WorldWideScience

Sample records for body condition score

  1. Effect of body condition score and nutritional flushing on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of body condition score and nutritional flushing on the reproductive performances of Spanish and Spanish x boer crossbred does. Aberra Melesse, Girma Abebe, Roger Merkel, Arthur Goetsch, Lionel Dawson, Terry Gipson, Tilahun Sahlu ...

  2. Gastrointestinal Nematodes and Body Condition Scores of Goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes of 210 trade goats slaughtered in Nsukka area of Enugu state and their effects on body conditions was studied between May and August, 2011. The body condition of each goat were determined and scored on a scale of 1 – 5. Faecal samples were then collected from the goats before ...

  3. Relationships between body condition score, milk yield, insulin-like ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationships between milk yield, body condition score (BCS), plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and the resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Sanga cows. Sixteen multiparous Sanga cows were grazed extensively on natural pasture. Cows were weighed monthly ...

  4. Effect of reproductive status on body condition score, progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alrahma

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... the mean body condition score was below the average levels, but did vary noticeably with pregnancy or between sheep ... Therefore, feed resources ..... Feed Sci. Technol. 126(3-4): 259-276. Russel AJF, Doney JM, Gunn RG (1969). Subjective assessment of fat in live sheep. J. Agric. Sci. 72(3):45l-454.

  5. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    , and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  6. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  7. Evaluation of classifiers that score linear type traits and body condition score using common sires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Gerritsen, C.L.M.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Hamoen, A.; Jong, de G.

    2002-01-01

    Subjective visual assessment of animals by classifiers is undertaken for several different traits in farm livestock, e.g., linear type traits, body condition score, or carcass conformation. One of the difficulties in assessment is the effect of an individual classifier. To ensure that classifiers

  8. Effect of Age, Hair Type and Body Condition Score on Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine the influence of age, hair type and body condition score on body weight and body conformation traits using 62 Yankasa rams. The ages of the rams were categorized into three; 12-18, 19-24 and 25-36 months. The hair types which were determined through touching and feeling were ...

  9. Feed intake, body weight, body condition score, musculation, and immunocompetence in aged mares given equine somatotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, K; Christensen, R A; Konopka, A; Scanes, C G; Hafs, H D

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen 20- to 26-yr-old mares were given 0, 6.25, or 12.5 mg/d equine somatotropin (eST) to determine whether aged mares respond to ST with changes in feed intake, body weight, body condition score (based mostly on fat cover), or immunocompetence. Neither dry matter intake, body weight, nor body condition scores were altered during the 6 wk of eST injection. However, based on photographs taken to evaluate musculation before and after treatment (scores 0 to 4), mares given eST developed greater (P musculation and the increase in granulocyte numbers in mares given eST suggest that eST supplementation may improve the health and well-being of aged mares.

  10. Effect of reproductive status on body condition score, progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alrahma

    2015-10-28

    Oct 28, 2015 ... This study aimed at evaluating the effect of reproductive stage on nutritional status, and hormonal and trace mineral levels in sheep and goats reared in harsh arid conditions in South Sinai, Egypt. Egyptian local breeds of sheep (n=74) and goats (n=58) raised in South Sinai were examined by means of.

  11. Effect of reproductive status on body condition score, progesterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating the effect of reproductive stage on nutritional status, and hormonal and trace mineral levels in sheep and goats reared in harsh arid conditions in South Sinai, Egypt. Egyptian local breeds of sheep (n=74) and goats (n=58) raised in South Sinai were examined by means of transabdominal ...

  12. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi......, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds.......Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body...... condition score (BCS) based on owner perception with that of an experienced person and to correlate the BCS to body weight (BW) and morphometric measures in a group of mature Icelandic horses in Denmark. A total of 254 Icelandic horses (≥4 years; 140 geldings, 105 mares, 9 stallions) from 46 different farms...

  13. Bodyweight and body condition score in rabbits on four different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prebble, J L; Shaw, D J; Meredith, A L

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of four diet regimes (extruded diet with ad lib hay, muesli with ad lib hay, ad lib hay only, ad lib muesli only) on bodyweight and body condition score in rabbits. Thirty-two Dutch rabbits were studied over 9 months. Bodyweight and body condition score were recorded weekly. All groups gained weight with age, but relative to the ad lib hay only group (mean, 1 · 77 ± 0 · 13 kg), after 9 months rabbits in the ad lib muesli only group were 146% heavier (2 · 59 ± 0 · 32 kg); extruded diet with ad lib hay group 125% heavier (2 · 21 ± 0 · 10 kg); and muesli with ad lib hay group 123% heavier (2 · 18 ± 0 · 13 kg). Median body condition score of the ad lib muesli only group was obese (4 · 5) and was higher than that in both the extruded diet with ad lib hay and muesli with ad lib hay (median = 3 · 5) groups (P lib hay and muesli with ad lib hay groups had above-ideal body condition score despite having bodyweights within the breed standard range. The ad lib hay only group had a median body condition score of 3 (ideal). There was an overall positive correlation between body condition score and weight (qs = 0 · 814, P < 0 · 001). The feeding of muesli without hay should be avoided, to prevent obesity. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael S; Cummings, Sabrina L; Payton, Mark E

