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Sample records for body counter facility

  1. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47Ca and 85Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK)

  2. Whole Body Counters in Biomedical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Jain

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole body counter plays an important role in medical diagnosis and clinical research. It has been used for monitoring of radiation workers for the assessment of internal contamination or assessment of activity in persons exposed to radiation fallout. In a nuclear emergency like Chernobyl, neutron exposure to the radiation victims was assessed by measuring the induced activity of /sup 24/Na. Apart from its use in determining certain element composition in the body, it has got a number of clinical applications like absorption tests, and metabolic and kinetic studies. The work done at INMAS whole body counter facility is also discussed.

  3. Efficiency of whole-body counter for various body size calculated by MCNP5 software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of a whole-body counter for 137Cs and 40K was calculated using the MCNP5 code. The ORNL phantoms of a human body of different body sizes were applied in a sitting position in front of a detector. The aim was to investigate the dependence of efficiency on the body size (age) and the detector position with respect to the body and to estimate the accuracy of real measurements. The calculation work presented here is related to the NaI detector, which is available in the Serbian Whole-body Counter facility in Vinca Inst.. (authors)

  4. The ORNL whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a non-technical document intended to provide an individual about to undergo a whole-body radiation count with a general understanding of the counting procedure and with the results obtained. 9 figs

  5. Whole body counters: types, performance and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present monograph deals with Whole Counters, since its definition, evolution, performance, clinical indications and results. Scintillation crystals detection systems were described as well as scintillant solutions, plastic scintillations, and gaseous detectors, including its interplay forms and basal characteristics. Geometric arrangements of standard chair, arc and hammock, arrangements with scintillant solutions and plastic scintillations, as well as special geometric arrangements were equally commented. Clinic and experimental studies were also dealt with Whole Body Counters, giving examples with potassium, iron vitamin B12 and albumin. (author)

  6. PRELIMINARY PROGRAMMED WHOLE—BODY COUNTER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少东; 郑文忠; 等

    1995-01-01

    It is capable of giving the initial intakes of radionuclides and the assessment quantitites used in radiation protection according to its measured results of radionuclides in vivo.It is accomplished by providing the software of controlling,interface and internal dose estimation programs to the original iron cabin shielding whole-body counter.The preliminary application shows that its data processing is rapid and correct,and can meet the requirement of rapid internal radioactive contamination monitoring and diagnosing in case of lots of internal contamination subjects happened in nuclear accident.

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory whole-body counter: internal operating procedure manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general purpose of the ORNL Whole Body Counter is to provide a rapid estimation of the type and quantity of radionuclide deposited in the human body. This report contains a review of the equipment in use at the facility and the procedure for its operation, the standard procedure for performing a routine whole body count, and a discussion of interpretation of results

  8. 21 CFR 892.1130 - Nuclear whole body counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nuclear whole body counter. 892.1130 Section 892.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1130 Nuclear whole body counter....

  9. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''2 sup 4 sup 1 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    CERN Document Server

    Moraleda, M; Navarro, J F; Navarro, T

    2002-01-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in det...

  10. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''241 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in detail to obtain a good agreement with the reality. In order to verify the accuracy of this procedure to reproduce the experiments, the MCNP results are compared with laboratory measurements of a head phantom simulating an internal contamination of 1000 Bq of ''241 Am deposited in bone. Different relative positions source-detector were tried to look for the best counting geometry for measurement of a contaminated skull. Efficiency values are obtained and compared, resulting in the validation of the mathematical method for the assessment of internal contamination of American deposited in skeleton. (Author) 16 refs

  11. Calibration Human Voxel Phantoms for In Vivo Measurement of ''241 Am in Bone at the Whole Body Counter Facility of CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraleda, M.; Lopez, M. A.; Gomez Ros, J. M.; Navarro, T.; Navarro, J. F.

    2002-07-01

    The Whole Body Counting facility of CIEMAT is capable of carrying out In-Vivo measurements of radionuclides emitting X-rays and low energy gamma radiation internally deposited in the body. The system to use for this purpose consists of flour Low energy Germanium (LeGe) Camberra detectors working in the energy range from 10 to 1000 keV. Physical phantoms with a known contamination in the organ of interest are normally used for the calibration of the LEGe detection system. In this document we present a calibration method using the Monte Carlo technique (MCNP4C) over a voxel phantom obtained from a computerized tomography of a real human head. The phantom consists of 104017 (43x59x41) cubic voxels, 4 mn on each side, os specific tissues, but for this simulation only two types are taken into account: adipose tissue and hard bone. The skull is supposed to be contaminated with ''241 Am and the trajectories of the photons are simulated till they reach the germanium detectors. The detectors were also simulated in detail to obtain a good agreement with the reality. In order to verify the accuracy of this procedure to reproduce the experiments, the MCNP results are compared with laboratory measurements of a head phantom simulating an internal contamination of 1000 Bq of ''241 Am deposited in bone. Different relative positions source-detector were tried to look for the best countring geometry for measurement of a contaminated skull. Efficiency values are obtained and compared, resulting in the validation of the mathematical method for the assessment of internal contamination of American deposited in skeleton. (Author) 16 refs.

  12. Cerenkov counters at the Omega Facility

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    P. Petroff on the left. Here one sees both the gas Cerenkov counters sitting in front of the magnet to select forward emitted particles. The smaller one, working at high pressure, sits nearest to the Omega magnet (see photo 7505073X), the other (see photo 7505071X) works at atmospheric pressure.

  13. National survey of human body radioactivity measured by a mobile whole-body counter and installed whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 2339 volunteers throughout the U.K. A mobile whole-body monitor visited collaborating Medical Physics Departments and data were also contributed by Medical Physics Departments possessing installed counters. Levels of body radiocaesium ranged from below detection level to 4149 Bq. Radiocaesium levels were normalised by dividing by the content of natural body potassium-40. In all cases, the dose rate to the body from radiocaesium was less than that from potassium-40. Radiocaesium levels were 2-3 times higher in N.W. England, Scotland and N. Wales than the rest of the country, but this factor is much less than the variation in deposition of Chernobyl radiocaesium. This discrepancy may be accounted for by the nationwide distribution of foodstuffs. At all sites where volunteers were monitored, the ratio of caesium-137/caesium-134 was consistent with a radiocaesium intake attributable primarily to fallout from the Chernobyl fire. (author)

  14. BABYSCAN - a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Bronson, Frazier L; Oginni, Babatunde; Muramatsu, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for $^{137}$Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described.

  15. BABYSCAN: a whole body counter for small children in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter for small children with a detection limit for 137Cs of better than 50 Bq/body, was developed, and the first unit has been installed at a hospital in Fukushima, to help families with small children who are very much concerned about internal exposures. The design principles, implementation details and the initial operating experience are described. (paper)

  16. Whole-body counters in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compilation of whole-body counting existing across Canada was prepared by AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board) staff. This work was initiated so that AECB staff and other concerned parties would have this information readily available, especially during urgent situations. This report is to be used for reference purposes only, as it makes no attempt to judge the present state of the art of whole-body counting

  17. PERSONALISED BODY COUNTER CALIBRATION USING ANTHROPOMETRIC PARAMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölz, S; Breustedt, B

    2016-09-01

    Current calibration methods for body counting offer personalisation for lung counting predominantly with respect to ratios of body mass and height. Chest wall thickness is used as an intermediate parameter. This work revises and extends these methods using a series of computational phantoms derived from medical imaging data in combination with radiation transport simulation and statistical analysis. As an example, the method is applied to the calibration of the In Vivo Measurement Laboratory (IVM) at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) comprising four high-purity germanium detectors in two partial body measurement set-ups. The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code and the Extended Cardiac-Torso (XCAT) phantom series have been used. Analysis of the computed sample data consisting of 18 anthropometric parameters and calibration factors generated from 26 photon sources for each of the 30 phantoms reveals the significance of those parameters required for producing an accurate estimate of the calibration function. Body circumferences related to the source location perform best in the example, while parameters related to body mass show comparable but lower performances, and those related to body height and other lengths exhibit low performances. In conclusion, it is possible to give more accurate estimates of calibration factors using this proposed approach including estimates of uncertainties related to interindividual anatomical variation of the target population. PMID:26396263

  18. Characterization of Soreq Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Whole Body Counting (WBC) technique is a widely used technique for the determination of the intake of radionuclides emitting X-rays or gamma-rays. Internal contamination might have been caused by inhalation, ingestion, injection, or insertion through wounds of radionuclides. Information about the intake, chemical composition and exposure pathway, serves as input for committed dose assessment. For the majority of radionuclides, WBC is complementary to other dosimetric methods such as the personal dosimeter and urine sample analysis. The major advantage of in-vivo measurement is the rapidity and direct assessment of the level of contamination in the body .Determination of the system counting efficiency is usually performed either by realistic) or computerized (voxel) phantoms. Realistic phantoms can be comprised of calibrated amount of radionuclides embedded in surrogate organs having similar density and volume as organs in the human body. The minimal detectable activity per nuclide depends on the efficiency, background counts and measurement time. In this paper we characterize the WBC system at the Soreq Nuclear Research Centre (SNRC). A study was performed testing the response of the WBC to a Lawrence Livermore torso lung phantom. Minimum detection activities (MDA) of selected nuclides were calculated for several configurations of the system and are presented in this work

  19. Whole body counter intercomparison as a tool of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several countries guidelines exist concerning the requirements of whole-body counter measurements where the performance criteria for the quantities of bias, precision and minimum detectable amount are specified. One or more of these quantities are mostly the subject of intercomparison programmes. The whole-body counter laboratory of the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute has paid great attention to the good quality of measurements carried out for the determination of radionuclides incorporated in the human body. Participation in intercomparison programmes proved to be a very important and useful tool to check the capability and reliability of methods used. This laboratory participated in nine international intercomparison exercises organised in recent years, by means of which the counting efficiency has been tested for different detectors, monitoring geometries, body shapes and sizes, calibration and evaluation methods used. It can be concluded that in the majority of cases the results obtained were well within the range of performance criteria generally accepted in whole-body counting. (author)

  20. Design and Performance of INMAS Whole Body Counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Kapoor

    1974-07-01

    Full Text Available A whole-body counter has been commissioned at INMAS for radiation protection and clinical applications including body potassium estimations. It has 4-crystal bed geometry inside a shielded enclosure. The background index of the system (counts per minute per cc detector volume in the energy band 0.1-2 me V is about 0.6 comparing favorably with other whole-body monitors in the world. The sensitivity is 0.5 cpm per gram of K. Body potassium can be estimated can be estimated correct to 10 g for one hour counting. The variation in detector response to a point source on the mid-line of the bed is + - 10% of the mean over a length of 170 cm. The usefulness of the large dimensions of the enclosure chosen is discussed.

  1. Determination of the specifications of the AKH-Vienna whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the Vienna AKH (General Hospital) a high sensitive whole body counter has been built. Planning and manufacturing were realized by the Research Centre Seibersdorf. The large investment was made with the intention to use this facility for routine measurements of radiation workers, for research applications in medicine and to be available for an emergency in case of a nuclear accident. Since another, clinical oriented whole body counter is available for routine diagnostic, emphasis was put on features that should complete and extend routine clinical requirements. High sensitivity was obtained by using a heavily-shielded counting chamber (15 cm steel, 2 cm lead and 0.5 cm copper inside), combined with four large NaI(Tl) detectors (two above and two below the patient bed)

  2. Comparison WSP vs. PNA - application to FASTSCAN whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FASTSCAN whole body counter is designed to quickly and accurately monitor people for internal contamination of radionuclides with energies between 300 keV to 1.8 MeV. The FASTSCAN system uses large area sodium iodide detectors and Canberra's ABACOS and Genie Software to achieve low minimum detectable activities with count times as fast as one minute. Canberra's FASTSCAN System includes two large sodium iodide detectors (Nal(Tl)) 7.6 x 12.7 x 40.6 cm that typically provide a priori Lower Limit of Detection of approximately 150 Bq (4 nCi) for Co-60 with a count time of one minute for a normal person containing K-40. Two different analytical tools for gamma analysis have been compared: a ) traditional method based on analysis of only full absorption peak (PNA), and b ) vector method based on whole spectrum processing (WSP). The PNA calculations have been performed using Canberra's Genie 2000 Software. On the other hand, own BOB Spectra Discovery System has been used for the WSP calculations of incident spectra. The calibration of the both systems has been made employing the Canberra Transfer Phantom for in vivo whole body counter. A comparison study of the both method has been performed according to uniform Curie' s concept of minimum detectable activity. (author)

  3. Comparison WSP vs. PNA - application to FASTSCAN whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FASTSCAN whole body counter is designed to quickly and accurately monitor people for internal contamination of radionuclides with energies between 300 keV to 1.8 MeV. The FASTSCAN system uses large area sodium iodide detectors and Canberra's ABACOS and Genie Software to achieve low minimum detectable activities with count times as fast as one minute. Canberra's FASTSCAN System includes two large sodium iodide detectors (Nal(Tl)) 7.6 x 12.7 x 40.6 cm that typically provide a priori Lower Limit of Detection of approximately 150 Bq (4 nCi) for Co-60 with a count time of one minute for a normal person containing K-40. Two different analytical tools for gamma analysis have been compared: a ) traditional method based on analysis of only full absorption peak (PNA), and b ) vector method based on whole spectrum processing (WSP). The PNA calculations have been performed using Canberra's Genie 2000 Software. On the other hand, own BOB Spectra Discovery System has been used for the WSP calculations of incident spectra. The calibration of the both systems has been made employing the Canberra Transfer Phantom for in vivo whole body counter. A comparison study of the both method has been performed according to uniform Curie' s concept of minimum detectable activity. (authors)

  4. Calibration of the whole body counter at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), measurements with the whole body counter are routinely carried out for occupationally exposed persons and occasionally for individuals of the population suspected of radioactive intake. In total about 400 measurements are performed per year. The whole body counter is based on a p-type high purity germanium (HPGe) coaxial detector mounted above a canvas chair in a shielded small room. The detector is used to detect the presence of radionuclides that emit photons with energies between 50 keV and 2 MeV. The room itself is made of iron from old railway rails to reduce the natural background radiation to 24 n Sv/h. The present paper describes the calibration of the system with the IGOR phantom. Different body sizes are realized by different standardized configurations of polyethylene bricks, in which small tubes of calibration sources can be introduced. The efficiency of the detector was determined for four phantom geometries (P1, P2, P4 and P6 simulating human bodies in sitting position of 12 kg, 24 kg, 70 kg and 110 kg, respectively. The measurements were performed serially using five different radionuclide sources (40K, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, 152Eu) within the phantom bricks. Based on results of the experiment, an efficiency curve for each configuration and the detection limits for relevant radionuclides were determined. For routine measurements, the efficiency curve obtained with the phantom geometry P4 was chosen. The detection limits range from 40 Bq to 1000 Bq for selected radionuclides applying a measurement time of 7 min. The proper calibration of the system, on one hand, is essential for the routine measurements at PSI. On the other hand, it serves as a benchmark for the already initiated characterisation of the system with Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  5. The ACCUSCAN-II vertical scanning germanium whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ACCUSCAN-II is manufactured by Canberra Industries, and represents a new generation of WBC systems. One or two Germanium detectors are used for precise nuclide identification. The detectors scan the total body and can accurately quantify radioactive material anywhere in the body. The shield is a full 4'' thick steel or 2'' lead and weighs about 9000 lbs. The subject can be counted standing for full body scans, or seated for longer counting times of limited portions of the body. Optional electronics also generate a count rate vs. body position profile, as an aid to interpretation of the dose implications of the count. Typical LLD's are 5 - 10 nCi for a 5 minute total body count and 0.5 - 0.7 nCi for a 5 minute long screening count. The system is available in several flavors. The manual version is an inexpensive system intended for universities, hospitals and small industrial facilities. The automatic system includes a MicroVAX-II computer and runs ABACOS0-II Body Burden Software, and is ideal for facilities with large numbers of people to count and where automated analysis of the data is desirable

  6. HML's whole body counter: measuring highly radioactive persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin; Chiang, Albert; Hauck, Barry M

    2009-12-01

    The National Internal Radiation Assessment Section's Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) has the responsibility to measure persons who may become internally contaminated following an accidental or intentional release of radioactivity. In preparation for measuring individuals who may be highly internally contaminated, the HML has reconfigured and recalibrated its whole body counter for this event. The calibration was performed using Monte Carlo simulations and validated by experimental measurements. An equation was developed that related the counting efficiency as a function of photon energy and phantom-to-detector distance. The equation could predict efficiencies to within 10% or better. Dead time problems, as a result of high internal activities, have been minimized by having a variety of counting positions. Six example nuclides have been used (Co, Co, Y, Ba, Cs, and Am) to show what is achievable and what is not. PMID:19901599

  7. Bases for calibration of whole body counters using anthropomorphic physical simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantification of radionuclides in the human body can be carried out through in vivo measurements performed in facilities generically called whole body counters. The calibration of such units is usually done by using physical anthropomorphic phantoms, which can be defined as artificial structures with geometrical characteristics and attenuation properties similar to the living tissues. This work presents the development of the phantoms necessary to the monitoring of the internal contamination by the radionuclides manipulated in Brazil. It also presents the procedures for the calibration of the detectors used for the in vivo measurements. The developed phantoms are applied in the determination of radionuclides deposited in specific organs, such as Th-232 and Am-241 in the lungs and skull, isotopes of iodine in the thyroid and photon emitters in the energy range from 100 to 3000 keV in the whole body. (author)

  8. Measurement of body potassium with a whole-body counter: relationship between lean body mass and resting energy expenditure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted studies to determine whether the Mayo whole-body counter could be used to measure body potassium, and thus lean body mass (LBM), and whether moderate obesity alters resting energy expenditure when corrected for LBM. Twenty-four nonobese and 18 moderately obese adults underwent body potassium (40K) counting, as well as tritiated water space measurement and indirect calorimetry. LBM values predicted from 40K counting and tritiated water space measurements were highly correlated (P = 0.001; r = 0.88). Resting energy expenditure was closely related to LBM (P less than 0.0001; r = 0.78): kcal/day = 622 kcal + (LBM.20.0 kcal/kg LBM). In this relationship, the obese subjects did not differ from nonobese subjects. In summary, the Mayo whole-body counter can accurately measure LBM, and moderate obesity has no detectable effect on corrected resting energy expenditure

  9. Identification of radioactively contaminated organs in the human body using a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of whole-body counter for measuring a three-dimensional radioactivity distribution in the human body has been developed. Gamma rays emitted from a human body are detected by 20 NaI(T1) scintillators which are arranged in a circle around the body, with scanning from toe to head. The radioactivity distribution in the body is analysed from the measured counting rate distribution according to an emission computed tomography technique. Preliminary experiments have been carried out using a homogeneous acrylate block phantom containing one or two standard gamma-ray sources of 137Cs, with satisfactory results. The source position in the phantom was identified with a spatial resolution of +-5 cm longitudinally, +-8 cm laterally and +-5 cm vertically. (author)

  10. Whole body counter measurements of contaminated people in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The violation and rupture of a 50.9 TBq (1375 Ci) 137Cs source in the form of caesium chloride salt (CsCI), in Goiania/Go, Brazil, resulted in a substantially large accident. In order to quantify the internal contamination of the individuals involved, a special whole body counter system, using an 8''x4'' NaI(Tl) detector, was developed. The major goal of this counting system, at the initial phase, was to be able to assess the very high level of 137Cs activity in individuals who had direct contact with the radionuclide. The system, initially set up at the Goiania General Hospital, was adapted to detect a wide range of 137Cs activities. Subjects were required to wear disposable clothing and lie on a reclining, fibreglass chair. Counting time was standardised in 2 minutes (live time) and the minimum detectable activity was 7.3 kBq (197 nCi). Among the people measured, 151 showed 137Cs internal contamination levels ranged from the minimum detectable activity to 78 Mbq (2.1 mCi). (author)

  11. 35 years of existence of whole-body counter in the Czech Republic - experiences and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A whole-body counter was built up in the Czech Republic in 1962, this at the then Institute of the Hygiene of Labour and Occupational Diseases. The shielding was made of steel plates taken from Tiger tanks which remained in the country as aftermath of World War II. The detecting and evaluating parts of the counter were upgraded gradually. The original 4 scintillator detectors (10.16 cm x 12.7 cm in size) were replaced with an HPGe semiconductor detector exhibiting a roughly fifty-fold better resolution, owing to which radionuclide activities can be determined in complex matrices. Currently, the whole-body counter is equipped with a high-purity Ge detector displaying a relative efficiency of 120%, special detectors for low-energy gamma radiation, so-called LEGe detectors which are employed during the determination of radionuclides in the individual organs. The facility is applied to the monitoring of internal contamination in persons handling unsealed sources, monitoring in cases of suspect accidents associated with internal contamination of humans, as well as to the determination of internal contamination in epidemiological studies. In the past, a group of persons contaminated with radioactive fluorescent dyes which contained 226Ra and 90Sr, and a group of patients with applied thorotrast were also examined. Currently, methods which are under development are aimed at the determination of 210Pb in the skulls of people who have been exposed to elevated radon concentrations in dwellings for a long time, and the determination of 241Am in human bodies and their individual organs

  12. Body K and 40K in Chinese subjects measured with a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 380 Chinese adults of both sexes were studied for their total body K and 40K using the National Tsing Hua University whole-body counter. The K values were found to have an average of 1.75 ± 0.4 g K kg-1 body weight for males and 1.41 ± 0.1 g K kg-1 body weight for females. The average K value for both sexes was 1.69 ± 0.4 g K kg-1 body weight. The annual absorbed dose for the average male was calculated to be 0.21 ± 0.04 mGy and for the average female was 0.17 ± 0.01 mGy. The average for both sexes was 0.20 ± 0.04 mGy. The 40K activity per unit body weight varied inversely with slenderness, and total body K varied directly with body-build index

  13. International whole body counter intercomparison based on BOMAB phantom simulating 4 years old child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB's sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities

  14. Measurement of total body potassium in premature infants by means of a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a whole-body counter (WBC) specially designed to measured total body potassium (TBK) infants under 4500 g. The counter is a ''shadow shield'' design and consists of a single 10 cm X 10 cm X 45 cm NaI(Tl) crystal, positioned lengthwise and shielded from environmental background radiation by a minimum of 10 cm of lead. The standard error of counting for a 2000-s counting period is 19.9% for a 1000-g infant and 11.9% for a 2000-g infant. TBK of stillborn pigs, measured by the WBC, agreed to an average of 3% of TBK determined by carcass analysis in the same animals. A total of 118 measurements of TBK have been made in 50 premature infants ranging in weight between 1100 and 3600 g and in age between 2 and 75 days. The observed relationship of TBK with weight is described by the equation: TBK (mEq) = 0.0433Wt (g + 1.57 r = 0.92. Potassium retention per gram weight gain is estimated to be 0.043 mEq. The obtained TBK values agree well with values published by other workers but extend the range of measurement to 1100 g

  15. Cyber Security for Nuclear Facilities: Role of Regulatory Body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest threat to the safety and security of nuclear and radiation facilities, is the possibility of cyber attack on the digital assets of these facilities. The threats may be different from the usual threats to the safety and security of the nuclear facilities and their remedies may also be different and require innovative thinking and preparation by the regulatory body. The result of any such possibility may be damaging enough for the public, environment and the workers so as to warrant a comprehensive preparation by the regulatory authority to guard against any such happenings. In this paper we have identified the responsibilities of a regulatory body to counter such threats. The regulatory authority has to assess the laws enacted for cyber security and suggest improvements required for nuclear facilities; develop regulations and guides and review them periodically and issue guidelines for the development of cyber security policy and review the cyber security policies of facilities. Further, enhancing awareness among all the personnel of the facilities must also be ensured by the regulatory authority. Education and training is the key to avoid these problems. Majority of attackers utilize social engineering techniques at some stage of their attack. In order to fulfill these responsibilities, it is important that a team is build comprising of resources from computer hardware, software, communications and I&C. (author)

  16. A versatile and economic whole-body counter based on liquid scintillation detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A whole-body counter comprising rectangular liquid scintillator detector modules is described. Photomultipliers have been used economically and the use of local shielding has led to a further reduction in cost. In conjunction with a moving bed, the modular arrangement provided a versatile system which allowed high sensitivity static counting using all detectors, or scan counting using selected combinations of detectors. The total body potassium content of a standard man (140 g K) could be estimated with a statistical counting error of 2.2% in a counting time of 1000 seconds. Methods of using the counter for total body potassium and gastro-intestinal absorption measurements are presented. (author)

  17. A simple calibration of a whole-body counter for the measurement of total body potassium in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple calibration procedure for the Inshas whole body counter for evaluating total body potassium has been adopted. More than 120 Egyptian employees in the Nuclear Research Center (N.R.C.) were studied for their total body potassium (TBK). The potassium values were found to have an average of 2.85±0.57 g K kg-1 body weight for males and 2.62±0.52 g K kg-1 for females, which are higher than the recommended value given for reference man by ICRP. The TBK varied directly with body build index and is slightly sex dependent (Author)

  18. LODESTAR: A new counter data-handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LODESTAR (Logically Organized Data Entry, Storage and Recording) is designed to analyse and store complex electronic-counter data from high-energy-pulsed accelerators. It receives digital and analogue information at high speed during the short (1 to 200 ms) beam burst, digitizes and stores it in a core memory. Between machine pulses (2-4 s) the data are transferred to a magnetic tape. Analysis is by off-line general-purpose computer. In contrast to earlier systems, an event is not set up as a single word with parallel entry into the core memory. Instead, a fixed word length (say, 12 bits) is used, and a format control enters each event into the core memory as a serial group of words via a one-word register. A format character of six bits is used for each recorded event to indicate the number of words describing the event. Events of different complexity are readily accomodated up to the memory capacity of about 104 bits. Storage time is 4 μs per word. After each beam burst, additional coded data like serial number, beam energy and magnet current are transferred to the tape via the one-word register, without entering the memory; an additional 6-bit format character describes these ''slowly-varying'' quantities. It is planned to include analogue-to-digital converters, parity checking, tape verification, analogue display of data and cathode-ray tube memory display for system checking. External logical circuitry must be provided to select the desired events. (author)

  19. Measurement of caesium-137 in the human body using a whole body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elessawi, Elkhadra Abdulmula

    Gamma radiation in the environment is mainly due to naturally occurring radionuclides. However, there is also a contribution from anthropogenic radionuclides such as 137Cs which originate from nuclear fission processes. Since 1986, the accident at the Chernobyl power plant has been a significant source of artificial environmental radioactivity. In order to assess the radiological impact of these radionuclides, it is necessary to measure their activities in samples drawn from the environment and in plants and animals including human populations. The whole body counter (WBC) at the University Hospital of Wales in Cardiff makes in vivo measurements of gamma emitting radionuclides using a scanning ring of six large-volume thallium-doped sodium iodide (Nal(Tl)) scintillation detectors. In this work the WBC was upgraded by the addition of two high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. The performance and suitability of the detection systems were evaluated by comparing the detection limits for Cs. Sensitivities were measured using sources of known activity in a water filled anthropomorphic phantom and theoretical minimum detectable count-rates were estimated from phantom background pulse height spectra. The theoretical minimum detectable activity was about 24 Bq for the combination of six Nal(Tl) detectors whereas for the individual HPGe detectors it was 64 Bq and 65 Bq, despite the much improved energy resolution Activities of 137Cs in the human body between 1993 and 2007 were estimated from the background Nal(Tl) spectra of 813 patients and compared with recent measurements in 14 volunteers. The body burden of Cs in Cardiff patients increased from an average of about 60 Bq in the early and mid 1990s to a maximum of about 100 Bq in 2000. By 2007 it had decreased to about 40 Bq. This latter value was similar to that of Cardiff residents at the time of the Chernobyl accident and to that of the volunteers measured in 2007 (51 Bq). However, it was less than the mean activity of

  20. Results of the internal contamination measurements performed after Chernobyl accident by means of Casaccia whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct measurements of internal contamination were carried out in human subjects following the nuclear accident of Chernobyl. The Whole Body Counter facility operated by Dipartimento Protezione Ambientale e Salute dell'Uomo, Divisione Scienze Ambientali, Centro Ricerche Energia - C.R.E. - Casaccia (Rome) was utilized. This investigation was continued until December 31, 1986. The subjects were either resident of the Rome metropolitan area or Italian citizens returning from East European Countries. The report present the data regarding 131I in the thyroid and 134Cs and 137Cs in the whole body. An ingestion or inhalation of these radionuclides is also calculated. The results of this study should contribute to a better evaluation of the theoretical models for the transfer of radionuclides from the environment to man

  1. 35 years of existence of a whole-body counter in the Czech Republic - experience and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A whole-body counter was built up in the Czech Republic in 1962, this at the then Institute of the Hygiene of Labour and Occupational Diseases. The shielding was made of steel plates taken from Tiger tanks which remained in the country as aftermath of World War II. The detecting and evaluating parts of the counter were upgraded gradually. The original 4 scintillator detectors (10.16 cm x 12.7 cm in size) were replaced with an HPGe semiconductor detector exhibiting a roughly fifty-fold better resolution, owing to which radionuclide activities can be determined in complex matrices. Currently, the whole-body counter is equipped with a high-purity Ge detector displaying a relative efficiency of 120%, special detectors for low-energy gamma radiation, so-called LEGe detectors which are employed during the determination of radionuclides in the individual organs. The facility is applied to the monitoring of internal contamination in persons handling unsealed sources, monitoring in cases of suspect accidents associated with internal contamination of humans, as well as to the determination of internal contamination in epidemiological studies. In the past, a group of persons contaminated with radioactive fluorescent dyes which contained 226Ra and 90Sr, and a group of patients with applied thorotrast were also examined. Currently, methods which are under development are aimed at the determination of 210Pb in the skulls of people who have been exposed to elevated radon concentrations in dwellings for a long time, and the determination of 241Am in human bodies and their individual organs

  2. A new phantom for use in whole body counters: a Monte Carlo design project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin; Ho, Arnon

    2005-01-01

    A new phantom for calibration or performance testing of whole body counters has been conceptualized. The validity of the design has been validated by Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations have compared the expected counting efficiencies for the new design to those of a conventional phantom; both phantoms were placed in a virtual copy of the Human Monitoring Laboratory's whole body counter. The simulations covered a wide energy range (126-2,754 keV), and the agreement between the two types of phantoms was 0.988 +/- 0.005. Based on these findings, a prototype sliced BOMAB phantom corresponding to a Reference Female will be constructed. If the results were unfavorable, as was not the case, then the expense of building and testing the phantom would have been avoided. PMID:15596993

  3. High-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters. Experience, recommendations. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with whole-body and partial-body counters shows a steadily rising upward trend over the last few years. This induced the ''Arbeitskreis Inkorporationsueberwachung'' of the association ''Fachverband fuer Strahlenschutz e.V.'' to organise a meeting for joint elaboration of a guide on recommended applications of this measuring technique, based on a review of existing experience and results. A key item on the agenda of the meeting was the comparative evaluation of the Ge semiconductor detector and the NaI solid scintillation detector. (orig./CB)

  4. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  5. Calibration of CDTN-whole body counter for in vivo measurements of I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cassio M.; Silva, Tania V. da; Alonso, Thessa C.; Squair, Peterson L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cmo@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Iodine-131 is frequently used in nuclear medicine services for diagnosis and therapy of thyroid diseases. Furthermore, the Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN/CNEN), in Belo Horizonte, uses Iodine-131 for radiobiology and radiopharmacy researches. The increasing use of this radionuclide for medical and research purposes as well as its high volatility creates a demand for feasible methodologies to perform occupational control of internal contamination. Therefore the objective this work is to develop methods of in vivo bioassay for evaluation Iodine-131 incorporation by using NaI(Tl) 6'' x 4'' scintillation detector of the CDTN-Whole Body Counter (WBC). Such detector was calibrated for in vivo measurements with a neck-thyroid phantom, simulating Iodine-131 incorporation. The chosen counting geometry was lying under monitoring bed of CDTNWBC. A methodology for bioassay data interpretation, based on standard ICRP 56 model was established with software AIDE (activity internal dose estimate) version 6.0. It was concluded that in vivo measurements have sufficient sensitivity for the monitoring of Iodine-131 through CDTN-Whole Body Counter. Therefore, the CDTN-Whole Body Counter equipment of Belo Horizonte are ready to attend suspicion intake cases of Iodine- 131 (author)

  6. Body radioactivity and radiation dose from 40K in Bangladeshi subjects measured with a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of subjects of Bangladeshi adults from both sexes were studied for internal radioactivity and effective dose by measuring the whole-body activity of naturally occurring 40K using a whole-body counter. The mean activity concentration in the whole body and effective dose due to naturally occurring 40K for the average male were found to be 2.0 ± 0.4 Bq.g-1 and 100 ± 26 μSv.y-1, respectively and those for the average female were 1.7 ± 0.3 Bq.g-1 and 100 ± 20 μSv.y-1, respectively. The mean activity concentration in the whole body and effective dose for both sexes were 1.9 ± 0.4 Bq.g-1 and 100 ± 25 μSv.y 1, respectively. The effective dose from 40K for subjects is below the value reported by the UNSCEAR. (authors)

  7. Internal dose assessment by a whole-body counter in an emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal dose is usually estimated by using the burden which was measured by a whole-body counter and a certain dose conversion system. Its accuracy depends on the period in which the burden can be followed. Other parameters which influence the accuracy are the surface contamination, the thickness of end-cover of detectors and the resolution of detectors for gamma-rays. There are two types of occasions during the course of emergency which call for the determination of internal dose depending on the time elapsed after a nuclear power accident. The first occurs immediately after the accident when the burden is practically estimated by just one measurement of the composite counting rates from the radionuclides of concern and coexisting radionuclides. Consequently, the dose becomes overestimated. However, it is more acceptable than the underestimation by which the subject may lose a chance to be protected against the adverse health consequences. The second occurs sometime after the accident when a certain decision on countermeasure is made for the area contaminated by radionuclides with rather long effective half-times. Body burdens of radionuclides can be dtermined more accurately by a whole-body counter. However, a conventional whole-body counter can not measure the burden of radionuclides separately for each of the organs of interest. Consequently, the effective dose equivalent can not be determined in practice. Instead, the absorbed dose to the total body is usually used for the health consequences. This report illustrates for an imarginary subject who was exposed to radionuclides with the same composition as the released one immediately after the Chernobyl power plant accident with 2 actual cases exposed to the fallout from the accident. (author)

  8. Using a whole body counter to attract a younger generation to radiation and radiation protection topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there is a lack of young academics in the nuclear field especially in the field of radiation protection RP. One of the reasons is the very small number of students in the so called STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) which distribute among the different topics in these fields. One important task to overcome the foreseeable shortage of RP professionals is to attract pupils to this field. In routine monitoring the whole body counter of the Institute of Radiation Research (ISF) is used to identify and quantify radioactive materials that are incorporated in the human body using the technique of gamma spectroscopy. The in-vivo monitoring lab participates in activities for pupils at school level, e.g. Kinderuniversitaet, practical studies of secondary level pupils and 'Girls day'. Pupils that come to the lab are ages 14 to 18. The whole body counter is an optimal tool for these children to experience (natural) radioactivity and radiation protection issues. First pupils get a short introduction on radioactivity and gamma spectroscopy at a level adjusted to their current knowledge. After this they are measuring themselves in the whole body counter. A routine measurement of 300 s is able to show the natural occurring K-40 in their bodies. After their own measurements they do calibration measurements using a bottle phantom with a set up adjusted to their own body weights. The bottle phantom is filled with a potassium chloride (KCl) solution and contains no other radioactivity than the natural K-40 content of the KCl. Thus no further radiation protection measures need to be taken for using this phantom. A simple Excel-Sheet is then used to estimate their own K-40 activity by comparing the spectra of their measurement to the ones of the calibration measurements. This 'hands on' experience and the connection of radiation and their own bodies often is a 'eureka' effect and opens discussion on preconceptions of radiation and the need of RP

  9. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuo [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Training Radiological Technicians; Saegusa, Kenji; Arimizu, Noboru; Kuniyasu, Yoshio; Itoh, Hisao

    2001-08-01

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m{sup 2}) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65{+-}9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24{+-}11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74{+-}11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37{+-}10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0{+-}9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99{+-}9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34{+-}6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64{+-}11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78{+-}11.5%, 99.22{+-}8.88%, 96.64{+-}12.73%, 98.5{+-}9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  10. An examination of low level activity laboratories and calibration of the whole-body counter at the State Institute of Radiation Hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two low-background laboratories have been examined with regard to methods in obtaining low background radiation. Low level counters and low level counting is described. A method for the calibration of a whole-body counter is reported. (RF)

  11. Experimental study of absorption of iron in foods using whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male rats of Wistar strain which showed normal hematological picture were given 59Fe-labeled foods orally, and the iron absorption rate was determined by an animal whole body counter. When 59Fe was given in a mixture with each of gruel, spinach, cow's milk, the yolk, and the yolk with orange juice, the iron absorption rates in each food were 9.4%, 8.9%, 6.6%, 10.8% and 7.2% respectively. None of these foods seemed to inhibit the 59Fe absorption. When 59Fe was given in a mixture with chicken, the iron absorption rate was 35.8%. This result suggested that the chicken promoted the 59Fe absorption. When the yolk labeled in vivo with 59Fe was given, the iron absorption rate was 4.9%. If the yolk labeled in vitro was used, the absorption rate was 10.8%. When the yolk labeled in vivo with 59Fe was given with orange juice, the iron absorption rate was 13.3%. If the yolk labeled in vivo with 59Fe was given, the absorption rate was 7.2%. Orange juice had no effect on the iron absorption when the yolk labeled in vitro was used. After chicken eggs labeled in vivo with 59Fe was given to children, the iron absorption was determined by a whole body counter; the rate averaged 5.4 in the children without anemia and 24.7 in those with anemia. (Ueda, J.)

  12. A whole body counter for an emergency and occupational monitoring of an internal contamination with low energy photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantínová, K.; Fojtík, P.; Pfeiferová, V.

    2015-11-01

    A whole-body counter in SÚRO (NRPI) Prague, Czech Republic has been upgraded recently with the goal to enhance its capability of a safe, smooth, accurate and reproducible positioning of detectors for whole- and partial-body counting. The counter is intended especially for counting of low energy gamma emitters in various organs and tissues of the human body. Counting efficiency calibration of a four-detector system installed in the shielded room has been performed by means of physical and voxel phantoms. The consistency of in vivo bioassay data of three internal contamination cases long-term monitored in the Institute is shown.

  13. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children’s Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Car...

  14. IRD-CNEN whole body counter capabilities for in vivo monitoring of internally deposited radionuclides in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal exposure to radionuclides may occur as a result of a variety of practices, such as in nuclear industry, production of radiopharmaceuticals and nuclear medicine, biological research and agriculture; as well as in mining and milling of minerals with associated NORM. The IRD whole-body counter consists of shielded room equipped with an array of four HPGe detectors and two NaI(Tl) with dimensions of 8” x 4” and 3” x 3”. The detection systems are able to detect and quantify a large variety of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow occupational monitoring as well evaluation of accidental intakes. (author)

  15. Kwabenya shadow shield whole body counter for clinical diagnosis and medical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of a shadow shield whole body counter, using 5.08 cm thick interlocking lead bricks and a 12.7 cm x 10.16 cm NaI(Tl) detector, is described. The final shielding reduced the 100% background, (corresponding to the unshielded detector) to 4.2% in the energy range 1 - 2 MeV. The sensitivity of the counter for the isotopes Iron 59, Cobalt 59, Calcium 47, Sodium 22 and Iodine 131 was 3.5 x 10-3, 4.9 x 10-3, 4.1 x 10-3 and 2.8 x 10-3 microcuries, respectively, using a water phantom for 30-minute scans. The sensitivity for Iron 59 in human subjects was found to be 3.3 x 10-3 microcuries. The redistribution effect on count rates was also studied using point sources placed in wooden phantoms. The maximum longitudinal variation in sensitivity was found to be less than 2%, while the lateral variation had a maximum of approximately 14%. Periodic scanning of three normal Ghanaians for up to a maximum of seven hours after oral administration of Iron 59 showed a maximum variation of activity of 4% approximately, even where two of the subjects had had a meal of rice and chicken one hour after the isotope was administered

  16. Measurements of the total-body potassium contents. Application of reference value with the whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total-body potassium contents were measured in 405 healthy volunteers and 186 patients with whole body counter in Chiba University Hospital. The total-body potassium contents was expressed by the reference value (R value). The R value was calculated as measured potassium contents (g) divided by the body surface area (m2) and adjusted by age and sex of healthy persons. The R value was 100.65±9.22% in 405 healthy volunteers. Those of each disease were as follows: liver cirrhosis; 94.24±11.22%, chronic hepatitis; 95.74±11.24%, hyperthyroidism; 99.37±10.8%, periodic paralysis; 82.0±9.01%, Barter's syndrome; 93.99±9.86%, myasthenia gravis; 97.34±6.42% and hypo-potassemia; 90.64±11.76%, respectively. The R values of other diseases such as uterine cancer, breast cancer, anemia, hypertension were 97.78±11.5%, 99.22±8.88%, 96.64±12.73%, 98.5±9.63% respectively. Fourteen patients showed especially lower R values under 75%. These were 1 liver cirrhosis, 3 hypertension, 1 diabetes mellitus, 3 hypo-potassemia, 1 periodic paralysis, 2 Barter's syndrome, 2 chemical poisoning, and 1 breast cancer. Follow-up study was performed in some patients with the lower R values. The result of follow-up study showed that there was a relationship between improvement of symptoms and increase of total body potassium contents. (author)

  17. Efficiency determination of whole-body counter by Monte Carlo method, using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this investigation was the development of an analytical microcomputer model to evaluate a whole body counter efficiency. The model is based on a modified Sryder's model. A stretcher type geometry along with the Monte Carlo method and a Synclair type microcomputer were used. Experimental measurements were performed using two phantoms, one as an adult and the other as a 5 year old child. The phantoms were made in acrylic and and 99mTc, 131I and 42K were the radioisotopes utilized. Results showed a close relationship between experimental and predicted data for energies ranging from 250 keV to 2 MeV, but some discrepancies were found for lower energies. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the dose committed as based on direct measurements with the Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During normal working activities or in accidental situations, when the introduction of radioactive gamma emitters is non-negligible amount, accurate determination of effective committed dose equivalent based on direct measurements of the internal contamination cannot be avoided. Internal contamination measurements carried out by Whole Body Counter and the application of dosimetric and metabolic models as proposed by ICRP Publication 30 allow the intakes and committed dose equivalents to be evaluated. This paper presents the evaluation methodologies of committed dose equivalent both for istantaneous and extended contaminations. Furthermore, some advice about useful, opportune modes and time uncertainties due to the application of generalized models to particular situations, are also reported. On the basis of the Chernobyl experience, the general criteria for the chice and size of homogeneous groups of individuals to be measured, are finally submitted with a view to collecting the necessary radiation protection information concerning contamination of a part or a whole population

  19. Whole body counter calibration and determination of 241 Am body content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal contamination of man by americium is relatively rare. It is possible at manipulations with americium in laboratory and at the production of AmBe neutron sources when safety measures are not fully kept. The most probable contamination route is inhalation when the radionuclide is manipulated in powder form.Americium is distributed in body to all tissues. According a modification of ICRP biokinetic model by USTUR (1994) based on Am measurements of exposed persons, fractions of initial deposition are 45 % in skeleton (elimination half life 50 years), 25 % in liver (2,5 y), 20 % in muscles (10 y) and 10% in other tissues (10 y). It is well known that concentration of americium is higher in trabecular bones (skull) as in cortical ones (long and short). It is deposited on a bone surface (both inner and outer), so the concentration in bones is dependent on a ratio of bone surface to bone volume.These facts are influencing reliable determination of Am in a body. The measurement geometry is chosen according the deposition of Am in a human body. The highest deposition is in skeleton and the second one in liver, lungs are the primary organ of contamination in case of inhalation. 1. Liver - in this case there are a lot of interferences from deposit in near soft tissues, lungs and variable thick of tissues between liver and detector. Calibration phantom is relatively simple to make - water solution of Am in a shaped flask. 2. Lungs - a large organ so the efficiency is relatively low and it is influenced by self-absorption in ribs and sternum, interfering is also the deposit in liver and soft tissues. Phantom preparation is problematic due to complex geometry and density of lungs. 3. Skeleton - ankle joint and bones of foot - the bone mass is large, the self-absorption in bones is a problem, preparation of a realistic calibration phantom is difficult due to complex geometry and need of manipulation with radioactive materials (e.g. plaster). 4. Skeleton - knee joints

  20. Whole body counter calibration and determination of Am-241 body content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal contamination of man by americium is relatively rare. It is possible at manipulations with americium in laboratory and at the production of AmBe neutron sources when safety measures are not fully keeped. The most probable contamination route is inhalation when the radionuclide is manipulated in powder form.Americium is distributed in body to all tissues. According a modification of ICRP biokinetic model by USTUR (1994) based on Am measurements of exposed persons, fractions of initial deposition are 45 % in skeleton (elimination half life 50 years), 25 % in liver (2,5 y), 20 % in muscles (10 y) and 10 % in other tissues (10 y). It is well known that concentration of americium is higher in trabecular bones (skull) as in cortical ones (long and short). It is deposited on a bone surface (both inner and outer), so the concentration in bones is dependent on a ratio of bone surface to bone volume.These facts are influencing reliable determination of Am in a body.The measurement geometry is choosed according the deposition of Am in a human body. The highest deposition is in skeleton and the second one in liver, lungs are the primary organ of contamination in case of inhalation. 1. Liver - in this case there are a lot of interferences from deposit in near soft tissues, lungs and variable thick of tissues between liver and detector. Calibration phantom is relatively simple to make - water solution of Am in a shaped flask. 2. Lungs - a large organ so the efficiency is relatively low and it is influenced by self-absorption in ribs and sternum, interfering is also the deposit in liver and soft tissues. Phantom preparation is problematic due to complex geometry and density of lungs. 3. Skeleton - ankle joint and bones of foot - the bone mass is large, the self-absorption in bones is a problem, preparation of a realistic calibration phantom is difficult due to complex geometry and need of manipulation with radioactive materials (e.g. plaster). 4. Skeleton - knee joints

  1. Calibration measurements of the clinical whole-body counter in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of the General Hospital Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body counters are devices for the measuring and spectroscopy of small amounts of gamma emitting radionuclides in the human body. The Department of Nuclear Medicine of the General Hospital Vienna has such a device (clinical whole-body counter). It represents the type of a shadow shield whole-body counter with a scanning system. The patient is placed on a bed and is moved between four 6'' x 4'' NaI(Tl) detectors with adjustable slit collimators. The whole-body counter was calibrated with regard to channel number, full width at half maximum (FWHM) and efficiency in dependence of the gamma energy of some gamma reference sources. The measurements were performed using a human shaped 70 kg phantom made from water filled plastic bottles, which simulate the absorption and scattering of gamma rays in the human body. Results of the calibration measurements and characteristic quantities like ''minimum detectable activity'' (MDA) and ''minimum measureable activity'' (MMA) will be presented in dependence of the gamma energy. (orig.)

