than Danes, which only to some extent can be explained by differences in income, education and employment. Living...... in social housing and in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods reduces the probability of moving into homeownership. But there are still some unexplained reasons for lower homeownership rate among immigrants. A probable hypothesis is that immigrants are more uncertain about their future employment and income. Some...

  18. Taphonomy of rhodoliths as determined by constructional and destructional processes (United States)

    Nitsch, Florian; Nebelsick, James; Bassi, Davide


    Rhodoliths made up primarily of self encrusting coralline algae are important contributors to Cenozoic carbonates and can be used as ecological indicators following taxonomic make up, encrustation patterns and growth form morphologies. Relatively few studies have been con-ducted on the taphonomy of rhodoliths with respect to their preservation potentials and how this affects our knowledge of carbonate production. In this study an actualistic approach is used assessing the production and destruction of rhodoliths derived from the Island of Giglio (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy). These rhodoliths are studied with regard to shape, growth-forms and taxonomy of the constructing fauna, presence and degree of porosity and types of void for-mation. Techniques used include sectioning and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) enabling the recognition of different void types on different scales as well as their distribu-tions. The rhodoliths are spheroidal to sub-spheroidal in shape and reach sizes up to to 13 cm in length. They are dominated by coralline red algae though the skeletons of other components especially bryozoans and serpulid worm tubes contribute to the nodules. Porosity values up to 41 % in volume were measured consisting of three different types of voids: Primary voids are represented by single cells of the algae; constructional voids are caused by amalgamated protuberances of coralline algae thalli; destructional voids are produced by dissolution of nucleus as well as potential soft bodied animals contributing to the rhodoliths and by a wide range of bioerosion types including Trypanites and Gastrochaenolites ichnotaxa.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Strnková


    Full Text Available The influence of cracks on the dynamical frequency response of eggshells was studied. The non-destructive impact tests of the intact and cracked eggs were performed. Record of impact force time history was enabled by experimental device. Response of eggshell to the impact was described by the surface displacement of the eggshell. This response was measured by the laser interferometry. The force and response were also expressed in the frequency domain using of the fast Fourier transform. Both time and frequency response were affected by the presence of cracks. It was shown that the influence of cracks on the eggshell response was more effectively described in the frequency domain. The frequency response was relatively very sensitive to the position and orientation of cracks. The frequency response function was characterized by many peaks. Five excitation resonant frequency characteristic of signals were extracted based on the difference of frequency domain response signals. Distinction between intact and cracked eggs was enabled by these parameters. Even if some main problems were solved some of them remained unsolved. One of them was the effect of the impacting body r shape. This problem could be effectively solved namely using of numerical methods. In order to describe the response of eggshell response to the non-destructive impact using of the numerical simulation exact description of eggshell shape was performed. This numerical simulation will be subject of forthcoming paper.

  20. Perceived Displacement explains Wolfpack Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš eŠimkovic


    Full Text Available We investigate the influence of perceived displacement of moving agent-like stimuli on the performance in dynamic interactive tasks. In order to reliably measure perceived displacement we utilize multiple tasks with different task demands. The perceived center of an agent’s body is displaced in the direction in which the agent is facing and this perceived displacement is larger than the theoretical position of the center of mass would predict. Furthermore, the displacement in the explicit judgment is dissociated from the displacement obtained by the implicit measures. By manipulating the location of the pivot point, we show that it is not necessary to postulate orientation as an additional cue utilized by perception, as has been suggested by earlier studies. These studies showed that the agent’s orientation influences the detection of chasing motion and the detection-related performance in interactive tasks. This influence has been labeled wolfpack effect. In one of the demonstrations of the wolfpack effect participants control a green circle on a display with a computer mouse. It has been shown that participants avoid display areas withagents pointing towards the green circle. Participants do so in favor of areas where the agents point in the direction perpendicular to the circle. We show that this avoidance behavior arises because the agent’s pivot point selected by the earlier studies is different from where people locate the center of agent’s body. As a consequence, the nominal rotation confounds rotation and translation. We show that the avoidance behavior disappears once the pivot point is set to the center of agent’s body.

  1. Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox. (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander


    According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced.

  2. Chelomei`s pendulum explained

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Tcherniak, D. M.


    Chelomei´s pendulum has a sliding disc on its rod, and is mounted on a support that vibrates vertically with small amplitude and high frequency. In 1982, V. N. Chelomei demonstrated experimentally that a configuration can be stable where the pendulum points against gravity, and the disc ´floats......´ on the rod. This phenomenon has never been satisfactorily explained. The present work considers why and where the disc floats. It suggests that the phenomenon is caused by resonant flexural rod vibrations, which are excited through small symmetry-breaking imperfections, such as a small deviation from...... perfectly vertical excitation. This hypothesis is supported by laboratory experiments, and by perturbation analysis and numerical analysis of a new mathematical three-degree-of-freedom model of the system. Simple analytical expressions for the prediction of stable states of the system are set up, providing...

  3. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert


    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... of competition regulation is heaving into sight. It sets out to explain this from the vantage point of a critical political economy perspective, which identifies the circumstances under which a crisis can result in a regulatory paradigm shift. Contrasting the current situation with the shift in EC/EU competition...... capitalism; the social power configuration underpinning the neoliberal order remains unaltered; no clear counter-project has surfaced; the European Commission has been (and remains) in a position to oppose radical changes; and finally, there are no signs of a wider paradigm shift in the EU's regulatory...

  4. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains? (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E


    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  5. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)


    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  6. Creativity and destructiveness in art and psychoanalysis


    Marsden, P. M.


    This paper focuses on the creativity of the patient in analysis and compares it to that of the artist. Taking artists’ descriptions of their practices as its starting point, the paper suggests that the relationship between patient and analyst parallels that between artist and medium. Psychoanalysis and artistic process can both be seen in terms of a complex interplay between oneness and separateness in which aggression and destructiveness play an essential part. The paper includes a discussio...

  7. Tidal Downsizing model - IV. Destructive feedback in planets (United States)

    Nayakshin, Sergei


    The role of negative feedback from a massive solid core on its massive gas envelope in the Tidal Downsizing scenario of planet formation is investigated via one-dimensional planet evolution models followed by population synthesis calculations. It is shown that cores more massive than ˜10 M⊕ release enough energy to reverse contraction of their parent gas envelopes, culminating in their destruction. This process may help to explain why observed gas giant planets are so rare, why massive cores are so ubiquitous, and why there is a sharp rollover in the core mass function above ˜20 M⊕. Additionally, the short time-scales with which these massive cores are assembled in TD may help explain formation route of Uranus, Neptune and the suspected HL Tau planets. Given the negative role of cores in assembly of gas giants in the model, an antimony is found between massive cores and gas giants: cores in survived gas giant planets are on average less massive than cores free of massive envelopes. In rare circumstances when core feedback self-regulates, extremely metal-rich gas giants, such as CoRoT-20b, a gas giant made of heavy elements by up to ˜50 per cent, can be made.

  8. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Schottky Diodes (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.


    This presentation contains test results for destructive failures in DC-DC converters. We have shown that Schottky diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects. Future work will be completed to identify parameter that determines diode susceptibility.

  9. Pulsed Excitation in Eddy Current Non-Destructive Testing of Conductive Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Smetana


    Full Text Available The paper deals with eddy current non-destructive testing of conductive materials. Basic principle of the method is explained. Two types of eddy current excitation, the harmonic one and the pulsed one, are discussed. The characteristics, advantages as well as disadvantages of the two excitation methods are compared. It is explained that the pulsed excitation gives more complex information about a tested object. Experimental results of the pulsed eddy current testing of a defect in an Aluminium plate are presented

  10. Non-destructive Assessment of Relief Marking Parameters of Heat Shrinkable Installation Parts for Aviation Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratov Aleksandr P.


    Full Text Available The article explains a new method of relief marking of heat-shrinkable tubing and sleeves made of polymer materials with “shape memory effect.” Method of instrument evaluation of relief marking stereometry of installation parts for aviation equipment, made of polyvinyl chloride, polyethyleneterephthalate and polystyrene was developed and the results were explained. Parameters of pin-point relief marking and compliance of point forms to the Braille font standard were determined with the use of the non-destructive method based on the color of interference pattern with precision of 0.02 mm.

  11. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism (United States)

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga


    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  12. About the Results of the Destruction of the Molecules of Liquid Hydrocarbons in the Field of Acoustic Cavitation



    Analysis was conducted of fractional composition of hydrocarbon fuel. It is found that the excitation of cavitation in the fuel leads to a change of its fractional composition. This result can be explained by the destruction of liquid hydrocarbon molecules under high intensity of the unsteady pressure field

  13. Body Image (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Body Image Developing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to ... on for tips to have a healthy body image. Topics About body image When you look in ...

  14. Mathematic modelling of the process of thermal destruction of oil pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamed, V.G.; Reverdatto, V.V.


    By means of mathematic modelling, the dynamics of thermal destruction of the oil pool are investigated in the vicinity of a thick bedded intrusive body of basalt magma. Heat conductivity of oil-bearing rocks was estimated as effective with account for liquid convection in porous medium. Calculated are the maximum sizes of exocontact area, where contact metamorphism of porous rocks brought about destructive transformations of oil. The problem is solved in four variants, with various endothermal heat effects of chemical reactions in oil and different ways of input of heat conductivity. For a basalt sill of some 100-meter thickness, the width of the zone of contact oil transformation must not exceed 80 meters. The results obtained can be applied in cases with intrusive bodies of any thickness.

  15. Investigating the outcomes of SPH models of catastrophic destruction (United States)

    Dell'Oro, A.; Cellino, A.; Paolicchi, P.; Tanga, P.

    Smooth particle hydro-dynamics (SPH) codes have proved able to simulate satisfactorily the shattering processes in high-energy collisions among asteroids, reproducing the major observational evidences. In particular, SPH models reproduce fairly well the size distributions of the members of some asteroid families. A considerable difference between SPH models and Semi-Empirical Models (SEM) is that in the former the asteroids are ground up into very small fragments, the size of which is limited by the resolution of the code. Moreover, the subsequent ballistic dynamical evolution, driven by their mutual gravitational attraction, would result in a significant re-accumulation into many bodies. On the contrary, ejection velocity fields predicted by SEM allow the reaccumulation into very few bodies, sometimes only the largest remnant. This difference is a critical issue for the interpretation of the observational data in order to understand the physics of the catastrophic destruction process, and the physical characteristics of the asteroids themselves. We present a new analysis of some SPH velocity fields aiming to shed light on the intrinsic differences between SPH models and SEMs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL


    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  17. Destruction and Redemption in Seize the Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the novella Seize the Day Saul Bellow compacts the significance of the whole life of a person into one day ’s experi-ence. In just one day the protagonist experiences despair and obtains redemption. The force of destruction causing one to the de-spair situation interweaves with that of redemption producing hope. With effort one can recognize his or her true self and survive the absurd and crazy world and lead a new spiritual life without burdens of secular confusions.

  18. [Negative destructive behavior in young retarded children]. (United States)

    Dosen, A


    Twenty percent of a population of mentally retarded children, who underwent clinical observation because of behavior problems, demonstrated serious aggressive, destructive, negativistic and hyperactive behavior patterns. According to the parents this type of behavior developed between two and four years of age. It remains unclear whether this behavior is caused by a differential rate of maturation of certain brain structures or by unfavorable emotional and environmental variables. A psychotherapeutic approach to the treatment of these children led to positive results. It is supposed that if left untreated, a symptom shift can occur towards neurotic, depressive or aggressive behavior when the child gets older.

  19. The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    ‘A welcome contribution to scholarly economic and public policy debates, The Creation and Destruction of Social Capital is written for advanced students yet offers insights critical to better understanding micro and macro economics alike.' - Willis M. Buhle, The Midwest Book Review ‘The Svendsens...... are urging all social scientists to think more as social scientists rather than just as anthropologists, economists, historians, political scientists, or sociologists. Their effort to broaden the way social scientists think about social organization is an important step, especially for those of us interested...

  20. Destruction of illegal things and devices to contrast the counterfeiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Mario Antinucci


    Full Text Available The movement of goods illegal and counterfeit in the circuit of the economy and the labor market, has put in place of criminal policy internal supranational and a primary need of confiscation and destruction in relation to safety issues transnational linked to all forms of counterfeiting, piracy agro-food to fraud in industrial brands of high fashion et similia: from here the major node of the procedure of destruction of goods illegal and counterfeit subject to seizure and confiscation and respect of guarantees communities of the criminal process, especially in the light of the amendment of art. 260, co. 3 bis and ter, c.p.p. with the d.l. 23-5-2008, n. 92 and subsequent amendments (so-called Safety Package. In line with the criminal policy of ''security'', in l. 23-7-2009, n. 99, the so-called Decree Development, between the ''darrangements for the development and the internationalization of enterprises, as well as in the field of energy'' and  wanted to redesign, with analytical provisions of particular edge, the perimeter of the criminal-law protection ''Dei property rights industrial'' through the introduction of four new hypothesis of offenses of counterfeiting (artt. 473, 474, 474 b and c, 517 b and c, c.p. and related hypothesis of obligatory confiscation (art. 474 bis and 517 ter c.p., with implications concerning the regime differentiated penitentiary (art. 4 bis, co. 1 ter, ord. penit. in relation to the cases of belonging to criminal association aimed to commit new offenses referred to in articles 473-474 c.p. (arts. 416 bis, 6º Co., c.p. and 51, co. 3 bis, c.p.p., as well as the regulatory body containing the so-called ''responsability of administrative entities'', within the meaning of art. 19, d.lg. 8-6-2001, n. 231.

  1. Explaining the Birth of the Martian Moons (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    A new study examines the possibility that Marss two moons formed after a large body slammed into Mars, creating a disk of debris. This scenario might be the key to reconciling the moons orbital properties with their compositions.Conflicting EvidenceThe different orbital (left) and spectral (right) characteristics of the Martian moons in the three different formation scenarios. Click for a better look! Phobos and Deimoss orbital characteristics are best matched by formation around Mars (b and c), and their physical characteristics are best matched by formation in the outer region of an impact-generated accretion disk (rightmost panel of c). [Ronnet et al. 2016]How were Marss two moons, Phobos and Deimos, formed? There are three standing theories:Two already-formed, small bodies from the outer main asteroid belt were captured by Mars, intact.The bodies formed simultaneously with Mars, by accretion from the same materials.A large impact on Mars created an accretion disk of material from which the two bodies formed.Our observations of the Martian moons, unfortunately, provide conflicting evidence about which of these scenarios is correct. The physical properties of the moons low albedos, low densities are consistent with those of asteroids in our solar system, and are not consistent with Marss properties, suggesting that the co-accretion scenario is unlikely. On the other hand, the moons orbital properties low inclination, low eccentricity, prograde orbits are consistent with bodies that formed around Mars rather than being captured.In a recent study,a team of scientists led by Thomas Ronnet and Pierre Vernazza (Aix-Marseille University, Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) has attempted to reconcile these conflictingobservations by focusing on the third option.Moons After a Large ImpactIn the thirdscenario, an impactor of perhaps a few percent of Marss mass smashed into Mars, forming a debris disk of hot material that encircled Mars. Perturbations in the disk then

  2. Galaxy Simulation with Dust Formation and Destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Shohei; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Todoroki, Keita; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Nagamine, Kentaro


    We perform smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of an isolated galaxy with a new treatment for dust formation and destruction. To this aim, we treat dust and metal production self-consistently with star formation and supernova feedback. For dust, we consider a simplified model of grain size distribution by representing the entire range of grain sizes with large and small grains. We include dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by supernova (SN) shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation, and grain disruption by shattering. We find that the assumption of fixed dust-to-metal mass ratio becomes no longer valid when the galaxy is older than 0.2 Gyr, at which point the grain growth by accretion starts to contribute to the nonlinear rise of dust-to-gas ratio. As expected in our previous one-zone model, shattering triggers grain growth by accretion since it increases the total surface area of grains. Coagulation becomes significant when the galaxy age is greater than $\\sim$ 1 Gyr: a...

  3. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (United States)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim


    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  4. Pyogenic Granuloma with Severe Mandibular Bone Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jeong Won; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Pyogenic granuloma is a overzealous proliferation of a vascular type connective tissue as a result of some minor trauma and is a well circumscribed elevated, pedunculated or sessile benign inflammatory lesion of skin and mucous membrane. The clinical features of pyogenic granuloma are indicative but not specific and nearly all cases of pyogenic granulomas are superficial in nature, and there is little if any mention in the literature of these lesions producing alveolar bone even jaw bone loss. This case is somewhat unique in that the lesion was an obvious histologic pyogenic granuloma; however, it appeared to invade the mandibular bone which resulted in the loss of the adjacent teeth. A 12-year-old boy came to Seoul National University Dental Hospital with chief complaints of left facial swelling. The features obtained were as follows ; Plain radiograms showed a large well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion on left mandibular ramus area, which made severe expansion of lingual cortex and displacement of lower left 3rd molar tooth germ. Computed tomograms showed large soft tissue mass involving left masticator space with destruction of left mandibular ramus. Histologically, sections revealed loose edematous stroma with intense infiltration of inflammatory cells and proliferation of vascular channels. Also, there were focal areas of extensive capillary proliferation, bone destruction and peripheral new bone formation.

  5. Non-destructive testing; Examenes no destructivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calva, Mauricio; Loske, Achim [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The application of non-destructive testing (NDT) in several technical and industrial fields is pointed out, standing out its utilization in the detection of future failures without affecting the examined element. Likewise, the different types of NDTs and their processes, such as x-rays, ultrasoud, magnetic particles, induced currents, penetrating fluids, and optical means, are described. The Non-Destructive Tests Laboratory of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), plans to create new and more reliable systems independent from the operator`s capacity, to contribute to fulfill the inspection and quality control needs of the generating Mexican power plants. [Espanol] Se senala la aplicacion de los examenes no destructivos (END) a diversos campos tecnicos e industriales, destacando su utilizacion en la deteccion de futuras fallas sin afectar el elemento examinado. Asimismo, se describen los diferentes tipos de END y sus procesos, tales como radiografia, ultrasonido, particulas magneticas, corrientes inducidas, liquidos penetrantes y metodos opticos. El Laboratorio de Pruebas no Destructivas, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), planea crear sistemas novedosos mas confiables, que no dependan de la capacidad del operador, para contribuir a satisfacer las necesidades de inspeccion y control de calidad que se presentan en las plantas generadoras de energia mexicanas.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

  7. [Disorders of body schema]. (United States)

    Tsuruya, Natsuko; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka


    A variety of disorders have been associated with the concept of body schema. However, this concept has been interpreted in many ways, and there is no consensus on the nature and cognitive mechanisms of body schema. Historically, two major issues have been discussed. One was the body-specificity of the body schema, and the other was the relationship between input and output modality. Autotopagnosia, an inability to localize and orient different parts of the body, has been a focus of attention because it is thought to provide insight into the function of body schema. Although there have not been many cases of pure autotopagnosia, a double dissociation indicating the independence of body-specific system. There are a few working hypotheses for cognitive models of body schema, which can explain the different types of autotopagnosia. One model includes multiple representation subsystems for body processing, while another assumes the use of intrinsic and extrinsic egocentric coordinates to maintain on-line processing for body state. The consistency of these accounts should be examined in light of extensive neuroimaging and psychological data, to construct a plausible model for body schema.

  8. Quantum physics: Destruction of discrete charge (United States)

    Nazarov, Yuli V.


    Electric charge is quantized in units of the electron's charge. An experiment explores the suppression of charge quantization caused by quantum fluctuations and supports a long-standing theory that explains this behaviour. See Letter p.58

  9. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis (United States)

    Kessel, Kurt


    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  10. Avoiding shame: young LGBT people, homophobia and self-destructive behaviours. (United States)

    McDermott, Elizabeth; Roen, Katrina; Scourfield, Jonathan


    This paper reports on findings from qualitative research conducted in the UK that sought to explore the connections between sexual identities and self-destructive behaviours in young people. International evidence demonstrates that there are elevated rates of suicide and alcohol abuse amongst lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth. Rarely included in this body of research are investigations into young LGBT people's views and experiences of self-destructive behaviours. Data from interviews and focus groups with young LGBT participants suggest a strong link between homophobia and self-destructive behaviours. Utilising a discourse analytic approach, we argue that homophobia works to punish at a deep individual level and requires young LGBT people to manage being positioned, because of their sexual desire or gendered ways of being, as abnormal, dirty and disgusting. At the centre of the complex and multiple ways in which young LGBT people negotiate homophobia are 'modalities of shame-avoidance' such as: the routinization and minimizing of homophobia; maintaining individual 'adult' responsibility; and constructing 'proud' identities. The paper argues that these strategies of shame-avoidance suggest young LGBT people manage homophobia individually, without expectation of support and, as such, may make them vulnerable to self-destructive behaviours.

  11. Dust Destruction Rates and Lifetimes in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Temim, Tea; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Boyer, Martha L; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia


    The nature, composition, abundance, and size distribution of dust in galaxies is determined by the rate at which it is created in the different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetime and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust in these galaxies. We find dust lifetimes of 22 +- 13 Myr (30 +- 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 +- 32 Myr (72 +- 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass, and the fact that the dust-destroying isolated SNe in the MCs seem to be preferentially occurring in regions with higher than average dust-to...

  12. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia (United States)

    ... Treatment Options Join the fight against LBD! Donate Symptoms Lewy body dementia symptoms and diagnostic criteria Every person with LBD is ... or Dementia plus one or more suggestive features. Symptoms Explained In this section we'll discuss each ...

  13. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Diodes (United States)

    Casey, Megan C.; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony M.; LaBel, Kenneth A.


    In this summary, we have shown that diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects, and that these failures occur along the guard ring. By determining the last passing voltages, a safe operating area can be derived. By derating off of those values, rather than by the rated voltage, like what is currently done with power MOSFETs, we can work to ensure the safety of future missions. However, there are still open questions about these failures. Are they limited to a single manufacturer, a small number, or all of them? Is there a threshold rated voltage that must be exceeded to see these failures? With future work, we hope to answer these questions. In the full paper, laser results will also be presented to verify that failures only occur along the guard ring.

  14. Minimally-destructive Partial Phase Contrast Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Wigley, Paul; Hardman, Kyle; Sooriyabandara, Mahasen; Perumbil, Manju; Close, John; Robins, Nicholas; Kuhn, Carlos


    This paper presents a minimally-destructive imaging technique based on a combination of phase contrast and Faraday rotation imaging used to continuously observe a condensate of 85 Rb. We demonstrate that the technique is capable of imaging a small sample of only 10 4 atoms up to 100 times with negligible decreases in atom number and no observable heating. At approximately 1GHz detuning, the SNR remains at approximately 7 for all 100 images, with a 22ms TOF absorption image confirming the survival of the condensate. The splitting of the magnetic sublevels of this species at such fields show non-trivial selection rules. We present experimental data outlining particular allowed transitions in this regime.

  15. Fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) bridge--a minimally destructive approach. (United States)

    Van Rensburg, J J Jansen


    Replacing missing teeth is an integral part of the clinical services of the dental practitioner. The fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) bridge is a relatively new method for replacing missing teeth. This article will explain and discuss this alternative treatment option. Practical instructions on how to construct a FRC bridge will be given, by means of a clinical case. Different technique options will be illustrated to provide the reader with a good understanding of the most practical way to use the FRC strips. The fibre-reinforced composite provides a non-destructive, aesthetically pleasing and cost-effective way to restore missing teeth. Clinical Relevance: Minimally invasive options should always be considered and destruction of healthy enamel and dentine during the preparation phase of a replacement treatment should be avoided as much as possible.

  16. Non-destructive methods to estimate physical aging of plywood


    Bobadilla Maldonado, Ignacio; Santirso, María Cristina; Herrero Giner, Daniel; Esteban Herrero, Miguel; Iñiguez Gonzalez, Guillermo


    This paper studies the relationship between aging, physical changes and the results of non-destructive testing of plywood. 176 pieces of plywood were tested to analyze their actual and estimated density using non-destructive methods (screw withdrawal force and ultrasound wave velocity) during a laboratory aging test. From the results of statistical analysis it can be concluded that there is a strong relationship between the non-destructive measurements carried out, and the decline in the phys...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The wear and destruction appearances of hobs are researched. The reasons of the wear and destruction of hobare analyzed. And the influence of the change of the hobbing force and the hobbing temperature on the wear and destruc-tion of hob in gear hobbing is also analyzed. In gear hobbing, the main wear mechanisms are adhesion and ploughingwhen cutting the 20CrMnTi gear using W 18Cr4V high-speed steel hob.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.


    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.


    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  20. Modelling Galaxy Merger Timescales and Tidal Destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal


    We present a model for the dynamical evolution of subhaloes based on an approach combining numerical and analytical methods. Our method is based on tracking subhaloes in an N-body simulation up to the last point that it can be resolved, and applying an analytic prescription for its merger timescale that takes dynamical friction and tidal disruption into account. When applied to cosmological N-body simulations with mass resolutions that differ by two orders of magnitude, the technique produces halo occupation distributions that agree to within 3%.

  1. Mobile non-destructive assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colarusso, A.P.; Audas, J.H.; Bieri, J.M.; Herrera, G.C.; Hastings, R.D.; Horton, W.S.; Kuckertz, T.H.; Kunz, W.E.; Medvick, P.A.; Vogel, P.A.


    A mobile system for non-destructive assay (NDA), developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, provides accurate and sensitive measurements for transuranic (TRU) isotopes contained in 208-iota drums of miscellaneous nuclear wastes. The NDA unit consists of four major subsystems: an assay chamber, counting and digital electronics, data acquisition, and a neutron generator. It performs both active and passive neutron waste measurements. The former determines the amount of fissile isotopes at a sensitivity level of 1 mg plutonium. The latter determines spontaneous fission and ..cap alpha..,n) isotopes at a comparable level. A complete assay consists of sequential active and passive measurements. The assay measurement and other supporting data are incorporated in a commercial spreadsheet program (Lotus 1,2,3) for further analysis, which includes various matrix corrections and a determination of whether or not the drum exceeds the 100-nCi/g threshold for TRU wastes. Field tests have been performed on three separate occasions, accomplishing more than 1800 waste drum assays. These waste drum assays are discussed, especially those comparing passive and active neutron measurements with independent segmented gamma scan assays. Results obtained with a set of 15 drums containing plutonium prepared from standards and actual hot waste matrices are also reviewed.

  2. Detection of weapons of mass destruction (United States)

    Bjorkholm, Paul J.


    High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

  3. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deffrennes, M. [EC, DG XVII, Nuclear Energy, Brussels (Belgium); Engl, G. [Siemens AG Energieerzeugung KWU, Erlangen (Germany); Estorff, U. von [EC, JRC/IAM, Petten (Netherlands)


    ENDEF, an initiative of the European Commission, DG XVII (Energy) was well supported by the European industrial institutions working in assistance with nuclear industrial organisations in the CEEC`s (Central and Eastern European Countries) and NIS`s (New Independent States). This Forum provides effectively a platform for open discussion between representatives of industrial actors active in the NDE (Non Destructive Examination)/ISI (In Service Inspection) field with the purpose to establish a co-operation pattern between qualified representatives of the EU (European Union) industry to offer a better co-ordinated and well defined assistance to the CEEC`s and NIS in the field of NDE/ISI, and to lay the ground for further industrial co-operation. ENDEF developed a strategy to follow for the establishment of co-operation projects. This strategy is now used to understand the extent of past or present assistance projects and to identify the areas where more co-operation is needed. ENDEF encourages the creation in the NIS`s and CEEC`s of similar forums in order to increase the co-operation and co-ordination. ENDEF is also working in perfect agreement with the European Network ENIQ, piloted by the European plant operators. This identity of views lead to the leadership by the ENDEF co-ordinator of the ENIQ Task 3 involving Applications of the European Methodology for ISI qualification in the CEEC`s and NIS`s and presently fully integrated in ENDEF. (orig.)

  4. The preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid (United States)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.; Prishchepenko, A. B.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.


    One means of countering a hazardous asteroid is discussed: destruction of the object using a nuclear charge. Explosion of such an asteroid shortly before its predicted collision would have catastrophic consequences, with numerous highly radioactive fragments falling onto the Earth. The possibility of exploding the asteroid several years before its impact is also considered. Such an approach is made feasible because the vast majority of hazardous objects pass by the Earth several times before colliding with it. Computations show that, in the 10 years following the explosion, only a negligible number of fragments fall onto the Earth, whose radioactivity has substantially reduced during this time. In most cases, none of these fragments collides with the Earth. Thus, this proposed method for eliminating a threat from space is reasonable in at least two cases: when it is not possible to undergo a soft removal of the object from the collisional path, and to destroy objects that are continually returning to near-Earth space and require multiple removals from hazardous orbits.

  5. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. (United States)

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M


    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  6. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under...

  7. 19 CFR 191.25 - Destruction under Customs supervision. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.25 Section 191.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Manufacturing Drawback § 191.25 Destruction under...

  8. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer. (United States)


    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  9. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats. (United States)


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and...

  10. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  11. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off...

  12. Decoding the Protein Destruction Code: A Panoramic View. (United States)

    Pilla, Esther; Bertolotti, Anne


    Proteasome degradation is essential, but the intrinsic features of a protein that signals its destruction remain incompletely understood. In this issue of Molecular Cell, Geffen et al. (2016) report an unbiased and proteome-wide method that provided insights into the protein destruction signals and pathways.

  13. Destructive Leadership: The Hatfield and McCoy Feud (United States)

    Sparks, George; Wolf, Patricia; Zurick, Andryce M.


    This paper explores the phenomenon of destructive leadership using the historical case study of the feud between the Hatfields and McCoys. The characteristics of destructive leadership as well as the consequences of this leadership style are reviewed, examined and analyzed. Utilizing a case from history to shine light on a contemporary problem,…

  14. [Trypsin inhibitors in soy bean-based food: critical review of thermal destruction kinetics, and analytical methods]. (United States)

    Cuevas, R; Cheryan, M


    The possible kinetic mechanisms for thermal destruction of trypsin inhibitors (TI) are analyzed in this work, based on literature data and on the authors'data. The authors suggest that first order kinetics describes the destruction mechanism. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that temperature effects on the reaction rate constant for thermal destruction of TI can be quantified in terms of Arrhenius' equation. The kinetic data are used for illustrating thermal process optimization, maximizing microorganisms and TI destruction, and minimizing the destruction of a nutrient. The analytical methods for TI activity determination are discussed, with special emphasis on the AACC Official Method. The authors show that the original method for calculating TI activity is neither correct nor appropriate. The same can be said about several recent modifications. In order to solve this situation, the authors developed a mechanistic model, to explain the reactions occurring in the reaction mixture, when analyzing TI activity. Furthermore, it is demonstrated in this paper that the model solves the uncertainties and calculation problems found in the AACC Official Method and in its modifications. Lastly, some practical suggestions for the application of the new calculation method are proposed.

  15. [Mobbing as the syndrome of destructive professiogenesis]. (United States)

    Sidorov, P I


    Mobbing has entered reference books as the syndrome including harassment and insult of employees in the workplaces for the purpose of constraint for dismissal. In the framework of the synergetic methodology, fractal dynamics of mobbing sociogenesis, psychogenesis and somatogenesis have been separated. Approaches to early diagnostics and prevention in the framework of the strategies of adaptive professiogenesis formation have been explained. A system approach to development of preventive-correctional and treatment-rehabilitation medicopsychosocial programs has been proposed.

  16. Explaining the Allocation of Regional Structural Funds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas


    What regional factors can explain the heterogeneity in Structural Funds distribution to European Union regions? Past studies have shown that aside from the level of economic development and rates of unemployment, other political, and economic factors systematically explain why certain European...

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.560 - What is a public body? (United States)


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is a public body... PROPERTY Donations to Public Bodies in Lieu of Abandonment/Destruction § 102-37.560 What is a public body? A public body is any department, agency, special purpose district, or other instrumentality of...

  18. Assurance of the Maximum Destruction in Battlefield using Cost-Effective Approximation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariha Tasmin Jaigirdar


    Full Text Available Military Applications of Wireless Sensor Network in domains of maximizing security and gaining maximum benefits while attacking the opponent is a challenging and prominent area of research now-a-days. A commander’s goal in a battle field is not limited by securing his troops and the country but also to deliver proper commands to assault the enemies using the minimum number of resources. In this paper, we propose two efficient and low cost approximation algorithms—the maximum clique analysis and the maximum degree analysis techniques. Both of the techniques find the strategies of maximizing the destruction in a battlefield to defeat the opponent by utilizing limited resources. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in the prescribed areas of applications. Gaining the cost-effectiveness of the algorithms are also major concerns of this research. A comparative study explaining the number of resources required for commencing required level of destruction made to the opponents has been provided in this paper. The studies show that the maximum degree analysis technique is able to perform more destruction than the maximum clique analysis technique using same number of resources and requires relatively less computational complexity as well.

  19. OLDAPS: Obsidian Least Destructive Analysis Provenancing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, F.M.; Sterba, J.H.; Bichler, M. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Neelmeijer, C.; Merchel, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Pearce, N.J.G. [Institute of Geography and Earth Sciences, Aberystwyth University, Wales (United Kingdom)


    Full text: The natural volcanic glass obsidian is one of the classical objects of archaeometric analyses. Reliable provenancing by means of the highly specific chemical composition, the 'chemical fingerprint', can provide information about trading routes, extension of territory, long-distance contacts and the mobility of prehistoric people. Since the pioneer work of Cann and Renfrew in 1964 [1] various analytical methods have been employed on obsidian samples in order to locate their provenance. The existing data already offers important knowledge about long-distance interactions between prehistoric human populations. However, most applied techniques just show a small part of the element spectrum. Latest studies showed that published results gained by different analytical methods are not consistent due to systematic errors [2-3]. Therefore, the application of three complementary analytical techniques on the same set of raw material samples allows both a better characterization of obsidian sources and a comparison and validation of analytical results. The aim of this multi-methodical approach is to apply in particular: 1) lon Beam Analysis (IBA) comprising of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE), 2) Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), 3) Laser Ablation-lnductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), to detect a maximum element spectrum and to compare element concentrations determined with at least two analytical techniques. This approach should check the accuracy and reliability of analytical results and should show a maximum of compositional differences between European obsidian sources to reveal the most characteristic 'chemical fingerprint' composed of more than 40 elements. These investigations are part of a new multi-methodical analytical database called the 'Obsidian Least Destructive Analysis Provenancing System' (OLDAPS). This novel scientific approach for


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S


    Two processes were chosen in the 1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to decontaminate the soluble High Level Waste (HLW). The In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process (1,2) was developed at SRS for the removal of radioactive cesium and actinides from the soluble HLW. Sodium tetraphenylborate was added to the waste to precipitate cesium and monosodium titanate (MST) was added to adsorb actinides, primarily uranium and plutonium. Two products of this process were a low activity waste stream and a concentrated organic stream containing cesium tetraphenylborate and actinides adsorbed on monosodium titanate (MST). A copper catalyzed acid hydrolysis process was built to process (3, 4) the Tank 48H cesium tetraphenylborate waste in the SRS's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Operation of the DWPF would have resulted in the production of benzene for incineration in SRS's Consolidated Incineration Facility. This process was abandoned together with the ITP process in 1998 due to high benzene in ITP caused by decomposition of excess sodium tetraphenylborate. Processing in ITP resulted in the production of approximately 1.0 million liters of HLW. SRS has chosen a solvent extraction process combined with adsorption of the actinides to decontaminate the soluble HLW stream (5). However, the waste in Tank 48H is incompatible with existing waste processing facilities. As a result, a processing facility is needed to disposition the HLW in Tank 48H. This paper will describe the process for searching for processing options by SRS task teams for the disposition of the waste in Tank 48H. In addition, attempts to develop a caustic hydrolysis process for in tank destruction of tetraphenylborate will be presented. Lastly, the development of both a caustic and acidic copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation process will be discussed.