    2017-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of brachycephaly and body condition score on respiratory thermoregulation of healthy dogs. DESIGN Prospective study. ANIMALS 52 brachycephalic and 53 nonbrachycephalic dogs. PROCEDURES All dogs were exposed to a cool treatment (temperature, 21.8 ± 1.7°C [71.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 62.2 ± 9.7%; and ambient enthalpy, 47.7 ± 6.6 kcal/kg) and then a hot treatment (temperature, 32.9 ± 1.7°C [91.2 ± 3.1°F]; relative humidity, 51.9 ± 9.8%; and ambient enthalpy, 74.8 ± 8.7 kcal/kg; heat stress) at least 1 hour later. For each treatment, dogs were allowed to acclimatize to the environment for 15 minutes and then were placed in a sealed whole-body plethysmograph for continuous measurement of the respiratory pattern for 10 minutes. Treatment was discontinued if a dog developed signs of respiratory distress. Respiratory variables and body temperature were compared between the 2 breed types (brachycephalic and nonbrachycephalic) and between treatments. RESULTS Body condition score was positively associated with body temperature independent of environmental conditions or breed type and negatively associated with tidal volume. Brachycephalic dogs had a greater increase in respiratory rate in response to heat stress than did nonbrachycephalic dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that brachycephalic dogs had decreased capacity for thermoregulation, compared with nonbrachycephalic dogs, but body condition score was a greater determinant of body temperature than breed type. Nevertheless, both upper airway conformation and body condition score should be considered when evaluating whether an individual dog is capable of tolerating heat stress.

  15. Mutual relationships among body condition score, live weight, and back tissue development in meat sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ptáček

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Body tissue development and proportion affect predisposition to optimum functioning of production attributes, health, and fertility of sheep. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine relationships among indicators of mature ewes’ nutritional status documented by the body condition score and live weight using ultrasonic evaluation of backfat thickness and depth of musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis. The monitoring was carried out in Suffolk sheep (n = 942 for a period of 2 years. A significant increase (P P P P in vivo. Results of the present study could serve in flock management as a tool for evaluation of the current nutritional status as well as a basic ground for further research focused on development of sheep fattiness and carcass traits evaluation.

  16. Body condition scoring system for greater one-horned rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis): Development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Eva M; von Houwald, Friederike; Steck, Beatrice; Clauss, Marcus

    2016-09-01

    Preventing obesity in zoo animals is increasingly recognized as an important husbandry objective. To achieve this goal, body condition scoring (BCS) systems are available for an ever-increasing number of species. Here, we present a BCS for the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) based on an evaluation (on a scale from 1 to 5) of seven different body regions, and report resulting scores for 62 animals from 27 facilities, based on digital photographs. In animals above 4 years of age, this BCS correlated with the body mass:shoulder height ratio. Although differences between the sexes for individual regions were noted (with consistently higher scores in males for the neck and shoulder and in parous females for the abdomen), the average BCS of all regions did not differ significantly between males (4.3 ± 0.4) and females (4.1 ± 0.5). Linking the BCS to results of a questionnaire survey and studbook information, there were no differences in BCS between animals with and without foot problems or between parous and non-parous females. In a very limited sample of 11 females, those eight that had been diagnosed with leiomyoma in a previous study had a higher BCS (range 3.9-4.9) than the three that had been diagnosed as leiomyoma-free (range 3.5-3.7). The BCS was correlated to the amount of food offered as estimated from the questionnaire. Adjusting the amounts and the nutritional quality of the diet components is an evident measure to maintain animals at a target BCS (suggested as 3-3.5). Zoo Biol. 35:432-443, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Creation and validation of a novel body condition scoring method for the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the zoo setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Julie; Sanchez, Jessica N

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to validate a novel, visual body scoring system created for the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) suitable for the zoo practitioner. Magellanics go through marked seasonal fluctuations in body mass gains and losses. A standardized multi-variable visual body condition guide may provide a more sensitive and objective assessment tool compared to the previously used single variable method. Accurate body condition scores paired with seasonal weight variation measurements give veterinary and keeper staff a clearer understanding of an individual's nutritional status. San Francisco Zoo staff previously used a nine-point body condition scale based on the classic bird standard of a single point of keel palpation with the bird restrained in hand, with no standard measure of reference assigned to each scoring category. We created a novel, visual body condition scoring system that does not require restraint to assesses subcutaneous fat and muscle at seven body landmarks using illustrations and descriptive terms. The scores range from one, the least robust or under-conditioned, to five, the most robust, or over-conditioned. The ratio of body weight to wing length was used as a "gold standard" index of body condition and compared to both the novel multi-variable and previously used single-variable body condition scores. The novel multi-variable scale showed improved agreement with weight:wing ratio compared to the single-variable scale, demonstrating greater accuracy, and reliability when a trained assessor uses the multi-variable body condition scoring system. Zoo staff may use this tool to manage both the colony and the individual to assist in seasonally appropriate Magellanic penguin nutrition assessment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of body condition score and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate uroliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie M.; Lulich, Jody P.; Ritt, Michelle G.; Furrow, Eva

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare body condition score (BCS) and urinalysis variables between dogs with and without calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths. DESIGN Case-control study. ANIMALS 46 Miniature Schnauzers, 16 Bichons Frises, and 6 Shih Tzus. PROCEDURES Medical records were reviewed for Miniature Schnauzers, Bichons Frises, and Shih Tzus that were examined between January 2001 and November 2014 for another urolithiasis study or for a urolith removal procedure. Dogs with CaOx uroliths were classified as cases. Dogs without a history of urinary tract disease and with no evidence of radiopaque uroliths on abdominal radiographs were classified as controls. Each case was matched with 1 control on the basis of age (± 2 years), sex, and breed. Body condition score and urinalysis results were compared between cases and controls, and the relationship between BCS and urine pH was analyzed. RESULTS Median BCS was significantly greater for cases than controls, although the proportion of overweight dogs did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Urine pH was negatively associated with age, but was not associated with BCS or the presence of CaOx uroliths. Cases infrequently had acidic urine or CaOx crystalluria but frequently had hematuria and proteinuria. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CaOx uroliths had a greater median BCS than control dogs, but the clinical importance of that finding was unclear. Acidic urine and CaOx crystalluria were uncommon and not adequate predictors of CaOx urolith status. Hematuria and proteinuria were commonly observed in dogs with CaOx urolithiasis, but they are not pathognomonic for that condition. PMID:27875079