  2. The Human Monitoring Laboratory's whole body counter: monitoring the liquid nitrogen level as a quality control tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M

    2007-11-01

    The Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) has developed a method to measure the liquid nitrogen boil-off rate from the whole body counter's single dewar as a function of time. The device consists of a commercially available instrument that was modified to fit the HML's whole body counter's dewar; unfortunately, the modification was not perfect requiring an alternative approach to using the maximum fill value. The boil-off rate is now measured by taking two measurements and calculating the loss rate. Resulting boil-off rates are plotted on a control chart so that long-term trends can be easily assessed. PMID:18049247

  3. Development of sealed sheet sources for calibration of whole-body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body counters are usually calibrated with the aid of a whole body phantom assembled with simply-shaped plastic vessels that are filled with an aqueous solution of the relevant radioisotopes. Most vessel-type phantoms represent only a human body in which radioisotopes are homogeneously distributed, whereas the radioisotopes in vivo are sometimes localized to specific organs. Each set of the vessels is usually applicable only to a specific combination of radioisotopes, because the replacement of radioisotopes requires troublesome procedures. Possible leakage of the solution is another disadvantage of the vessel-type phantom. The authors are developing a new-type calibration phantom that is free from these disadvantages, in which sealed sheet sources are sandwiched between sections of a sliced anthropomorphic phantom. This paper describes a method to prepare sealed sheet sources for this calibration phantom. Instead of γ-ray emitters a pure β-ray emitter 32P was used. This isotope is suitable for autoradiography and is easy to handle as its half-life is relatively short. An ink-jet printer was used to spread the solution of 32P mixed with ink on a sheet of paper. The surface concentration of radioactivity was regulated by the function of color density adjustment of an image processing software. The radioisotope-printed paper was laminated for sealing. Through the measurement of surface concentration of radioactivity with a liquid scintillation counter, the autoradiographical investigation of the pattern of the radioactivity distributed on the sheet sources, the immersion test of the sealed sheet sources and the monitoring of the concentration of 32P in air during the printing, it was demonstrated that sealed sheet sources for the calibration phantom can be prepared safely by the method described in this paper. Furthermore, by using sheet sources of 99mTc prepared as a trial it was confirmed that discrete arrangement of sheet sources in a phantom at a uniform

  4. Mechanical component design for upgrading of whole body counter ND7500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Whole Body Counter (WBC) ND7500 is a bed type counting system that used for measuring radionuclide in the entire human body. Malaysian Nuclear Agency has this system, which savaged from Institute of Medical Research (IMR) in 1987. This system consists of a nuclear counting system and mechanical system that totally inoperable due to its counting system failures. In April 2003, both counting system and the mechanical system were tested. The mechanical component is working properly but needs some readjustment for the bed movement while for the counting system, only detectors can work but with a poor detecting capability. During IAEA expert visits on July 2003, both detectors were verified cannot be use any longer due to poor resolution and aging factor and a single (3 x 5 x 16) inches rectangular NaI(Tl) detector was then purchased in the end of 2004 to replace (3 x 5) inches cylindrical Na(Tl) detectors. The existing shielding cannot accommodate this new (3 x 5 x 16) inches dimension and the (5 x 16) inches detecting area. Therefore, shielding modification has been done based on effective detecting area and positioning test results. A new detector's entrance and detector stage were built at the bottom shielding. A new features, which is a detectors protection also been developed for detector safety. This upgrading task successfully accomplished as from experimental the design of positioning component can make system operated easily and also can give a good results to meets user's requirements. (Author)

  5. An unshielded whole body radioactivity counter for monitoring persons after a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unshielded chair in which the subject sits, holding a 7.6 cm x 7.6 cm NaI (Tl) detector in his lap, was evaluated for monitoring of persons suspected of internal radioactive contamination following a radiation accident. The reduction in different energy bands of the background gamma-ray spectrum due to self-shielding of the subject was studied for two postures, designated ''upright'' and ''folding'' and the data were analysed in a CDC 3600 computer to obtain the best-fit regression equation relating the reduction factor with body weight and height. The response of the counter was evaluated using an in vitro method and the ranges of under/over-estimation of body burden resulting from assumption of partial/uniform distribution of activity were determined. Counting sensitivities were derived for 13 radioisotopes having gamma-ray energies in the range 145 keV-1.46 MeV. The results are presented and discussed. The study shows that this simple system may be used not only in radiation emergencies but also for operational monitoring of radiation workers for a number of radioisotopes of low and medium radiotoxicity. (auth.)

  6. Counter-plans for overage facilities and equipment: survey report for fiscal year of 1998 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uryu, Mitsuru; Satoko, H.; Yamazaki, Toshihiko; Hashimoto, Y.

    1999-04-01

    This annual report describes (1) an outline of the program of working out counter-plans for overage facilities and equipment in Tokai Works, JNC, (2) tendency evaluation of deterioration with age of facilities and buildings, (3) progress in making a data-base for the present investigation, and (4) a review on the practicality of the methods employed for the present investigation. In this year, deterioration trend has been evaluated for the facilities and buildings (32 facilities of fuel reprocessing, 7 facilities for plutonium fuels, 18 facilities for enrichment and others) on the basis of the results obtained for these 7 years in order to grasp the general tendency from a deterioration-age graph for the fuel reprocessing facility and others. (S. Ohno)

  7. Reconstruction of a whole-body counter into a process computer-controlled low-level whole-body scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the state of the research project to reconstruct our whole-body counter with solid geometries into a scanning type one. The object is to develop a process computer controlled 'adaptive system'. The self-built scan mechanics are explained and the advantages and problems of applying stepping motors are gone into. A stepping motor coordinates control is presented. As the planned scanner and the process computer form a digital controlled system, all theoretical and actual values as well as the control orders from the process computer must be directly controllable. A CAMAC system was not used for economical reasons, the process periphery was made controllable by self building of interfaces to and from the computer. As example, the available multi-channel analyzers were converted to external controlling. The price-moderate and relatively simple self-built set-up are outlined and an example is given of how a TELETYPE version is reconstructed into a fast electronic interface. A BUS-MULTIPLEX system was developed which generates all necessary DI/DO interfaces out of one DI and DO address of the process computer only. The essential part of this system is given. (orig./LH)

  8. International whole body counter intercomparison based on bomab phantom simulating 4 years old child; Partecipazione dell`ENEA alla campagna internazionale di interconfronto wholebody counter con fantoccio simulante un bambino di 4 anni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battisti, P.; Tarroni, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche ``E. Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dip. Ambiente

    1995-11-01

    In April 1993 a whole body counter intercomparison campaign, The 1993 Intercomparison/Intercalibration, started. The campaign has been organized by The Canadian National Reference Centre for In-Vivo Monitoring of Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada and The United States Department of Energy and it was based on measurements on a BOMAB type phantom simulating a 4 years old child. The phantom was filled with radioactive tissue substitute resin and an unknown quantity of radioactivity. Each facility was asked to determine the identity and amount of the radionuclide(s), knowing that the specific activity in the 10 BOMAB`s sections was the same. Each facility was also asked to calculate the minimum detectable activity of all the radionuclides detected in the phantom. 35 Facilities from 20 different Countries took part in the initiative. The Institute for Radiation Protection of the Environment Department of ENEA (ENEA AMB IRP) represented Italy. Intercomparison results supplied by ENEA AMB IRP as radionuclides identification, activity data and associated precision, minimum detectable activity levels, can be considered satisfactory and comparable with results supplied by similar-facilities.

  9. Calibration of the whole body counter for measurement of actinides in lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For purposes of in vivo measurements, two whole body counters (WBC), intended for research purposes, monitoring during normal and emergency situation,and for personal dosimetry service, are operated in SURO. One of them was upgraded in 2013 and 2014 and furnished with a new installation and detectors. Therefore, new calibration of the detection efficiency for the measurement of radionuclides in lungs was required. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) torso phantom was used for calibrations of the WBC detection system intended for measurement of transuranium elements in lungs. The phantom comprises three pairs of replace able lungs; one pair without activity, and two others with added activity of 239Pu or 241Am. Considering the importance of the thickness and composition of the chest wall tissue for the attenuation of low energy photon radiation of transuranium elements in lungs, the phantom contains four additional overlayers of different thickness simulating muscle and adipose tissue in ratio 1:1. Along with experimental calibrations of the WBC detection system using the physical phantom, Monte Carlo technique has been used for computational calibration. A vogel phantom has been created from CT scans of the LLNL torso phantom. The voxel model will be used for study of detection efficiencies in various measuring scenarios. (authors)

  10. Calibration of the whole body counter for measurement of transuranium elements in lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For purposes of in vivo measurements, two whole body counters (WBC), intended for research purposes, monitoring during normal and emergency situation,and for personal dosimetry service, are operated in SURO. One of them was upgraded in 2013 and 2014 and furnished with a new installation and detectors. Therefore, new calibration of the detection efficiency for the measurement of radionuclides in lungs was required. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) torso phantom was used for calibrations of the WBC detection system intended for measurement of transuranium elements in lungs. The phantom comprises three pairs of replace able lungs; one pair without activity, and two others with added activity of 239Pu or 241Am. Considering the importance of the thickness and composition of the chest wall tissue for the attenuation of low energy photon radiation of transuranium elements in lungs, the phantom contains four additional overlayers of different thickness simulating muscle and adipose tissue in ratio 1:1. Along with experimental calibrations of the WBC detection system using the physical phantom, Monte Carlo technique has been used for computational calibration. A vogel phantom has been created from CT scans of the LLNL torso phantom. The voxel model will be used for study of detection efficiencies in various measuring scenarios. (authors)

  11. The calculation of a size correction factor for a whole-body counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinou, E.; Koukouliou, V.; Budayova, M.; Potiriadis, C.; Kamenopoulou, V.

    2007-09-01

    Whole-Body counting techniques use radiation detectors in order to evaluate the internal exposure from radionuclides. The Whole-Body Counter (WBC) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is used for in vivo measurements of workers for routine purposes as well as for the public in case of an emergency. The system has been calibrated using the phantom provided by CANBERRA (RMC phantom) in combination with solid and point sources. Furthermore, four bottle phantoms of different sizes have been used to calibrate the system to measure potassium, 40K, for different sized workers. However, the use of different phantoms in combination with different sources is time consuming and expensive. Moreover, the purchase and construction of the reference standards need specific knowledge. An alternative option would be the use of Monte Carlo simulation. In this study, the Monte Carlo technique has been firstly validated using the 40K measurements of the four phantoms. After the validation of the methodology, the Monte Carlo code, MCNP, has been used with the same simulated geometries (phantom detector) and different sources in order to calculate the efficiency of the system for different photon energies in the four phantoms. The simulation energies correspond to the following radionuclides: 131I, 137Cs, 60Co, and 88Y. A size correction calibration factor has been defined in order to correct the efficiency of the system for the different phantoms and energies for uniform distribution. The factors vary from 0.64 to 1.51 depending on the phantom size and photon energy.

  12. Countering postural posteffects following prolonged exposure to whole-body vibration: a sensorimotor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oullier, Olivier; Kavounoudias, Anne; Duclos, Cyril; Albert, Frédéric; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Roll, Régine

    2009-01-01

    Postural stability of bulldozer operators after a day of work is investigated. When operators are no longer exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) generated by their vehicle, their sensorimotor coordination and body representation remain altered. A sensorimotor treatment based on a set of customized voluntary movements is tested to counter and prevent potential post-work accidents due to prolonged exposure to WBV. This treatment includes muscle stretching, joint rotations, and plantar pressures, all known to minimize the deleterious effects of prolonged exposure to mechanical vibrations. The postural stability of participants (drivers; N = 12) was assessed via the area of an ellipse computed from the X and Y displacements of the center-of-pressure (CoP) in the horizontal plane when they executed a simple balance task before driving, after driving, and after driving and having performed the sensorimotor treatment. An ancillary experiment is also reported in which a group of non-driver participants (N = 12) performed the same postural task three times during the same day but without exposure to WBV or the sensorimotor treatment. Prolonged exposure to WBV significantly increased postural instability in bulldozer drivers after they operated their vehicle compared to prior to their day of work. The sensorimotor treatment allowed postural stability to return to a level that was not significantly different from that before driving. The results reveal that (1) the postural system remains perturbed after prolonged exposure to WBV due to operating a bulldozer and (2) treatment immediately after driving provides a "sensorimotor recalibration" and a significant decrease in WBV-induced postural instability. If confirmed in different contexts, the postural re-stabilizing effect of the sensorimotor treatment would constitute a simple, rapid, inexpensive, and efficient means to prevent post-work accidents due to balance-related issues. PMID:18974996

  13. Calibration of the IRD Mobile Whole Body Counter for in vivo estimation of I-131 in thyroid and whole body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Brazil there are approximately 280 Nuclear Medicine Services in operation, resulting in a significant number of workers exposed to various radionuclides including I-131 which represents the highest risk of internal exposure. Therefore, with the aim of monitoring such workers, a mobile whole body counter was developed in the IRD. The system was mounted in a light truck with internal dimensions of 3,30 m x 1,60 m x 1,70 m and loading capacity of 2 tons. The Unit was projected to be used for routine monitoring as well as in emergency situations and is an important and useful tool to attend the increasing demand for individual monitoring services in several types of Installations where non-sealed sources are routinely manipulated. The use of a Mobile Unit allows the execution of the in vivo measurement on site, immediately after the work day of a specific task involving a potential risk of internal contamination. The thyroid monitoring system consists on a NaI(Tl)3x3 detector calibrated with a phantom containing a 18,099 KBq I-131 standard solution. The Mobile Unit can also be used in studies of iodine metabolism in patients submitted to thyroid surgery followed by iodotherapy. In this case it is used also a NaI(Tl)8x4 calibrated for whole body in vivo measurements with a phantom containing a 481241 Bq I-131 standard solutions uniformly distributed among the various sections of the phantom. Both standard - solutions were prepared and certified by the National laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD). The calibration of the detectors was performed through a series of measurements applying each of the phantoms positioned in the standard geometries of thyroid and whole body. The calibration factors and the detection limits were obtained for a 10- minutes counting time. Based on the comparison of the calibration parameters obtained with the derived limits of incorporation for I-131 it was concluded that the system sensitivity is suitable for

  14. Monte Carlo comparison of the St Petersburg phantom with a BOMAB phantom in the HML's whole-body counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin; Sung, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Three sizes of the St Petersburg phantom have been compared to six sizes of BOMAB phantoms measured by a virtual whole-body counter similar to the one in use in the Human Monitoring Laboratory using Monte Carlo simulations. The previously published data comparing the St Petersburg Reference Man sized phantom with a similar sized Bottle Manikin Absorber Phantoms (BOMAB) phantom at 662 keV is supported; however, the simulations also show that the smaller sized St Petersburg phantoms do not agree well with smaller BOMAB phantoms. It is concluded that the St Petersburg phantoms are system dependent meaning that all sizes of the St Petersburg phantoms should be experimentally compared over a wide photon energy range against corresponding BOMAB phantoms to validate their use for calibrating whole-body counters. PMID:17562658

  15. Development of the Discrimination Programs between the Internal and External Radioactive Contamination of Workers Using a Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A whole body counter (WBC) is used to identify and measure the radioactivity in the body of human beings in a nuclear power plant (NPP). In domestic NPPs, several whole body counters are in operation to monitor the internal radioactive contamination of workers. All workers take a whole body counting after radiation works if there is high possibility of radioactive contamination or the radioactivity is detected by portal monitoring. It is, however, found that the external contamination is occasionally estimated as the internal radioactive contamination. In this case, the worker is recommended to take showers for the decontamination of skin and take a whole body counting again. Although the detected radioactivity is reduced remarkably after several decontaminations, confirmed as the external contamination, it is determined finally as an internal contamination if the radioactivity is still detected in the body of worker. The amount of detected radioactivity can be much higher than that of the expected for this mistaken contamination since the radioisotopes attached to skin come to be close to the detectors of WBC. Finally, this makes not only the misjudgment of the external contamination as the internal contamination, but also the excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments were carried out to set up the discrimination program between the internal and external radioactive contamination using the humanoid phantom and a whole body counter. After the analysis of experimental results, we found that the use of front and backside counts could be applied to the discrimination of the external contamination and the ratio of detected radioactivities between front and backside counts was more than about factor 2 for the external contamination

  16. Internal radioactive contamination in nuclear medicine staff: analysis of 7 years data obtained with a customized whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use in hospital of unsealed radioactive isotopes in Nuclear Medicine, Radioimmunoassay and Metabolic Radiotherapy requests periodical controls of the internal contamination of the employed workers and evaluations of the effective absorbed dose, in order to obey the laws. In our Department was planned and constructed a Whole Body Counter (WBC) since 1990, characterized by low background, simple installation in a little space, easy employment and low cost

  17. Relationship between Security and Human Rights in Counter-Terrorism: A Case of Introducing Body Scanners in Civil Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Prezelj Iztok

    2015-01-01

    Changes in security environment after the end of Cold War and 9/11 have strongly affected our security concepts and paradigms. In the field of counter-terrorism, a serious conceptual and practical debate on the relationship between security and human rights and freedoms has begun. The goal of this paper is to reflect on this complex relationship at the conceptual level and introduce the empirical debate on this relationship in the field of civil aviation (case of introducing body scanners). T...

  18. Investigation of performance parameters of the new whole body counter of the Medical University of Hanover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The whole body counter (GKZ) of the Medical University of Hanover (MHH) is accepted as official license site for northern Germany. Beside regular incorporation measurements for people associated in radionuclide work in the Hanover area the GKZ is also used for incorporation control for all employees of the MHH. The old error-prone six scintillation detectors (NaI, 5''*4'' each) were replaced in two steps with four modern semiconductor detectors (p-type, rel. eff. 55%) with electrical cooling. To demonstrate the accordance with the German guideline [1] special performance parameters had to be investigated. Methods: We made a reference phantom (80 kg, 170 cm, 140 g potassium) out of 51-scans and a K-Cl solution. After determination of the activity concentration with a gamma analysis unit and the GKZ the values were compared with the theoretical value. With further measurements of the reference phantom (calculation of minimum detectable activity (NWG) and determination of accuracy and precision) the accordance with [1] is demonstrated. Results: The activity concentration was determined with very high correspondence. Measurement values for the activity concentration of the K-Cl solution are: theoretical 16.2 Bq/g; gamma analysis unit 15.6 Bq/g; GKZ 15.6 Bg/g. The NWG for 137Cs is 38 Bq and the lower detection limit (EKG) is 17 Bq (measurement time 30 min). The accuracy fulfills the German guideline [1] (mean relative deviation <0,2%). The precision fulfills the German guideline [1] (standard deviation of the relative deviations <0.01; standard deviation referring to the probe average <0.01). The detectors are arranged in the ''scanning-bed''-geometry. Therefore we have a very constant efficiency calibration, which is nearly independent of the measuring geometry. The deviation from a nearly point source to a homogeneous activity distribution is lower than 4%. Conclusion: After the renewal of the GKZ the MHH has a very powerful whole body detection unit for

  19. Parameters of a simple whole body counter and thyroid monitor established at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany); Schoenmuth, T. [Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics, Inc., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    At the Rossendorf Nuclear Engineering and Analytics Inc. a simple whole body counter and an iodine-thyroid monitor are used for measuring the internal contamination of workers. There is no shielding chamber in both cases. By using the chamber at the Dresden Felsenkeller underground laboratory the lower limit of detection could be improved by a factor of about 3 for whole body counting and by a factor of 2,5 for thyroid monitoring (I 131, I 125). Concerning the lower limit of detection the applicability of the German standard DIN 25 482 implemented in the Gamma-Vision software packadge is discussed in the paper. (orig.)

  20. Whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children for four consecutive years after the Fukushima NPP accident

    OpenAIRE

    Hayano, Ryugo S.; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Miyazaki, Makoto; SATOU, Hideo; SATO, Katsumi; MASAKI, Shin; Sakuma, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys of Miharu town school children have been conducted for four consecutive years, in 2011-2014. This represents the only long-term sampling-bias-free study of its type conducted after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. For the first time in 2014, a new device called the Babyscan, which has a low $^{134/137}$Cs MDA of $< 50$ Bq/body, was used to screen the children shorter than 130 cm. No child in this group was found to have detectable level of radiocesium....

  1. Calibration of whole-body counters for transuranic radionuclides by using total-body donations to the United States Transuranium Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the many benefits of the whole-body donation programme of the United States Transuranium Registry is the calibration of whole-body counters by measuring a donated body containing radioactivity before radiochemical analysis of the body occurs. These measurements have provided the best existing calibration factors for measuring 241Am and 239Pu in the skeleton of living people. In one case where the body contained an easily measurable quantity of 241Am, the 241Am content was found to be the same for identical bones on the right and left sides of the body. The bones from the right side of the body and every other vertebrae were radiochemically analysed and the bones from the left side were reserved. These latter have a known quantity of naturally distributed 241Am based on the analysis of bones from the right side. These reserved bones are being incorporated into tissue equivalent body parts for future calibrations and interlaboratory comparisons. The measurements on the total body and the reserved bones have already been very useful in determining the contribution of skeletal activity to that of lung measurements and determining a calibration factor for measuring 239Pu deposited in the skeleton. In the future it is planned to periodically make in vivo measurements on those people participating in the total-body donation programme so that calibration factors can be obtained for lung and liver content after subsequent analysis of these tissues. (author)

  2. Applicability test of methods for discrimination between external and internal contamination using an ORTEC whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body counters (WBCs) are generally used for monitoring internal radioactive contamination of radiation workers in nuclear power plants. However, it has been found that external contamination is occasionally counted as internal contamination. The previous study was conducted to provide guidance on measuring the exact internal radioactivity using a Canberra WBC. However, there is strong need to verify the application of the previous study to whole-body counting using a different type of WBC, ORTEC StandFAST II. Thus, in this study, several experiments were conducted focusing on the discrimination between external and internal contamination. Finally, it was found that counts from the front and back are still effective to distinguish external contamination from internal contamination for whole-body counting. (authors)

  3. USE OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION AS A MODE OF WARMING UP BEFORE COUNTER MOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique G. Artero

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV has been suggested to be particularly effective on the stretch-shortening cycle-based movements, such as the counter movement jump (CMJ test (Issurin, 2005. Nevertheless, the literature on short-term vibration exposure and lower limb explosive performance (measured by CMJ test is contradictory. Either transient improvements (Bosco et al., 2000; Cochrane and Stannard, 2005; Torvinen et al., 2002a or no effects (Torvinen et al., 2002b; Rittweger et al., 2003; Cormie et al., 2006 have been reported after a single WBV exposure ranging from 30 s to 10 min. The present study aimed at better characterizing the use of a single short bout of WBV as a mode of warming up before a CMJ test.A total of 114 university students (37 men, 77 women, aged 19.6 ± 2.0 years signed an informed consent form and volunteered to participate in the study. The study protocol was approved by the Review Committee for Research Involving Human Subjects of our center. Participants were asked to come to the laboratory in three occasions three days apart. First visit: familiarization session aiming to learn the CMJ technique and to experience the vibration stimulus. Second visit: the participants performed three consecutive CMJ with one min rest interval. No significant differences were observed among the jumps, and the highest score was retained. Third visit: the participants were exposed to a single short bout of WBV and immediately after they performed three CMJ with one min rest interval.An infrared contact timing platform (ERGO JUMP Plus - BOSCO SYSTEM, Byomedic, S.C.P., Barcelona, Spain was used to measure "flight" time (t during the vertical jump (accuracy 0.001 s. Maximum height achieved by the body centre of gravity (h was then estimated, i.e. h = g · t2 / 8, where g = 9.81 m/s2. In all occasions, the participants were instructed to abstain from strenuous exercise for the preceding 24 hours.Whole-body vibration was carried out on an oscillating

  4. Practical methods for the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole body counter system Accuscan II of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), was designed and built to quantify and to measure radionuclides fission product as well as gamma emitters, with a maximum sensibility of less than 10 n Ci for cobalt 60 at one time of counting of 5 minutes. The system has two detectors of Ge(Hp) with Beryllium window to a relative efficiency of 25% in a counting configuration of vertical scanning, this configuration gives a plane response of constant efficiency. In this work some practical methods developed in the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory to carry out the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ are described. With the obtained results of this evaluation we can decide fine adjustments will be necessary for the optimization of the equipment operation. The evaluation of this equipment was especially necessary, due to its 21 years-old antiquity and for the gradual changes that has in its functioning. The equipment is intrinsically a gamma spectrometry system and some described experiences could be applied too in other gamma spectrometry systems. (Author)

  5. Use of lower body negative pressure to counter symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathers, C. M.; Charles, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    This report briefly discusses some aspects of autonomic cardiovascular dysfunction as related to changes in orthostatic function in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts. This relationship is described in normal individuals to provide the basis for discussion of parameters that may be altered in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts. The relationships between disease states, age, periods of weightlessness during space flight, and autonomic dysfunction, and their contribution to changes in orthostatic tolerance are presented. The physiologic effects of lower body negative pressure are illustrated by presenting data obtained in bed rest subjects and in astronauts. Finally, the usefulness of lower body negative pressure to counter symptoms of orthostatic intolerance in patients, bed rest subjects, and astronauts is discussed.

  6. A Study on the Method to Discriminate Between the Internal and External Radioactive Contamination Using Whole Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole Body Counter (WBC) is used to identify and measure the radioactivity in the body of human beings in a nuclear power plants (NPPs). In domestic NPPs, it is prescribed that all workers should take a whole body counting after radiation works if the possibilities of radioactive contamination exist or the radioactivity is detected by a portal monitoring. It is, however, found that the external skin contamination is occasionally estimated as the internal radioactive contamination. In this case, the worker assumed to be detected is recommended to take showers for the decontamination of skin and take a whole body counting again. Although the detected radioactivity is reduced remarkably after several decontaminations, confirmed as the external skin contamination, it is determined finally as an internal exposure if the radioactivity is still detected in the body of worker. The amount of detected radioactivity can be much higher than that of the expected for this mistaken contamination since the radioisotopes attached to skin come to be close to the detectors of WBC. Finally, this makes the misjudgment of the external skin contamination as well as the excessively conservative estimation of radioactive contamination. In this study, several experiments were carried out to discriminate between the internal and external radioactive contamination using the humanoid phantom and WBC. Preliminary experimental results indicated that the use of front and backside counts could be applied to the discrimination of the external skin contamination and the difference of detected radioactivities between front and backside counts was less than about factor 2 for the internal contamination

  7. Monitoring of the general population with an installed whole body counter at West Cumberland Hospital, Whitehaven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body radioactivity in the general public has been measured in 395 volunteers in the Whitehaven area, using a whole-body monitor at West Cumberland Hospital. Between October 1986 and October 1987, estimates of total body radiocaesium in 240 volunteers ranged from below detection level to 1844 Bq with a mean of 415 Bq. From October 1987 until May 1988, a further 155 volunteers were monitored, and radiation levels ranged from 34 Bq to 685 Bq, with a mean of 257 Bq. In all volunteers, the ratio of body radiocaesium to body potassium, was well below unity. The average ratio of caesium-137 to caesium-134 from October 1987 to May 1988 was 3.28, corresponding to a ratio of 1.99 at the date of Chernobyl accident. This is consistent with a Chernobyl origin as the primary source for the radiocaesium. There were discernible, but not marked, trends of increasing body radiocaesium with milk and meat/fish consumption. (author)

  8. Monte Carlo calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counter, by microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer programming using the Monte Carlo method for calculation of efficiencies of whole-body counting of body radiation distribution is presented. An analytical simulator (for man e for child) incorporated with99mTc, 131I and 42K is used. (M.A.C.)

  9. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  10. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  11. Measurements of Caesium-137 in Finnish Lapps in 1962-1964 by a Mobile Whole-Body Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction, calibration and use in-field investigations of a mobile whole-body counter of the type developed by K. Lidén et al, in Sweden are described. The lead shield of the present system (2 t) is located)in-the middle of a covered heavy truck. The subject is surrounded by a 4-cm thick lead coffin, the Nal(Tl) crystal (5 an-diam. x 3 in) being protected from the other directions than the coffin by 8 cm of lead. The instrumentation consists of a 512-channel analyser, printer, x, y-recorder, and stabilizer, which are kept in shock- and dust-proof boxes during transport. The truck is provided with a thermostated heating system and contains two dressing cubicles. The system was calibrated for caesium-137 by two methods: (1) By administering per os a precisely known amount (200 to 300 nc) caesium-137 to several subjects and determining the counting efficiency after 3 to 6 d. The excreted portion of caesium-137 was determined by collecting and analysing the faeces and urine. (2) By counting a plastic phantom filled with 70.kg of a solution containing 1552 nc caesium-137. The first method gave a 4,6% higher efficiency than the second. The efficiency obtained by the first method was adopted as, the true calibration. This was also checked by three inter-calibration measurements with two other whole-body counting laboratories. The agreement was good (within 1 to 4%). For potassium a preliminary calibration was made by the use of the phantom. The efficiency is 2.51 cpm/nc caesium-137 (0.60- 0.72 MeV, 20 channels), and 0.145 cpm/g K (1.38- 1.55 MeV, 30 channels). When the truck is parked on rock, the corresponding background counts with a 70 kg sugar phantom-are 77 cpm and, 58 cpm, respectively. On sandy soil the background is about half of that on rock. With this mobile counter three field investigations were carried out in Finnish Lapland. In May 1962 218 Lapps statistically representative groups from the three Finnish Lapp countries, Inari, Karesuanto and Utsjoki

  12. Evaluation of 137Cs internal contamination in children by means of whole body counter measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two series of internal contamination measurements were performed on children from Byelorussia by means of whole body and urine counting. The body contamination was related to 134Cs and 137Cs emitted in the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on April 26, 1986. The data have been analysed in order to have an experimental estimation of the caesium metabolic parameters and make a comparison with those indicated in ICRP 56, point out the effect of sex and age in relation to 137Cs body activity and half-time of caesium long term retention fraction and obtain indications concerning the statistical distributions of internal contamination in children of both sexes living in different areas of Byelorussia. (author)

  13. Whole body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children for four consecutive years after the Fukushima NPP accident

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Miyazaki, Makoto; Satou, Hideo; Sato, Katsumi; Masaki, Shin; Sakuma, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys of Miharu town school children have been conducted for four consecutive years, in 2011-2014. This represents the only long-term sampling-bias-free study of its type conducted after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. For the first time in 2014, a new device called the Babyscan, which has a low $^{134/137}$Cs MDA of $< 50$ Bq/body, was used to screen the children shorter than 130 cm. No child in this group was found to have detectable level of radiocesium. Using the MDAs, upper limits of daily intake of radiocesium were estimated for each child. For those screened with the Babyscan, the upper intake limits were found to be <1 Bq/day for $^{137}$Cs. Analysis of a questionnaire filled out by the children's parents regarding their food and water consumption shows that the majority of Miharu children regularly consume local and/or home-grown rice and vegetables. This however does not increase the body burden.

  14. Whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children for four consecutive years after the Fukushima NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive whole-body counter surveys of Miharu-town school children have been conducted for four consecutive years, in 2011-2014. This represents the only long-term sampling-bias-free study of its type conducted after the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. For the first time in 2014, a new device called the Babyscan, which has a low 134/137Cs MDA of <50 Bq/body, was used to screen the children shorter than 130 cm. No child in this group was found to have detectable level of radiocesium. Using the MDAs, upper limits of daily intake of radiocesium were estimated for each child. For those screened with the Babyscan, the upper intake limits were found to be ≲1 Bq/day for 137Cs. Analysis of a questionnaire filled out by the children's parents regarding their food and water consumption shows that the majority of Miharu children regularly consume local and/or home-grown rice and vegetables. This however does not increase the body burden. (author)

  15. A method for calculating the spatial distribution of radioactivity measured by a whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear medical research and diagnosis it is often important to be able to localize small amounts of radioactivity in the human body. A complete representation of the distribution of a radioisotope in a region of the body would require a three-dimensional portrayal, but most scanning devices are limited to plane portrayal. Thus, scans in two orthogonal planes are necessary. In some cases, a single representation will suffice or an alternative technique may be used to obtain information concerning the distribution in the third dimension

  16. Uncertainty budget for a whole body counter in the scan geometry and computer simulation of the calibration phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARCS), a whole body counter (WBC) in the scan geometry is used to perform routine measurements for the determination of radioactive intake of workers. The calibration of the WBC is made using bottle phantoms with a homogeneous activity distribution. The same calibration procedures have been simulated using Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code and FLUKA and the results of the full energy peak efficiencies for eight energies and five phantoms have been compared with the experimental results. The deviation between experiment and simulation results is within 10%. Furthermore, uncertainty budget evaluations have been performed to find out which parameters make substantial contributions to these differences. Therefore, statistical errors of the Monte Carlo simulation, uncertainties in the cross section tables and differences due to geometrical considerations have been taken into account. Comparisons between these results and the one with inhomogeneous distribution, for which the activity is concentrated only in certain parts of the body (such as head, lung, arms and legs), have been performed. The maximum deviation of 43% from the homogeneous case has been found when the activity is concentrated on the arms. (authors)

  17. Intercomparison of CDTN and IRD whole-body counter for in vivo measurements of high energy photon emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CDTN has one in vivo monitoring system, generically referred as Whole-Body Counter (WBC) that aims to identify and quantify radionuclides in organs and tissues for radiological protection purposes and to provide useful information for studies on biokinetic behavior of radionuclides in humans and animals. The CDTN-WBC has one NaI(Tl) 6''x4'' scintillation detector installed in a shadow-shield, made with an assembly of lead bricks with dimensions of (10x10x5)cm3 and (10x5x5)cm3. The detector is surrounded by 12cm lead rings and the Photo Multiplier Tubes covered with a lead cone. This detection system is set to measure radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 100 to 2000 keV. The objective of this work is to present the energy vs. efficiency calibration curves determined for two similar counting systems installed at CDTN and IRD, both CNEN institutes. The calibration performed at the CDTN-WBC has been accomplished by using a whole-body phantom containing a standard solution with four gamma emitting radionuclides (57Co, 137Cs, 54Mn, 65Zn) supplied by the Metrology Laboratory of IRD. The phantom was positioned lying on a bed at a distance of 31, 5 cm from the scintillation detector front face. The results show that the CDTN-WBC presents efficiencies equivalent to the IRD-WBC at similar calibration conditions. (author)

  18. Performance of Whole-Body Counters at IGCAR in an Intercomparison Exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Canadian National Calibration Reference Centre for in vivo Monitoring (NCRC), and United States Department of Energy (USDOE) periodically conduct intercalibration and intercomparison exercises with the aim of evaluating the relative performances of whole-body counting systems in various countries. In continuation of their earlier exercises they initiated another exercise in 1996. The exercise consists of identifying and quantifying the unknown radionuclides deliberately included inside the phantom chosen for calibration. The exercise was carried out with a resin-filled, ICRP standard, adult female BOMAB phantom. Each participating laboratory was given seven days for measurement and evaluation of the results irrespective of the number of counting systems they possessed. Health and Safety Division (HASD), Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) received the phantom during April 1997 and correctly identified the radionuclides. The activity estimate has a bias of 3% and a measurement precision better than 1%. It is interesting to see such close agreement in the prediction of activity of the radionuclides, even though the whole-body counting systems are calibrated with a masonite cut-sheet phantom whose size, shape and weight are quite different from that of the BOMAB phantom used in the present exercise. The details of the exercise, the phantom used, the measurements made and the results obtained are discussed. (author)

  19. Determination of the potassium content using the whole-body counter for an assessment of the effects of CYPROHEPTADIN on the weight and cell mass of boys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    12 out of 24 children were treated with 4 mg/day cyproheptadine over a period of 30 days and for a further 60 days with 8 mg/day cyproheptadine. The effects of the substance on weight, cell mass, and fat mass are tested. The behaviour of the whole-body potassium is measured in a whole-body counter. The children treated with cyproheptadine show a significantly smaller potassium increase compared to the untreated control group. (BSC/LH)

  20. Design and performance of major body-monitoring facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of major body-monitoring facilities recently installed in a new laboratory complex. They include a whole body monitor, a low-energy photon monitor and associated electronic and data-processing equipment. Careful selection procedures for the laboratory construction materials ensure low site background. The effect of the main steel shield is documented in terms of Background Index together with the effect, in various spectral regions, of the gradual addition of graded lining. Details are provided of the control system for the whole-body monitor, a six-crystal ring around a moving bed, attention being focussed on the live time scan regulation and reduction of end-effects. The low-energy photon monitor, an array of dual-crystal detectors used mainly for determining transuranic nuclides in lungs, is also described along with the pulse-shape-analysis technique for background reduction. Calibration procedures and performance data for both monitors are presented highlighting special difficulties, such as subject background and tissue attenuation, with incorporated nuclides that emit low-energy photons. An account is provided of the control data-processing system which uses CAMAC and a small computer and to which several other spectrometric detectors are input

  1. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  2. Effect of mass, at a fixed height, on the counting efficiency of a BOMAB phantom in three types of whole body counter modeled by MCNP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin; Phan, Quoc

    2008-08-01

    Using demographic data, a series of BOMAB phantoms were developed to study the effect of size, at a fixed height, of a BOMAB phantom using Monte Carlo simulations in three different whole body counting systems: the HML's scanning detector whole body counter, a FastScan whole body counter, and a StandFast whole body counter. The latter has had two counting geometries simulated--one for the recommended position, and another simulating a constant detector-to-front-of-phantom distance. The six phantom sizes corresponded to the following masses: 48 kg, 73 kg, 98 kg, 123 kg, 148 kg, and 173 kg. The effect of size varies with photon energy, as might be expected, and at any given energy is an exponential function of the mass. An equation has been found that fits most cases very well and is still good in poorer cases. Persons lighter in mass than the normal calibration phantom (73 kg) will have their body burdens overestimated by as much as a factor of 1.3, depending on mass, photon energy, and counting geometry. Conversely, heavier individuals will have their body burdens underestimated by as much as a factor of 1.9, depending on mass, photon energy, and counting geometry. PMID:18617805

  3. The W-chair whole body counter: a Monte Carlo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin; Ross, Karen

    2005-04-01

    The W-chair whole body counting geometry, a derivative of the meter-arc counting geometry, has been examined using Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effect of phantom size on the counting efficiency. Three detector positions were simulated (42 cm, 71 cm, and 100 cm from the chair), with one being very close to the physical counting geometry in use at the Whiteshell Laboratories, to investigate the effects of detector-chair distance. The agreement of the simulations with observed counting efficiencies was within 7% over the energy region of 122 keV to 1,173 keV. The optimum counting geometry was found to be the 71-cm detector-chair distance as this balances both sensitivity and counting efficiency. The range of relative counting efficiencies is 0.94 to 1.13 for all energies studied (126 keV to 2,754 keV) and selected phantom sizes relative to the Reference Man phantom. This range also represents the extent of the activity estimate's uncertainty if no size correction factors are applied during routine counting and shows the W-chair counting geometry to be relatively subject-size independent. PMID:15761298

  4. The development of a specialized in-vivo body counter for radiation monitoring in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design, construction, calibration and testing of a prototype mobile counting system to measure natural uranium in the lungs of workers in the nuclear fuel industry is described. The measurement method is based on the detection of gamma rays emitted during the decay of the daughters of uranium. The mobile facility consisted of a shadow shield and phoswich detector system mounted in a medium-sized trunk. Care was taken to ensure undistorted visual and verbal contact between the subject and the operator. Tests were made to optimize the location and thickness of the lead shielding. A single axle truck was insulated and a heater was installed for winter operation. There was sufficient room in the box to include a change room and waiting area as well as the shadow shield and electronics rack. An extensive series of test measurements was made at a number of locations. Control group studies of males were carried out and a model was developed which correctly predicted the subject background in the uranium region of the gamma spectrum when no uranium was present. The mobile counter was calibrated using the Rando Phantom. On a field trip to Bancroft In February 1981 the shadow shield configuration was shown to provide adequate background reduction for accurate uranium-in-lung measurements. With repeated measurements, changes in an individual's lung burden as small as 2 mg uranium could be detected. The minimum detectable amount of uranium on the basis of one measurement was 5.4 mg

  5. Can the HML's sliced BOMAB phantom be used in any whole body counter with a reduced number of sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry M; Dang, Shannon; Capello, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    The sliced Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) phantom was originally proposed as an alternative to a commercially available phantom, but it suffers from the disadvantage of containing over 160 sources that need to be manufactured; however, it was found that the number of slices could be reduced substantially and that two slices in the sliced phantom gave the same performance characteristics over a wide energy range as a conventional BOMAB phantom for a particular counting system. This work explores the adaptability of this phantom to another counting geometry. The response of the Human Monitoring Laboratory's whole-body counter measuring this phantom with a decreasing number of planar sources has been modelled using MCNP5 over a wide energy range (122-2754 keV). It was found that the best agreement was obtained when the phantom contained 10 sources, 1 in the mid point of each section. As this is a different result from a previous finding, any other counting geometry will have to be assessed to determine the optimum loading if the sliced phantom is to be used. Also, it is clear that this type of phantom cannot be used for an intercomparison that will encounter different counting geometries, unless it contains a full loading of sources. PMID:18407976

  6. Monte Carlo simulation of a scanning detector whole body counter and the effect of BOMAB phantom size on the calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Burns, Linda C; Guerriere, Steven

    2002-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation has been used to model the Human Monitoring Laboratory's scanning detector whole body counter. This paper has also shown that a scanning detector counting system can be satisfactorily simulated by putting the detector in different places relative to the phantom and averaging the results. This technique was verified by experimental work that obtained an agreement of 96% between scanning and averaging. The BOMAB phantom family in use at the Human Monitoring Laboratory was also modeled so that both counting efficiency and size correction factors could be estimated. It was found that the size correction factors lie in the region of 2.4 to 0.66 depending on phantom size and photon energy. The efficiency results from the MCNP scanning simulations were 97% of the measured scanning efficiency. A single function that fits counting efficiency, size, and photon energy was also developed. The function gives predicted efficiencies that are in the range of +10% to -8% of the true value. PMID:12240728

  7. Current capabilities of the IRD-CNEN-RJ whole body counter for in vivo monitoring of internally deposited radionuclides in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational exposure to radioactive materials may occur as a result of a variety of professional human activities, such as in nuclear industry; use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine, biological research and agriculture; production of radiopharmaceuticals, as well as in mining and milling of minerals associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials. The IRD whole-body counter (UCCI) consists of a shielded room with internal dimensions of 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m. The walls are made of steel and have a graded-Z interior lining made of 3 mm of lead, 1.5 mm of cadmium and 0.5 mm of copper. Such thin layers are aimed to reduce environmental sources of natural background radiation that would affect the measurements of radionuclides emitting low energy photons. An array of four HPGe detectors was used to perform low-energy measurements of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 200 keV in the lungs, liver and bone tissue. Additionally, one NaI(Tl)8” x 4” and one NaI(Tl)3” x 3” scintillation detectors are used for measurements in the energy range from 100 up to 3000 keV. A configuration of detector supports allows setting up flexible counting geometries, i.e., whole body and specific organs such as head, lungs, liver and thyroid of an individual laid on a monitoring chair. The UCCI is able to perform in vivo measurement of a large variety of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow its application for occupational monitoring as well as in the case of accidental incorporations. (author)

  8. Current capabilities of the IRD-CNEN-RJ whole body counter for in vivo monitoring of internally deposited radionuclides in human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Bernando Maranhao; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.br, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Div. de Dosimetria

    2014-07-01

    Occupational exposure to radioactive materials may occur as a result of a variety of professional human activities, such as in nuclear industry; use of unsealed sources in nuclear medicine, biological research and agriculture; production of radiopharmaceuticals, as well as in mining and milling of minerals associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials. The IRD whole-body counter (UCCI) consists of a shielded room with internal dimensions of 2.5 m x 2.5 m x 2.5 m. The walls are made of steel and have a graded-Z interior lining made of 3 mm of lead, 1.5 mm of cadmium and 0.5 mm of copper. Such thin layers are aimed to reduce environmental sources of natural background radiation that would affect the measurements of radionuclides emitting low energy photons. An array of four HPGe detectors was used to perform low-energy measurements of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 200 keV in the lungs, liver and bone tissue. Additionally, one NaI(Tl)8” x 4” and one NaI(Tl)3” x 3” scintillation detectors are used for measurements in the energy range from 100 up to 3000 keV. A configuration of detector supports allows setting up flexible counting geometries, i.e., whole body and specific organs such as head, lungs, liver and thyroid of an individual laid on a monitoring chair. The UCCI is able to perform in vivo measurement of a large variety of radionuclides emitting photons in the energy range from 10 to 3000 keV. The minimum detectable activities for most of the radionuclides of interest allow its application for occupational monitoring as well as in the case of accidental incorporations. (author)

  9. The standfast whole body counter and the sliced BOMAB phantom: efficiency as a function of number of sources and energy modeled by MCNP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin

    2007-02-01

    Previously, using Monte Carlo simulations, this laboratory conceptualized a new phantom: the sliced Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) phantom. It was intended for calibration or performance testing of whole body counters and the HML subsequently built and tested that phantom. Also, this laboratory tested another phantom used for the calibration of the StandFast whole body counter and identified some deficiencies. This paper investigates the use of the sliced BOMAB phantom as an alternative for the calibration of the StandFast and shows how the 165 sources required for a full loading of the sliced BOMAB can be reduced to a much smaller number without compromising the calibration. The agreement of the sliced BOMAB with eight sources is approximately 1% when compared with a conventional BOMAB phantom. PMID:17220718

  10. Comparison of the St. Petersburg phantom with a BOMAB phantom in the ORTEC StandFast whole body counter: a Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin; Sung, Jeremy

    2008-05-01

    Three sizes of the St. Petersburg phantom have been compared to six sizes of BOMAB phantoms measured by a virtual StandFast whole body counter using Monte Carlo simulations to investigate if the counting efficiencies are equivalent. This work shows that previously published data comparing the Reference Man sized phantom at 662 keV is supported; however, the simulations also show that the smaller sized St. Petersburg phantoms do not agree well with BOMAB phantoms. It is concluded that, compared with BOMAB phantoms, the St. Petersburg phantoms are system dependent and that they should be validated over a wide photon energy range against corresponding BOMAB phantoms prior to their use for calibrating whole body counters. PMID:18403961

  11. Control of the biodistribution and biokinetics of 165-dysprosium-ferric-hydroxide after radiation synovectomy using the whole-body counter in the general hospital Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation synovectomy is suggested to be an alternative to surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the whole-body counter in the General Hospital Vienna for the study of the biodistribution and biokinetics of 165-dysprosium-ferric-hydroxide (165Dy-DFH). During this study it was possible to measure 42 patients, who were treated with 165Dy-DFH. The applied activity ranged from 520 MBq to 12955 MBq. The emission of γ-radiation with an energy of 95 keV is used to monitor the kinetic distribution of 165Dy by performing activity profiles with the whole-body counter 2, 4 and 6 hours after injection. The doses to non-target organs were calculated using the software MIRDOSE II. In 32 patients no leakage could be monitored. In 3 patients a concentration of leakage was detected in the urinary bladder, in 2 patients a leakage was detected in the liver and in 6 patients a small leakage was detected in the inguinal lymphatic nodes of the treated legs. Using a whole-body counter activity leakage could be detected with much higher sensitivity than by using a gamma camera. Biodistribution of 165Dy-DFH could be determined, leakage could be localised and related to organs. (orig.)