  1. Destruction of meat and bone meals in cement plants; Destruction des farines animales dans les cimenteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Following the crisis of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease ('mad cow' disease), the French cement industrialists have been requested by the government since 1996 to eliminate the forbidden meat and bone meals in cement kilns where they are used as fuel substitutes. This article presents the advantages of the cement industry file in the destruction of such wastes, the validation and the safety aspects of this process. Meat and bone meal represents a high-grade fuel that lowers the environmental impact of cement production and does not affect the quality of cement. (J.S.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.


    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves

  3. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  4. Cometary panspermia explains the red rain of Kerala

    CERN Document Server

    Louis, G; Louis, Godfrey


    Red coloured rain occurred in many places of Kerala in India during July to September 2001 due to the mixing of huge quantity of microscopic red cells in the rainwater. Considering its correlation with a meteor airbust event, this phenomenon raised an extraordinary question whether the cells are extraterrestrial. Here we show how the observed features of the red rain phenomenon can be explained by considering the fragmentation and atmospheric disintegration of a fragile cometary body that presumably contains a dense collection of red cells. Slow settling of cells in the stratosphere explains the continuation of the phenomenon for two months. The red cells under study appear to be the resting spores of an extremophilic microorganism. Possible presence of these cells in the interstellar clouds is speculated from its similarity in UV absorption with the 217.5 nm UV extinction feature of interstellar clouds.

  5. Coral reef destruction of Small island in 44 years and destructive fishing in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia (United States)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Rani, Chair; Supriadi; Fakhriyyah, Sitti; Agus


    Coral reefs are among the most diverse and threatened ecosystems on the planet. The most commonly stated for developing coral reef remote sensing techniques is to asses and or to monitor the status of these ecosystems. The study site was selected one of small island in inner zone Spermonde archipelago, Indonesia. We used Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM, and Landsat OLI data to examine changes in the coral reefs of inner zone island in the Spermonde Archipelago from 1972 to 2016. The image processing are gap fills, atmospheric correction, geometric corrections, image composites, water column corrections, unsupervised classifications, and reclassification. Some of component change detection procedure was applied to define change. The results showed significant changes in 44 years. Disturbed coral reefs are typically characterized by loss of coral cover by increase in the abundance of dead corals and rubble. Local factors such as destructive fishing is direct destruction of inner zone island. While the impact of local threats may be reduced through management action, global threats to coral reefs are likely to increase in severity in the coming years.

  6. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin


    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  7. Metacommunity theory explains the emergence of food web complexity. (United States)

    Pillai, Pradeep; Gonzalez, Andrew; Loreau, Michel


    Food webs are highly complex ecological networks, dynamic in both space and time. Metacommunity models are now at the core of unified theories of biodiversity, but to date they have not addressed food web complexity. Here we show that metacommunity theory can explain the emergence of species-rich food webs with complex network topologies. Our analysis shows that network branching in the food web is maximized at intermediate colonization rates and limited dispersal scales, which also leads to concomitant peaks in species diversity. Increased food web complexity and species diversity are made possible by the structural role played by network branches that are supported by omnivore and generalist feeding links. Thus, in contrast to traditional food web theory, which emphasizes the destabilizing effect of omnivory feeding in closed systems, metacommunity theory predicts that these feeding links, which are commonly observed in empirical food webs, play a critical structural role as food webs assemble in space. As this mechanism functions at the metacommunity level, evidence for its operation in nature will be obtained through multiscale surveys of food web structure. Finally, we apply our theory to reveal the effects of habitat destruction on network complexity and metacommunity diversity.

  8. Thermal destruction of vessels with liquid upon heating (United States)

    Zverev, V. G.; Goldin, V. D.; Svetashkov, A. A.


    A new engineering technique of calculating the heating and thermal destruction of vessels containing liquid under extreme thermal loading conditions is offered. The heating of the shell and the internal vessel volume is described on the basis of the thermodynamic approach. The pressure growth in a vessel is a result of gas heating and liquid evaporation. Stresses within the shell and its destruction conditions are determined, which allows predicting the critical time of destruction upon heating. The calculation and experimental data for pressure growth inside the vessel are in good agreement.

  9. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering (United States)

    Niederleithinger, E.


    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  10. Targeted destruction of HIV-positive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti R Sharma


    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV/AIDS is now a global epidemic that has become the leading infectious killer of adults worldwide. Although antiretroviral (ARV therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and increased the life expectancy of those infected with HIV but frequency of dosing and drug toxicity as well as the development of viral resistance pose additional limitations. The rapidly expanding field of nanotechnology has vast potential to radically advance the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Nanoparticles can provide improved drug delivery, by virtue of their small size, robustness, safety, multimodality or multifunctionality. Aims and objectives: Since HIV primarily infects CD4+ cells; we aim to use CD4 as a selectable target to deliver a pro-apoptotic protein to HIV-infected cells using nanoparticles as carriers. The aim of study was to develop a nanotechnology-based death inducing delivery system for the destruction of CD4+HIV infected cells through the activation of caspase-3. Methodology: A modified caspase-3 protein (Mut-3 was engineered, which is cleavable only by HIV-1 protease. Mut-3 can activate apoptosis in the presence of HIV-1 protease, consequently killing HIV-positive cells. Mut-3 protein was conjugated to gold nanoparticles together with a CD4-targeting peptide. The efficacy of the gold nanoparticles was tested on CHO cells that were genetically engineered to express GFP labelled CD4 and HIV-1 protease. Results: Mut-3 was expressed in bacterial cells and purified. CHO cells that stably over express CD4-GFP and HIV-1 protease were selected using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting. Dose response cell culture experiments showed that gold nanoparticles without Mut-3 and CD4-targeting peptide did not induce cell death in CHO cells, while gold nanoparticles that was conjugated with Mut-3 and the CD4-targeting peptide rapidly induced cell death in CHO cells. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gold nanoparticles conjugated

  11. Effects of gold salts on experimental periodontitis. I. Histometric evaluation of periodontal destruction. (United States)

    Novak, M J; Polson, A M; Freeman, E


    Systemic administration of gold salts for treatment of arthritis is thought to limit tissue destruction through alteration of inflammatory cell function. The present study ascertained if gold salts could modify the tissue destruction associated with an experimental marginal periodontitis. Therapeutic levels of serum gold salts were established in four squirrel monkeys (experimental) by intramuscular injection of Myochrisine (gold sodium thiomalate 25 mg/ml) at 5 mg/kg/body weight at 4-day intervals for 12 days. Marginal periodontitis was then induced around mandibular bicuspids by tying plaque retentive ligatures at the gingival margins. Periodontitis was induced around corresponding teeth in four control animals which had not received gold salts. Serum levels of gold salts were maintained in experimental animals, and all animals were killed 2 weeks after induction of periodontitis. Progression of periodontitis was evaluated histometrically on step-serial sections, and the results analyzed statistically. Specimens from gold-receiving animals had significantly smaller areas of infiltrated supracrestal connective tissue, and less loss of connective tissue attachment and coronal alveolar bone. Quantitation of total plaque around the ligatures showed no differences; however, there was less plaque located apical to the ligatures in gold-receiving specimens. Although the study design did not permit identification of the relative importance of cellular or microbial factors, it was concluded that administration of systemic gold salts was associated with significantly less periodontal destruction.

  12. Dynamic optimal foraging theory explains vertical migrations of bigeye tuna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Sommer, Lene; Evans, Karen;


    Bigeye tuna are known for remarkable daytime vertical migrations between deep water, where food is abundant but the water is cold, and the surface, where water is warm but food is relatively scarce. Here we investigate if these dive patterns can be explained by dynamic optimal foraging theory......, where the tuna maximizes its energy harvest rate. We assume that foraging efficiency increases with body temperature, so that the vertical migrations are thermoregulatory. The tuna's state is characterized by its mean body temperature and depth, and we solve the optimization problem numerically using...... behaves such as to maximize its energy gains. The model therefore provides insight into the processes underlying observed behavioral patterns and allows generating predictions of foraging behavior in unobserved environments...

  13. Imatinib mesylate inhibits osteoclastogenesis and joint destruction in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). (United States)

    Ando, Wataru; Hashimoto, Jun; Nampei, Akihide; Tsuboi, Hideki; Tateishi, Kosuke; Ono, Takeshi; Nakamura, Norimasa; Ochi, Takahiro; Yoshikawa, Hideki


    Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a key factor for osteoclastogenesis at the bone-pannus interface in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as a receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Imatinib mesylate inhibits the phosphorylation of c-fms, a receptor for M-CSF. The present study investigates the effect of imatinib mesylate on joint destruction in rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and on osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Imatinib mesylate (50 or 150 mg/kg), dexamethasone, or vehicle was administered daily to CIA rats for 4 weeks from the onset of arthritis. Hind-paw swelling and body weight were measured weekly. At weeks 2 and 4, the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints and the ankle and subtalar joints were radiographically and histologically assessed. The effect of imatinib mesylate on osteoclast formation from rat bone marrow cells with M-CSF and soluble RANKL (sRANKL) in vitro was also examined. Radiographic assessment showed that 150 mg/kg imatinib mesylate suppressed the destruction of the MTP and the ankle and subtalar joints at week 2, and MTP joint destruction at week 4 in CIA rats, although hind-paw swelling was not suppressed. The number of TRAP-positive cells at the bone-pannus interface was significantly reduced in the group administered with 150 mg/kg imatinib mesylate compared with that given vehicle at week 4. Imatinib mesylate dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of M-CSF-dependent osteoclast precursor cells in vitro as well as osteoclast formation induced by M-CSF and sRANKL. These findings suggest that imatinib mesylate could prevent joint destruction in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

  14. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction. (United States)


    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will...

  15. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...

  16. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase 2 project, we propose to develop, construct, and deliver to NASA a computed axial tomography time-domain terahertz (CT TD-THz) non destructive...

  17. Non-destructive foraminiferal paleoclimatic proxies: A brief insight

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.

    Non-Destructive Foraminiferal Paleoclimatic Proxies: A Brief Insight The knowledge of past climate can help us to understand imminent climatic changes. Oceans are the vast archives of past climate. Various indirect techniques termed as proxies...

  18. Predicting Tropical Cyclone Destructive Potential by Integrated Kinetic Energy According to the Powell/Reinhold Scale (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A method of predicting the destructive capacity of a tropical cyclone based on a new Wind Destructive Potential (WDP) and Storm Surge Destructive Potential (SDP)...

  19. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria (United States)


    L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-13-52 Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria Distribution Statement A...Z39.18 00-07-2015 Technical N/A Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria HDTRA1-10-1-0108 Emily M. Hunt, Ph.D. West...understand the interaction between spore forming bacteria and thermite reactions and products and to exploit energetic material reactions with

  20. Your Radiologist Explains Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with you about magnetic resonance angiography, or as it’s commonly known, MRA. MRA is a noninvasive test ... of the major blood vessels throughout your body. It may be performed with or without contrast material ...

  1. Explaining NDVI trends in northern Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; Fensholt, Rasmus; Fog, Bjarne;


    Many studies have shown a ‘greening of the Sahel’ on the basis of analysis of time series of satellite images and this has shown to be, at least partly, explained by changes in rainfall. In northern Burkina Faso, an area stands out as anomalous in such analysis, since it is characterized by a dis......Many studies have shown a ‘greening of the Sahel’ on the basis of analysis of time series of satellite images and this has shown to be, at least partly, explained by changes in rainfall. In northern Burkina Faso, an area stands out as anomalous in such analysis, since it is characterized...... by a distinct spatial pattern and strongly dominated by negative trends in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The aim of the paper is to explain this distinct pattern. When studied over the period 2000–2012, using NDVI data from the MODIS sensor the spatial pattern of NDVI trends indicates that non...

  2. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar


    ­logue between a written text and a visceral on-line performance involving photographs and music, the reader/audience has the possibility to be touched both sensually and intellectually, although through communication is in cyberspace, missing the liveliness of direct body language. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-May......Body contact and body language are unique and existential and, although culturally dependent and socially embodied, they are also universal communication forms. For small children all over the world, warm, close and nourishing body contact is fundamental to their embodied experi­ence of themselves...... and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move...

  3. Body Basics (United States)

    ... more about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System Heart and Circulatory System Immune ...

  4. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along...

  5. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    When we speak,we use much more than just words. We also communicate with our face. our hands,and even our own body. This Kind of communication ean be called “body language” or “non-verbal eommunieation”. Non-verbal

  6. Explaining quality of life with crisis theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M.A.G.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.


    Based on the premises of crisis theory. we expected cancer patients in-crisis to report a poorer quality of life (QL) and cancer patients post-crisis to report a similar level of overall QL in comparison to healthy individuals. To explain these hypothesized findings, we expected the coping resources

  7. Explaining High Abilities of Nobel Laureates (United States)

    Shavinina, Larisa


    Although the Nobel Prize is associated with a rare, superior degree of intellectually creative achievement, high abilities of Nobel laureates are far from well explained. This paper argues that Nobel laureates' high abilities are determined in part by their extracognitive abilities, that is, specific feelings, preferences, beliefs and intuitive…

  8. Explaining Autism: Its Discursive and Neuroanatomical Characteristics. (United States)

    Oller, John W., Jr.; Rascon, Dana

    This paper reviews the existing empirical research on autism in the context of the semiotic theories of Charles S. Peirce. His ideas of the generalized logic of relations are seen as explaining the unusual associations (or lack thereof) in autism. Concepts of "indices" or signs singling out distinct objects, and "adinity" or…

  9. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.


    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of dwe

  10. Factors Explaining Faculty Technology Use and Productivity (United States)

    Xu, Yonghong; Meyer, Katrina A.


    This study examines factors related to technology use in teaching by university faculty. An EFA analysis of multiple questions of technology use in the classroom found two factors: one loaded with Web use and the second with email use. Therefore, three research questions were asked: What factors explain faculty use of the Web or email? Are these…

  11. Students Explain the Value of CTE (United States)

    Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers, 2006


    In this article, the winning essays of the Cliff Weiss Memorial Essay Contest are presented. In the two winning essays, the authors describe how to explain the value of career and technical education (CTE) to a new student. Shi Meicheng, Secondary Winner, states that CTE has provided her with a toolbox for success while Ginnie Bushong,…

  12. Measuring and explaining house price developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.


    This study discusses ways of measuring and explaining the development of house prices. The goal of the research underpinning this dissertation was to develop a methodological framework for studying these developments. This framework relates, first, to correcting for changes in the composition of swe

  13. A theoretical framework for explaining agent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Bosch, K. van den; Meyer, J.J.C.


    To understand emergent processes in multi-agent-based simulations it is important to study the global processes in a simulation as well as the processes on the agent level. The behavior of individual agents is easier to understand when they are able to explain their own behavior. In this paper, a th

  14. Molecular Gas Clumps from the Destruction of Icy Bodies in the $\\beta$ Pictoris Debris Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, W R F; Roberge, A; Augereau, J -C; Casassus, S; Corder, S; Greaves, J S; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I; Hales, A; Jackson, A P; Hughes, A Meredith; Lagrange, A -M; Matthews, B; Wilner, D


    Many stars are surrounded by disks of dusty debris formed in the collisions of asteroids, comets and dwarf planets. But is gas also released in such events? Observations at submm wavelengths of the archetypal debris disk around $\\beta$ Pictoris show that 0.3% of a Moon mass of carbon monoxide orbits in its debris belt. The gas distribution is highly asymmetric, with 30% found in a single clump 85AU from the star, in a plane closely aligned with the orbit of the inner planet, $\\beta$ Pic b. This gas clump delineates a region of enhanced collisions, either from a mean motion resonance with an unseen giant planet, or from the remnants of a collision of Mars-mass planets.

  15. Hamster and Murine Models of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Munson


    Full Text Available Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ- deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology.

  16. Explaining money creation by commercial banks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib


    Educators and economists concerned with monetary reform face the extraordinary challenge of explaining to the public and its elected representatives not only what a reformed system would look like, but also how the current system works. Centrally, the point that in a modern economy money is largely...... created by commercial banks, as explained by the Bank of England recently (McLeay, Radia & Thomas, 2014b), is often met with incredulity: “What do you mean, created?” This paper introduces five easy-to-grasp analogies that educators and reformers may use to convey key money-creation concepts to a lay...... audience. The analogies offered include (1) money as patches in an expandable patchwork quilt that covers a nation’s real assets, (2) the money supply as water in a bathtub with a faucet and a drain, (3) money understood as debt in a model economy run by schoolchildren, (4) the misleading concept of a bank...

  17. Explaining British Policy on the Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Howarth


    Full Text Available Four overlapping analytical frameworks focusing upon domestic British politics are applied to explain the detailed development of the policy on the euro maintained by the Conservative Government then Party in opposition and the Labour Party opposition and then Government: intra-party politics; inter-party politics; public opinion and the nature of British democracy; and neo-pluralism (competing economic and other interests. This article posits that British government - and in particular Labour Government - reluctance to hold a referendum on euro membership and actively push a pro-euro policy can be best explained in terms of ideologically infused intra- (rather than inter- party politics and the realities of pluralist politics, while explanations rooted in an analysis of public opinion are less helpful.

  18. Explaining Underrepresentation: A Theory of Precluded Interest. (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C


    What processes best explain women's underrepresentation in science, math, and engineering fields in the U.S.? Do they also explain men's underrepresentation in the humanities? Two survey studies across two U.S. West Coast universities (N = 62; N = 614) addressed these questions in the context of two fields: one male-dominated (computer science) and the other female-dominated (English). Among a set of social predictors-including perceived similarity to the people in the field, social identity threats, and expectations of success-the best mediator of women's lower interest in computer science and men's lower interest in English was perceived similarity. Thus, changing students' social perceptions of how they relate to those in the field may help to diversify academic fields.

  19. Explaining Variations in Implementation of EU Directives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Versluis


    Full Text Available Uneven implementation of Community law across the European Union is common practice. Differences in implementation of EU directives differences in degree of domestic adjustment are, according to variables identified in the Europeanization literature, to be explained by variations in the degree of fit and the availability of mediating factors. The analysis of the implementation of the Seveso II and Safety Data Sheets Directives in the Netherlands, Germany, the United Kingdom and Spain shows, however, that these identified factors alone do not suffice to explain the observed differences. This article pleas for a closer look at the role of 'issue salience' as a complementary factor that constraints or stimulates the existing mediating factors in the Europeanization literature.

  20. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels


    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...... presents an overview of our knowledge about the taphomic processes as well as the methods used in bog body research....

  1. Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J.; Buffleben, George M.


    Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.

  2. Defining components of the ß-catenin destruction complex and exploring its regulation and mechanisms of action during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Roberts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A subset of signaling pathways play exceptionally important roles in embryonic and post-embryonic development, and mis-regulation of these pathways occurs in most human cancers. One such pathway is the Wnt pathway. The primary mechanism keeping Wnt signaling off in the absence of ligand is regulated proteasomal destruction of the canonical Wnt effector ßcatenin (or its fly homolog Armadillo. A substantial body of evidence indicates that SCF(βTrCP mediates βcat destruction, however, an essential role for Roc1 has not been demonstrated in this process, as would be predicted. In addition, other E3 ligases have also been proposed to destroy βcat, suggesting that βcat destruction may be regulated differently in different tissues. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used cultured Drosophila cells, human colon cancer cells, and Drosophila embryos and larvae to explore the machinery that targets Armadillo for destruction. Using RNAi in Drosophila S2 cells to examine which SCF components are essential for Armadillo destruction, we find that Roc1/Roc1a is essential for regulating Armadillo stability, and that in these cells the only F-box protein playing a detectable role is Slimb. Second, we find that while embryonic and larval Drosophila tissues use the same destruction complex proteins, the response of these tissues to destruction complex inactivation differs, with Armadillo levels more elevated in embryos. We provide evidence consistent with the possibility that this is due to differences in armadillo mRNA levels. Third, we find that there is no correlation between the ability of different APC2 mutant proteins to negatively regulate Armadillo levels, and their recently described function in positively-regulating Wnt signaling. Finally, we demonstrate that APC proteins lacking the N-terminal Armadillo-repeat domain cannot restore Armadillo destruction but retain residual function in negatively-regulating Wnt signaling. CONCLUSIONS

  3. Does land abundance explain African institutions?



    The land abundance view of African history uses sparse population to explain pre-colonial land tenure and slavery. I document the geographic forcing variables that predict land rights, slavery, and population density in a cross section of global societies. I discuss whether these correlations support theories of land rights and slavery, including the land abundance view. I show that pre-colonial institutions predict institutional outcomes in Africa in the present, including land transactions,...

  4. Explaining personality pay gaps in the UK


    Nandi, Alita; Nicoletti, Cheti


    Using the British Household Panel Survey we examine how the Big Five personality traits - openness to experience, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism - affect wages. We estimate mean and quantile pay gaps between people with low and high levels of each of the Big Five, and decompose these pay gaps in the part explained by differences in workers’ characteristics and in the residual unexplained part. We find that openness to experience is the most relevant personal...

  5. Explaining temporal patterns in street robbery


    Tompson, L. A.


    This thesis is concerned with explaining spatio-temporal patterns in street robbery through the lens of environmental criminology. The research question ‘what makes a place criminogenic for street robbery at some times and not others?’ is used to frame seven hypotheses. These centre on some of the features of the natural and built environment that can be considered criminogenic (i.e. crime producing). Specifically, the hypotheses test the time-varying influence of darkness, weather conditions...

  6. Explaining the Value of Transactional Lawyering


    Schwarcz, Steven L.


    This article attempts, empirically, to explain the value that lawyers add when acting as counsel to parties in business transactions. Contrary to existing scholarship, which is based mostly on theory, this article shows that transactional lawyers add value primarily by reducing regulatory costs, thereby challenging the reigning models of transactional lawyers as "transaction cost engineers" and "reputational intermediaries." This new model not only helps inform contract theory but also reveal...

  7. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"


    Khitarishvili, Tamar


    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  8. IEE wiring regulations explained and illustrated

    CERN Document Server

    Scaddan, Brian


    The IEE Wiring Regulations Explained and Illustrated, Second Edition discusses the recommendations of the IEE Regulations for the Electrical Equipment of Buildings for the safe selection or erection of wiring installations. The book emphasizes earthing, bonding, protection, and circuit design of electrical wirings. The text reviews the fundamental requirements for safety, earthing systems, the earth fault loop impedance, and supplementary bonding. The book also describes the different types of protection, such as protection against mechanical damage, overcurrent, under voltage (which prevents

  9. Body Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ For Teachers: The Wordless Language Spoken by Everyone by Pamela Osment An old saying goes:"Actions speak louder than words."That's true according to communication experts.Some studies show that up to 90 percent of communication is nonverbal.Though you might say one thing,your body movements may indicate something entirely different.This nonverbal way of communicating is called body language.The Universal(通用的)Language

  10. Winnicott on Jung: destruction, creativity and the unrepressed unconscious. (United States)

    Meredith-Owen, William


    This paper considers Winnicott's critique of Jung, principally expressed in his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which asserts that Jung's creative contribution to analysis was constrained by his failure to integrate his 'primitive destructive impulses', subsequent to inadequate early containment. It is argued that although Winnicott's diagnosis illuminates Jung's shadow, particularly his constraints vis-à-vis the repressed Freudian unconscious, it fails to appreciate the efficacy of the compensatory containment Jung found in the collective unconscious. This enigmatic relationship between destruction and creativity-so central to late Winnicott-is illuminated by Matte Blanco's bi-logic, and further explored in relation to William Blake. Winnicott's personal resolution through his Jung-inspired 'splitting headache' dream of destruction-previously considered in this Journal by Morey (2005) and Sedgwick (2008)-is given particular attention.

  11. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  12. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Mørch, Troels


    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit...... is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times...

  13. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W.E.


    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested.

  14. Mechanisms of CFR composites destruction studying with pulse acoustic microscopy (United States)

    Petronyuk, Y. S.; Morokov, E. S.; Levin, V. M.; Ryzhova, T. B.; Chernov, A. V.


    Non-destructive inspection of carbon-fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites applied in aerospace industry attracts a wide attention. In the paper, high frequency focused ultrasound (50-100 MHz) has been applied to study the bulk microstructure of the CFR material and mechanisms of its destruction under the mechanical loading. It has been shown impulse acoustic microscopy provides detecting the areas of adhesion loss at millimeter and micron level. Behavior of the CFR laminate structure fabricated by prepreg or infusion technology has been investigated under the tensile and impact loading.

  15. Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.


    To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

  16. UV laser mediated cell selective destruction by confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giangrande Angela


    Full Text Available Abstract Analysis of cell-cell interactions, cell function and cell lineages greatly benefits selective destruction techniques, which, at present, rely on dedicated, high energy, pulsed lasers and are limited to cells that are detectable by conventional microscopy. We present here a high resolution/sensitivity technique based on confocal microscopy and relying on commonly used UV lasers. Coupling this technique with time-lapse enables the destruction and following of any cell(s in any pattern(s in living animals as well as in cell culture systems.

  17. Quantum many body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivasseau, Vincent [Paris-Sud Univ. Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Seiringer, Robert [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics; Solovej, Jan Philip [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Mathematics; Spencer, Thomas [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Mathematics


    The book is based on the lectures given at the CIME school ''Quantum many body systems'' held in the summer of 2010. It provides a tutorial introduction to recent advances in the mathematics of interacting systems, written by four leading experts in the field: V. Rivasseau illustrates the applications of constructive Quantum Field Theory to 2D interacting electrons and their relation to quantum gravity; R. Seiringer describes a proof of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gross-Pitaevski limit and explains the effects of rotating traps and the emergence of lattices of quantized vortices; J.-P. Solovej gives an introduction to the theory of quantum Coulomb systems and to the functional analytic methods used to prove their thermodynamic stability; finally, T. Spencer explains the supersymmetric approach to Anderson localization and its relation to the theory of random matrices. All the lectures are characterized by their mathematical rigor combined with physical insights.

  18. Accounting for fluctuations in body dissatisfaction. (United States)

    Colautti, Lauren A; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; McCabe, Marita; Blackburn, Stephen; Wyett, Elise


    The present study evaluated whether the strength of relationship between contextual cues (presence of company and mood) and state body dissatisfaction varied as a function of individual differences in key trait measures (body shame, body surveillance tendencies, internalization of appearance standards, and trait affect) which have been linked to trait body dissatisfaction. Fifty-five undergraduate women completed a questionnaire containing the trait-based measures and then carried a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) for a 7-day period. The PDA prompted participants six times daily to self-report their current mood and state body dissatisfaction. Multi-level modeling revealed that individual differences in body shame predicted inter-individual variability in the strength of the relationships between presence of company and state body dissatisfaction, and positive mood and state body dissatisfaction. Trait positive affect also explained variance in the positive mood state-body dissatisfaction relationship. The implications of the findings for prevention of body image disturbances are discussed.

  19. Explaining drug policy: Towards an historical sociology of policy change. (United States)

    Seddon, Toby


    The goal of seeking to understand the development over time of drug policies is a specific version of the more general intellectual project of finding ways of explaining social change. The latter has been a preoccupation of some of the greatest thinkers within the social sciences of the last 200 years, from Foucault all the way back to the three nineteenth-century pioneers, Marx, Durkheim and Weber. I describe this body of work as 'historical sociology'. In this paper, I outline how a particular approach to historical sociology can be fruitfully drawn upon to understand the development of drug policy, using by way of illustration the example of the analysis of a recent transformation in British drug policy: the rise of the criminal justice agenda. I conclude by arguing that by looking at developments in drug policy in this way, some new insights are opened up.

  20. The Destructive/Non-Destructive Identification of Enameled Pottery, Glass Artifacts and Associated Pigments—A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Colomban


    Full Text Available The birth of Chemistry can be found in two main practices: (i the Arts du feu (ceramic and glass, metallurgy, i.e., inorganic and solid state chemistry and (ii the preparation of remedies, alcohols and perfumes, dyes, i.e., organic and liquid state chemistry. After a brief survey of the history of (glazed pottery and (enameled glass artifacts, the development of destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques during the last few centuries is reviewed. Emphasis is put on mobile non-destructive Raman microspectroscopy of pigments and their glass/glaze host matrices for chronological/technological expertise. The techniques of white opacification, blue, yellow, green, red, and black coloring, are used as examples to point out the interest of pigments as chronological/technological markers.

  1. Chromosome congression explained by nanoscale electrostatics. (United States)

    Gagliardi, L John; Shain, Daniel H


    Nanoscale electrostatic microtubule disassembly forces between positively charged molecules in kinetochores and negative charges on plus ends of microtubules have been implicated in poleward chromosome motions and may also contribute to antipoleward chromosome movements. We propose that chromosome congression can be understood in terms of antipoleward nanoscale electrostatic microtubule assembly forces between negatively charged microtubule plus ends and like-charged chromosome arms, acting in conjunction with poleward microtubule disassembly forces. Several other aspects of post-attachment prometaphase chromosome motions, as well as metaphase oscillations, are consistently explained within this framework.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilica Magdalena SOMEŞFĂLEAN


    Full Text Available Persuade clients is still the main focus of the companies, using a set of methods and techniques designed to influence their behavior, in order to obtain better results (profits over a longer period of time. Since the late nineteenth - early twentieth century, the american E.St.Elmo Lewis, considered a pioneer in advertising and sales, developed the first theory, AIDA model, later used by marketers and advertisers to develop a marketing communications strategy. Later studies have developed other models that are the main subject of this research, which explains how and why persuasive communication works, to understand why some approaches are effective and others are not.

  3. Weaker dental enamel explains dental decay. (United States)

    Vieira, Alexandre R; Gibson, Carolyn W; Deeley, Kathleen; Xue, Hui; Li, Yong


    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent bacteria-mediated non-contagious disease of humankind. Dental professionals assert the disease can be explained by poor oral hygiene and a diet rich in sugars but this does not account for caries free individuals exposed to the same risk factors. In order to test the hypothesis that amount of amelogenin during enamel development can influence caries susceptibility, we generated multiple strains of mice with varying levels of available amelogenin during dental development. Mechanical tests showed that dental enamel developed with less amelogenin is "weaker" while the dental enamel of animals over-expressing amelogenin appears to be more resistant to acid dissolution.

  4. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings...... of, for example, how rheumatoid arthritis sufferers view their treatment, how decisions are made in simulated emergencies, and how therapists and homeopaths use distributed language and cognition with their clients....

  5. About Body Inertness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Izbreht


    Full Text Available The article investigates and further develops the Newton’s hypothesis about the origin of inertial forces. For this purpose the classic interpretation of light aberration phenomenon and the Lorentz — FitzGerald hypothesis — proposed to explain the negative result of the Michelson — Morley experiment — is used and a comparison is made between electromagnetic phenomena — particularly, self-induction and inertial force generated with a change in velocity of a moving physical body. The concepts not only prove that space has physical properties affecting the movement of bodies but that the latter also affect the physical properties of space. Formulas for the mechanics of high velocity and a further development of the Newton’s gravity law were derived based on these fundamental concepts. The findings are applied to cosmology and prove the stationary state of the ideally uniform and isotropic infinite Universe.

  6. Non-destructive mechanical characterization of (nano-sized) ceramic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colomban, P.; Gouadec, G. [CNRS, Thiais (France). LADIR


    SiC and C fibres are produced from polymeric precursor. This synthesis route leads to a nano-sized materials with very smooth surface, the lack of defects explaining tensile strengths as high as 3 GPa. A high correlation is expected between short-range-ordering, nanostructure and macroscopic properties, like in any nano-sized ceramic issued from liquid routes (sol-gel, polymer precursors). The paper provides a comprehensive study on Raman spectroscopy versatility as a fast and non-destructive tool for the study of ceramic fibres nano/micro-structures and the prediction of their mechanical properties. We show how the results of very simple spectra fitting are correlated with E and {sigma}{sub r} in NLM, Hi, Hi-S, SA, SCS-6 and Sylramic (trademarks) SiC fibres. The reason why such a correlation exists, the common dependency of Raman signal and mechanical behaviour to the nano/microstructure of ceramics, is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Proliferation of massive destruction weapons: fantasy or reality?; La proliferation des armes de destruction massive: fantasme ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M


    This article evaluates the threat of massive destruction weapons (nuclear, chemical, biological) for Europe and recalls the existing safeguards against the different forms of nuclear proliferation: legal (non-proliferation treaty (NPT), comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT), fissile material cut off treaty (FMCT) etc..), technical (fabrication of fissile materials, delays). However, all these safeguards can be overcome as proven by the activities of some countries. The situation of proliferation for the other type of massive destruction weapons is presented too. (J.S.)

  8. Body parts (United States)

    Ayiter, Elif


    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  9. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  10. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit. (United States)


    ... BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.29 Destruction of animals; time limit. (a) The claimant must ensure that goats, sheep, and horses infected with or exposed to B. abortus are... rendered in accordance with applicable State law. (b) The claimant must ensure that goats and...

  11. Destruction of Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Using an Arcjet Plasma Torch* (United States)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Snyder, H. R.; Gahl, J. M.


    A small-scale thermal plasma torch has been used for the disposal of hazardous industrial chemicals including alcohols, ketones, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The plasma jet is operated at currents up to 200 Amperes and waste flow rates up to 600 ml/hr. Argon is used as the plasma gas with oxygen added to the reactor to alter the reaction chemistry. Destruction of the waste and by-product formation are monitored using a residual gas analyzer, and the temperature of the plasma plume is measured using an enthalpy probe. The by-products of the destruction of acetone are primarily carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of hydrocarbons. Adding oxygen to the reactor increases the production of carbon dioxide and significantly decreases the amount of acetone in the exhaust gases. This reactor has achieved greater than 99 percent destruction efficiency for acetone when oxygen is added to the reaction mixture at an arcjet current of 75 Amperes, with similar destruction efficiencies observed for ethanol and trichloroethylene. *Supported by the U.S. DOE through the WERC program administered by New Mexico State University.


    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  13. Destruction and Reallocation of Skills Following Large Company Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Roslyng Olesen, Thomas

    for other firms that hire them. This process can be very disruptive. For instance, when a large, old and well-renowned company closes down displacing thousands of workers over a short period of time, then it may be a shock to the regional economy and lead to unemployment and skill destruction. The question...

  14. 19 CFR 191.37 - Destruction under Customs supervision. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.37 Section 191.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs supervision. A claimant may destroy merchandise and obtain unused merchandise drawback...

  15. Education in Somalia: History, Destruction, and Calls for Reconstruction. (United States)

    Abdi, Ali A.


    Traces the history of education in Somalia: in precolonial traditional Somalia; during colonial rule by Italy; under civilian rule, 1960-69; and under military rule, 1969-90. Describes the total destruction of the education system since the 1991 collapse of the state, widespread illiteracy and adolescent involvement in thuggery, and the urgent…

  16. NonDestructive Evaluation for Industrial & Development Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, James F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Provide overview of weld inspection for Non-Destructive Testing at LANL. This includes radiography (RT/DR/CR/CT for x-ray & neutron sources), ultrasonic testing (UT/PAUT), dye penetrant inspection (PT), eddy current inspection (ET) and magnetic particle testing (MT). Facilities and capabilities for weld inspection will be summarized with examples.