  19. Body condition score, nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in goats with subclinical ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marutsova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Studies were conducted to establish the influence of the values of β-hydroxybutyric acid (ВНВА and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in the blood on the assessment of body condition score (BCS of goats with subclinical ketosis (SCK. A total of 113 dairy goats with yearly milk yield of 680 L, in their 2nd to 3rd lactation and average body weight 50-60 кg were included in the study. The goats were divided in three groups: І group (n=27 – pregnant (from pre-partum days 15 to 0; ІІ group (n=28 – recently kidded (from postpartum days 0 to 15 and ІІІ group (n=58 – lactating (from postpartum days 30 to 45. It was established that the quantity of BHBA in goats from control groups I, II and III were between 0.17±0.11 mmol/l and 0.56±0.11 mmol/l. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood BHBA was statistically significantly elevated vs control goats – from 0.88±0.11 mmol/l to 1.2±0.42 mmol/l (р<0.001. Blood ВНВА <0.8 mmol/l in goats are indicative a good transition from pregnancy to lactation, whereas an amount between 0.8 mmol/l and 1.6 mmol /l are indicative of the SCK. Blood BHBA concentrations indicative for clinical ketosis were not established in goats from the three groups (ВНВА <1.6 mmol/l. The body condition scores (BCS of goats from the control groups was within the reference range – 2.45±0.3 – 2.85±0.2, whereas in goats with SCK – declines of varying degrees of reliability. In goats from the three groups with SCK signs, blood NEFA was statistically significantly elevated vs control groups.

  20. Seasonal prevalence, body condition score and risk factors of bovine fasciolosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishmael Festus Jaja

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease that is responsible for a significant loss in food resource and animal productivity. The objectives of this study were to determine the seasonal prevalence and risk factors associated with Fasciola infection in cattle. The results were obtained by coprology, antemortem and post-mortem survey of three abattoirs (HTPA1, n = 500, HTPA2, n = 400, and LTPA, n = 220. The seasonal prevalence of Fasciola infection was 10.4%, 12.8% and 10.9%, during summer, 11.2%, 10.8% and 8.6%, during autumn, 9.8%, 6.5% and 5.9% during winter and 8.2%, 7.8% and 5.9%, during spring in the three abattoirs HTPA1, HTPA and LTPA respectively. There was a significant association (p < 0.05 between the intensity of infection and body condition score (BCS of cattle at each abattoir. Factors such as age [HTPA1 (OR = 3.6, CI = 1.2, 10.2, and LTPA (OR = 3.8, CI= 2.4, 6.1], sex [LTPA (OR = 4.2, CI= 2.5, 7.0], breed [HTPA2 (OR = 2.3, CI = 1.3, 4.1 and LTPA (OR = 2.5, CI= 1.3, 5.0] and BCS had significant (p < 0.01–0.001 influence on the prevalence of fasciolosis. In conclusion, the infection with Fasciola spp was higher in the summer than in the winter; a positive association was established between the prevalence of fasciolosis and poor body condition in study animals. This study, therefore, suggests that fasciolosis could be causing substantial production losses, mainly due to cattle weight loss and liver condemnation.

  1. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  2. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Meehan, Cheryl L; Hogan, Jennifer N; Brown, Janine L

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  3. DETERMINATION OF PREDICTION EQUATIONS TO ESTIMATE BODY CONDITION SCORE FROM BODY SIZE AND TESTICULAR TRAITS OF YANKASA RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yakubu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to develop prediction models using stepwise multiple linear regressionanalysis for estimating the body condition score (BCS from the body weight (BW, testicular length(TL, testicular diameter (TD and scrotal circumference (SC of indigenous Yankasa rams. Data wereobtained from 120 randomly selected rams with approximately two and half years of age, from differentextensively managed herds in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Although pairwise phenotypic correlationsindicated strong association (P<0.01 among the measured variables, there was collinearity problembetween BW and SC as revealed by the variance inflation factors (VIF and tolerance valves (T. TheVIT was higher than 10 (VIF = 19.45 and 16.65 for BW and SC, respectively. The Twas smaller than0.1 (T = 0.05 and 0.06 in BW and SC, respectively. BW was retained among the collinear variables, andwas singly accounted for 83.7% of the variation in BCS. However, a slight improvement was obtainedfrom the prediction of BCS from BW and TL [coefficient of determination (R2, adjusted R2 and rootmean squares error (RMSE were 85.3%, 85.1% and 0.305, respectively]. The prediction of the BCS ofYankasa rams from BW and testicular measurements could therefore be a potential tool for sustainableproduction and improvement of small ruminants in Nigeria.

  4. Influence of body condition score on live and carcass value of cull beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K

    1999-10-01

    Mature beef cows (n = 88) were slaughtered to determine the influence of body condition score (BCS) on carcass and live animal value. Cows were weighed and assigned a BCS (9-point scale), 24 h before slaughter. Hide and by-products weights were recorded during harvest. After a 48-h chill period, the right side of each carcass was fabricated into boneless subprimal cuts, minor cuts, lean trim, fat, and bone. Weights were recorded at all stages of fabrication. Carcass values (U.S.$/100 kg of hot carcass weight) were calculated for U.S. Utility and U.S. Cutter grades, as well as for the Utility/Cutter mix for each BCS. Gross value included the carcass value and the value of the hide and byproducts, whereas net value was calculated after harvest and fabrication costs and by-product value were considered. Live value (U.S.$/100 kg of live weight) was computed by dividing the net value by the animal's live weight 24 h before harvest. The value of the hide and by-products for BCS-2 cows was greater (Pmix, cows designated with a BCS of 7 and 8 had greater (P.05) to BCS-7 cows. Information from this study can be used by the non-fed beef industry to establish a value-based marketing system. Data from this study would indicate that marketing cull beef cows at a BCS of 6 could optimize economic returns to both cow-calf producers and non-fed beef packers.