  12. Radioiostope studies utilizing a low level whole body counter and clinical application of activation analysis. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main emphasis of these studies is the development of methods (hardware and software) for the quantitation of body and specific organ burdens of radioactivity. Current work is directed toward the evaluation of radiation dose distributions in human beings from new radioactive tracers and new procedures used in nuclear medicine. Dosimetry and clinical studies will be carried out on patients using new radiopharmaceuticals where dosimetry data are lacking. Future efforts will be directed toward the development of systems that will facilitate the collection of dosimetry data using less specialized facilities. The availability of instrumentation and analytic techniques that provide clinical images as well as dosimetry data should enhance the rate of collection of data on human exposures in medicine and assist in the optimization of diagnostic strategies. In parallel with these efforts, we are developing a new computer assisted technique for diagnostic decision making. The basic aim is to utilize efficiently all the available data to maximize information gain while minimizing cost factors

  13. Development of a prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis facility for small animal in vivo body composition studies using Am-Be Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The design, calibration, radiation dosimetry and preliminary performance evaluation of a prompt-gamma neutron activation analysis facility for in vivo body composition studies in small animals (i.e. rats or rabbits) are described. The system design was guided by Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport calculations performed using the MCNP-4C code. The facility utilizes a 555 GBq (15 Ci) Am-Be radionuclide neutron source positioned within a graphite collimator and appropriate shielding assembly. Prompt gamma rays produced by thermal neutron capture reactions within the animal are detected by a combination of a NaI(Tl) and a HPGe detectors positioned on either side of the sample, perpendicularly to the neutron beam. Small animal body nitrogen and hydrogen are determined by the NaI(Tl) detector by analysis of the 10.83 MeV and 2.22 MeV peaks, respectively, while calcium and chlorine are determined by the HPGe detector by analysis of the 6.42 MeV and 6.11 MeV peaks, respectively. Moreover, body potassium is determined independently by means of 40K measurement at a modified whole body counter facility. Appropriate corrections for animal body size and shape are applied. Mixed neutron and gamma radiation dosimetry was performed using a tissue-equivalent proportional counter. The facility described is a simple tool enabling us to perform in vivo analysis of the major body compartments of protein, bone mass, extra-cellular and intra-cellular space. It will be used to perform serial nutritional and metabolic studies in sets of small experimental animals under controlled conditions for an ethically accepted radiation dose and without the need to kill the animal. (author)

  14. Large-Nc operator analysis of 2-body meson-baryon counter terms in the chiral Lagrangian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chiral SU(3) Lagrangian with the baryon octet and decuplet fields is considered. The Q2 counter terms involving the decuplet fields are constructed. We derive the parameter correlation implied by the 1/Nc expansion at leading order in QCD.

  15. Nutrition Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  16. Three- and two-dimensional simulations of counter-propagating shear experiments at high energy densities at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Zhou, Ye; MacLaren, Stephan A.; Huntington, Channing M.; Raman, Kumar S.; Doss, Forrest W.; Flippo, Kirk A.

    2015-11-01

    Three- and two-dimensional numerical studies have been carried out to simulate recent counter-propagating shear flow experiments on the National Ignition Facility. A multi-physics three-dimensional, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code is used. Using a Reynolds Averaging Navier-Stokes model, we show that the evolution of the mixing layer width obtained from the simulations agrees well with that measured from the experiments. A sensitivity study is conducted to illustrate a 3D geometrical effect that could confuse the measurement at late times, if the energy drives from the two ends of the shock tube are asymmetric. Implications for future experiments are discussed.

  17. Needle counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needle counter had been devised by Geiger about 60 years ago before the present GM counter appeared. It is suitable for the detection of weak radiation because it is limited in effective volume, if the background due to mainly cosmic ray is proportional to the effective volume of the counter. Recently the very low β detector having a needle counter as the main detector has been developed. It showed highly excellent performance in the measurements of small area samples, about ten times sensitive as compared with other detectors. The counter is installed in the very low radiation measuring well at Nokogiriyama, Chiba Prefecture, using a NaI scintillator as its guard counter. D. H. Wilkinson first treated a gas amplification counter theoretically and quantitatively. The authors have obtained good results in the comparison with the experiments of the counter using a generalized form of Wilkinson theory. The findings obtained through this study seem to be applicable to the electrode arrangement which is important for the counter design. It was found that the excellent rise time of induced pulses in a gas amplification counter was achieved in larger amplification factor and smaller convolution effect. In the detection of charged particles with small obstructing capability such as γ ray, faster rise time and higher pulses can be obtained with needle counters than wire counters. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Study of the biodistribution and biokinetics of 165-dysprosium-ferric-hydroxide using the shadow-shield whole-body counter in the general hospital Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the whole-body counter at the Vienna General Hospital to the study of the biodistribution and biokinetics of 165Dy-DFH was investigated. Activity profiles of the four detectors allow the incorporated/injected radionuclide to be localized with an accuracy of ± 1 cm in the 3 coordinates. The main peak marks the position of the knee joint, the small peak on its right shows the position where a small amount of activity escaped . This small peak can be related to the anatomical structure. A rather high background is due to scattered rays. Based on data derived from phantom measurements, it is possible to determine the amount of activity applied and the exposure to non-target organs. The MIRDOSE II code was used to determine the energy dose in the organs. Radiation exposure of the patient whose urinary bladder has concentrated escaped activity can be reduced if the patients urinates immediately after the leakage was detected. The leakage of 165Dy-DFH out of the joint is negligible and radiation exposure due to the treatment is relatively low. The whole-body counter allows activity leakage to be detected with a considerably higher sensitivity than a gamma camera does. The biodistribution of 165Dy-DFH can be determined and leakage can be localized and related to the organs. (P.A.)

  19. Calibration of the IRD/CNEN whole-body counter unity for gamma-ray emitting radio-nuclides with energies greater than 200 KeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to calibrate the IRD Whole Body Counter Unit for γ-ray emitting radionuclides with energies greater than 200 KeV a fiber glass mannequin, filled with polyehylene bags containing radioactive solutions of known activity, was used. Solutions of Cs-137, Mn-54, Co-60, K-40 and Ra-228 were prepared. Each phanton was counted by a NaI(Tl) 8''x4'' for 1000 minutes using a whole body geometry. Detection efficiency and full width at half maximum curves were plotted as function of the energy and minimum detectable activity evaluations were performed in the region of the mentioned radionuclides for a counting time of 30 minutes. (author)

  20. Efficiency correction factors of an Accuscan whole-body counter due to the biodistribution of 134Cs, 137Cs and 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency calibration of whole-body counters (WBCs) for monitoring of internal contaminations is usually performed with anthropomorphic physical phantoms assuming homogeneous activity distribution. Besides the inherent limitations of these phantoms in resembling the human anatomy, they do not represent a realistic activity distribution, since in real situations each incorporated radionuclide has its particular biodistribution after entering the systemic circulation. Moreover, the activity content in the different organs and tissues comprising the biokinetics is time dependent. This work aims at assessing the whole-body counting efficiency deviations arising from considering a detailed voxel phantom instead of a standard physical phantom (BOMAB) and at evaluating the effect of the anatomical differences between both phantoms. It also aims at studying the efficiency considering the biodistribution of a set of radionuclides of interest incorporated in the scope of environmental and occupational exposures (inhalation and ingestion) and at computing the time-dependent efficiency correction factors to account for the biodistribution variation over time. For the purpose, Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed to simulate the whole-body counting efficiencies and biokinetic models were used to estimate the radionuclides' biokinetic behaviour in the human body after intake. The comparison between the efficiencies obtained with BOMAB and the voxel phantom showed deviations between 1.8 and 11.7 %, proving the adequacy of the BOMAB for WBC calibration. The obtained correction factors show that the effect of the biodistribution in the whole-body counting efficiency is more pronounced in cases of acute activity uptake and long-term retention in certain organs than in cases of homogeneous distribution in body tissues, for which the biokinetics influence can be neglected. This work further proves the powerful combination of MC simulation methods using voxel phantoms and

  1. The StandFast whole body counter: efficiency as a function of BOMAB phantom size and energy modeled by MCNP5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Capello, Kevin

    2007-03-01

    The StandFast whole body counter has been modeled using Monte Carlo simulations to examine the effect of phantom size, photon energy, and position of the phantom within the counting enclosure on the counting efficiency. The first geometry, the manufacturer's recommended positioning, was found to have the higher counting efficiencies and the most dependence on phantom size. The second position, where the phantom is at the back of the counting enclosure, had lower counting efficiencies, and hence higher minimum detectable activities, by a factor of between 1.3 to 2.1 when compared with the first geometry; however, for emergency response where accuracy is to be preferred over sensitivity, this geometry would be the better choice. A unified calibration equation was also developed for the StandFast so that it is possible to predict the counting efficiency as a function of photon energy and size to within 11%. PMID:17293701

  2. Seabuckthorn leaf extract (SBL-1) counters radiation damage by regulating time kinetics of apoptosis in jejunal crypts in total body 60Co-gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective properties of plant Hippophae rhamnoides L. (common name Seabuckthorn, family Eleagnaceae) were reported and treatment with SBL-1 (herbal preparation from Seabuckthorn leaves), before whole body exposure to 60Co-gamma-rays (10 Gy), rendered >90% survivors in mice population, while 100% mortality was observed in non-SBL-1 treated, 60Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) controls. Purpose of this study was to investigate the early as well as late modifying effects of SBL-1 on radiation induced apoptosis in jejunal crypts and m-RNA levels and protein levels of Bcl2 and Bax. A 30 day study was performed with 8-9 weeks old inbred male Swiss albino Strain 'A mice. Histology study was performed with jejunum to record the time dependent changes in the number of apoptotic cells in Crypts of Lieberkuhn; quantitative reverse polymerase chain reaction was performed to record the time kinetic of changes in m-RNA levels of BcI-2 and Bax genes. The changes in BcI-2 and Bax proteins were also recorded by western blotting. One time administration of SBL-1, prior to lethal whole body irradiation (10 Gy), significantly (p< 0.05) countered the radiation induced increases in cryptal apoptotic cells, Bax levels, and decrease in BcI-2 in a time dependent manner from 24 h till day 30. This study demonstrated that one of the underlying mechanisms of SBL-1 for countering radiation induced GI syndrome was by altering the time kinetics of apoptosis in cryptal cells; besides reducing the early damage. (author)

  3. Nutritional status, body composition and physical activity among older people living in residential care facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Maine

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to study, whether drinkable yoghurt enriched with probiotic bacteria could have any effect on constipation and body weight (BW) among older people with dementia. Further, it concerns poor nutritional status among older people with physical and cognitive impairments and its relationship with factors commonly occur in older people living in residential care facilities. It also discusses how body composition changes with ageing and the associations between cha...

  4. Whole-body counter survey results 4 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident in Minamisoma City, Fukushima

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Nomura, Shuhei; Nemoto, Tsuyoshi; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Hanai, Tatsuo; Kumemoto, Yuki; Kowata, Satoshi; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio

    2014-01-01

    Using the first WBC unit installed in Fukushima Prefecture after the accident, the radiocesium body burdens of 566 high-risk residents of Minamisoma city were measured in July 2011 at the Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital. The analysis of the data was challenging because this chair-type WBC unit did not have sufficient shielding against background gamma rays, and methods had to be developed to reliably compensate for the body-attenuated background radiation. Fortunately, data for repeated tests of hospital staff members using both the chair-type and well-shielded FASTSCAN WBC units, installed in September 2011, were available, and could be used to check the validity of the analysis. The CEDs of all subjects, estimated under the assumption of acute inhalation in March 2011, were found to be less than 1 mSv.

  5. Whole-body counter survey results 4 months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident in Minamisoma City, Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the first WBC unit installed in Fukushima Prefecture after the accident, the radiocesium body burdens of 566 high-risk residents of Minamisoma city were measured in July 2011 at the Minamisoma Municipal General Hospital. The analysis of the data was challenging because this chair-type, WBC unit, did not have sufficient shielding against background gamma rays and methods had to be developed to reliably compensate for the body-attenuated background radiation. Fortunately, data for repeated tests of hospital staff members using both the chair-type and well-shielded FASTSCAN WBC units, installed in September 2011, were available and could be used to check the validity of the analysis. The CEDs of all subjects, estimated under the assumption of acute inhalation in March 2011, were found to be less than 1 mSv. (paper)

  6. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayano, R. S.; Tsubokura, M.; Miyazaki, M.; Ozaki, A.; Shimada, Y.; Kambe, T.; Nemoto, T.; Oikawa, T.; Kanazawa, Y.; Nihei, M.; Sakuma, Y.; Shimmura, H.; Akiyama, J.; Tokiwa, M.

    2015-10-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole-body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2707 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for 137Cs were ≤3.5 Bq kg-1 for ages 0-1, decreasing to ≤2 Bq kg-1 for ages 10-11. Including the 134Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of ∼16 μSv y-1 even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families' food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. The data show, however, no correlation between consumption of locally produced food and water and the children's body burdens.

  7. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BABYSCAN, a whole-body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2707 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for 137Cs were ≤3.5 Bq kg-1 for ages 0-1, decreasing to ≤2 Bq kg-1 for ages 10-11. Including the 134Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of ∼16 μSv y-1 even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families' food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. The data show, however, no correlation between consumption of locally produced food and water and the children's body burdens. (author)

  8. Review and assessment of nuclear facilities by the regulatory body. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide recommendations for regulatory bodies on reviewing and assessing the various safety related submissions made by the operator of a nuclear facility at different stages (siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning or closure) in the facility's lifetime to determine whether the facility complies with the applicable safety objectives and requirements. This Safety Guide covers the review and assessment of submissions in relation to the safety of nuclear facilities such as: enrichment and fuel manufacturing plants. Nuclear power plants. Other reactors such as research reactors and critical assemblies. Spent fuel reprocessing plants. And facilities for radioactive waste management, such as treatment, storage and disposal facilities. This Safety Guide also covers issues relating to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the closure of waste disposal facilities and site rehabilitation. Objectives, management, planning and organizational matters relating to the review and assessment process are presented in Section 2. Section 3 deals with the bases for decision making and conduct of the review and assessment process. Section 4 covers aspects relating to the assessment of this process. The Appendix provides a generic list of topics to be covered in the review and assessment process

  9. Measurements of Cs 137 and Cs 134 internal contamination during 1987 by the Bologna Enea PAS whole body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal contamination data obtained during 1987 at the ENEA PAS-FIBI- AEROSOL Laboratory in Bologna, following the accident at the nuclear reactor in Chernobyl, are presented. The data are referred to person living in the Bologna area, in other Italian regions and to individuals returned from abroad, mainly from Eastern Europe countries. Trend of Cs-137 and Cs-134 internal body burden in adult men resident in Bologna are given together with values of mean daily intake by ingestion and evaluation of the commited dose equivalents up to decembre 1987. Measurement campaigns, specifically projected in order to evaluate the men/women activity differences and the distribution of the internal contamination in various Italian regions, have been performed

  10. Calibration of the holy body counter of IRD for in vivo measurements of Pb-210 in bone and pulmonary tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its decay products are present in the atmosphere and are the most important contributors for the internal exposure of the humans to natural radiation. The execution of in vivo measurements of lead-210 in the population and in individuals occupationally exposed in underground mines has been studied and recommended as one of the procedures for the estimation of the exposure to Rn-222. The metabolism of Pb-210 and its distribution within the human body, mainly deposited in the bone tissue, suggests the regions of skull and knee as the most suitable for the in vivo monitoring of such a radionuclide. These regions of the body present a high concentration of bone and little cross contribution from other organs. The chest monitoring is useful to estimate recent incorporations of radon decay products by inhalation, which is the main exposure pattern. This type of measurement should be carried out inside a heavy shielded room and with a detection system of high sensitivity and resolution in order to reach the low detection limits required for this application. The calibration of the detection system requires the use of anthropomorphic phantoms of skull, knee and lungs. The calibration consists on the determination of efficiency factors used to convert the count rates in the region of Pb-210 (46.5 keV) into an activity value in Bequerels. This way it is possible to determine the activity of Pb-210 in each of the organs and tissues of interest of the individual monitored in order to estimate the internal individual exposure to radon progeny. (author)

  11. Scintillation counter based radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average human exposure per year is about 240mrem which is come from Radon and human body and terrestrial and cosmic radiation and man-made source. Specially radiation exposure through air from environmental radiation sources is 80mrem/yr(= 0.01mR/hr) which come from Terrestrial and cosmic radiation. Radiation dose is defined as energy deposit/mass. There are two major methods to detect radiation. First method is the energy integration using Air equivalent material like GM counter wall material. Second method is the spectrum to dose conversion method using NaI(Tl), HPGe. These two methods are using generally to detect radiation. But these methods are expensive. So we need new radiation detection method. The research purpose is the development of economical environmental radiation dosimeter. This system consists of Plastic/Inorganic scintillator and Si photo-diode based detector and counting based circuitry. So count rate(cps) can be convert to air exposure rate(R/hr). There are three major advantages in this system. First advantages is no high voltage power supply like GM counter. Second advantage is simple electronics. Simple electronics system can be achieved by Air-equivalent scintillation detector with Al filter for the same detection efficiency vs E curve. From former two advantages, we can know the most important advantages of the this system. Third advantage is economical system. The price of typical GM counter is about $1000. But the price of our system is below $100 because of plastic scintillator and simple electronics. The role of scintillation material is emitting scintillation which is the flash of light produced in certain materials when they absorb ionizing radiation. Plastic scintillator is organic scintillator which is kind of hydrocarbons. The special point are cheap price, large size production(∼ton), moderate light output, fast light emission(ns). And the role of Al filter is equalizing counting efficiency of air and scintillator for

  12. Whole-body counter surveys of over 2700 babies and small children in and around Fukushima Prefecture 33 to 49 months after the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, Ryugo S; Miyazaki, Makoto; Ozaki, Akihiko; Shimada, Yuki; Kambe, Toshiyuki; Nemoto, Tsuyoshi; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kanazawa, Yukio; Nihei, Masahiko; Sakura, Yu; Shimmura, Hiroaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Tokiwa, Michio

    2015-01-01

    BABYSCAN, a whole body counter (WBC) for small children was developed in 2013, and units have been installed at three hospitals in Fukushima Prefecture. Between December, 2013 and March, 2015, 2702 children between the ages of 0 and 11 have been scanned, and none had detectable levels of radioactive cesium. The minimum detectable activities (MDAs) for $^{137}$Cs were $\\leq 3.5$ Bq kg$^{-1}$ for ages 0-1, decreasing to $\\leq 2$ Bq kg$^{-1}$ for ages 10-11. Including the $^{134}$Cs contribution, these translate to a maximum committed effective dose of $\\sim 16 \\mu$Sv y$^{-1}$ even for newborn babies, and therefore the internal exposure risks can be considered negligibly small. Analysis of the questionnaire filled out by the parents of the scanned children regarding their families' food and water consumption revealed that the majority of children residing in the town of Miharu regularly consume local or home-grown rice and vegetables, while in Minamisoma, a majority avoid tap water and produce from Fukushima. Th...

  13. Facile synthesis of porous CuS film as a high efficient counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yibing; Lin, Yu; Wu, Jihuai; Zhang, Xiaolong; Fang, Biaopeng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, porous CuS film has been successfully prepared by a facile method and employed as a counter electrode (CE) in quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) for its highest catalytic activity. This CuS thin film was deposited on FTO substrate via spin coating process which is simple to operate, and its electrochemical properties were further studied by EIS and Tafel measurement. With the cycling time of depositing CuS up to 8, it displays high electrocatalytic activity toward polysulfide reduction, rationalizing the improved QDSSCs performance. Using the CdS/CdSe-sensitized QDSSCs, the cells exhibit improved short-circuit photocurrent density ( J sc) and fill factor (FF), achieving solar cell conversion efficiency ( η) as high as 5.60 % under AM 1.5 illumination of 100 mW cm-2. This work provides a novel and simple method for the preparation of CEs, which could be utilized in other metal sulfides CEs for QDSSCs.

  14. Low-density lipoprotein turnover studies in man. Evaluation of the integrated rate equations method, use of a whole-body radioactivity counter, and the problem of partial denaturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The turnover of low-density lipoprotein, density 1.031-1.056 kg/l, was studied in five normal subjects and in four subjects with hyperlipoproteinaemia, using a tracer low-density lipoprotein labelled in the protein moiety with 131I. Data derived with and without a whole-body radioactivity counter. was analysed Four models were used, including the integrated rate equations of Nosslin. In most patients all methods gave similar results for the fractional catabolic rate. Use of the integrated rate equations allowed calculation of the fractional catabolic rate in 3-5 days compared with 12 days for a multicompartmental method using plasma activity alone. The integrated rate equations method was valid only in a steady metabolic state, and could apparently be used when there was minor tracer denaturation. It was probably invalid when there was major partial tracer denaturation. The degree of partial denaturation could be estimated from the whole-body radioactivity graph. The whole-body counter was quick to use, required low levels of radioactivity and avoided error-prone urine collection. Estimates of the relative size of the intravascular and extravascular compartments derived by five different methods were similar in studies in which there was insignificant denaturation of tracer. (author)

  15. Facile, substrate-scale growth of mono- and few-layer homogeneous MoS2 films on Mo foils with enhanced catalytic activity as counter electrodes in DSSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelou, Aspasia; Syrrokostas, George; Sygellou, Lamprini; Leftheriotis, George; Dracopoulos, Vassileios; Yannopoulos, Spyros N.

    2016-01-01

    The growth of MoS2 films by sulfurization of Mo foils at atmospheric pressure is reported. The growth procedure provides, in a controlled way, mono- and few-layer thick MoS2 films with substrate-scale uniformity across square-centimeter area on commercial foils without any pre- or post-treatment. The prepared few-layer MoS2 films are investigated as counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by assessing their ability to catalyse the reduction of I3 - to I- in triiodide redox shuttles. The dependence of the MoS2 catalytic activity on the number of monolayers is explored down to the bilayer thickness, showing performance similar to that of, and stability against corrosion better than, Pt-based nanostructured film. The DSSC with the MoS2-Mo counter electrode yields a photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency of 8.4%, very close to that of the Pt-FTO-based DSSC, i.e. 8.7%. The current results disclose a facile, cost-effective and green method for the fabrication of mechanically robust and chemically stable, few-layer MoS2 on flexible Mo substrates and further demonstrate that efficient counter electrodes for DSSCs can be prepared at thicknesses down to the 1-2 nm scale.

  16. Training the staff of the regulatory body for nuclear facilities: A competency framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainties about the future of nuclear power in many countries, the ageing of the existing work force, and the consequential lack of interest of new professionals to engage in the nuclear field represent developments of major current international concern. The situation is compounded by the great reduction in higher education opportunities in the field of nuclear engineering and the elimination of nuclear engineering departments and research reactors in many universities and the loss of nuclear research facilities generally. Competence of regulatory staff is one of the prerequisites for the safety of nuclear facilities in the IAEA Member States. Recruitment of competent regulatory staff is difficult in many countries. Also, replacement of retiring staff members requires active efforts from the management of regulatory bodies for establishing staff qualification and training programmes. International support is needed in this domain. In 2000, the General Conference resolution GC(44)IRES/13 on education and training in radiation protection, nuclear safety and waste management urged the secretariat to 'strengthen, within available financial resources, its current efforts in this area' Several elements required for the implementation of the above resolution are already in place. A strategy paper on training in nuclear, radiation and waste safety, including specialized training courses for specific target groups, has been developed at the IAEA. The international working group on training and qualification recommended in its March meeting in 2000 that a technical document be produced on good training practices of regulatory bodies with advanced training programmes. Such a technical document would be of considerable value to many bodies. The technical document would address how training programmes for regulatory staff have been developed and implemented and include examples of training currently available. Of particular interest to regulatory agencies that have

  17. Implementation of ISO 28218 quality system in the laboratory of body radioactivity counter CIEMAT; Implementacion de la norma ISO 28218 en el sistema de calidad del laboratorio del contador de radiactividad corporal del CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Amaro, J. F.; Perez Lopez, B.; Lopez Ponte, M. A.; Perez Jimenez, C.

    2011-07-01

    The laboratory of body radioactivity counter has implemented IS0 28218 standard Performance Criteria for Radio bioassay in all measured in vivo techniques of internal contamination in the human organism in monitoring programs defined by the Personal Dosimetry Service Internal CIEMAT. The application of this rule in the laboratory's quality system is essential to meet the technical requirements of the standard IS0/IEC 17025 with the purpose of obtaining ENAC accreditation as a testing laboratory and calibration within the framework of the accreditation of Service CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  19. Practical methods for the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ; Metodos practicos para la evaluacion del comportamiento del sistema contador de cuerpo entero Accuscan II del ININ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M. M.; Ramirez J, F. J.; Mondragon C, L., E-mail: mercedes.alfaro@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Touca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The whole body counter system Accuscan II of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), was designed and built to quantify and to measure radionuclides fission product as well as gamma emitters, with a maximum sensibility of less than 10 n Ci for cobalt 60 at one time of counting of 5 minutes. The system has two detectors of Ge(Hp) with Beryllium window to a relative efficiency of 25% in a counting configuration of vertical scanning, this configuration gives a plane response of constant efficiency. In this work some practical methods developed in the Internal Dosimetry Laboratory to carry out the functioning evaluation of the whole body counter system Accuscan II of the ININ are described. With the obtained results of this evaluation we can decide fine adjustments will be necessary for the optimization of the equipment operation. The evaluation of this equipment was especially necessary, due to its 21 years-old antiquity and for the gradual changes that has in its functioning. The equipment is intrinsically a gamma spectrometry system and some described experiences could be applied too in other gamma spectrometry systems. (Author)

  20. SBL-1 treatment before total body irradiation countered radiation induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and histological changes in jejunum of conditioned rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in experimental rats is considered to be parallel to behavioural changes (nausea and vomiting) in humans. There is a need to develop medical countermeasures which can counter the radiation induced nausea and vomiting. The standardized radioprotective preparation from leaves of Hippophae rhamnoides (Seabuckthorn, SBL-1) was also demonstrated to counter 60Co γ-irradiation (2 Gy) induced CTA in experimental Sprague-Dawley rats. This study investigated the time dependent changes in oxidative stress, DNA damage (γH2AX assay) and histology of rats jejunum in SBL-1 (12 mg/kg b.w., i.p, ∼ 30 min) treated irradiated rats and compared it with the non SBL-1 treated irradiated rats. In comparison to untreated controls (DC), the irradiated animals showed significant increase (p<0.05) in levels of nitric oxide (NOx), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and γH2AX foci at 5 h and malondialdehyde (MDA) at 24 h; but decrease in total thiols (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); villi and crypt numbers per circumference as well as villi and crypt lengths at 5 h. The treatment with SBL-1 prior to irradiation countered the radiation induced increase in levels of MDA, NOx, LDH and γH2AX foci; decrease in GSH, SOD and CAT; villi and crypt numbers per circumference and villi and crypt lengths at 5 h. In irradiated group, on day 5 the levels of MDA, NOx, LDH, GSH, SOD and γH2AX foci were not different than UC but significant decrease persisted in levels of CAT, number of villi and crypts, and also villi length. In SBL-1 treated irradiated group, on day 5, there was significant reduction in MDA levels (p<0.05); increase of SOD levels to match the UC; the increase of villi and crypt numbers/circumference by 15-20%, in comparison to irradiated animals. The observations indicated that SBL-1 could counter the radiation induced oxidative stress, DNA damage and changes in tissue histology within 5 h. This may have been an important reason for

  1. 21 CFR 870.5225 - External counter-pulsating device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External counter-pulsating device. 870.5225... counter-pulsating device. (a) Identification. An external counter-pulsating device is a noninvasive device used to assist the heart by applying positive or negative pressure to one or more of the body's...

  2. Scintillation counter, segmented shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  3. Feasibility Assessment of an ISS Artificial Gravity Conditioning Facility by Means of Multi-Body Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim

    2012-07-01

    Even though human exploration of Mars is a distant objective, it is well understood that, for human space voyages of several years duration, crews would be at risk of catastrophic consequences should any of the systems that provide adequate air, water, food, or thermal protection fail. Moreover, crews will face serious health and/or safety risks resulting from severe physiologic deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The principal ones are related to physical and functional deterioration of the regulation of the blood circulation, decreased aerobic capacity, impaired musculo-skeletal systems, and altered sensory- motor system performance. As the reliance of future space programmes on virtual modelling, simulation and justification has substantially grown together with the proto-flight hardware development approach, a range of simulation capabilities have become increasingly important in the requirements specification, design, verification, testing, launch and operation of new space systems. In this frame, multibody software is a key tool in providing a more coordinated and consistent approach from the preliminary development phases of the most complex systems. From a scientific prospective, an artificial gravity facility, such as the one evaluated in this paper, would be the first in-flight testing of the effectiveness and acceptability of short radius centrifuge as a countermeasure to human deconditioning on orbit. The ISS represents a unique opportunity to perform this research. From an engineering point of view, the preliminary assessment described in this paper, highlights the difficult engineering challenges of such a facility. The outcome proves that a human can be accommodated in the available volume, while respecting the human ergonomic basic requirements and preserving the global structural integrity of the hosting ISS module. In particular, analysis shows that, although the load capacity of the structural interfaces imposes a very low

  4. Evaluation of the minimum detectable activity of whole body and thyroid counters at in vivo monitoring laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance in whole-body measurement includes quality control with procedure descriptions, detector calibrations, instrument control and evaluation internally or by outside persons. The In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory (LMIV) of Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) provides an estimate of activity, in the body, by direct measure of whole body or thyroid content in occupationally exposed workers. LMIV has two NaI(Tl) detectors of 8x4'' and 2x2'' respectively, to carry out the whole-body and thyroid monitoring, respectively. The system calibration was carried out with 152Eu, 241Am and 60Co sources positioned within Alderson Research Labs., anthropomorphic phantom. Minimum detectable activity and critical level values for nuclides of interest were determined, since these values are an indication of the sensitivity of the detection system. The background measures were obtained from the first monitoring of some workers, blank measures. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. (author)

  5. Controls of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides performed whole-body counter measures on children's population from Bjelorussia, Russia and Ucraina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results obtained in 9 measurement campaigns, performed at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Bologna and Roma-Casaccia from April 1991 to September 1992, for the assessment of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides. Homogeneous samples were selected for the controls, each one representing the children's population from given area. 15 areas were investigated and 24 examined; 20 of them were from Bjelorussia. 266 children, 124 male and 142 female subjects, were controlled. The instruments were intercalibrated according to the body size, from 20.25 kg to 81 kg. Body contamination only from 137Cs and 134Cs was detected. Evaluations were performed in order to test appropriate use of ICRP caesium biokynetic model for children aged 8 to 15 years. Statistical distribution of body activity data were carefully analyzed. It is demonstrated that the data are well fitted by lognormal distribution and a difference between sexes in terms of activity. A significant difference between sexes was found in terms of activity intake

  6. FLEXIBLE GEIGER COUNTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, H.G.; Gillespie, A.S. Jr.

    1963-11-12

    A flexible Geiger counter constructed from materials composed of vinyl chloride polymerized with plasticizers or co-polymers is presented. The counter can be made either by attaching short segments of corrugated plastic sleeving together, or by starting with a length of vacuum cleaner hose composed of the above materials. The anode is maintained substantially axial Within the sleeving or hose during tube flexing by means of polystyrene spacer disks or an easily assembled polyethylene flexible cage assembly. The cathode is a wire spiraled on the outside of the counter. The sleeving or hose is fitted with glass end-pieces or any other good insulator to maintain the anode wire taut and to admit a counting gas mixture into the counter. Having the cathode wire on the outside of the counter substantially eliminates the objectional sheath effect of prior counters and permits counting rates up to 300,000 counts per minute. (AEC)

  7. Whole body counter assessment of internal radiocontamination in patients with end-stage renal disease living in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster: a retrospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmura, Hiroaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Kato, Shigeaki; Akiyama, Junichi; Nomura, Shuhei; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Tokiwa, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess internal radiocontamination of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were regularly taking haemodialysis (HD) and living in areas affected by the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant after the Great East Japan earthquake on 11 March 2011. Methods Internal radiocontamination in 111 patients with ESRD regularly taking HD at Jyoban Hospital in Iwaki city, Fukushima from July 2012 to November 2012 was assessed with a whole body counter (WBC). The maximum annual effective dose was calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels. Interviews concerning patient dietary preferences and outdoor activities were also conducted. Results Among the 111 patients tested, internal radiocontamination with Cs-137 was detected in two participants, but the levels were marginal and just exceeded the detection limit (250 Bq/body). The tentatively calculated maximum annual effective dose ranged from 0.008 to 0.009 mSv/year, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Relative to 238 non-ESRD participants, patients with ERSD had significantly more opportunities to consume locally grown produce that was not distributed to the market (pFukushima nuclear plant. Although HD is suggested to promote Cs-137 excretion, continuous inspection of locally grown produce together with WBC screening for radiocontamination should be continued for patients with ESRD regularly taking HD. PMID:26644125

  8. Evaluation of the minimum detectable activity of whole-body and thyroid counters of the in vivo monitoring laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality assurance in whole-body measurement includes quality control with procedure descriptions, detector calibrations, instrument control and evaluation internally or by outside persons. The In Vivo Monitoring Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP (LMIV) provides a direct way activity measure of internally incorporated radionuclides in occupationally exposed workers. LMIV has two NaI(Tl) of 8x4'' and 2x2'' to perform the monitoring of whole-body and thyroid, respectively. The acquisition and analysis software was Genie2000 3.2, Canberra. The system calibration was carried out with Eu-152, Am-241 and Co-60 sources positioned within Alderson Research Labs. anthropomorphic phantom. Minimum detectable activity (MDA) and critical level (Lc) values for nuclides of interest were determined, since these values are an indication of the sensitivity of the detection system. The background counts were obtained from the first monitoring of some workers, blank measurements. The concepts adopted in the HPS N13.30 Standard and proposed in ISO documents for standardization were used for activity measurements. (author)

  9. Oscillatory counter-centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shujing; Nadim, Ali

    2016-02-01

    In ordinary centrifugation, a suspended particle that is heavier than the displaced fluid migrates away from the rotation axis when the fluid-filled container rotates steadily about that axis. In contrast a particle that is lighter than the displaced fluid (e.g., a bubble) migrates toward the rotation axis in a centrifuge. In this paper, we show theoretically that if a fluid-filled container rotates in an oscillatory manner as a rigid body about an axis, at high enough oscillation frequencies, the sense of migration of suspended particles is reversed. That is, in that case particles denser than the fluid migrate inward, while those that are lighter than the fluid move outward. We term this unusual phenomenon "Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation" or OCC, for short. Through application of the method of averaging to the equations of motion, we derive a simple criterion to predict the occurrence of OCC. The analysis also reveals that the time-average of the Coriolis force in the radial direction is the term that is responsible for this effect. In addition, we analyze the effects of the Basset history force and the Rubinow-Keller lift force on particle trajectories and find that OCC persists even when these forces are active. The phenomenon awaits experimental verification.

  10. The first CEDAR counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1976-01-01

    The first differential Cerenkov counter with chromatic corrections (called CEDAR) successfully tested at the PS in July 75. These counters were used in the SPS hadronic beams for particle identification. Some of the eight photomultipliers can be seen: they receive the light reflected back through the annular diaphragm. René Maleyran stands on the left.

  11. Facilities management: Structuring a body of knowledge for continuing and tertiary education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Hauptfleisch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally the development of property and infrastructure, being part of the creation of  fixed investment and wealth, is taking place unabated. In support of this process is a multitude of highly skilled built environment professionals such as engineers, architects, quantity surveyors, construction managers, town and regional planners, land surveyors, etc. The absence of a universally acknowledged profession of the same standing, designated to manage and optimise the utilisation of the ever-compounding  fixed investments in the products of the collective built environment (buildings, engineering structures and infrastructure, is observed. In practice it manifests itself in the attempts, by the previously mentioned professionals and others, to cast themselves into the role of facilities managers. Of concern is the resultant diverse group of “facilities management” practitioners, sometimes without basic built environment education, often lacking any noteworthy specialised education or experience. For obvious reasons, the more developed a country, the more evident it becomes that a specific facilities management profession is taking root and is practised at various managerial levels. The term “facilities management” reportedly came into use in the United States of America during the 1970’s when a Facility Management Institute was founded in the USA and the first known formal symposium was held in Washington DC in 1989. Although perhaps lacking some of the prestige associated with other professions, there are reasons to believe that facilities management is in the process of becoming a driving force, not only in the scientific management and optimisation of fixed assets, but as a knowledge-based initiator of development in the built environment. The lack of a highly developed facilities management profession manifests itself in the alarming rate at which infrastructure and buildings are deteriorating in South Africa. This situation

  12. STIDP: A U.S. Department of Homeland Security program for countering explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudson, Christa K.; Kemp, Michael C.; Lombardo, Nicholas J.

    2009-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Standoff Technology Integration and Demonstration Program is designed to accelerate the development and integration of technologies, concepts of operations, and training to defeat explosives attacks at large public events and mass transit facilities. The program will address threats posed by suicide bombers, vehicle-borne improvised explosive devices, and leave-behind bombs. The program is focused on developing and testing explosives countermeasure architectures using commercial off-the-shelf and near-commercial standoff and remotely operated detection technologies in prototypic operational environments. An important part of the program is the integration of multiple technologies and systems to protect against a wider range of threats, improve countermeasure performance, increase the distance from the venue at which screening is conducted, and reduce staffing requirements. The program will routinely conduct tests in public venues involving successively more advanced technology, higher levels of system integration, and more complex scenarios. This paper describes the initial field test of an integrated countermeasure system that included infrared, millimeter-wave, and video analytics technologies for detecting person-borne improvised explosive devices at a public arena. The test results are being used to develop a concept for the next generation of integrated countermeasures, to refine technical and operational requirements for architectures and technologies, and engage industry and academia in solution development.

  13. A Neutron Rem Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron detector is described which measures the neutron dose rate in rem/h independently of the energy of the neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV. The detector consists of a BF3 proportional counter surrounded by a shield made of polyethylene and boron plastic that gives the appropriate amount of moderation and absorption to the impinging neutrons to obtain rem response. Two different versions have been developed. One model can utilize standard BF3 counters and is suitable for use in installed monitors around reactors and accelerators and the other model is specially designed for use in a portable survey instrument. The neutron rem counter for portable instruments has a sensitivity of 2.4 cps/mrem/h and is essentially nondirectional in response. With correct bias setting the counter is insensitive to gamma exposure up to 200 r/h from Co-60

  14. A large Cerenkov counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The photo shows the vertex Cerenkov counter C0 back side (with 12 mirrors) of the NA9 experiment. On foreground are members of the team (CERN and Wuppertal Uni), Salvo .., Manfred Poetsch, ..., Jocelyn Thadome, Helmut Braun, Heiner Brueck.

  15. Design of Reversible Counter

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Selim Al Mamun; B. K. Karmaker

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a research work on the design and synthesis of sequential circuits and flip-flops that are available in digital arena; and describes a new synthesis design of reversible counter that is optimized in terms of quantum cost, delay and garbage outputs compared to the existing designs. We proposed a new model of reversible T flip-flop in designing reversible counter.