  17. Uncoupling of inflammatory and destructive mechanisms in arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den


    OBJECTIVE: To update clinicians on recent advances in the differentiation of the mechanisms of inflammation and cartilage destruction in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We present analysis of recent published literature and abstracts that elucidates the independent actions of

  18. Destructive Adsorption of Carbon Tetrachloride on Alkaline Earth Metal Oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Mestl, Gerhard; Rosynek, Michael P.; Krawietz, Thomas R.; Haw, James F.; Lunsford, Jack H.


    The destructive adsorption of CCl4 on MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO has been studied as a function of the reaction temperature and the amount of CCl4 injected. The reaction was followed using in situ Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 13 C mag

  19. Pathogenic role of basic calcium phosphate crystals in destructive arthropathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ea, H.K.; Chobaz, V.; Nguyen, C.; Nasi, S.; Lent, P.L. van; Daudon, M.; Dessombz, A.; Bazin, D.; McCarthy, G.; Jolles-Haeberli, B.; Ives, A.; Linthoudt, D. Van; So, A.; Liote, F.; Busso, N.


    BACKGROUND: basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritis (OA) and are associated with cartilage destruction. BCP crystals induce in vitro catabolic responses with the production of metalloproteases and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). In vivo, IL-1

  20. Treatment of multiply controlled destructive behavior with food reinforcement.


    Adelinis, J D; Piazza, C C; Goh, H L


    We evaluated the extent to which the positive reinforcement of communication would reduce multiply controlled destructive behavior in the absence of relevant extinction components. When edible reinforcement for appropriate communication and nonfood reinforcers for problem behavior were available simultaneously, responding was allocated almost exclusively toward the behavior that produced edible reinforcement.

  1. Anti-cytokine therapy in chronic destructive arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, W.B. van den


    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) are considered to be master cytokines in chronic, destructive arthritis. Therapeutic approaches in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients have so far focused mainly on TNF, which is a major inflammatory mediator in RA and a potent inducer of IL-1; ant

  2. Destructive Leadership Behaviors and Workplace Attitudes in Schools (United States)

    Woestman, Daniel S.; Wasonga, Teresa Akinyi


    The study investigated destructive leadership behaviors (DLBs) and their influence on K-12 workplace attitudes (subordinate consideration for leaving their job, job satisfaction, and levels of stress). Quantitative survey method was used to gather data from experienced professional educators. Analyses of data show that the practice of DLB exists…

  3. Evaluation of nitrate and nitrite destruction/separation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.


    This report describes and evaluates four types of nitrate and nitrite destruction and separation technologies that could be used to treat the aqueous, alkaline, nitrate-bearing mixed waste that is generated by the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The technologies considered in this report include thermal, hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical technologies.

  4. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE...

  5. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed...

  6. The Woman Writer and the Element of Destruction (United States)

    Killoh, Ellen Peck


    Using Anais Nin as an example, the author describes the problem of the female writer as an agent of destruction. She is angered over the fact that women writers misdirected so much of their creative energy through fear of adopting any but the submissive, passive, feminine role. (Author/NL)

  7. Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder (United States)

    Laughlin, R. B.


    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis (United States)

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.


    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.


    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-06100. This package was selected for examination based on several characteristics: - This was the first destructively examined package in which the fiberboard assembly was fabricated from softwood fiberboard. - The package contained a relatively high heat load to contribute to internal temperature, which is a key environmental factor for fiberboard degradation. - The package has been stored in the middle or top of a storage array since its receipt in K- Area, positions that would contribute to increased service temperatures. No significant changes were observed for attributes that were measured during both field surveillance and destructive examination. Except for the axial gap, all observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The axial gap met the 1 inch maximum criterion during field surveillance, but was just over the criterion during SRNL measurements. When re-measured at a later date, it again met the criterion. The bottom of the lower fiberboard assembly and the drum interior had two small stains at matching locations, suggestive of water intrusion. However, the fiberboard assembly did not contain any current evidence of excess moisture. No evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. Despite exposure to the elevated temperatures of this higher-then-average wattage package, properties of the fiberboard and O-rings are consistent with those of new packages.

  10. Grain destruction in shocks in the interstellar medium (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Hollenbach, D. J.; McKee, C. F.


    Destruction of interstellar dust occurs predominantly in supernova shock waves in the warm neutral/ionized medium (density approximately = 0.25/cu cm, temperature approximately = 104 K). Recent theoretical developments and laboratory data for sputtering processes and grain-grain collisional vaporization allows us to better evaluate the grain destruction rate in interstellar shocks in the warm medium. We find that, independent of composition, grain destruction in supernova blast waves is dominated by nonthermal sputtering for shock velocities greater than 50 km/s and less than or equal to 150 km/s and thermal sputtering at higher shock velocities. We use a detailed scheme for the vaporization of grains colliding at high velocities (vs greater than or equal to 20 km/s) and show that the grain-grain collision destruction process is only dominant for shock velocities of less than or equal to 50-80 km/s and is less important than previously assumed. Nevertheless, the grain-grain destruction rates are of order 30%-90% of the sputtering rates at vs greater than 100 km/s and less than 200 km/s and are important in vaporizing the cores of grains. Detailed results for grain destruction as a function of grain size and composition are presented. We also present results for silicon carbide, iron, ice, and porous test particles. For carbonaceous grains we find that the fractional destruction is less than or equal to 0.29, and for silicate it is less than or equal to 0.45, for vs less than or equal to 200 km/s. We have calculated grain lifetimes, using the three-phase model of the interstellar medium, and find lifetimes of 4 x 108 yr for carbonaceous grains and 2.2 x 108 yr for silicate grains. Given that the typical stardust injection timescale of 2.5 x 109 yr, we conclude that efficient mechanisms for grain growth in the interstellar medium must exist in order that a significant fraction of the refractory elements be incorporated in dust, as observed. Therefore, although our


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  12. Non-destructive forensic latent fingerprint acquisition with chromatic white light sensors (United States)

    Leich, Marcus; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus


    Non-destructive latent fingerprint acquisition is an emerging field of research, which, unlike traditional methods, makes latent fingerprints available for additional verification or further analysis like tests for substance abuse or age estimation. In this paper a series of tests is performed to investigate the overall suitability of a high resolution off-the-shelf chromatic white light sensor for the contact-less and non-destructive latent fingerprint acquisition. Our paper focuses on scanning previously determined regions with exemplary acquisition parameter settings. 3D height field and reflection data of five different latent fingerprints on six different types of surfaces (HDD platter, brushed metal, painted car body (metallic and non-metallic finish), blued metal, veneered plywood) are experimentally studied. Pre-processing is performed by removing low-frequency gradients. The quality of the results is assessed subjectively; no automated feature extraction is performed. Additionally, the degradation of the fingerprint during the acquisition period is observed. While the quality of the acquired data is highly dependent on surface structure, the sensor is capable of detecting the fingerprint on all sample surfaces. On blued metal the residual material is detected; however, the ridge line structure dissolves within minutes after fingerprint placement.

  13. The James Blundell Award Lecture 2007: do we really understand immune red cell destruction? (United States)

    Garratty, G


    We have learned a great deal about immune red blood cell (RBC) destruction since the elaboration of biochemical/immunological interactions of antibodies, complement and macrophages during the past 50 years. We first learned about the direct lysis of RBCs involving complement. We then learned of the role of the macrophage (particularly in the spleen and the liver) in initiating phagocytosis and antibody-dependent cytotoxicity of antibody-coated RBCs. Later, as the complexities of the human complement system were unravelled, we learned that complement-coated RBCs that were not directly haemolysed could interact with macrophages and that specific complement molecules on the RBC membrane could lead to a phagocytic event or the RBC (although heavily coated with complement) could survive normally. The application of isotope-labelling procedures (e.g. (51)Cr) for RBC survival (starting in the 1950s) advanced our knowledge considerably. Advances in knowledge in immunology helped us understand the complexity of the immunoglobulins (e.g. subclasses) and the specific receptors on macrophages and their role in immune haemolysis. Nevertheless, after more than 30 years researching this area, I am sometimes embarrassed to realize how much I cannot explain. Why do some patients have severe haemolytic transfusion reactions because of antibodies that are only detectable by one technique or not detectable by any? How do we explain autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with negative direct antiglobulin tests (DATs)? Why do RBCs strongly coated with immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 or IgG3 sometimes have normal survival? Are cells, other than macrophages, involved in immune RBC destruction? Could the relative amount of cytotoxicity vs. phagocytosis explain different clinical findings and response to treatment? How do we explain 'hyperhaemolysis' in sickle cell disease? Could novel mechanisms involving IgG glycosylation, CD47, 'armed' macrophages, bystander lysis, antibody activated reactive oxygen

  14. Mating ecology explains patterns of genome elimination. (United States)

    Gardner, Andy; Ross, Laura


    Genome elimination - whereby an individual discards chromosomes inherited from one parent, and transmits only those inherited from the other parent - is found across thousands of animal species. It is more common in association with inbreeding, under male heterogamety, in males, and in the form of paternal genome elimination. However, the reasons for this broad pattern remain unclear. We develop a mathematical model to determine how degree of inbreeding, sex determination, genomic location, pattern of gene expression and parental origin of the eliminated genome interact to determine the fate of genome-elimination alleles. We find that: inbreeding promotes paternal genome elimination in the heterogametic sex; this may incur population extinction under female heterogamety, owing to eradication of males; and extinction is averted under male heterogamety, owing to countervailing sex-ratio selection. Thus, we explain the observed pattern of genome elimination. Our results highlight the interaction between mating system, sex-ratio selection and intragenomic conflict.

  15. Can molecular cell biology explain chromosome motions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitotic chromosome motions have recently been correlated with electrostatic forces, but a lingering "molecular cell biology" paradigm persists, proposing binding and release proteins or molecular geometries for force generation. Results Pole-facing kinetochore plates manifest positive charges and interact with negatively charged microtubule ends providing the motive force for poleward chromosome motions by classical electrostatics. This conceptual scheme explains dynamic tracking/coupling of kinetochores to microtubules and the simultaneous depolymerization of kinetochore microtubules as poleward force is generated. Conclusion We question here why cells would prefer complex molecular mechanisms to move chromosomes when direct electrostatic interactions between known bound charge distributions can accomplish the same task much more simply.

  16. The Salpeter Slope of the IMF Explained

    CERN Document Server

    Oey, M S


    If we accept a paradigm that star formation is a self-similar, hierarchical process, then the Salpeter slope of the IMF for high-mass stars can be simply and elegantly explained as follows. If the instrinsic IMF at the smallest scales follows a simple -2 power-law slope, then the steepening to the -2.35 Salpeter value results when the most massive stars cannot form in the lowest-mass clumps of a cluster. It is stressed that this steepening MUST occur if clusters form hierarchically from clumps, and the lowest-mass clumps can form stars. This model is consistent with a variety of observations as well as theoretical simulations.

  17. Age and disability: explaining the wage differential. (United States)

    Gannon, Brenda; Munley, Margaret


    This paper estimates the level of explained and unexplained factors that contribute to the wage gap between workers with and without disabilities, providing benchmark estimates for Ireland. It separates out the confounding impact of productivity differences between disabled and non-disabled, by comparing wage differentials across three groups, disabled with limitations, disabled without limitations and non-disabled. Furthermore, data are analysed for the years 1995-2001 and two sub-samples pre and post 1998 allow us to decompose wage differentials before and after the Employment Equality Act 1998. Results are comparable to those of the UK and the unexplained component (upper bound of discrimination) is lower once we control for productivity differences. The lower bound level depends on the contribution of unobserved effects and the validity of the selection component in the decomposition model.

  18. What optimization principle explains the zebrafish vasculature? (United States)

    Chang, Shyr-Shea; Baek, Kyung In; Hsiai, Tzung; Roper, Marcus


    Many multicellular organisms depend on biological transport networks; from the veins of leaves to the animal circulatory system, to redistribute nutrients internally. Since natural selection rewards efficiency, those networks are thought to minimize the cost of maintaining the flow inside. But optimizing these costs creates tradeoffs with other functions, e.g. mixing or uniform distribution of nutrients. We develop an extended Lagrange multiplier approach that allows the optimization of general network functionals. We also follow the real zebrafish vasculature and blood flows during organism development. Taken together, our work shows that the challenge of uniform oxygen perfusion, and not transport efficiency, explain zebrafish vascular organization. Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award (T32-GM008185).

  19. Explaining variation in Down's syndrome screening uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crombag, Neeltje M T H; Vellinga, Ynke E; Kluijfhout, Sandra A;


    rates across countries can be explained by variation in individual values alone.The aim of this study was to compare Down's syndrome screening policies and programmes in the Netherlands, where uptake is relatively low ( 90% respectively....... RESULTS: There were many similarities in the demographics, healthcare systems, government abortion legislation and Down's syndrome screening policy across the studied countries. However, the additional cost for Down's syndrome screening over and above standard antenatal care in the Netherlands......BACKGROUND: The offer of prenatal Down's syndrome screening is part of routine antenatal care in most of Europe; however screening uptake varies significantly across countries. Although a decision to accept or reject screening is a personal choice, it is unlikely that the widely differing uptake...

  20. Explaining Today's Physics Through History and Biography (United States)

    Lindley, David


    Quantum computers, string theory, holographic universes - to the general audience, today's physics can be as mystifying as it is fascinating. But modern ideas evolved from an earlier phase of physics - Newtonian mechanics, simple cause and effect - that is in principle easier for the non-expert to grasp. I have found that writing about physics from a historical and biographical perspective is an effective way to convey modern thinking by explaining where it comes from - it is a way of carrying the reader from concepts that make intuitive sense to ideas that seem, on first encounter, utterly bizarre. Smuggling explanations into stories satisfies the reader's desire for narrative - bearing in mind that narrative can include the evolution of ideas as well as tales about intriguing and original people.

  1. Jumping Jupiter can explain Mercury's orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Roig, Fernando; DeSouza, Sandro Ricardo


    The orbit of Mercury has large values of eccentricity and inclination that cannot be easily explained if this planet formed on a circular and coplanar orbit. Here, we study the evolution of Mercury's orbit during the instability related to the migration of the giant planets in the framework of the jumping Jupiter model. We found that some instability models are able to produce the correct values of Mercury's eccentricity and inclination, provided that relativistic effects are included in the precession of Mercury's perihelion. The orbital excitation is driven by the fast change of the normal oscillation modes of the system corresponding to the perihelion precession of Jupiter (for the eccentricity), and the nodal regression of Uranus (for the inclination).

  2. Aftershock Statistics explained from Geometric Reductionism (United States)

    Mignan, Arnaud


    The decay of aftershocks has recently been shown to follow a stretched exponential function instead of the Omori law (Mignan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2015). This triggers a complete re-investigation of aftershock statistics in Southern California and a new physical interpretation of these results: (1) After verifying the stretched exponential behavior of aftershocks in time, I show that aftershocks follow a pure exponential in space. I then (re)demonstrate that K(M) = exp(α(M-mmin-ΔmB)) with K the aftershock production by mainshock magnitude M, α the Gutenberg-Richter distribution slope and ΔmB Båth's parameter. Based on these observations, I propose the Recursive Aftershock Stretched Exponential (RASE) model. (2) I investigate the origin of aftershocks using geometric reductionism made possible by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory postulate, which states that spatial density switches from δb0 for background seismicity to δbp for activated events (such as foreshocks, induced seismicity and here aftershocks) when the static stress field σ(r) exceeds the threshold σ(rA*) ∝ Δσ* with r the distance to source. The postulate explains the exponential spatial distribution (assuming that aftershocks fill a noisy fractal network within rA*) and aftershock production (assuming a constant stress drop) with K(M) = δbp.V(M), V being the volume of a rounded cuboid centred on the fault of length l ∝ exp(αM), and with radius rA*. Finally the observed stretching factor β ≈ 0.4 is explained topologically from the fractal dimension D ≈ 1.5.

  3. Training science centre Explainers. The Techniquest experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Johnson


    Full Text Available Techniquest was established in 1986, and in 1995 moved to its current premises at Cardiff Bay, South Wales. This was the first purpose-built science centre in the UK. It receives around 200,000 visitors every year to its exhibition, and to its programmes for schools and public audiences in the theatre, laboratory, discovery room and planetarium. The author joined the Techniquest project in 1985, became a staff member in 1990 and was the Chief Executive from 1997 until his retirement in 2004. Techniquest has three “out-stations” in Wales, and is responsible for the supply and maintenance of exhibits to the Look Out Discovery Centre in Bracknell, England. There is a Techniquest gallery at the Lisbon Pavilhão do Conhecimento - Ciência Viva, and a traveling exhibition, SciQuest, in South Africa which was also supplied by Techniquest. All these centres rely on the effective intervention of “Explainers” (at Techniquest we call them “Helpers” to provide the best possible experience for visitors. At its most demanding, the tasks of an Explainer are varied and intensive, yet there may be times when the duties are mundane or even dull. When you rely on people to act as both hosts and housekeepers, to provide both support and stimulus, and to be both welcoming and watchful, you are asking a great deal. This article raises some of the issues concerned with the recruitment and retention of Explainers, their training and management, and the way in which their role is recognized and valued by the science centre as a whole.

  4. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks? (United States)

    Zorrilla Matilla, José Manuel; Haiman, Zoltán; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea


    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with S /N >1 (where S /N is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find ≈50 % fewer counts for peaks near S /N =0 and significantly higher counts in the negative S /N tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within 20% for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the {Ωm,σ8} are ≈30 % larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with 2 important cosmological information in N-body data, as shown in previous studies, but Camelus constrains cosmology almost exclusively from high significance peaks (S /N >3 ). Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14% improvement in parameter constraints. We identified the covariance estimation as the main driver behind differences in inference, and suggest possible ways to make Camelus even more useful as a highly accurate peak count emulator.

  5. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor causing cauda equina syndrome with destruction of L5 vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhatt Sarvdeep


    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male patient presented with cauda equina lesion symptoms. His clinicoradiological examination including X-rays, CT scan and MRI revealed destruction of L 5 vertebral body, pedicle and a mass extending to lateral recess and left intervertebral foramina causing pressure over the thecal sac. A CT guided FNAC was inconclusive. Open biopsy and hemilaminectomy of L 5 vertebra was performed. Histopathology and immunocytochemical analysis revealed it to be primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Patient was given chemotherapy and radiation therapy. His lower limb power improved by grade I post operatively and at 2 years follow-up bowel/bladder recovery was noticed. Patient died after 2.5 years of surgery because of pulmonary metastasis.

  6. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Van Achterbergy, E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C.A. [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)


    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder


    In post-revolution Iran, the sacred notion of martyrdom has been transformed into a routine act of government – a moral sign of order and state sovereignty. Moving beyond the debates of the secularisation of the sacred and the making sacred of the secular, this article argues that the moment...... of sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site...

  8. Explaining growth variation over large spatial scales: Effects of temperature and food on walleye growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Thomas; Venturelli, Paul; Lester, Nigel P.


    for among-lake variation in growth (e.g., food and temperature) has proved very difficult. Here, we use length at age and temperature data from hundreds of water bodies between 44⁰N to 53⁰N latitude to explain variation in immature growth of walleye (Sander vitreus), one of the most economically valuable...... the variation is productivity and a negative relationship indicates density-dependence. We found that variation in walleye growth among water bodies is largely explained by food productivity - not density-dependence. These results suggest that we can’t detect density-dependence among lakes when density......Most fishes exhibit strong spatial variation in growth. Because fish growth and production are tightly linked, quantifying and explaining variation in growth can mean the difference between successful management and unforeseen collapse. However, disentangling the factors that are responsible...

  9. Proposed Pathophysiologic Framework to Explain Some ... (United States)

    The paper proposes a pathophysiologic framework to explain the well-established epidemiological association between exposure to ambient air particle pollution and premature cardiovascular mortality, and offers insights into public health solutions that extend beyond regularory environmental protections to actions that can be taken by individuals, public health officials, healthcare professionals, city and regional planners, local and state governmental officials and all those who possess the capacity to improve cardiovascular health within the popula­tion.The foundation of the framework rests on the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors acting alone and in concert with long-term exposures to air pollutants to create a conditional susceptibility for clinical vascular events, such as myocardial ischemia and infarction; stroke and lethal ventricular arrhythmias. The conceprual framework focuses on the fact that short-term exposures to ambient air particulate matter (PM) are associated with vascular thrombosis (acute coronary syndrome. stroke, deep venous thrombosis. and pulmonary embolism ) and electrical dysfunction (ventricular arrhythmia); and that individuals having prevalent heart disease are at greatest risk. Moreover, exposure is concomitant with changes in autonomic nervous system balance, systemic in­flammation, and prothrombotic/anti-thrombotic and profibrinolytic-antifibrinolytic balance.Thus, a comprehensive solution to the problem o

  10. Ocean currents help explain population genetic structure (United States)

    White, Crow; Selkoe, Kimberly A.; Watson, James; Siegel, David A.; Zacherl, Danielle C.; Toonen, Robert J.


    Management and conservation can be greatly informed by considering explicitly how environmental factors influence population genetic structure. Using simulated larval dispersal estimates based on ocean current observations, we demonstrate how explicit consideration of frequency of exchange of larvae among sites via ocean advection can fundamentally change the interpretation of empirical population genetic structuring as compared with conventional spatial genetic analyses. Both frequency of larval exchange and empirical genetic difference were uncorrelated with Euclidean distance between sites. When transformed into relative oceanographic distances and integrated into a genetic isolation-by-distance framework, however, the frequency of larval exchange explained nearly 50 per cent of the variance in empirical genetic differences among sites over scales of tens of kilometres. Explanatory power was strongest when we considered effects of multiple generations of larval dispersal via intermediary locations on the long-term probability of exchange between sites. Our results uncover meaningful spatial patterning to population genetic structuring that corresponds with ocean circulation. This study advances our ability to interpret population structure from complex genetic data characteristic of high gene flow species, validates recent advances in oceanographic approaches for assessing larval dispersal and represents a novel approach to characterize population connectivity at small spatial scales germane to conservation and fisheries management. PMID:20133354

  11. Dissipative dark matter explains rotation curves

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, R


    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particles interact with a massless (or very light) boson, is studied. Such dark matter can arise in simple hidden sector gauge models, including those featuring an unbroken $U(1)'$ gauge symmetry, leading to a dark photon. Previous work has shown that such models can not only explain the LSS and CMB, but potentially also dark matter phenomena on small scales, such as the inferred cored structure of dark matter halos. In this picture, dark matter halos of disk galaxies not only cool via dissipative interactions but are also heated via ordinary supernovae (facilitated by an assumed photon - dark photon kinetic mixing interaction). This interaction between the dark matter halo and ordinary baryons, a very special feature of these types of models, plays a critical role in governing the physical properties of the dark matter halo. Here, we further study the implications of this type of dissipative dark matter for disk galaxies. Building on earlier work, we develop a simpl...

  12. Birdsong dialect patterns explained using magnetic domains (United States)

    Burridge, James; Kenney, Steven


    The songs and calls of many bird species, like human speech, form distinct regional dialects. We suggest that the process of dialect formation is analogous to the physical process of magnetic domain formation. We take the coastal breeding grounds of the Puget Sound white crowned sparrow as an example. Previous field studies suggest that birds of this species learn multiple songs early in life, and when establishing a territory for the first time, retain one of these dialects in order to match the majority of their neighbors. We introduce a simple lattice model of the process, showing that this matching behavior can produce single dialect domains provided the death rate of adult birds is sufficiently low. We relate death rate to thermodynamic temperature in magnetic materials, and calculate the critical death rate by analogy with the Ising model. Using parameters consistent with the known behavior of these birds we show that coastal dialect domain shapes may be explained by viewing them as low-temperature "stripe states."

  13. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.


    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  14. Laser-induced propagation and destruction of amyloid beta fibrils. (United States)

    Yagi, Hisashi; Ozawa, Daisaku; Sakurai, Kazumasa; Kawakami, Toru; Kuyama, Hiroki; Nishimura, Osamu; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Kuboi, Ryoichi; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji


    The amyloid deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides is a critical pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Preventing the formation of amyloid deposits and removing preformed fibrils in tissues are important therapeutic strategies against AD. Previously, we reported the destruction of amyloid fibrils of beta(2)-microglobulin K3 fragments by laser irradiation coupled with the binding of amyloid-specific thioflavin T. Here, we studied the effects of a laser beam on Abeta fibrils. As was the case for K3 fibrils, extensive irradiation destroyed the preformed Abeta fibrils. However, irradiation during spontaneous fibril formation resulted in only the partial destruction of growing fibrils and a subsequent explosive propagation of fibrils. The explosive propagation was caused by an increase in the number of active ends due to breakage. The results not only reveal a case of fragmentation-induced propagation of fibrils but also provide insights into therapeutic strategies for AD.

  15. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Vázquez-Sánchez


    Full Text Available Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  16. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom


    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost...... damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from...

  17. Cellulose destruction under successive thermal and radiation treatment. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ershov, B.G.; Komarov, V.B.


    The influence of successive thermal and radiation effect on cellulose is investigated. The samples were ..gamma.. irradiated (/sup 60/Co) with a dose rate of 20 kGy/h (the absorbed doses ranged from 0 to 80 kGy) and heated up to 190 deg C. It is shown that the attainment of the same destruction depth for the heated-up cellulose occurs at noticeably lower absorbed doses than for the cellulose which has not been subjected to thermal treatment. For successive thermal and radiation treatment of cellulose the ratio S=S therm.+Ssub(rad) where S is a number of broken bonds in a macromolecule is correct. The radiation-chemical yield of cellulose destruction is determined to be: G=7.3 +- 0.1 mol/100 eV.

  18. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing. (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto


    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  19. Destruction mechanisms for formaldehyde in atmospheric pressure low temperature plasmas (United States)

    Storch, Daniel G.; Kushner, Mark J.


    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is a common pollutant of indoor air in residences and commercial buildings. The removal of CH2O from atmospheric pressure gas streams (N2/O2/H2O/CH2O) using plasmas generated by a dielectric barrier discharge has been theoretically investigated with the goal of cleansing indoor air. The model consists of a full accounting of the electron, ion, and neutral chemical kinetics in contaminated humid air. We find that the destruction of CH2O results dominantly from chemical attack by OH and O radicals, with the primary end products being CO and H2O. The predicted destruction rates for CH2O are typically 2-8 ppm/(mJ cm-3) (parts per million of CH2O in air/energy deposition). The elimination of the unwanted byproducts, CO and NO, using a platinum catalyst is discussed.

  20. Mathematical models applied in inductive non-destructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wac-Wlodarczyk, A.; Goleman, R.; Czerwinski, D. [Technical University of Lublin, 20 618 Lublin, Nadbystrzycka St 38a (Poland); Gizewski, T. [Technical University of Lublin, 20 618 Lublin, Nadbystrzycka St 38a (Poland)], E-mail:


    Non-destructive testing are the wide group of investigative methods of non-homogenous material. Methods of computer tomography, ultrasonic, magnetic and inductive methods still developed are widely applied in industry. In apparatus used for non-destructive tests, the analysis of signals is made on the basis of complex system answers. The answer is linearized due to the model of research system. In this paper, the authors will discuss the applications of the mathematical models applied in investigations of inductive magnetic materials. The statistical models and other gathered in similarity classes will be taken into consideration. Investigation of mathematical models allows to choose the correct method, which in consequence leads to precise representation of the inner structure of examined object. Inductive research of conductive media, especially those with ferromagnetic properties, are run with high frequency magnetic field (eddy-currents method), which considerably decrease penetration depth.

  1. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto


    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  2. The Joker effect: cooperation driven by destructive agents

    CERN Document Server

    Arenas, Alex; Cuesta, José A; Requejo, Rubén


    Understanding the emergence of cooperation is a central issue in evolutionary game theory. The hardest setup for the attainment of cooperation in a population of individuals is the Public Goods game in which cooperative agents generate a common good at their own expenses, while defectors "free-ride" this good. Eventually this causes the exhaustion of the good, a situation which is bad for everybody. Previous results have shown that introducing reputation, allowing for volunteer participation, punishing defectors, rewarding cooperators or structuring agents, can enhance cooperation. Here we present a model which shows how the introduction of rare, malicious agents -that we term jokers- performing just destructive actions on the other agents induce bursts of cooperation. The appearance of jokers promotes a rock-paper-scissors dynamics, where jokers outbeat defectors and cooperators outperform jokers, which are subsequently invaded by defectors. Thus, paradoxically, the existence of destructive agents acting ind...

  3. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.


    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  4. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom;


    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost...

  5. Environmental aspects of the demilitarization and destruction of ordnance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radun B. Jeremić


    Full Text Available In the last ten years, the Serbian Army has been facing the problem of surplus of various ordnance, which resulted from the changes in the organizational structure and rationalization. In addition, at several locations in Serbia there is still a large amount of unexploded ordnance remaining after the NATO bombing. The paper examined the environmental aspects of the destruction of surplus ammunition and unexploded ordnance. A brief survey of the methods of destruction and the technological conditions for their implementation are presented. The impact of toxic constituents of ordnance on human health and the environment is analyzed in particular. In order to minimize environmental risks during the demilitarization process of ordnance, appropriate proposals are given.

  6. Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave

    CERN Document Server

    Raymond, John C; Williams, Brian J; Blair, William P; Borkowski, Kazimierz J; Gaetz, Terrance J; Sankrit, Ravi


    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV $\\lambda$1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10" behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25" behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  7. Non-destructive elecrochemical monitoring of reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    been widely accepted as a non-destructive ”state of the art” technique for detection of corrosion in concrete structures. And, over the last decade, the trend in corrosion monitoring has moved towards quantitative non-destructive monitoring of the corrosion rate of the steel reinforcement. A few...... corrosion rate measurement instruments have been developed and are commercially available. The main features of these instruments are the combined use of an electrochemical technique for determining the corrosion rate and a so-called ”confinement technique”, which in principle controls the polarised surface...... area of the reinforcement, i.e. the measurement area. Both on-site investigations and laboratory studies have shown that varying corrosion rates are obtained when the various commercially available instruments are used. And in the published studies, conflicting explanations are given illustrating...

  8. Physics of the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, Irving P


    This book comprehensively addresses the physics and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the mechanical properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to clearly explain the physics issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the underlying physics. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This second edition enhances the treat...

  9. Importance of body image in marketing communication


    Váradyová, Monika


    The thesis dedicated to the issue of body image in the context of marketing communication emphasizing female body imaging in advertising. The aim of Master's thesis is to identify differences in the perception of beauty between the German and Czechoslovak culture. The theoretical part is intended to explain the body image issues, including historical development. Furthermore points out the influence of mass media on women's physical self-concept. The practical part deals with content analysis...

  10. Destructive adsorption of carbon tetrachloride on lanthanum and cerium oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Rosynek, M.P.; Lunsford, J.H.


    The destructive adsorption of CCl4 on La2O3 and CeO2 in the absence of any oxidant, such as oxygen, has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and insitu Raman spectroscopy as a function of the reaction temperature and the amount of CCl4 injected. La2O3 was much more reactive than CeO2, an

  11. LSP Composite Susbtrate Destructive Evaluation Test Assessment Manual (United States)

    Kovach, Daniel J.; Erickson, Grant J.


    This document specifies the processes to perform post-strike destructive damage evaluation of tested CFRP panels.It is recognized that many factors besides lightning damage protection are involved in the selection of an appropriate Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) for a particular system (e.g., cost, weight, corrosion resistance, shielding effectiveness, etc.). This document strives primarily to address the standardized generation of damage protection performance data.

  12. Embedded Non-Destructive Evaluation for Glass Armor (United States)


    Unclassified In House NDE and Electromagnetic Compatibility Capabilities Millimeter wave Scanning Imager Phased Array Ultrasound Immersion Tank Low...DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Embedded NDE for Glass Armor Sensor Enhanced Armor- Non-Destructive...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unclassified Armor Solutions Tested with Ultrasonics NDT/E leading to Sensor Enhanced

  13. From the Magic of Light to the Destruction of Night (United States)

    Posch, Thomas


    Life on the Earth depends on the light from the Sun. Humans generally have a very positive attitude towards light. This paper discusses the 'magic of light' - i.e. our dependence on and even addiction to light - and how it gradually led to the destruction of natural darkness by means of excessive artificial illumination. Furthermore, we develop a theory of the aesthetic value of natural nightscapes, which we illustrate by masterpieces from the history of painting.

  14. Signal Separation in Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Testing


    V. Matz; M. Kreidl; R. Šmíd


    In ultrasonic non-destructive testing the signals characterizing the material structure are commonly evaluated. The sensitivity and resolution of ultrasonic systems is limited by the backscattering and electronic noise level commonly contained in the acquired ultrasonic signals. For this reason, it is very important to use appropriate advanced signal processing methods for noise reduction and signal separation. This paper compares algorithms used for efficient noise reduction in ultrasonic si...

  15. FPGA embedded system for ultrasonic non-destructive testing


    Zhang, Lei


    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London Long Range Ultrasonic Testing (LRUT) is an emerging ultrasound Non-destructive Testing (NDT) method. The LRUT is a variant of the conventional NDT approach. By using ultrasound guided waves (UGWs) , it is efficient in quick long range defect scanning, which is impossible with other traditional NDT techniques. Increasing numbers of requirements for quick long range testing have led to...

  16. Destruction of public and governmental experiments of GMO in Europe. (United States)

    Kuntz, Marcel


    The purpose of this article is to compile the destruction of GMO trials from academic or governmental research institutes in Europe, in a factual manner and to highlight their main characteristics. About 80 acts of vandalism against academic or governmental research on GMOs are identified, mainly in 4 countries; namely France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Examples are also provided for Italy and Belgium. The general conclusions that can be drawn from these acts are also discussed.

  17. Cytokine-Mediated Bone Destruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Min Jung


    Full Text Available Bone homeostasis, which involves formation and resorption, is an important process for maintaining adequate bone mass in humans. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and bone loss, leading to joint destruction and deformity, and is a representative disease of disrupted bone homeostasis. The bone loss and joint destruction are mediated by immunological insults by proinflammatory cytokines and various immune cells. The connection between bone and immunity has been intensely studied and comprises the emerging field of osteoimmunology. Osteoimmunology is an interdisciplinary science investigating the interplay between the skeletal and the immune systems. The main contributors in osteoimmunology are the bone effector cells, such as osteoclasts or osteoblasts, and the immune cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes. Physiologically, osteoclasts originate from immune cells, and immune cells regulate osteoblasts and vice versa. Pathological conditions such as RA might affect these interactions, thereby altering bone homeostasis, resulting in the unfavorable outcome of bone destruction. In this review, we describe the osteoclastogenic roles of the proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells that are important in the pathophysiology of RA.