  5. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  6. Evaluering af overensstemmelsen af body condition score og feline body mass index sammenlignet med dual energy X-ray absorptiometry hos katte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Michael; Hølmkjær, Kirsten Madsen; Cronin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Formål: Obesitet er et stigende problem blandt katte, og der er derfor brug for nemme, billige og hurtige metoder til vurdering af kattes kropssammensætning i praksis. Indeværende studie sammenligner to klinisk applicerbare metoder: Body condition score (BCS) og feline body mass index (FBMI) mod...

  7. Estimation of genotype X environment interactions, in a grassbased system, for milk yield, body condition score,and body weight using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    (Co)variance components for milk yield, body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change and BW change over different herd-year mean milk yields (HMY) and nutritional environments (concentrate feeding level, grazing severity and silage quality) were estimated using a random regression model.

  8. SERUM LIPID PROFILE OF SPAYED AND NON-SPAYED FEMALE DOGS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Almeida Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutering females may be associated to weight gain in dogs. In order to diagnose possible alterations, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemias, laboratory assessment of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is important. The aim of this study was to verify glycemia and serum lipid profile in non-spayed and spayed female dogs, and associate these results with the body condition score. Thirty-two spayed (n=16 and non-spayed (n=16 female dogs had their blood collected for biochemical analysis, and were classified as to their body condition score (BCS. Nine had normal BCS, 10 were overweight, and 13 were obese. Little difference was observed among spayed and non-spayed dogs. Glycemia of spayed canine females is higher than that of non-spayed dogs, regardless of the body condition score. Likewise, total cholesterol levels are higher in non-spayed females. The HDL is higher in non-spayed obese dogs than in spayed dogs with the same body condition, this parameter did not differ in other weight groups. Contrary to what happens in post-menopausal women, spaying dogs does not seem to have such a strong effect on the metabolic parameters assessed. This study revealed unique results, where neither spaying nor weight group had a strong association with metabolic alterations.

  9. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (Pelephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (Pelephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  10. The effect of maternal body condition score before and during pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of adult sheep offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Roselle L; Green, Lucy R; Thompson, John; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Monk, Melanie; Sheldon, I Martin; Hanson, Mark A; Hales, C N; Ozanne, Susan E

    2008-05-01

    This study investigates the effects of diet-induced changes in maternal body condition on glucose tolerance in sheep. Welsh Mountain ewes were established, by dietary manipulation, at a body condition score of 2 (lower body condition [LBCS], n = 17) or >3 (higher body condition [HBCS], n = 19) prior to and during pregnancy. Birth weight and postnatal growth were similar in LBCS and HBCS offspring. In young adulthood, LBCS offspring had increased fasting glucose levels (3.8 +/- 0.07 vs 3.6 +/- 0.05 mM, P < .05), poorer glucose tolerance (2274 +/- 22.6 vs 2161 +/- 33 min/mM, P < .01), and reduced insulin secretion (0.58 +/- 0.05 vs 0.71 +/- 0.07 nM/min, P = .07). Increased fasting glycemia, mild glucose intolerance, and impaired initial insulin secretory response, as observed in LBCS offspring, are indictors of increased diabetes risk in humans. These findings suggest that altered maternal body composition and an imbalance between the fetal and postnatal environment influence offspring glucose tolerance.

  11. Effect of bulls' breed, age and body condition score on quantitative and qualitative traits of their semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Beran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine and evaluate effect of breed, age and body condition score (BCS on qualitative and quantitative parameters of bull’s ejaculate. In total, 16 Holstein (H and 15 Czech Fleckvieh (F bulls were collected in September 2009 and May 2010. Volume of semen samples, sperm concentration and percentage of motile spermatozoa were evaluated immediately after collecting. Sperm motility was also evaluated after diluting and freezing/thawing of AI doses and subsequently during the short-term test of sperm survival. Percentages of live and pathologic sperm before diluting also were evaluated. The data set was analyzed using a generalized linear model in SAS/STAT software. A statistically significant effect of the breed, age and body condition on qualitative and quantitative traits of bull’s sperm were determined (P < 0.05–0.01. Sperm activity after collection, dilution and freezing/thawing had significantly decreasing character.

  12. Body condition score as a selection tool for targeted selective treatment-based nematode control strategies in Merino ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, M P; Jacobson, C; Besier, R B