  16. Compressor surge counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castleberry, Kimberly N.

    1983-01-01

    A surge counter for a rotating compressor is provided which detects surging by monitoring the vibration signal from an accelerometer mounted on the shaft bearing of the compressor. The circuit detects a rapid increase in the amplitude envelope of the vibration signal, e.g., 4 dB or greater in less than one second, which is associated with a surge onset and increments a counter. The circuit is rendered non-responsive for a period of about 5 seconds following the detection which corresponds to the duration of the surge condition. This prevents multiple registration of counts during the surge period due to rapid swings in vibration amplitude during the period.

  17. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  18. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  19. Scintillation counter, maximum gamma aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into radiation-responsive areas. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (U.S.)

  20. Microchip Coulter particle counter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ulrik Darling; Blankenstein, Gert; Branebjerg, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a micro device employing the Coulter principle for counting and sizing of living cells and particles in liquid suspension. The microchip Coulter particle counter (μCPC) has been employed in a planar silicon structure covered with glass, which enables detailed observation during...

  1. Silica aerogel Cherenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A practical method for making silica aerogel Cherenkov counters has been developed at KEK, and some tests were performed to evaluate the performance of the counters. The method for making silica aerogel with refractive index between 1.01 and 1.06 is explained in detail. Chemical reaction with methanol, pressure and temperature conditions, and the structure of the autoclave are described together with the whole process. About 20 l aerogel is now produced per week at KEK. The dimensions of the aerogel module is 200 x 100 x 300 mm3. The aerogel with refractive index larger than 1.06 is produced from the aerogel with refractive index 1.06 by heating it up to about 900 deg C. The refractive index can be controlled by the temperature and duration of heating. Refractive index in relation to these conditions is listed in a table. However, the dispersion of the index is about ten times as large as that for the aerogel with lower index (<1.06). The wave length dependence of the transmission length of light for the aerogel was measured and compared with other data obtained at various laboratories. The performance of the counter was evaluated through the experiment with π beam. Average number of photoelectrons gathered is plotted in relation to momentum. It is deduced from the experiment that the saturation thickness of the aerogel is about 10 cm. Two examples of the practical use of the aerogel counter at KEK are also shortly described. (Aoki, K.)

  2. A dual-detector extended range rem-counter

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarini, M; Silari, M; Agosteo, S

    2010-01-01

    The design and characterization of a dual-detector spherical rem counter is discussed in this paper. The rem counter is based on a polythene sphere with lead and cadmium insets, designed to host at its centre either an active (He-3 SP9 proportional counter) or a passive (CR39 + B-10 radiator) thermal neutron detector. Its sensitivity ranges from thermal energies up to 1 GeV. A Monte Carlo characterization of this dual-detector rem counter has shown no significant change in the shape of the response curve obtained with the two detectors. The rem counter has been calibrated with a Pu-Be source. An intercomparison in a high-energy neutron field has been carried out at the CERF facility at CERN among the rem counter in the two configurations, two commercial units and the original version of the active LINUS in use at CERN. Both the active and passive versions of the rem counter agree, within the statistical uncertainties, with the CERN LINUS and with the facility reference values. Both versions of the instrument ...

  3. Aerogel threshold Cherenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of studying the SiO2 aerogel properties, used as radiator for the Cherenkov counters are presented. Brief data on the technology of preparing the aerogel samples and their optical characteristics are indicated. The formula binding the aerogel refractive index with its density with an account of light dispersion is analyzed. The results of the Cherenkov aerogel threshold counter testing on the charged particles beam within the pulse range of p = ∼ 0.4-2.5 eV/s are presented. The registration efficiency of pions with p ≥ 1 GeV/s constituted ∼ 97% and that of protons - ∼ 4% by the p ≤ 2.5 GeV/s

  4. Holography without Counter Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Ahn, Byoungjoon; Kim, Kyung Kiu; Park, Sang-A; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    By using the scaling symmetry in the reduced action formalism, we obtain novel Smarr-like relations for anti-de-Sitter planar black holes, which have useful information in the condensed matter systems through the AdS/CMT correspondence. By using our results, we propose another way to obtain the holographically renormalized on-shell action without counter terms. We find the complete consistency of our results with those in various models discussed in the recent literatures and obtain new implications.

  5. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs

  7. Electromagnetic shower counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The octogonal block of lead glass is observed by eight photomultiplier tubes. Four or five such counters, arranged in succession, are used on each arm of the bispectrometer in order to detect heavy particles of the same family as those recently observed at Brookhaven and SLAC. They provide a means of identifying electrons. The arrangement of eight lateral photomultiplier tubes offers an efficient means of collecting the photons produced in the showers and determining, with a high resolution, the energy of the incident electrons. The total width at half-height is less than 6.9% for electrons having an energy of 1 GeV.

  8. Performance of Scintillator Counters with Silicon Photomultiplier Readout

    OpenAIRE

    Mu2e Collaboration Cosmic Ray Veto Group; Artikov, A.; Baranov, V.; Chokheli, D.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Dukes, E. C.; Ehrlich, R.; Francis, K; Frank, M J; Glagolev, V.; Group, R. C.; Hansen, S.; Hocker, A.; Oksuzian, Y.; Rubinov, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of scintillator counters with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers has been measured in the Fermilab Meson Test Beam Facility using 120 GeV protons. The counters were extruded with a titanium dioxide surface coating and two channels for fibers at the Fermilab NICADD facility. Each fiber end is read out by a 2*2 mm^2 silicon photomultiplier. The signals were amplified and digitized by a custom-made front-end electronics board. Combinations of 5*2 cm^2 and 6*2 cm^2 extrusion prof...

  9. The development and medical applications of a simple facility for partial body in vivo neutron activation analysis using californium-252 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and cheap facility for partial body neutron activation analysis has been designed, based on the use of two 100 μg 252Cf neutron sources. The results reported show that calcium can be measured in parts of the body such as the tibia with a precision as good as +- 1.6 % for a radiation dose of 2 rem. The uniformity of the thermal neutron flux density is better than +- 3 % over 10 cm. Some applications of this irradiation facility for studies of trace elements, in particular cadmium in liver and aluminium in liver or brain, have also been explored. However, the sensitivity attainable is not yet sufficient for the study of normal levels, but could be of interest in toxicological investigations

  10. A track ion counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to measure the frequency of production of ions in a gas is described. The characteristics of a device, which is named a track ion counter, are presented. The counter consists of two cylindrical volumes separated by a diaphragm with 500μm dia. orifice. The device is connected to an oil diffusion pump with high pumping speed. The gas flow through the orifice determines the pressure in the upper and the lower volumes of the device. The positive ions produced in a cylindrical volume above an orifice by charged particles traversing that volume move in a constant electric field. Some of these ions passing through the orifice are accelerated and detected by an electron multiplier. The absolute efficiency of ions detection from the domain above the orifice have been determined. The measurements were carried out for single charged ions of N2, H2, CH4, CO2. The preliminary measurements of the frequency of ions created within cylindrical gas domain equivalent to 0.15nm dia. and 7.6nm height tissue cylinder are reported

  11. CFD Simulation on the J-2X Engine Exhaust in the Center-Body Diffuser and Spray Chamber at the B-2 Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Wey, Thomas; Buehrle, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code is used to simulate the J-2X engine exhaust in the center-body diffuser and spray chamber at the Spacecraft Propulsion Facility (B-2). The CFD code is named as the space-time conservation element and solution element (CESE) Euler solver and is very robust at shock capturing. The CESE results are compared with independent analysis results obtained by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) and show excellent agreement.

  12. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2010-03-30

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  13. Space and power efficient hybrid counters array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Salapura, Valentina

    2009-05-12

    A hybrid counter array device for counting events. The hybrid counter array includes a first counter portion comprising N counter devices, each counter device for receiving signals representing occurrences of events from an event source and providing a first count value corresponding to a lower order bits of the hybrid counter array. The hybrid counter array includes a second counter portion comprising a memory array device having N addressable memory locations in correspondence with the N counter devices, each addressable memory location for storing a second count value representing higher order bits of the hybrid counter array. A control device monitors each of the N counter devices of the first counter portion and initiates updating a value of a corresponding second count value stored at the corresponding addressable memory location in the second counter portion. Thus, a combination of the first and second count values provide an instantaneous measure of number of events received.

  14. Counter-Learning under Oppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukaydin, Ilhan

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study utilized the method of narrative analysis to explore the counter-learning process of an oppressed Kurdish woman from Turkey. Critical constructivism was utilized to analyze counter-learning; Frankfurt School-based Marcusian critical theory was used to analyze the sociopolitical context and its impact on the oppressed. Key…

  15. A plastic scintillation counter prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new prototype device for beta-ray measurement, a plastic scintillation counter, was assembled as an alternative device to liquid scintillation counters. This device uses plastic scintillation sheets (PS sheets) as a sample applicator without the use of a liquid scintillator. The performance was evaluated using tritium labeled compounds, and good linearity was observed between the activity and net count rate. The calculated detection limit of the device was 0.01 Bq mL−1 after 10 h measurement for 2 mL sample. - Highlights: • A new device of plastic scintillation counter was developed to measure beta emitters. • High sensitivity with low detection limit was performed for a tritium compound. • A detection limit of tritium was 0.01 Bq mL−1 for a 10 h measurement. • A plastic scintillation counter generated no radioactive organic waste fluid. • A plastic scintillation counter could analyze qualitatively and quantitatively

  16. A high resolution Timing Counter for the MEG II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gerone, M.; Bevilacqua, A.; Biasotti, M.; Boca, G.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Gatti, F.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Pizzigoni, G.; Rossella, M.; Shibata, N.; Siccardi, F.; Simonetta, M.; Uchiyama, Y.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-07-01

    The development of a Timing Counter detector designed for the MEGII upgrade of the MEG experiment, which strives to improve the sensitivity on the μ+ →e+ γ decay of an order of magnitude, is presented. It is based on two sets of counters (sectors) arranged on a semi-cylindrical structure; each sector consists of 256 counters. Each counter consists of tile of fast scintillator with a dual-side read-out based on SiPM arrays in series connection. The high granularity has two advantages: optimized size for achieving high resolution (75 ps) for the single counter, and a signal e+ crosses several counters, so that resolution improves by averaging multiple time measurements. A prototype has been built and tested both in BTF and PSI facilities in order to prove the multi-hit scheme in MEG-like beam conditions. A 35 ps resolution with eight hits has been obtained with a e+ beam at 100 kHz. The first sector will be tested in the MEG II pre-engineering run planned at the end of 2015.

  17. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  18. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains ... Others help manage recurring problems, like migraines. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration decides ...

  19. Mammography Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Mammography Facility Database is updated periodically based on information received from the four FDA-approved accreditation bodies: the American College of...

  20. A Lumped-Parameter Circuit Model of Human Body For Studying Elf Electromagnetic Fields Exposure in Power Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELF (extremely low frequency) refers to an electromagnetic field having a frequency much lower than the frequencies of signals typically used in communications. The most common ELF field sources are power lines and substations. Some studies suggest that ELF fields might have detrimental health effects on humans exposed to them for long periods of time. On the other hand, some scientists believe that the data are not sufficient to support the conclusion that ELF frequency electromagnetic fields in the living environment cause cancer or lead to reproductive and developmental abnormalities. According as these reports, studies on the ELF field exposure have increased in recent years. In this study, a lumped-parameter circuit model of a variously postured human body is investigated. The current distribution calculated inside a variously postured human body is induced by the quasi static coupling with an applied electric field. The human body has previously been partitioned into some blocks. The set of block capacitances has been determined by a procedure based on the diak optic theory. The human body has been assumed as being a perfectly conducting multi-spheroidal structure in the diak optic theory. Efficiency of the diak optic method is discussed

  1. Stereotactic body radiotherapy and treatment at a high volume facility is associated with improved survival in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: This study examined the comparative effectiveness of no treatment (NoTx), conventional fractionated radiotherapy (ConvRT), and stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with inoperable stage I non-small cell lung cancer. This population based cohort also allowed us to examine what facility level characteristics contributed to improved outcomes. Methods: We included patients in the National Cancer Database from 2003 to 2006 with T1-T2N0M0 inoperable lung cancer (n = 13,036). Overall survival (OS) was estimated using Kaplan–Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard regression. Results: The median follow up was 68 months (interquartile range: 35–83 months) in surviving patients. Among the cohort, 52% received NoTx, 41% received ConvRT and 6% received SBRT. The 3-year OS was 28% for NoTx, 36% for ConvRT radiotherapy, and 48% for the SBRT cohort (p < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio for SBRT and ConvRT were 0.67 and 0.77, respectively, as compared to NoTx (1.0 ref) (p < 0.0001). Patients treated at a high volume facility vs. low volume facility had a hazard ratio of 0.94 vs. 1.0 (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Patients with early stage inoperable lung cancer treated with SBRT and at a high volume facility had a survival benefit compared to patients treated with ConvRT or NoTx or to those treated at a low volume facility

  2. Safeguards Technology Factsheet 3He-free Neutron Coincidence Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Counter - Boron: HLNB) based on 3He alternative detection technology was designed and built at LANL and field tested at Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) during FY15. HLNB is based on boron-lined proportional plates that replace the traditional 3He proportional tubes and was designed as a direct alternative to 3He-based High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNC-II). During the JAEA field trial the HLNB demonstrated comparable performance to HLNC-II, which represents a key development in the area of 3He alternative technologies and provides a complete demonstration of the technology for nuclear safeguards applications including high mass MOX samples.

  3. A proportional counter with reduced wall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proportional counter, using gaseous sources, in which the wall effects are considerably reduced, is described. The counter is fitted with a ring of internal shielding counters in anti-coincidence, separated from the main central counter only by a number of cathode wires. The counter can be readily assembled, giving flexibility in research investigations. Applications to a measurement of the L/K capture ratio in A37 and Fe55 are described. (author)

  4. Novel Components for Neutron Counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron counters for safeguards proposes have been developed during the last thirty years at the Joint Research Centre. The paper describes some of the latest developments and implementations in modern neutron counter. The design of a neutron counter is nowadays largely done by MCNP calculations. We have studied the behaviour of some components for a specific counter with respect to optimising the performance of the counter. This includes the moderator materials, thermal neutron absorbers, and 3-He detectors. Also the electronics for neutron counter has evolved over the years. Modern neutron counters require a large number of detectors and signal amplifiers to provide optimised parameters for the data interpretation. For this purpose we have developed a new pre-amplifier/amplifier/discriminator circuit which is both compact and inexpensive. The new circuit will be used in existing and future neutron counters. Concerning the treatment of the digital signal pulse train we intend to makes use of the latest advances in computer technology. A novel electronic system has been developed with a maximum of 128 input channels, which can cope with the high count rate of more than 1 million counts per second with zero dead-time. The Multi Input-Pulse Train Analysis (MI-PTA) system can be used with standard instruments, like Shift Register Analysers. However, it has been designed to perform a variety of pulse train analysis techniques itself, or in combination with a Personal Computer to which the system is connected via a High Speed USB2.0 connection. Pulse data can exchanged between the MI-PTA and PC at the rate of 480 Mb/s, allowing real time analysis on a PC and providing the basis for a Virtual Instrument approach: by modifying the software new instruments can be configured. The system consists of a number of base units, each with 8 TTL compatible inputs. Only one unit, configured as a Master, is connected to a PC. Up-to 15 Slave units can be connected to the Master via a

  5. Explosion-proof scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is noted that measuring devices used in the research works conducted with the help of radioactive isotopes on the chemical industry installations dangerous from the point of view of explosions, especially on the installations of the petrochemistry industry, must not limit the exploitation safety of these installations. The said especially concerns with the Geiger-Mueller type counters and scintillation detectors, located immediately in the places of measurements on the installations and supplied by high voltage power supply. It has been shown that electronic circuits for the detector's signals processing and obtaining working voltages can be located out of the explosive dangerous premices, for example, in the car trailer. Description is given of the device, with the help of which explosion safety is provided for the serially produced scintillation counter with forced ventilation (counter of the VA-S-50 type). Due to this device application, the exploitation parameters of the counter do not go down and there is no need for any changes in its design. Description is given of the device for external power supply and control of the counter which can swich off the power supply in the case of an accident, dangerous from the point of view of violation of the explosion safety conditions. The device is described for providing service to 10 measuring chanels, mounted on the car trailer

  6. Control stand of scintillation counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes a stand designed to test complex optical elements of the CMS endwindow hadron calorimeter. The optical element (the megatile) represents an assembly where 19 trapezoidal scintillators are sandwiched in light-absorbing and light-reflecting layers. The stand to test the quality of scintillation counters consists of a bench with a carriage double-coordinated actuation mechanism, a group of photodetectors, a high-voltage power unit, a laser control checking system, a PC and a scintillation counter to calibrate photodetectors. One studies in detail the procedure to test megatiles in the course of which minimum 100 trigger statistics is ensured for every megatile

  7. Fast-neutron coincidence-counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fast neutron counter (FNC) described in this report is a computer-based assay system employing fast-pulse counting instrumentation. It is installed below a glove box in the metal electrorefining area of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Processing Facility. The instrument was designed to assay plutonium salts and residues from this process and to verify the mass of electrorefined metal. Los Alamos National Laboratory Groups Q-1, Q-3, and CMB-11 carried out a joint test and evaluation plan of this instrument between May 1978 and May 1979. The results of that evaluation, a description of the FNC, and operating instructions for further use are given in this report

  8. Performance of Scintillator Counters with Silicon Photomultiplier Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Artikov, A; Chokheli, D; Davydov, Yu I; Dukes, E C; Ehrlich, R; Francis, K; Frank, M J; Glagolev, V; Hansen, S; Hocker, A; Oksuzian, Y; Rubinov, P; Song, E; Uzunyan, S; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    The performance of scintillator counters with embedded wavelength-shifting fibers has been measured in the Fermilab Meson Test Beam Facility using 120 GeV protons. The counters were extruded with a titanium dioxide surface coating and two channels for fibers at the Fermilab NICADD facility. Each fiber end is read out by a 2*2 mm^2 silicon photomultiplier. The signals were amplified and digitized by a custom-made front-end electronics board. Combinations of 5*2 cm^2 and 6*2 cm^2 extrusion profiles with 1.4 and 1.8 mm diameter fibers were tested. The design is intended for the cosmic-ray veto detector for the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab. The light yield as a function of the transverse and longitudinal position of the beam will be given.

  9. Body centered cubic magnesium niobium hydride with facile room temperature absorption and four weight percent reversible capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, XueHai; Wang, Liya; Holt, Chris M B; Zahiri, Beniamin; Eikerling, Michael H; Mitlin, David

    2012-08-21

    We have synthesized a new metastable metal hydride with promising hydrogen storage properties. Body centered cubic (bcc) magnesium niobium hydride (Mg(0.75)Nb(0.25))H(2) possesses 4.5 wt% hydrogen gravimetric density, with 4 wt% being reversible. Volumetric hydrogen absorption measurements yield an enthalpy of hydride formation of -53 kJ mol(-1) H(2), which indicates a significant thermodynamic destabilization relative to the baseline -77 kJ mol(-1) H(2) for rutile MgH(2). The hydrogenation cycling kinetics are remarkable. At room temperature and 1 bar hydrogen it takes 30 minutes to absorb a 1.5 μm thick film at sorption cycle 1, and 1 minute at cycle 5. Reversible desorption is achieved in about 60 minutes at 175 °C. Using ab initio calculations we have examined the thermodynamic stability of metallic alloys with hexagonal close packed (hcp) versus bcc crystal structure. Moreover we have analyzed the formation energies of the alloy hydrides that are bcc, rutile or fluorite. PMID:22782120

  10. Photochemical studies in low Earth orbit for organic compounds related to small bodies, Titan and Mars. Current and future facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, H.; Saiagh, K.; Nguyen, D.; Grand, N.; Bénilan, Y.; Cloix, M.; Coll, P.; Gazaux, M.-C.; Fray, N.; Khalaf, D.; Raulin, F.; Stalort, F.; Carrasco, N.; Szopa, C.; Chaput, D.; Bertrand, M.; Westall, F.; Mattioda, A.; Quinn, R.; Ricco, A.; Santos, O.; Baratta, G. A.; Strazzulla, G.; Palumbo, M. E.; Le Postollec, A.; Dobrijevic, M.; Coussot, G.; Vigier, F.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Incerti, S.; Berger, T.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the evolution of organic matter subjected to space conditions, and more specifically to solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet range (120-200 nm) has been undertaken in low Earth Orbit since the 90's, and implemented on various space platforms. The most recent exposure facilities are BIOPAN outside the Russian automatic capsules FOTON, and EXPOSE-E & -R (1&2) outside the International Space Station. They allow the photolysis of many different samples simultaneously, and provide us with valuable data about the formation and evolution of organic matter in the Solar System (meteorites, comets, Titan's atmosphere, the Martian surface...) and in the Interstellar Medium. They have been used by European teams in the recent past(ORGANIC on BIOPAN V-FOTON M2 and UVolution on BIOPAN VI-FOTON M3, PROCESS on EXPOSE-E, AMINO and ORGANICS on EXPOSE-R), and a new EXPOSE set is currently exposed outside the ISS (PSS on EXPOSE-R2). These existing tools are very valuable; however, they have significant limitations that limit their capabilities and scientific return. One of the most critical issues for current studies is the lack of any in-situ analysis of the evolution of the samples as a function of time. Only two measurements are available for the experiment: one before and one after the exposure. A significant step forward has been achieved with the O/OREOS NASA nanosatellite and the OREOcube ESA project with onboard UV-visible measurements. However, for organic samples, following the evolution of the samples would be more informative and provide greater insight with infrared measurements, which display specific patterns characteristic of major organic functionalities in the mid-infrared range (4000-1000 cm-1).

  11. The Micro Trench Gas Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel design is presented for a gas avalanche chamber with micro-strip gas readout. While existing gaseous microstrip detectors (Micro-strip Gas Counters, Knife edge chambers) have a minimum anode pitch of the order of 100 μm, the pitch of the discussed Micro Trench Gas Counter goes down to 30-50 μm. This leads to a better position resolution and two track separation, and a higher radiation resistivity. Its efficiency and signal speed are expected to be the same as the Microstrip Gas Counter. The energy resolution of the device is expected to be equal to or better than 10 percent for the 55Fe peak. Since the anode strip dimensions are larger than those in a MSGC, the device may be not as sensitive to discharges and mechanical damage. In this report production of the device is briefly described, and predictions on its operation are made based on electric field calculations and experience with the Microstrip Gas Counter. The authors restrict themselves to the application in High Energy Physics. (author). 10 refs.; 9 figs

  12. Counter-Rotating Accretion Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Dyda, Sergei; Ustyugova, Galina V; Romanova, Marina M; Koldoba, Alexander V

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating discs can arise from the accretion of a counter-rotating gas cloud onto the surface of an existing co-rotating disc or from the counter-rotating gas moving radially inward to the outer edge of an existing disc. At the interface, the two components mix to produce gas or plasma with zero net angular momentum which tends to free-fall towards the disc center. We discuss high-resolution axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of a viscous counter-rotating disc for cases where the two components are vertically separated and radially separated. The viscosity is described by an isotropic $\\alpha-$viscosity including all terms in the viscous stress tensor. For the vertically separated components a shear layer forms between them. The middle of this layer free-falls to the disk center. The accretion rates are increased by factors $\\sim 10^2-10^4$ over that of a conventional disc rotating in one direction with the same viscosity. The vertical width of the shear layer and the accretion rate are strongly dep...

  13. Sustenance of a gas-filled ΔE-counter at subatmospheric pressures for more than 150 days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term sustenance of the performance of a metal body ΔE-gas counter filled to subatmospheric pressures is extended from our previous study. This has been possible by introducing within the counter volume an iron-oxide based catalyst that can efficiently reduce the presence of electronegative impurities. By this means the gas counter can be continuously operated for more than five months with minimal peak channel shift and good resolution. Initially the counter was kept in the atmospheric environment which led to a slow decrease in peak channel, but subsequently when it was operated in vacuum environment the peak channel starts to appreciate and ultimately saturates at the initial value. The resolution (%) also remains steady around 11-13%. Various other factors determining the counter performance viz., efficiency, shape of the peak etc., are also studied. The experiment is carried out both for stainless steel and aluminum body counters. (orig.)

  14. Basic Research Needs for Countering Terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, W.; Michalske, T.; Trewhella, J.; Makowski, L.; Swanson, B.; Colson, S.; Hazen, T.; Roberto, F.; Franz, D.; Resnick, G.; Jacobson, S.; Valdez, J.; Gourley, P.; Tadros, M.; Sigman, M.; Sailor, M.; Ramsey, M.; Smith, B.; Shea, K.; Hrbek, J.; Rodacy, P.; Tevault, D.; Edelstein, N.; Beitz, J.; Burns, C.; Choppin, G.; Clark, S.; Dietz, M.; Rogers, R.; Traina, S.; Baldwin, D.; Thurnauer, M.; Hall, G.; Newman, L.; Miller, D.; Kung, H.; Parkin, D.; Shuh, D.; Shaw, H.; Terminello, L.; Meisel, D.; Blake, D.; Buchanan, M.; Roberto, J.; Colson, S.; Carling, R.; Samara, G.; Sasaki, D.; Pianetta, P.; Faison, B.; Thomassen, D.; Fryberger, T.; Kiernan, G.; Kreisler, M.; Morgan, L.; Hicks, J.; Dehmer, J.; Kerr, L.; Smith, B.; Mays, J.; Clark, S.

    2002-03-01

    To identify connections between technology needs for countering terrorism and underlying science issues and to recommend investment strategies to increase the impact of basic research on efforts to counter terrorism.

  15. GM Counters: Potential Measurement Uncertainty Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes theoretically potential measurement uncertainty sources in radiation detection by GM counters. Procedure of obtaining expanded and combined uncertainties is shown experimentally for four technologically different types of GM counters. Based on experimental results obtained, it has been established that the uncertainties of an influenced random variables depend on the technological solution of the counter reading system and contribute in different ways to the expanded and combined uncertainty of the applied types of GM counters. (author)

  16. Large area flow gas proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ZJ-LD-800 and ZJ-LD-240 large area flow gas proportional counter tubes are described in detail, and the design of counter tube is expounded. The counter tube there have better than plateau length of 200 V and plateau slope of 2%/100 V and window uniformity of 90% for beta counting. So the counters are ideally suitable for use in Area and Contamination Monitors where both alpha and beta radiation are anticipated

  17. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  18. On-site habitability in the event of an accident at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended to provide technical guidance and a methodology for regulatory bodies, designers, constructors and operators of nuclear facilities to assist them in assessing the current situation as regards on-site habitability for their specific nuclear facilities. Initially, the aim will be to ensure that the ''vital areas'' of the facility which are necessary for the safe operation and shutdown of the facility will remain habitable, in some cases continuously and in others transiently, in the event of an accident inside or outside the installation. The assessment procedure can be used not only for potential radiation accidents but also to consider the effects on habitability of those probable non-radiological events which, if not correctly and effectively countered, could lead to the development of potentially unsafe conditions in the facility itself. 30 refs, 4 figs, 8 tabs

  19. Risk assessment for one-counter threads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ponse; M.B. van der Zwaag

    2008-01-01

    Threads as contained in a thread algebra are used for the modeling of sequential program behavior. A thread that may use a counter to control its execution is called a ‘one-counter thread’. In this paper the decidability of risk assessment (a certain form of action forecasting) for one-counter threa

  20. Tritium measurement with a proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a feasibility of real-time measurement of tritium concentration with a proportional counter. For the purpose, we constructed a flow-through type of proportional counter. The characteristics of the counter for seven gases, PR, H2, D2, Ar, CH4, N2, and air, were investigated to research appropriate gases. (author)

  1. Science Experimenter: Experimenting with a Geiger Counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of geiger counters for scientific investigations and experiments. Presents information about background radiation, its sources and detection. Describes how geiger counters work and other methods of radiation detection. Provides purchasing information for geiger counters, related computer software and equipment. (MCO)

  2. Counter-Rotation in Disk Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Corsini, E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Counter-rotating galaxies host two components rotating in opposite directions with respect to each other. The kinematic and morphological properties of lenticulars and spirals hosting counter-rotating components are reviewed. Statistics of the counter-rotating galaxies and analysis of their stellar populations provide constraints on the formation scenarios which include both environmental and internal processes.

  3. Design of a hybrid gas proportional counter with CdTe guard counters for 14C dating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays uniform, low-cost and large-size compound semiconductor detectors are available up to several square centimeters. We are trying to combine this technology with conventional gas detectors to upgrade an anticoincidence type proportional counter, Oeschger-type thin wall counter of 2.2 l, used for a 14C dating facility at the University of Tokyo. In order to increase the ratio of the signal to the background for smaller quantity of samples less than 1 g, an effective approach is to minimize the detector volume at higher gas pressure. However, the anticoincidence function suffers from such a small volume. Therefore we designed a new active wall gas counter of 0.13 l counting volume using CdTe compound semiconductor detectors as the wall of the gas proportional counter to perform anticoincidence. Simulation study showed that at noise thresholds less than 70 keV, the wall counters can reject above 99.8% of events arising from outer gamma rays. Measured noise levels of CdTe detectors were smaller than 24 keV which is low enough for 99.8% anticoincidence efficiency. The experiment showed an anticoincidence efficiency for outer gamma rays from 70% to 80%, similar to that of the old 14C counter. The lost anticoincidence efficiency results from the area of 21.74% which was not covered with CdTe due to two holes for the path of the center anode wire and slots between every two sides of CdTe detectors

  4. Design of a hybrid gas proportional counter with CdTe guard counters for {sup 14}C dating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, L. E-mail: lan@sophie.q.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Takahashi, H.; Hinamoto, N.; Nakazawa, M.; Yoshida, K

    2002-02-01

    Nowadays uniform, low-cost and large-size compound semiconductor detectors are available up to several square centimeters. We are trying to combine this technology with conventional gas detectors to upgrade an anticoincidence type proportional counter, Oeschger-type thin wall counter of 2.2 l, used for a {sup 14}C dating facility at the University of Tokyo. In order to increase the ratio of the signal to the background for smaller quantity of samples less than 1 g, an effective approach is to minimize the detector volume at higher gas pressure. However, the anticoincidence function suffers from such a small volume. Therefore we designed a new active wall gas counter of 0.13 l counting volume using CdTe compound semiconductor detectors as the wall of the gas proportional counter to perform anticoincidence. Simulation study showed that at noise thresholds less than 70 keV, the wall counters can reject above 99.8% of events arising from outer gamma rays. Measured noise levels of CdTe detectors were smaller than 24 keV which is low enough for 99.8% anticoincidence efficiency. The experiment showed an anticoincidence efficiency for outer gamma rays from 70% to 80%, similar to that of the old {sup 14}C counter. The lost anticoincidence efficiency results from the area of 21.74% which was not covered with CdTe due to two holes for the path of the center anode wire and slots between every two sides of CdTe detectors.

  5. Discharge quenching circuit for counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circuit for quenching discharges in gas-discharge detectors with working voltage of 3-5 kV based on transistors operating in the avalanche mode is described. The quenching circuit consists of a coordinating emitter follower, amplifier-shaper for avalanche key cascade control which changes potential on the counter electrodes and a shaper of discharge quenching duration. The emitter follower is assembled according to a widely used flowsheet with two transistors. The circuit permits to obtain a rectangular quenching pulse with front of 100 ns and an amplitude of up to 3.2 kV at duration of 500 μm-8 ms. Application of the quenching circuit described permits to obtain countering characteristics with the slope less than or equal to 0.02%/V and plateau extent greater than or equal to 300 V

  6. Proportional counter as neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braby, L. A.; Badhwar, G. D.

    2001-01-01

    A technique to separate out the dose, and lineal energy spectra of neutrons and charged particles is described. It is based on using two proportional counters, one with a wall, and the other with similar characteristics but wall made from a non-hydrogen containing material. Results of a calibration in a neutron field are also shown. c2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efeito da fisioterapia contra-resistida com relação à massa corporal magra em pacientes no pós-operatório de cirurgia bariátrica Effect of counter resisted physiotherapy in relationship to the lean body mass after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Serpa Bopp Nassif

    2011-09-01

    weight strength and flexibility and can be applied in the patients recovery. AIM: In patients undergoing surgical treatment for morbid obesity are the objectives: 1 to evaluate the effect of physiotherapy counter resisted in lean mass; 2 to assess the factors associated with variations in lean body mass with physical therapy; 3 to compare the group of patients who lost lean mass to the one who won using physical therapy, analyzing the co-morbidities that interfered with these results. METHOD: The study included 100 patients operated on by Fobi-Capella technique divided into group A, patients who lost lean body mass measured in two periods (between 30 days and three months between three months and six months and group B by the patients that gained lean body mass in at least period. Data collection was performed using the Electronic Multiprofessional Protocol of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery with emphasis in Physical Therapy, identified as SINPE© (Integrated Electronic Protocols. The patients were evaluated pre-operatively and followed in the postoperative period in four phases: in the hospital, 30 days, three months and six months after the operation. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the three assessments (p <0.001. By comparing the 30 days to three months, there was loss of lean body mass with statistical significance (p <0.001. Similarly, between 30 days and six months (p <0.001. However, the period between three months and six months did not show results with significance level (p <0.612, showing a tendency to maintain lean body mass. CONCLUSIONS: Physical therapy counter resisted helped in maintaining lean body mass between the periods of three months and six months; 2 elderly men, diabetic and dyslipidemic lost more lean mass; duration of obesity, cardiovascular and orthopedic disease not changed the lean mass; 3 groups A and B showed no significant differences for both gain and loss lean mass in relation to cardiovascular and orthopedic

  8. Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3772 CPC is a compact, rugged, and full-featured instrument that detects airborne particles down to 10 nm in diameter, at an aerosol flow rate of 1.0 lpm, over a concentration range from 0 to 1x104 #/cc. This CPC is ideally suited for applications without high concentration measurements, such as basic aerosol research, filter and air-cleaner testing, particle counter calibrations, environmental monitoring, mobile aerosol studies, particle shedding and component testing, and atmospheric and climate studies.

  9. Optimization of a uranyl nitrate passive neutron counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bracken, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; West, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Corey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Newell, Matthew R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourret, Steven C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rothrock, Richard B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ladd - Lively, Jennifer L [ORNL; Schuh, Denise [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding natural uranium as it enters the fuel cycle has become a priority for the safeguards community in recent years. Uranyl nitrate is a material of interest in this endeavor because it is normally a step in the process from converting uranium ores to more concentrated forms like UO{sub 2} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}. This paper will detail the improvements and design optimizations made for a uranyl nitrate neutron detector. The original design of the detector was based on standard neutron counter designs and featured 2 rings of He-3 tubes fully moderated and shielded from background. Several areas for enhancement were identified after months of testing in three different locations. An operating uranyl nitrate facility was included as one of the test locations. Three significant upgrades to the counter addressed in the redesign were: real time background detection, counter reliability improvements, and optimization of the detector design for the detection of neutrons emitted by the uranyl nitrate flowing through the monitored process pipe. The optimized detector design includes significant electronics upgrades, the ability to detect neutrons (background and signal) with 36 degree spatial resolution around the process pipe for signal and 45 degree spatial resolution for background, inner and outer rings of He-3 tubes for real time background corrections, and notably more reliable cabling. Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) modeling was used to optimize the signal (neutrons from uranyl nitrate in the monitored process pipe) to noise (background neutrons from all sources) ratio of the inner ring of He-3 tubes. Additionally, MCNP modeling maximized noise to signal on the outer ring of He-3 tubes. Details of the detector optimization as well as all the additional detector enhancements will be discussed. The neutron counter will be field tested on the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).

  10. Programmable spark counter of tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the purpose, a new set-the programmable all-automatic spark counter AIST-4-has been developed and manufactured. Compared to our previous automated spark counter ISTRA, which was operated by the integrated fixed program, the new set is operated completely by a personal computer. The mechanism for pressing and pulling the aluminized foil is put into action by a step motor operated by a microcontroller. The step motor turns an axle. The axle has two eccentrics. One of them moves a pressing plate up and down. The second eccentric moves the aluminized foil by steps of ∼15mm after the end of each pulse counting. One turnover of the axle corresponds to one pulse count cycle. The step motor, the high-voltage block and the pulse count block are operated by the microcontroller PIC 16C84 (Microstar). The set can be operated either manually by keys on the front panel or by a PC using dialogue windows for radon or neutron measurements (for counting of alpha or fission fragment tracks). A number of algorithms are developed: the general procedures, the automatic stopping of the pulse counting, the calibration curve, determination of the count characteristics and elimination of the short circuit in a track

  11. Synchronous Counters Implemented in the PLD Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kolouch

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementability of synchronous counters in the Programmable Logic Devices (PLD is discussed in this paper. The most commonly used counters are analysed from this point of view. The expressions for their individual bits are given and the number of product terms is derived to allow to estimate the size of the particular counter which can be implemented in the chosen PLD.

  12. Cherenkov counter for particle identification test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cherenkov counter used for selecting electrons of the test beam has been studied in this article. The design, manufacture, assembly and testing of the Cherenkov counter are described. And the performance of this counter is measured. The CO2 gas is used as Cherenkov radiator, the XP2020Q photomultiplier is applied for recording signals of the Cherenkov light. The (99.0±0.5)% efficiency of the electron selection has been reached

  13. Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation: Effects of History and Lift Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadim, Ali

    2014-11-01

    This work is co-authored with my doctoral student Shujing Xu and is dedicated to the memory of my doctoral advisor Howard Brenner who enjoyed thought experiments related to rotating systems. Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation refers to our theoretical discovery that within a liquid-filled container that rotates in an oscillatory manner about a fixed axis as a rigid body, a suspended particle can be made to migrate on average in the direction opposite to that of ordinary centrifugation. That is, a heavy (or light) particle can move toward (or away from) the rotation axis, when the frequency of oscillations is high enough. In this work we analyze the effects of the Basset history force and the Saffman lift force on particle trajectories and find that the counter-centrifugation phenomenon persists even when these forces are active.

  14. The GlueX Start Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Eric; GlueX Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The GlueX experiment will be one of the largest photo-production facilities in the world and is currently under construction. This experiment will use the coherent bremsstrahlung technique to produce a 9 GeV linearly polarized photon beam incident on a liquid H2 target. A Start Counter detector has been designed to identify the accelerator electron beam buckets, approximately 2 ns apart, and to provide accurate timing information. It is now under construction at Florida International University (FIU). This detector is designed to operate at photon intensities of up to 108 γ /s in the coherent peak. It consists of an array of 30 individual scintillators with ``pointed'' ends that bend toward the beam at the downstream end. SiPM detectors, which comprise the readout system, are placed as close as possible at the end of each scintillator. The EJ-200 scintillator is best suited for the timing studies with a fast decay time of 2.0 ns. The physical properties of the scintillators, configured to the desired geometry, have been studied extensively at FIU. Geant4 simulations are currently underway to replicate and to understand our experimental results. The results of these timing studies and simulations are discussed.

  15. The high pressure gas Cerenkov counter at the Omega Facility.

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    The high-pressure gas Cerenkov was used to measure reactions as pion (or kaon)- hydrogen --> forward proton - X. It was built by the Ecole Polytechnique (Palaiseu). Here Peter Sonderegger and Patrick Fleury,

  16. Gold nanoparticle decorated multi-walled carbon nanotubes as counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniyoor, Adarsh; Ramaprabhu, Sundara

    2012-11-01

    A novel counter electrode material for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) composed of nanostructured Au particles decorated on functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWNTs) is demonstrated for the first time. MWNTs synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition technique are purified and functionalized by treating with concentrated acids. Au nanoparticles are decorated on f-MWNTs by a rapid and facile microwave assisted polyol reduction method. The materials are characterized by X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The DSSC fabricated with Au/f-MWNTs based counter electrode shows enhanced power conversion efficiency (eta) of 4.9% under AM 1.5G simulated solar radiation. In comparison, the reference DSSCs fabricated with f-MWNTs and Pt counter electrodes show eta of 2.1% and 4.5%. This high performance of Au/f-MWNTs counter electrode is investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry studies. PMID:23421212

  17. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF2 crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4π γ-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed γ-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture γ rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to α particles, which is important for experiments with α-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from α's. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed counter and still be able to maintain a stable

  18. Compact fission counter for DANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C Y; Chyzh, A; Kwan, E; Henderson, R; Gostic, J; Carter, D; Bredeweg, T; Couture, A; Jandel, M; Ullmann, J

    2010-11-06

    The Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) consists of 160 BF{sub 2} crystals with equal solid-angle coverage. DANCE is a 4{pi} {gamma}-ray calorimeter and designed to study the neutron-capture reactions on small quantities of radioactive and rare stable nuclei. These reactions are important for the radiochemistry applications and modeling the element production in stars. The recognition of capture event is made by the summed {gamma}-ray energy which is equivalent of the reaction Q-value and unique for a given capture reaction. For a selective group of actinides, where the neutron-induced fission reaction competes favorably with the neutron capture reaction, additional signature is needed to distinguish between fission and capture {gamma} rays for the DANCE measurement. This can be accomplished by introducing a detector system to tag fission fragments and thus establish a unique signature for the fission event. Once this system is implemented, one has the opportunity to study not only the capture but also fission reactions. A parallel-plate avalanche counter (PPAC) has many advantages for the detection of heavy charged particles such as fission fragments. These include fast timing, resistance to radiation damage, and tolerance of high counting rate. A PPAC also can be tuned to be insensitive to {alpha} particles, which is important for experiments with {alpha}-emitting actinides. Therefore, a PPAC is an ideal detector for experiments requiring a fast and clean trigger for fission. A PPAC with an ingenious design was fabricated in 2006 by integrating amplifiers into the target assembly. However, this counter was proved to be unsuitable for this application because of issues related to the stability of amplifiers and the ability to separate fission fragments from {alpha}'s. Therefore, a new design is needed. A LLNL proposal to develop a new PPAC for DANCE was funded by NA22 in FY09. The design goal is to minimize the mass for the proposed

  19. Countering 21st Century Threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharling Pedersen, Peter; Pillai, Chad M.; Hun, Lee Jae

    2015-01-01

    The United States and its Allies confront an increasingly volatile world where threats range from traditional state-on-state challenges to non-state transnational networks. To successfully combat these 21st Century problems, in an era of resource and geo-political power constraints, the U.S. and......), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Security and Stability Operations (SSO). • Establishing a construct that allows a strategic Whole-of-Government capacity for operations coordinated by joint interagency task forces. • Continue to developing the Global SOF network. • Increased intelligence sharing in areas of...... shared interests pre-crisis. • Establish political agreements and/or intentions with partners to address potential threats. • Establishing mutual trust through Building Partnership Capacity with capable SOF and intelligence organizations....

  20. Seeded QED cascades in counter propagating laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Grismayer, Thomas; Martins, Joana L; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luís O

    2015-01-01

    The growth rates of seeded QED cascades in counter propagating lasers are calculated with 2D/3D QED-PIC simulations. The dependence of the growth rate on laser polarisation and intensity are compared with analytical models that support simulations results. The models provide an insight regarding the qualitative trend of the cascade growth when the intensity of the laser field is varied. The results suggest that relativistic pair plasmas and efficient conversion from laser photons to gamma rays can be created with the typical intensities planned to operate on future ultra-intense laser facilities such as ELI or VULCAN.

  1. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    KAUST Repository

    Winoto, S H

    2015-09-23

    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.