  18. Autodestruição humana Human self-destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roosevelt M. S. Cassorla


    Full Text Available É assinalada a complexidade das situações autodestrutivas, tanto em sua vertente social como em suas manifestações aparentemente individuais (suicídio, acidentes, homicídio, doenças, drogadição, etc.. Discutem-se as falhas nos registros e propõem-se métodos para seu estudo mais aprofundado. Nesta visão, discutem-se fantasias autodestrutivas, em particular as ligadas a perdas, a feridas narcísicas, à autodestruição provocada pela vítima, e levantam-se hipóteses sobre fantasias relacionadas a suicídios entre índios Guaraní. Esses aspectos são apresentados enfatizando-se sua aplicação preventiva no campo da Saúde Pública.This study analyzes the complexity of self-destructive situations in both their social dimensions and their apparent individual manifestations (suicide, accidents, homicide, illness, drug addiction, etc.. The article points out errors in the reporting of these situations and proposes methods for further study of the phenomenon. Self-destructive fantasies are discussed, especially those related to losses, narcissistic wounds, and self-destruction precipitated by the victim. Hypotheses are raised concerning fantasies related to suicides among the native Brazilian Guarani nation. The above aspects are presented to emphasize prevention in public health.

  19. Thermal and destructive interrogation of ceramic matrix composites (United States)

    Ojard, Greg; Doza, Douglas; Ouyang, Zhong; Angel, Paul; Smyth, Imelda; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser


    Ceramic matrix composites are intended for elevated temperature use and their performance at temperature must be clearly understood as insertion efforts are to be realized. Most efforts to understand ceramic matrix composites at temperature are based on their lifetime at temperature under stress based on fatigue or creep testing or residual testing after some combination of temperature, stress and time. While these efforts can be insightful especially based on their mechanical performance, there is no insight into how other properties are changing with thermal exposure. To gain additional insight into oxidation behavior of CMC samples, a series of fatigue and creep samples tested at two different temperatures were non-destructively interrogated after achieving run-out conditions by multiple thermal methods and limited X-ray CT. After non-destructive analysis, residual tensile tests were undertaken at room temperature. The resulting residual properties will be compared against the non-destructive data. Analysis will be done to see if data trends can be determined and correlated to the level and duration of exposure.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan A. A.


    Full Text Available This article reviews interpretative position of prominent German philosopher and psychologist Erich Fromm on mass men destructiveness analysis. As a rule, to reach a goal of well-balanced embedding into consumer society structure, mass man passes through stages of deindividualization and common averaging by accepting prescribed general postulates of society’s authorities. Nevertheless, own personality refusal and ‘rules of the game’ following adduct to moral degradation, which causes destructiveness phenomenon. Out of socio-political regimen, destructiveness appears in attempts of ‘freedom escape’ by any possible means. Totalitarian regimen ideologically steers mass men through total subjection to defined life track by agreement of individuality sacrifice. Democratically-minded consumer societies require deindividualization and partly rights pinching in exchange of status consumption system integration. Any patterns of counteraction to these system processes are commenced by personal activity manifestation and motivation in reaching own goals. However, conformist majority is meant to live according to ideologically defined society rules

  1. Rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip joint: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMurtrie A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip is a rare and incompletely understood disorder with scarce literature about variations in natural history within a population. Methods A series of cases from North Wales with rapid progressive joint destruction and extensive subchondral bone loss in the femoral head and acetabulum are presented. Radiographic findings mimicked those of other disorders such as septic arthritis, rheumatoid and seronegative arthritis, primary osteonecrosis with secondary osteoarthritis, or neuropathic osteoarthropathy, but none of the patients had clinical, pathologic, or laboratory evidence of these entities. Results Rapid progression of hip pain and disability was a consistent clinical feature. The average duration of symptoms was 1.4 years. Radiographs obtained at various intervals before surgery (average 14 months in 18 patients documented rapid hip destruction, involvement being unilateral in 13 cases. All patients underwent total hip arthroplasty, and osteoarthritis was confirmed at pathologic examination. Conclusion The authors postulate that these cases represent an uncommon subset of osteoarthritis and regular review, both clinically and radiologically, are required to assess speed of progression and prevent rapid loss of bone stock without the surgeon being aware. These cases are unsuitable for being placed on long waiting list due to technical difficulties in delayed surgery and compromised outcome following surgery.

  2. Body Language in Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat ÇALIŞKAN


    Full Text Available Drama is an act continuing life-long of a human and is an art of living. Owing to drama a child can gain the apportunity of practising and learning his life in games that he likes most. Today drama is scrutinized in four subtitles as creative, educational, psychodrama and sociodrama. The concepts about drama can be explained as creaticeness, metaksis, interraction, action, activity and empathy.Drama is the explanation of a sense or thought by motion, mimic, gesture and in words. In other words it is the animation of a situation or a subject using body language, reflecting by living, transforming into life.By using the body language consciously and effectively, it has an important function at dramatizing the events, getting students’ attention in education, concretizing abstract expressions, at stres accent and increasing the understandability of messages.Pantomime technic in drama method has a great importance at using the activities and human’s world consciously and animating the expressions and events. Because a teacher’s acting biology is importatnt an educational period.In this study related to drama expression, the importance of creative, educational, psychodrama, sociodrama, body language and pandomime technic in educational period has been tried to explaired.

  3. Explaining clinical behaviors using multiple theoretical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eccles Martin P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of implementation research, there is an increased interest in use of theory when designing implementation research studies involving behavior change. In 2003, we initiated a series of five studies to establish a scientific rationale for interventions to translate research findings into clinical practice by exploring the performance of a number of different, commonly used, overlapping behavioral theories and models. We reflect on the strengths and weaknesses of the methods, the performance of the theories, and consider where these methods sit alongside the range of methods for studying healthcare professional behavior change. Methods These were five studies of the theory-based cognitions and clinical behaviors (taking dental radiographs, performing dental restorations, placing fissure sealants, managing upper respiratory tract infections without prescribing antibiotics, managing low back pain without ordering lumbar spine x-rays of random samples of primary care dentists and physicians. Measures were derived for the explanatory theoretical constructs in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB, Social Cognitive Theory (SCT, and Illness Representations specified by the Common Sense Self Regulation Model (CSSRM. We constructed self-report measures of two constructs from Learning Theory (LT, a measure of Implementation Intentions (II, and the Precaution Adoption Process. We collected data on theory-based cognitions (explanatory measures and two interim outcome measures (stated behavioral intention and simulated behavior by postal questionnaire survey during the 12-month period to which objective measures of behavior (collected from routine administrative sources were related. Planned analyses explored the predictive value of theories in explaining variance in intention, behavioral simulation and behavior. Results Response rates across the five surveys ranged from 21% to 48%; we achieved the target sample size for three of

  4. Punishments and Prizes for Explaining Global Warming (United States)

    Somerville, R. C.


    Some few gifted scientists, the late Carl Sagan being an iconic example, are superbly skilled at communicating science clearly and compellingly to non-scientists. Most scientists, however, have serious shortcomings as communicators. The common failings include being verbose, addicted to jargon, caveat- obsessed and focused on details. In addition, it is far easier for a scientist to scoff at the scientific illiteracy of modern society than to work at understanding the viewpoints and concerns of journalists, policymakers and the public. Obstacles await even those scientists with the desire and the talent to communicate science well. Peer pressure and career disincentives can act as powerful deterrents, discouraging especially younger scientists from spending time on non-traditional activities. Scientists often lack mentors and role models to help them develop skills in science communication. Journalists also face real difficulties in getting science stories approved by editors and other gatekeepers. Climate change science brings its own problems in communication. The science itself is unusually wide- ranging and complex. The contentious policies and politics of dealing with global warming are difficult to disentangle from the science. Misinformation and disinformation about climate change are widespread. Intimidation and censorship of scientists by some employers is a serious problem. Polls show that global warming ranks low on the public's list of important issues. Despite all the obstacles, communicating climate change science well is critically important today. It is an art that can be learned and that brings its own rewards and satisfactions. Academic institutions and research funding agencies increasingly value outreach by scientists, and they provide resources to facilitate it. Society needs scientists who can clearly and authoritatively explain the science of global warming and its implications, while remaining objective and policy-neutral. This need will

  5. Explaining G20 and BRICS Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Larionova


    Full Text Available This article explores the internal and external factors influencing the compliance performance of the Group of 20 (G20 and the BRICS. The authors start with an overview of the G20 and BRICS compliance patterns using comparative data onthe number of commitments made by the two institutions, the level of institutional compliance, and distribution of commitments and compliance across issue areas. G20 compliance is traced since the leaders’ first 2008 summit in Washington. The BRICS compliance performance record includes data since the third stand alone summit in Sanya in 2011.The study then takes stock of compliance catalysts embedded in the summits’ discourse: priority placements, numerical targets, timelines, self-accountability pledges and mandates to implement and/or monitor implementation. The authors review trends in the use of catalysts in different years and issue areas and identify commonalities and differences.The analysis then turns to external causes of compliance and focuses on demand for collective actions and members’ collective power to respond and deliver on their pledges. Here the study explores whether the self-accountability mechanisms created by the institutions in response to the demand for effectiveness and legitimacy facilitate compliance.The article concludes by highlighting catalysts, causes of compliance and their combinations with the greatest power to encourage implementation, explaining trends in G20 and BRICS compliance performance. The data sets on G20 and BRICS differ in terms of scale. The G20 data set contains 1,511 commitments of which 114 have been monitored, and the BRICS data set contains 231 commitments of which 23 have been monitored.

  6. Do dark matter halos explain lensing peaks?

    CERN Document Server

    Matilla, José Manuel Zorrilla; Hsu, Daniel; Gupta, Arushi; Petri, Andrea


    We have investigated a recently proposed halo-based model, Camelus, for predicting weak-lensing peak counts, and compared its results over a collection of 162 cosmologies with those from N-body simulations. While counts from both models agree for peaks with $\\mathcal{S/N}>1$ (where $\\mathcal{S/N}$ is the ratio of the peak height to the r.m.s. shape noise), we find $\\approx 50\\%$ fewer counts for peaks near $\\mathcal{S/N}=0$ and significantly higher counts in the negative $\\mathcal{S/N}$ tail. Adding shape noise reduces the differences to within $20\\%$ for all cosmologies. We also found larger covariances that are more sensitive to cosmological parameters. As a result, credibility regions in the $\\{\\Omega_m, \\sigma_8\\}$ are $\\approx 30\\%$ larger. Even though the credible contours are commensurate, each model draws its predictive power from different types of peaks. Low peaks, especially those with $23)$. Our results confirm the importance of using a cosmology-dependent covariance with at least a 14\\% improveme...

  7. Can planetary instability explain the Kepler dichotomy?

    CERN Document Server

    Johansen, Anders; Church, Ross P; Holmelin, Viktor


    The planet candidates discovered by the Kepler mission provide a rich sample to constrain the architectures and relative inclinations of planetary systems within approximately 0.5 AU of their host stars. We use the triple-transit systems from the Kepler 16-months data as templates for physical triple-planet systems and perform synthetic transit observations. We find that all the Kepler triple-transit and double-transit systems can be produced from the triple-planet templates, given a low mutual inclination of around five degrees. Our analysis shows that the Kepler data contains a population of planets larger than four Earth radii in single-transit systems that can not arise from the triple-planet templates. We explore the hypothesis that high-mass counterparts of the triple-transit systems underwent dynamical instability to produce a population of massive double-planet systems of moderately high mutual inclination. We perform N-body simulations of mass-boosted triple-planet systems and observe how the systems...

  8. Social processes explaining the benefits of Al-Anon participation. (United States)

    Timko, Christine; Halvorson, Max; Kong, Calvin; Moos, Rudolf H


    This study examined social processes of support, goal direction, provision of role models, and involvement in rewarding activities to explain benefits of participating in Al-Anon, a 12-step mutual-help program for people concerned about another person's substance use. Newcomers to Al-Anon were studied at baseline and 6 months later, at which time they were identified as having either sustained attendance or dropped out. Among both newcomers and established Al-Anon members ("old-timers"), we also used number of Al-Anon meetings attended during follow-up to indicate extent of participation. Social processes significantly mediated newcomers' sustained attendance status versus dropped out and outcomes of Al-Anon in the areas of life context (e.g., better quality of life, better able to handle problems due to the drinker), improved positive symptoms (e.g., higher self-esteem, more hopeful), and decreased negative symptoms (e.g., less abuse, less depressed). Social processes also significantly mediated newcomers' number of meetings attended and outcomes. However, among old-timers, Al-Anon attendance was not associated with outcomes, so the potential mediating role of social processes could not be examined, but social processes were associated with outcomes. Findings add to the growing body of work identifying mechanisms by which 12-step groups are effective, by showing that bonding, goal direction, and access to peers in recovery and rewarding pursuits help to explain associations between sustained Al-Anon participation among newcomers and improvements on key concerns of Al-Anon attendees. Al-Anon is free of charge and widely available, making it a potentially cost-effective public health resource for help alleviating negative consequences of concern about another's addiction.

  9. Detection of Secondary Phases in UNS S32760 Superduplex Stainless Steel by Destructive and Non-destructive Techniques (United States)

    Argandona, G.; Biezma, M. V.; Berrueta, J. M.; Berlanga, C.; Ruiz, A.


    Duplex stainless steels (DSS), with a microstructure of an approximately equal mixture of ferrite ( α) and austenite ( γ) phases, are susceptible to the formation of undesirable phases if manufacturing processes are not carefully controlled. In particular, sigma phase (σ) is a Cr- and Mo-rich intermetallic phase, formed generally when DSS are by the temperature range from 600 to 900 °C, even for very short time periods. The precipitation of this phase induces detrimental effects in mechanical and corrosion resistance properties in the material, and even a low volume percentage of σ phase can significantly affect these properties. The current paper presents the effect of thermal treatments on UNS S32760 superduplex stainless steel seamless tubes, applied in order to promote the precipitation of different σ phase percentages in a ferrite/austenite microstructure. The detection and quantification of the σ phase using non-destructive ultrasounds testing has been one of the most relevant events of this study that contributes to improving the correlation of the results obtained using destructive and non-destructive techniques for the quantification of undesirable phases in superduplex seamless tubes during the manufacturing process.

  10. Application of Non-destructive Techniques in Evaluation of Wood Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGLijuan; JIANGXiaomei; YINYafang; ZHANGShuangbao


    With the increase of wood and wood products demands in the world, non-destructive evaluation techniques of wood are more and more important. This article clarifies the importance and present situation of non-destructive evaluation and introduces some instruments about non-destructive evaluation, and some advice and ideas are put forward.

  11. 27 CFR 70.442 - Taxes relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. (United States)


    ... guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. 70.442 Section 70.442 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... relating to machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other firearms. Part 179 of title 27 CFR... importers of and dealers in, machine guns, destructive devices, and certain other types of firearms,...

  12. 76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction (United States)


    ... With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a... weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998,...

  13. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction (United States)


    ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  14. Type-IV Pilus Deformation Can Explain Retraction Behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Ranajay; Vaziri, Ashkan


    Polymeric filament like type IV Pilus (TFP) can transfer forces in excess of 100pN during their retraction before stalling, powering surface translocation(twitching). Single TFP level experiments have shown remarkable nonlinearity in the retraction behavior influenced by the external load as well as levels of PilT molecular motor protein. This includes reversal of motion near stall forces when the concentration of the PilT protein is lowered significantly. In order to explain this behavior, we analyze the coupling of TFP elasticity and interfacial behavior with PilT kinetics. We model retraction as reaction controlled and elongation as transport controlled process. The reaction rates vary with TFP deformation which is modeled as a compound elastic body consisting of multiple helical strands under axial load. Elongation is controlled by monomer transport which suffer entrapment due to excess PilT in the cell periplasm. Our analysis shows excellent agreement with a host of experimental observations and we prese...

  15. Four loci explain 83% of size variation in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokouh Makvandi-Nejad

    Full Text Available Horse body size varies greatly due to intense selection within each breed. American Miniatures are less than one meter tall at the withers while Shires and Percherons can exceed two meters. The genetic basis for this variation is not known. We hypothesize that the breed population structure of the horse should simplify efforts to identify genes controlling size. In support of this, here we show with genome-wide association scans (GWAS that genetic variation at just four loci can explain the great majority of horse size variation. Unlike humans, which are naturally reproducing and possess many genetic variants with weak effects on size, we show that horses, like other domestic mammals, carry just a small number of size loci with alleles of large effect. Furthermore, three of our horse size loci contain the LCORL, HMGA2 and ZFAT genes that have previously been found to control human height. The LCORL/NCAPG locus is also implicated in cattle growth and HMGA2 is associated with dog size. Extreme size diversification is a hallmark of domestication. Our results in the horse, complemented by the prior work in cattle and dog, serve to pinpoint those very few genes that have played major roles in the rapid evolution of size during domestication.

  16. Forms of destructive relationships among the employees: how many and what the extent of the spread?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Vveinhardt


    Full Text Available Destructive behavior at work is one of the most important research topics affecting organizational performance standards and well-being. The article presented a scientific literature analysis and synthesis as well as the authors insight into destructive relationships in the work environment. There a various forms of destructive relationship in a workplace: mobbing, rare bullying, discrimination, nepotism, favoritism, cronyism, social ostracism, social loafing, organizational cynicism, depersonalization and cyber loafing. Destructive relationships shape the work environment has a negative impact on productivity, motivation, job satisfaction, health and promotes resignation. Destructive relationships among employees are explored in various sectors like transport and logistics, restaurants and catering, telecommunications, education and science and others.

  17. Role of PTPα in the destruction of periodontal connective tissues. (United States)

    Rajshankar, Dhaarmini; Sima, Corneliu; Wang, Qin; Goldberg, Stephanie R; Kazembe, Mwayi; Wang, Yongqiang; Glogauer, Michael; Downey, Gregory P; McCulloch, Christopher A


    IL-1β contributes to connective tissue destruction in part by up-regulating stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), which in fibroblasts is a focal adhesion-dependent process. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-α (PTPα) is enriched in and regulates the formation of focal adhesions, but the role of PTPα in connective tissue destruction is not defined. We first examined destruction of periodontal connective tissues in adult PTPα(+/+) and PTPα(-/-) mice subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis, which increases the levels of multiple cytokines, including IL-1β. Three weeks after ligation, maxillae were processed for morphometry, micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Compared with unligated controls, there was ∼1.5-3 times greater bone loss as well as 3-fold reduction of the thickness of the gingival lamina propria and 20-fold reduction of the amount of collagen fibers in WT than PTPα(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical staining of periodontal tissue showed elevated expression of MMP-3 at ligated sites. Second, to examine mechanisms by which PTPα may regulate matrix degradation, human MMP arrays were used to screen conditioned media from human gingival fibroblasts treated with vehicle, IL-1β or TNFα. Although MMP-3 was upregulated by both cytokines, only IL-1β stimulated ERK activation in human gingival fibroblasts plated on fibronectin. TIRF microscopy and immunoblotting analyses of cells depleted of PTPα activity with the use of various mutated constructs or with siRNA or PTPα(KO) and matched wild type fibroblasts were plated on fibronectin to enable focal adhesion formation and stimulated with IL-1β. These data showed that the catalytic and adaptor functions of PTPα were required for IL-1β-induced focal adhesion formation, ERK activation and MMP-3 release. We conclude that inflammation-induced connective tissue degradation involving fibroblasts requires functionally active PTPα and in part is mediated by IL-1β signaling through focal adhesions.

  18. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE`s operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities.

  19. Role of PTPα in the destruction of periodontal connective tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaarmini Rajshankar

    Full Text Available IL-1β contributes to connective tissue destruction in part by up-regulating stromelysin-1 (MMP-3, which in fibroblasts is a focal adhesion-dependent process. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-α (PTPα is enriched in and regulates the formation of focal adhesions, but the role of PTPα in connective tissue destruction is not defined. We first examined destruction of periodontal connective tissues in adult PTPα(+/+ and PTPα(-/- mice subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis, which increases the levels of multiple cytokines, including IL-1β. Three weeks after ligation, maxillae were processed for morphometry, micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Compared with unligated controls, there was ∼1.5-3 times greater bone loss as well as 3-fold reduction of the thickness of the gingival lamina propria and 20-fold reduction of the amount of collagen fibers in WT than PTPα(-/- mice. Immunohistochemical staining of periodontal tissue showed elevated expression of MMP-3 at ligated sites. Second, to examine mechanisms by which PTPα may regulate matrix degradation, human MMP arrays were used to screen conditioned media from human gingival fibroblasts treated with vehicle, IL-1β or TNFα. Although MMP-3 was upregulated by both cytokines, only IL-1β stimulated ERK activation in human gingival fibroblasts plated on fibronectin. TIRF microscopy and immunoblotting analyses of cells depleted of PTPα activity with the use of various mutated constructs or with siRNA or PTPα(KO and matched wild type fibroblasts were plated on fibronectin to enable focal adhesion formation and stimulated with IL-1β. These data showed that the catalytic and adaptor functions of PTPα were required for IL-1β-induced focal adhesion formation, ERK activation and MMP-3 release. We conclude that inflammation-induced connective tissue degradation involving fibroblasts requires functionally active PTPα and in part is mediated by IL-1β signaling through focal adhesions.

  20. Destructive Examination of Shipping Package 9975-02019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02019 as part of a comprehensive SRS surveillance program for plutonium material stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). During the field surveillance inspection of this package in KAC, two non-conforming conditions were noted: the axial gap of 1.577 inch exceeded the 1 inch maximum criterion, and two areas of dried glue residue were noted on the upper fiberboard subassembly. This package was subsequently transferred to SRNL for more detailed inspection and destructive examination. In addition to the conditions noted in KAC, the following conditions were noted: - Numerous small spots of corrosion were observed along the bottom edge of the drum. - In addition to the smeared glue residue on the upper fiberboard subassembly, there was also a small dark stain. - Mold was present on the side and bottom of the lower fiberboard subassembly. Dark stains from elevated moisture content were also present in these areas. - A dark spot with possible light corrosion was observed on the primary containment vessel flange, and corresponding rub marks were observed on the secondary containment vessel ID. - The fiberboard thermal conductivity in the radial orientation was above the specified range. When the test was repeated with slightly lower moisture content, the result was acceptable. The moisture content for both tests was within a range typical of other packages in storage. The observed conditions must be fully evaluated by KAC to ensure the safety function of the package is being maintained. Several factors can contribute to the concentration of moisture in the fiberboard, including higher than average initial moisture content, higher internal temperature (due to internal heat load and placement within the array of packages), and the creation of additional moisture as the fiberboard begins to degrade.

  1. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus (United States)

    Rissman, Barbara


    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…

  2. [Multifaceted body. I. The bodies of medicine]. (United States)

    Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Stiefel, F


    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This first article discusses four distinct types of representation of the body within medicine, each related to a specific epistemology and shaping a distinct kind of clinical legitimacy: the body-object of anatomy, the body-machine of physiology, the cybernetic body of biology, the statistical body of epidemiology.

  3. Destructive discovertebral degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. (United States)

    Charran, A K; Tony, G; Lalam, R; Tyrrell, P N M; Tins, B; Singh, J; Eisenstein, S M; Balain, B; Trivedi, J M; Cassar-Pullicino, V N


    The uncommon variant of degenerative hip joint disease, termed rapidly progressive osteoarthritis, and highlighted by severe joint space loss and osteochondral disintegration, is well established. We present a similar unusual subset in the lumbar spine termed destructive discovertebral degenerative disease (DDDD) with radiological features of vertebral malalignment, severe disc resorption, and "bone sand" formation secondary to vertebral fragmentation. Co-existing metabolic bone disease is likely to promote the development of DDDD of the lumbar spine, which presents with back pain and sciatica due to nerve root compression by the "bone sand" in the epidural space. MRI and CT play a complimentary role in making the diagnosis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana S. Stavitskaya


    Full Text Available The paper considers a possibility of using the catalytic action of the carbonaceous adsorbents modified by different ways for the purification of various solutions, natural and wastewaters. It has been found that the oxidative destruction of organic (phenols, dyes, pesticides, etc. and inorganic (H2S contaminants in water solutions is considerably intensified in the presence of both ordinary activated carbons and especially, carbons with specially introduced catalytic additives. It is shown that the sewage treatment level is strongly affected by the amount and nature of a modifying agent introduced on the carbon surface.

  5. [Prognostic significance of helical CT in patients with destructive pancreatitis]. (United States)

    Bulanova, T V


    Spiral scanning computed tomography (CT) is able not only to image the pancreas and to evaluate its structure, but to interpret the status of the adjacent organs and tissues. CT symptoms of pancreatic necrotic changes and multiorgan failure were studied in the prospective follow-up of 47 patients with prior destructive pancreatitis (158 studies). CT differentially substantiated indications for choosing treatment policy for different forms of pancreatic lesions. The paper gives a quantitative assessment of necrotic pancreatic parencymatous areas and shows its prognostic value.

  6. Job creation and destruction, worker reallocation and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belzil, Christian


    Using Danish firm level data on employment dynamics merged with individual records on all workers in a given firm, various measures of employment and worker reallocation used in the macroeconomics literature are incorporated in a wage equation framework. The effects of job creation/destruction an......Using Danish firm level data on employment dynamics merged with individual records on all workers in a given firm, various measures of employment and worker reallocation used in the macroeconomics literature are incorporated in a wage equation framework. The effects of job creation...

  7. Destructive Cholangitis in an Adult Jack Russell Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kodama


    Full Text Available A 4-year-old female Jack Russell terrier dog exhibited vomiting and severe jaundice of the visible mucous membranes and skin. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse areas of high echogenicity and focal areas of low echogenicity in the left lobe of the liver. On macroscopic observation of the biopsied liver specimen, many scattered irregularly shaped red spots were observed on the liver surface and on the cut surface. Histopathologically, there was loss of the interlobular bile duct and cholangitis accompanied by infiltration of pigment-laden macrophages in the Glisson’s capsule. Therefore, in the present case the dog was diagnosed with destructive cholangitis.

  8. Full-Scale Dynamic Testing of Dolosse to Destruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.


    It is well known that the relative dynamic strength of unreinforced slender concrete units decreases as the size increases. Big units can resist relatively smaller movements than small units. When model tests of cover layer stability are performed the determination of the damage criterion...... that should be adopted must therefore be based on knowledge of the dynamic strength of the corresponding prototype units. With the purpose of establishing a relationship between the size and the dynamic strength of unreinforced units, some full-scale tests to destruction of 1.5 and 5.4 t units were performed...

  9. Kinetics of Trypanosoma cruzi destruction in the mouse spleen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulmira M.S. Cordeiro


    Full Text Available Massive destruction of parasitized splenic macrophages was histologically observed at the height of a virulent infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain in the mouse. This was coincident with a sudden drop in parasitemic curve. Most of the animals died at this point, probably due to the liberation of toxic products, such as TNF, following the massive destruction of parasitized cells. However, parasitized-cell destruction indicated the transition from susceptibility to resistance. Although it has been extensively studied in vitro, this study contributes with the morphological counterpart observed in vivo by optical and electron microscopy. When infected animals were specifically treated during early infection transition to chronic phase was immediately observed without splenic parasitism. Animals that apparently recovered from massive cell-destruction in the spleen showed evidences of a rapid restoration of splenic architecture.Um estudo histologico sequenciado mostrou que o parasitismo dos macrófagos esplênicos por uma cepa virulenta (cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi tem um curso progressivo, mas chega até um ponto em que todos as células parasitadas são subitamente destruídas. Tal achado coincidiu com uma quéda brusca da curva parasitêmica e com a morte da maioria dos animais, provavelmente devido à liberação de produtos tóxicos (como o TNF pelas células desintegradas. O achado foi interpretado como o auge da transição entre uma fase de susceptibilidade e outra de resistência. Embora esta transição tenha sido bem estudada in vitro, este estudo contribui com os dados do substrato morfológico observados in vivo, através da microscopia ótica e eletrônica. O tratamento específico e supressivo feito na fase inicial da infecção acarreta uma transição imediata para a fase crônica e aí o parasitismo esplênico desaparece completamente. Os animais que aparentemente se recuperaram expontaneamente após a fase de destrui

  10. The Destructive Effect of Lawlessness on Man’s Soul

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyzes the destructive effect of lawlessness on Dorian Gray in The Picture of Dorian Gray and Kurtz in Heart of Darkness. Under the protection of his portrait, Dorian Gray is lost in his seeking for pleasure and corrupts from a good angel into a vicious devil. As an oppressor in Africa, Kurtz can make his law and can do anything without punishment and is thus destroyed by his insatiable desire for ivory. The corruption of Dorian Gray and Kurtz shows that without observation, man may expose his evil side to an extreme.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Olesen, Thomas Roslyng


    This paper analyzes what happens to redundant skills and workers when large companies close down and whether their skills are destroyed or reallocated. The analysis is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data of the closure of four companies. Getting a job in a skill......-related industry or moving to a spinoff firm leads to skill reallocation. Thus, the result depends on regional idiosyncrasies such as industry structure and urbanization. If local policy makers and the owners exert a coordinated effort, it is possible to create success stories of less skill destruction in urban...

  12. The influence of the intervertebral disc on stress distribution of the thoracolumbar vertebrae under destructive load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雷; 裴福兴; 宋跃明; 邹力; 张聪; 周宗科


    Objective: To compare the influence of normal and degenerative discs on stress distribution of the thoracolumbar vertebrae under destructive load, explore the biomechanical background and clinical meaning and provide theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods: A mechanical model of thoracolumbar motion segment of normal and degenerative discs was built with a three dimensional finite element method and three stresses of vertical compression, compressive flexion and distractive flexion were comparatively analyzed.Results: With vertical compression and compressive flexion loads, the thoracolumbar motion segment of the normal disc showed that the central part of the upper and lower end-plates of the vertebrae and the central part of the trabecular bone adjacent to the end-plate were loaded with the most intensive stresses, meanwhile, the postero-lateral part of the annulus fibrosus was concentrated with stresses. Degenerative disc showed that the stress distribution of the trabecular bone was relatively averaged, the stresses of the central part adjacent to the end-plate were low, while at the same time, the stresses of the peripheral part were elevated relatively. With distraction flexion load, the stresses of the cortex bone, trabecular bone, end-plate and annulus fibrosus of the thoracolumbar vertebrae of degenerative discs were low, meanwhile, the stresses of the posterior structure of the vertebral body were relatively elevated compared with that of normal discs.Conclusions: There is difference in influence between normal and degenerative discs on the stress distribution of the thoracolumbar vertebrae with destructive load. The transferring way of load is changed after disc degeneration.

  13. The influence of the interertebral disc on stress distribution of the thoracolumbar vertebrae under destructive load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雷; 裴福兴; 等


    Objectie:To compare the influence of normal and degenerative discs on stress distribution of the thoracolumbar vertebrae under destructive load,explore the biomechanical background and clinical meaning and provide theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.Methods:A mechanical model of thoracolumbar motion segment of normal and degenerative discs was built with a three dimensional finite element method and three stresses of vertical compression,compressive flexion and distractive flexion were comparatively analyzed.Results:With vertical compression and compressive flexion loads,the thoracolumbar motion segment of the normal disc showed that the central part of the upper and lower end-plates of the vertebrae and the central part of the trabecular bone adjacent to the end-plate were lgaded with the most intensive stresses,meanwhile,the postero-lateral part of the annulus fibrosus was concentrated with stresses.Degeneratie disc showed that the stress distribution of the trabecular bone was relatively averaged,the stresses of the central part adjacent to the end-plate were low,while at the same time,the stresses of the peripheral part were elevated relatively.With distraction flexion load,the stresses of the cortex bone,trabecular bone,end-plate and annulus fibrosus of the thoracolumbar vertebrae of degenerative discs were low,neanwhile,the stresses of the posterior structure of the vertebral body were relatively elevated compared with that of normal discs.Conclusions:There is difference in influence between normal and degen erative discs on the stress distribution of the thoracolumbar vertebrae with destructive load.The transferring way of load is changed after disc degeneration.

  14. Perception, experience and body identity. (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan J; Ortiz, Tomás; López-Ibor, María I


    Physician has to know the patient in the disease and not only the disease in the patient, from the dual perspective of the body as object and the body as subject. This also affects the patient who has to cope with the reality of having a body that bursts into the subject's consciousness as a vital threat, as source of discomfort and inability and being a body (Marcel). The human body in its dual aspect has been and is a great unknown, if not a great outrage in spite of the fact that we are our body and our body is each of us. We sometimes do not feel as we are and thus a confrontation arises, sometimes more normal, others more morbid. This forces the physician to face complex ethics considerations and the scientist to accept a personal identity disorder. Dualism considers that there are two substances in us, one that distinguishes us from other beings and from the rest of the individuals of the human species, the soul, the psychic life, mind or consciousness, and another more insubstancial one, the body. The aim of the first substance is to dominate the body, to survive it after death when it is, already a corpse is meant to become putrefied, is buried, incinerated or thrown to the depth of the sea. This dualism aims to explain the origin of the evil and the attitude to defeat it and it does so efficiently. This anthropology has very ancient roots (the Upvanishads, in the orphic texts, in Plato), it is the core of Gnostic thought and the foundation of the modern science since Descartes. Some monist perspectives are a masked dualism or a mereologic fallacy, according to which, the brain is conscious, when that what is conscious is the subject, although the subject, with the brain could not be conscious. Therefore, a new perspective is proposed, chiasmatic or janicular monism, that considers the adaptive value of focusing on the reality from two perspectives, as physical universe and the world of interpersonal relationships. In the agnosias and in the phantom limb

  15. A non-destructive method for dating human remains (United States)

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason


    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  16. Non destructive testing of works of art by terahertz analysis (United States)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Metayer, Jean-Jacques; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent


    Improvements in technologies and the growing security needs in airport terminals lead to the development of non destructive testing devices using terahertz waves. Indeed, these waves have the advantage of being, on one hand, relatively penetrating. They also have the asset of not being ionizing. It is thus potentially an interesting contribution in the non destructive testing field. With the help of the VISIOM Company, the possibilities of this new industrial analysis method in assisting the restoration of works of art were then approached. The results obtained within this framework are presented here and compared with those obtained by infrared thermography. The results obtained show first that the THZ method, like the stimulated infrared thermography allows the detection of delamination located in murals paintings or in marquetries. They show then that the THZ method seems to allow detecting defects located relatively deeply (10 mm) and defects potentially concealed by other defects. It is an advantage compared to the stimulated infra-red thermography which does not make it possible to obtain these results. Furthermore, they show that the method does not seem sensitive to the various pigments constituting the pictorial layer, to the presence of a layer of "Japan paper" and to the presence of a layer of whitewash. It is not the case of the stimulated infrared thermography. It is another advantage of the THZ method. Finally, they show that the THZ method is limited in the detection of low-size defects. It is a disadvantage compared to the stimulated infrared thermography.

  17. "Till destruction sicken": the catastrophe of mind in Macbeth. (United States)

    Tarantelli, Carole Beebe


    The author examines the tragedy of Macbeth from the vertex of its portrait of the effects of the hero's abandonment to the "blindest fury of destructiveness" (Freud, 1930, p. 121), using aspects of psychoanalytic thought to illuminate the theme. She affirms that Macbeth's immediate transformation in phantasy from loyal subject to future assassin threatens to flood his psyche with the uncontainable energy of destruction and thus to produce a psychic catastrophe. The remainder of the play is then examined as a representation of Macbeth's attempts to defend himself from that catastrophe: the only objects whose existence he can tolerate are those that cannot challenge his possession of the crown, which leads him to attempt to destroy all opposition. Since this is impossible, his alternative is to denude his mind of its perception of the reality in which the actions of others will inevitably produce future transformations which he is unable to control. The play's last soliloquy anticipates the final state, the repose of emptiness; it portrays a mind, emptied of emotion, looking at a world which it has denuded of meaning.