    2014-12-15

    Sheep nematode control utilising refugia-based strategies have been shown to delay anthelmintic resistance, but the optimal indices to select individuals to be left untreated under extensive sheep grazing conditions are not clear. This experiment tested the hypothesis that high body condition can indicate ability of mature sheep to better cope with worms and therefore remain untreated in a targeted treatment programme. Adult Merino ewes from flocks on two private farms located in south-west Western Australia (Farm A, n = 271, and Farm B, n = 258) were measured for body condition score (BCS), body weight and worm egg counts (WEC) on four occasions between May and December (pre-lambing, lamb marking, lamb weaning and post-weaning). Half of the ewes in each flock received anthelmintic treatments to suppress WEC over the experimental period and half remained untreated (unless critical limits were reached). Response to treatment was analysed in terms of BCS change and percentage live weight change. No effect of high or low initial WEC groups was shown for BCS response, and liveweight responses were inconsistent. A relatively greater BCS response to treatment was observed in ewes in low BCS pre-lambing compared to better-conditioned ewes on one farm where nutrition was sub-optimal and worm burdens were high. Sheep in low body condition pre-lambing were more than three times more likely to fall into a critically low BCS (<2.0) if left untreated. Recommendations can be made to treat ewes in lower BCS and leave a proportion of the higher body condition sheep untreated in a targeted selective treatment programme, to provide a population of non-resistant worms to delay the development of resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between body condition score and cancer prognosis in dogs with lymphoma and osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: In humans and rodents obesity appears to promote some cancers by increasing incidence, tumor aggressiveness, recurrence, and mortality. However, the relationship between obesity and cancer in dogs has not been thoroughly evaluated. Hypothesis/Objectives: We examined whether body conditio...

  14. BODY CONDITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Andrew Taylor

    Table 1 Seasonal variation in body and kidney weight of adult mountain reedbuck culled at Sterkfontein. Values are ..... This leads to a decrease in nutritional quality of grazing for mountain reedbuck and a loss of condition. .... This would decrease the chances of starvation of those animals left, and allow them to build up ...

  15. Genetic parameters for female fertility, locomotion, body condition score, and linear type traits in Czech Holstein cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zink, Vojtech; Stipkova, M; Lassen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    , were collected from 2005 to 2009 in the progeny testing program of the Czech-Moravian Breeders Corporation. The number of animals for each linear type trait was 59,467, except for locomotion, where 53,436 animals were recorded. The 3-generation pedigree file included 164,125 animals. (Co...... type traits ranged from 0.03 for locomotion to 0.39 for stature. Estimated genetic correlations between fertility traits and linear type traits were generally neutral or positive, whereas genetic correlations between body condition score and CF1, DO1, FL1, CF2 and DO2 were mostly negative......, with the greatest correlation between BCS and CF2 (−0.51). Genetic correlations with locomotion were greatest for CF1 and CF2 (−0.34 for both). Results of this study show that cows that are genetically extreme for angularity, stature, and body depth tend to perform poorly for fertility traits. At the same time...

  16. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; Edwards, David; Friggens, N C

    2012-01-01

    , the FEC profile did not suggest any systematic bias in EBalbody with stage of lactation. Moreover we successfully modeled EBalbody differences between breeds, parities and diets. For the farmer, the ability to predict energy balance for individual cows on-farm without having to measure feed intake would......Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to health, reproduction and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EBalinout), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity......, growth and pregnancy). Except milk yield, direct measurements of these are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates involve considerable error sources, so limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EBalbody) using body weight (BW) and body...

  17. Correlation between Body Condition Score, Blood Biochemical Metabolites, Milk Yield and Quality in Algerian Montbéliarde Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charef-Eddine Mouffok1,2,*, Toufik Madani1,2, Lounis Semara1, Nadhira Ayache1 and Amina Rahal1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlation between body condition score (BCS, blood biochemical metabolites, milk yield (MY and quality (Mfat in Montbéliarde cattle (31 cows reared in 5 farms of Algerian semi arid area. The BCS was measured in dry and peak of lactation (6 weeks after calving. Blood samples were taken at the time of body condition (BC measurement for determination of energy (Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and B-Hydroxybutyrate, nitrogen (urea and albumin and mineral (calcium metabolites. Milk yield was recorded in the 6th week of lactation (peak. A sample of milk for each cow was used to determinate milk fat, density and acidity. The results showed a significant decrease in postpartum BCS accompanied by an increase in cholesterol and B-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB concentration. The correlation analysis showed that BHB concentration in pre calving was negatively correlated with BCS (r=-0.321; P<0.05 and cholesterol (r=-0.308; P<0.05. In postpartum, BCS was negatively correlated with cholesterol (r=-0.416; P<0.05, urea (r=-0.366; P<0.05 and BHB (r=-0.487; P<0.05. However, the level of milk production decreased significantly with high glucose (r=-0.449; P<0.05 and BHB (r=-0.514; P<0.05. The fat content increased significantly with blood triglycerides (r=0.681; P<0.05 and BHB (r=0.522; P<0.05 concentration, indicating a high mobilization of body reserves used for the synthesis of milk fat. In conclusion, it can be assumed that the rate of BHB seems to be the best indicator of the nutritional status of dairy cows that determines their production level and quality.

  18. A prospective study of calf factors affecting age, body size, and body condition score at first calving of holstein dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, A J; Heinrichs, B S; Harel, O; Rogers, G W; Place, N T

    2005-08-01

    Data were collected prospectively on parameters related to first calving on 18 farms located in Northeastern Pennsylvania. This project was designed to study possible residual effects of calf management practices and events occurring during the first 16 wk of life on age, BW, skeletal growth, and body condition score at first calving. Multiple imputation method for handling missing data was incorporated in these analyses. This method has the advantage over ad hoc single imputations because the appropriate error structure is maintained. Much similarity was found between the multiple imputation method and a traditional mixed model analysis, except that some estimates from the multiple imputation method seemed more logical in their effects on the parameter measured. Factors related to increased age at first calving were increased difficulty of delivery, antibiotic treatment of sick calves, increased amount of milk or milk replacer fed before weaning, reduced quality of forage fed to weaned calves, maximum humidity, mean daily temperature, and maximum ammonia levels in calf housing areas. Body weight at calving tended to increase with parity of the dam, increased amount of grain fed to calves, increased ammonia levels, and increased mean temperature of the calf housing area. Body condition score at calving tended to be positively influenced by delivery score at first calving, dam parity, and milk or milk replacer dry matter intake. Withers height at calving was positively affected by treatment of animals with antibiotics and increased mean temperature in the calf area. This study demonstrated that nutrition, housing, and management factors that affect health and growth of calves have long-term effects on the animal at least through first calving.