  2. Performance of an Arrangement of Several Large-Area Proportional Counters for the Assessment of Pu239 Lung Burdens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If plutonium-239 has been deposited in the human lung, some of the emitted soft X-rays can be measured from the outside by proportional counters. Efficiency of such measurements depends on sensitive area and geometrical arrangement of the counters in regard to the body, on absorption of the X-rays inside the counter, on reduction of the radiation in the wall or window of the counter, on the background of the counter and on stability of this background in spite of β- and γ- radiation coming from other nuclides than plutonium-239 in the body. Most of these parameters are optimized by using three large-area, thin-window, argon filled proportional counters mounted inside a large steel-room opposite the chest and both lung lobes of a sitting patient. These counters are anti-coincidence shielded in such a way that only soft X-rays causing the origination of photoelectrons inside the measuring counter proper are detected. The effect is enforced by passing the electrical pulses through a one-channel pulse height analyser. Construction and performance of such an arrangement are described in the paper. (author)

  3. The Ω Counter, a Frequency Counter Based on the Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiola, Enrico; Lenczner, Michel; Bourgeois, Pierre-Yves; Vernotte, Francois

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces the Ω counter, a frequency counter-i.e., a frequency-to-digital converter-based on the linear regression (LR) algorithm on time stamps. We discuss the noise of the electronics. We derive the statistical properties of the Ω counter on rigorous mathematical basis, including the weighted measure and the frequency response. We describe an implementation based on a system on chip, under test in our laboratory, and we compare the Ω counter to the traditional Π and Λ counters. The LR exhibits the optimum rejection of white phase noise, superior to that of the Π and Λ counters. White noise is the major practical problem of wideband digital electronics, both in the instrument internal circuits and in the fast processes, which we may want to measure. With a measurement time τ , the variance is proportional to 1/τ(2) for the Π counter, and to 1/τ(3) for both the Λ and Ω counters. However, the Ω counter has the smallest possible variance, 1.25 dB smaller than that of the Λ counter. The Ω counter finds a natural application in the measurement of the parabolic variance, described in the companion article in this Journal [vol. 63 no. 4 pp. 611-623, April 2016 (Special Issue on the 50th Anniversary of the Allan Variance), DOI 10.1109/TUFFC.2015.2499325]. PMID:27244731

  4. The Omega Counter, a Frequency Counter Based on the Linear Regression

    CERN Document Server

    Rubiola, E; Bourgeois, P -Y; Vernotte, F

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the {\\Omega} counter, a frequency counter -- or a frequency-to-digital converter, in a different jargon -- based on the Linear Regression (LR) algorithm on time stamps. We discuss the noise of the electronics. We derive the statistical properties of the {\\Omega} counter on rigorous mathematical basis, including the weighted measure and the frequency response. We describe an implementation based on a SoC, under test in our laboratory, and we compare the {\\Omega} counter to the traditional {\\Pi} and {\\Lambda} counters. The LR exhibits optimum rejection of white phase noise, superior to that of the {\\Pi} and {\\Lambda} counters. White noise is the major practical problem of wideband digital electronics, both in the instrument internal circuits and in the fast processes which we may want to measure. The {\\Omega} counter finds a natural application in the measurement of the Parabolic Variance, described in the companion article arXiv:1506.00687 [physics.data-an].

  5. Over-the-Counter Medicines: What's Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter medicine (OTCs) Over-the-Counter Medicines: What's Right for You? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... org Back to top More in Choosing the right over-the-counter medicine (OTCs) Resources for You ...

  6. The Principal and Staff Development: Countering the School Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary; Rogus, Joseph F.

    1979-01-01

    After addressing the problems inherent in developing staff improvement programs, the author offers starter planning steps for countering the energy drainage of teachers, countering the weak technology of teaching, and countering the feeling of aloneness of the teacher. (KC)

  7. Over-the-counter suboptimal dispensing of antibiotics in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukonzo JK

    2013-08-01

    : In Uganda, at least four in every ten individuals that visit a health-care facility are treated with an antibiotic. Antibiotics are largely given as over-the-counter drugs at community pharmacies. The number of antibiotic prescribed daily doses/1,000 antibiotic clients does not significantly differ between categories of health-care facilities except at community pharmacies, where lower doses are dispensed compared to other health-care facilities. Keywords: antibiotic, over-the-counter dispensing, suboptimal dosing, Uganda

  8. Hybrid shower counter for CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid scintillator/strip chamber electromagnetic calorimeter has been proposed for the Collider Detector Facility at Fermilab. Large modules of lead/scintillator with wavebar readout are to contain one or more bidimensional wire chambers near shower maximum. Results of the ongoing program of computer simulation and prototype testing are discussed

  9. GEIGER-MULLER TYPE COUNTER TUBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, I.L.; Watt, L.A.K.

    1959-12-15

    A single counter tube capable of responding to a wide range of intensities is described. The counter tube comprises a tubular cathode and an anode extending centrally of the cathode. The spacing between the outer surface of the anode and the inner surface of the cathode is varied along the length of the tube to provide different counting volumes in adjacent portions of the tube. A large counting volume in one portion adjacent to a low-energy absorption window gives adequate sensitivity for measuring lowintensity radiation, while a smaller volume with close electrode spacing is provided in the counter to make possible measurement of intense garnma radiation fields.

  10. A new type of gas scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design and construction of a new type of gas scintillation counter are discussed. It includes a scintillation gas proportional counter coupled to a photomultiplier. The electric field applied to the counter in the proportional region increases the number of photons resulting of the excitation of the inert gas, during the discharge produced by the passage of the primary ionizing particle. The number of initial photons is then increased and so is the impulse amplitude of the photomultiplier. The complexity of the electronic system necessary for the observation is thereby reduced. The influence of the electricfield on the resolution of the detector is especially emphasized. (I. C. R.)

  11. Note on the Typ. 2 counter problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution function of the distance between two successive registered particles if the distribution function of the primary process, pulse distribution and the counter type and known is determined on the basis of the joint Laplace transform. The generating function of the number of particles arriving to the counting device during the dead time for the so-called Type 2 counter (counter with prolonging dead time) is determined toon some remarks on the registrations of m types of particles (m>= 1) are made

  12. Technique for 136Xe double beta decay search by means of wall-less high pressure proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology of the experiment for search of the double beta-decay of the 136Xe isotope through the multiple thread wall-less proportional high-pressure counters is described. The characteristics of the counters and low-background facility are presented. The methodology for decreasing the counters background in the 0.5-3.5 MeV energies area through discrimination events by a coordinate along the anode thread and by the pulses growth-time is considered. The results of the background components analysis by the events type and source position are presented

  13. Upgrade of the facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light Radioactive Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Production of in-flight Radioactive Ion Beams via two-body reactions. • Development of a cryogenic gas target. • Event-by-event tracking via Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs). -- Abstract: The facility EXOTIC for the in-flight production of light weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) has been operating at INFN-LNL since 2004. RIBs are produced via two-body reactions induced by high intensity heavy-ion beams impinging on light gas targets and selected by means of a 30°-dipole bending magnet and a 1-m long Wien filter. The facility has been recently upgraded (i) by developing a cryogenic gas target, (ii) by replacing the power supplies of the middle lenses of the two quadrupole triplets, (iii) by installing two y-steerers and (iv) by placing two Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters upstream the secondary target to provide an event-by-event reconstruction of the position hit on the target. So far, RIBs of 7Be, 8B and 17F in the energy range 3–5 MeV/u have been produced with intensities about 3 × 105, 1.6 × 103 and 105 pps, respectively. Possible light RIBs (up to Z = 10) deliverable by the facility EXOTIC are also reviewed

  14. Design of a hybrid gas proportional counter with CdTe guard counters for sup 1 sup 4 C dating system

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, L; Hinamoto, N; Nakazawa, M; Yoshida, K

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays uniform, low-cost and large-size compound semiconductor detectors are available up to several square centimeters. We are trying to combine this technology with conventional gas detectors to upgrade an anticoincidence type proportional counter, Oeschger-type thin wall counter of 2.2 l, used for a sup 1 sup 4 C dating facility at the University of Tokyo. In order to increase the ratio of the signal to the background for smaller quantity of samples less than 1 g, an effective approach is to minimize the detector volume at higher gas pressure. However, the anticoincidence function suffers from such a small volume. Therefore we designed a new active wall gas counter of 0.13 l counting volume using CdTe compound semiconductor detectors as the wall of the gas proportional counter to perform anticoincidence. Simulation study showed that at noise thresholds less than 70 keV, the wall counters can reject above 99.8% of events arising from outer gamma rays. Measured noise levels of CdTe detectors were smaller t...

  15. A freeze-dried graphene counter electrode enhances the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Kai-Hsiang; Wang, Hong-Wen, E-mail: hongwen@cycu.edu.tw

    2014-01-01

    A flexible graphene/polyimide (PI) counter electrode without a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) layer has been fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) applications. The flexible counter electrode consists of polyimide double-sided tape as a substrate beneath a graphene film acting as the conductive and catalytic layer. Chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the PI electrode (rGO-PI) shows comparable catalytic activity to that of the reference sputtered platinum/FTO counter electrodes (Sputter-Pt/FTO). A DSSC with a freeze-dried rGO-PI (FD-rGO-PI) counter electrode shows an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 5.45%, while that of the conventional Sputter-Pt/FTO electrode is 5.52%. The DSSC with a thermally dried rGO-PI (Gel-rGO-PI) counter electrode (not freeze-dried) exhibits a smooth morphology and much poorer performance (η = 1.61%). Field emission scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrate that the FD-rGO-PI electrode possesses a porous structure, numerous edges, minimum charge-transfer resistance and a higher electrocatalytic activity toward the I{sub 3}{sup −}/I{sup −} redox couple than that of the Gel-rGO-PI electrode. The high electrocatalytic activity, facile preparation procedure, absence of FTO, and material flexibility render the FD-rGO-PI electrode an ideal alternative to conventional DSSC counter electrodes. - Highlights: • Highly rough and conductive graphene-based counter electrode is synthesized. • The characteristics of graphene surface by freeze drying are different. • The graphene counter electrode exhibits comparable performance to that of sputtered Pt one.

  16. A freeze-dried graphene counter electrode enhances the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flexible graphene/polyimide (PI) counter electrode without a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) layer has been fabricated for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSCs) applications. The flexible counter electrode consists of polyimide double-sided tape as a substrate beneath a graphene film acting as the conductive and catalytic layer. Chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the PI electrode (rGO-PI) shows comparable catalytic activity to that of the reference sputtered platinum/FTO counter electrodes (Sputter-Pt/FTO). A DSSC with a freeze-dried rGO-PI (FD-rGO-PI) counter electrode shows an overall conversion efficiency (η) of 5.45%, while that of the conventional Sputter-Pt/FTO electrode is 5.52%. The DSSC with a thermally dried rGO-PI (Gel-rGO-PI) counter electrode (not freeze-dried) exhibits a smooth morphology and much poorer performance (η = 1.61%). Field emission scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry measurements demonstrate that the FD-rGO-PI electrode possesses a porous structure, numerous edges, minimum charge-transfer resistance and a higher electrocatalytic activity toward the I3−/I− redox couple than that of the Gel-rGO-PI electrode. The high electrocatalytic activity, facile preparation procedure, absence of FTO, and material flexibility render the FD-rGO-PI electrode an ideal alternative to conventional DSSC counter electrodes. - Highlights: • Highly rough and conductive graphene-based counter electrode is synthesized. • The characteristics of graphene surface by freeze drying are different. • The graphene counter electrode exhibits comparable performance to that of sputtered Pt one

  17. Whole body monitoring - Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: - Individual from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1). - Occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121,57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was established according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job to be assigned. In this paper we will present some burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity x time curve. (author)

  18. Countering the nuclear terrorist threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An IND, as its name implies, is a nuclear explosive device. It produces nuclear yield, and this nuclear yield has catastrophic effects. An IND is the ultimate terrorist weapon. If a terrorist group decides not to pursue an actual nuclear device, it might well turn to a RDD. RDDs, or 'dirty bombs' as they are often called, spread radioactivity but they do not generate nuclear yield. The fabrication of a RDD requires radioactive material and a dispersal mechanism. Standards for safe handling and accountability of radioactive material vary around the world. Terrorist acquisition and use of an IND is a low-probability but high-consequence threat. Terrorist use of a RDD is a threat of higher probability but lower consequence. Two threats need to be considered for civil radiological and nuclear facilities. One is the theft of materials by terrorists, and the other is an attack on a facility to disperse radiological or nuclear materials. Facilities may include reactors as well as nuclear waste and storage areas. While important elements of a layered defense against these threats are already in place, improved international cooperation and a sustained investment in the science and technology needed to win the war on terrorism is necessary. (author)

  19. Position sensitive counter development at the linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a novel application of the multiwire proportional counter we have imaged a collimated neutron beam. Although preliminary, the results are of sufficient import to be described here because of the potential wide application of the multiwire proportional counter to Laboratory problems. The counter was operated with a counting gas pressure of 20 Torr; the counting gas was pure C4H10. The radiator was a 235U foil. Under these conditions, the counter is (1) relatively insensitive to charged particles (other than fission fragments), (2) insensitive to γ-radiation, and (3) has an efficiency for the detection of fission fragments independent of incident neutron energy over a wide range of neutron energies

  20. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  1. Counter public spheres and global modernity

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Natalie; Downey, John

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of counter public spheres and their relationship to the dominant public sphere. We argue that counter public spheres are increasingly relevant due to particular social and political configurations that mark out a distinct stage of modernity. We suggest that this stage is characterised in particular by the intensification of globalisation, the rise of neo-liberalism and a decline of trust and social democracy resulting in instability in the dominant public sph...

  2. Counter public spheres and global modernity:

    OpenAIRE

    Downey, John; Fenton, Natalie

    2003-01-01

    This article explores the concept of counter public spheres and their relationship to the dominant public sphere. We argue that counter public spheres are increasingly relevant due to particular social and political configurations that mark out a distinct stage of modernity. We suggest that this stage is characterised in particular by the intensification of globalisation, the rise of neo-liberalism and a decline of trust and social democracy resulting in instability in the dominant public sph...

  3. Synchronization in counter-rotating oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmick, S. K.; Ghosh, Dibakar; Dana, Syamal K.

    2011-01-01

    An oscillatory system can have clockwise and anticlockwise senses of rotation. We propose a general rule how to obtain counter-rotating oscillators from the definition of a dynamical system and then investigate synchronization. A type of mixed synchronization emerges in counter-rotating oscillators under diffusive scalar coupling when complete synchronization and antisynchronization coexist in different state variables. Stability conditions of mixed synchronization are obtained analytically i...

  4. Enantiomeric Separations using Chiral Counter-Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Haglöf, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of chiral counter-ions for the enantiomeric separation of amines in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. The investigations have been concentrated on studies of the influence, of the chiral counter-ion, the solvent, the electrolyte and the analyte, on the enantioselective separation. Modified divalent dipeptides have been introduced in capillary electrophoresis for the separation of amino alcohols and chiral resolution of amines. Association constants for the i...

  5. Novel determination of protein, fat, and lactose of milk by liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for routine determination of protein, fat, and lactose contents of milk is based on the ability of a scintillation counter to measure coloration or opalescence through attenuation of photons emitted from sealed miniature carbon-14 and hydrogen-3 radioactive standards. A series of simplified and accurate analytical procedures enable full advantage to be taken of the automatic facilities on the modern liquid scintillation counter. The methods provide several advantages over existing procedures. Accuracy of quantification was high as assessed by comparing the results with those derived by recommended Kjeldahl, Gerber, and colorimetric procedures for protein, fat, and lactose determinations, respectively

  6. Performance review of the high efficiency neutron counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A performance review of several High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENCs) has been conducted for the purposes of quantifying the ranges of the inherent operating parameters, and for the qualitative assessment of the application of these parameters for the measurement of various waste types. The HENC is a passive neutron counter intended for use with multiplicity counting techniques for the assay of 200 liter (55 gallon) drums containing plutonium contaminated waste. The counter utilizes 113 3He proportional tubes which are organized into multiple counting channels and are arranged in a 4p geometry about the assay cavity. An Add- A-Source (AAS) Matrix Correction assembly is incorporated into the counter as the basis for compensating the assay values for the perturbation of the drum contents. Prior to use in the field, several fundamental operating parameters for the HENC must be determined during characterization of the counter. These parameters are determined by the neutron response characteristics of the assay cavity and signal processing electronics, and are differentiated from more typical calibration parameters as they are determined without the need for actual or representative plutonium or mixed-oxide samples. Examples of operating parameters include HV plateau, die-away profile, pre-delay setting, dead time parameters, central empty drum efficiency, gate utilization factors and spatial response profiles. The performance review is based on five HENCs manufactured in the span of approximately ten years, all of which are currently operating in the field at various nuclear facilities. The review serves to identify the range of values used for each of the operating parameters, and the impact on performance, if any, as a function of that range. The resulting database can then serve both as a standard by which future systems can be type tested, and as a source of initial settings for the operating parameters with the evident benefit of time-savings in the

  7. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients

  8. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1984-03-01

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients.

  9. Cherenkov counter of extensive air showers for combined operation with the neutrino telescope NT-200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baikal NT-200 neutrino telescope consists of 192 optical modules based on the Quasar-370 hybrid photodetectors. To study the angular resolution of NT-200 neutrino telescope one has developed the Cherenkov counter of extensive air showers with 1 deg angular resolution. Paper describes the electron structure of the facility made in terms of the CAMAC standard. One evaluates the measurement error for time intervals depending on the amplitude of output signals of photodetector. The counting rate of coinciding events of the Cherenkov counter for extensive air showers and of NT-200 deep-sea neutrino telescope constitutes about 0.5 min-1.Measuring of time interval between the trigger signals of the neutrino telescope and of the Cherenkov counter enables to suppress efficiently random coincidences and to obtain additional information on the muon trajectory

  10. Development of thin plastic scintillation counter for low energy muon experiment at MuSIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MuSIC is a highly intense muon facility which was constructed at RCNP, Osaka University and officially operated since 2009. MuSIC was equipped with a superconducting solenoid at the pion capture system a muon yield up to 108 muons/sec is available. The thin counters with dimension of 30 mm x 380 mm x 0.5 mm has been developed for low energy muon experiment at the MuSIC 5th beam test. Each counter was attached with a wavelength shifting fiber (WLS) and MPPC for readout. Several tests and experiments were done in order to achieve best position resolution with thin plastic scintillation counter for medium energy muon experiment. (author)

  11. Safeguards Technology Factsheet 3He-free Neutron Coincidence Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henzlova, Daniela [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Menlove, Howard Olsen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-21

    A full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Counter – Boron: HLNB) based on 3He alternative detection technology was designed and built at LANL and field tested at Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) during FY15. HLNB is based on boron-lined proportional plates that replace the traditional 3He proportional tubes and was designed as a direct alternative to 3He-based High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNC-II). During the JAEA field trial the HLNB demonstrated comparable performance to HLNC-II, which represents a key development in the area of 3He alternative technologies and provides a complete demonstration of the technology for nuclear safeguards applications including high mass MOX samples.

  12. A passive rem counter based on CR39 SSNTD coupled with a boron converter

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Ferrarini, c, M; Silari, M

    2009-01-01

    A passive neutron rem counter using a CR39 SSNTD coupled with a boron converter has been developed. The rem counter is a polythene sphere with cadmium and lead insets, designed to have a response function proportional to the fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients, H*(10)/Φ, for energies ranging from thermal up to 1 GeV. At its centre is a thermal neutron detector made of a CR39 SSNTD coupled with an enriched boron neutron converter. The rem counter was first calibrated at CERN and at the Politecnico di Milano, and then tested in high-energy neutron fields at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany and at the CERF facility at CERN. Its most important features are a very high neutron sensitivity and conversely a complete insensitivity to gamma radiation.

  13. Calibration of a liquid scintillation counter to assess tritium levels in various samples

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Haddad, M N; Abu-Jarad, F A

    1999-01-01

    An LKB-Wallac 1217 Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) was calibrated with a newly adopted cocktail. The LSC was then used to measure tritium levels in various samples to assess the compliance of tritium levels with the recommended international levels. The counter was calibrated to measure both biological and operational samples for personnel and for an accelerator facility at KFUPM. The biological samples include the bioassay (urine), saliva, and nasal tests. The operational samples of the light ion linear accelerator include target cooling water, organic oil, fomblin oil, and smear samples. Sets of standards, which simulate various samples, were fabricated using traceable certified tritium standards. The efficiency of the counter was obtained for each sample. The typical range of the efficiencies varied from 33% for smear samples down to 1.5% for organic oil samples. A quenching curve for each sample is presented. The minimum detectable activity for each sample was established. Typical tritium levels in bio...

  14. The use of polycarbonate in proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proportional counters are relatively sensitive to contamination through outgassing and the range of electrical insulators suitable for use in their manufacture is quite limited. Although small amounts of plastics such as polychlorotrifluoroethylene have been used as feedthroughs, ceramics are most commonly used when sealed counters with long lives are required. Ceramics have poor and widely scattered mechanical properties and the use of a more robust material is often highly desirable. Of particular interest is the use of polymers and this work examines polycarbonate in particular. To investigate its suitability in terms of outgassing a simple cylindrical, single anode proportional counter containing a large sample of polycarbonate was baked at ∼100 degree C and filled with a CO2/Ar/Xe mixture (5:47.5:47.5 by pressure, respectively). Subsequent measurements of the counter indicated an increase in gain, which, after a second similar filling, was identified to be associated with a preferential loss of CO2 to the polycarbonate. The consequences of this result and the circumstances under which polycarbonate could be used on a large scale in the construction of proportional counters are discussed

  15. Facile semi-automated forensic body fluid identification by multiplex solution hybridization of NanoString® barcode probes to specific mRNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Patrick; White, Robin Lynn; Hanson, Erin K; Ballantyne, Jack

    2015-01-01

    A DNA profile from the perpetrator does not reveal, per se, the circumstances by which it was transferred. Body fluid identification by mRNA profiling may allow extraction of contextual 'activity level' information from forensic samples. Here we describe the development of a prototype multiplex digital gene expression (DGE) method for forensic body fluid/tissue identification based upon solution hybridization of color-coded NanoString(®) probes to 23 mRNA targets. The method identifies peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin. We showed that a simple 5 min room temperature cellular lysis protocol gave equivalent results to standard RNA isolation from the same source material, greatly enhancing the ease-of-use of this method in forensic sample processing. We first describe a model for gene expression in a sample from a single body fluid and then extend that model to mixtures of body fluids. We then describe calculation of maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of body fluid quantities in a sample, and we describe the use of likelihood ratios to test for the presence of each body fluid in a sample. Known single source samples of blood, semen, vaginal secretions, menstrual blood and skin all demonstrated the expected tissue-specific gene expression for at least two of the chosen biomarkers. Saliva samples were more problematic, with their previously identified characteristic genes exhibiting poor specificity. Nonetheless the most specific saliva biomarker, HTN3, was expressed at a higher level in saliva than in any of the other tissues. Crucially, our algorithm produced zero false positives across this study's 89 unique samples. As a preliminary indication of the ability of the method to discern admixtures of body fluids, five mixtures were prepared. The identities of the component fluids were evident from the gene expression profiles of four of the five mixtures. Further optimization of the biomarker 'CodeSet' will be required

  16. Countering the Nuclear Terrorist Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    psychological consequences. The greatest impact of a small release would probably be economic, associated with cleanup and restoration of the contaminated area. Another category of threat is the attack on a facility, either a power reactor or sabotage of a large radiation source. In general these facilities are hard targets (structurally), and damage and contamination are localized. The final category of threat is the use of radioactive materials to deliver a radiation dose to individuals. This type of attack is again localized and does not readily fall into the category of a weapon of mass destruction

  17. CORNELL: CLEO's counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle identification by measuring ionization is complicated by the fact that the energy lost to ionization in passing through matter has large fluctuations, first calculated by Landau. These large fluctuations imply that many measurements must be made in order to determine the most probable ionization value that is characteristic of the particle type. The JADE chamber at PETRA and the TPC chamber at PEP measure both the ionization and the momenta of tracks in the same device. In the CLEO experiment at Cornell's CESR ring, ionization is measured in dedicated energy loss counters contained in each of the eight octants surrounding the drift chamber and superconducting coil. The last of these were installed in the summer of 1981, replacing Cherenkov counters that were used while the energy loss counters were being developed and built

  18. Educational cosmic ray experiments with Geiger counters

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, F; Rocca, P L; Librizzi, F; Parasole, O; Riggi, F

    2006-01-01

    Experiments concerning the physics of cosmic rays offer to high-school teachers and students a relatively easy approach to the field of research in high energy physics. The detection of cosmic rays does not necessarily require the use of sophisticated equipment, and various properties of the cosmic radiation can be observed and analysed even by the use of a single Geiger counter. Nevertheless, the variety of such kind of experiments and the results obtained are limited because of the inclusive nature of these measurements. A significant improvement may be obtained when two or more Geiger counters are operated in coincidence. In this paper we discuss the potential of performing educational cosmic ray experiments with Geiger counters. In order to show also the educational value of coincidence techniques, preliminary results of cosmic ray experiments carried out by the use of a simple coincidence circuit are briefly discussed.

  19. Neutron spectroscopy with the Spherical Proportional Counter

    CERN Document Server

    Bougamont, E; Derre, J; Galan, J; Gerbier, G; Giomataris, I; Gros, M; Katsioulas, I; Jourde, D; Magnier, P; Navick, X F; Papaevangelou, T; Savvidis, I; Tsiledakis, G

    2015-01-01

    A novel large volume spherical proportional counter, recently developed, is used for neutron measurements. Gas mixtures of $N_{2}$ with $C_{2}H_{6}$ and pure $N_{2}$ are studied for thermal and fast neutron detection, providing a new way for the neutron spectroscopy. The neutrons are detected via the ${}^{14}N(n, p)C^{14}$ and ${}^{14}N(n, \\alpha)B^{11}$ reactions. Here we provide studies of the optimum gas mixture, the gas pressure and the most appropriate high voltage supply on the sensor of the detector in order to achieve the maximum amplification and better resolution. The detector is tested for thermal and fast neutrons detection with a ${}^{252}Cf$ and a ${}^{241}Am-{}^{9}Be$ neutron source. The atmospheric neutrons are successfully measured from thermal up to several MeV, well separated from the cosmic ray background. A comparison of the spherical proportional counter with the current available neutron counters is also given.

  20. TOP counter prototype R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, K.; Belle-II PID Group

    2011-05-01

    We have been developing a Cherenkov ring-imaging counter, named TOP counter, as a particle-identification device of the Belle-II detector for the super B-factory at KEK. In this presentation, we show the R&D status of the TOP counter prototype. We performed a beam test using 2 m long quartz radiator and MCP-PMTs, and evaluated the number of detected photons, time resolution and chromatic effects. We developed a square-shape MCP-PMT with Hamamatsu photonics, so as to obtain a sufficient lifetime under the Belle-II environment. We improved the lifetime of the quantum efficiency by changing the internal structure and production process, and then obtained a lifetime of >350 mC/cm2.

  1. Development of photocathodes for gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lot of ways of physics needs the development of high sensibility imaging devices with large sensitive surface. The problems brought by the building of such devices may be solved by the use of gaz counters. But we must sensitize these counters to low energy photons (< 10 eV). We have particularly studied the response of solid state photocathodes working directly into the counter. We show first a method to increase the quantum efficiency of photocathodes. We experiment this method and take few conclusions. We also show a method to measure the photoelectric threshold of a metal under gas and we apply this method. Because of the limitations of our apparatus we have built a system which permit to manufacture and mesure photocathodes. This apparatus which have numerous possibilities and an automatic data taking system is described. We also describe results of its exploitation and the type of investigation that we are going to develop

  2. Calibration of nuclear medicine gamma counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the practical problem of nuclear medicine gamma counters calibration has been solved by using dose calibrators CRC-15R with standard error ±5%. The samples from technetium generators have been measured both by dose calibrators CRC-15R and gamma counter ICN Gamma 3.33 taking into account decay correction. Only the linear part of the curve has practical meaning. The advantage of this procedure satisfies the requirements from international standards: the calibration of sources used for medical exposure be traceable to a standard dosimetry laboratory and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine procedures be calibrated in terms of activity of the radiopharmaceutical to be administered. (author)

  3. An automatic light scattering CCN counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, G. G.

    1981-11-01

    The counter is a static thermal diffusion chamber which has been modified to include an optical system for the determination of droplet concentration by the measurement of scattered light. The determination of concentration is made by measurement of the peak scattered light signal from the cloud of growing droplets which is a function of both the droplet concentration and chamber supersaturation. Because the formation of the peak is related to the rate of growth of the droplets and sedimentation, both of which are determined by supersaturation, the system calibration can be uniquely determined by comparison with an absolute counter such as a static diffusion chamber with a photographic recording system.

  4. Extruded plastic counters with WLS fiber readout

    CERN Document Server

    Kudenko, Yu G; Mayatski, V A; Mineev, O V; Yershov, N V

    2001-01-01

    Extruded plastic scintillation counters with WLS fiber readout are described. For a 7 mm thick counter with 4.3 m long double-clad fibers spaced at 7 mm a light yield of 18.7 photoelectrons/MeV and a time resolution of 0.71 ns (sigma) were obtained. A prototype photon veto module consisting of 10 layers of 7 mm thick grooved plastic slabs interleaved with 1 mm lead sheets was also tested, which yielded 122 photoelectrons per minimum ionizing particle and time resolution of 360 ps.

  5. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær;

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  6. Body potassium measurement by 40K gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 150 normal Indian adult males were studied for their total body potassium using the whole body counter of the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi. The potassium values were found to vary between 1.69 to 1.89 with average of 1.73 g. of potassium per kilogram of body weight. There was poor correlation between total body potassium and body weight. The body build index was found to be anthropometric parameter which is better correlated with the estimated values of total body potassium. The study further pointed out the important role of variable body fat on the estimation of total body potassium by whole body counter. The effect of age and the nature of physical activity of the subject on total body potassium were also investigated. The importance of an independent method for fast estimation is indicated. (auth.)

  7. The march of the MehteranRethinking the human rights critiques of counter-terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Öztaş

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 9/11 counter-terrorism laws adopted by Western democracies have been criticised intensively, producing a large body of theoretical and practical analysis. However, the material focusing on these issues through the lens of racism is limited. Thus the human rights critiques of counter-terrorism laws remain inadequate. One of the more obvious reasons for this gap in the literature is that the discriminatory dimension of counter-terrorism policies and laws and the subtle (sometimes institutional racism involved is not adequately considered. Another reason is related to the dilemmatic role of human rights. Since early modernity the legal system and the values of Europe/the West is imposed on the 'other'. Previously this was done through colonialism and empire building; today, it is realised through the liberal capitalist economic system heralding democratic government based on 'universal' human rights. Like before, the 'other' resist this imposition (along with the democratic system based on human rights, through a vaguely defined term - 'terrorism'. In reaction, counter-terrorism measures and laws, which are known to violate human rights, are enacted in defence of a system which defines itself through a commitment to human rights values. This paper intends to discuss the dual role of human rights, which criticise and affirm counter-terrorism measures.

  8. Micropipette as Coulter counter for submicron particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzevich, Yauheni; Ordonez, Tony; Evans, Grant; Chow, Lee

    2011-03-01

    Coulter counter based on micropipette has been around for several decades. Typical commercial Coulter counter has a pore size of 20 μ m, and is designed to detect micron-size blood cells. In recent years, there are a lot of interests in using nanometer pore size Coulter counter to detect single molecule and to sequence DNA. Here we describe a simple nanoparticle counter based on pulled micropipettes with a diameter of 50 -- 500 nm. Borosilicate micropipettes with an initial outer diameter of 1.00 mm and inner diameter of 0.5 mm are used. After pulling, the micropipettes are fire polished and ultrasound cleaned. Chlorinated Ag/AgCl electrodes and 0.1 M of KCl solution are used. The ionic currents are measured using an Axopatch 200B amplifier in the voltage-clamp mode. Several types and sizes of nanoparticles are measured, including plain silica and polystyrene nanospheres. The results will be discussed in terms of pH values of the solution and concentrations of the nanoparticles. Financial support from National Science Foundation (NSF-0901361) is acknowledged.

  9. Energy resolution of the proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolution values 11.6% and 12.2% for 5.9 keV have been obtained experimentally for proportional counters with gas fillings Ne+0.5% Ar or Ar+0.5% C2H2. This is appreciably better than earlier measurements which exceed 14%. Theoretical computation indicates that even better resolutions can be obtained. (Auth.)

  10. Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3776 Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter (UCPC; pictured in Appendix A) is designed for researchers interested in airborne particles smaller than 20 nm. With sensitivity to particles down to 2.5 nm in diameter, this UCPC is ideally suited for atmospheric and climate research, particle formation and growth studies, combustion and engine exhaust research, and nanotechnology research.

  11. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  12. A proportional-scintillation counter beta spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a proportional counter for coincidence gating of events in a plastic scintillator provides selective registration of beta interactions in the scintillator. This technique has been used to construct a field instrument that can selectively collect beta spectra (coincidence gating) or gamma spectra (anticoincidence gating). Associated dose rates are calculated from the spectra

  13. Townsend coefficients of gases in avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though much work has been done by many authors in the last few years in the development and application of avalanche counters for ion radiation, it is based upon values of the Townsend coefficients as the essential gas parameter, which were determined many years ago for much lower reduced field strengths F/p than prevail in such counters. Therefore absolute determinations of α in vapours of methyl alcohol, cyclohexane, acetone, and n-heptene were performed under original conditions of avalanche counters. The values obtained do not differ by more than 30%-50% from the former values indeed, extrapolated over F/p for the first three mentioned substances, but the amounts of A and B in the usual representation α/p=A exp(-B(F/p)) are much greater for the stronger reduced fields. This is of importance for such counter properties as the dependence of pulse heights on pressure, voltage, electrode distance etc., which are governed by other combinations of A and B than α/p itself. A comparison of results for different ionic radiations shows a marked influence of the primary ionization density along the particle tracks which is hard to explain. (Auth.)

  14. COUNTER-ROTATION IN RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cayatte, V.; Sauty, C. [Laboratoire Univers et Théories, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8102 du CNRS, Université Paris Diderot, F-92190 Meudon (France); Vlahakis, N.; Tsinganos, K. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Matsakos, T. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Lima, J. J. G., E-mail: veronique.cayatte@obspm.fr [Centro de Astrofísica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-06-10

    Young stellar object observations suggest that some jets rotate in the opposite direction with respect to their disk. In a recent study, Sauty et al. showed that this does not contradict the magnetocentrifugal mechanism that is believed to launch such outflows. Motion signatures that are transverse to the jet axis, in two opposite directions, have recently been measured in M87. One possible interpretation of this motion is that of counter-rotating knots. Here, we extend our previous analytical derivation of counter-rotation to relativistic jets, demonstrating that counter-rotation can indeed take place under rather general conditions. We show that both the magnetic field and a non-negligible enthalpy are necessary at the origin of counter-rotating outflows, and that the effect is associated with a transfer of energy flux from the matter to the electromagnetic field. This can be realized in three cases: if a decreasing enthalpy causes an increase of the Poynting flux, if the flow decelerates, or if strong gradients of the magnetic field are present. An illustration of the involved mechanism is given by an example of a relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jet simulation.

  15. One-Counter Markov Decision Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brazdil, T.; Brozek, V.; Etessami, K.; Kucera, A.; Wojtczak, D.K.; Charikar, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the computational complexity of central analysis problems for One-Counter Markov Decision Processes (OC-MDPs), a class of finitely-presented, countable-state MDPs. OC-MDPs are equivalent to a controlled extension of (discrete-time) Quasi-Birth-Death processes (QBDs), a stochastic model stud

  16. Effectiveness of a Television Counter Advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lull, James T.; Mulac, Anthony

    This paper investigates the potential effectiveness of counter advertising in influencing the buying habits of a convinced audience. One month before the actual study, 109 subjects indicated a brand preference in a consumer questionnaire. The subjects were randomly assigned to groups that viewed one of the following: (1) a pro-Bayer aspirin…

  17. Performance of silica aerogel threshold Cerenkov counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from a series of test beam measurements are presented for a two-cell silica aerogel Cerenkov counter system. The main achievement is the detection of 13±1 photoelectrons in a full-sized n=1.008 silica aerogel cell which is read out with a fine mesh photomultiplier in different magnetic fields up to 1.35T. (orig.)

  18. A beta and gamma radiation counter device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1988 and 1990, 1800 small Geiger-Mueller counters have been distributed in French high schools (caesium 137 as the radioactive source) for pupils' information about radioactivity (vocabulary, protection, ...). The INSTN (Institute for nuclear science and technology) has set up seminars for teachers' formation

  19. Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) Instruction Manual-Version 4.00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solution In-Line Alpha Counter (SILAC) provides near real-time alpha activity measurements of aqueous solutions in gloveboxes located in the Plutonium Facility (TA-55) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The SILAC detector and its interface software were first developed by Joel Farnham at LANL [1]. This instruction manual describes the features of the SILAC interface software and contains the schematic and fabrication instructions for the detector

  20. Dose evaluation on the basis of 24Na activity in the human body for the criticality accident at JCO Tokai nuclear fuel processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodium-24(24Na) generated in human body due to neutron activation was measured by whole body counter (WBC) in JNC Tokai works. Total 148 persons (JCO employees and contractor, public member, fire fighters, etc.) were measured and 24Na was detected in the 62 persons. Neutron energy spectrum around the facility was calculated using ANISN and MCNP code and estimated mean capture probability ξ of neutron for human body at this accident was around 0.25-0.28 at any distance from the center of the precipitation tank. Effective dose equivalent for the 62 persons were estimated based on the calculated conversion factors from 24Na specific activity to neutron dose. Maximum 24Na activity was 7.7 kBq (83 Bq(24Na)/g(23Na)) in total body and the evaluated effective dose equivalent was 47 mSv. (author)

  1. Upaya Perumusan Prinsip Counter Accounting Melalui Filosofi Punk sebagai Counter Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Dayno Utama

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to demonstrate that resistance to mainstream research contained in top/elite accounting journals for sparking creativity and innovation unconsciously has utilized the philosophy of punk. The research method of this research is argumentation technique. The result of this research shows that the philosophy of punk as counter culture can be utilized for accounting research through formulation the accounting principles namely counter accounting. Creative and innovative...

  2. Counter-diffusion and counter-permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments for counter-diffusion and counter-permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through a palladium membrane (25 μm thick) were performed. Deuterium permeation rates as a function of upstream D2 pressure were measured under condition where hydrogen permeated in the opposite direction by supplying H2 gas at the 'other' side (downstream, corresponding to D permeation) of the membrane. It was found that significant deuterium permeation occurred even when the deuterium upstream pressure was much smaller than the hydrogen downstream pressure. The deuterium permeation rate was gradually reduced by increasing the downstream H2 pressure and the corresponding counter H permeation. The deuterium permeation rate under counter H permeation can be represented reasonably well by a simple model in which the ratio of the deuterium permeation rates with and without counter H permeation are assumed to be proportional to the fractional concentration of deuterium in the bulk. However, as the hydrogen counter flow increases, the deuterium permeation rate deviates from the model. This implies that adsorption (absorption) of D2 from the gas phase may be inhibited, and also surface recombination of deuterium may be blocked by hydrogen. (orig.)

  3. Neutron proportional counter with low self-background level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is suggested to cover the inner surface of neutron counter with α-absorption substance layer to reduce level of self-background of neutron counter filled with 3He+30Ar mixture. Application of 50-60 mm thickness fluoroplastic cover turned to be the most perspective. Analysis of energy spectra within 1-10 MeV energy range has shown, that neutron counters with fluoroplastic cover have the background level by one order less, than counters without cover

  4. Expanded uncertainty in measurements of Geiger-Mueller's counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explains the procedure of obtaining expanded uncertainty in measurement for four types of GM counters with the same counter's tube in cases when the contributors of uncertainties in measurement are cosmic background radiation and induced overvoltage phenomenon. According to experiment and obtained experimental results it is established that uncertainties of influenced random variables depend on technological solution of counter and for that purpose they give different contribution to expanded uncertainty in measurement of applied GM counters

  5. Efficiency calibration of solid track spark auto counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The factors influencing detection efficiency of solid track spark auto counter were analyzed, and the best etch condition and parameters of charge were also reconfirmed. With small plate fission ionization chamber, the efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experiment assemblies was re-calibrated. The efficiency of solid track spark auto counter at various experimental conditions was obtained. (authors)

  6. 21 CFR 864.5200 - Automated cell counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated cell counter. 864.5200 Section 864.5200....5200 Automated cell counter. (a) Identification. An automated cell counter is a fully-automated or semi... corpuscular hemoglobin concentration). These devices may use either an electronic particle counting method...

  7. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Marlow, J. B.

    2015-07-01

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designed and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boron-lined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter-Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness.

  8. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such ...

  9. Scintillation Counters for Neutron Scattering Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintillation counters discussed in this paper are of two types : (i) UP or B2O3 fixed with zinc sulphide in varving composition, (ii) Li containing glasses of varying composition. The ideal composition of each rype for neutron scattering experiments and their relative sensitivity tae neutrons and γ-rays are considered. The ZnS type can be used with a γ-ray pulse shape discriminator and practical experience of its use in a multi-counter time-of-flight experiment is described. The Li glass has higher γ-background but also higher neutron efficiency. Performance figures of a scintillator containing 25% by wt. Li2O and 1 mm thick will be given. (author)

  10. Study on characteristics of Ladu counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The angular response, the radial differential response, the energy response and the distribution of neutron counting rate inside sphere cavity of the Ladu counter are measured, and the effective centre is estimated. The angular responses remain within 5%. The radial differential responses are consistent with those of solid spherical detector. Under the conditions that source distances are five times more than the radius of the counter, the error is less than 0.7% while the difference between effective centre and geometrical centre is ignored. Inside the sphere cavity, the ratio of ultra thermal neutron counting rate to thermal one is less than 10%, but the counting rates slightly depend on the position of thermal neutron detector. In the energy range from 200 eV to 5 MeV, the energy response values extend horizontally within +- 18%

  11. Recalibration of the Cameco mobile lung counter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry; Allen, Steve A

    2009-06-01

    The Cameco lung counter has been recalibrated using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory torso phantom using an extended lung set (i.e., longer than the original set). The previous calibration had used the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute torso phantom. The new calibration had lower counting efficiencies and, as a result, higher minimum detectable activities. The recalibrated Cameco lung counter was used to measure an extended lung set that had the volume reduced by using modified planar inserts for the sliced lungs as the extended lung set has a lung volume that is larger than Reference Man. This work has shown that sliced lungs can be used to alter the characteristics of the phantom's lung inserts substantially and provide flexibility in measurements previously not recognized. PMID:19430220

  12. Securitization and Counter-Securitization in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Stritzel, Holger; Chang, Sean C

    2015-01-01

    This article confronts securitization theory with the war in Afghanistan and thus explores questions and dynamics of securitization in a specific communicative situation of military combat. The confrontation highlights not only less well researched questions of implementation, resistance, legitimacy and difficulties of establishing authority in securitizations, but it also inspires a conceptualization of counter-securitization within the theory. In Afghanistan sovereign power to control and r...

  13. Reflexivity, social transformation, and counter culture

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, Laurence

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify how reflexivity works within the local rationalities of social movement milieux that, it is argued, represent an important source of the development of reflexivity in contemporary lifeworlds. In interviews in the Dublin counter culture, reflexivity appears above all as the institutionalisation of autonomy, the creation of new social forms for self-determined purposes. A starting point is strategies of distancing from the taken-for-granted assumptions of in...

  14. Reforms and counter-reforms in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemio, Luis Carlos; Candia, Fernando; Evia, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes reforms and counter-reforms in Bolivia in recent decades and their effects on the policymaking process (PMP) and productivity. Bolivia’s PMP has shifted from a formal representative democracy to a “participative and direct type of democracy” where street protest and other non-conventional forms of political participation have become dominant. While reforms have increased productivity, they have failed to secure the political support necessary to assure long-term sustainabi...

  15. Gunnislake Fish Counter Annual Report 2002

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This is the Gunnislake Fish Counter Annual Report 2002 from the Environment Agency South West Region, which was held on March 2002. It presents the daily upstream counts of migratory salmonids recorded on the River Tamar at Gunnislake Weir fish counting station in 2002. The data within this report covers the period of the commercial migratory salmonid net buy-back scheme and the National Spring Salmon Bylaws. The report contains section on Net Buy-Back; Species Apportionment; Validation of co...

  16. Clearing over-the-counter derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ed Nosal

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the financial crisis of 2008, the over-the-counter derivatives market was not required to “clear” transactions. This changed with the signing of the new financial reform legislation, the Dodd–Frank Act on July 21, 2010. Going forward, most OTC derivatives will be cleared through a particular set of institutional arrangements: a regulated clearinghouse. This article provides an overview of how clearing works, the potential benefits of central clearing for OTC derivatives, and the opti...

  17. An ellipsoidal grid gas proportional scintillation counter

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rui M. C.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Conde, C. A. N.

    1999-01-01

    Gas Proportional Scintillation Counters using curved grids for solid angle and reflection compensation have been described in the recent literature. They allow large radiation windows with diameters of 25 mm keeping at the same time the good energy resolutions characteristic of those X-ray detectors. However, the grids used have a spherical curvature, which does not correspond to the optimal curvature. In the present work we have calculated by computer simulation an improved shape for the cur...