  18. Management of periodontal destruction caused by overhanging dental restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnova Misnova


    Full Text Available Periodontal tissue inflammations are occasionally caused by positions of restoration margins, particularly if they are placed subgingivally. A 44-year old male was referred to the Dental and Mouth Hospital of Dentistry Faculty Hasanuddin University with the chief complaint of severe pain at right posterior maxillary. Clinical examinations demonstrate a 7-mm periodontal pocket at buccal aspect of 16 teeth with tooth mobility °2. Overhanging dental composite restorations of Class V were detected at the subgingival areas of 15, 16, and 17. Radiographic results show vertically and horizontally alveolar bone loss. This case report is aimed to describe the management of periodontal tissue destruction as a result of overhanging dental composite restorations. Scaling and root planing were conducted as the initial therapy. The periodontal surgery was performed a week after the initial therapy. A full-thickness flap design with sulcular incision from 14 to 18 was made before the pocket curretage and necrotic tissue debridement along with restoration recontouring. The flap was sutured with simple suture technique. Periodontal dressing was packed for a week. Antibiotics, analgetics and antiinflammatory drugs were prescribed per orally. There was no history of pain a week after the surgical procedure. Tooth mobility was decreased to °1 and the periodontal pocket was reduced to 3 mm. Overhanging dental restorations may lead to periodontal tissue destruction. The subgingivally placement of those restorations should consider the health of periodontal tissues.

  19. Reappraising metalloproteinases in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis: destruction or repair? (United States)

    Murphy, Gillian; Nagase, Hideaki


    Metalloproteinases such as the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and disintegrin-metalloproteinases with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTSs) have been implicated in the pathological destruction of joint tissues in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. These enzymes degrade extracellular matrix macromolecules and modulate factors governing cell behavior. They may also be involved in tissue repair, but become a part of the destructive disease process due to overexpression. Studies investigating the roles of metalloproteinases have thrown light on the failure of the early clinical trials of MMP inhibitors as therapeutic agents in arthritic diseases. It is now clear that a more accurate knowledge of the enzymes in the different cells and their precise roles in the disease process is required for these approaches to be successful. The next generations of metalloproteinase inhibitors should have added specificity, gained from an understanding not only of the catalytic domain structures but the role of extracatalytic motifs in substrate binding, or by the generation of engineered tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Inhibition of the enzymes by modulating gene expression or preventing protein activation could also be considered. Work on the development of effective biomarkers is also essential before an effective evaluation of the new generations of specific inhibitors can be made.

  20. Grain destruction in a supernova remnant shock wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ghavamian, Parviz [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Geosciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252 (United States); Williams, Brian J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Blair, William P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Borkowski, Kazimierz J. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Sankrit, Ravi, E-mail: [SOFIA Science Center, NASA Ames Research Center, M/S 232-12, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)


    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants (SNRs), gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV λ1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 μm and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus, these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the C IV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared with the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction, and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  1. [Temporary biokeratoprostheses in total destruction of the cornea]. (United States)

    Onishchenko, A L; Kolbasko, A V; Kramer, E R


    The paper presents an original method for temporary biokeratoprothetics in total destruction of the cornea, which consists of the following. In the operating room a 12-mm disc is cut out of patient's conchal cartilage by a trephine and then thinned down to 1 mm with a blade. The prepared autograft is placed in front of the iris completely overlapping corneal defect and sutured to the sclera with 10--12 U-shaped interrupted stitches using a 7/0 suture. Between the stitches 0.2--0.3 ml of viscoelastic are injected into the anterior chamber. Temporary blepharorrhaphy is done within the temporal one-third of the eyelids with a U-shaped suture 6/0. The authors present an own clinical observation of patient D., aged 46, with purulent corneal ulcer and total destruction of the cornea. In ophthalmic emergency, if no donor cornea is available, the described method allows to save the eyeball from its anatomical and functional loss. Further routine keratoplasty or optical keratoprosthetics may bring some functional improvement.

  2. Minimally destructive Doppler measurement of a quantized, superfluid flow (United States)

    Anderson, Neil; Kumar, Avinash; Eckel, Stephen; Stringari, Sandro; Campbell, Gretchen


    Ring shaped Bose-Einstein condensates are of interest because they support the existence of quantized, persistent currents. These currents arise because in a ring trap, the wavefunction of the condensate must be single valued, and thus the azimuthal velocity is quantized. Previously, these persistent current states have only been measured in a destructive fashion via either interference with a phase reference or using the size of a central vortex-like structure that appears in time of flight. Here, we demonstrate a minimally destructive, in-situ measurement of the winding number of a ring shaped BEC. We excite a standing wave of phonon modes in the ring BEC using a perturbation. If the condensate is in a nonzero circulation state, then the frequency of these phonon modes are Doppler shifted, causing the standing wave to precess about the ring. From the direction and velocity of this precession, we can infer the winding number of the flow. For certain parameters, this technique can detect individual winding numbers with approximately 90% fidelity.

  3. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data

    CERN Document Server

    Klimek, Peter; Thurner, Stefan


    We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy follows indeed the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite - disappearances followed by periods of appearances - is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e. creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e. progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be u...

  4. Empirical confirmation of creative destruction from world trade data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Klimek

    Full Text Available We show that world trade network datasets contain empirical evidence that the dynamics of innovation in the world economy indeed follows the concept of creative destruction, as proposed by J.A. Schumpeter more than half a century ago. National economies can be viewed as complex, evolving systems, driven by a stream of appearance and disappearance of goods and services. Products appear in bursts of creative cascades. We find that products systematically tend to co-appear, and that product appearances lead to massive disappearance events of existing products in the following years. The opposite-disappearances followed by periods of appearances-is not observed. This is an empirical validation of the dominance of cascading competitive replacement events on the scale of national economies, i.e., creative destruction. We find a tendency that more complex products drive out less complex ones, i.e., progress has a direction. Finally we show that the growth trajectory of a country's product output diversity can be understood by a recently proposed evolutionary model of Schumpeterian economic dynamics.

  5. Destructive granuloma derived from a liver cyst: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujo Kawashita; Takashi Kanematsu; Yukio Kamohara; Junichiro Furui; Fumihiko Fujita; Shungo Miyamoto; Mitsuhisa Takatsuki; Kuniko Abe; Tomayoshi Hayashi; Yasuharu Ohno


    We herein report the case of an idiopathic liver cystic mass which aggressively infiltrated the thoracoabdominal wall. A 74-year-old woman who had a huge cystic lesion in her right hepatic lobe was transferred to our hospital for further examinations. Imaging studies revealed a simple liver cyst, and the cytological findings of intracystic fluid were negative. She was followed up periodically by computed tomography (CT) scans. Seven years later, she complained of a prominence and dull pain in her right thoraco-abdominal region. CT revealed an enlargement of the cystic lesion and infiltration into the intercostal subcutaneous tissue. We suspected the development of a malignancy inside the liver cyst such as cystadenocarcinoma, and she therefore underwent surgery. A tumor extirpation was performed, including the chest wall, from the 7th to the 10th rib, as well as a right hepatic lobectomy. Pathologically, the lesion consisted of severe inflammatory change with epithelioid cell granuloma and bone destruction without any malignant neoplasm. No specific pathogens were evident based on further histological and molecular examinations. Therefore the lesion was diagnosed to be a destructive granuloma associated with a long-standing hepatic cyst. Since undergoing surgery, the patient has been doing well without any signs of recurrence.

  6. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils (United States)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.


    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  7. Do you get it? User-evaluated explainable BDI agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekens, J.; Harbers, M.; Hindriks, K.; Bosch, K. van den; Jonker, C.; Meyer, J.J.C.


    In this paper we focus on explaining to humans the behavior of autonomous agents, i.e., explainable agents. Explainable agents are useful for many reasons including scenario-based training (e.g. disaster training), tutor and pedagogical systems, agent development and debugging, gaming, and interacti

  8. Body Image and Body Contouring Procedures. (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Polonsky, Heather M


    Dissatisfaction with physical appearance and body image is a common psychological phenomena in Western society. Body image dissatisfaction is frequently reported by those who have excess body weight, but also is seen in those of normal body weight. For both groups of individuals, this dissatisfaction impacts self-esteem and quality of life. Furthermore, it is believed to be the motivational catalyst to a range of appearance-enhancing behaviors, including weight loss efforts and physical activity. Body image dissatisfaction is also believed to play a role in the decision to seek the wide range of body contouring procedures offered by aesthetic physicians. Individuals who seek these procedures typically report increased body image dissatisfaction, focus on the feature they wish to alter with treatment, and often experience improvement in body image following treatment. At the same time, extreme body image dissatisfaction is a symptom of a number of recognized psychiatric disorders. These include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), all of which can contraindicate aesthetic treatment. This special topic review paper provides an overview of the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic procedures designed to improve body contouring. The review specifically focuses on the relationship of body image and body weight, as well as the presentation of body image psychopathology that would contraindicate aesthetic surgery. The overall goal of the paper is to highlight the clinical implications of the existing research and provide suggestions for future research on the psychological aspects of body contouring procedures.

  9. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... percent of foreign body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without ... fainting and shock. Foreign bodies in the airway: Most foreign bodies in the airway are usually expelled ...

  10. Evaluation by computed tomography of the destruction of the internal capsule in hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukio; Ohuchi, Tadao; Yukawa, Hideki; Konno, Jyoji; Saiki, Iwao (Iwate Medical Coll., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Seventy-five patients, 37 with putaminal hemorrhage and 38 with thalamic hemorrhage. were examined by CT immediately after the ictus and while the patients were undergoing conservative treatment. The distance was measured on every CT from the center of the pineal body to the inside edge of the hematoma in the putaminal hemorrhage and to the outside edge in the thalamic hemorrhage, by using a slice 5 cm above the orbitomeatal line on which the pineal body was clearly recognizable. At 6 months after ictus, recuperations from hemiplegia were estimated in all patients and compared with the degree of the measured distance on CT. In the group of patients who had recovered completely from hemiplegia, the degrees were more than 28 mm in the cases of putaminal hemorrhage and less than 32 mm in the cases of thalamic hemorrhage. If the degrees were under 25 mm in the putaminal hemorrhage or over 36 mm in the thalamic hemorrhage, no rehabilitation was effective for their paralytic upper extremities. Measurements of the internal capsule were also performed on three fresh brains without cerebral disease. The normal values of the distance were 34.7+-1.0 mm from the center of the pineal body to the outside edge of the posterior limb of the internal capsule and 25.0+-0.9 mm to its inside edge. Judging from these results, it is thought that the attainable limits of avoiding destruction of the posterior limb of the internal capsule by the hematoma are 28 mm in the case of a putaminal hemorrhage and 32 mm in the case of a thalamic hemorrhage. Therefore, it was considered that the internal capsule can be shifted about 7 mm to the medial or lateral side without any direct or indirect effects from the hematoma.

  11. What Explains the ICT Diffusion Gap Between the Major Industrialized Countries: An Empirical Analysis?


    Gilbert Cette; Jimmy Lopez


    Over the last few years, a large body of literature has shown that the level of information and communications technology (ICT) diffusion, and, as a result, the favorable effects of this diffusion on productivity, differ greatly between the major advanced countries, with the United States the country where ICT diffusion is strongest. This study aims to explain empirically this gap. Annual macroeconomic panel data are used for the period 1981-2005 and cover eleven OECD countries: Austria, Denm...

  12. Recent advances in the molten salt destruction of energetic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruneda, C. O., LLNL


    We have demonstrated the use of the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process for destroying explosives, liquid gun propellant, and explosives-contaminated materials on a 1.5 kg of explosive/hr bench- scale unit (1, 2, 3, 4, 5). In our recently constructed 5 kg/hr pilot- scale unit we have also demonstrated the destruction of a liquid gun propellant and simulated wastes containing HMX (octogen). MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. The destruction of energetic materials waste is accomplished by introducing it, together with air, into a vessel containing molten salt (a eutectic mixture of sodium, potassium, and lithium carbonates). The following pure explosives have been destroyed in our bench-scale experimental unit located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) High Explosives Applications Facility (HEAF): ammonium picrate, HMX, K- 6 (keto-RDX), NQ, NTO, PETN, RDX, TATB, and TNT. In addition, the following compositions were also destroyed: Comp B, LX- IO, LX- 1 6, LX- 17, PBX-9404, and XM46 (liquid gun propellant). In this 1.5 kg/hr bench-scale unit, the fractions of carbon converted to CO and of chemically bound nitrogen converted to NO{sub x} were found to be well below 1%. In addition to destroying explosive powders and compositions we have also destroyed materials that are typical of residues which result from explosives operations. These include shavings from machined pressed parts of plastic-bonded explosives and sump waste containing both explosives and non-explosive debris. Based on the process data obtained on the bench-scale unit we designed and constructed a next-generation 5 kg/hr pilot-scale unit, incorporating LLNL`s advanced chimney design. The pilot unit has completed process implementation operations and explosives safety reviews. To date, in this

  13. Pathogenic role of basic calcium phosphate crystals in destructive arthropathies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang-Korng Ea

    Full Text Available basic calcium phosphate (BCP crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritis (OA and are associated with cartilage destruction. BCP crystals induce in vitro catabolic responses with the production of metalloproteases and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1. In vivo, IL-1 production induced by BCP crystals is both dependant and independent of NLRP3 inflammasome. We aimed to clarify 1/ the role of BCP crystals in cartilage destruction and 2/ the role of IL-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome in cartilage degradation related to BCP crystals.synovial membranes isolated from OA knees were analysed by alizarin Red and FTIR. Pyrogen free BCP crystals were injected into right knees of WT, NLRP3 -/-, ASC -/-, IL-1α -/- and IL-1β-/- mice and PBS was injected into left knees. To assess the role of IL-1, WT mice were treated by intra-peritoneal injections of anakinra, the IL-1Ra recombinant protein, or PBS. Articular destruction was studied at d4, d17 and d30 assessing synovial inflammation, proteoglycan loss and chondrocyte apoptosis. BCP crystals were frequently found in OA synovial membranes including low grade OA. BCP crystals injected into murine knee joints provoked synovial inflammation characterized by synovial macrophage infiltration that persisted at day 30, cartilage degradation as evidenced by loss of proteoglycan staining by Safranin-O and concomitant expression of VDIPEN epitopes, and increased chondrocyte apoptosis. BCP crystal-induced synovitis was totally independent of IL-1α and IL-1β signalling and no alterations of inflammation were observed in mice deficient for components of the NLRP3-inflammasome, IL-1α or IL-1β. Similarly, treatment with anakinra did not prevent BCP crystal effects. In vitro, BCP crystals elicited enhanced transcription of matrix degrading and pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages.intra-articular BCP crystals can elicit synovial inflammation and cartilage degradation suggesting that BCP crystals have a direct

  14. Dissociation of Tissue Destruction and Bacterial Expansion during Bubonic Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Guinet


    Full Text Available Activation and/or recruitment of the host plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme also active on extracellular matrix components, is a common invasive strategy of bacterial pathogens. Yersinia pestis, the bubonic plague agent, expresses the multifunctional surface protease Pla, which activates plasmin and inactivates fibrinolysis inhibitors. Pla is encoded by the pPla plasmid. Following intradermal inoculation, Y. pestis has the capacity to multiply in and cause destruction of the lymph node (LN draining the entry site. The closely related, pPla-negative, Y. pseudotuberculosis species lacks this capacity. We hypothesized that tissue damage and bacterial multiplication occurring in the LN during bubonic plague were linked and both driven by pPla. Using a set of pPla-positive and pPla-negative Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains in a mouse model of intradermal injection, we found that pPla is not required for bacterial translocation to the LN. We also observed that a pPla-cured Y. pestis caused the same extensive histological lesions as the wild type strain. Furthermore, the Y. pseudotuberculosis histological pattern, characterized by infectious foci limited by inflammatory cell infiltrates with normal tissue density and follicular organization, was unchanged after introduction of pPla. However, the presence of pPla enabled Y. pseudotuberculosis to increase its bacterial load up to that of Y. pestis. Similarly, lack of pPla strongly reduced Y. pestis titers in LNs of infected mice. This pPla-mediated enhancing effect on bacterial load was directly dependent on the proteolytic activity of Pla. Immunohistochemistry of Pla-negative Y. pestis-infected LNs revealed extensive bacterial lysis, unlike the numerous, apparently intact, microorganisms seen in wild type Y. pestis-infected preparations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that tissue destruction and bacterial survival/multiplication are dissociated in the bubo and that the primary action of Pla

  15. Expertise of body injuries in criminal procedure. (United States)

    Gutevska, A; Cakar, Z; Duma, A; Poposka, V


    In the every day practice of answering questions from the area of medicine, today there is growing need for forensic medical expertise of body injuries in the criminal procedure. Furthermore, when qualifying the body injury, the expert must possess knowledge and experience not only medical, but also he/she must be aware of the legal requirements and norms from the Code of Criminal Procedure and the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia. This will enable the expert to contribute to explanation and clarification of certain facts and issues related to the body injury. In this paper, by citing Articles 255 and 256 from the Code of Criminal Procedure, it is explained how expert can be adequately selected by the court. In addition to this, by citing Article 271 from the aforementioned Code, a way of analysing body injuries is defined; and finally, defining of body injuries is explained through citing of Article 130 and 131 from the Criminal Code of R. Macedonia, which is regarding body injury and grave body injury. The aim of this paper is to outline the method of performing these forensic medical expertises, i.e. by who and when can expertise of body injuries be asked and moreover, what is the legal and ethical responsiblity of the expert during the execution of the expertise. Additionally, the steps that the expert should follow when preparing a written statement and opinion for the type of the body injury are explained. More specifically, emphasis is placed on expert's requirements after examination of injured individual; after revision of the medical documentation during expertise of body injuries in criminal subjects; and providing oral statement and opinion during the criminal procedure.

  16. Non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bora, Mihail; Kotovsky, Jack


    Systems and techniques for non-destructive evaluation of water ingress in photovoltaic modules include and/or are configured to illuminate a photovoltaic module comprising a photovoltaic cell and an encapsulant with at least one beam of light having a wavelength in a range from about 1400 nm to about 2700 nm; capture one or more images of the illuminated photovoltaic module, each image relating to a water content of the photovoltaic module; and determine a water content of the photovoltaic module based on the one or more images. Systems preferably include one or more of a light source, a moving mirror, a focusing lens, a beam splitter, a stationary mirror, an objective lens and an imaging module.

  17. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W. [and others


    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs.

  18. Electromagnetic non-destructive technique for duplex stainless steel characterization (United States)

    Rocha, João Vicente; Camerini, Cesar; Pereira, Gabriela


    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is a two-phase (ferrite and austenite) material, which exhibits an attractive combination of mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance, being commonly employed for equipment of petrochemical plants, refining units and oil & gas platforms. The best properties of DSS are achieved when the phases are in equal proportions. However, exposition to high temperatures (e.g. welding process) may entail undesired consequences, such as deleterious phases precipitation (e.g. sigma, chi) and different proportion of the original phases, impairing dramatically the mechanical and corrosion properties of the material. A detailed study of the magnetic behavior of DSS microstructure with different ferrite austenite ratios and deleterious phases content was accomplished. The non destructive method evaluates the electromagnetic properties changes in the material and is capable to identify the presence of deleterious phases into DSS microstructure.

  19. New technologies in electromagnetic non-destructive testing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Songling


    This book introduces novel developments in the field of electromagnetic non-destructive testing and evaluation (NDT/E). The topics include electromagnetic ultrasonic guided wave testing, pulsed eddy current testing, remote field eddy current testing, low frequency eddy current testing, metal magnetic memory testing, and magnetic flux leakage testing. Considering the increasing concern about the safety maintenance of critical structures in various industries and everyday life, these topics presented here will be of particular interest to the readers in the NDT/E field. This book covers both theoretical researches and the engineering applications of the electromagnetic NDT technology. It could serve as a valuable reference for college students and relevant NDT technicians. It is also a useful material for qualification training and higher learning for nondestructive testing professionals.

  20. Destruction of PCDD/Fs by gliding arc discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    PCDD/Fs have been become a serious issue because of their lexicological effects and associated adverse health implications. In this study, the gliding arc plasma was tested for treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), which was synthesized from pentachlorophenol in atmospheric condition at 350℃ with or without the catalysis of CuCh-From the experiment, we found that the destruction efficiency of PCDD/F homologues after gliding was discharge ranged from 25% to 79%. This result demonstrates that gliding arc plasma is an effective technology to decompose PCDDs/Fs in flue gas. A plausible degradation mechanism for PCDD/Fs by gliding arc was discussed. Finally, a multistage reactor structure of gliding arc was proposed to upgrade removal efficiency for PCDD/Fs.

  1. A Novel Computer Architecture to Prevent Destruction by Viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高庆狮; 王月; 李磊; 陈绪; 刘宏岚


    In today's Internet computing world, illegal activities by crackers pose a serious threat to computer security. It is well known that computer viruses, Trojan horses and other intrusive programs may cause severe and often catastrophic consequences. This paper proposes a novel secure computer architecture based on security-code. Every instruction/data word is added with a security-code denoting its security level. External programs and data are automatically added with security-code by hardware when entering a computer system. Instruction with lower security-code cannot run or process instruction/data with higher security level. Security-code cannot be modified by normal instruction. With minor hardware overhead, the new architecture can effectively protect the main computer system from destruction or theft by intrusive programs such as computer viruses. For most PC systems, it includes an increase of word-length by 1 bit on registers, the memory and the hard disk.

  2. Preliminary results on Macroalgae distribution in destructive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available It has been shown, that the destruction of the coastal strip in region of action of Mikhailovsky landslide results in change of species structure and dominant species photophilous Cystoseira barbara on sciophylous Gracilaria verrucosa. In accordance with increasing sediments amount in sea water biomass and the morpho-functional parameters of the photophilous species are reducing, and at the sciophylous are growing. Progressing phenomenon of epiphytism is observed in algal populations in the southern part of researched region which is possible to consider as response reaction, leads to increase a synthesizing surface. Decreasing physiological activity is compensated by growth of the total surface of macrophytes. The increase of a sea water sediments leads to lowering ratio of long and shortwave pigments level of ATP-ase activity and raising concentration of the total sum of pigments in thalli.

  3. Non-destructive photoacoustic imaging of metal surface defects (United States)

    Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Jeesu; Yun, Jong Pil; Kim, Chulhong


    The detection of metal surface defects is important in achieving the goals of product quality enhancement and manufacturing cost reduction. Identifying the defects with visual inspection is difficult, inaccurate, and time-consuming. Thus, several inspection methods using line cameras, magnetic field, and ultrasound have been proposed. However, identifying small defects on metal surfaces remains a challenge. To deal with this problem, we propose the use of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a new non-destructive imaging tool to detect metal surface defects. We successfully visualized two types of cracks (i.e., unclassified and seam cracks) in metal plate samples using PAI. In addition, we successfully extracted cracked edges from height-encoded photoacoustic maximum amplitude projection images using the Laplacian of Gaussian filtering method, and then, quantified the detected edges for a statistical analysis. We concluded that PAI can be useful in detecting metal surface defects reducing the defect rate and manufacturing cost during metal production.

  4. Assessment and treatment of pica and destruction of holiday decorations. (United States)

    Mitteer, Daniel R; Romani, Patrick W; Greer, Brian D; Fisher, Wayne W


    Problem behavior exhibited by individuals with autism can be disruptive to family traditions, such as decorating for the holidays. We present data for a 6-year-old girl who engaged in automatically reinforced pica and destruction of holiday decorations. Treatment was evaluated within an ABCDCD reversal design. During baseline (Phases A and B), we observed elevated rates of problem behavior. We implemented differential reinforcement of alternative behavior in Phase C to teach a response to compete with problem behavior. Little change in toy play or problem behavior occurred. In Phase D, we added a facial screen to the differential reinforcement procedures, which resulted in increases in toy play and decreases in problem behavior. Findings are discussed in terms of how interventions for problem behavior can promote alternative behavior while they facilitate household activities and traditions.

  5. Non-destructive Imaging of Individual Bio-Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Germann, Matthias; Escher, Conrad; Fink, Hans-Werner


    Radiation damage is considered to be the major problem that still prevents imaging an individual biological molecule for structural analysis. So far, all known mapping techniques using sufficient short wave-length radiation, be it X-rays or high energy electrons, circumvent this problem by averaging over many molecules. Averaging, however, leaves conformational details uncovered. Even the anticipated use of ultra-short but extremely bright X-ray bursts of a Free Electron Laser shall afford averaging over 10^6 molecules to arrive at atomic resolution. Here we present direct experimental evidence for non-destructive imaging of individual DNA molecules. In fact, we show that DNA withstands coherent low energy electron radiation with deBroglie wavelength in the Angstrom regime despite a vast dose of 10^8 electrons/nm^2 accumulated over more than one hour.

  6. Destruction and Reallocation of Skills Following Large Company Exit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Olesen, Thomas Roslyng

    What happens to redundant skills and workers when a large company closes down in a region? The knowledge embodied in firms is lost when firms exit. However, the skills, competences and knowledge embodied in the displaced employees are suddenly released and can become channels of knowledge transfer...... for other firms that hire them. This process can be very disruptive. For instance, when a large, old and well-renowned company closes down displacing thousands of workers over a short period of time, then it may be a shock to the regional economy and lead to unemployment and skill destruction. The question...... then becomes: under which conditions are the redundant workers and their skills reallocated to productive use elsewhere in the regional economy and when do the workers find a job where their specific skills are less valuable to the new employer and the worker must start over acquiring new skills, that is...

  7. Swarm autonomic agents with self-destruct capability (United States)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)


    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic entity manages a system by generating one or more stay alive signals based on the functioning status and operating state of the system. In some embodiments, an evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy. The evolvable neural interface receives and generates heartbeat monitor signals and pulse monitor signals that are used to generate a stay alive signal that is used to manage the operations of the synthetic neural system. In another embodiment an asynchronous Alice signal (Autonomic license) requiring valid credentials of an anonymous autonomous agent is initiated. An unsatisfactory Alice exchange may lead to self-destruction of the anonymous autonomous agent for self-protection.

  8. Immunization and targeted destruction of networks using explosive percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Clusella, Pau; Perez-Reche, Francisco J; Politi, Antonio


    The explosive percolation (EP) paradigm is used to propose a new method (`explosive immunization') for immunization and targeted destruction of networks. The ability of each node to block the spread of an infection (or to prevent the existence of a large cluster) is estimated by a score. The algorithm proceeds by first identifying low score nodes that are not vaccinated / destroyed, similarly as links that do not lead to large clusters are first established in EP. As in EP, this is done by selecting the worst node from a finite set of randomly chosen `candidates'. Tests on several real-world and model networks suggest that the method is more efficient and faster than any existing immunization strategy. Due to the latter property it can deal with very large networks.

  9. Destructive examination of shipping package 9975-02101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)


    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02101 as part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program. This package is one of ten high-wattage packages that were selected for field surveillance in FY15, and was identified to contain several non-conforming conditions. Most of these conditions (mold, stains, drum corrosion, calculated fiberboard dimensions and fiberboard damage) relate to the accumulation of water in the outer and lower portions of the cane fiberboard assembly. In the short term, this causes local but reversible changes in the fiberboard properties. Long-term effects can include the permanent loss of fiberboard properties (thus far observed only in the bottom fiberboard layers) and reduced drum integrity due to corrosion. The observed conditions must be fully evaluated by KAC to ensure the safety function of the package is being maintained. Three of the other nine FY15 high-wattage packages examined in the K-Area Complex showed similar behavior. Corrosion of the overpack drum has been seen primarily in those packages with relatively severe fiberboard degradation. Visual examination of the drums in storage for external corrosion should be considered as a screening tool to identify additional packages with potential fiberboard degradation. Where overpack drum corrosion has been observed, it is typically heaviest adjacent to the stitch welds along the bottom edge. It is possible that changes to the stitch weld design would reduce the degree of corrosion in this area, but would not eliminate it. Several factors can contribute to the concentration of moisture in the fiberboard, including higher than average initial moisture content, higher internal temperature (due to internal heat load and placement with the array of packages), and the creation of additional moisture as the fiberboard begins to degrade.

  10. Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beulow, S.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Harradine, D.M.; Robinson, J.M.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Funk, K.A.; McInroy, R.E.; Sanchez, J.A.; Spontarelli, T.


    Supercritical water oxidation is a relatively low-temperature process that can give high destruction efficiencies for a variety of hazardous chemical wastes. Results are presented examining the destruction of high explosives and propellants in supercritical water and the use of low temperature, low pressure hydrolysis as a pretreatment process. Reactions of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), nitroguanidine (NQ), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are examined in a flow reactor operated at temperatures between 400{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C. Explosives are introduced into the reactor at concentrations below the solubility limits. For each of the compounds, over 99.9% is destroyed in less than 30 seconds at temperatures above 600{degrees}C. The reactions produce primarily N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O,CO{sub 2}, and some nitrate and nitrite ions. The distribution of reaction products depends on reactor pressure, temperature, and oxidizer concentration. Kinetics studies of the reactions of nitrate and nitrite ions with various reducing reagents in supercritical water show that they can be rapidly and completely destroyed at temperatures above 525{degrees}C. The use of slurries and hydrolysis to introduce high concentrations of explosives into a supercritical water reactor is examined. For some compounds the rate of reaction depends on particle size. The hydrolysis of explosives at low temperatures (<100{degrees}C) and low pressures (<1 atm) under basic conditions produces water soluble, non-explosive products which are easily destroyed by supercritical water oxidation. Large pieces of explosives (13 cm diameter) have been successfully hydrolyzed. The rate, extent, and products of the hydrolysis depend on the type and concentration of base. Results from the base hydrolysis of triple base propellant M31A1E1 and the subsequent supercritical water oxidation of the hydrolysis products are presented.

  11. Constraining Tidal Dissipation in Stars and Destruction Rates of Exoplanets (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Penev, K.; Barnes, R.


    Several recent studies have shown that the orbits of most transiting extra-solar planets, with periods of order a few days, are not stable against tidal decay. If the host star rotates slowly enough, tidal dissipation within the star causes the planet to spiral in over many millions or billions of years. Because the rate of tidal decay increases rapidly as orbital semi-major axis drops, planets that start out very close to their host stars are quickly destroyed, while planets farther out require more time. We calculate the times left for known transiting exoplanets as a function of the rate of tidal dissipation within the host star. For a population of such planets, we expect to observe a minority of planets near the end of their lives since those planets will only survive for a short time more. For an assumed tidal dissipation rate, if we find instead that a majority of transiting planets have only a small fraction of the lifetimes left before destruction, we can conclude the assumed tidal dissipation rate is too large. Thus, we can estimate the rate of tidal dissipation within planet-hosting stars by considering the distributions of times left of transiting planets for a range of assumed dissipation rates. We must also account for important selection and observational biases. Our results based on such an analysis suggest stellar dissipation rates corresponding to tidal Q-values of 106 and larger are consistent with observations, while values of 105 and smaller are not. Given these constraints, we estimate the rates of tidal destruction of transiting exoplanets.

  12. [Multifaceted body. 2. The lived body]. (United States)

    Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Bourquin, C; Stiefel, F


    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This second article distinguishes between the body as an object of knowledge or representation and the way the body is lived. This distinction which originates in phenomenological psychiatry aims to understand how the patient experiences his body and to surpass the classical somatic and psychiatric classifications.

  13. Online Communication and Body Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Maria Hrisca


    Full Text Available bjectives: This article approaches the problem of body language, in the new context ofonline communication, trying to see how the latestdevelopment of technology influences it.PriorWork: The interest in body language has grown in the last decades, first because of the work ofscientists like Ekman, who studied micro-gestures and tried to give a universaldecoder,and secondbecause of the latest technological evolution in communication, that has stressed the importance ofnon-verbal cues.Approach: Using observation and the latest writing in the field, we will explain theconsequences that the use of avatars and online communication have on body language and itsinterpretation.Results:Excluding context, posture, micro-gestures, tone and so on, onlinecommunication does not only become stereotype, butalso affects real communication and especiallybody language. We can observe pragmatism of gestures, standardizations, lack of customizations,inability to read other’s body language etc.Implications:All of this shapes the Y-Generation, onethat not only fails to interpret other’s body language, but also is unable to express themselves in directcommunication.Value:This paper stresses out not only the consequencesof online communication,but also the importance of further technological development.

  14. Lock-in infrared thermography as non-destructive test for material characterization


    Carolus, Jorne; Bussé, Len


    The Research Institute for Materials, located at the university campus in Diepenbeek, comprises a research group, imo-imomec, committed to the development and characterization of new material systems. Material characterization can be done by means of destructive or non-destructive testing methods. However, the destructive testing methods are time consuming and economically inefficient since the test specimens are damaged during the process. The main objective of this master's thesis is to rea...

  15. Non-Destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-Level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches (United States)


    Non - destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-level Packaged Microelectromechanical System (MEMS) Acceleration Switches by Ryan Knight and...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1138 ARL-TR-7094 September 2014 Non - destructive Damping Measurement for Wafer-level Packaged...ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) September 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Non - destructive

  16. Biological destruction of polymer solutions used to improve oil bed output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareyshina, A.Z.; Gazizov, A.Sh.; Nazmutdinov, R.Ya.; Ozhiganova, G.U.; Yaus, L.I.


    A plan is presented and the results of studying biological destruction of polyacrylamide by fresh water microflora in dynamics. It is shown that polymer destruction as a result of the vital activity of microorganisms occurs most intensively in the first 1-1.5 months. During this period, the degree of destruction of polyacrylamide reaches 70-80%, which corresponds to a decrease in the average molecular mass 4-5-fold.

  17. Emission computer tomography on a Dodewaard mixed oxide fuel pin. Comparative PIE work with non-destructive and destructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buurveld, H.A.; Dassel, G.


    A nondestructive technique as well as a destructive PIE technique have been used to verify the results obtained with a newly 8-e computer tomography (GECT) system. Multi isotope Scanning (MIS), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and GECT were used on a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rod from the Dodewaard reactor with an average burnup of 24 MWd/kg fuel. GECT shows migration of Cs to the periphery of fuel pellets and to radial cracks and pores in the fuel, whereas MIS shows Cs migration to pellet interfaces. The EPMA technique appeared not to be useful to show migration of Cs but, it shows the distribution of fission products from Pu. EPMA clearly shows the distribution of fission products from Pu, but did not reveal the Cs-migration. (orig./HP)


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    One of the fundamental approaches to microscopic many-body theory is through the use of perturbation theory. This paper presents a clear derivation of the equations that sum the two-body and three body reducible diagrams that are generated from some input set of irreducible diagrams (typically the b

  19. Non-destructive Evaluation of Bonds Between Fiberglass Composite and Metal (United States)

    Zhao, Selina; Sonta, Kestutis; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. E.; Berger, Libby


    To assess the integrity and reliability of an adhesive joint in an automotive composite component, several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methodologies are correlated to lap shear bond strengths. A glass-fabric-reinforced composite structure was bonded to a metallic structure with a two-part epoxy adhesive. Samples were subsequently cut and tested in shear, and flaws were found in some areas. This study aims to develop a reliable and portable NDE system for service-level adhesive inspection in the automotive industry. The results of the experimental investigation using several NDE methods are presented and discussed. Fiberglass-to-metal bonding is the ideal configuration for NDE via thermography using excitation with induction heating, due to the conductive metal and non-conductive glass-fiber-reinforced composites. Excitation can be either by a research-grade induction heater of highly defined frequency and intensity, or by a service-level heater, such as would be used for sealing windshields in a body shop. The thermographs thus produced can be captured via a high-resolution infrared camera, with principal component analysis and 2D spatial Laplacian processing. Alternatively, the thermographs can be captured by low resolution thermochromic microencapsulated liquid crystal film imaging, which needs no post-processing and can be very inexpensive. These samples were also examined with phased-array ultrasound. The NDE methods are compared to the lap shear values and to each other for approximate cost, accuracy, and time and level of expertise needed.