  19. Effect of body condition score at mating on the reproductive performance of Kivircik sheep under an extensive production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Murat; Altin, Tufan; Karaca, Orhan; Cemal, Ibrahim; Bardakcioglu, Husnu Erbay; Yilmaz, Onur; Taskin, Turgay

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of the body condition score (BCS) of ewes before and during the mating season on their reproductive performance under an extensive production system. In this study, 240 Kivircik sheep from the flocks of two breeders were used for over a 2-year period. The flocks were fed under extensive conditions on natural pastures throughout the year. The ewes were synchronized in two different periods, one of which was 45 days before the other. Before the introduction of rams to the ewes, the ewes were weighed after measuring their BCS. Detailed records were kept for every flock in each year. We found significant effects of BCS on pregnancy rate, lambing rate (P < 0.05) and fecundity (P < 0.05). The BCS for the highest pregnancy, lambing rate, and fecundity was determined between 2.01 and 3.00, while the lowest rates for these traits were ≤ 1.50. The highest rates of the pregnancy rate, lambing rate, and fecundity and gestation productivity were 75.9%, 70.9%, 1.11 and 3.34 kg, respectively.

  20. Relationship between the pre- and postpartum body condition scores and periparturient indices and fertility in high-yielding dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefańska Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body condition score (BCS determined on the dry-off day, calving day, and in the first month of lactation, its changes during the dry period and early lactation, and periparturient indices and fertility in high-producing dairy cows. Material and Methods: The experiment was conducted in two herds: A and B, located in Western Poland. The studies were conducted on 116 and 108 Polish Holstein-Friesian dairy cows respectively, with an average milk yield of >10 000 kg/305-day lactation. The experiment included the dry period (-56 d to the calving day, the calving day, and early lactation (from +1 to +56 d. The experimental factor was BCS (0 to 5-point scale. The BCS was performed by one person on day -56, on parturition day (in the first 12 h after calving and on day 30 of lactation. Results: A decrease in BCS (≥-0.25 in herd A during the dry period accelerated the planned calving period by 7.3 d. In the group of cows with BCS 3.50 in the first month of lactation (30 d resulted in the extension of uterine involution period (56 d. Improvement of BCS during the dry period shortened the anoestrus (60 d in herd A and the period of insemination service (60 d in herd B. However, in this group (IM BCS ≥ 0.25 of cows the day of the highest artificial insemination index (2.50 in herd B was analysed. Conclusion: The body condition on the dry-off day and at calving, as well as its deterioration in the first month of lactation, have a considerable effect on fertility indices in dairy cows, thus confirming the advisability of its regular monitoring during routine operations connected with the management of a dairy cattle herd.

  1. Nutritional analysis of gastric contents and body condition score at a single time point in feral horses in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Brian A; Owens, Elizabeth; Watts, Kathryn A; Mills, Paul C; Pollitt, Christopher C; de Laat, Melody A

    2011-09-01

    To determine the impact of a free-choice diet on nutritional intake and body condition of feral horses. Cadavers of 41 feral horses from 5 Australian locations. Body condition score (BCS) was determined (scale of 1 to 9), and the stomach was removed from horses during postmortem examination. Stomach contents were analyzed for nutritional variables and macroelement and microelement concentrations. Data were compared among the locations and also compared with recommended daily intakes for horses. Mean BCS varied by location; all horses were judged to be moderately thin. The BCS for males was 1 to 3 points higher than that of females. Amount of protein in the stomach contents varied from 4.3% to 14.9% and was significantly associated with BCS. Amounts of water-soluble carbohydrate and ethanol-soluble carbohydrate in stomach contents of feral horses from all 5 locations were higher than those expected for horses eating high-quality forage. Some macroelement and microelement concentrations were grossly excessive, whereas others were grossly deficient. There was no evidence of ill health among the horses. Results suggested that the diet for several populations of feral horses in Australia appeared less than optimal. However, neither low BCS nor trace mineral deficiency appeared to affect survival of the horses. Additional studies on food sources in these regions, including analysis of water-soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-soluble carbohydrate, and mineral concentrations, are warranted to determine the provenance of such rich sources of nutrients. Determination of the optimal diet for horses may need revision.

  2. Inaccurate Assessment of Canine Body Condition Score, Bodyweight, and Pet Food Labels: A Potential Cause of Inaccurate Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Philippa S; Naughton, Gregory; Butowski, Christina F; Root, Amanda L

    2017-06-09

    The objectives were to investigate owners' ability to assign the correct bodyweight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) to their dog and to interpret wet and dry pet food labels by estimating how much to feed daily. One hundred and seventy-four questionnaires were completed. Owner estimated BW was compared to actual BW, correct being defined within ±10% of actual BW. Correct interpretation of the total amount of food required was determined by the number of cans (±25% of cans) required for wet food and grams (±20% of grams) for dry food, based on the dog's actual BW, the feeding guidelines on the label, and a comparison with the owner's estimate. Eleven percent of owners overestimated BCS and 19% overestimated BW. Only 48% of owners could correctly estimate their dog's BW. Only 23% and 43% of owners could correctly estimate how much wet and dry food to feed, respectively. Chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant positive association for owners correctly estimating their dog's BW and interpreting the wet pet food label. Many owners are not aware of their pet's BCS and BW and cannot accurately interpret pet food labels. Further owner education to improve these skills is needed if dogs are to be fed correctly.