  18. Use of silica aerogel in Cherenkov counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silica aerogel has been widely used as a radiator for Cherenkov detectors. The review is devoted to the consideration of various aspects concerning aerogel: its production methods, optical and physical properties, including transparency, absorption, and scattering lengths, the number of photoelectrons and also factors affecting the accuracy of particle identification. The use of silica aerogel in various threshold Cherenkov counters as BELLE (KEK), TASSO (DESY), KEDR (VEPP-4M) is described

  19. Tests of a silica aerogel Cherenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Cherenkov counter with silica aerogel of refractive index 1.06 as radiator has been constructed and tested. The Cherenkov light produced in 9 cm thick silica aerogel was detected with four 5''-photomultipliers through a 162 cm long air light guide. The photoelectron yield for a 1 GeV/c pion beam was found to be 6 and uniform over a sensitive area of 40 x 30 cm2. (orig.)

  20. Protection of Human Rights in Countering Terrorism

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Nie

    2009-01-01

    Although the violent action occurred increasingly in the world, the definition of terrorism has not come into consensus yet. In countering terrorism, human right protection for the terrorist suspects should also be guaranteed, for the “fair” trial and the minimum procedural guarantees are the basic element of the rule of law. Moreover, the terrorist suspects should be protected by the minimum standard of the fair trial even if before the military commission. Because the minimum due process gu...

  1. Estimation of Total Body Fat from Potassium-40 Content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper concerns on estimation of total body fat from potassium 40 content using total body counting technique. The work performed using fast scan whole body counter. Calibration of that system for K-40 was carried out under assumption that uniformity distribution of radioactivity of potassium was distributed in 10 polyethylene bottles phantom. Different body sizes were represented by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 polyethylene bottles; each bottle has a volume of 0.04 m3. The counting efficiency for each body size was determined. Lean body weight (LBW) was calculated for ten males and ten females using appropriate mathematical equation. Total Body Potassium, TBK for the same selected group was measured using whole body counter. A mathematical relationship between lean body weight and potassium content was deduced .Fat contents for some individuals were calculated and weight/height ratio was indicated for fatness.

  2. The GlueX Start Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Eric; GlueX Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The GlueX experiment will study meson photoproduction with unprecedented precision. This experiment will use the coherent bremsstrahlung technique to produce a 9 GeV linearly polarized photon beam incident on a liquid H2 target. A Start Counter detector has been fabricated to identify the accelerator electron beam buckets, approximately 2 ns apart, and to provide accurate timing information which is used in the level-1 trigger of the experiment. This detector is designed to operate at photon intensities of up to 108 γ / s in the coherent peak and provide a timing resolution electron beam buckets to within 99 % accuracy. Furthermore, the Start Counter detector will provide excellent solid angle coverage, ~ 90 % of 4 π hermeticity , and a high degree of segmentation for background rejection. It consists of a cylindrical array of 30 scintillators with pointed ends that bend towards the beam at the downstream end. Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors have been selected as the readout system. The physical properties of the Start Counter have been studied extensively. The results of theses studies are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Contracts DE-AC05-06OR23177 & DE-FG02-99ER41065.

  3. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  4. Development of aerogel Cherenkov counters at Novosibirsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work on aerogel Cherenkov counters was started in Novosibirsk in 1986. Production of aerogels with refractive indices of 1.006-1.13 and thicknesses of blocks up to 50mm was developed. The light absorption length at 400nm is 5-7m, the scattering length is 4-5cm. By these parameters, the Novosibirsk aerogel is one of the best in the world. The ASHIPH Cherenkov counters with light collection on wavelength shifters have been developed. The ASHIPH system of the KEDR detector contains 1000l of aerogel. The π/K separation is 4.5σ. A project of ASHIPH counters for the SND detector has been developed. Aerogel RICH for LHCb gives a possibility to identify hadrons in the momentum range of 2-10GeV/c. The Novosibirsk group is developing an aerogel RICH for the endcap for the SuperBaBar project. Calculations performed by a group of physicists from Novosibirsk and DESY-Zeuthen have shown that aerogel radiators enable to achieve time resolution up to 20fs

  5. A mobile prompt-gamma in-vivo neutron activation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant environmental-medical problem is the internal deposition of Cd in industrially exposed populations. With the development of 238Pu, Be neutron sources, it has become possible to design facilities that are significantly reduced in size and hence portable. The paper describes the development and fabrication of a self-contained 'neutron-capture' facility in a mobile trailer which is readily transportable. Although the initial project was designed for the measurement of Cd deposited in the liver and kidney of industrial workers, the sensitivity of the system will allow for measurements in normal populations. The limits of detection of Cd are 2.0 mg for kidney and 1.5 μg/g (wet weight) for liver (associated organ radiation dose is 660 mrem). The portable facility makes it possible to study Cd-exposed populations in any geographic location. With minor modifications of the collimator, detectors and counting geometry, it is also possible to make in-vivo measurements of total body nitrogen. The neutron source used in the mobile facility is 85 Ci 238Pu, Be shielded by epoxy resin doped with LiCO3 and 6LiF. Additional shielding is provided by Pb bricks and polyethylene bricks with 1% boron and 80% Pb. For Cd measurement, the detection system consists of two Ge(Li) detectors (25% efficiency each) shielded by Bi and a 1.5-cm layer of paraffin heavily doped with 6LiF. For body nitrogen, two shielded 15.2cmx15.2cm NaI(Tl) detectors are positioned above the scanning bed. This mobile activation facility could be usefully employed in countries which need to monitor industrial populations but do not have ready access to large neutron research facilities and permanently installed whole-body counters

  6. Compact multiwire proportional counters for the detection of fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two large area multistep position sensitive (two dimensional) multiwire proportional counters have been developed for experiments involving study of fission dynamics using general purpose scattering chamber facility at IUAC. Both detectors have an active area of 20x10 cm2 and provide position signals in horizontal (X) and vertical (Y) planes, timing signal for time of flight measurements and energy signal giving the differential energy loss in the active volume. The design features are optimized for the detection of low energy heavy ions at very low gas pressures. Special care was taken in setting up the readout electronics, constant fraction discriminators for position signals in particular, to get optimum position and timing resolutions along with high count rate handling capability of low energy heavy ions. A custom made charge sensitive preamplifier, having lower gain and shorter decay time, has been developed for extracting the differential energy loss signal. The position and time resolutions of the detectors were determined to be 1.1 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and 1.7 ns FWHM, respectively. The detector could handle heavy ion count rates exceeding 20 kHz without any breakdown. Time of flight signal in combination with differential energy loss signal gives a clean separation of fission fragments from projectile and target like particles. The timing and position signals of the detectors are used for fission coincidence measurements and subsequent extraction of their mass, angular, and total kinetic energy distributions. This article describes systematic study of these fission counters in terms of efficiency, time resolution, count rate handling capability, position resolution, and the readout electronics. The detector has been operated with both five electrode geometry and four electrode geometry, and a comparison has been made in their performances.

  7. Promoting Diversity in the Core Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Person, M.

    2011-01-01

    Diversity is encouraged to counter historical bias against a variety of groups and has emerged as a positive attribute of the workplace. However, among pressing economic and scientific outcome pressures, issues not tied to measurable rewards are often overlooked in the core facility. This poster will present an overview of diversity issues and strategies relevant to core facilities. The variety of types of diversity is discussed, including sex, race, ethnicity, nationality, socioeconomic back...

  8. Relativistic Static Thin Disks The Counter-Rotating Model

    CERN Document Server

    Espitia, O A; Espitia, Omar A.; Gonzalez, Guillermo A.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed study of the Counter-Rotating Model (CRM) for generic finite static axially symmetric thin disks with nonzero radial pressure is presented. We find a general constraint over the counter-rotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counter-rotating perfect fluids. We also found expressions for the energy density and pressure of the counter-rotating fluids. Then we shown that, in general, there is not possible to take the two counter-rotating fluids as circulating along geodesics neither take the two counter-rotating tangential velocities as equal and opposite. An specific example is studied where we obtain some CRM with well defined counter-rotating tangential velocities and stable against radial perturbations. The CRM obtained are in agree with the strong energy condition, but there are regions of the disks with negative energy density, in violation of the weak energy condition.

  9. Hardware support for software controlled fast multiplexing of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Performance counters may be operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities, and registers may be operable to store a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine may be operable to automatically select a register from the registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters in response to receiving a first signal. The state machine may be further operable to reconfigure the one or more performance counters based on a configuration specified in the selected register. The state machine yet further may be operable to copy data in selected one or more of the performance counters to a memory location, or to copy data from the memory location to the counters, in response to receiving a second signal. The state machine may be operable to store or restore the counter values and state machine configuration in response to a context switch event.

  10. Consumer Preferences for High Welfare Meat in Germany: Self-service Counter or Service Counter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Weinrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people view animal welfare standards in the agricultural industry as critical and some consumers would prefer to buy high welfare meat. In order to successfully introduce high welfare meat products onto the market, some important marketing decisions must be made. Due to limited shelf space in retail outlets, niche products like high welfare meat cannot be placed both at the self-service counter and at the service counter. In order to analyze where to place it best an online survey of 642 German consumers was conducted. By means of factor and cluster analyses, consumers’ animal welfare attitudes and their preference for a point of purchase were combined. The different target groups were joint using cross tabulation analysis. The results reveal that consumers in the target group show a more positive attitude to the service counter.

  11. Facilities & Leadership

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The facilities web service provides VA facility information. The VA facilities locator is a feature that is available across the enterprise, on any webpage, for the...

  12. Counter-Narratives and the Unrehearsed Stories Counter-Terrorists Unwittingly Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Graaf

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Governments produce both deliberate and involuntary (and less conscious narratives when countering terrorism. The thesis of this article is that such unintended messages can be much more powerful and consequential than is realized; in fact, they can completely contradict the intended official 'counter-narrative'. To substantiate this hypothesis, the author looks at the experience of the German Federal Republic in the 1970s and beyond when state and society were confronted with the Red Army Faction (RAF and similar left-wing "revolutionaries" like those of the 2nd of June Movement or the Red Zora.

  13. Geiger-Muller (GM) counters. Associated circuits and counting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the Geiger-Muller counters which present the great benefit of being simple and steady in comparison with other known sensors. The authors propose an overview of problems related to the use of Geiger-Muller counters (GM counters). They first describe their operation (discharge initiation, discharge propagation, collection of positive ions and current in the counter). They discuss their limitations which are related to the migration delay of primary electrons and positive ions. They describe the operation circuit for counters with organic vapour, and for counters associated with counters using halogens. They address the main properties of GM counters, and the different factors to be taken into account when using them to count radioactive sources. The main types of GM counters are then described (they are used to measure different types of radiation). Measurement techniques are discussed for beta radiation (relationship between the number of disintegrations and the noticed counting rate, case of backscattering, absorption and diffusion in the counter window and in the air, influence of absorption and backscattering in the source), for alpha radiation, and for gamma radiation

  14. Biochemistry Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Biochemistry Facility provides expert services and consultation in biochemical enzyme assays and protein purification. The facility currently features 1) Liquid...

  15. Cerenkov counter for the experiment NA3

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The program of the NA3 experiment included the study of hadronic interactions with a large transverse momentum pT, thus the inclusion in the set-up of three gas threshold Cerenkov counters of large acceptance. The photo shows the downstream part of the second Cerenkov (located at the output of the magnet). The yellow membrane is a temporary protection for the optics (shown in photo 7810540X) to be taken away when fixing this part to the gas tank (entering the magnet and not shown). The photomultipliers all around are heavily shielded.

  16. Taxing junk food to counter obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Caroline; Grandi, Sonia M; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2013-11-01

    We examined the advantages and disadvantages of implementing a junk food tax as an intervention to counter increasing obesity in North America. Small excise taxes are likely to yield substantial revenue but are unlikely to affect obesity rates. High excise taxes are likely to have a direct impact on weight in at-risk populations but are less likely to be politically palatable or sustainable. Ultimately, the effectiveness of earmarked health programs and subsidies is likely to be a key determinant of tax success in the fight against obesity. PMID:24028245

  17. Test of lead glass shower counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead glass counters made of wedge shaped blocks of SF6 were tested with positrons at SLAC. The beam energy ranged from 2 to 17.5 GeV. Energy dependence and beam position dependence of pulse height and energy resolution were studied with lead glass blocks of various lengths. The effect of a BK-7 light guide on pulse height was clearly observed. Degradation of the energy resolution due to aluminum absorbers of various lengths was investigated. A mesh type photomultiplier was also tested

  18. Neutron spectroscopy with the Spherical Proportional Counter

    OpenAIRE

    Bougamont, E .; Dastgheibi, A.; Derre, J.; Galan, J.; Gerbier, G.; Giomataris, I.; Gros, M.; Katsioulas, I.; Jourde, D.; Magnier, P.; Navick, X. F.; Papaevangelou, T.; Savvidis, I.; Tsiledakis, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel large volume spherical proportional counter, recently developed, is used for neutron measurements. Gas mixtures of $N_{2}$ with $C_{2}H_{6}$ and pure $N_{2}$ are studied for thermal and fast neutron detection, providing a new way for the neutron spectroscopy. The neutrons are detected via the ${}^{14}N(n, p)C^{14}$ and ${}^{14}N(n, \\alpha)B^{11}$ reactions. Here we provide studies of the optimum gas mixture, the gas pressure and the most appropriate high voltage supply on the sensor o...

  19. Use of parallel counters for triggering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikityuk, N. M.

    1992-10-01

    The results of an investigation into using parallel counters, majority coincidence schemes and parallel compressors for triggering in multichannel high energy spectrometers are described. Concrete examples of methods of constructing fast and economical new devices used to determine multiplicity hits t > 900 registered in a hodoscopic plane and a pixel detector are given. For this purpose the author uses the syndrome coding method and cellular arrays. In addition, the author has created an effective coding matrix which can be used for light signal coding. For example, such signals are supplied from scintillators to photomultipliers. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High Energies, JINR.

  20. Industrial espionage and technical surveillance counter measurers

    CERN Document Server

    Androulidakis, Iosif

    2016-01-01

    This book examines technical aspects of industrial espionage and its impact in modern companies, organizations, and individuals while emphasizing the importance of intellectual property in the information era. The authors discuss the problem itself and then provide statistics and real world cases. The main contribution provides a detailed discussion of the actual equipment, tools and techniques concerning technical surveillance in the framework of espionage. Moreover, they present the best practices and methods of detection (technical surveillance counter measures) as well as means of intellectual property protection.

  1. Cooperation in counter-pollution response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that counter-pollution arrangements in Europe are the object of an effective, dynamic, and highly organized international cooperation. The North sea area, in particular, is characterized by an impressive concentration of oil-combating equipment and by a high level of know-how. Though national policies with respect to spill management may still differ on many counts, governments are striving towards a harmonized approach of spill combating. Technically, the ability to prevent environmental damage in case of a large oil spill remains limited, but the European approach could be regarded as a valid attempt to mitigate damage, prevent chaos and limit the waste of valuable resources

  2. Study of thermal threshold and counter-measures for human body in oceanic working environment. 1st Report. Heat balance model and heat storage index; Shonetsu kankyoka no kaiyo sagyo ni okeru netsuteki genkai to onnetsu taisaku ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Netsu shushi model to onnetsu shisu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuchi, N. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Nakamura, M. [Tokyo Gakugei University, Tokyo (Japan); Murayama, M.

    1996-12-31

    Identification was intended on effects of such thermal factors as metabolic amount, environmental temperature and humidity, and clothing resistance on human body temperatures during works under hot environments. Therefore, measurements were carried out on human skin temperatures, rectum temperatures and humidity inside clothing, while amount of motion, environmental temperature, and clothing are changed in a constant temperature room and under a sun irradiation environment. Furthermore, a heat balance model was prepared, which divides the objects into an outer shell layer whose temperature changes depending on the result of this experiment and into a core having constant temperature characteristics. An equation to derive skin temperatures was introduced from the model. The equation formulated a calculation formula for heat accumulation in human body, which can be used as a hot heat index. Relationship between thermal factors and heat storage amount was investigated to consider a thermal limit for a physical work. An equation to derive skin temperatures was confirmed capable of expressing general change in skin temperatures, being proved by comparison with experiments. Calculation formulas for amount of heat stored in human body were shown capable of expressing influence of different thermal factors, the expression being useful as a hot heat index. Calculating the human body heat storage is very largely affected by effect of sweat to dissipate heat, hence it is necessary to improve the accuracy including that for body temperature adjusting reactions. 17 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Improved proportional counters for practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas filled proportional counters are useful room-temperature X-ray detectors in various gauges and spectrometers. New gas mixtures have made it possible to improve the properties of these detectors. Penning mixtures offer some special advantages. These mixtures are formed when parent gas is diluted with a small amount of impurity whose ionization energy is lower than the lowest excited state of the parent atoms. The excitations of these atoms can subsequently be turned into ionizations. The result of this additional ionization is that the average ionization energy of the mixture falls below that of the pure gases. This also improves the energy resolution of the detector. Another feature of Penning mixtures is the fact that the first Townsend ionization coefficient is high. This in turn is reflected by an unusually low anode voltage required by the detector. This makes it possible to use high filling pressures and to realize the advantages such pressures offer: the achievement of good energy resolution with a commercial low noise preamplifier; a decrease in the background caused by the wall effect because of the subsequently shorter photoelectron traces; and an increase in the efficiency of the detector. The type of detector used in this paper is a sealed side window counter. Some of its properties, when filled with the mixtures Ar-C4H10, Ar-Xe, and Ne-Ar, are presented

  4. Instability patterns between counter-rotating disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moisy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The instability patterns in the flow between counter-rotating disks (radius to height ratio R/h from 3.8 to 20.9 are investigated experimentally by means of visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry. We restrict ourselves to the situation where the boundary layers remain stable, focusing on the shear layer instability that occurs only in the counter-rotating regime. The associated pattern is a combination of a circular chain of vortices, as observed by Lopez et al. (2002 at low aspect ratio, surrounded by a set of spiral arms, first described by Gauthier et al. (2002 in the case of high aspect ratio. Stability curve and critical modes are measured for the whole range of aspect ratios. From the measurement of a local Reynolds number based on the shear layer thickness, evidence is given that a free shear layer instability, with only weak curvature effect, is responsible for the observed patterns. Accordingly, the number of vortices is shown to scale as the shear layer radius, which results from the competition between the centrifugal effects of each disk.

  5. Finding Feasible Abstract Counter-Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Visser, Willem; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A strength of model checking is its ability to automate the detection of subtle system errors and produce traces that exhibit those errors. Given the high computational cost of model checking most researchers advocate the use of aggressive property-preserving abstractions. Unfortunately, the more aggressively a system is abstracted the more infeasible behavior it will have. Thus, while abstraction enables efficient model checking it also threatens the usefulness of model checking as a defect detection tool, since it may be difficult to determine whether a counter-example is feasible and hence worth developer time to analyze. We have explored several strategies for addressing this problem by extending an explicit-state model checker, Java PathFinder (JPF), to search for and analyze counter-examples in the presence of abstractions. We demonstrate that these techniques effectively preserve the defect detection ability of model checking in the presence of aggressive abstraction by applying them to check properties of several abstracted multi-threaded Java programs. These new capabilities are not specific to JPF and can be easily adapted to other model checking frameworks; we describe how this was done for the Bandera toolset.

  6. Neutron pileup algorithms for multiplicity counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sean M.; Stave, Sean; Lintereur, Azaree; Siciliano, Edward; Kouzes, Richard; Bliss, Mary

    2015-06-01

    The shortage of helium-3 (3He) has created a need to identify alternative neutron detection options for a variety of nuclear nonproliferation applications. One application that may be affected by 3He replacement technology is that of mass accountancy for safeguards, which utilizes coincidence and multiplicity counters to verify special nuclear material declarations. The use of neutron scintillation materials, such as LiF-ZnS sheets, as an alternative to 3He proportional tubes in multiplicity counters requires novel techniques for Pulse Shape Discrimination to distinguish between neutrons and gamma rays. These techniques must work under high count rates, as the maximum momentary rate for incoming neutrons from multiplicity events can be quite large. We have created a fast and accurate neutron discrimination algorithm based on time window filtering and signature comparison that can operate quickly on data with high degrees of gamma ray and neutron pileup. This algorithm is evaluated for its capability to separate signals as the pileup rate increases, and the possibility for implementation on fast hardware (e.g., FPGA hardware) for real-time operation is explored.

  7. Over-the-counter Acne Treatments: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Ashley; Graber, Emmy M.

    2012-01-01

    Acne is a common dermatological disorder that most frequently affects adolescents; however, individuals may be affected at all ages. Many people who suffer from acne seek treatment from both prescription and over-the-counter acne medications. Due to convenience, lower cost, and difficulty getting an appointment with a dermatologist, the use of over-the-counter acne treatments is on the rise. As the plethora of over-the-counter acne treatment options can be overwhelming, it is important that d...

  8. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    OpenAIRE

    Yaxi Chen; Peiqing Liu; Zhihao Tang; Hao Guo

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP), dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs) and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the...

  9. Particle Counter Determination of Bacterial Biomass in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Kogure, Kazuhiro; Koike, Isao

    1987-01-01

    The applicability of the Elzone particle counter to the determination of marine bacterial biomass was investigated. The biomass of bacterial pure cultures and a mixed natural population were followed by using the particle counter, a CHN analyzer, and an ATP analyzer. The particle counter showed the precise size distribution of number and volume of submicron-size particles in seawater. For the pure cultured bacterial strains, the conversion factor from volume to carbon is 0.209 mg of C per mm3...

  10. Investigation of new gas mixtures for the Pestov Counter

    CERN Document Server

    Sann, H; CERN. Geneva; Eschke, J; Lühning, J; Lynen, U; Neyer, C; Pestov, Yu N; Schmidt, H R; Schreiber, B M; Schulze, R; Stelzer, H; Woerner, A; Frankenfeld, U

    2000-01-01

    The physical principle of discharge localization in Pestor spark counters is described. It was experimentally shown that Isoprene is one of the promising candidates to replace 1,3-Butadiene in the standard gas mixture. In the spark counter with the DME-Argon gas mixture and an aluminium nitrite cathode a discharge localization was obtained for the first time. This result is considered as the beginning of a new spark counter technology without conditioning.

  11. Threshold aerogel Cherenkov counters of the KEDR detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle identification system based on aerogel threshold Cherenkov counters ASHIPH (Aerogel SHifter PHotomultiplier) was installed in the KEDR detector in 2013. The system consists of 160 counters arranged in two layers and contains 1000 liters of aerogel with refractive index of 1.05 and 160 MCP PMTs with multialkali photocathode. The efficiency of relativistic particles detection was measured. Long-term stability of ASHIPH counters was studied. The main reasons of efficiency degradation are presented

  12. Design and performance of A 3He-free coincidence counter based on parallel plate boron-lined proportional technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutron counters utilized and developed for deployment as non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments in the field of nuclear safeguards traditionally rely on 3He-based proportional counting systems. 3He-based proportional counters have provided core NDA detection capabilities for several decades and have proven to be extremely reliable with range of features highly desirable for nuclear facility deployment. Facing the current depletion of 3He gas supply and the continuing uncertainty of options for future resupply, a search for detection technologies that could provide feasible short-term alternative to 3He gas was initiated worldwide. As part of this effort, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) designed and built a 3He-free full scale thermal neutron coincidence counter based on boron-lined proportional technology. The boron-lined technology was selected in a comprehensive inter-comparison exercise based on its favorable performance against safeguards specific parameters. This paper provides an overview of the design and initial performance evaluation of the prototype High Level Neutron counter—Boron (HLNB). The initial results suggest that current HLNB design is capable to provide ~80% performance of a selected reference 3He-based coincidence counter (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter, HLNCC). Similar samples are expected to be measurable in both systems, however, slightly longer measurement times may be anticipated for large samples in HLNB. The initial evaluation helped to identify potential for further performance improvements via additional tailoring of boron-layer thickness

  13. Time resolution of time-of-flight detector based on multiple scintillation counters readout by SiPMs

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, P W; Gatti, F; Nishimura, M; Ootani, W; Rossella, M; Shirabe, S; Uchiyama, Y

    2015-01-01

    A new timing detector measuring ~50 MeV/c positrons is under development for the MEG II experiment, aiming at a time resolution $\\sigma_t \\sim 30~\\mathrm{ps}$. The resolution is expected to be achieved by measuring each positron time with multiple counters made of plastic scintillator readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the time resolution for ~50 MeV/c positrons using prototype counters. Counters with dimensions of $90\\times 40\\times 5~\\mathrm{mm}^3$ readout by three SiPMs at each end were build with SiPMs from Hamamatsu Photonics and AdvanSiD and tested in a positron beam at the DA$\\Phi$NE Beam Test Facility. It was found that the time resolution improves nearly as the square root of the number of counter hits. A time resolution $\\sigma_t=26.2\\pm1.3~\\mathrm{ps}$ was obtained with eight counters with Hamamatsu SiPMs. These results suggest that the design resolution is achievable in the MEG II experiment.

  14. Time resolution of time-of-flight detector based on multiple scintillation counters readout by SiPMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, P. W.; De Gerone, M.; Gatti, F.; Nishimura, M.; Ootani, W.; Rossella, M.; Shirabe, S.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2016-08-01

    A new timing detector measuring ∼ 50 MeV / c positrons is under development for the MEG II experiment, aiming at a time resolution σt ∼ 30 ps. The resolution is expected to be achieved by measuring each positron time with multiple counters made of plastic scintillator readout by silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the time resolution for ∼ 50 MeV / c positrons using prototype counters. Counters with dimensions of 90 × 40 × 5mm3 readout by six SiPMs (three on each 40 × 5mm2 plane) were built with SiPMs from Hamamatsu Photonics and AdvanSiD and tested in a positron beam at the DAΦNE Beam Test Facility. The time resolution was found to improve nearly as the square root of the number of counter hits. A time resolution σt = 26.2 ± 1.3 ps was obtained with eight counters with Hamamatsu SiPMs. These results suggest that the design resolution is achievable in the MEG II experiment.

  15. Highly crystalline graphene/carbon black composite counter electrodes with controllable content: Synthesis, characterization and application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Certain graphene in composite counter electrode (CE) boosted the efficiency of DSSCs. ► Composite CE combined the merits of graphene and carbon black. ► Systematic research showed the importance of the amount of graphene in composite CE. ► Composite counter electrode had excellent electrochemical stability. -- Abstract: Highly crystalline graphene/carbon black composite counter electrodes, possessing advantages of both rapid electron transport of graphene and high surface area of carbon black, have been prepared using a facile approach. Tuning composite content allows for the fabrication of high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) in this work. The ratio of graphene and carbon black at ca. 1:3 in weight has been confirmed optimum for synthesizing the composite counter electrode. By comparison with those made of either highly crystalline graphene or carbon black, the DSSC based on composite counter electrode has higher conversion efficiency. Moreover, not only does our DSSCs have comparable performance to that of the Pt-based DSSC, but is more cost-effective. Additionally, the chemical catalysis and stability of composite counter electrodes toward I3− reduction, and the interfacial charge transfer have been quantitatively investigated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectra. The results have revealed that the content of graphene and carbon black in composite counter electrodes is very important for fabricating the DSSCs with high catalytic performance and fast interfacial electron transfer

  16. Computer Crimes and Counter Measures in the Nigerian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasanmi, Omoneye Olufunke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the use of the information and communication technology (ICT facilities such as computers and the Internet in the perpetration of criminal activities like spamming, credit card frauds, ATM fra uds, phishing, identity theft, denial - of - service, and a host of others has lend credence to the view that ICT is contributing to crime in the banking sector. A greater understanding of such computer crimes may complement existing security practices by poss ibly highlighting new areas of counter measures. This paper thus assesses whether these crimes can be totally eradicated or not and whether the new generation banks experience more computer crimes than the old generation banks in Nigeria. Based on the find ings of this study, the paper concludes that total eradication of computer crimes is not possible but can be highly reduced if internal control measures are adequately put in place within a bank’s organizational structure and that new generation banks seem to experience more crimes than their old generation counterparts due to the fact that majority of their services, which are automated, are subjected to technological changes at a rapid rate

  17. Development of tecniques for constructing Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of several construction techniques of Geiger-Mueller counters was carried out in order to establish the most suitable technology for such purpose. The results obtained with counters for alpha, beta and gamma rays, which were designed and built in the laboratory of Sao Paulo University (USP) are described. Most of the counters were built inside Pyrex-glass envelope and their cathodes were made of electrolytic copper or brass foils of still a silver layer deposited by chemical process. Some counters were made with cilyndrical brass tube. Anode wires of different materials and diameters and severals quenching vapors were used and the results obtained are described. All the procedures used in preparation of surfaces, cleaning of materials, purification of filling mixtures, the procedures for operating evacuation and filling of counters are described. The results obtained with self quenching counters using soda glass and an external colloidas graphite cathode are presented and the influence of filling mixtures is analysed. A technology to produce reliable counters from materials and gases easily available in the country was established. It is shown that counters with an external cathode can be used when recovery time on order of 2 μs are required. The plateus obtained for such counters were on order of 1000V with slope of about 0.5%. (Author)

  18. Discharge quenching circuit for Geiger-Mueller counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron discharge quenching circuit in halogen Geiger-Mueller counters with the total time of counter supply switch on after the signal appearence at the input of approximately 70 ns at input sensitivity of approximately 50 mV is described. The circuit provides the parallel control of five STS-5 counters at the quenching pulse duration of 4.5 μs. For two STS-5 counters the counting characteristics with the inclination up to 0.131%/V and flat-top of 100 V at the load of 60 thousand pulse/s. Maximum loading is 120 thousand pulse/s

  19. Relativistic Static Thin Disks: The Counter-Rotating Model

    OpenAIRE

    Espitia, Omar A.; Gonzalez, Guillermo A.

    2001-01-01

    A detailed study of the Counter-Rotating Model (CRM) for generic finite static axially symmetric thin disks with nonzero radial pressure is presented. We find a general constraint over the counter-rotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counter-rotating perfect fluids. We also found expressions for the energy density and pressure of the counter-rotating fluids. Then we shown that, in general, there is not possibl...

  20. Hardware support for software controlled fast reconfiguration of performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2013-06-18

    Hardware support for software controlled reconfiguration of performance counters may include a plurality of performance counters collecting one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A storage element stores data value representing a time interval, and a timer element reads the data value and detects expiration of the time interval based on the data value and generates a signal. A plurality of configuration registers stores a set of performance counter configurations. A state machine receives the signal and selects a configuration register from the plurality of configuration registers for reconfiguring the one or more performance counters.

  1. Neutron dosimetry using proportional counters with tissue equivalent walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reminds the calculation method of the neutron absorbed dose in a material and deduce of it the conditions what this material have to fill to be equivalent to biological tissues. Various proportional counters are mode with walls in new tissue equivalent material and filled with various gases. The multiplication factor and neutron energy response of these counters are investigated and compared with those obtained with ethylene lined polyethylene counters. The conditions of working of such proportional counters for neutron dosimetry in energy range 10-2 to 15 MeV are specified. (author)

  2. Influence of guard wires in the response of spark counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic study of the operation characteristics of Spark Counters with air filling at atmospheric pressure, was carried out for alpha particles (241 Am). Anode wires of different chemical compositions and diameters were used. The influence of guard wires in the efficiency of the counter has improved its efficiency by 25%. The properties of these counters such as very low background, high efficiency of detection foir heavily ionizing particles, their directional propertiesd and their negligible efficiency for beta and gamma radiation show that they can be used with great advantage over conventional counters in several Nuclear Physics problems. (author). 14 refs, 10 figs

  3. Absolute calibration of TFTR helium proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TFTR helium proportional counters are located in the central five (5) channels of the TFTR multichannel neutron collimator. These detectors were absolutely calibrated using a 14 MeV neutron generator positioned at the horizontal midplane of the TFTR vacuum vessel. The neutron generator position was scanned in centimeter steps to determine the collimator aperture width to 14 MeV neutrons and the absolute sensitivity of each channel. Neutron profiles were measured for TFTR plasmas with time resolution between 5 msec and 50 msec depending upon count rates. The He detectors were used to measure the burnup of 1 MeV tritons in deuterium plasmas, the transport of tritium in trace tritium experiments, and the residual tritium levels in plasmas following 50:50 DT experiments

  4. Test of a ring imaging Cherenkov counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have tested a ring imaging Cherenkov counter with readout of the projection chamber type. A specific detector response of N0=80 cm-1 was measured which corresponds to 8 photoelectrons per event in a 1.60 m long nitrogen radiator. The resolution of the ring radius was measured to be Δr/r=3.6%. The crosstalk between neighboring wires due to photons generated in the avalanche process was estimated to contribute up to 50% per hit. It was reduced considerably by inserting shielding walls between the wires and by adding C2H6 or iC4H10 to the CH4-TMAE gas mixture. (orig.)

  5. EFFECT OF COUNTERS IN PERFORMANCE OF HADOOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Jain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advancements have led to an overflow of data from distinctive domains (e.g., health care and scientific sensors, user-generated data, Internet and financial companies, and supply chain systems over the past two decades [1]. Big data is commonly unstructured, huge in volume and require more real-time analysis. This paper discusses a Big Data problem from NCDC for huge volume of weather data collected from various parts of world. We had generated map ( and reduce ( function for solving this problem and experimental results of these applications on a Hadoop cluster are being discussed. In this paper, performance of above application has been shown with respect to some counters available.

  6. A single-electron counter for nanodosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Pansky, A.; Shchemelinin, S. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics; Colautti, P.; Conte, V.; De Nardo, L.; Talpo, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy); Tornielli, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    A detector has been devised able to measure with high resolution the primary ionisation yield in tissue-equivalent gas volumes of a few nanometers equivalent length. The sensitive ionisation volume is a wall-less millimetric region defined by a properly shaped electric field. Free electrons created by the radiation inside the sensitive volume are collected into an electron multiplier, capable of efficiently counting single electrons at low gas pressure. The single-electron detection system consists of a long drift column attached to a multistep proportional counter. The electron cloud created by the radiation inside the sensitive volume, diffuses along the drift column. Single electrons, successively arriving at the multiplier are amplified, giving rise to a pulse trail from which the original number of ionisation electrons is counted. The experimental set-up, the electron counting principle, and first data are presented and discussed. (author).

  7. A single-electron counter for nanodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detector has been devised able to measure with high resolution the primary ionisation yield in tissue-equivalent gas volumes of a few nanometers equivalent length. The sensitive ionisation volume is a wall-less millimetric region defined by a properly shaped electric field. Free electrons created by the radiation inside the sensitive volume are collected into an electron multiplier, capable of efficiently counting single electrons at low gas pressure. The single-electron detection system consists of a long drift column attached to a multistep proportional counter. The electron cloud created by the radiation inside the sensitive volume, diffuses along the drift column. Single electrons, successively arriving at the multiplier are amplified, giving rise to a pulse trail from which the original number of ionisation electrons is counted. The experimental set-up, the electron counting principle, and first data are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Fluctuation phenomena in the proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluctuations in the number of electron-ion pairs produced in the primary ionization and in the size of the subsequent electron avalanche, can be reduced by improving the efficiency of the ionization mechanisms by the Penning effect. Energy spent exciting metastable states is used to increase the ionization yield by introducing a second gas whose first ionization potential is slightly lower than the first metastable level of the main gas. A proportional counter filled with a range of Penning mixtures has been investigated experimentally. The Penning mixture argon-xenon gives an increased resolution over argon-methane. For fundamental studies of avalanche fluctuations in Penning mixtures, a uniform field chamber has been constructed. Experimental studies of f (the relative variance of the avalanche size) are compared with values predicted by various avalanche models. The results are reasonably close to predictions based on experimental measurements of ionization probability. (U.K.)

  9. An over-the-counter omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Danielle Bowen

    2006-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications, their utilization is rarely ascertained at hospital admission. Presented here is an interesting case of acute renal failure and hemolytic anemia attributable to a commonly utilized OTC medication. The chronic use of phenazopyridine accounted for all of these findings. Upon discontinuation, everything normalized within one month. Although the differential diagnosis for renal failure and hemolytic anemia is extensive, scleral icterus, normal bilirubin, and orange-colored urine raised the suspicion of phenazopyridine use. This case report highlights overuse of common OTC medications, as well as a lack of knowledge of potential adverse reactions. With history-taking vigilance and patient education, adverse events from OTC medications can be minimized. PMID:17004539

  10. Modelling of an IR scintillation counter

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, M M F; Policarpo, Armando

    2000-01-01

    A systematic study of the excitation and de-excitation mechanisms in ternary gas mixtures Ar+CO sub 2 +N sub 2 is presented regarding the possibility of developing a proportional scintillation counter based on the detection of the infrared molecular emissions associated with the lowest vibrational states of molecules. The use of visible or near-infrared photons (lambda<1 mu m) for applications like imaging and quality control of microstructure detectors has been reported. In view of these applications we analyse the processes leading to near-infrared emissions in pure argon and give an estimation of the number of photons emitted per electron, at several pressures, as a function of the charge gain.

  11. Bragg Curve Counter for primary beam monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prototype Bragg Curve Counter (BCC) has been tested by α-source (241Am) with a continuous gas flow system (P-10: 90% Ar+10% CH4, at 300Torr). Two types of the Frisch grid were prepared for the BCC. One was made of expanded metal meshes, which consist of 175 meshes/inch2 with a 100μmt nickel sheet. The other was made of a 1mm pitch wire with φ 50 μm of the tungsten. The shape of Bragg peak signal was compared each other. It was found that the energy spectrum obtained by the wire grid is a little sharper than that obtained by the meshes grid. However the meshes grid is superior than the wire grid so far as handling and durability are concerned. (author)

  12. Air-ion counter and mobility spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mono-electrode self “zeroing” air-ion counter and mobility (size) scanning spectrometer (CDI-011) based on the Gerdien aspirated condenser principle has been developed. Instrument is intended for short- and long-term indoor and outdoor air-ion concentration measurements and scanning of air-ions by mobility. Measuring small currents (typically 10−14 A) generated by the air-ions in outdoor conditions is demanding and causes many problems related to change of temperature, relative humidity, wind and electromagnetic noise. Also, measuring of both ion polarities with mono electrode detector require alternate changes of the polarizing voltage sign which produces capacitive current spikes. Various techniques, including “zeroing” method, have been applied to successfully overcome most of these measuring interferences.

  13. Air-ion counter and mobility spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarz, Predrag, E-mail: kolarz@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Miljkovic, Budimir [Merni Instrumenti D.O.O., Ljube Stojanovica 38, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Curguz, Zoran [Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, University of East Sarajevo, Vojvode Misica 52, 74000 Doboj (Bosnia and Herzegowina)

    2012-05-15

    Mono-electrode self 'zeroing' air-ion counter and mobility (size) scanning spectrometer (CDI-011) based on the Gerdien aspirated condenser principle has been developed. Instrument is intended for short- and long-term indoor and outdoor air-ion concentration measurements and scanning of air-ions by mobility. Measuring small currents (typically 10{sup -14} A) generated by the air-ions in outdoor conditions is demanding and causes many problems related to change of temperature, relative humidity, wind and electromagnetic noise. Also, measuring of both ion polarities with mono electrode detector require alternate changes of the polarizing voltage sign which produces capacitive current spikes. Various techniques, including 'zeroing' method, have been applied to successfully overcome most of these measuring interferences.

  14. Ocular Counter-Rolling During Centrifugation and Static Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard; Clement, Gilles; Moore, Steven; Curthoys, Ian; Dai, Mingjia; Koizuka, Izumi; Kubo, Takeshi; Raphan, Theodore

    2003-01-01

    Activation of the gravity sensors in the inner ear-the otoliths-generates reflexes that act to maintain posture and gaze. Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) is an example of such a reflex. When the head is tilted to the side, the eyes rotate around the line of sight in the opposite direction (i.e., counter-rolling). While turning comers, undergoing centrifugation, or making side-to-side tilting head movements, the OCR reflex orients the eyes towards the sum of the accelerations from body movements and gravity. Deconditioning of otolith-mediated reflexes following adaptation to microgravity has been proposed as the basis of many of the postural, locomotor, and gaze control problems experienced by returning astronauts. Evidence suggests that OCR is reduced postflight in about 75% of astronauts tested; but the data are sparse, primarily due to difficulties in recording rotational eye movements. During the Neurolab mission, a short-arm human centrifuge was flown that generated sustained sideways accelerations of 0.5-G and one-G to the head and upper body. This produces OCR; and so for the first time, the responses to sustained centrifugation could be studied without the influence of Earth's gravity on the results. This allowed us to determine the relative importance of sideways and vertical acceleration in the generation of OCR. This also provided the first test of the effects of exposure to artificial gravity in space on postflight otolith-ocular reflexes. There was little difference between the responses to centrifugation in microgravity and on Earth. In both conditions, the induced OCR was roughly proportional to the applied acceleration, with the OCR magnitude during 0.5-G centrifugation approximately 60% of that generated during one-G centrifugation. The overall mean OCR from the four payload crewmembers in response to one-G of sideways acceleration was 5.7 plus or minus 1.1 degree (mean and SD) on Earth. Inflight one-G centrifugation generated 5.7 plus or minus 1

  15. Efficacy and Tolerability of Steroid-Free, Over-the-Counter Treatment Formulations in Infants and Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Teresa M.; Herndon, James H; Ewer, Melissa; Stephens, Thomas J; Flick, Iris; Filbry, Alexander; Neufang, Gitta; Schoelermann, Andrea M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Two steroid-free, over-the-counter skin protectant products have been developed for the care and treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD)—Eucerin Eczema Relief Body Crème (Body Cream) for daily skin moisturization and Eucerin Eczema Relief Instant Therapy cream (Instant Therapy) for treatment of AD flare-ups. We tested the efficacy and tolerability of these formulations in infants and children with AD. Methods Study 1: Body Cream was applied twice daily to the lower legs of 64 ...

  16. Efficiency measurement for solid track spark auto counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of solid track spark auto counters was introduced. The best etch condition was explored. Efficiency for spark auto counters was measured. The ameliorating-factor for the hull's thickness and etch-thickness was measured. The measurement for ameliorating factors and efficiency makes solid track detect system, can be used for absolute fission rate measurement. (authors)

  17. Majorizational Choosing of SeveralDifferent Fuzzy Counter Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Different fuzzy reasoning methods were made by choosing different fuzzy operater. This article generally introduced the basic structure of fuzzy controller ,and gave several different fuzzy controllers ,and compared and analyzed different fuzzy counters in theory and computer simulating control and realized majorizational choosing of several fuzzy counters.

  18. Automatic calibration system for VENUS lead glass counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic calibration system for VENUS lead glass counters has been constructed. It consists of a moving table, position sensors, control electronics and a master minicomputer, (micro-11 of DEC). The system has been well operated for six months and one third of VENUS lead glass counters have been calibrated. (author)

  19. The Counter Terrorist Classroom: Religion, Education, and Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearon, Liam

    2013-01-01

    The article identifies international cases--from the United States, Europe, and the United Nations--of an emergent interface of religion, education, and security. This is manifest in the uses of religion in education to counter religious extremism, the notional "counter terrorist classroom." To avoid an over-association of extremism with religion,…

  20. Test of TOF Scintillator Counters for ALICE Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, P; Malakhov, A; Melkumov, G L

    1996-01-01

    The manufactured counters of the fast response scintillators with the photomultipliers valid for operation in the magnetic field environment is being considered among the options for the time-of-flight (TOF) measurements as a particle identification tool for the ALICE experiment. Here we discuss how the tests of such counters have been implemented on the particle beam in respect to the time resolution.

  1. Investigation of sampling tubes of end-cap shower counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement and investigation were conducted for the performances of sampling tubes of end-cap shower counter in BES. It is shown that the self-quenching streamer tube with 12.8 x 12.8 (1 + 2 + 1) is suitable for end-cap shower counter

  2. Recent results on aerogel development for use in Cherenkov counters

    CERN Document Server

    Danilyuk, A F; Savelieva, M D; Bobrovnikov, V S; Buzykaev, A R; Kravchenko, E A; Lavrov, A V; Onuchin, A P

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of silica aerogel for Cherenkov counters is being studied for more than 10 years at the Boreskov Institute of Catalysis in collaboration with the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics. Index of refraction, light scattering length and light absorption length are optical characteristics which determine the quality of aerogel Cherenkov counter. These parameters were measured for the aerogel produced. The results are presented.

  3. High pressure proportional counters operating in pure hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Construction and operation of high pressure proportional counters designed for pressures up to 92 atm which work in pure hydrogen are described. This type of counter offering track reconstruction as well as energy loss determination will be employed as live-target for low-energy recoil measurements in elastic np scattering. (Auth.)