  20. Endogenous job destructions and the distribution of wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chéron, Arnaud; Rouland, Benedicte


    This paper considers a matching model with both idiosyncratic productivity shocks that hit jobs at random and heterogeneity of workers according to ex ante unobservable abilities. We argue that firms' decisions about reservation productivity can help explain the shape of wage distributions....... This is shown from numerical experiments, calibrated to French data, by considering alternative ranges of productivity shocks....

  1. Destruction and Sequestration of H2O on Mars (United States)

    Clark, Benton


    The availability of water in biologically useable form on any planet is a quintessential resource, even if the planet is in a zone habitable with temperature regimes required for growth of organisms (above -18 °C). Mars and most other planetary objects in the solar system do not have sufficient liquid water at their surfaces that photosynthesis or chemolithoautotrophic metabolism could occur. Given clear evidence of hydrous mineral alteration and geomorphological constructs requiring abundant supplies of liquid water in the past, the question arises whether this H2O only became trapped physically as ice, or whether there could be other, more or less accessible reservoirs that it has evolved into. Salts containing S or Cl appear to be ubiquitous on Mars, having been measured in soils by all six Mars landed missions, and detected in additional areas by orbital investigations. Volcanoes emit gaseous H2S, S, SO2, HCl and Cl2. A variety of evidence indicates the geochemical fate of these gases is to be transformed into sulfates, chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates. Depending on the gas, the net reaction causes the destruction of between one and up to eight molecules of H2O per atom of S or Cl (although hydrogen atoms are also released, they are lost relatively rapidly to atmospheric escape). Furthermore, the salt minerals formed often incorporate H2O into their crystalline structures, and can result in the sequestration of up to yet another six (sometimes, more) molecules of H2O. In addition, if the salts are microcrystalline or amorphous, they are potent adsorbents for H2O. In certain cases, they are even deliquescent under martian conditions. Finally, the high solubility of the vast majority of these salts (with notable exception of CaSO4) can result in dense brines with low water activity, aH, as well as cations which can be inimical to microbial metabolism, effectively "poisoning the well." The original geologic materials on Mars, igneous rocks, also provide some

  2. A non-destructive method for estimating onion leaf area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córcoles J.I.


    Full Text Available Leaf area is one of the most important parameters for characterizing crop growth and development, and its measurement is useful for examining the effects of agronomic management on crop production. It is related to interception of radiation, photosynthesis, biomass accumulation, transpiration and gas exchange in crop canopies. Several direct and indirect methods have been developed for determining leaf area. The aim of this study is to develop an indirect method, based on the use of a mathematical model, to compute leaf area in an onion crop using non-destructive measurements with the condition that the model must be practical and useful as a Decision Support System tool to improve crop management. A field experiment was conducted in a 4.75 ha commercial onion plot irrigated with a centre pivot system in Aguas Nuevas (Albacete, Spain, during the 2010 irrigation season. To determine onion crop leaf area in the laboratory, the crop was sampled on four occasions between 15 June and 15 September. At each sampling event, eight experimental plots of 1 m2 were used and the leaf area for individual leaves was computed using two indirect methods, one based on the use of an automated infrared imaging system, LI-COR-3100C, and the other using a digital scanner EPSON GT-8000, obtaining several images that were processed using Image J v 1.43 software. A total of 1146 leaves were used. Before measuring the leaf area, 25 parameters related to leaf length and width were determined for each leaf. The combined application of principal components analysis and cluster analysis for grouping leaf parameters was used to reduce the number of variables from 25 to 12. The parameter derived from the product of the total leaf length (L and the leaf diameter at a distance of 25% of the total leaf length (A25 gave the best results for estimating leaf area using a simple linear regression model. The model obtained was useful for computing leaf area using a non-destructive

  3. Severe destruction of the temporomandibular joint with complete resorption of the condyle associated with synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis syndrome. (United States)

    Kodama, Yasumitsu; Tanaka, Ray; Kurokawa, Akira; Ohnuki, Hisashi; Sultana, Sara; Hayashi, Takafumi; Iizuka, Tateyuki; Takagi, Ritsuo


    The synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome consists of a combination of inflammatory bone disorders and dermatologic pathology. Bone lesions as a form of diffuse sclerosing osteomyelitis in the mandible occur in the posterior body and ramus. Bone lesions rarely spread to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) where ankylosis may result. Herein we present an unusual case of SAPHO syndrome with TMJ involvement in which severe destruction of the TMJ occurred. We observed an extension of the invasive soft tissue lesion into the infratemporal fossa from the TMJ with complete resorption of the condyle. In contrast to other previously reported cases, in our case the condyle was strongly suspected as the primary site of the bone lesion with subsequent extension to the ramus and infratemporal fossa. The destructive nature and related symptoms resembled a malignant tumor.

  4. Good for the group? Explaining apparent group-level selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Egas, M.


    The idea that group selection can explain adaptive trait evolution is still controversial. Recent empirical work proposes evidence for group-level adaptation in a social spider, but the findings can also be explained from an individual-level perspective. The challenge remains to identify situations

  5. Explaining Interaction Effects within and across Levels of Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ulf; Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard


    Many manuscripts submitted to the Journal of International Business Studies propose an interaction effect in their models in an effort to explain the complexity and contingency of relationships across borders. In this article, we provide guidance on how best to explain the interaction effects...

  6. Lewy Body Disease (United States)

    Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss ... enough to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, ...

  7. Is Titan's shape explained by its meteorology and carbon cycle? (United States)

    Choukroun, M.; Sotin, C.


    Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is unique in the Solar System: it is the only satellite bearing a dense atmosphere and it is the only place besides Earth with stable liquid bodies at its surface. In addition complex organics are produced in its atmosphere by the photolysis of methane, the second most abundant atmospheric molecule that irreversibly produces ethane and other more complex carbon bearing molecules. The Cassini/Huygens mission has revealed that the difference between its equatorial and polar radii is several hundred meters larger than that expected from its spin rate, and that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium. Global circulation models predict a large meridional circulation with upwelling at the summer hemisphere and downwelling at the winter pole where ethane can condense and fall at the surface. Lakes and Mare have been observed at the poles only (Stofan et al., Nature, 2007). Ethane has been spectroscopically identified in one of the lakes (Brown et al., Nature, 2008). The present study investigates the subsidence associated with ethane rain at the poles. As suggested by laboratory experiments, ethane flows very easily in a porous crust made of either pure water ice or methane clathrates. Loading of the lithosphere by liquid hydrocarbons induces a tendency of the polar terrains to subside relative to the lower latitudes terrains. In addition, laboratory experiments suggest that ethane substitutes to methane in a methane clathrate crust. The present study estimates the kinetics of this transformation. It suggests that such a transformation would occur on timescales much smaller than geological timescales. To explain a value of 270 m of the subsidence as determined by the radar instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft (Zebker et al., Science, 2009), our study predicts that the percolation of ethane liquid in the polar crust should have operated during the last 300 - 1,200 Myr. This number is in agreement with the isotopic age of the atmospheric

  8. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador. (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S


    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  9. Ring formation by tidal disruption of a passing body (United States)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Charnoz, Sébastien; Genda, Hidenori; Ohtsuki, Keiji


    The origin of rings around giant planets remains elusive. Here we investigate the tidal disruption of a passing object and the subsequent formation of planetary rings. First, we perform SPH simulations of the tidal destruction of differentiated objects with the mass of M~1022kg that experience close encounters with Saturn or Uranus. We find that about 0.1-10% of the mass of the passing body is gravitationally captured around the planet. However, these fragments are initially big chunks and have highly eccentric orbits around the planet. Therefore, in order to see their long-term evolution, we perform N-body simulations including the planet's oblateness up to J4 starting with data obtained from the SPH simulations. Our N-body simulations show that the chunks are tidally destructed during their next several orbits and become collections of smaller particles. Their individual orbits then start to precess incoherently around the planet's equator, which enhances their encounter velocities on longer-term evolution, resulting in more destructive impacts. These collisions would damp their eccentricities resulting in a progressive collapse of the debris cloud into a thin equatorial and low-eccentricity ring.

  10. Foreign body orbital cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanfard, Younes; Heegard, Steffen; Fledelius, Hans C.


    Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology......Ophthalmology, penetrating orbital injury, orbital foreign body, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), histology...

  11. PAHs in protoplanetary disks: emission and X-ray destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Siebenmorgen, Ralf


    We study the PAH emission from protoplanetary disks. First, we discuss the dependence of the PAH band ratios on the hardness of the absorbed photons and the temperature of the stars. We show that the photon energy together with a varying degree of the PAH hydrogenation accounts for most of the observed PAH band ratios without the need to change the ionization degree of the molecules. We present an accurate treatment of stochastic heated grains in a vectorized three dimensional Monte Carlo dust radiative transfer code. The program is verified against results using ray tracing techniques. Disk models are presented for T Tauri and Herbig Ae stars. Particular attention is given to the photo-dissociation of the molecules. We consider beside PAH destruction also the survival of the molecules by vertical mixing within the disk. By applying typical X-ray luminosities the model accounts for the low PAH detection probability observed in T Tauri and the high PAH detection statistics found in Herbig Ae disks. Spherical h...

  12. In Vivo Dual Fluorescence Imaging to Detect Joint Destruction. (United States)

    Cho, Hongsik; Bhatti, Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Lee, Sangmin; Brand, David D; Yi, Ae-Kyung; Hasty, Karen A


    Diagnosis of cartilage damage in early stages of arthritis is vital to impede the progression of disease. In this regard, considerable progress has been made in near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging technique. Arthritis can develop due to various mechanisms but one of the main contributors is the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), enzymes that can degrade components of the extracellular matrix. Especially, MMP-1 and MMP-13 have main roles in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis because they enhance collagen degradation in the process of arthritis. We present here a novel NIRF imaging strategy that can be used to determine the activity of MMPs and cartilage damage simultaneously by detection of exposed type II collagen in cartilage tissue. In this study, retro-orbital injection of mixed fluorescent dyes, MMPSense 750 FAST (MMP750) dye and Alexa Fluor 680 conjugated monoclonal mouse antibody immune-reactive to type II collagen, was administered in the arthritic mice. Both dyes were detected with different intensity according to degree of joint destruction in the animal. Thus, our dual fluorescence imaging method can be used to detect cartilage damage as well as MMP activity simultaneously in early stage arthritis.

  13. A novel thermosonic imaging system for non-destructive testing (United States)

    Willey, C. L.; Xiang, D.; Long, M.


    Thermosonic infrared (Sonic IR) imaging is a new non-destructive testing (NDT) technique that uses high-frequency sonic excitation together with infrared (IR) detection to image surface and subsurface defects. A conventional Sonic IR imaging system employs an ultrasonic welder, which is designed to operate at a single frequency. This single frequency ultrasonic source has been found to yield a "blind zone" for NDT due to the formation of standing waves inside the test piece. To overcome this limitation, a spring loaded ultrasonic transducer was used to generate the desired multi-frequency acoustic chaos in the test object [1]. The limitation of the spring loaded ultrasonic transducer is its repeatability and reproducibility for field applications. In this work, we present the development of a novel thermosonic imaging system, which is capable of exciting the ultrasonic transducer at difflerent frequencies for thermosonic NDT to overcome the limitations associated with a single frequency power source as well as the spring loaded transducer design. A comparison of experimental results will be made between the single frequency and the developed multi-frequency thermosonic NDT systems.

  14. Seaborne Delivery Interdiction of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glauser, H


    Over the next 10-20 years, the probability of a terrorist attack using a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) on the United States is projected to increase. At some point over the next few decades, it may be inevitable that a terrorist group will have access to a WMD. The economic and social impact of an attack using a WMD anywhere in the world would be catastrophic. For weapons developed overseas, the routes of entry are air and sea with the maritime vector as the most porous. Providing a system to track, perform a risk assessment and inspect all inbound marine traffic before it reaches US coastal cities thereby mitigating the threat has long been a goal for our government. The challenge is to do so effectively without crippling the US economy. The Portunus Project addresses only the maritime threat and builds on a robust maritime domain awareness capability. It is a process to develop the technologies, policies and practices that will enable the US to establish a waypoint for the inspection of international marine traffic, screen 100% of containerized and bulk cargo prior to entry into the US if deemed necessary, provide a palatable economic model for transshipping, grow the US economy, and improve US environmental quality. The implementation strategy is based on security risk, and the political and economic constraints of implementation. This article is meant to provide a basic understanding of how and why this may be accomplished.

  15. Three decades of neoliberalism in Mexico: the destruction of society. (United States)

    Laurell, Asa Cristina


    Neoliberalism has been implemented in Latin America for about three decades. This article reviews Mexico's neoliberal trajectory to illustrate the political, economic, and social alterations that have resulted from this process. It finds that representative democracy has been perverted through fear, putting central political decisions in the hands of power groups with special interests. The border between the state of law and the state of exception is blurred. Economic structural adjustment with liberalization and privatization has provoked recurrent crisis, but has been maintained, leading to the destruction of the national productive structure in favor of supranational corporations, particularly financial capital. The association between criminal economy and economic criminality is also discussed. The privatization of social benefits and services requires state subsidies and allows the privatization of profits and the socialization of losses. The social impact of this process has been devastating, with a polarized income distribution, falling wages, increased precarious jobs, rising inequality, and extreme violence. Health conditions have also deteriorated and disorders associated with violence, chronic stress, and a changing nutritional culture have become dominating. However, in Latin America, massive, organized political and social mobilization has broken the vicious neoliberal circle and elected progressive governments that are struggling to reverse social and economic devastation.

  16. Destruction and management of Mount Kenya`s forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R.W. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Biologie, Chemie und Geowissenschaften


    This article presents data on the destruction of the montane forests on Mount Kenya. The material was obtained during field-work for a phytosociological study in 1992-1994. Special emphasis was given to the observation of regeneration patterns and succession cycles within the different forest communities, with regard to the impact of humans and big game. Although private tree planting is reducing the fuelwood deficit in Kenya, large parts of the 200 000 ha of Mount Kenya`s forests - the largest natural-forest area in the country - are heavily impacted by among other things illegal activities. The wet camphor forests of the south and southeast mountain slopes are being destroyed at an alarming speed, by large-scale selective logging of Ocotea usambarensis and marihuana cultivation. The drier Juniperus procera are also logged, but are even more endangered by the new settlement schemes. The large elephant population does not affect forest regeneration; whereas browsing and chaffing by buffaloes inhibits regeneration of the dry forests, and damages many trees. Suggestions are presented for better management of the forest resources. 12 refs, 1 fig

  17. Non-destructive technique to verify clearance of pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savidou Anastasia


    Full Text Available A semi-empirical, non-destructive technique to evaluate the activity of gamma ray emitters in contaminated pipes is discussed. The technique is based on in-situ measurements by a portable NaI gamma ray spectrometer. The efficiency of the detector for the pipe and detector configuration was evaluated by Monte Carlo calculations performed using the MCNP code. Gamma ray detector full-energy peak efficiency was predicted assuming a homogeneous activity distribution over the internal surface of the pipe for 344 keV, 614 keV, 662 keV, and 1332 keV photons, representing Eu-152, Ag-118m, Cs-137, and Co-60 contamination, respectively. The effect of inhomogeneity on the accuracy of the technique was also examined. The model was validated against experimental measurements performed using a Cs-137 volume calibration source representing a contaminated pipe and good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental results. The technique represents a sensitive and cost-effective technology for calibrating portable gamma ray spectrometry systems and can be applied in a range of radiation protection and waste management applications.

  18. Qualification of non-destructive examination methods on critical components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zdarek, J. [Nuclear Research Institute REZ, plc (Czech Republic)


    Czech Dukovany and Temelin Nuclear Power Plants face a challenge to improve and optimise their in-service inspection programmes based on requirements of the Czech law No. 18/97 and the Decree 214/97. As priorities for new inspection programmes of critical components are considered inspection intervals that ought to be prolonged up to eight years, application of qualified NDT (non-destructive testing) methods and techniques and to identify inspection areas that are not covered by the current ISI programmes. This approach is based on a detailed review of ISI programmes available, application of recent structural integrity assessments and programme of in-service inspection qualifications in compliance with ENIQ and IEAE methodologies. Approaches used by Dukovany and Temelin NPP are similar for qualifications of inspection procedures that are expected to be used for selected RPV inspection areas as nozzle inner radii, safe-end (or nozzle to MCP homogenous weld) and circumferential RPV shell welds, required by the Czech Regulatory Authority in compliance with the Decree 214/97 to be completed till the end of the year 2002. A review of all NDT qualification projects including PHARE projects completed or at least started in Czech Republic is given in the paper with more detailed explanation for some of them as examples. Described in detail are PHARE project 4.1.2/93 and PHARE project 1.02/95 and one national project devoted to WWER 440 circumferential RPV shell weld qualification (1999-2000). (author)

  19. The attraction of evil and the destruction of meaning. (United States)

    Migliozzi, Anna


    Does the concept of evil deserve special formulation in the realm of psychoanalytic thought? In agreement with authors such as Meltzer (1992) and De Masi (2003) and through selected moments from a boy's long analysis, I will propose a definition of evil as a state of mind, characterized by disregard for the human quality of the object and the destruction of meaning and meaningfulness of life in and for others. Evil drains, perverts and strips symbols of intentions and goals, leaving them empty of emotional significance. In my patient, the state of mind that he called evil exerted a seductive appeal and was accompanied by a sadistic excitement that he elevated into a state of sexualized well-being, which progressively perverted and destroyed emotional meaning, contributing to his confusion and desperation. Confronting this pathological configuration and describing the situation that I felt existed within his mind and between us, and rearticulating emotional meaning where it had been perverted, cannibalized or left empty, was the principal - and at times only - clinical instrument available to lead him out of his descent into nothingness.

  20. Stabilization/solidification of munition destruction waste by asphalt emulsion. (United States)

    Cervinkova, Marketa; Vondruska, Milan; Bednarik, Vratislav; Pazdera, Antonin


    Destruction of discarded military munitions in an explosion chamber produces two fractions of hazardous solid waste. The first one is scrap waste that remains in the chamber after explosion; the second one is fine dust waste, which is trapped on filters of gas products that are exhausted from the chamber after explosion. The technique of stabilization/solidification of the scrap waste by asphalt emulsion is described in this paper. The technique consists of simple mixing of the waste with anionic asphalt emulsion, or two-step mixing of the waste with cationic asphalt emulsion. These techniques are easy to use and the stabilized scrap waste proves low leachability of contained heavy metals assessed by TCLP test. Hence, it is possible to landfill the scrap waste stabilized by asphalt emulsion. If the dust waste, which has large specific surface, is stabilized by asphalt emulsion, it is not fully encapsulated; the results of the leaching tests do not meet the regulatory levels. However, the dust waste solidified by asphalt emulsion can be deposited into an asphalted disposal site of the landfill. The asphalt walls of the disposal site represent an efficient secondary barrier against pollutant release.

  1. Accretion and destruction of planetesimals in turbulent disks

    CERN Document Server

    Ida, Shigeru; Morbidelli, Alessandro


    We study the conditions for collisions between planetesimals to be accretional or disruptive in turbulent disks, through analytical arguments based on fluid dynamical simulations and orbital integrations. In turbulent disks, the velocity dispersion of planetesimals is pumped up by random gravitational perturbations from density fluctuations of the disk gas. When the velocity dispersion is larger than the planetesimals' surface escape velocity, collisions between planetesimals do not result in accretion, and may even lead to their destruction. In disks with a surface density equal to that of the ``minimum mass solar nebula'' and with nominal MRI turbulence, we find that accretion proceeds only for planetesimals with sizes above $\\sim 300$ km at 1AU and $\\sim 1000$ km at 5AU. We find that accretion is facilitated in disks with smaller masses. However, at 5AU and for nominal turbulence strength, km-sized planetesimals are in a highly erosive regime even for a disk mass as small as a fraction of the mass of Jupit...

  2. Destruction and Observational Signatures of Sun-Impacting Comets

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, John C; Toner, Mark P


    Motivated by recent data on comets in the low corona, we discuss destruction of sun impacting comets in the dense lower solar atmosphere. Perihelion distances q less than the solar radius and incident masses Mo much greater than 1E12 g are required to reach such depths. Extending earlier work on planetary atmosphere impacts to solar conditions, we evaluate the mechanisms and spatial distribution of nucleus mass and energy loss as functions of Mo and q, and of parameter X = 2Q/CHvovo. Q is the total specific energy for ablative mass loss, CH the bow shock heat transfer efficiency, and vo the solar escape speed (619 km/s). We discuss factors affecting Q and CH and conclude that, for solar vo, X is most likely less than 1 so that solar impactors are mostly ablated before decelerating. Sun impacting comets have kinetic energies 2E30 erg x(Mo/1E15 g), comparable with the energies of magnetic flares. This is released as a localised explosive airburst within a few scale heights H around 200 km of the photosphere, de...

  3. Non-Destructive Assay of Curium Contaminated Transuranic Waste Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, L.A.


    At the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a series of non-destructive assays were performed on five transuranic waste (TRU) drums containing non-plutonium scrap metal that was potentially contaminated with weapons grade plutonium and trace quantities of curium. Typically, waste drums containing metal matrices are assayed for plutonium content using passive neutron coincidence counting techniques. The presence of trace quantities of Cm-244 prevents this type of analysis because of the strong coincidence signal created by spontaneous fission of Cm-244. To discriminate between the plutonium and curium materials present, an active neutron measurement technique was used. A Cf shuffler designed for measurement of uranium bearing materials was calibrated for plutonium in the active mode. The waste drums were then assayed for plutonium content in the shuffler using the active-mode calibration. The curium contamination levels were estimated from the difference between the active-mode measurement in the shuffler and a passive assay in a neutron coincidence counter. Far field gamma-ray measurements were made to identify additional radioactive contaminants and to corroborate the plutonium measurement results obtained from the active-mode assay. This report describes in detail the measurement process used for characterization of these waste drums. The measurement results and the estimated uncertainty will be presented.

  4. No evidence of disk destruction by OB stars (United States)

    Richert, Alexander J. W.; Feigelson, Eric


    It has been suggested that the hostile environments observed in massive star forming regions are inhospitable to protoplanetary disks and therefore to the formation of planets. The Orion Proplyds show disk evaporation by extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from Theta1 Orionis C (spectral type O6). In this work, we examine the spatial distributions of disk-bearing and non-disk bearing young stellar objects (YSOs) relative to OB stars in 17 massive star forming regions in the MYStIX (Massive Young Star-Forming Complex Study in Infrared and X-ray) survey. Any tendency of disky YSOs, identified by their infrared excess, to avoid OB stars would reveal complete disk destruction.We consider a sample of MYStIX that includes 78 O3-O9 stars, 256 B stars, 5,606 disky YSOs, and 5,794 non-disky YSOs. For each OB star, we compare the cumulative distribution functions of distances to disky and non-disky YSOs. We find no significant avoidance of OB stars by disky YSOs. This result indicates that OB stars are not sufficiently EUV-luminous and long-lived to completely destroy a disk within its ordinary lifetime. We therefore conclude that massive star forming regions are not clearly hostile to the formation of planets.

  5. Evaluation of Transportation Options for Intermediate Non-destructive Examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, Susan [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hoggard, Gary [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non-destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.” This evaluation includes transportation options for intermediate NDE using the GE 2000 cask, BEA Research Reactor (BRR) package, Dry Transfer Cubicle (DTC) insert, and the General Electric Model 100 (GE 100) cask. The GE 2000 cask is the only Type B shipping container currently in use for shipments of irradiated material (exceeding Type A quantities) from ATR to HFEF; therefore it is included as one of the four shipping options in this evaluation. Cost and schedule estimates are provided for performing neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of a five-capsule drop-in-type ATR experiment for each transportation option. All costs provided in this evaluation are rough order-of-magnitude costs based on input from knowledgeable vendor employees and individuals at INL facilities.

  6. Non-destructive ion detection at TRIGA-TRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibach, Martin; Smorra, Christian [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Beyer, Thomas; Ketter, Jochen; Blaum, Klaus [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Block, Michael; Herfurth, Frank [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Ketelaer, Jens; Knuth, Konstantin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Nagy, Szilard [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)


    Tests of nuclear mass models, studies of the nuclear structure of heavy elements and calculations of the astrophysical r-process require high precision atomic mass data. For this purpose the double Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has recently been set up in order to explore the less-known neutron-rich area of the nuclide chart. Certain nuclides of interest are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoide target with low rates, in the order of a few nuclides per second or less. Thus, the implementation of very efficient means of detection are necessary, such as the non-destructive Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) technique where ultimately a single trapped ion, with a half-life of longer than one second is sufficient for the entire mass measurement. The present status of the implementation of the FT-ICR detection at TRIGA-TRAP is presented. The potential benefit for other experiments is discussed.

  7. Molecular spintronics: destructive quantum interference controlled by a gate. (United States)

    Saraiva-Souza, Aldilene; Smeu, Manuel; Zhang, Lei; Souza Filho, Antonio Gomes; Guo, Hong; Ratner, Mark A


    The ability to control the spin-transport properties of a molecule bridging conducting electrodes is of paramount importance to molecular spintronics. Quantum interference can play an important role in allowing or forbidding electrons from passing through a system. In this work, the spin-transport properties of a polyacetylene chain bridging zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) are studied with nonequilibrium Green's function calculations performed within the density functional theory framework (NEGF-DFT). ZGNR electrodes have inherent spin polarization along their edges, which causes a splitting between the properties of spin-up and spin-down electrons in these systems. Upon adding an imidazole donor group and a pyridine acceptor group to the polyacetylene chain, this causes destructive interference features in the electron transmission spectrum. Particularly, the donor group causes a large antiresonance dip in transmission at the Fermi energy EF of the electrodes. The application of a gate is investigated and found to provide control over the energy position of this feature making it possible to turn this phenomenon on and off. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of this system are also calculated, showing near ohmic scaling for spin-up but negative differential resistance (NDR) for spin-down.

  8. Evaluating a non-destructive method for calibrating tree biomass equations derived from tree branching architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacFarlane, D.W.; Kuyah, S.; Mulia, R.; Dietz, J.; Muthuri, C.; Noordwijk, van M.


    Functional branch analysis (FBA) is a promising non-destructive alternative to the standard destructive method of tree biomass equation development. In FBA, a theoretical model of tree branching architecture is calibrated with measurements of tree stems and branches to estimate the coefficients of t

  9. 21 CFR 1270.43 - Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue... HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Inspection of Tissue Establishments § 1270.43 Retention, recall, and destruction of human tissue. (a) Upon a finding that human tissue may be in violation of...

  10. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction (United States)


    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  11. The Destruction of Foster Care Files in Quebec: The Co-Opting of the Profession. (United States)

    Speirs, Carol Cumming


    Discusses the widespread, planned destruction of foster care files in social service centers in Quebec, focusing on the issues for the former clients, for the agencies involved, and for the social work profession. Argues that, for social workers, the destruction of the files represents an abandonment of their professional principles. (MDM)

  12. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (United States)


    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  13. Non-destructive automatic leaf area measurements by combining stereo and time-of-flight images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Y.; Glasbey, C.A.; Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.


    Leaf area measurements are commonly obtained by destructive and laborious practice. This study shows how stereo and time-of-flight (ToF) images can be combined for non-destructive automatic leaf area measurements. The authors focus on some challenging plant images captured in a greenhouse environmen

  14. The Dynamics of Job Creation and Job Destruction: Is Sub-Saharan Africa Different?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); A. Shiferaw (Admasu)


    textabstractThe Dynamics of Job Creation and Job Destruction: Is Sub-Saharan Africa Different? This paper analyzes the creation, destruction and reallocation of jobs in order to understand the micro-dynamics of aggregate employment change in African manufacturing. The nature and magnitude of gross j

  15. Preparing for Response to a Nuclear Weapon of Mass Destruction, Are We Ready? (United States)


    57 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX ), Weapons of Mass Destruction: Incident Management / Unified...58 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX ), Weapons of Mass Destruction: Incident Management / Unified...Command, (College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University, 2005), PM 2- 5. 59 Ibid, PM 2-9. 60 Director, Texas Engineering Extension Service ( TEEX


    This paper discusses the work and results to date leading to the demonstration of the corona destruction process at pilot scale. The research effort in corona destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and air toxics has shown significant promise for providing a valuable co...

  17. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits (United States)

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  18. Spectroscopic study of photo and thermal destruction of riboflavin (United States)

    Astanov, Salikh; Sharipov, Mirzo Z.; Fayzullaev, Askar R.; Kurtaliev, Eldar N.; Nizomov, Negmat


    Influence of temperature and light irradiation on the spectroscopic properties of aqueous solutions of riboflavin was studied using linear dichroism method, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was established that in a wide temperature range 290-423 K there is a decline of absorbance and fluorescence ability, which is explained by thermodestruction of riboflavin. It is shown that the proportion of molecules, which have undergone degradation, are in the range of 4-28%, and depends on the concentration and quantity of temperature effects. Introduction of hydrochloric and sulfuric acids, as well as different metal ions leads to an increase in the photostability of riboflavin solutions by 2-2.5 times. The observed phenomena are explained by the formation protonation form of riboflavin and a complex between the metal ions and oxygen atoms of the carbonyl group of riboflavin, respectively.

  19. Gaining from explaining: Learning improves from explaining to fictitious others on video, not from writing to them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerheide, Vincent; Deijkers, Lian; Loyens, Sofie M M; Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara


    Two experiments investigated whether studying a text with an "explanation intention" and then actually explaining it to (fictitious) other students in writing, would yield the same benefits as previously found for explaining on video. Experiment 1 had participants first studying a text either with t

  20. Efficacy of Cotton Root Destruction and Winter Cover Crops for Suppression of Hoplolaimus columbus. (United States)

    Davis, R F; Baird, R E; McNeil, R D


    The efficacy of rye (Secale cereale) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) winter cover crops and cotton stalk and root destruction (i.e., pulling them up) were evaluated in field tests during two growing seasons for Hoplolaimus columbus management in cotton. The effect of removing debris from the field following root destruction also was evaluated. Wheat and rye produced similar amounts of biomass, and both crops produced more biomass (P Cover crops did not suppress H. columbus population levels or increase subsequent cotton yields. Cotton root destruction did not affect cotton stand or plant height the following year. Cotton root destruction lowered (P cover crop or cotton root destruction following harvest is ineffective for H. columbus management in cotton.

  1. Exploring the explaining quality of physics online explanatory videos (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Peters, Cord H.


    Explaining skills are among the most important skills educators possess. Those skills have also been researched in recent years. During the same period, another medium has additionally emerged and become a popular source of information for learners: online explanatory videos, chiefly from the online video sharing website YouTube. Their content and explaining quality remain to this day mostly unmonitored, as well is their educational impact in formal contexts such as schools or universities. In this study, a framework for explaining quality, which has emerged from surveying explaining skills in expert-novice face-to-face dialogues, was used to explore the explaining quality of such videos (36 YouTube explanatory videos on Kepler’s laws and 15 videos on Newton’s third law). The framework consists of 45 categories derived from physics education research that deal with explanation techniques. YouTube provides its own ‘quality measures’ based on surface features including ‘likes’, views, and comments for each video. The question is whether or not these measures provide valid information for educators and students if they have to decide which video to use. We compared the explaining quality with those measures. Our results suggest that there is a correlation between explaining quality and only one of these measures: the number of content-related comments.

  2. The Value of a Biotechnology Start-up: Creative Destruction and Real Options Approach The Value of a Biotechnology Start-up: Creative Destruction and Real Options Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Maya Ochoa


    Full Text Available The value of investments in high growth start-up firms is difficult to assess because payments are far in the future and their arrival is uncertain. Some of these firms may seem overvalued according to traditional methods, such as the Net Present Value, which fails to account for three drivers of value for highly innovative industries: intellectual capital as the engine of innovation, market power as the expectation of monopolistic power when innovating, and a growth option which may be exercised in the case of success.This paper presents a case study on a biotechnology start-up and applies the Creative Destruction – Real Options approach (CD-ROA (Maya, 2004 which takes into account all three drivers of value and is able to explain the high prices investors pay for shares of a company in this industry. It proves that such prices are not cases of overpricing but of recognition of the large growth potential of firms which are part of highly innovative industries.La valoración de la inversión en compañías nacientes de alto crecimiento no estarea fácil, pues los ingresos esperados se generan en un futuro lejano y bajo granincertidumbre. De acuerdo con métodos tradicionales de valoración como el ValorPresente Neto, el mercado parece sobrevalorar algunas de estas compañías. Ello sedebe a que estos métodos tradicionales no tienen en cuenta tres elementos esencialesque determinan el valor en estos casos: el capital intelectual como el motor de lainnovación, el poder de mercado por la expectativa de ingresos monopolísticos sise da la innovación y una opción real de crecimiento que puede ser ejercida en casode éxito.Este artículo aplica a una empresa de biotecnología el enfoque de opciones realesy destrucción creativa (Maya, 2004, el cual incluye estos tres determinantes delvalor y logra explicar el alto precio que los inversionistas pagan por una acción deeste tipo de empresas. Se demuestra que éste no es un caso de

  3. Platelet destruction in autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura: kinetics and clearance of indium-111-labeled autologous platelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ballem, P.J.; Gernsheimer, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Slichter, S.J.


    Using autologous /sup 111/In-labeled platelets, platelet kinetics and the sites of platelet destruction were assessed in 16 normal subjects (13 with and three without spleens), in 17 studies of patients with primary autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP), in six studies of patients with secondary AITP, in ten studies of patients with AITP following splenectomy, and in five thrombocytopenic patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. In normal subjects, the spleen accounted for 24 +/- 4% of platelet destruction and the liver for 15 +/- 2%. Untreated patients with primary AITP had increased splenic destruction (40 +/- 14%, p less than 0.001) but not hepatic destruction (13 +/- 5%). Compared with untreated patients, prednisone treated patients did not have significantly different spleen and liver platelet sequestration. Patients with secondary AITP had similar platelet counts, platelet survivals, and increases in splenic destruction of platelets as did patients with primary AITP. In contrast, patients with myelodysplastic syndromes had a normal pattern of platelet destruction. In AITP patients following splenectomy, the five nonresponders all had a marked increase (greater than 45%) in liver destruction compared to five responders (all less than 40%). Among all patients with primary or secondary AITP, there was an inverse relationship between the percent of platelets destroyed in the liver plus spleen and both the platelet count (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001) and the platelet survival (r = 0.86, p less than 0.001). In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, total liver plus spleen platelet destruction, the platelet survival and the platelet turnover were all significant independent predictors of the platelet count. Thus platelet destruction is shifted to the spleen in primary and secondary AITP. Failure of splenectomy is associated with a marked elevation in liver destruction.

  4. [Multifaceted body. 3. The contextualised body]. (United States)

    Bourquin, C; Wykretowicz, H; Saraga, M; Stiefel, F


    The human body is the object upon which medicine is acting, but also lived reality, image, symbol, representation and the object of elaboration and theory. All these elements which constitute the body influence the way medicine is treating it. In this series of three articles, we address the human body from various perspectives: medical (1), phenomenological (2), psychosomatic and socio-anthropological (3). This third and last article focuses on the psychosomatic and socio-anthropological facets of the body and their contribution to its understanding.