  3. Inaccurate Assessment of Canine Body Condition Score, Bodyweight, and Pet Food Labels: A Potential Cause of Inaccurate Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa S. Yam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives were to investigate owners’ ability to assign the correct bodyweight (BW and body condition score (BCS to their dog and to interpret wet and dry pet food labels by estimating how much to feed daily. One hundred and seventy-four questionnaires were completed. Owner estimated BW was compared to actual BW, correct being defined within ±10% of actual BW. Correct interpretation of the total amount of food required was determined by the number of cans (±25% of cans required for wet food and grams (±20% of grams for dry food, based on the dog’s actual BW, the feeding guidelines on the label, and a comparison with the owner’s estimate. Eleven percent of owners overestimated BCS and 19% overestimated BW. Only 48% of owners could correctly estimate their dog’s BW. Only 23% and 43% of owners could correctly estimate how much wet and dry food to feed, respectively. Chi-square analysis demonstrated a significant positive association for owners correctly estimating their dog’s BW and interpreting the wet pet food label. Many owners are not aware of their pet’s BCS and BW and cannot accurately interpret pet food labels. Further owner education to improve these skills is needed if dogs are to be fed correctly.

  4. Prepartum body condition score and plane of nutrition affect the hepatic transcriptome during the transition period in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Meier, S; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Heiser, A; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-11-02

    A transcriptomic approach was used to evaluate potential interactions between prepartum body condition score (BCS) and feeding management in the weeks before calving on hepatic metabolism during the periparturient period. Thirty-two mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: two prepartum BCS categories [4.0 (thin, BCS4) and 5.0 (optimal, BCS5); based on a 10-point scale], and two levels of energy intake during the 3 weeks preceding calving (75 and 125 % of estimated requirements). Liver samples were obtained at -7, 7, and 28 d relative to parturition and subsequent RNA was hybridized to the Agilent 44 K Bovine (V2) Microarray chip. The Dynamic Impact Approach was used for pathway analysis, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used for gene network analysis. The greater number of differentially expressed genes in BCS4 cows in response to prepartum feed allowance (1071 vs 310, over the entire transition period) indicates that these animals were more responsive to prepartum nutrition management than optimally-conditioned cows. However, independent of prepartum BCS, pathway analysis revealed that prepartal feeding level had a marked effect on carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and glycan metabolism. Altered carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism suggest a greater and more prolonged negative energy balance postpartum in BCS5 cows overfed prepartum. This is supported by opposite effects of prepartum feeding in BCS4 compared with BCS5 cows in pathways encompassing amino acid, vitamin, and co-factor metabolism. The prepartum feed restriction ameliorates the metabolic adaptation to the onset of lactation in BCS5 cows, while detrimentally affecting BCS4 cows, which seem to better adapt when overfed. Alterations in the glycosaminoglycans synthesis pathway support this idea, indicating better hepatic health status in feed-restricted BCS5 and overfed BCS4 cows

  5. Analysis of the influences on plumage condition in laying hens: How suitable is a whole body plumage score as an outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campe, A; Hoes, C; Koesters, S; Froemke, C; Bougeard, S; Staack, M; Bessei, W; Manton, A; Scholz, B; Schrader, L; Thobe, P; Knierim, U

    2018-02-01

    An important indicator of the health and behavior of laying hens is their plumage condition. Various scoring systems are used, and various risk factors for feather damage have been described. Often, a summarized score of different body parts is used to describe the overall condition of the plumage of a bird. However, it has not yet been assessed whether such a whole body plumage score is a suitable outcome variable when analyzing the risk factors for plumage deterioration. Data collected within a German project on farms keeping laying hens in aviaries were analyzed to investigate whether and the extent to which information is lost when summarizing the scores of the separate body parts. Two models were fitted using multiblock redundancy analysis, in which the first model included the whole body score as one outcome variable, while the second model included the scores of the individual body parts as multiple outcome variables. Although basically similar influences could be discovered with both models, the investigation of the individual body parts allowed for consideration of the influences on each body part separately and for the identification of additional influences. Furthermore, ambivalent influences (a factor differently associated with 2 different outcomes) could be detected with this approach, and possible dilutive effects were avoided. We conclude that influences might be underestimated or even missed when modeling their explanatory power for an overall score only. Therefore, multivariate methods that allow for the consideration of individual body parts are an interesting option when investigating influences on plumage condition. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Application of a body condition score index for targeted selective treatment in adult Merino sheep--A modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, M P; Jacobson, C; Besier, R B

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to establish whether sheep flock production losses due to nematode (worm) infections are typically greater in mature sheep selected for anthelmintic treatment at random compared to sheep selected for treatment based on low (poorer) body condition score (BCS). The study also examined the proportion of sheep in flocks that could be left untreated before production losses became evident, and projected worm egg pasture contamination. Sheep were monitored at two experimental sites in Western Australia (Mediterranean climate). Sheep were stratified for BCS, liveweight and faecal worm egg count (WEC) and allocated into treatment groups (treated or untreated), with equal numbers for each. Liveweight, BCS and WEC measurements were taken on 6 occasions at Farm A and 10 occasions at Farm B. Comparisons of sheep production (liveweight and BCS change) and pasture contamination potential (WEC) were conducted by generating "virtual flocks" of varying proportions sheep untreated (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% untreated). For the comparison of the selection mode of sheep for treatment, the untreated sheep were either selected at random, or as the highest BCS animals at the commencement of observations. Univariate general linear models with least square difference post-hoc tests were used to examine differences between flocks for liveweight, BCS and WEC, and regression analysis was used to examine relationships between BCS and WEC, and liveweight and WEC. No difference in body weights was observed between flocks with varying proportions of ewes notionally left untreated at Farm B, and until more than 30% were left untreated at Farm A. There was no difference in BCS between flocks with varying proportions of ewes left untreated at either site. At no point were there differences in cumulative liveweight change or BCS between selection methods (BCS versus random) where the same proportion of sheep in virtual flocks were left untreated, suggesting that effort committed to