  4. CSER-98-009: antech neutron multiplicity counter for nondestructive analysis; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ANTECH neutron multiplicity counter is a portable nondestructive assay (NDA) instrument which measures plutonium content by counting fission neutrons in the presence of (a,n) neutrons. Neutrons from the (a,n) process are discriminated against through the use of coincidence counting. The instrument will be used for the purpose of determining inventory of plutonium in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The portability of the instrument will facilitate this task by minimizing the necessity of transporting fissile material. The use of the Antech counter is approved based on the inherent safety of the containers to be assayed in that an acceptable margin of subcriticality has been demonstrated for all normal and credible abnormal conditions in accordance with HNF-PRO-537 (F, 1997). A summary of the results of the abnormal conditions are tabulated in Table 2. For foreseeable contingencies, the calculated k(sub eff)s are less than 0.95 after taking into account the calculational bias and statistical uncertainty equal to or larger than the 95% confidence level. This approval is based on the requirement that only one container is to be put in the counter at a time and in accordance with the other limits listed in section 1.4. The design of the current instrument conforms with the acceptability criteria which allow the other NDA detectors currently employed at the facility to be safely used

  5. Body Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 29 October 2014. + ... guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much more ...

  6. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  7. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  8. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  9. Electrovacuum Static Counter-Rotating Relativistic Dust Disks

    CERN Document Server

    González, G A

    2002-01-01

    A detailed study of the Counter-Rotating Model (CRM) for generic electrostatic (magnetostatic) axially symmetric thin disks without radial pressure is presented. We find a general constraint over the counter-rotating tangential velocities needed to cast the surface energy-momentum tensor of the disk as the superposition of two counter-rotating charged dust fluids. We then show that this constraint is satisfied if we take the two counter-rotating streams as circulating along electrogeodesics with equal and opposite tangential velocities. We also find explicit expressions for the energy densities, electrostatic (magnetostatic) charge densities and velocities of the counter-rotating fluids. Three specific examples are considered where we obtain some CRM well behaved based in simple solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The considered solutions are Reissner-Nordstrom in the electrostatic case, its magnetostatic counterpart and two solutions obtained from Taub-NUT and Kerr solutions.

  10. DESIGN OF TERNARY COUNTER BASED ON ADIABATIC DOMINO CIRCUIT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qiankun; Wang Pengjun; Zheng Xuesong

    2013-01-01

    By researching the ternary counter and low power circuit design method,a novel design of low power ternary Domino counter on switch-level is proposed.Firstly,the switch-level structure expression of ternary loop operation circuit with enable pin is derived according to the switch-signal theory,and the one bit ternary counter is obtained combining the ternary adiabatic Domino literal operation circuit and buffer.Then the switch-level structure expression of enable signal circuit is derived,and the four bits ternary counter is obtained by cascade connection.Finally,the circuit is simulated by Spice tool and the output waveforms transform in proper order indicating that the logic function is correct.The energy consumption of the four bits ternary adiabatic Domino counter is 63% less than the conventional Domino counterpart.

  11. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  12. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  13. Experimental facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have completed an engineering feasibility study of a major modification of the HFIR facility and are now beginning a similar study of an entirely new facility. The design of the reactor itself is common to both options. In this paper, a general description of the modified HFIR is presented with some indications of the additional facilities that might be available in an entirely new facility

  14. Advanced counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor for solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and the selective partitioning of actinide from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of a major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilization in many other applications of recovered elements involve an extraction process usually by means of mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. The latter, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and built. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is a stainless steel cylinder with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, having horizontal position as working position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor is shown. It consists of nine cells (units): five rotation units, two mixing units, two propelling units and two final plates which ensures the counter-current running of the two phases. The central shaft having the rotation cells fixed on it is connected to an electric motor of high rotation speed. The extractor has been tested at 1000-3000 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase = 1. The mechanical and hydrodynamic behavior of the two phases in counter-current are described. The results showed that the performances have been generally good. The new facility appears to be a promising idea to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (authors)

  15. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger

  16. Counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Lynn A.; Krause, Lee S.

    2004-09-01

    This paper will evaluate the feasibility of constructing a system to support intelligence analysts engaged in counter-terrorism. It will discuss the use of emerging techniques to evaluate a large-scale threat data repository (or Infosphere) and comparing analyst developed models to identify and discover potential threat-related activity with a uncertainty metric used to evaluate the threat. This system will also employ the use of psychological (or intent) modeling to incorporate combatant (i.e. terrorist) beliefs and intent. The paper will explore the feasibility of constructing a hetero-hierarchical (a hierarchy of more than one kind or type characterized by loose connection/feedback among elements of the hierarchy) agent based framework or "family of agents" to support "evidence retrieval" defined as combing, or searching the threat data repository and returning information with an uncertainty metric. The counter-terrorism threat prediction architecture will be guided by a series of models, constructed to represent threat operational objectives, potential targets, or terrorist objectives. The approach would compare model representations against information retrieved by the agent family to isolate or identify patterns that match within reasonable measures of proximity. The central areas of discussion will be the construction of an agent framework to search the available threat related information repository, evaluation of results against models that will represent the cultural foundations, mindset, sociology and emotional drive of typical threat combatants (i.e. the mind and objectives of a terrorist), and the development of evaluation techniques to compare result sets with the models representing threat behavior and threat targets. The applicability of concepts surrounding Modeling Field Theory (MFT) will be discussed as the basis of this research into development of proximity measures between the models and result sets and to provide feedback in support of model

  17. An analysis of the number of parking bays and checkout counters for a supermarket using SAS simulation studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-07-01

    Two important factors that influence customer satisfaction in large supermarkets or hypermarkets are adequate parking facilities and short waiting times at the checkout counters. This paper describes the simulation analysis of a large supermarket to determine the optimal levels of these two factors. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a large supermarket in a shopping mall with car park facility. In order to make the simulation model more realistic, a number of complexities are introduced into the model. For example, arrival patterns of customers vary with the time of the day (morning, afternoon and evening) and with the day of the week (weekdays or weekends), the transport mode of arriving customers (by car or other means), the mode of payment (cash or credit card), customer shopping pattern (leisurely, normal, exact) or choice of checkout counters (normal or express). In this study, we focus on 2 important components of the simulation model, namely the parking area, the normal and express checkout counters. The parking area is modeled using a Resource Pool block where one resource unit represents one parking bay. A customer arriving by car seizes a unit of the resource from the Pool block (parks car) and only releases it when he exits the system. Cars arriving when the Resource Pool is empty (no more parking bays) leave without entering the system. The normal and express checkouts are represented by Server blocks with appropriate service time distributions. As a case study, a supermarket in a shopping mall with a limited number of parking bays in Bangsar was chosen for this research. Empirical data on arrival patterns, arrival modes, payment modes, shopping patterns, service times of the checkout counters were collected and analyzed to validate the model. Sensitivity analysis was also performed with different simulation scenarios to identify the parameters for the optimal number the parking spaces and checkout counters.

  18. Calibration of the holy body counter of IRD for in vivo measurements of Pb-210 in bone and pulmonary tissues; Calibracao da unidade de contador de corpo inteiro do IRD para medidas in vivo de Pb-210 em tecidos osseo e pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Dantas, Bernardo M.; Azeredo, Adelaide M.G.F.; Lucena, Eder A. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Spitz, Henry B. [University of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Radon and its decay products are present in the atmosphere and are the most important contributors for the internal exposure of the humans to natural radiation. The execution of in vivo measurements of lead-210 in the population and in individuals occupationally exposed in underground mines has been studied and recommended as one of the procedures for the estimation of the exposure to Rn-222. The metabolism of Pb-210 and its distribution within the human body, mainly deposited in the bone tissue, suggests the regions of skull and knee as the most suitable for the in vivo monitoring of such a radionuclide. These regions of the body present a high concentration of bone and little cross contribution from other organs. The chest monitoring is useful to estimate recent incorporations of radon decay products by inhalation, which is the main exposure pattern. This type of measurement should be carried out inside a heavy shielded room and with a detection system of high sensitivity and resolution in order to reach the low detection limits required for this application. The calibration of the detection system requires the use of anthropomorphic phantoms of skull, knee and lungs. The calibration consists on the determination of efficiency factors used to convert the count rates in the region of Pb-210 (46.5 keV) into an activity value in Bequerels. This way it is possible to determine the activity of Pb-210 in each of the organs and tissues of interest of the individual monitored in order to estimate the internal individual exposure to radon progeny. (author)

  19. Development of the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) developed the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) under the joint study program with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). ENMC is a new developed NDA system in order to improve the measurement uncertainty for impure MOX samples. The ENMC has a feature that it can measure not only thermal neutrons which is measured by the conventional NDA system (ex. PSMC: Plutonium Scrap Multiplicity Counter) but also epithermal neutrons. The thickness of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) of the ENMC was reduced to detect the epithermal neutrons. The number of 3He tubes and the pressure of 3He gas in tubes were increased in comparison with the PSMC because the cross section with 3He of epithermal neutron is smaller than one of thermal neutron. By these improvements, the ENMC has a high efficiency of neutron measurement of 64% and a short die-away time of 20 microseconds. The measurement of epithermal neutron before well moderating contributes to improve the measurement uncertainty considerably. Initial calibration test of the ENMC: The calibration test was performed at LANL and JAEA. As a result of the calibration test by using MOX samples, it was confirmed that the ENMC had high performance in comparison with the PSMC. For example, the measurement time of the ENMC to get the same measurement uncertainty was reduced about one-tenth to one-thirtieth in comparison with the PSMC. Functional test of the ENMC: JAEA attempted the functional test of the ENMC to utilize the ENMC capability to the full. This functional test had two phases. The purpose of the phase I functional test was to evaluate the measurement error of the ENMC. As a result of the phase I functional test, systematic error of the ENMC was 1.3%, the random error was 0.2-0.3%, and the total measurement uncertainty was 1.4% for large MOX samples with 100 minutes measurement. The dominant error factor was the systematic error and the major reasons for the error were

  20. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  1. Effect of Counter Electrode in Electroformation of Giant Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuuhei Oana

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Electroformation of cell-sized lipid membrane vesicles (giant vesicles, GVs, from egg yolk phosphatidylcholine, was examined varying the shape of the counter electrode. Instead of a planar ITO (indium tin oxide electrode commonly used, platinum wire mesh was employed as a counter electrode facing lipid deposit on a planar formation electrode. The modification did not significantly alter GV formation, and many GVs of 30–50 µm, some as large as 100 µm, formed as with the standard setup, indicating that a counter electrode does not have to be a complete plane. When the counter electrode was reduced to a set of two parallel platinum wires, GV formation deteriorated. Some GVs formed, but only in close proximity to the counter electrode. Lower electric voltage with this setup no longer yielded GVs. Instead, a large onion-like multilamellar structure was observed. The deteriorated GV formation and the formation of a multilamellar structure seemed to indicate the weakened effect of the electric field on lipid deposit due to insufficient coverage with a small counter electrode. Irregular membranous objects formed by spontaneous swelling of lipid without electric voltage gradually turned into multilamellar structure upon following application of voltage. No particular enhancement of GV formation was observed when lipid deposit on a wire formation electrode was used in combination with a large planar counter electrode.

  2. A method for optimising the gas replacing period of sealed proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proportional counter can be used as low-energy particles detector because of its gas gain. According to charging manner, proportional counter can be divided into sealed and gas-flow proportional counters. Compared with gas-flow counter, although sealed proportional counter can be operated simply but it is short-lived, needs to replace the sealed gas periodically. It introduces the aging phenomenon of sealed proportional counter and a method for optimising the gas replacing period. (authors)

  3. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, D Y; Erickson, S A

    1999-07-01

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected.

  4. Training options for countering nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The burden of stopping a nuclear smuggling attempt at the border rests most heavily on the front-line customs inspector. He needs to know how to use the technological tools at his disposal, how to discern tell-tale anomalies in export documents and manifests, how to notice psychological signs of a smuggler's tension, and how to search anything that might hide nuclear material. This means that assistance in the counter-nuclear smuggling training of customs officers is one of the most critical areas of help that the United States can provide. This paper discusses the various modes of specialized training, both in the field and in courses, as well as the types of assistance that can be provided. Training for nuclear customs specialists, and supervisors and managers of nuclear smuggling detection systems is also important, and differs from front-line inspector training in several aspects. The limitations of training and technological tools such as expert centers that will overcome these limitations are also discussed. Training assistance planned by DOE/NN-43 to Russia within the Second Line of Defense program is discussed in the light of these options, and future possibilities for such training are projected

  5. An ellipsoidal grid gas proportional scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Proportional Scintillation Counters using curved grids for solid angle and reflection compensation have been described in the recent literature. They allow large radiation windows with diameters of 25 mm keeping at the same time the good energy resolutions characteristic of those X-ray detectors. However, the grids used have a spherical curvature, which does not correspond to the optimal curvature. In the present work we have calculated by computer simulation an improved shape for the curved grid. This shape can be well fitted to an ellipsoid of revolution, with a large eccentricity. A detector was designed with such an ellipsoidal grid and a radiation window 40 mm in diameter, filled with pure xenon at 927 Torr coupled to an EMI D676QB VUV photomultiplier tube having a 2'' diameter window. For the experiments envisaged, detection of solar X-rays in the 20-80 keV energy range, a 7 cm thick drift region was used, leading to efficiencies from 80% to 20%, respectively. Such a thick drift region reduces the performance mainly for soft X-rays. For 22 keV X-rays the energy resolution obtained, for a broad X-ray beam entering the full 40 mm diameter detector window, is 6.0%. Results are presented showing the variation of the energy resolution with the window diameter and a performance, for ellipsoidal grids superior to that for spherical grids. A discussion of the results obtained is presented

  6. Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment Counter-Flow Spectrometer and Impactor Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellot, Michael [University of North Dakota

    2016-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Aerial Facility (ARM AAF) counter-flow spectrometer and impactor (CSI) probe was flown on the University of North Dakota Cessna Citation research aircraft during the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEX). The field campaign took place during May and June of 2014 over North Carolina and its coastal waters as part of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Measurement validation campaign. The CSI was added to the Citation instrument suite to support the involvement of Jay Mace through the NASA Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite program and flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft, which is a civilian version of the Air Force’s U2-S reconnaissance platform. The ACE program funded extra ER-2 flights to focus on clouds that are weakly precipitating, which are also of interest to the Atmospheric System Research program sponsored by DOE.

  7. Development of Laser-Based Handheld Aerosol Particle Counter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chang; LI Hui

    2005-01-01

    The JC-CA300 handheld Aerosol particle counter is designed and developed based on light scattering principle. The JC-CA300 counter is composed of optical sensor, DSP component and microprocessor unit. The hardware architecture is designed in compact style by SMT IC chips. The whole counter weight is less than 2 pounds. With 32K RAM space, the JC-CA300 can store 500 sampling records and support standard printer and communicate with a computer through RS232 interface. Based on experimental results, the main performance of JC-CA300 is better than that of the ARTI'S HHPC-6 instrument.

  8. The Application of Counter-Rotating Turbine in Rocket Turbopump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Fei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Counter rotating turbine offers advantages on weight, volume, efficiency, and maneuverability relative to the conventional turbine because of its special architecture. Nowadays, it has been a worldwide research emphasis and has been used widely in the aeronautic field, while its application in the astronautic field is seldom investigated. Researches of counter rotating turbine for rocket turbopump are reviewed in this paper. A primary analysis of a vaneless counter rotating-turbine configuration with rotors of different diameters and rotational speeds is presented. This unconventional configuration meets the requirements of turbopump and may benefit the performance and reliability of rocket engines.

  9. Basic characteristics of gas counters for heavy ion nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To reveal basic characteristics of gas counters for heavy ion nuclear reactions, a ΔE - E telescope and a parallel plate avalanche counter, operating at low gas pressures of 241Am α source. For the telescope, the intrinsic resolution of ΔE and the energy loss straggling, associated with gas pressure, were obtained and compared with the calculated values by Tschalaer's theory. For the avalanche counter with the electrodes consisting of 30 μg / cm2 polypropylene stretched film, a time resolution of 170 ps and a position resolution of 0.5 mm were obtained. (author)

  10. Threshold gas 32-channel Cherenkov counter of the EXCHARM spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 32-channel threshold gas Cherenkov counter with 420 cm air radiator at atmospheric pressure is described. Spherical mirrors with curvature radius of 214 cm and FEU-125, FEU-49B photomultipliers are used in the counter for collection and detection of the Cherenkov radiation. The input windows of the photomultipliers are coated with a shifter of the light spectrum. The detection efficiency of charged particles at a plateau of the threshold characteristic (β ≥ 0,99984) exceeds 97%. The counter is a part of the identification system of the EXCHARM spectrometer. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  11. A general model for the gain of gas avalanche counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, general model of the avalanche process in gas counters is described. Applicable to all the common forms of gas avalanche detector - wire, microstrip, point anode and parallel gap, the model describes the gain process in terms of two pseudo-physical constants which are effectively invariant over the working range of any given detector configuration. For counter operation over a wide range of conditions (e.g. very different gas pressures) the model is extended so that four parameters are required to model the gain. Applications of the model to the characterisation, operation and design of a variety of counter types are given. (author)

  12. Gain stabilisation of gas-flow proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stabilisation of the gas gain for proportional counters with a continuous gas flow is described. New gas-flow systems for two end-window counters and one pressurised proportional counter were developed. The gas density of the counting-gas flow is stabilised by a two-stage back-pressure regulation system. The pressure in the gas flow is compared with the pressure in a reference vessel. During one month of operation the gain was stable within ±0.3%

  13. Countering the ‘Natural’ Organizational Self on Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Trine Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Using narrative as a theoretical and methodological lens, this study explores digital processes of organizational identity construction in the intersection between organization and market.The purpose is to understand the ways in which online interactions produce counter-narratives that contrast......, challenge and contradict organizational self-narration in light of market place skepticism and cynicism. The study identifies three strategies of counter-narrativizing (authenticity, legitimacy and irony) based on juxtaposing pairs of opposites. Moreover, it suggests counter-narration to be a natural...

  14. Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W.

    2012-09-25

    Hardware support for collecting performance counters directly to memory, in one aspect, may include a plurality of performance counters operable to collect one or more counts of one or more selected activities. A first storage element may be operable to store an address of a memory location. A second storage element may be operable to store a value indicating whether the hardware should begin copying. A state machine may be operable to detect the value in the second storage element and trigger hardware copying of data in selected one or more of the plurality of performance counters to the memory location whose address is stored in the first storage element.

  15. Use of silica aerogel for Cherenkov radiation counter

    CERN Document Server

    Bourdinaud, M; Thévenin, J C

    1976-01-01

    The Cherenkov light collection from silica aerogel has been studied in two types of counters. In the first counter a mirror was used to collect the light and in the latter a diffusing box surrounded the aerogel sample. The optical characteristics of the aerogel (refractive index 1.06) and the diffusion coefficients of different diffusing materials have been measured. It is thus possible to build Cherenkov counters with silica aerogel for a high energy physics experiment at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. (4 refs).

  16. Use of silica aerogel for Cherenkov radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cherenkov light collection from silica aerogel has been studied in two types of counters. In the first counter a mirror was used to collect the light and in the latter a diffusing box surrounded the aerogel sample. The optical characteristics of the aerogel (refractive index 1.06) and the diffusion coefficients of different diffusing materials have been measured. It is thus possible to build Cherenkov counters with silica aerogel for a high energy physics experiment at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. (Auth.)

  17. Development of the 'Beta-Boy' radiation counter for public acceptance activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., which was established on July 1st, 1992 largely financed by Japan's electric power companies is presently developing four projects in the village of Rokkasho, Aomori Prefecture, roughly 700 km north of Tokyo: a uranium enrichment plant, which began operation in March, 1992; a reprocessing plant to begin construction in March, 1993; a high level radioactive waste storage facility for waste returned from overseas reprocessing, construction of which began in May, 1992; and a low level radioactive waste disposal center for waste generated in nuclear power plants, which began operation in December, 1992. Approval for the location of these facilities was obtained from the authorities in Aomori Prefecture and Rokkasho Village in 1985. However, following the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the nuclear fuel cycle project in Rokkasho as well as other nuclear facilities throughout the country were faced with very active opposition from the antinuclear movement. Through our efforts to obtain public acceptance by arranging site tours, lectures, public debates and so on, we realized that many of the people of Aomori Prefecture had doubts about the nuclear fuel cycle, and that more than 80% of those people held concerns about radiation. We also found that through the demonstration of measuring atmospheric radiation levels using a large conventional portable GM survey meter of the type used in nuclear facilities, we were able to obtain considerable understanding of the nature of radiation at our lectures. Realizing therefore the need to increase this effect, we decided to develop a simple radiation counter, which all the participants at our lectures could operate themselves to measure radiation. I will now explain the characteristics of 'Beta-Boy', new radiation counter, and the method to explain radiation by using 'Beta-Boy' in our public acceptance activities

  18. Animal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The animal facilities in the Division are described. They consist of kennels, animal rooms, service areas, and technical areas (examining rooms, operating rooms, pathology labs, x-ray rooms, and 60Co exposure facilities). The computer support facility is also described. The advent of the Conversational Monitor System at Argonne has launched a new effort to set up conversational computing and graphics software for users. The existing LS-11 data acquisition systems have been further enhanced and expanded. The divisional radiation facilities include a number of gamma, neutron, and x-ray radiation sources with accompanying areas for related equipment. There are five 60Co irradiation facilities; a research reactor, Janus, is a source for fission-spectrum neutrons; two other neutron sources in the Chicago area are also available to the staff for cell biology studies. The electron microscope facilities are also described

  19. Bathroom Buddies: Countering your Clockwise Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. M.; Stegman, D. R.

    2006-12-01

    Which way does your bathtub, toilet, sink, or other favorite plumbing basin drain? Popular television shows perpetuate the fact that water spins the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere, and sometimes even explicitly point to the Coriolis effect (or Earth's rotation) as the cause. Skeptics disagree: "No way. Water doesn't obey your rules: it goes where it wants...like me, babe." [1]. Fact: Cyclones rotate clockwise in the southern hemisphere and hurricanes counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. But does your hemisphere also determine the direction water spirals down your toilet? In the ideal scenario of water draining out a sink (i.e. a defect-free, perfectly-leveled basin in which water has remained undisturbed for sufficient enough time to quiet any background motions or eddies) --- then yes, maybe it is possible. However, in everyday life, not even the most decadent of bathtubs provide us a large enough lengthscale to observe the Coriolis effect on the direction which water spirals towards the drain. Thus, we are left confronting the possibility that something heard on television isn't true. But is just "telling" students, friends, or strangers in bars enough to debunk this urban myth? Rather, we offer a practical demonstration involving a friend from the opposite hemisphere (if not one in existence, then find one on the internet!), a bathroom, a funnel, a bucket, some food coloring, a camera, a pitcher and some equations and scalings for extra credit and fun. 1) Simpson, B., "Bart vs. Australia", Season 6, Episode 119, 1995.

  20. Calibration and Monte Carlo modelling of neutron long counters

    CERN Document Server

    Tagziria, H

    2000-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique has become a very powerful tool in radiation transport as full advantage is taken of enhanced cross-section data, more powerful computers and statistical techniques, together with better characterisation of neutron and photon source spectra. At the National Physical Laboratory, calculations using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP-4B have been combined with accurate measurements to characterise two long counters routinely used to standardise monoenergetic neutron fields. New and more accurate response function curves have been produced for both long counters. A novel approach using Monte Carlo methods has been developed, validated and used to model the response function of the counters and determine more accurately their effective centres, which have always been difficult to establish experimentally. Calculations and measurements agree well, especially for the De Pangher long counter for which details of the design and constructional material are well known. The sensitivit...

  1. On fitting planetary systems in counter-revolving configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Gayon-Markt, Julie

    2009-01-01

    In Gayon & Bois (2008) and Gayon etal (2009), (i) we studied the theoretical feasibility and efficiency of retrograde mean motion resonances (i.e. two planets are both in orbital resonance and in counter-revolving configuration), (ii) we showed that retrograde resonances can generate interesting mechanisms of stability, and (iii) we obtained a dynamical fit involving a counter-revolving configuration that is consistent with the observations of the HD73526 planetary system. In the present paper, we present and analyze data reductions assuming counter-revolving configurations for eight compact multi-planetary systems detected through the radial velocity method. In each case, we select the best fit leading to a dynamically stable solution. The resulting data reductions obtained in rms and chi values for counter-revolving configurations are of the same order, and sometimes slightly better, than for prograde configurations. In the end, these fits tend to show that, over the eight studied multi-planetary system...

  2. Consumer Knowledge of Over-the-Counter Phenazopyridine

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Chih-Wen; Asch, Steven M.; Fielder, Eve; Gelberg, Lillian; Michael B. Nichol

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Effective use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications depends on purchasers’ knowledge of their indications. This study examines consumer knowledge regarding the urinary tract analgesic phenazopyridine, which recently became available without prescription.

  3. Discrimination capability of avalanche counters detecting different ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discrimination capability of avalanche counters to detect different ionizing particles has been studied using a 252Cf source. Pulse height, pulse-height resolution and timing properties have been measured as a function of the reduced applied voltage for parallel-plate and parallel-grid avalanche counters. At the highest applied voltages, space charge effects shift the pulse-height signal of the avalanche counter away from being linearly proportional to the stopping power of the detected particles and cause the pulse-height resolution to deteriorate. To optimize the avalanche counter capability, without loss of time resolution, it appears better to operate the detector at voltages well below the breakdown threshold. Measurements with 32S ions are also reported. (orig.)

  4. The optimized design of the Gray-code counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article has expatiated on the signality of using Gray-code in designing high-speed digital circuit,and given the low-power-cost analysis in the use of Gray-code counter. The main content of this article is the design and realization of a Gray-code counter. This design has formed an n-bit Gray-code counter with n piece main D-trigger and one piece assistant D-trigger, by the speciality of Gray-code. In the end, this article has given the realization of this counter's core by VHDL, this VHDL realization may be the guidance for the forward job on FPGA design and some other domain. (authors)

  5. Counter-propagating patterns in the BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Lindballe, T.; Kristensen, M.V.;

    2010-01-01

    stable three-dimensional manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyze counter-propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from this conventional geometry. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the trap by......The counter-propagating geometry opens an extra degree of freedom for shaping light while subsuming single-sided illumination as a special case (i.e., one beam set turned off). In its conventional operation, our BioPhotonics Workstation (BWS) uses symmetric, co-axial counter-propagating beams for...... improving axial and transverse trapping stiffness. We also show interesting results of trapping and micromanipulation experiments that combine optical forces with fluidic forces. These results hint about the rich potential of using patterned counter-propagating beams for optical trapping and manipulation...

  6. Over-the-counter codeine use in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Grimsson, A

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the assumption that liberalizing community pharmacy ownership in Iceland would lead to increased irrational use of over-the-counter pain relievers containing codeine....

  7. Construction and operating characteristics of flexible Geiger counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed for constructing flexible Geiger counters in a wide range of lengths and diameters. The counters are quite flexible: a 3-cm diam. counter can be bent to a circle of 5 cm radius. Using Q-gas (98.3% helium, 1.7% n-butane) as the counting medium, plateaux are several hundred volts long with 3% slopes and are independent of the counter configuration. Counters are constructed from tubing having a polyvinyl-chloride formulation (PVC-744 - Alpha Wire Corp.). Short segments of the plastic tubing (length ∼ 3 times the tube diameter) are slipped over a coarsely threaded aluminium mandrel. Wire is wrapped tightly in the threads and the whole is placed in a 110oC oven for 20 min. After cooling, the corrugated plastic segment is removed from the mandrel. This corrugation prevents the collapse of the tubing when it is coiled. A polystyrene disk, perforated with relatively large holes near the periphery for gas flow and having a 0.6-mm hole in the centre for the anode, is fastened in one end of each segment. By threading the segments thus prepared on a 3-mil tungsten anode and slipping one end of each segment over the adjacent segment and securing them with an adhesive, a counter of any desired length can be built up. Glass end-pieces for attaching the anode ends and for admitting and exhausting the flow gas are attached. A bare copper wire spiralled in the grooves of the counter makes a satisfactory external cathode which operates in the manner observed by MAZE. A 3-cm diam. counter, 1 m long, either linear or coiled, has a plateau beginning at 1400 V and extending beyond 1750 V with a 2.9% slope. Counting rates in excess of 300000 counts/min with little coincidence loss have been observed. Since the counter is actually a series of short Geiger counters and the discharge does not spread beyond the polystyrene spacer disks, adjacent counter segments operate independently. Pulse heights are greater than 50 mV. (author)

  8. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  9. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  10. High-level neutron coincidence counter (HLNCC): users' manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manual describes the portable High-Level Neutron Coincidence Counter (HLNCC) developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the assay of plutonium, particularly by inspectors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The counter is designed for the measurement of the effective 240Pu mass in plutonium samples which may have a high plutonium content. The following topics are discussed: principle of operation, description of the system, operating procedures, and applications

  11. The efficiency of counter telescopes for intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of counter telescopes containing a 15.2 cm thick NaI(Tl) crystal for detecting protons with energies in the range 50-350 MeV has been measured. An investigation was made of the dependence of the efficiency on the position of the proton in the counter. The results of the measurements are in close agreement with the calculations of efficiencies using available reaction cross section data. (orig.)

  12. Detailed Network Measurements Using Sparse Graph Counters: The Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yi; Montanari, Andrea; Prabhakar, Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Measuring network flow sizes is important for tasks like accounting/billing, network forensics and security. Per-flow accounting is considered hard because it requires that many counters be updated at a very high speed; however, the large fast memories needed for storing the counters are prohibitively expensive. Therefore, current approaches aim to obtain approximate flow counts; that is, to detect large elephant flows and then measure their sizes. Recently the authors and their collaborators...

  13. Applicability of condensation particle counters to measure atmospheric clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; M. Kulmala; T. Petäjä; Junninen, H.; Aalto, P.P.; Manninen, H. E.; E.-M. Kyrö; Asmi, E.; Riipinen, I; J. Curtius; A. Kürten; S. Borrmann; C. D. O'Dowd

    2008-01-01

    The ambient and laboratory molecular and ion clusters were investigated. Here we present data on the ambient concentrations of both charged and uncharged molecular clusters as well as the performance of a pulse height condensation particle counter (PH-CPC) and an expansion condensation particle counter (E-CPC). The ambient molecular cluster concentrations were measured using both instruments, and they were deployed in conjunction with ion spectrometers and other aerosol instruments in Hyytiäl...

  14. Job Market Signalling, Stereotype Threat, and Counter-Stereotypical Behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Chisik

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: We introduce stereotype threat in a multiple-productivity signalling model. Existence of multiple self-fulfilling stereotypes, which can generate statistical discrimination, is more likely if there is less variance in the ability distribution. A low endogenously-correct stereotype about a group forces higher-ability group members to choose a higher-productivity and a higher separating signal, thereby engaging in counter-stereotypical behaviour. This counter-stereotypical behaviour c...

  15. Can counter-terrorist internment ever be legitimate ?

    OpenAIRE

    de Londras, F.

    2011-01-01

    Counter-terrorist internment is generally rejected as illegitimate from a human rights perspective. However, while the practice of counter-terrorist internment has long resulted in the infringement of human rights, this article argues that the concept of internment holds some potential for legitimacy. This potential can only be realized if four legitimacy factors are fully embraced and complied with: public justificatory deliberation, non-discrimination, meaningful review, and effective tempo...

  16. MONITORING THE SAFETY ASPECTS OF OVER THE COUNTER MEDICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M.Z. Subin; V.Vidya; O.A. Halima; G. Geethu; N. Devika

    2012-01-01

    OTC medication is short for over the counter drugs. These medicines have become popular as they are available without a prescription from the doctor. These are medicaments that are usually used to relieve pain and to treat various symptoms of cold. Most of the over-the-counter users believe that these medications are safer and are devoid of unwanted side effects. But their use may become fatal sometimes when they are administered without knowing the prescription pattern, that is, when they ar...

  17. Counter-Punishment, Communication, and Cooperation among Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Andrighetto, Giulia; Brandts, Jordi; Conte, Rosaria; Sabater-mir, Jordi; Solaz, Hector; Székely, Áron; Villatoro, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We study how communication affects cooperation in an experimental public goods environment with punishment and counter-punishment opportunities. Participants interacted over 30 rounds in fixed groups with fixed identifiers that allowed them to trace other group members' behavior over time. The two dimensions of communication we study are asking for a specific contribution level and having to express oneself when choosing to counter-punish. We conduct four experimental treatments, all involvin...

  18. Using DMA for copying performance counter data to memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan; Salapura, Valentina; Wisniewski, Robert W

    2013-12-31

    A device for copying performance counter data includes hardware path that connects a direct memory access (DMA) unit to a plurality of hardware performance counters and a memory device. Software prepares an injection packet for the DMA unit to perform copying, while the software can perform other tasks. In one aspect, the software that prepares the injection packet runs on a processing core other than the core that gathers the hardware performance data.

  19. The Effectiveness of Israel's counter-terrorism strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jerry D.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis analyzes Israeli counter-terrorism strategy and its effectiveness. Because of ongoing suicide attacks from Palestinian and other terrorist organizations, Israel will continue to have an aggressive counter-terrorism strategy. It will study how the impact of past wars, campaigns, and deadly terrorist attacks influenced the thinking of past and current leaders. By gauging the actions, and sometimes nonactions, of the international community, the Israeli government declined to become ...

  20. Over-the-counter treatments for acne and rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamilia, Lorraine Larsen

    2016-06-01

    Acne and rosacea are common inflammatory processes historically classified in the same disease category, but evolving understanding of their disparate pathophysiology and exacerbating factors have generated an enormous armamentarium of therapeutic possibilities. Patients seek over-the-counter therapies first when managing cutaneous disease; therefore, this review defines ingredients considered to be effective over-the-counter acne and rosacea products, their mechanisms, and safe formulations, including botanical components, oral supplements, and other anecdotal options in this vast skin care domain. PMID:27416314

  1. Effect of the troposphere on surface neutron counter measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Aplin, K. L.; Harrison, R. G.; Bennett, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Surface neutron counter data are often used as a proxy for atmospheric ionisation from cosmic rays in studies of extraterrestrial effects on climate. Neutron counter instrumentation was developed in the 1950s and relationships between neutron counts, ionisation and meteorological conditions were investigated thoroughly using the techniques available at the time; the analysis can now be extended using modern data. Whilst surface neutron counts are shown to be a good proxy for ionisation rate, ...

  2. Threshold gas 32-channel Cherenkov counter of the spectrometer EXCHARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cherenkov 32-channel threshold gas counter with 420-cm air radiator at the atmospheric pressure is described. Spherical mirrors with the curvature radius of 214 cm and photomultipliers FEU-125, FEU-49B were used in the counter for collection and registration of the Cherenkov radiation. The photomultipliers inlet windows are covered with films of spectra mixers. The efficiency of charged particles registration on the plateau of threshold characteristics (β ≥ 0.99984) exceeds 97%. 6 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  3. A comprehensive test specification for pulse fission counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following test specification is based on the memorandum AERE - M 728 which it now replaces It contains a standard acceptance test procedure for the many U.K.A.E.A, designed pulse fission counters now commercially available. This test specification may be used for any pulse fission counter provided a specification sheet as shown in Appendix 3 is supplied to the contractor quoting this report and including specified values for the measured quantities. (author)

  4. Whole-body monitoring: Goiania case, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the radiological Cs accident in Goiania, Goias in September 1987, it became necessary to evaluate internal contamination levels of: individuals from the general public that for any reason had direct or indirect involvement with the radioactive source (group 1); occupationally involved persons (group 2). For each of these groups, procedures of whole body monitoring were developped. In order to attend group 1 individuals, the IRD/CNEN installed a whole body unit in the INAMPS General Hospital of Goiania in 11.08.87, which was later transferred to 121, 57 street, Central Sector in Goiania in 2.06.88. In this unit 547 people were monitored, 356 from group 1 and 241 from group 2, until 04.13.88. In the IRD whole body counter installation, 194 individuals were counted, 185 from group 2 and 9 from group 1. The frequency of monitoring of each individual was stablished according to the Cs activity present in the body or to the job that will be done. Some body burden activity curves for Cs 137 as a function of the time elapsed from the first measurement, are presented. There people from group 1 were measured in both counters, the IRD and the Goiania ones. The values obtained in both installations are compatible with the body activity X time curve. (author)

  5. Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) is of the view that every organisation should focus attention on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities after completion of their useful life. AERB is aware that, internationally there is a growing interest in plant life extension due to economic considerations. Regulatory bodies stipulate upgradation of safety features based on international experience and current safety standards. However, decommissioning becomes a necessity at some time after the extended life of the plant. Nuclear industry has demonstrated that, with modern technological developments, decommissioning of nuclear facilities can be carried out without undue risk to the occupational workers, members of the public and protection of the environment. In view of limited experience in the field of decommissioning, this document is being issued as a safety manual instead of a safety guide. This manual elaborates the various technical and safety considerations in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities including ultimate disposal of radioactive materials/ wastes generated during decommissioning. Details that are required to be furnished to the regulatory body while applying for authorisation for decommissioning and till its completion are enumerated. This manual is issued to assist Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) units in formulating a decommissioning programme. Since the subject of decommissioning of nuclear facilities is a continuously evolving process, AERB is of the view, that provisions of this manual will apply for a period of five years from the date of issue and will be subsequently revised, if necessary

  6. Atrial Fibrillation Due to Over The Counter Stimulant Drugs in A Young Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar; Alagusundaramoorthy, Sayee Sundar; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-08-01

    The usage of over the counter stimulant drugs and energy drinks is increasing on a day to day basis for various purposes including work, sports and leisure among individuals in all age groups. Multiple formulations are available in the market including pills, liquid capsules and drinks in various flavours. Many of them contain excessively high doses of caffeine along with a variety of stimulant compounds that have multiple effects in different parts of the human body. The consumption of such high amounts of caffeine itself has shown to have caused cardiac arrhythmias in healthy individuals and when it is mixed with a number of stimulant compounds can be associated with a number of adverse effects in the human body. However, the awareness of such life threatening complications associated with these energy drinks does not exist among people who consume it on a day to day basis. We report a case of 25-year-old Caucasian male with no significant past medical history for cardiac diseases, no risk factors for atrial fibrillation, non smoker, occasional alcohol drinker who presents with new onset atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response due to the consumption of over the counter stimulant energy capsule which had high doses of caffeine. PMID:26435989

  7. Advertising health: the case for counter-ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorfman, L; Wallack, L

    1993-01-01

    Public service advertisements have been used by many in hopes of "selling" good health behaviors. But selling good behavior--even if it could be done more effectively--is not the best goal for using mass media to prevent health problems. Personal behavior is only part of what determines health status. Social conditions and the physical environment are important determinants of health that are usually ignored by health promotion advertising. Public service advertising may be doing more harm than good if it is diverting attention from more effective socially based health promotion strategies. Counter-ads are one communications strategy that could be used to promote a broader responsibility for rectifying health problems. In the tradition of advocacy advertising directly promoting policy rather than products, counter-ads promote views consistent with a public health perspective. Counter-ads set the agenda for health issues, conferring status on policy-oriented strategies for addressing health problems. The primary purpose of counter-ads is to challenge the dominant view that public health problems reflect personal health habits. They are controversial because they place health issues in a social and political context. Advertising strategies for health promotion range over a spectrum from individually oriented public service advertising to socially oriented counter-advertising. The recent anti-tobacco campaign from the California Department of Health Services represents advertisements across the spectrum. Counter-ads that focus on a politically controversial definition for health problems are an appropriate and necessary alternative to public service advertising. PMID:8265756

  8. Performance of gas proportional counters at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performances of gas proportional counters intended to some isotopes absolute activity measurements are investigated at a gas pressure ranging from 5 to 100 atm. The counter working agent (filling gas) is pure Ar and the CH4/Ar,Xe/Ar,CH4/Xe/Ar gas mixtures. The counter has cathode diameters 6,10,14 mm and anode diameters are 10,16,20 μm. It is found that an addition of 0.5% Xe to Ar results in a considerable decrease (approximately by a factor of 2) of working voltage applied to counters, compared to pure Ar filling, just as maximum gas amplification factor is increased. The counter energy resolution is 5.5-7% (FWHM) for 241Am γ-quanta with the 59.57 keV energy at Ar+0.5% Xe mixture pressure ranging from 8 to 100 atm. It is shown that it is more efficiently to use argon with addition of xenon, but no methan for stabilization of the gas counters performance at high pressures

  9. Modeling of electron and ion kinetics in cylindrical proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulations were performed to study the operating mode of cylindrical proportional counters submitted to irradiation. Such counters are used in astrophysics, high energy physics and microdosimetry. The choice of the filling gas was restricted to argon, methane and their mixtures, in order to allow us to compare our numerical values to experimental results from the literature. The charged particle kinetics in the gaseous volume of the counter were studied by two numerical methods: The electron transport parameters were determined by microscopic calculations. These calculations also showed that electrons and the applied electric field were not in equilibrium in such geometries. The values obtained for the ionization coefficient were used to estimate the effects of the non-equilibrium phenomena on the theoretical value of the counter gas gain. A macroscopic modelling of the electron and ion transport was used to study the electron avalanche induced by a particle crossing the counter. In particular, the consequences of the appearance of the space charge effect on the gas gain value and on the current pulses were studied as a function of the operating conditions of the counter

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF UNSTEADY TURBULENT FLOW INDUCED BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEVATOR CAR AND COUNTER WEIGHT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of unsteady turbulent flow induced by high-speed elevator system was established in the present study. The research was focused on the instantaneous variation of the aerodynamic force on the car structure during traversing motion of the counter weight in the hoistway. A dynamic meshing method was employed to treat the multi-body motion system to avoid poor distortion of meshes. A comprehensive understanding of this significant aspect was obtained by varying the horizontal gap (δ=0.1m, 0.2m, and 0.3m) between the elevator car and the counter weight, and the moving speed (U0=2m/s, 6m/s, and 10m/s) of the elevator system. A pulsed intensification of the aerodynamic force on the elevator car and subsequent appearance of large valley with negative aerodynamic force were clearly observed in the numerical results. In parameters studied (δ=0.1m, U0=2m/s, 6m/s, 10m/s), the peaked horizontal and vertical forces are respectively 7-11 and 4.3-5.65 times of that when the counter weight is far from the car. These results demonstrated the prominent influence of the traversing counter weight on aerodynamic force on the elevator car, which is of great significance to designers of high-speed elevator system.

  11. Hanford whole body counting manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs

  12. Hanford whole body counting manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, H.E.; Brim, C.P.; Rieksts, G.A.; Rhoads, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    This document, a reprint of the Whole Body Counting Manual, was compiled to train personnel, document operation procedures, and outline quality assurance procedures. The current manual contains information on: the location, availability, and scope of services of Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the administrative aspect of the whole body counting operation; Hanford's whole body counting facilities; the step-by-step procedure involved in the different types of in vivo measurements; the detectors, preamplifiers and amplifiers, and spectroscopy equipment; the quality assurance aspect of equipment calibration and recordkeeping; data processing, record storage, results verification, report preparation, count summaries, and unit cost accounting; and the topics of minimum detectable amount and measurement accuracy and precision. 12 refs., 13 tabs.

  13. Body composition in acromegaly - before and after therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acromegaly is a disease caused by a benign pituitary tumor producing excess amount of growth hormone. A changed body composition can be a functional parameter of the disorder. The aim of this study is to describe body composition in acromegaly before and after therapy. Total body potassium (TBK) was measured as total exchangeable potassium using 42K by dilution technique or by counting gamma radiation from the naturally present 40K in a high sensitivity 3π whole body counter. Total body water (TBW) was determined with an isotope dilution technique using tritiated water as a tracer. The specific activity was measured in urine or plasma. The predicted values for TBK, TBW, and body fat (BF) were calculated by equations using body weight (BW), body height, age and sex as independent variables. The normal values for BW were calculated by using body height and sex as independent variables

  14. Body lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lice - body; Pediculosis corporis; Vagabond disease ... Diaz JH. Lice (pediculosis). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  15. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma......In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  16. Health Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health facilities are places that provide health care. They include hospitals, clinics, outpatient care centers, and specialized care centers, such as birthing centers and psychiatric care centers. When you ...

  17. Canyon Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — B Plant, T Plant, U Plant, PUREX, and REDOX (see their links) are the five facilities at Hanford where the original objective was plutonium removal from the uranium...