  5. Determination of Star Bodies from -Centroid Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lujun Guo; Gangsong Leng


    In this paper, we prove that an origin-symmetric star body is uniquely determined by its -centroid body. Furthermore, using spherical harmonics, we establish a result for non-symmetric star bodies. As an application, we show that there is a unique member of $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ characterized by having larger volume than any other member, for all real ≥ 1 that are not even natural numbers, where $_p\\langle K \\rangle$ denotes the -centroid equivalence class of the star body .

  6. Zooplankton body composition


    Kiørboe, Thomas


    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinousforms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals becomeincreasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body compo...

  7. Temperature sensitivity of organic compound destruction in SCWO process. (United States)

    Tan, Yaqin; Shen, Zhemin; Guo, Weimin; Ouyang, Chuang; Jia, Jinping; Jiang, Weili; Zhou, Haiyun


    To study the temperature sensitivity of the destruction of organic compounds in supercritical water oxidation process (SCWO), oxidation effects of twelve chemicals in supercritical water were investigated. The SCWO reaction rates of different compounds improved to varying degrees with the increase of temperature, so the highest slope of the temperature-effect curve (imax) was defined as the maximum ratio of removal ratio to working temperature. It is an important index to stand for the temperature sensitivity effect in SCWO. It was proven that the higher imax is, the more significant the effect of temperature on the SCWO effect is. Since the high-temperature area of SCWO equipment is subject to considerable damage from fatigue, the temperature is of great significance in SCWO equipment operation. Generally, most compounds (imax > 0.25) can be completely oxidized when the reactor temperature reaches 500°C. However, some compounds (imax > 0.25) need a higher temperature for complete oxidation, up to 560°C. To analyze the correlation coefficients between imax and various molecular descriptors, a quantum chemical method was used in this study. The structures of the twelve organic compounds were optimized by the Density Functional Theory B3LYP/6-311G method, as well as their quantum properties. It was shown that six molecular descriptors were negatively correlated to imax while other three descriptors were positively correlated to imax. Among them, dipole moment had the greatest effect on the oxidation thermodynamics of the twelve organic compounds. Once a correlation between molecular descriptors and imax is established, SCWO can be run at an appropriate temperature according to molecular structure.

  8. Construction and destruction of some North American cratons (United States)

    Snyder, David B.; Humphreys, Eugene; Pearson, D. Graham


    Construction histories of Archean cratons remain poorly understood; their destruction is even less clear because of its rarity, but metasomatic weakening is an essential precursor. By assembling geophysical and geochemical data in 3-D lithosphere models, a clearer understanding of the geometry of major structures within the Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons of central North America is now possible. Little evidence exists of subducted slab-like geometries similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in these construction histories. Underthrusting and wedging of proto-continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities, emphasizing the role of lateral accretion. Archean continental building blocks may resemble the modern lithosphere of oceanic plateau, but they better match the sort of refractory crust expected to have formed at Archean ocean spreading centres. Radiometric dating of mantle xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences, and these ages can be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons stabilized during a granitic bloom at 2.61-2.55 Ga. This stabilization probably represents the final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho atop depleted lithospheric mantle. Peak thermo-tectonic events at 1.86-1.7 Ga broadly metasomatized, mineralized and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making mantle peridotite more 'fertile' and more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite at 80-120 km depths. This metasomatism may have also weakened the lithosphere or made it more susceptible to tectonic or chemical erosion. Late Cretaceous flattening of Farallon lithosphere that included the Shatsky Rise conjugate appears to have weakened, eroded and displaced the base of the Wyoming craton below 140-160 km. This

  9. Thermodynamic Profiles of the Destructive June 2012 Derecho (United States)

    Liu, C.; Novakovskaia, E.; Bosse, J.; Ware, R.; Stillman, D.; Sloop, C.; Blanchette, L.; Demoz, B.; Nelson, M.; Cooper, L.; Czarnetzki, A.; Reehorst, A.


    The June 2012 mid-Atlantic and Midwest Derecho was one of the most destructive and deadly fast-moving severe thunderstorm events in North American history. The derecho produced wind gusts approaching 100 miles per hour as it traveled more than 600 miles across large sections of the Midwestern United States, the central Appalachians and the Mid-Atlantic States on the afternoon and evening of June 29, 2012 and into the early morning of June 30, 2012. It produced hurricane-like impacts with little warning, resulting in more than 20 deaths, widespread damage and millions of power outages across the entire affected region. We present continuous temperature and moisture profiles observed by microwave radiometers, and derived forecast indices, along the storm path at locations in Iowa, Ohio and Maryland, providing unique perspective on the evolution of this historic storm. For example, an extreme CAPE value of 5,000 J/kg was derived from radiometer observations at Germantown, Maryland ten hours before storm passage, and 80 knot Wind Index (WINDEX) was derived seven hours before passage. The Germantown radiometer is operated as part of the Earth Networks Boundary Layer Network (BLN) for continuous thermodynamic monitoring of the planetary boundary layer up to 30,000 feet. The BLN uses Radiometrics microwave profilers providing continuous temperature and humidity soundings with radiosonde-equivalent observation accuracy, and unique liquid soundings. This case study illustrates the promise for severe storm forecast improvement based on continuous monitoring of temperature and moisture in the boundary layer and above.

  10. Molecular cloud evolution - V. Cloud destruction by stellar feedback (United States)

    Colín, Pedro; Vázquez-Semadeni, Enrique; Gómez, Gilberto C.


    We present a numerical study of the evolution of molecular clouds, from their formation by converging flows in the warm interstellar medium, to their destruction by the ionizing feedback of the massive stars they form. We improve with respect to our previous simulations by including a different stellar-particle formation algorithm, which allows them to have masses corresponding to single stars rather than to small clusters, and with a mass distribution following a near-Salpeter stellar initial mass function. We also employ a simplified radiative-transfer algorithm that allows the stellar particles to feedback on the medium at a rate that depends on their mass and the local density. Our results are as follows: (a) contrary to the results from our previous study, where all stellar particles injected energy at a rate corresponding to a star of ˜10 M⊙, the dense gas is now completely evacuated from 10 pc regions around the stars within 10-20 Myr, suggesting that this feat is accomplished essentially by the most massive stars. (b) At the scale of the whole numerical simulations, the dense gas mass is reduced by up to an order of magnitude, although star formation (SF) never shuts off completely, indicating that the feedback terminates SF locally, but new SF events continue to occur elsewhere in the clouds. (c) The SF efficiency (SFE) is maintained globally at the ˜10 per cent level, although locally, the cloud with largest degree of focusing of its accretion flow reaches SFE ˜30 per cent. (d) The virial parameter of the clouds approaches unity before the stellar feedback begins to dominate the dynamics, becoming much larger once feedback dominates, suggesting that clouds become unbound as a consequence of the stellar feedback, rather than unboundness being the cause of a low SFE. (e) The erosion of the filaments that feed the star-forming clumps produces chains of isolated dense blobs reminiscent of those observed in the vicinity of the dark globule B68.

  11. The meaning of destruction: Definition and contextualization of disaster movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomašević Milan


    Full Text Available The disaster movie is one of the most persistent genres in cinematography, but it constantly escapes our attention because it is presented as “easy summer fun”. If we want to understand it as a cultural document of an epoch in which the genre is important and popular, we need to come up with a definition, formula and conventions of a disaster movie. Also, we must propose one of many possible comprehensions of its popularity and religious heritage. The paper uses definitions of genre, conventions and formulae in the attempt to show a way of using popular narratives in the transmission of a world view. Using a narrative structure gives us a glimpse into the deeper cultural, social and political context in which the disaster movie is created, popular or rejected. The paper discusses disaster movies as cultural artifacts, as a ritual we are practicing without remembering its purpose. Also, paper is examining identifying apocalyptic and catastrophic as an product of interposition of Apocalypse to Johan and Great Tribulation. Using apocalyptic literature, end times narratives and disaster movies, the paper shows the fruitfulness of destruction representations and imaginarium of terror. Using fear and shock, the messages of disaster movies seems more urgent and relevant. Through the ideas of Susan Sontag and Maurice Yacowar, the paper presents a way for analyzing the contemporary disaster movie. Conventions and formulae of disaster movies help us to understand the way modern cinematography is used for cultural and political means. The popularity of disaster movies can be seen as a form of ”ritualization of discontent” wherein the viewers experience some sort of catharsis. Also, disaster movie gathers different interests and actualizes thirstness for transformation of order or achieving justice. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg


    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah

  13. Construction and destruction of some North American cratons (United States)

    Snyder, D. B.; Humphreys, G.


    Construction histories of Archean cratons remain poorly understood; their destruction is even less clear because of, by definition, its rarity. By assembling geophysical and geochemical data in 3-D lithosphere models, a clearer understanding of the geometry of major structures within the Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons of central North America is now possible. Little evidence exists of subducted slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in these construction histories whereas underthrusting and wedging of proto-continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities. Archean continental building blocks may resemble the modern lithosphere of Ontong-Java-Hikurangi oceanic plateau. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae, Slave and Wyoming cratons comprise smaller continental terranes that 'cratonized' during a granitic bloom at 2.61-2.55 ga. Cratonization probably represents the final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho atop depleted lithospheric mantle. Peak thermo-tectonic events at 1.86-1.7 Ga broadly metasomatized, mineralized and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making mantle peridotite more 'fertile' and conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite throughout the lithosphere at 80-120 km depths. This metasomatism may have also weakened the lithosphere or made it more susceptible to tectonic or chemical erosion. The arrival of the subducted Shatsky Rise conjugate at the Wyoming craton at 65-75 Ma appears to have eroded and displaced the thus weakened base of the craton below 140-160 km. This replaced old refertilized continental mantle with new depleted oceanic mantle. Is this the same craton?

  14. Weapons of Mass Destruction Technology Evaluation and Training Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Larry Young


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has a long history for providing technology evaluation and training for military and other federal level Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) response agencies. Currently there are many federal organizations and commercial companies developing technologies related to detecting, assessing, mitigating and protecting against hazards associated with a WMD event. Unfortunately, very few locations exist within the United States where WMD response technologies are realistically field tested and evaluated using real chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and explosive materials. This is particularly true with biological and radiological hazards. Related to this lack of adequate WMD, multi-hazard technology testing capability is the shortage of locations where WMD response teams can train using actual chemical, biological, and radiological material or highly realistic simulates. In response to these technology evaluation and training needs, the INL has assembled a consortium of subject matter experts from existing programs and identified dedicated resources for the purpose of establishing an all-hazards, WMD technology evaluation and training range. The author describes the challenges associated with creating the all-hazards WMD technology evaluation and training range and lists the technical, logistical and financial benefits of an all-hazards technology evaluation and training range. Current resources and capabilities for conducting all-hazard technology evaluation and training at the INL are identified. Existing technology evaluation and training programs at the INL related to radiological, biological and chemical hazards are highlighted, including successes and lessons learned. Finally, remaining gaps in WMD technology evaluation and training capabilities are identified along with recommendations for closing those gaps.

  15. Stress May Explain Digestive Issues in Kids with Autism (United States)

    ... Stress May Explain Digestive Issues in Kids With Autism Elevated stress hormone levels linked to stomach problems ... Jan. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many children with autism suffer from gastrointestinal problems, such as belly pain ...

  16. Combining data in non-destructive testing; Fusion de donnees en CND pour le projet pace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavayssiere, B.


    Non-destructive testing of some components requires quite often the use of several methods such as X-ray, ultrasonics, Eddy Currents. But the efficiency of a NDT method is highly dependent on the fact that the detectability of flaws in a specimen relies on the choice of the best method. Moreover a lot of inspection issues could benefit from the use of more than one test method, as each NDT method has its own physical properties and technological limits. Some questions still remain: how to combine data, at what level and for what functionality. Simple monomethod processes are well-known now. They include techniques like reconstruction which belongs to the so-called ill-posed problems in the field of mathematics. For NDT data processing, it has the ability to estimate real data from distorted ones coming from a probe. But, up to now there has been very few approaches for computer aided combination of results from different advanced techniques. This report presents the various mathematical fields involved towards that goal (statistical decision theory which allows the use of multiple hypothesis, non-linear decision theory for its capability to classify and to discriminate, graph theory to find the optimal path in an hypothesis graph and also fuzzy logic, multiple resolution analysis, artificial intelligence,...) and which combinations of methods are useful. Some images will illustrate this topic in which EDF is involved, and will explain what are the major goals of this work. Combining is not only an improvement of 3D visualisation which would allow to display simultaneously CAD or NDT data for example, but it consists in exploiting multisensor data collected via a variety of sophisticated techniques and presenting this information to the operator without overloading the operator/system capacities in order to reduce the uncertainty and to resolve the ambiguity inherent to mono method inspection. (author). 7 figs., 35 refs.

  17. Nitroxide free radicals protect macular carotenoids against chemical destruction (bleaching) during lipid peroxidation. (United States)

    Zareba, M; Widomska, J; Burke, J M; Subczynski, W K


    Macular xanthophylls (MXs) lutein and zeaxanthin are dietary carotenoids that are selectively concentrated in the human eye retina, where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD) by multiple mechanisms, including filtration of phototoxic blue light and quenching of singlet oxygen and triplet states of photosensitizers. These physical protective mechanisms require that MXs be in their intact structure. Here, we investigated the protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin incorporated into model membranes subjected to oxidative modification by water- and/or membrane-soluble small nitroxide free radicals. Model membranes were formed from saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines (PCs). Oxidative modification involved autoxidation, iron-mediated, and singlet oxygen-mediated lipid peroxidation. The extent of chemical destruction (bleaching) of zeaxanthin was evaluated from its absorption spectra and compared with the extent of lipid peroxidation evaluated using the thiobarbituric acid assay. Nitroxide free radicals with different polarity (membrane/water partition coefficients) were used. The extent of zeaxanthin bleaching increased with membrane unsaturation and correlated with the rate of PC oxidation. Protection of the intact structure of zeaxanthin by membrane-soluble nitroxides was much stronger than that by water-soluble nitroxides. The combination of zeaxanthin and lipid-soluble nitroxides exerted strong synergistic protection against singlet oxygen-induced lipid peroxidation. The synergistic effect may be explained in terms of protection of the intact zeaxanthin structure by effective scavenging of free radicals by nitroxides, therefore allowing zeaxanthin to quench the primary oxidant, singlet oxygen, effectively by the physical protective mechanism. The redox state of nitroxides was monitored using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Both nitroxide free radicals and their reduced form

  18. Explaining the under representation of women in top management positions


    Kim, So Won


    The number of women who have reached top management positions in the corporate world is significantly lower than their male counterparts. Three perspectives intend to explain the under representation of women in management positions. First, the person centered perspective analyses the individual in relation to the requirements for management positions; and explains that women's lack of managerial traits, competence and career aspirations are the main reasons for their slow advancement. The or...

  19. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang


    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  20. Mind, Body, and Spirit: The Benefits of Martial Arts Training. (United States)

    Walters, Karrie P.


    Explains how martial arts, specifically karate, can benefit today's youth. States that karate promotes physical fitness, and also helps students learn to relax and calm their bodies, develop strong mind/body connections, and enhance mental calmness. Karate students also show increased self-esteem, attain goals, and develop an understanding of…

  1. Body temperature variation of South African antelopes in two climatically contrasting environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, A.K.; Wieren, van S.E.; Langevelde, van F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R.S.; Meyer, L.C.R.; Bie, de S.; Prins, H.H.T.


    To understand the adaptive capacity of a species in response to rapid habitat destruction and climate change, we investigated variation in body temperature (Tb) of three species of antelope, namely eland, blue wildebeest and impala, using abdominally-implanted temperature data loggers. The study was

  2. Post-destructive eye surgery, associated depression at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit, Zimbabwe: Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Kawome


    Full Text Available Destructive eye surgery is associated with more complications than just loss of visual functions of the eye and aesthetics. Currently there is very little published literature on post-destructive eye surgery associated depression. Zimbabwe has been experiencing a surge in the rate of destructive eye surgery done at the National Tertiary Eye Unit. This situation could be churning out lots of unrecognized depressed clients into the community who require assistance in one form or another.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of post-destructive eye surgery associated depression among patients attending Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit and assess if the current management protocol of patients undergoing destructive eye surgery at the Eye Unit addresses the problem adequately.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 28 randomly selected patients who had destructive eye surgeries at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital was conducted over five months from 1st March 2012 to end of July 2012. A structured questionnaire containing 15 questions on the following items: gender, age, diagnosis, surgical procedure done, expectations before and after surgery, adequacy of counseling given and involvement of family was used to collect data. Nine questions to assess depression were adapted from the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9.Setting:  The study was conducted at SekuruKaguvi Hospital Eye Unit, Parirenyatwa Group of Hospitals in Harare.Results:  Twenty-eight patients who underwent destructive eye surgery during the study period were selected using systematic random sampling. The gender ratio was 1:1 and the mean age was 38.7 years with a range from 24 to 65 years. Fifty percent of the patients in the study had orbital exenteration while the rest had enucleation (14% and evisceration (36%. Twenty-eight percent of the study population had depression.Conclusion: Destructive eye surgery is frequently associated with depression and our current management protocol of patients

  3. Body weight and beauty: the changing face of the ideal female body weight. (United States)

    Bonafini, B A; Pozzilli, P


    By observing the art of different eras, as well as the more recent existence of the media, it is obvious that there have been dramatic changes in what is considered a beautiful body. The ideal of female beauty has shifted from a symbol of fertility to one of mathematically calculated proportions. It has taken the form of an image responding to men's sexual desires. Nowadays there seems to be a tendency towards the destruction of the feminine, as androgynous fashion and appearance dominate our culture. The metamorphosis of the ideal woman follows the shifting role of women in society from mother and mistress to a career-orientated individual. Her depiction by artists across the centuries reveals this change in role and appearance that should be interpreted within the social and historical context of each era with its own theories of what constituted the ideal female body weight.

  4. Written on the Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    may choose to alter how we are perceived and to at least some extent control the discontent we may project onto our own body. Through body modification, we can alter the impression of our personality and express a cultural solidarity, as Chris Rojek points out. Tattoos, piercings and other body...... modifications become ways to express a difference from or identification with, a particular cultural segment. Body modification marks a personal subjectivity, just as it marks a border around those who participate. A distinctive bodily border is formed through the use of body modifications, and it can be viewed......Our bodies define a border between ourselves and the world around us. However we might feel about our body, it is what we present to the world. Victoria L. Blum in her book Flesh Wounds discusses how bodies are a form of inkblots, where discontent is projected onto. As bodies can be modified, we...

  5. Erythrokinetics: quantitative measurements of red cell production and destruction in normal subjects and patients with anemia. (United States)

    Giblett, Eloise R; Coleman, Daniel H; Pirzio-Biroli, Giacomo; Donohue, Dennis M; Motulsky, Arno G; Finch, Clement A


    To study erythropoiesis and anemia, one must have a firm foundation of indices that accurately measure red blood cell production and destruction. This paper, authored by hematology legends Arno G. Motulsky and Clement A. Finch, provides that foundation. Using methods that would not be approved in today's environment, the authors studied a cohort of normal healthy patients and an equal number of patients with different forms of anemia. The results confirm a reciprocal model of red cell production and destruction, show that anemia can be the result of either underproduction (a regenerative anemia or ineffective erythropoiesis) or increased destruction, and define parameters for distinguishing these 2 possibilities that are still widely used today.

  6. Supercritical water oxidation for the destruction of toxic organic wastewaters: A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VERIANSYAH Bambang; KIM Jae-Duck


    The destruction of toxic organic wastewaters from munitions demilitarization and complex industrial chemical clearly becomes an overwhelming problem if left to conventional treatment processes. Two options, incineration and supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), exist for the complete destruction of toxic organic wastewaters. Incinerator has associated problems such as very high cost and public resentment; on the other hand, SCWO has proved to be a very promising method for the treatment of many different wastewaters with extremely efficient organic waste destruction 99.99% with none of the emissions associated with incineration. In this review, the concepts of SCWO, result and present perspectives of application, and industrial status of SCWO are critically examined and discussed.

  7. Peculiarities of intensive care at destructive pneumonias in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Александровна Макарова


    Full Text Available In spite of success in treatment and diagnostics attained last years the problem of an acute pneumonia remains actual, this fact is caused by the growing rate of prolonged clinical course and unfavorable clinical outcomes. The growth of antibiotic resistance of microflora is a substantial problem. In addition even the most vigorous modern antibacterial preparations are not effective without an adequate surgical sanitation of the nidus of infection.The aim of the work is to improve the therapy of destructive pneumonia in children that need an intensive care.Methods. 12 patients 9 month – 12 years old who underwent the treatment of heavy community-acquired pneumonia were under observation. There was carried out an X-ray examination at admission and in dynamics, microbiological examination of lavages from the respiratory tract, pleural exudate and blood, determination of laboratory indexes of intoxication (by Kalf-Kalif, Dashtayants, Lubimova and the level of the middle molecules. The statistical analysis was done using the program package "Microsoft Excel" and "StatSoft 6".Results. In the course of microbiological examination it was demonstrated the prevalence of gram-negative flora and its associations with gram-positive one, the purely gram-positive flora was detected only in 25 % of children. So there was proved an inefficiency of antibiotics that effect mainly on the gram-positive microorganisms. In addition the cephalosporins of the third generation were found insufficiently effective. Such preparations as carbapenems or protected penicillins were chosen in vitro and according to its clinical efficiency. Plasmapheresis and bronchoscopy are useful in the complex therapy. Thoracoscopy must be carried out if the conservative treatment is not effectiveConclusions. At present the gram-negative flora and its associations with gram-positive one prevails in etiological structure of the heavy community-acquired pneumonias that must be taken into

  8. A chick embryo with a yet unclassified type of cephalothoracopagus malformation and a hypothesis for explaining its genesis. (United States)

    Maurer, B; Geyer, S H; Weninger, W J


    Cephalothoracopagus embryos are conjoined twins, who share parts of their heads, necks and bodies. Our study aims at presenting a detailed morphological analysis of a cephalothoracopagus chick embryo of developmental stage 31. Because none of the existing theories can explain the genesis of the phenotype of this embryo, we also suggest a hypothesis, which explains it. Beside the cephalothoracopagus embryo, we investigated five control embryos. With the aid of the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) technique, we created digital volume data and three-dimensional (3D) computer models of the organs and arteries of the embryos. We used the 3D models for topological analysis and for measuring the diameters of the great intrathoracic arteries. The malformed embryo showed two body backs, each containing a notochord, spinal cord and dorsal aorta. The body backs continued into separated lower bodies. The embryo had a single, four-chambered heart, single respiratory tract and single upper alimentary tract. The topology of the pharyngeal arch arteries was normal, and the diameters of these arteries were similar to that of the control embryos. We classified the embryo we investigated as a yet unknown malformation and suggest a hypothesis explaining its genesis.

  9. Boost Your Body: Self-Improvement Magazine Messages Increase Body Satisfaction in Young Adults. (United States)

    Veldhuis, Jolanda; Konijn, Elly A; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia


    The verbal messages that contextualize exposure to idealized body imagery may moderate media users' body satisfaction. Such contextualizing verbal messages often take the form of social comparison motives in fashion magazines, while body dissatisfaction is an important mechanism underlying various body image-related health issues like depression and unbalanced weight status. Hence, the present study applied social comparison motives as induced through magazine cover messages. Hypotheses were tested in an experimental design with social comparison motives (self-improvement vs. self-evaluation vs. control) and recipient gender as between-subjects factors and body satisfaction as within-subjects factor (N = 150). Results showed that self-improvement messages accompanying ideal body media models increased body satisfaction, compared to control messages and baseline measures. In contrast, the self-evaluation messages did not impact body satisfaction. Results imply that inconsistencies regarding effects from exposure to idealized body imagery are explained by the context in which media images are portrayed, evoking differential social comparison motives. Moreover, the findings imply that health communication interventions can use verbal messages on body improvement as helpful tools, if they draw on social comparison motives effectively.

  10. Some parameters and conditions defining the efficiency of burners in the destruction of long-lived nuclear wastes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V V Seliverstov


    A number of new wordings and statements regarding the targeted problem of destruction of long-lived wastes (transmutation) is considered. Some new criteria concerning the efficiency of a particular burner type are proposed. It is shown that the destruction efficiency of a specific burner is greatly influenced by the prospective time period of the whole destruction process.

  11. Firm Performance and Comply or Explain Disclosure in Corporate Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Caspar


    This study investigates the degree of Danish firm adherence to the Danish Code of Corporate Governance and analyzes if a higher degree of comply or explain disclosure is related to firm performance. This article formulates a methodology for quantifying the degree of comply or explain disclosure....... The analysis shows that there is a positive link between ROE/ROA and Danish firm total corporate governance comply or explain disclosure scores. Specifically, this is also the case when this level is increased within the following two categories: board composition and remuneration policy, whereas......'s many recommendations is relatively high. This article relates to the burgeoning literature that deals with listed firm compliance with national corporate governance codes and how compliance can be appropriately quantified. It is suggested that compliance is classified into the following four categories...

  12. Violence and Narcissism: A Frommian Perspective on Destructiveness under Authoritarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas K. Cheliotis


    Full Text Available This article offers a sympathetic appraisal of Erich Fromm’s concept of narcissism as it relates to the emergence, sustenance, and resolution of authoritarian violence. The discussion is first placed within the methodological debate over the analytic operations that are required for an adequate understanding of authoritarian violence, explaining why a psychoanalytic perspective is necessary.The focus then shifts to Fromm’s take on the Freudian concept of narcissism,before proceeding to explore in some depth his account of the symbolic mechanisms and contextual climate that must combine in practice in order for narcissistic energies to be channeled into authoritarianism and violence. Attention in this regard is paid both to the populace and governing elites. The article concludes with a short exposition of Fromm’s notion of benign narcissism, from its specific content to the conditions of its possibility.

  13. Temperature limitation may explain the containment of the trophozoites in the cornea during Acanthamoeba castellanii keratitis. (United States)

    Nielsen, Mattias Kiel; Nielsen, Kim; Hjortdal, Jesper; Sørensen, Uffe B Skov


    Acanthamoeba keratitis is a serious sight-threatening disease. The relatively low temperature of the cornea may explain why amoebic infections usually are localized in this tissue and rarely spread to other parts of the eye. In this study, the growth rate of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii was examined at different temperatures. The aim was to establish the optimal growth temperature for A. castellanii and to examine the growth within the vicinity of the core body temperature. The growth rates of four clinical and two environmental strains of A. castellanii were estimated at different temperatures, and temperature limitations for the trophozoite stage was established. Movements influenced by temperature gradients were monitored for two clinical strains of A. castellanii. The highest growth rate for each of the six amoebic strains tested was found to be close to 32 °C. The growth of the trophozoites of all examined strains was greatly reduced or completely halted at temperatures above 36 °C and encysted at the elevated temperature. Thus, the optimal growth temperature for the four strains of A. castellanii is close to the surface temperature of the human cornea, while the higher body core-temperature induced encysting of the amoebae. This may explain why most amoebic eye infections are confined to the cornea.

  14. BAM! Body and Mind (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC BAM! Body and Mind Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... this page: About . BAM! Body and Mind Diseases Xpert Opinion Disease Dectectives Immune Platoon Learn ...

  15. Abstract: Body Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lene


    This panel will explore the usefulness of the term ‘body work’ in cultural history. Body work is understood as work focusing on the bodies of others as component in a range of occupations in health and social care, as well as in unpaid work in the family. How can the notion of body work inform...... cultural history of health and illness whether through a micro-social focus on the intercorporeal aspects of work in health and social care, or through clarifying our understanding of the times and spaces of work, or through highlighting the relationship between mundane body work and global processes....... The British sociologist Julia Twigg has introduced and explored the term `bodywork', most recently in Body Work in Health and Social Care - Critical Themes, New Agendas (2011). She extends the term body work from applying to the work that individuals undertake on their own bodies, often as part of regimens...

  16. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an airfoil shaped body with a leading edge and a trailing edge extending along the longitudinal extension of the body and defining a profile chord, the airfoil shaped body comprising an airfoil shaped facing that forms the outer surface of the airfoil shaped body...... and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...... and that is connected to the facing inside the internal volume of the body at the same side of the profile chord as the connection of the distance member to the facing and to the distance member at a distance from the facing....

  17. About Body Water (United States)

    ... Diabetes Epidemic Additional Content Medical News About Body Water By James L. Lewis, III, MD NOTE: This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Water Balance About Body Water Dehydration Overhydration Water accounts ...

  18. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas


    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...

  19. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ... through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Many foreign bodies, like ...

  20. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body ingestions occur among children. Most foreign bodies pass through the gastrointestinal tract without complication, and endoscopic ... be dislodged rather than removed so that they pass safely through the digestive system. top of page ...

  1. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Foreign body retrieval is used to remove ... the foreign body. top of page What does the equipment look like? A variety of x-ray ...

  2. Explaining the motherhood wage penalty during the early occupational career. (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T


    Prior research shows that mothers earn lower hourly wages than women without children, and that this maternal wage penalty cannot be fully explained by differences between mothers and other women in work experience and job characteristics. This research examines whether the residual motherhood wage penalty results from differences between mothers and other women in the accumulation of work interruptions and breaks in schooling. Using longitudinal data for 486 women followed from ages 19 to 31 in the Minnesota Youth Development Study, we find that accumulated months not in the labor force and not enrolled in school explain the residual pay gap between mothers and other women.

  3. Effectiveness Analysis of a Non-Destructive Single Event Burnout Test Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Oser, P; Spiezia, G; Fadakis, E; Foucard, G; Peronnard, P; Masi, A; Gaillard, R


    It is essential to characterize power MosFETs regarding their tolerance to destructive Single Event Burnouts (SEB). Therefore, several non-destructive test methods have been developed to evaluate the SEB cross-section of power devices. A power MosFET has been evaluated using a test circuit, designed according to standard non-destructive test methods discussed in the literature. Guidelines suggest a prior adaptation of auxiliary components to the device sensitivity before the radiation test. With the first value chosen for the de-coupling capacitor, the external component initiated destructive events and affected the evaluation of the cross-section. As a result, the influence of auxiliary components on the device cross-section was studied. This paper presents the obtained experimental results, supported by SPICE simulations, to evaluate and discuss how the circuit effectiveness depends on the external components.

  4. Non-Destructive Detection and Separation of Radiation Damaged Cells in Miniaturized, Inexpensive Device Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a clear and well-identified need for rapid, efficient, non-destructive detection and isolation of radiation damaged cells. Available commercial technologies...

  5. Neural network modeling of conditions of destruction of wood plank based on measurements (United States)

    Filkin, V.; Kaverzneva, T.; Lazovskaya, T.; Lukinskiy, E.; Petrov, A.; Stolyarov, O.; Tarkhov, D.


    The paper deals with the possibility of predicting the ultimate load breaking timber sample based on the loading force dependence on the deflection before destruction. Prediction of mechanical properties of wood is handicapped by complex anisotropic structures. The anisotropic nature of the material and, in a great measure, the random nature of wood grain local features defining moment of destruction lead to a significant dependence of the required load on the individual characteristics of a particular bar. The ultimate load is sought as a function of the coefficients of the neural network approximation of the loading force dependence on the deflection. For this purpose, a number of experiments on timber sample loading until the destruction is conducted. Modeling of the conditions of material destruction may provide the required safety control in building industry.

  6. Differential diagnosis of several mechanisms of destruction in patients with dust diseases of lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumabekova, B.K.; Nikolaeva, L.N.; Milishnikova, V.V.


    In pathogenesis of lung diseases destruction of bronchial passability plays a significant role. Differential diagnosis of the mechanisms of destruction in patients ill with dust diseases was conducted with inhalation of salbutamol, stimulator of beta-adrenoreceptors of bronchi. Investigations of function of breathing included determination of ventilation characteristics, gases of blood and resistance of bronchi. Sixty patients were studied, 30 with pneumoconiosis and 30 with chronic dust bronchitis. Combination of ventilation characteristics and inhalation of salbutamol over 10, 20, 30 and 40 minute periods was used to determine mechanisms causing destruction of function of breathing. Comparisons of results of pneumotaxometry and fibroscopy show changes in mucous envelope of trachea and bronchi, inflammation and hypersecretion causing obstruction of bronchi. It is possible that these mechanisms may be combined with other changes of the tracheobronchial tree (dyskinesia, dystonia, changes in architectonics of bronchial tree and others). Further investigation of these possible mechanisms of destruction of bronchial passability is needed. (5 refs.) (In Russian)

  7. A Model of Destructive Entrepreneurship. Insight for Conflict and Postconflict Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desai, S.; Acs, Z.; Weitzel, G.U.


    The research on entrepreneurship as an economic phenomenon often assumes its desirability as a driver of economic development and growth. However, entrepreneurial talent can be allocated among productive, unproductive and destructive activities. This allocation has important implications in the deve

  8. Microwave Detection of Laser Ultrasonic for Non-Destructive Testing Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal, we describe a program to develop a high-performance, cost-effective and robust microwave receiver prototype for multi-purpose Non-Destructive...

  9. Quantification of the energy required for the destruction of Balanus Amphitrite larva by ultrasonic treatment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Seth, N.; Chakravarty, P.; Khandeparker, L.; Anil, A.C.; Pandit, A.B.

    Ultrasonic treatment, a relatively less explored technology in water disinfection, was used to quantify the energy required for the destruction of larvae of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, which is a major marine fouling and a potential invasive...

  10. Space Qualified Non-Destructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Aeronautics is proposing an innovative space qualified non-destructive evaluation and health monitoring technology. The technology is built on concepts...

  11. Space Qualified Non-Destructive Evaluation and Structural Health Monitoring Technology Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Encouraged by Phase I accomplishments, the proposed Phase II program will significantly mature and align the development of a Space Qualified Non-Destructive...

  12. 19 CFR 146.52 - Manipulation, manufacture, exhibition or destruction; Customs Form 216. (United States)


    ... certification of destruction, in its inventory control and recordkeeping system so as to provide an accounting... his recordkeeping system the approved application. (b) Approval. (1) The port director shall...

  13. Non-destructive Testing Dummy Nuclear Fuel Rods by Neutron Radiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Guo-hai; HAN; Song-bai; HE; Lin-feng; WANG; Yu; WANG; Hong-li; LIU; Yun-tao; CHEN; Dong-feng


    As a unique non-destructive testing technique,neutron radiography can be used to measure nuclear fuel rods with radioactivity.The images of the dummy nuclear fuel rods were obtained at the CARR.Through imaging analysis methods,the structure defections,the hydrogen accumulation in the cladding and the 235U enrichment of the pellet were studied and analyzed.Experiences for non-destructive testing real PWR nuclear fuel rods by NR

  14. An Evaluation of Persistence of Treatment Effects During Long-Term Treatment of Destructive Behavior


    Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K; Lee, John F.; Schieltz, Kelly M.; Padilla, Yaniz C; Nevin, John A.; Shahan, Timothy A


    Eight young children who displayed destructive behavior maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement received long-term functional communication training (FCT). During FCT, the children completed a portion of a task and then touched a communication card attached to a microswitch to obtain brief breaks. Prior to and intermittently throughout FCT, extinction probes were conducted within a withdrawal design in which task completion, manding, and destructive behavior were placed on ext...