  18. Comprehensive applications of the gas flow proportional counters for radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Flow Proportional Counters (GFPC) have been developed indigenously for various radiation protection applications. These detectors can be fabricated for 2 inches diameter filter paper sample counting applications to large area (∼1500 cm2) detectors for surface contamination applications. Thin entrance windows allow non penetrating type of radiations like alpha and low energy beta particles, Efficiencies (for alpha and beta radiations) are comparable to conventional detectors used to measure these radiations. Poor gamma efficiency (2/γ ratio, a high figure of merit and enables efficient gamma background rejection. These detectors are quite suitable for Indian environmental conditions. Three systems have been developed and successfully incorporated in to the radiation surveillance program at various nuclear facilities. The systems based on GFPC detectors include: a) Multiple sample gross alpha counting system; b) Laundry monitoring system; c) Alpha hand contamination monitoring system. The first of these enables simultaneous gross alpha counting of five air activity filter paper samples. The area of the detector surface is optimized to cover the 2 inches sized filter paper samples routinely used for the purpose. Five numbers of GFPC 's are arranged sequentially coupled to five individual amplifiers - micro controller modules to process the signal from the five counters. The laundry monitor which is micro controller based system consists of four large area multiwire GFPC detectors (700 cm2 sensitive area) used to monitor alpha contamination of decontaminated laundry, Each detector uses a charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to I2C counter. The alpha hand monitoring system consists of four large area multiwire gas flow proportional detectors (330 cm2 sensitive area each). A micro controller-based module is employed to initiate the counting process automatically when the hands are inserted in to the suitably designed window slots and provides audio and visual

  19. Comprehensive applications of the gas flow proportional counters for radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Flow Proportional Counters (GFPC) have been developed indigenously for various radiation protection applications. These detectors can be fabricated for 2'' diameter filter paper sample counting applications to large area (∼1500 cm2) detectors for surface contamination applications. Thin entrance windows allow non-penetrating type of radiations like alpha and low energy beta particles. Efficiencies (for alpha and beta radiations) are comparable to conventional detectors used to measure these radiations. Poor gamma efficiency (2/γ ratio, a high figure of merit and enables efficient gamma background rejection. These detectors are quite suitable for Indian environmental conditions. Three systems have been developed and successfully incorporated in to the radiation surveillance program at various nuclear facilities. The systems based on GFPC detectors include (a) Multiple sample gross alpha counting system, (b) Laundry monitoring system and (c) Alpha hand contamination monitoring system. The first of these enables simultaneous gross alpha counting of five air activity filter paper samples. The area of the detector surface is optimized to cover the 2'' sized filter paper samples routinely used for the purpose. Five numbers of GFPC's are arranged sequentially coupled to five individual amplifiers - microcontroller modules to process the signal from the five counters. The laundry monitor which is microcontroller based system consists of four large area multiwire GFPC detectors (700 cm2 sensitive area) used to monitor alpha contamination of decontaminated laundry. Each detector uses a charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to I2C counter. The alpha hand monitoring system consists of four large area multiwire gas flow proportional detectors (330 cm2 sensitive area each). A microcontroller-based module is employed to initiate the counting process automatically when the hands are inserted in to the suitably designed window slots and provides audio and visual alarm

  20. Design and performances of the Scrap Neutron Multiplicity Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JRC has developed the Scrap Neutron Multiplicity Counter (SNMC): an advanced neutron multiplicity counter for the verification of inhomogeneous Pu samples, such as scrap material in MOX fuel fabrication plants. The innovative features of this counter with respect to existing ones rely on two aspects: (i) an optimised design based on Monte Carlo calculations in order to select the most appropriate materials, geometry and detector disposition for maximum efficiency and (ii) novel electronics based on digital signal processing (DSP) reducing the system dead time. The paper recalls the design process, the electronics, the construction and assembly of the counter. Then the results of the first experimental tests will be reported. We will show the characterization of the main physical parameters of the counter, the calibration and the verification of a wide variety of plutonium bearing samples available in the PERLA laboratory at JRC Ispra. This will include pure homogeneous samples (Pu dioxide powders, metal Pu, MOX powders and pellets) and some tests on heterogeneous samples representative of scrap material

  1. Boron-lined proportional counters with improved neutron sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Dighe, P M; Prasad, K R; Kataria, S K; Athavale, S N; Pappachan, A L; Grover, A K

    2003-01-01

    Boron-lined proportional counters with higher neutron sensitivity have been developed by introducing baffle structures within the sensitive volume. the results are compared to devices developed with multiple cathode assemblies in a single enclosure. in either case, the increase in the boron-coated surface area results in higher neutron sensitivity. one of these counters has 51 annular baffles coated with natural boron with 10 mm hole for the anode wire to pass through. filled with p-10 gas at 20 cm hg, it has an overall diameter of 30 and 300 mm length. multiple dip coating method was employed for better uniformity in boron thickness. the neutron sensitivity of this counter is 1.6 cps/nv, which is 2.5 times that of a counter with standard electrode geometry. another counter was developed with three cathode assemblies (30 mm IDx300 mm) coated with 92% sup 1 sup 0 B while the third has seven assemblies coated with natural boron (16 mm IDx750 mm length). the neutron sensitivity is 10 and 5.5 cps/nv, respectively...

  2. Design and performance study of the TOP counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel RICH detector called TOP counter has been developed for particle identification in Belle II. It measures the time of propagation (TOP) of Cherenkov photons traveling in the quartz radiator with micro-channel-plate photomultiplier tubes (MCP-PMTs) with a precision of 50 ps. A prototype TOP counter was tested with the 1.2 GeV/c electron beam in the Laser Electron Photon beam line at SPring-8 (LEPS). The TOP distribution was obtained as expected after taking into account the dependence of the MCP-PMT quantum efficiency on light incidence angle and polarization. In this paper, the key features of the TOP counter design and the beam test results are presented. -- Highlights: •The TOP counter has been developed for particle identification in Belle II. •A time of propagation (TOP) of Cherenkov light in the quartz radiator is measured. •Cherenkov light is detected by the MCP-PMTs with a resolution of about 40 ps. •A prototype TOP counter was tested with the 1.2 GeV/c electron beam at LEPS. •The TOP distribution measured in the beam test agrees with the expectation

  3. Response of 4π Proportional Counters to γ-Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of a 4π proportional counter to γ-rays has been measured as a function of γ-ray energy by the 4π β-γ coincidence-absorption method. The results, which are about a factor of three lower than those obtained using thick absorbers, are slightly lower than, but in general agreement with, those of Williams and Campion. Electrons produced by γ-ray interactions in the absorber are responsible for the higher results obtained with thick absorbers. This effect has been demonstrated by determining the γ-ray response of a 4π proportional counter as a function of absorber thickness for the 478-keV γ-rays of 7Be. In addition, the responses to 478-keV γ-rays of five different 4π proportional counters have been compared. For one of these, a pressurized 4π X-ray counter, the response has also been measured as a function of filling pressure. It is concluded that the intrinsic γ-ray response of 4π proportional counters is small and, if γ-ray absorption in the counting gas may be neglected, is not strongly dependent on the size, shape or material of the cathode. (author)

  4. Detailed Network Measurements Using Sparse Graph Counters: The Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Yi; Prabhakar, Balaji

    2007-01-01

    Measuring network flow sizes is important for tasks like accounting/billing, network forensics and security. Per-flow accounting is considered hard because it requires that many counters be updated at a very high speed; however, the large fast memories needed for storing the counters are prohibitively expensive. Therefore, current approaches aim to obtain approximate flow counts; that is, to detect large elephant flows and then measure their sizes. Recently the authors and their collaborators have developed [1] a novel method for per-flow traffic measurement that is fast, highly memory efficient and accurate. At the core of this method is a novel counter architecture called "counter braids.'' In this paper, we analyze the performance of the counter braid architecture under a Maximum Likelihood (ML) flow size estimation algorithm and show that it is optimal; that is, the number of bits needed to store the size of a flow matches the entropy lower bound. While the ML algorithm is optimal, it is too complex to im...

  5. Window Observational Research Facility (WORF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrey, Joseph; Sledd, Annette

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document concerns the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Rack, a unique facility designed for use with the US Lab Destiny Module window. WORF will provide valuable resources for Earth Science payloads along with serving the purpose of protecting the lab window. The facility can be used for remote sensing instrumentation test and validation in a shirt sleeve environment. WORF will also provide a training platform for crewmembers to do orbital observations of other planetary bodies. WORF payloads will be able to conduct terrestrial studies utilizing the data collected from utilizing WORF and the lab window.

  6. Over the counter sale of abortion pills - time to act now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Sharma

    2015-08-01

    Results: 70 patients who bought abortion pills over the counter were included in the study group. 90% (63/70 patients were not using any kind of contraceptive method. Only 55.71% (39/70 patients took the abortion pills as per the recommended standard protocol. Gestational age was < 8 weeks in 45.71% (32/70 patients only. Most common presenting complaint was varying amount of bleeding per vaginum followed by abdominal pain met in 97.14% (68/70 and 30% (21/70 patients respectively. 7.14% (5/70 patients presented to emergency in shock. Final diagnosis was complete abortion in 21.42% (15/70 patients, incomplete abortion in 47.14% (33/70, missed abortion in 11.42% ( 8/70, septic abortion in 7.14% ( 5/70 , threatened abortion in 5.71% ( 4/70, ectopic pregnancy in 5.71% ( 4/70 and molar pregnancy in 1.42% ( 1/70 patients and they were managed accordingly as per standard guidelines. Conclusion: The women in India should be aware of their legal right to safe abortion. They should stop buying the drug without prescription as medical abortion facilities are being made easily available, accessible and affordable to all. However strict ban on over the counter availability of abortion pills can make the situation worse. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1053-1056

  7. Bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells with transparent cobalt selenide alloy counter electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yanyan; Tang, Qunwei; He, Benlin; Zhao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Ling; Yu, Liangmin

    2015-06-01

    High power conversion efficiency and cost-effectiveness are two persistent objectives for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Electricity generation from either front or rear side of a bifacial DSSC has been considered as a facile avenue of bringing down the cost of solar-to-electric conversion. Therefore, the fabrication of a transparent counter electrode (CE) with a high electrocatalytic activity is a prerequisite to realize this goal. We present here the feasibility of utilizing transparent cobalt selenide (Co-Se) binary alloy counter electrode for bifacial DSSC application, in which binary Co-Se alloy electrode is synthesized by a mild solution strategy and the cell device is irradiated by either front or rear side. Due to the high optical transparency, charge-transfer ability, and electrocatalytic activity, maximum front and rear efficiencies of 8.30% and 4.63% are recorded under simulated air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) irradiation, respectively. The impressive efficiency along with fast start-up, multiple start capability, and simple preparation highlights the potential application of cost-effective and transparent Co-Se alloy CE in robust bifacial DSSCs.

  8. Tritium Facility effluent measurements: statistical analysis for 52 periods in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A statistical comparison has been made of Tritium Facility effluents for 52 periods in 1981, as measured by continuous sampling from two ventilation exhaust stacks. Pulse-counter data, recorded on 15-minute intervals, have been summed over approximately weekly periods and compared with adsorption apparatus data. A by-product of the analysis is a calibration of pulse counters in terms of adsorption data which are believed to be more reliable

  9. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes of...... biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings and...

  10. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  11. Development of cylindrical type proton-recoil proportional counter and its use for absolute measurements of neutron fluences at 144, 250 and 565 keV monoenergetic calibration fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton-recoil proportional counter has been developed as a standard instrument for measuring neutron fluence at an accelerator-based neutron calibration field. The counter consists of a cylindrical cathode and an external housing in which hydrogen is filled as counting gas. For neutrons in the energy range between 50 keV and 1 MeV, the fluence of the neutron field can be determined by an absolute measurement with the counter. In designing and manufacturing the counter, careful attention has been paid in order to reduce the uncertainty in measured results. For example, the volume of the effective region of the counter was investigated as accurately as possible. The optimum applied voltage for the counter was examined precisely through the electric field analysis. The developed counter was used for determining the reference neutron fluence of the monoenergetic neutron fields at the Facility of Radiation Standards of JAEA. For the 144, 250 and 565 keV neutron fields, it has been able to measure the fluences with the standard uncertainties less than 2%. The measured fluences for 144 and 565 keV have showed good agreement with the values estimated by another measurements with a transfer instrument traceable to primary standards. (author)

  12. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  13. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom is......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site of...

  14. Thermal Transport in NCS Plasmas with Counter Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, B. W.; Casper, T. A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Gohil, P.; Lohr, J.; Petty, C. C.; Synakowski, E.; Austin, M. E.; McKee, G. R.; Rettig, C. L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D have investigated internal transport barrier (ITB) formation with neutral beams injected in the counter-current direction, assisted by early ECH during current ramp up. For counter injection the v_torBT term for radial force balance adds to the nabla p term to determine E× B flow shear. Compared to ITB plasmas with co-current injection, characteristics with counter injection at similar beam power are: (a) broader profiles of T_I, T_e, n_e, and ω_tor within a larger barrier radius, (b) reduced profile gradients in the barrier region, and (c) about a factor of 2 higher Z_eff ( ~4) from the carbon impurity. In this paper profile evolution and results of transport analysis will be compared with co-injection plasmas.

  15. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  16. Forensic Speaker Recognition Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, Hemant

    2012-01-01

    Forensic Speaker Recognition: Law Enforcement and Counter-Terrorism is an anthology of the research findings of 35 speaker recognition experts from around the world. The volume provides a multidimensional view of the complex science involved in determining whether a suspect’s voice truly matches forensic speech samples, collected by law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, that are associated with the commission of a terrorist act or other crimes. While addressing such topics as the challenges of forensic case work, handling speech signal degradation, analyzing features of speaker recognition to optimize voice verification system performance, and designing voice applications that meet the practical needs of law enforcement and counter-terrorism agencies, this material all sounds a common theme: how the rigors of forensic utility are demanding new levels of excellence in all aspects of speaker recognition. The contributors are among the most eminent scientists in speech engineering and signal process...

  17. Performance of Boron-10 based Neutron Coincidence Counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helium-3 gas-filled detectors have been used in neutron coincidence counting for non-destructive assay for over 30 years. With the current shortage of 3He gas, GE's Reuter-Stokes business developed a 10B lined proportional counter and a 10B hybrid coincidence counter, in which a small amount of 3He is added to a 10B detector to enhance the neutron sensitivity. GE's Reuter-Stokes business modelled, designed, built and tested prototype coincidence counters using the 10B lined detectors and the 10B hybrid detectors. We will present these systems and their applications for non-destructive assay. (author)

  18. Organizational Identity Negotiations through Dominant and Counter Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde; Frandsen, Sanne

    of a highly contested organization, E-rail, we examine ticket inspectors’ story work to demonstrate how counter-narratives make room for multiple – and sometimes even opposing - understandings of organizational identity to co-exist. Our analysis shows that ticket inspectors in their story work draw......In this paper, we see the organization as a polyphonic, storytelling community and study the role of dominant and counter narratives in organizational identity formation processes as a web of stories performed and negotiated by organizational members and external stakeholders. Based on a case study...... explicitly on the media’s as well as management’s dominating narratives in constructing counter-narratives and creating shared understandings of who they are and what they do. These multiple understandings of organizational identity make it possible for organizational members to perform and pursue different...

  19. Address Counter Generators for Low Power Memory BIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwinder Singh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In today's Integrated Circuits (IC's designs Built-in Self Test (BIST is becoming important for the memory which is the most necessary part of the System on Chip. The March algorithm has been widely used to test memory core of System on chip (SOC. LFSRs and counters are mainly used to generate the memory addresses, which can be serially applied to the memory cores under test. In this paper Address counters and Data generators (i.e. parts of the MBIST are designed. These implemented in Hardware Description Language (HDL, and the area and power analyzed for each case . From the analyzed results the low power LFSRs and counters can be identify for the low power memory BIST design.

  20. Electrical characteristics of sphere-plane type spark counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe here the mechanical construction and operating characteristics of spark detectors using a small (0.30 mm) diameter sphere as anode, set opposite to a plane cathode and working by the ''corona'' effect, in air at atmospheric pressure. Counting characteristics are very similar to those of Rosenblum-type anode wire detectors. However, the sphere counter has a certain superiority over the Rosenblum counter inherent in its geometry : (a) there sidual current (background) is low and the release of ozone and nitrous oxides during the spark is not of great significance; (b) its self-capacity being very small, the detector gives a faster response; (c) unlike in the case of wire counters, efficiency is independent of particle incidence direction; (d) its sensitive volume, that of a solid of revolution around the axis of symmetry of the detector, amounts to a few cubic millimetres and, being very clearly defined, permits realization of accurate telescopic devices. (author)

  1. Interactive hypermedia training manual for spent-fuel bundle counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent-fuel bundle counters, developed by the Canadian Safeguards Support Program for the International Atomic Energy Agency, provide a secure and independent means of counting the number of irradiated fuel bundles discharged into the fuel storage bays at CANDU nuclear power stations. Paper manuals have been traditionally used to familiarize IAEA inspectors with the operation, maintenance and extensive reporting capabilities of the bundle counters. To further assist inspectors, an interactive training manual has been developed on an Apple Macintosh computer using hypermedia software. The manual uses interactive animation and sound, in conjunction with the traditional text and graphics, to simulate the underlying operation and logic of the bundle counters. This paper presents the key features of the interactive manual and highlights the advantages of this new technology for training

  2. Wind tunnel tests of stratospheric airship counter rotating propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxi Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of the high-altitude propeller, especially the counter rotation effects, is experimentally studied. Influences of different configurations on a stratospheric airship, included 2-blade counter-rotating propeller (CRP, dual 2-blade single rotation propellers (SRPs and 4-blade SRP, are also indicated. This research indicates that the effect of counter rotation can greatly improve the efficiency. It shows that the CRP configuration results in a higher efficiency than the dual 2-blade SRPs configuration or 4-blade SRP configuration under the same advance ratio, and the CRP configuration also gains the highest efficiency whether under the situation of providing the same trust or absorbing the same power. It concludes that, for a stratospheric airship, the CRP configuration is better than the multiple SRPs configuration or a multi-blade SRP one.

  3. The assembly of the Belle II TOP counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new type of ring-imaging Cherenkov counter, called TOP counter, has been developed for particle identification at the Belle II experiment to run at the SuperKEKB accelerator in KEK, Japan. The detector consists of 16 identical modules arranged azimuthally around the beam line. The assembly procedure for a TOP module is described. This procedure includes acceptance testing of the quartz mirror, prism, and quartz bar radiators. The acceptance tests include a chip search and measurements of bulk transmittance and total internal reflectance. The process for aligning and gluing the optical components together is described. - Highlights: • The fabrication process of the TOP counter has been established. • We did the acceptance tests for the first few optical components. • The qualities of the optical components satisfy our requirements. • The tests of the gluing procedure have been taking place

  4. Study on the gridded spark counter in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of gridded spark counter (GSC) with double anode wires in dry air is described in details. The normal double-wire-plane counter was provided with a grid between the source and wires anode. The slope of the counting plateau, and the threshold voltage was proved to be strongly dependent on the grid voltage. also the grid voltage has been shown to be a decisive element of the steady corona current conformation and hence the sensitivity of the counter. The experimental results on the counting and quiescent corona current characteristics are expressed by analytical formulae. Also the properties of the (GSC) when used as corona voltage stabilizer and regulator device were investigated

  5. Radiosonde aerosol counter for vertical profiling of atmospheric dust layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Rogers, G.

    2010-05-01

    A low-cost, miniature aerosol particle counter has been developed, intended for use with balloon-borne meteorological radiosondes. It is particularly suitable for airborne mineral dust measurements. Ambient air is drawn into the counter using a diaphragm pump at a rate of 0.5 litre per minute. The counter detects particles in the airstream using a diode laser and a photodiode. Output from the photodiode is digitised into 5 size bins, with minimum particle diameters equivalent to 0.6, 1.4, 2.6, 5.4 and 10.6 micrometers. The counter is interfaced to a Vaisala RS92 radiosonde, which transmits data from the counter together with meteorological parameters and GPS-derived position to a ground based receiver at 1 Hz rate. Statistically significant particle size distributions can be obtained once a second for number concentrations down to about 100,000 particle per litre (within the measured size range), or correspondingly less at lower temporal resolutions. At the same time, the counter is capable of measuring dust number concentrations exceeding a million per litre without incurring significant errors. Soundings during the DREAME campaign in Kuwait (Ulanowski et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) and on Cape Verde Islands (Nicoll et al. EGU 2010, AS4.7) provided dust concentration profiles with a typical vertical resolution of 4 m. Comparisons with integrated dust column size distribution measurements from AERONET sun photometers showed good agreement in two out of three cases where near-simultaneous retrievals were available. Optical thickness calculations based on the size distributions measured in Kuwait, with the assumption that the dust particles were prolate spheroids, agreed with the AERONET optical thickness at 675 nm to within 15%.

  6. Establishment of an expert system interpreting the measured data of a whole-body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The INCORDEX expert system is written in Turbo-Pascal. It is designed to perform all functions required for implementation of the Health Physics Regualtory Guide and the relevant Guideline for Dose Calcualtions, and in addition performs a variety of monitoring functions, such as: monitoring of compliance with the regulatory dose measurement intervals, monitoring for signalling doses in excess of half of the maximum permissible annual dose (paragraph 49 StrlSchV). Additional data calculated are: the most conservative materials category, number of required dose measurements ahead in the running calendar year, and determination of best date of future, further dose measurements (if necessary). (orig./HP)

  7. In vivo measurement technique of 40K as an indicator of the amount of skeletal muscle tissue in the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium is an essential element for human metabolism. It is present in all living cells and predominantly in the skeletal muscle tissue. The energy of 40K photon and its uniform distribution within the human body allows its in vivo> measurement. Subjects of both sexes were monitored at the whole-body counter of the IRD facility for the evaluation of 40K body burden, being divided into two groups: (1) subjects who do not exercise routinely, and (2) subjects who do exercise routinely. The average values found for potassium mass and potassium concentration in group 1 were 99 ± 17 g of K and 1.3 ± 0.2 g of K kg-1 of body mass, respectively, and, in group 2 the average values found for potassium mass and potassium concentration were 118 ± 33 g of K and 1.6 ± 0.2 g of K kg-1 of body mass, respectively. The comparison between average values for potassium mass and concentration shows a significant statistical difference. (author)

  8. Features of the microstrip proportional counter technology (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The microstrip proportional counter (MSPC) is a new approach in gas-filled detector technology. In contrast with the classical multiwire proportional counter (MWPC) detectors, the electrodes of the MSPC are deposited by photolithographic techniques onto a rigid substrate. The technique offers many...... the anode and cathode strips which allows the positive ion cloud created in the avalanche to be collected rapidly with reduced space charge effects and increased counting-rate capability; A rigid electrode structure which is not deformed under the action of an electric field; A relatively simple fabrication...

  9. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of 3He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this neutral-current detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar-neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of current pulses from NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on 3He through NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array MC simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase 8B solar-neutrino measurement.

  10. Introduction to Neutron Coincidence Counter Design Based on Boron-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-01-22

    The Department of Energy Office of Nonproliferation Policy (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is ultimately to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report, providing background information for this project, is the deliverable under Task 1 of the project.

  11. Experimental investigation on ducted counter-rotating axial flow fans

    OpenAIRE

    Nouri, Hussain; Ravelet, Florent; Bakir, Farid; Sarraf, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study on counter-rotating axial-flow fans was carried out. The fans of diameter D = 375 mm were designed using an inverse method. The counter-rotating fans operate in a ducted-flow configuration and the overall performances are measured in a normalized test bench. The rotation rate of each fan is independently controlled. The axial spacing between the fans can vary from 10 to 50 mm by steps of 10 mm. The results show that the efficiency is strongly increased compared to a conv...

  12. Scintillation counters for multichannel time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The average time resolution (σ) of about 70 ps is obtained for each of four scintillation counters at a long duration test on the CERN SPS particle beam. The counters were assembled of 2.4 x 2.4 x 6.0 cm3 scintillator bars and FEU-87 (CsSb) type photomultipliers, both made in Russia. We observed the non-stability of mean time-of-flight (TOF) value during the runs. The maximum TOF drift contribution into the time resolution is estimated as (10-15 %)

  13. A neutron scintillation counter with low sensitivity for γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes a simple scintillation counter circuit with a high efficiency for recording neutrons and a low efficiency for gamma rays. The operation of the counter is based on the different shape of the scintillation pulses produced in stilbene by neutrons and gamma quanta. Separation is obtained over a wide range of neutron energies. The minimum energy for which neutrons can be distinguished from the gamma background is 80 keV. In neutron recording the amplitude characteristic of the output pulses is approximately linear. The question of the degree to which counts due to the gamma background can be eliminated is also discussed. (author)

  14. Full simulation of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory proportional counters

    CERN Document Server

    Beltran, B; Cai, B.; Cox, G.A.; Deng, H.; Detwiler, J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Habib, S.; Hallin, A.L.; Hime, A.; Huang, M.; Kraus, C.; Leslie, H.R.; Loach, J.C.; Martin, R.; McGee, S.; Miller, M.L.; Monreal, B.; Monroe, J.; Oblath, N.S.; Peeters, S.J.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Rielage, K.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stonehill, L.C.; Tolich, N.; Van Wechel, T.; Wan Chan Tseung, H.; Wendland, J.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Wright, A.

    2011-01-01

    The third phase of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment added an array of 3He proportional counters to the detector. The purpose of this Neutral Current Detection (NCD) array was to observe neutrons resulting from neutral-current solar neutrino-deuteron interactions. We have developed a detailed simulation of the current pulses from the NCD array proportional counters, from the primary neutron capture on 3He through the NCD array signal-processing electronics. This NCD array Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the alpha-decay background in SNO's third-phase 8B solar-neutrino measurement.

  15. Digital Electronics for the Pierre Auger Observatory AMIGA Muon Counters

    OpenAIRE

    Wainberg, O.; A. Almela; Platino, M.; Sanchez, F.; Suarez, F.; Lucero, A.; Videla, M.; B. Wundheiler; Melo, D.; Hampel, M.; Etchegoyen, A.

    2013-01-01

    The "Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array" (AMIGA) project provides direct muon counting capacity to the Pierre Auger Observatory and extends its energy detection range down to 0.3 EeV. It currently consists of 61 detector pairs (a Cherenkov surface detector and a buried muon counter) distributed over a 23.5 km2 area on a 750 m triangular grid. Each counter relies on segmented scintillator modules storing a logical train of '0's and '1's on each scintillator segment at a given time slo...

  16. TOP counter for particle identification at the Belle II experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inami, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    Ring imaging Cherenkov counter, named TOP counter, utilizing precise photon detection timing has been developed as a particle identification detector for the Belle II experiment. The real size prototype has been produced and tested with 2 GeV positrons at Spring-8 LEPS beam line. The quartz radiator production and assembling with microchannel plate photomultipliers was successfully carried out. The beam test data shows good agreement with full Monte-Carlo simulation results in the ring image and the distribution of number of detected photons and timing information.

  17. Cost-effective platinum alloy counter electrodes for liquid-junction dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjuan; Tang, Qunwei; Yu, Liangmin; Yan, Xuefeng; Dong, Lei

    2016-02-01

    One of the challenges in developing advanced dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is the pursuit of cost-effective and robust counter electrodes (CEs). We present here the successful synthesis of binary PtxM100-x (M = Ni, Co, Fe) alloy nanostructures on Ti foil by a facile and environmental-friendly strategy for utilization as CEs in liquid-junction DSSCs. Due to the reasonable charge-transfer ability and excellent electrocatalytic activity, the resultant DSSC yields a promising power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.42% with binary Pt0.28Ni99.72 CE in comparison with 6.18% for pristine Pt CE based device. The easy synthesis, cost-effectiveness, and good electrocatalytic property may help the Pt0.28Ni99.72 nanostructure stand out as an alternative CE electrocatalyst in a DSSC.

  18. Silver activated counter detector for measurements of high intensity fast neutron burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In fusion facilities, such as Z pinch, plasma focus or laser driven experiments, fast neutrons are produced in the form of a burst of radiation. For these kinds of sources, moderation of the neutron energy and silver activation is one of the most common techniques for measurement of the neutron yield. In the recent years, the study of this detection system has been revisited in order to improve the calibration methodologies, and to study the effects of moderator geometry for measurements in low intensity burst neutron sources. In this work, the design, construction and characterization of a silver activated neutron counter for measurements in high intensity neutron burst sources are reported. For such sources (Y4π > 109 n/burst), the effects of moderator geometry, as well as, the systematic effects introduced in the measurement by dead time, after irradiation of the detector by a burst of neutrons, are discussed and included in the measurement methodology

  19. Design and performance of the Savannah River Site Billet Active Well Coincidence Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has acquired, installed, and tested a custom-built Billet Active Well (neutron) Coincidence Counter (BAWCC). The BAWCC is used to make accountability measurements of the 235U content of U-Al coextrusion billets in the SRS fuel fabrication facility. The instrument design incorporates a unique center-source configuration, with two moderated americium-lithium (AmLi) neutron sources located in a central spindle that inserts through the center hole of the U-Al billets. This configuration, a result of earlier experimental studies at SRS, yields improved response and precision for billet assay when compared to the standard AWCC source arrangement. Initial tests of the BAWCC at SRS have yielded one-sigma uncertainties of 0.8--1.0% for a fifteen-minute assay. This paper will describe the design, testing program and performance characteristics of the BAWCC

  20. Effect of the counter anion of cesium on foliar uptake and translocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Hidenao [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7, Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)], E-mail: hhidenao@ies.or.jp; Tsukada, Hirofumi; Kawabata, Hitoshi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7, Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Chikuchi, Yuki [JGC Plantech Aomori Co. Ltd., Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun' ichi [Department of Radioecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7, Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2009-01-15

    Direct deposition of radioactive material onto crops is one important pathway for safety assessment of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities. Foliar uptake of Cs by radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redchim) was studied by applying droplets of Cs solution (CsCl or CsNO{sub 3}) on an upper leaf surface. The uptake of Cs was strongly affected by counter anions of Cs in the applied solution. Approximately 80% of Cs was absorbed for CsCl solution, while only 20% was absorbed for CsNO{sub 3}. The partition of absorbed Cs between leaf and root tuber was quite similar for both Cs compounds, which indicated that behavior of the absorbed Cs in radish was the same for both.

  1. Effect of the counter anion of cesium on foliar uptake and translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct deposition of radioactive material onto crops is one important pathway for safety assessment of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities. Foliar uptake of Cs by radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Redchim) was studied by applying droplets of Cs solution (CsCl or CsNO3) on an upper leaf surface. The uptake of Cs was strongly affected by counter anions of Cs in the applied solution. Approximately 80% of Cs was absorbed for CsCl solution, while only 20% was absorbed for CsNO3. The partition of absorbed Cs between leaf and root tuber was quite similar for both Cs compounds, which indicated that behavior of the absorbed Cs in radish was the same for both

  2. The extended range neutron rem counter LINUS: overview and latest developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 'history' of the extended range neutron rem counter LINUS, since its first conception in 1990 is reviewed, along with the latest developments. These include the calibration of the initially cylindrical version with nearly monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range 34-66 MeV, a detailed evaluation of the anisotropy of its response function, the construction and calibration of an improved spherical version, and recent measurements in reference high energy stray radiation fields. The instrument can now be considered as being fully characterized. Similar monitors built by other laboratories following the present design have confirmed its performances. The instrument is now in semi-routine use at a number of particle accelerator facilities and is one of several devices used on-board of aircrafts for assessing the exposure to cosmic rays at commercial flight altitudes. (author)

  3. Development of positron detector for {mu}SR based on multi-pixel photon counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeshita, Soshi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)], E-mail: soshi@post.kek.jp; Hiraishi, Masatoshi; Miyazaki, Masanori [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Koda, Akihiro; Kadono, Ryosuke [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Suzuki, Soh Y.; Yasu, Yoshiji [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tanaka, Manobu [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama-cho, Miura-gun, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Matsuda, Yasuyuki; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Matsuzaki, Teiichiro [RIKEN, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-02-21

    In the pulsed muon facility (MUSE) being built as a part of J-PARC, muon beams with unprecedented intensity ({approx}10{sup 6} {mu}{sup +}/pulse) will be delivered at its full operation. Because of the extreme instantaneous {mu}-e decay positron rates ({approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} e{sup +}/pulse), development of a highly segmented positron detection system is crucial for practical application of {mu}SR. To this end, we have designed a new positron detector based on a multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC). The advantages of MPPC over conventional phototubes are its small size, low operation voltage, functionality under a high magnetic field, and low cost. The result of test experiment for the detector using a pulsed muon beam is reported.

  4. Self-propulsion of a counter-rotating cylinder pair in a viscous fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rees, Wim M.; Novati, Guido; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2015-06-01

    We study a self-propelling pair of steadily counter-rotating cylinders in simulations of a two-dimensional viscous fluid. We find two strikingly, opposite directions for the motion of the pair that is characterized by its width and rotational Reynolds number. At low Reynolds numbers and large widths, the cylinder pair moves similarly to an inviscid point vortex pair, while at higher Reynolds numbers and smaller widths, the pair moves in the opposite direction through a jet-like propulsion mechanism. Increasing further the Reynolds number, or decreasing the width, gives rise to non-polarised motion governed by the shedding direction and frequency of the boundary-layer vorticity. We discuss the fundamental physical mechanisms for these two types of motion and the transitions in the corresponding phase diagram. We discuss the fluid dynamics of each regime based on streamline plots, tracer particles, and the vorticity field. The counter rotating cylinder pair serves as a prototype for self-propelled bodies and suggests possible engineering devices composed of simple components and tunable by the rotation and width of the cylinder pair.

  5. The parallel plate avalanche counter: a simple, rugged, imaging X-ray counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-dimensional parallel gap proportional counter has been developed at the Danish Space Research Institute. Imaging over the 120 mm diameter active area is obtained using the positive ion component of the avalanche signals as recorded by a system of wedge- and strip-electrodes. An electronically simple, but very effective background rejection is obtained by using the fast electron component of the avalanche signal. Gas gains up to 8x105 have been achieved. An energy-resolution of 16% and a sub-millimeter spatial resolution have been measured at 5.9 keV for an operating gas gain of 105. In principle, the position coordinates are linear functions of electronic readouts. The present model, however, exhibits non-linearities, caused by imperfections in the wedge and strip-electrode pattern. These non-linearities are corrected by using a bilinear correction algorithm. We conclude that the rugged construction, the simple electronics, the effectiveness of the background rejection and the actual imaging performance makes this a very attractive laboratory detector for low and intermediate count rate imaging applications. ((orig.))

  6. Whole-body counting 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the doses from radiocesium in foods after the Chernobyl accident, four groups were chosen in 1987. Two groups, presumed to have a large consumption of food items with a high radiocesium content, were selected. These were Lapp reindeer breeders from central parts of Norway, and hunters a.o. from the municipality of Oeystre Slidre. Two other groups were randomly selected, one from the municipality of Sel, and one from Oslo. The persons in these two groups were presumed to have an average diet. The fall-out in Sel was fairly large (100 kBq/m2), whereas in Oslo the fall-out level was low (2 kBq/m2). The persons in each group were monitored once a year with whole-body counters, and in connection with these countings dietary surveys were preformed. In 1990 the Sel-group and the Lapps in central parts of Norway were followed. Average whole-body activity in each group is compared to earlier years's results, and an average yearly effective dose equivalent is computed. The Sel-group has an average whole-body activity of 2800 Bq for men, and 690 Bq for women. Compared to earlier years, there is a steady but slow decrease in whole-body activities. Yearly dose is calculated to 0.06 mSv for 1990. The Lapps in central parts of Norway have an average whole-body content of 23800 Bq for men and 13600 Bq for women. This results in an average yearly dose of 0.9 mSv for the individuals in the group. Compared to earlier years, the Lapp group show a decrease in whole-body contents since 1988. This decrease is larger among men than women. 5 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  7. ALGORITHMIC FACILITIES AND SOFTWARE FOR VIRTUAL DESIGN OF ANTI-BLOCK AND COUNTER-SLIPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Hurski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers algorithms of designing a roadway covering for virtual test of mobile machine movement dynamics; an algorithm of forming actual values of forces/moments in «road–wheel–car» contact and their derivatives, and also a software for virtual designing of mobile machine dynamics.

  8. Terrorist threat to nuclear facilities and the role of the public in countering them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The general public is an important stakeholder whose vital interests are consistent both with the prevention of terrorist attempts to attack nuclear power infrastructure and appropriate mitigation of the consequences of any such attack. Terrorist attacks can easily bring about systemic disasters characterized by a series of uncertain, interconnected and disruptive events that would affect the population at large as well as a wide range of societal institutions. Hence, the public must no longer be looked upon just as potential victim s or panicked masses but rather as an important contributing factor to better nuclear security throughout all stages of any potential incident. By getting the public on board and recognizing it as an important stakeholder, a meaningful risk communication strategy and other relevant arrangements must be developed and implemented in pursuance of five interrelated objectives: 1. Reach a common risk assessment enabling the public to be educated and prepared. 2. Encourage a well-informed and well-motivated public to contribute to a healthy nuclear security culture not only at the nuclear plant and associated units but also nationally. 3. Build up public vigilance, persuading citizens to cooperate more closely with law enforcement. 4. Reduce the immediate and long-term physical and psychological impact of a terrorist incident by fencing off panic, boosting morale, maintaining credibility, and providing guidance. 5. Integrate acts of nuclear terrorism into the general scheme of All-Hazards approach. The success of this public focused campaign would depend on its ability to develop a balanced and realistic understanding of the risk and the relationship between safety and security as two sides of the same process which is trouble-free operation of the nuclear power infrastructure under any conceivable circumstances. To this end, it is imperative to use as many public channels as possible, reaching groups that differ educationally socially, professionally, and politically. Ultimately, public involvement in the efforts to improve nuclear security and their recognition of the importance of this mission must be regarded as part-and-parcel of strengthening civic democratic society. (author)

  9. Marina Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The CIRPAS main facility and headquarters are at Marina Municipal Airport (formerly Fritchie Field, Fort Ord) in Marina, California. CIRPAS has a 30,000 sq. ft. maintenance hanger there, which houses staff offices, an instrument and calibration laboratory, maintenance and payload integration shops, conference rooms, and flight planning and operations control center.

  10. The Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake

    CERN Document Server

    Heise, J

    2014-01-01

    The former Homestake gold mine in Lead, South Dakota is being transformed into a dedicated laboratory to pursue underground research in rare-process physics, as well as offering research opportunities in other disciplines such as biology, geology and engineering. A key component of the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) is the Davis Campus, which is in operation at the 4850-foot level (4300 m.w.e) and currently hosts three projects: the LUX dark matter experiment, the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR neutrinoless double-beta decay experiment and the CUBED low-background counter. Plans for possible future experiments at SURF are well underway and include long baseline neutrino oscillation experiments, future dark matter experiments as well as nuclear astrophysics accelerators. Facility upgrades to accommodate some of these future projects have already started. SURF is a dedicated facility with significant expansion capability.

  11. A note on counter-transference and anti-Semitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub-Werner, D

    1979-10-01

    After a brief introduction where the meaning of racism is alluded to, a clinical vignette is presented. A patient who has suppressed her antisemitic feelings is being treated by a Jewish psychiatrist. The therapist's possible counter-transference motives in treating the patient are explored, and a workable solution is offered. PMID:487349

  12. Oltre COUNTER: quello che le statistiche di uso non dicono

    OpenAIRE

    Cassella, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative e-measures for Electronic Resources are consolidating through COUNTER reports and SUSHI new Protocol. Even though some problems remain in order to evaluate correctly data. Particularly, new studies confirm the importance to combine quantitative data with qualitative analysis on users' needs and satisfaction. MINES for Libraries methodoloyy and a 2008 CIBER (UK) study on the Google Generation are also discussed.

  13. Counter-intuitive Cases of Data Fusion in Information Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraev, Ulukbek; Kantor, Paul; Ng, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of Data Fusion (DF) for information retrieval are explored. Based on a geometrical model of DF, it is shown that in the ideal case, performance of DF for a pair of information retrieval schemes may be approximated by a quadratic polynomial. Compares counter-intuitive cases of DF with cases that behave according to the geometric model. (AEF)

  14. G.M. counter and pre-determined dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is divided into two main parts. - The first section recalls the principle on which a G.M. counter works, and examines the factors which lead to inaccuracies in counting. The concept of dead time, although simple risen associated with the counter alone, becomes complicated as soon as an electronic dead time is introduced to meet the demands of a measurement or an experiment. The resulting dead time, due to the coexistence of these dead times created by a single motivating factor, shows up as a function of certain laws of probability. From the analysis of the various cases of possible combinations, the conditions which must be fulfilled by a system with pre-determined dead time may be determined. This leads to a method for measuring the dead time of a G.M. counter, and the possibility of studying the latter under the utilisation conditions foreseen. - In the second part the principle, construction and characteristics of two systems with pre-determined dead time are discussed. To conclude, a comparison of several experimental results justifies an extension of the possibilities of a G.M. counter used in conjunction with such a system. (author)

  15. Cationic lipid membranes-specific interactions with counter-ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryhaenen, Samppa J; Saeily, V Matti J; Kinnunen, Paavo K J [Helsinki Biophysics and Biomembrane Group, Institute of Biomedicine, Biomedicum, University of Helsinki, PO Box 63 (Haartmaninkatu 8), Helsinki FIN-00014 (Finland)

    2006-07-19

    Lipids bearing net electric charges in their hydrophilic headgroups are ubiquitous in biological membranes. Recently, the interest in cationic lipids has surged because of their potential as non-viral transfection vectors. In order to utilize cationic lipids in transfer of nucleic acids and to elucidate the role of charged lipids in cellular membranes in general, their complex interactions within the membrane and with the molecules in the surrounding media need to be thoroughly characterized. Yet, even interactions between monovalent counter-ions and charged lipids are inadequately understood. We studied the interactions of the cationic gemini surfactant (2R,3R)-2,3-dimethoxy-1,4- bis(N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonium)butane dibromide (RR-1) with chloride, bromide, fluoride, and iodide as counter-ions by differential scanning calorimetry and Langmuir balance. Chloride interacts avidly with RR-1, efficiently condensing the monolayer, decreasing the collapse pressure, and elevating the main transition temperature. With bromide and iodide clearly different behaviour was observed, indicating specific interactions between RR-1 and these counter-ions. Moreover, with fluoride as a counter-ion and in pure water identical results were obtained, demonstrating inefficient electrostatic screening of the headgroups of RR-1 and suggesting fluoride being depleted on the surface of RR-1 membranes.

  16. Countering Children's Sugared Food Commercials: Do Rebuttals Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Lois; Sandman, Peter M.

    To assist the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in policy making decisions concerning sugared food advertisements on television, a study was conducted to assess the effects on children of counter advertisements and disclaimers as a means of lessening the undesirable impact of sugared food ads. Approximately 1,200 children, aged 5 to 10 years,…

  17. Counter gradient diffusion in a plane wall jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, O.; Dhamotharan, V.

    2015-11-01

    Turbulent wall-jets are important in a variety of applications such as the Coanda effect for boundary layer separation control, film-cooling applications in a jet engine etc., One of the important features of a wall jet is the existence of a region of counter gradient diffusion of momentum. The counter-gradient region is a sort of pathological situation for RANS based turbulence models as they would not be able to predict this region. In this study we show from our experiments in a wall jet the counter-gradient region of diffusion can be understood from simple structural models for a wall jet eddy. Towards this flow visualization and hotwire measurements have been performed. It is seen from the smoke flow visualizations that the outward portion of the flow is backward leaning i.e. in the upstream direction. This is consistent with the orientation of eddy structure obtained from two-point correlation measurements. A building block eddy of a wall jet is proposed that has aspects of a boundary layer eddy in the inner wall region and a jet eddy in the outer region. It is argued by a simple vortex dynamics model that the counter-gradient region occurs due to the influence of the jet eddies in the near-wall region.

  18. Timing properties of parallel plate avalanche counters with light particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have operated a 15 cm2 parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) with protons and α-particles. Time resolution of 140 psec (FWHM) has been measured with 5.5 MeV α-particles at 30 Torr of isobutane. (author)

  19. Stress and use of over-the-counter analgesics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koushede, Vibeke Jenny; Ekholm, Ola; Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2011-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of over-the-counter analgesic (OTCA) use and perceived stress among 25 to 44-year-old men and women from 1994 to 2005; to examine the association between stress and OTCA use over time, and to explore whether the association attenuates when controlled by stress...

  20. Improving SHA-1 counter-cryptanalysis using unavoidable conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumow, D.; Stevens, M.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of counter-cryptanalysis and a collision detection algorithm that detects whether a given single message was constructed using a cryptanalytic collision attack on MD5 or SHA-1 was presented by Stevens at CRYPTO 2013. It was shown that collision detection is not only possible but also pra