  15. Optical generation,detection and non-destructive testing applications of terahertz waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Weili; LIANG; Dachuan; TIAN; Zhen; HAN; Jiaguang; GU; Jianqiang; HE; Mingxia; OUYANG; Chunmei


    Optoelectronic terahertz generation and detection play a key role in the applications of non-destructive testing,which involves different areas such as physics,biological,material science,imaging,explosions detection,astronomy applications,semiconductor technology and superconductiong electronics. In this article,we present a reviewof the principle and performance of typical terahertz sources,detectors and non-destructive testing applications. On this basis,the newdevelopment and trends of terahertz radiation detectors are also discussed.

  16. Novel Insights into the Molecular Mechanisms Governing Mdm2 Ubiquitination and Destruction


    Fukushima, Hidefumi; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Shaik, Shavali; Wei, Wenyi


    The Mdm2/p53 pathway is compromised in more than 50% of all human cancers, therefore it is an intensive area of research to understand the upstream regulatory pathways governing Mdm2/p53 activity. Mdm2 is frequently overexpressed in human cancers while the molecular mechanisms underlying the timely destruction of Mdm2 remain unclear. We recently reported that Casein Kinase I phosphorylates Mdm2 at multiple sites to trigger Mdm2 interaction with, and subsequent ubiquitination and destruction b...

  17. Simulations as a guidance to support and optimize experimental techniques for ultrasonic non-destructive testing.


    Delrue, Steven


    In today's rapidly growing industrial world where the requirement of reliability is increasing day by day and where newer and advanced materials are being introduced on a large scale, non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques have a very important role to play. The goal of NDT methodologies and techniques is to detect the presence of damage and inclusions, and to image components or structures to find defect locations, without destroying the material. Among the variety of non-destructive tes...

  18. Literacies in the Body (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie


    In this commentary, the author invites readers to consider the body and its central place in literacy pedagogy, practice and research. She emphasizes two interrelated paths for teachers and researchers interested in literacies to tend to the body: (1) the ways literacies are engaged and cultivated for making sense of bodies, and (2) the literacies…

  19. [Foreign Body in Esophagus]. (United States)

    Domeki, Yasushi; Kato, Hiroyuki


    An esophageal foreign body is the term for a foreign body in the esophagus. The 2 age groups most prone to this condition are children age 9 and under (and especially toddlers age 4 and under) and elderly individuals age 70 and over. A foreign body often lodges where the esophagus is most constricted. In toddlers, the foreign body is often currency or coins or a toy. In adults, the body is often a piece of fish, dentures, a piece of meat, a pin or needle, or a drug in its blister pack packaging. In children, an esophageal foreign body is treated by fluoroscopically guided removal of the body with a balloon catheter or magnetic catheter or removal of the body via endoscopy or direct esophagoscopy under general anesthesia. In adults, the best choice for treating an esophageal foreign body is removing the body with an endoscope but there are instances where surgery is performed because the body is hard to remove endoscopically, a puncture has occurred, or empyema or mediastinitis has developed. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of an esophageal foreign body.

  20. Many-body quantum interference on hypercubes (United States)

    Dittel, Christoph; Keil, Robert; Weihs, Gregor


    Beyond the regime of distinguishable particles, many-body quantum interferences influence quantum transport in an intricate manner. However, symmetries of the single-particle transformation matrix alleviate this complexity and even allow the analytic formulation of suppression laws, which predict final states to occur with a vanishing probability due to total destructive interference. Here we investigate the symmetries of hypercube graphs and their generalisations with arbitrary identical subgraphs on all vertices. We find that initial many-particle states, which are invariant under self-inverse symmetries of the hypercube, lead to a large number of suppressed final states. The condition for suppression is determined solely by the initial symmetry, while the fraction of suppressed states is given by the number of independent symmetries of the initial state. Our findings reveal new insights into particle statistics for ensembles of indistinguishable bosons and fermions and may represent a first step towards many-particle quantum protocols in higher-dimensional structures.

  1. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D


    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  2. Seven Destructive Seismic Crises in 12th Century Syria (United States)

    Guidoboni, E.; Bernardini, F.


    Between 1114 and 1170 Syria was struck by 7 seismic crises: 5 were great earthquakes (August and November 1114, November 1115, June 1117, June 1170), amongst which that of 29th June 1170 represents one of the most destructive events of the Middle-Eastern and Mediterranean area. Instead 2 were long and violent tremor sequences without a real main shock: the first one went on from October 1138 to June 1139, the second from September 1156 to May 1159. Until now all of these seismic events had been known mostly through Arab sources. However, owing to the particular political and military situation in the Syria of that period, such sources could not provide a complete frame of reference. Indeed, in those years in the territories of Syria and present-day Lebanon, some Latin States had been formed due to the military invasion of the Frankish Crusades. Furthermore, Syria was a privileged territory of travellers from various countries heading towards Palestine. Hence, basing ourselves on complex and diversified types of sources, precious new data have emerged written in Latin, Frankish, Greek, Armenian and Syrian. At the same time, the contribution of the Arab sources has been broadened. The overall picture that has emerged offers a new observational basis that has allowed us to date, differentiate, localise and thoroughly evaluate the elements of at least 5 of these earthquakes (the best documented ones: November 1114, 1115, 1138-39, 1156-59 and 1170). Overall nearly 90 hit locations have been identified, about 30 of which new and unknown to the previous studies. It has thus been possible for the first time to shed light on the intense seismic activity that affected this region in the dark ages. In just less than 60 years all of the vast territory that includes present-day Lebanon, north-eastern Syria and south-eastern Turkey was repeatedly struck. The earthquakes of 13th November 1114 and 29th November 1115 (until today often muddled up), and the sequence in 1138-39 hit

  3. Marketing Strategy for The Body Shop



    The project revolves around marketing strategies of The Body Shop regarding the male consumers in Denmark. Theories used in this project consist of the 7Ps of marketing, a SWOT analysis, and The Service Triangle. They would be used to build up the analysis for this project, which consists of three parts as explained accordingly hereafter. The 7Ps of marketing would be used to analyze The Body Shop’s current marketing strategies, while The Service Triangle is utilized to analyze the company’s...

  4. On Body Language Differences from Intercultural View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Body language,which is a branch of nonverbal conununication,plays an important role in the intercultural communication.It ex presses how people communicate through the way one sits,stands,trtoves,etc rather than through words.Each movement of a person can convey one's information,emotions,and attitudes.This paper explains in detail about the body language differences in different countries from the intercultural view,especially about posture differences,gesture differences,facial expression differences and eye management differ ences,for the pnrpose of helping others to communicate in ail effective way.

  5. Destruction of carbon tetrachloride in a dielectric barrier/packed-bed corona reactor (United States)

    Tonkyn, R. G.; Barlow, S. E.; Orlando, T. M.


    The destruction of low concentrations (corona reactor was studied. We compare, in particular, the destruction efficiencies using either borosilicate or zirconia oxide (ZrO2) packing materials in dry and moist air, and nitrogen buffer gases. Measurements of contaminant removal in the effluent gas were made at atmospheric pressure as a function of energy dissipated in the reactor. In dry N2, destruction of CCl4 was most efficient using ZrO2 beads, whereas, in dry air, contaminant removal was approximately equal for borosilicate glass and ZrO2. The presence of water in the gas stream reduced the CCl4 destruction efficiency under all conditions. This reduction was likely a synergistic effect that involves changes in the plasma density, scavenging of low energy secondary electrons, and possible surface passivation. Assuming the primary step in CCl4 destruction is dissociative electron attachment, an estimate of the average density of low energy electrons as a function of input energy was made. We relate the enhancement in CCl4 destruction using the ZrO2 beads in N2 to a slight increase in the number density of low energy secondary electrons. A discussion of the importance of energy density measurements and a useful phenomenological kinetic model consistent with the observed results are presented.

  6. High-temperature photochemical destruction of toxic organic wastes using concentrated solar radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellinger, B.; Graham, J.L.; Berman, J.M.; Taylor, P.H. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States)


    Application of concentrated solar energy has been proposed to be a viable waste disposal option. Specifically, this concept of solar induced high-temperature photochemistry is based on the synergistic contribution of concentrated infrared (IR) radiation, which acts as an intense heating source, and near ultraviolet and visible (UV-VIS) radiation, which can induce destructive photochemical processes. Some significant advances have been made in the theoretical framework of high-temperature photochemical processes (Section 2) and development of experimental techniques for their study (Section 3). Basic thermal/photolytic studies have addressed the effect of temperature on the photochemical destruction of pure compounds (Section 4). Detailed studies of the destruction of reaction by-products have been conducted on selected waste molecules (Section 5). Some very limited results are available on the destruction of mixtures (Section 6). Fundamental spectroscopic studies have been recently initiated (Section 7). The results to date have been used to conduct some relatively simple scale-up studies of the solar detoxification process. More recent work has focused on destruction of compounds that do not directly absorb solar radiation. Research efforts have focused on homogeneous as well as heterogeneous methods of initiating destructive reaction pathways (Section 9). Although many conclusions at this point must be considered tentative due to lack of basic research, a clearer picture of the overall process is emerging (Section 10). However, much research remains to be performed and most follow several veins, including photochemical, spectroscopic, combustion kinetic, and engineering scale-up (Section 11).

  7. Productive Destruction:Observations about Destruction as the Central Organizing Form to Social Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper is a reflection on observations about the place of destruction in the or-ganization of social life .In contemplating the model of sacrifice , the author draws upon sources ranging Hubert, Mauss, and Evan-Pritchard to Levi-Strauss, and considers the circumstances of his life as a scholar of Melanesia and as a resident of the United States .The question that in-trigues the author the most is:“ what quality is there in social life that makes destruction so often the condition of creation?” The author names this kind of destruction as a productive destruction and gives an analysis .He argues that destruction not only makes creation possible , it also pro-duces the conditions for the formation of not just difference , but a rank order or hierarchy .He suggests that it is not religion which creates the ritual hierarchies of power and destruction , but the latter which gets taken up by religion and ritual , and, thence, by the development of forms of social order .

  8. Security in the Mediterranean basin: terrorism and weapons of mass destruction; La securite dans le bassin mediterraneen: terrorisme et armes de destruction massive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benoit, L. [Tours Univ., 37 (France); Groupe d' Etudes et de Recherches sur la Cooperation Internationale et Europeenne (GERCIE), 37 - Tours (France)


    The european union has appreciated the gravity of the threat from terrorism and weapons of mass destruction, and has adopted a strategy for keeping up its guard, particularly in the Mediterranean basin. The author reviews what is being done to meet these scourges. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A study, to develop regression models for prediction of body weight from other linear body measurements, was conducted in Esite, Farta and Lai-Gaint districts of South Gondar, Amhara region. Records on body weight (BW and other linear body measurements (Body Length (BL, Wither Height (WH, Chest Girth (CH, Pelvic Width (PW and Ear Length (EL were taken from 941 sheep. Non-linear, simple linear and multiple linear regression models were developed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12.0. For the multiple linear regressions, step-wise regression procedures were used. Predicting models were developed for different age, sex and for the pool. Positive and significant (P<0.01 correlations were observed between body weight and linear body measurements for all sex and age groups. Among the four linear body measurements, heart girth had the highest correlation coefficient (except ear length in all age and sex groups which is followed by body length, height at wither and pelvic width. Heart girth was the first variable to explain more variation than other variables in both sex and age groups. The models developed had a coefficient of determination of 0.26 to 0.89; the highest coefficient of determination was depicted for male while the lowest was for dentition groups having two permanent incisors. Regression models in general were poor in explaining weight for the dentition groups above one pair of permanent incisors. Heart girth alone was able to estimate weight with a coefficient of determination of 0.77, for both sexes and the pool. The coefficient of determination of the fitted equations (in general decreased as the age of sheep advances indicating that the fitted equations can predict weight for younger sheep with better accuracy than for older ones. In general, much of the variation in weight was explained when many traits were included in the model. However, for ease of use and to avoid complexity at field condition, it is

  10. A hierarchical Bayes error correction model to explain dynamic effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); C. Horváth (Csilla); R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)


    textabstractFor promotional planning and market segmentation it is important to understand the short-run and long-run effects of the marketing mix on category and brand sales. In this paper we put forward a sales response model to explain the differences in short-run and long-run effects of promotio

  11. Explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    for explaining consumer attitudes to genetic modification in food production which builds on modern cognitive psychology and multi-attribute attitude theory. In addition, the paper introduces the empirical research which is undertaken at present to validate and estimate the parameters of the model by means...

  12. Harmonia axyridis: how to explain its invasion success in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raak-van den Berg, C.L.


    Abstract of the thesis entitled “Harmonia axyridis: how to explain its invasion success in Europe” After introduction as biological control agent of aphids, the multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis has established and spread in Europe. Harmonia axyridis is now regarded as an in

  13. Explaining residential moving intentions : the case of highway locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamersma, Marije; Heinen, Eva; Tillema, Taede; Arts, Jos


    In this paper Structural Equation Modeling is used to test a theoretical framework to explain the impact of highway externalities (i.e. accessibility and nuisance) on moving intentions of people living close to highways. We aimed to study whether highway externalities (alongside other contextual fac

  14. Generalizing MOND to explain the missing mass in galaxy clusters (United States)

    Hodson, Alistair O.; Zhao, Hongsheng


    Context. MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a gravitational framework designed to explain the astronomical observations in the Universe without the inclusion of particle dark matter. MOND, in its current form, cannot explain the missing mass in galaxy clusters without the inclusion of some extra mass, be it in the form of neutrinos or non-luminous baryonic matter. We investigate whether the MOND framework can be generalized to account for the missing mass in galaxy clusters by boosting gravity in high gravitational potential regions. We examine and review Extended MOND (EMOND), which was designed to increase the MOND scale acceleration in high potential regions, thereby boosting the gravity in clusters. Aims: We seek to investigate galaxy cluster mass profiles in the context of MOND with the primary aim at explaining the missing mass problem fully without the need for dark matter. Methods: Using the assumption that the clusters are in hydrostatic equilibrium, we can compute the dynamical mass of each cluster and compare the result to the predicted mass of the EMOND formalism. Results: We find that EMOND has some success in fitting some clusters, but overall has issues when trying to explain the mass deficit fully. We also investigate an empirical relation to solve the cluster problem, which is found by analysing the cluster data and is based on the MOND paradigm. We discuss the limitations in the text.

  15. Visualisation and Reasoning in Explaining the Phases of the Moon (United States)

    Subramaniam, K.; Padalkar, Shamin


    In this study, we examine how subjects set up, transform, and reason with models that they establish on the basis of known facts as they seek to explain a familiar everyday phenomenon--the phases of the moon. An interview schedule was designed to elicit subjects' reasoning, and in the case where explanations were mistaken, to induce a change in…

  16. The Role of Secondary Education in Explaining Competitiveness (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Winzar, Hume


    The literature establishes that education drives economic performance, but the extent that education is associated with a country's competitiveness is empirically untested. Our study analyses Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) data from 63 countries to ascertain education's role in explaining the competitiveness of a country.…

  17. Can gluon condensate in pulsar cores explain pulsar glitches ?

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, R D


    Making use of the possibility that gluon condensate can be formed in neutron star core, we study the vortex pinning force between the crust and the interior of the neutron star. Our estimations indicate an increase in pinning strength with the age of the neutron star. This helps in explaining observed pulsar glitches and removes some difficulties faced by vortex creep model.

  18. Explaining User Satisfaction with Academic Libraries: Strategic Implications. (United States)

    Andaleeb, Syed Saad; Simmonds, Patience L.


    Proposes and tests a five-factor model (demeanor, competence, resources, responsiveness, tangibles) to explain user satisfaction with academic libraries. Students using the services of three academic libraries in Erie, Pennsylvania were surveyed over a period of three semesters. Five tables show results. (AEF)

  19. Explaining Choice and Share of Category Requirements of Biologic Meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Verhoef (Peter); K. Vlagsma-Brangule (Kristine)


    textabstractIn this paper we examine factors determining choice and consumption of biologic or organic meat. In our model explaining choice and share of category requirements, we consider economic/marketing variables (quality, price, and distribution), emotions (fear, empathy, andguilt), social norm

  20. Natural products--a simple model to explain chemical diversity. (United States)

    Firn, Richard D; Jones, Clive G


    A simple evolutionary model is presented which explains why organisms produce so many natural products, why so many have low biological activity, why enzymes involved in natural product synthesis have the properties they do and why natural product metabolism is shaped as it is.

  1. Do plant traits explain tree seedling survival in bogs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, J.; Egmond, van E.; Li, B.; Holmgren, M.


    Moss-dominated peat bogs store approximately 30% of global soil carbon. A climate induced shift from current moss-dominated conditions to tree-dominated states is expected to strongly affect their functioning and carbon sequestration capacity. Consequently, unraveling the mechanisms that may explain

  2. Students Explaining Science—Assessment of Science Communication Competence (United States)

    Kulgemeyer, Christoph; Schecker, Horst


    Science communication competence (SCC) is an important educational goal in the school science curricula of several countries. However, there is a lack of research about the structure and the assessment of SCC. This paper specifies the theoretical framework of SCC by a competence model. We developed a qualitative assessment method for SCC that is based on an expert-novice dialog: an older student (explainer, expert) explains a physics phenomenon to a younger peer (addressee, novice) in a controlled test setting. The explanations are video-recorded and analysed by qualitative content analysis. The method was applied in a study with 46 secondary school students as explainers. Our aims were (a) to evaluate whether our model covers the relevant features of SCC, (b) to validate the assessment method and (c) to find characteristics of addressee-adequate explanations. A performance index was calculated to quantify the explainers' levels of competence on an ordinal scale. We present qualitative and quantitative evidence that the index is adequate for assessment purposes. It correlates with results from a written SCC test and a perspective taking test (convergent validity). Addressee-adequate explanations can be characterized by use of graphical representations and deliberate switches between scientific and everyday language.

  3. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives. (United States)

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy


    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  4. Cavitation passive control on immersed bodies (United States)

    Javadi, Khodayar; Dorostkar, Mohammad Mortezazadeh; Katal, Ali


    This paper introduces a new idea of controlling cavitation around a hydrofoil through a passive cavitation controller called artificial cavitation bubble generator (ACG). Cyclic processes, namely, growth and implosion of bubbles around an immersed body, are the main reasons for the destruction and erosion of the said body. This paper aims to create a condition in which the cavitation bubbles reach a steady-state situation and prevent the occurrence of the cyclic processes. For this purpose, the ACG is placed on the surface of an immersed body, in particular, the suction surface of a 2D hydrofoil. A simulation was performed with an implicit finite volume scheme based on a SIMPLE algorithm associated with the multiphase and cavitation model. The modified k-ɛ RNG turbulence model equipped with a modification of the turbulent viscosity was applied to overcome the turbulence closure problem. Numerical simulation of water flow over the hydrofoil equipped with the ACG shows that a low-pressure recirculation area is produced behind the ACG and artificially generates stationary cavitation bubbles. The location, shape, and size of this ACG are the crucial parameters in creating a proper control. Results show that the cavitation bubble is controlled well with a well-designed ACG.

  5. Cavitation passive control on immersed bodies (United States)

    Javadi, Khodayar; Dorostkar, Mohammad Mortezazadeh; Katal, Ali


    This paper introduces a new idea of controlling cavitation around a hydrofoil through a passive cavitation controller called artificial cavitation bubble generator (ACG). Cyclic processes, namely, growth and implosion of bubbles around an immersed body, are the main reasons for the destruction and erosion of the said body. This paper aims to create a condition in which the cavitation bubbles reach a steady-state situation and prevent the occurrence of the cyclic processes. For this purpose, the ACG is placed on the surface of an immersed body, in particular, the suction surface of a 2D hydrofoil. A simulation was performed with an implicit finite volume scheme based on a SIMPLE algorithm associated with the multiphase and cavitation model. The modified k-ɛ RNG turbulence model equipped with a modification of the turbulent viscosity was applied to overcome the turbulence closure problem. Numerical simulation of water flow over the hydrofoil equipped with the ACG shows that a low-pressure recirculation area is produced behind the ACG and artificially generates stationary cavitation bubbles. The location, shape, and size of this ACG are the crucial parameters in creating a proper control. Results show that the cavitation bubble is controlled well with a well-designed ACG.

  6. Explaining Support Vector Machines: A Color Based Nomogram (United States)

    Van Belle, Vanya; Van Calster, Ben; Van Huffel, Sabine; Suykens, Johan A. K.; Lisboa, Paulo


    Problem setting Support vector machines (SVMs) are very popular tools for classification, regression and other problems. Due to the large choice of kernels they can be applied with, a large variety of data can be analysed using these tools. Machine learning thanks its popularity to the good performance of the resulting models. However, interpreting the models is far from obvious, especially when non-linear kernels are used. Hence, the methods are used as black boxes. As a consequence, the use of SVMs is less supported in areas where interpretability is important and where people are held responsible for the decisions made by models. Objective In this work, we investigate whether SVMs using linear, polynomial and RBF kernels can be explained such that interpretations for model-based decisions can be provided. We further indicate when SVMs can be explained and in which situations interpretation of SVMs is (hitherto) not possible. Here, explainability is defined as the ability to produce the final decision based on a sum of contributions which depend on one single or at most two input variables. Results Our experiments on simulated and real-life data show that explainability of an SVM depends on the chosen parameter values (degree of polynomial kernel, width of RBF kernel and regularization constant). When several combinations of parameter values yield the same cross-validation performance, combinations with a lower polynomial degree or a larger kernel width have a higher chance of being explainable. Conclusions This work summarizes SVM classifiers obtained with linear, polynomial and RBF kernels in a single plot. Linear and polynomial kernels up to the second degree are represented exactly. For other kernels an indication of the reliability of the approximation is presented. The complete methodology is available as an R package and two apps and a movie are provided to illustrate the possibilities offered by the method. PMID:27723811

  7. Identification of surface cracks in magnetic bodies using wavelets on a bounded interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd-El-Hafiz, S.K., E-mail: [Engineering Mathematics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12211 (Egypt); Adly, A.A., E-mail: [Electrical Power and Machines Department, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza 12211 (Egypt)


    Non-destructive identification of cracks in steel bodies has always been an issue of great interest to numerous industrial sectors. Examples in which such non-destructive testing is of considerable importance include railways, pipelines and structural supports. This paper proposes a technique that employs the application of static magnetic field parallel to the surface under consideration while monitoring emanating fields using an orthogonally oriented hall sensor. In this approach, wavelets on a bounded interval are utilized to identify the precise location of surface cracks, which are considerably smaller than the active sensing element dimensions. Simulation results demonstrating the advantages of the proposed approach are given in the paper.

  8. Optimising Body Layout Design of Limbed Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-jun Zhang; Jin Tong; Kevin Hapeshi; Dong-hui Chen


    This paper presents our efforts to explain why mammals have large thigh muscles while insects have small ones. After a discussion of this observation a definition of body foot ratio is defined which describes how animals stand and how their legs are arranged. To investigate the mechanics, we present a closed optimum solution of the body foot ratio for a 2D two-leg walking machine. A multi-walker is used as a case for 3D general analysis, and the numerical simulation is presented. Both 2D and 3D case studies can explain the above observations of mammals and insects. These findings can also be used as a guide for the design of man-made limbed machines.

  9. Tidal Downsizing Model. IV. Destructive feedback in planets

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei


    I argue that feedback is as important to formation of planets as it is to formation of stars and galaxies. Energy released by massive solid cores puffs up pre-collapse gas giant planets, making them vulnerable to tidal disruptions by their host stars. I find that feedback is the ultimate reason for some of the most robust properties of the observed exoplanet populations: the rarity of gas giants at all separations from $\\sim 0.1$ to $\\sim 100$~AU, the abundance of $\\sim 10 M_\\oplus$ cores but dearth of planets more massive than $\\sim 20 M_\\oplus$. Feedback effects can also explain (i) rapid assembly of massive cores at large separations as needed for Uranus, Neptune and the suspected HL Tau planets; (ii) the small core in Jupiter yet large cores in Uranus and Neptune; (iii) the existence of rare "metal monster" planets such as CoRoT-20b, a gas giant made of heavy elements by up to $\\sim 50$\\%.

  10. Visual body recognition in a prosopagnosic patient. (United States)

    Moro, V; Pernigo, S; Avesani, R; Bulgarelli, C; Urgesi, C; Candidi, M; Aglioti, S M


    Conspicuous deficits in face recognition characterize prosopagnosia. Information on whether agnosic deficits may extend to non-facial body parts is lacking. Here we report the neuropsychological description of FM, a patient affected by a complete deficit in face recognition in the presence of mild clinical signs of visual object agnosia. His deficit involves both overt and covert recognition of faces (i.e. recognition of familiar faces, but also categorization of faces for gender or age) as well as the visual mental imagery of faces. By means of a series of matching-to-sample tasks we investigated: (i) a possible association between prosopagnosia and disorders in visual body perception; (ii) the effect of the emotional content of stimuli on the visual discrimination of faces, bodies and objects; (iii) the existence of a dissociation between identity recognition and the emotional discrimination of faces and bodies. Our results document, for the first time, the co-occurrence of body agnosia, i.e. the visual inability to discriminate body forms and body actions, and prosopagnosia. Moreover, the results show better performance in the discrimination of emotional face and body expressions with respect to body identity and neutral actions. Since FM's lesions involve bilateral fusiform areas, it is unlikely that the amygdala-temporal projections explain the relative sparing of emotion discrimination performance. Indeed, the emotional content of the stimuli did not improve the discrimination of their identity. The results hint at the existence of two segregated brain networks involved in identity and emotional discrimination that are at least partially shared by face and body processing.

  11. Body image v marketingu


    Michelík, Martin


    Today's era depicts life of consumer society with the growing battle for customers. Every single person in this world wants to have a solid life and look pretty. Advertisements, which display handsome and slender people are all around us and they influence our consumer behavior. We tend to equilibrate these ideals by buying the most diverse products and even attempt to achieve the alleged feeling of happiness. This thesis is focused on Body image in which explains individual consumer behavior...

  12. Carbon and sulfur budget of the silicate Earth explained by accretion of differentiated planetary embryos (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Dasgupta, Rajdeep; Tsuno, Kyusei; Monteleone, Brian; Shimizu, Nobumichi


    The abundances of volatile elements in the Earth's mantle have been attributed to the delivery of volatile-rich material after the main phase of accretion. However, no known meteorites could deliver the volatile elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulfur, at the relative abundances observed for the silicate Earth. Alternatively, Earth could have acquired its volatile inventory during accretion and differentiation, but the fate of volatile elements during core formation is known only for a limited set of conditions. Here we present constraints from laboratory experiments on the partitioning of carbon and sulfur between metallic cores and silicate mantles under conditions relevant for rocky planetary bodies. We find that carbon remains more siderophile than sulfur over a range of oxygen fugacities; however, our experiments suggest that in reduced or sulfur-rich bodies, carbon is expelled from the segregating core. Combined with previous constraints, we propose that the ratio of carbon to sulfur in the silicate Earth could have been established by differentiation of a planetary embryo that was then accreted to the proto-Earth. We suggest that the accretion of a Mercury-like (reduced) or a sulfur-rich (oxidized) differentiated body--in which carbon has been preferentially partitioned into the mantle--may explain the Earth's carbon and sulfur budgets.

  13. Dispersal propensity, but not flight performance, explains variation in dispersal ability. (United States)

    Steyn, Vernon M; Mitchell, Katherine A; Terblanche, John S


    Enhanced dispersal ability may lead to accelerated range expansion and increased rates of population establishment, thereby affecting population genetic structure and evolutionary potential. Morphological, behavioural and physiological traits that characterize dispersive individuals from residents are poorly understood for many invertebrate systems, especially in non-polymorphic pterygote species. Here we examined phenotypic differences between dispersal-prone and philopatric individuals from repeated mark-release-recapture (MRR) experiments using an invasive agricultural pest, Ceratitis capitata Comprehensive morphometric assessment and subsequent minimal adequate modelling using an information theoretic approach identified thorax mass : body mass ratio as a key predictor of disperser flies under semi-natural conditions. Performance differences in flight ability were then examined under controlled laboratory conditions to assess whether greater thorax mass : body mass ratio was associated with enhanced flight ability. The larger thorax : body mass ratio was associated with measurable differences in mean flight duration, most predominantly in males, and also by their willingness to disperse, scored as the number and duration of voluntary flights. No other measures of whole-animal flight performance (e.g. mean and peak vertical force, total or maximum flight duration) differed. Variation in voluntary behaviour may result in significant alterations of movement behaviour and realized dispersal in nature. This phenomenon may help explain intraspecific variation in the dispersal ability of insects.

  14. Age at first reproduction explains rate variation in the strepsirrhine molecular clock. (United States)

    Tsantes, C; Steiper, M E


    Although the molecular clock hypothesis posits that the rate of molecular change is constant over time, there is evidence that rates vary among lineages. Some of the strongest evidence for variable molecular rates comes from the primates; e.g., the "hominoid slowdown." These rate differences are hypothesized to correlate with certain species attributes, such as generation time and body size. Here, we examine rates of molecular change in the strepsirrhine suborder of primates and test whether body size or age at first reproduction (a proxy for generation time) explains patterns of rate variation better than a null model where the molecular clock is independent of these factors. To examine these models, we analyzed DNA sequences from four pairs of recently diverged strepsirrhine sister taxa to estimate molecular rates by using sign tests, likelihood ratio tests, and regression analyses. Our analysis does not support a model where body weight or age at first reproduction strongly influences rates of molecular evolution across mitochondrial and nuclear sites. Instead, our analysis supports a model where age at first reproduction influences neutral evolution in the nuclear genome. This study supports the generation time hypothesis for rate variation in the nuclear molecular clock. Molecular clock variation due to generation time may help to resolve the discordance between molecular and paleontological estimates for divergence date estimates in primate evolution.

  15. [Destructive paraffinoma of the breast and thoracic wall caused by paraffin injection for mammary increase. Apropos of 3 cases with review of the literature]. (United States)

    Zekri, A; Ho, W S; King, W W


    The injection of a high viscosity fluids into the tissues for cosmetic body contouring has been practised in the last four decades in the East and South-East of Asia. The injection of liquid paraffin for mammary augmentation was widely practised by surgeons, physician and even non medical people. Unfortunately, most of these cases ended by having different varieties of paraffinoma as a complication of a foreign body reaction. We report three cases of a destructive form of these paraffinomas ulcerating into both breasts and the anterior chest wall. One case was treated by bilateral mastectomy, radical excision of the anterior chest wall soft tissue and reconstruction by a vertical Rectus Abdominus Myocutaneous Flap. The second case had bilateral mastectomy and followed up for facial paraffinomas. The third case was just followed for up regular wound care as surgery was not indicated due to advanced age, poor general condition and the family request.

  16. How Do Consumers Evaluate Explainer Videos? An Empirical Study on the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Different Explainer Video Formats (United States)

    Krämer, Andreas; Böhrs, Sandra


    There is a significant rise in the use of videos. More and more people use videos not only as a source of information but also as learning tool. This article explores the future potential of explainer videos, a format that conveys complex facts to a target group within a very short time. The findings are based on an empirical study representative…

  17. Macroscopic Dust in Protoplanetary Disks - From Growth to Destruction

    CERN Document Server

    Deckers, Johannes


    The collision dynamics of dusty bodies are crucial for planetesimal formation. Especially decimeter agglomerates are important in the different formation models. Therefore, in continuation of our experiments on mutual decimeter collisions, we investigate collisions of centimeter onto decimeter dust agglomerates in a small drop tower under vacuum conditions (p<5*10^{-1} mbar) at a mean collision velocity of 6.68 +- 0.67m/s. We use quartz dust with irregularly shaped micrometer grains. Centimeter projectiles with different diameters, masses and heights are used, their typical volume filling factor is Phi_{p,m}=0.466+-0.02. The decimeter agglomerates have a mass of about 1.5kg, a diameter and height of 12cm and a mean filling factor of Phi_{t,m}=0.44+-0.004. At lower collision energies only the projectile gets destroyed and mass is transferred to the target. The accretion efficiency decreases with increasing obliquity and increasing difference in filling factor, if the projectile is more compact than the targ...

  18. Application of Cellular Technologies to the Experimental Treatment of Destructive Inflammatory Arthropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzhan Kaulambayeva


    Full Text Available Introduction. The treatment of destructive inflammatory joint diseases (arthropathies is one of the issues of current interest in modern medicine. In destructive inflammatory diseases, the regenerative ability of cartilaginous tissue proves to be inadequate for neogenesis of joints. The goal of this study is to determine the efficacy of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell fraction (MNC and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSC in the treatment of destructive inflammatory joint diseases.Materials and methods. The study subjects consisted of 15 male rabbits weighing 3-4 kg with experimental destructive inflammatory knee joint disease. The test animals were divided into 3 groups: reference group without treatment, first test group – introduction of autologous MNC from rabbit bone marrow into the affected joint, and second test group – introduction of cultured MMSC from rabbit bone marrow into the joint.Results. A morphological examination of the synovial membranes in the reference group on the 40th day of the experiment revealed chronic synovitis with destruction of synoviocytes, thickening and inflammatory infiltration of the underlying connective tissue (subintima. During examination of synovial membranes in the first test group the patches of thickened regenerating inner layer (intima made up by large proliferating synoviocytes were observed. The layer of loose connective tissue (subintima contained a large number of small blood vessels and was only slightly infiltrated by inflammatory cells. The morphological examination of synovial membranes in the second test group discovered thickened regenerating intimal layer sitting on hypertrophied subintima with dense vascular network. Elastic collagenous layers of synovial membrane adjoined proliferating elements in cartilage plates.Conclusion. Both autologous MNC fraction and MMSC from bone marrow proved effectiveness in the treatment of destructive inflammatory joint diseases which

  19. Explaining dehumanization among children: the interspecies model of prejudice. (United States)

    Costello, Kimberly; Hodson, Gordon


    Although many theoretical approaches have emerged to explain prejudices expressed by children, none incorporate outgroup dehumanization, a key predictor of prejudice among adults. According to the Interspecies Model of Prejudice, beliefs in the human-animal divide facilitate outgroup prejudice through fostering animalistic dehumanization (Costello & Hodson, 2010). In the present investigation, White children attributed Black children fewer 'uniquely human' characteristics, representing the first systematic evidence of racial dehumanization among children (Studies 1 and 2). In Study 2, path analyses supported the Interspecies Model of Prejudice: children's human-animal divide beliefs predicted greater racial prejudice, an effect explained by heightened racial dehumanization. Similar patterns emerged among parents. Furthermore, parent Social Dominance Orientation predicted child prejudice indirectly through children's endorsement of a hierarchical human-animal divide and subsequent dehumanizing tendencies. Encouragingly, children's human-animal divide perceptions were malleable to an experimental prime highlighting animal-human similarity. Implications for prejudice interventions are considered.

  20. "OPERA superluminal neutrinos explained by spontaneous emission and stimulated absorption"

    CERN Document Server

    Torrealba, Rafael


    In this work it is shown, that for short 3ns neutrino pulses reported by OPERA, a relativistic shape deforming effect of the neutrino distribution function due to spontaneous emission, produces an earlier arrival of 65.8ns in agreement with the reported 62.1ns\\pm 3.7ns, with a RMS of 16.4ns explaining the apparent superluminal effect. It is also shown, that early arrival of long 10500ns neutrinos pulse to Gran Sasso, by 57.8ns with respect to the speed of light, could be explained by a shape deforming effect due to a combination of stimulated absorption and spontaneous emission, while traveling by the decay tunnel that acts as a LASER tube.