  7. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2015-02-01

    Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1

  8. Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Moerman, S; Bogaert, H; Depreester, E; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5) were selected based on BCS at the beginning of the study (2mo before expected parturition date). During the study, animals were monitored weekly for BCS and backfat thickness and in the last 2wk, blood samples were taken for determination of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Animals underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test in the third week before the expected parturition date. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test consisted of 4 consecutive insulin infusions with increasing insulin doses: 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 5mIU/kg per minute. For each insulin infusion period, a steady state was defined as a period of 30min where no or minor changes of the glucose infusion were necessary to keep the blood glucose concentration constant and near basal levels. During the steady state, the glucose infusion rate [steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) in µmol/kg per minute] and NEFA concentration [steady state NEFA concentration (SSNEFA) in mmol/L] were determined and reflect the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Dose response curves were created based on the insulin concentrations during the steady state and the SSGIR or SSNEFA. The shape of the dose response curves is determined by the concentration of insulin needed to elicit the half maximal effect (EC50) and the maximal SSGIR or the minimal SSNEFA for the glucose or fatty acid metabolism, respectively. The maximal SSGIR was negatively associated with variables reflecting adiposity of the cows (BCS, backfat thickness, NEFA concentration during the dry period, and absolute weight of the different adipose depots determined after euthanasia and dissection of the different depots), whereas the EC50 of the glucose metabolism was

  9. Effects of daily gain in pre- and postpubertal replacement dairy heifers on body condition score, body size, metabolic profile, and future milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Calamari, L; Stefanini, L; Pirlo, G

    2000-07-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate (0.7 kg) and accelerated (0.9 kg) average daily gain before (trial 1) and after (trial 2) puberty on body condition, metabolic profile, and first lactation milk production of Italian Holstein-Friesian heifers. There were 20 heifers in trial 1 and 22 in trial 2. Trials started when heifers averaged 150 and 300 kg of body weight in trial 1 and 2, respectively, and lasted 7 mo (experimental period). Across diet groups, half of the heifers were mated at first estrus after 370 kg and the other half after 420 kg of body weight gain. Actual average daily gains were 0.667 and 0.775 kg in trial 1 and 0.748 and 0.824 kg in trial 2 for moderate and accelerated experimental groups, respectively. Diets for high average daily gain did not affect body condition during growing phase in trial 1, whereas it did in trial 2. High average daily gain increased plasma glucose in trial 1 and plasma urea concentration in trial 2. Rearing diet did not affect milk production and milk protein percent; age in both trials. High average daily gain decreased milk fat percentage in trial 2. Early calving negatively influenced milk production in both trials and milk fat percentage in trial 1. Early calving heifers showed higher protein percentage than those with late calving only in trial 1.

  10. Energy balance of individual cows can be estimated in real-time on-farm using only frequent liveweight measures even in the absence of body condition score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; Højsgaard, Søren; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    Existing methods for estimating individual dairy cow energy balance typically either need information on feed intake, that is, the traditional input–output method, or frequent measurements of BW and body condition score (BCS), that is, the body reserve changes method (EBbody). The EBbody method...... during each milking and real-time smoothed using asymmetric double-exponential weighting and corrected for the weight of milk produced, gutfill and the growing conceptus. BCS assessed visually with 2-week intervals was also smoothed. EBbody was calculated from BW changes only, and in conjunction with BCS...... to be developed for breeds and parities. These standard body protein change functions allow EBbody to be estimated from frequent BW measurements alone, that is, in the absence of BCS measurements. Differences in EBbody levels before and after changes in concentrate intake were calculated to test the real...

  11. Ovarian acyclicity in zoo African elephants (Loxodonta africana) is associated with high body condition scores and elevated serum insulin and leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Brown, Janine L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether excessive body fat and altered metabolic hormone concentrations in the circulation were associated with ovarian acyclicity in the world's largest land mammal, the African elephant. We compared body condition, glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations and the glucose-to-insulin ratio (G:I) between cycling (n=23; normal 14-16 week cycles based on serum progestagens for at least 2 years) and non-cycling (n=23; consistent baseline progestagen concentrations for at least 2 years) females. A validated body condition score (BCS) index (five-point scale; 1=thinnest, 5=fattest) was used to assess the degree of fatness of the study elephants. The mean BCS of non-cycling elephants was higher than that of their cycling counterparts. There were differences in concentrations of serum metabolic biomarkers, with non-cycling elephants in the BCS 5 category having higher leptin and insulin concentrations and a lower G:I ratio than cycling BCS 5 females. Using 'non-cycling' as the outcome variable in regression models, high BCS was a strong predictor of a non-cycling status. This study provides the first evidence that ovarian acyclicity in zoo African elephants is associated with body condition indicative of obesity, as well as elevated, perturbed biomarkers of metabolic status.

  12. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapowicz, Stephanie A; Linder, Deborah E; Freeman, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed body condition scores (BCS) and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners) were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic ( n = 149) and a general practice ( n = 166). BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices). Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income ( P dogs were less likely to be neutered ( P dogs (58% versus 53%; P = 0.230). Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS ( P = 0.004). Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.

  13. Effect of stocking rate and animal genotype on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, and body condition score in spring-calving, grass-fed dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, E L; Delaby, L; Fitzgerald, S; Galvin, N; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2017-09-01

    The objective of the experiment was to quantify the effect of stocking rate (SR) and animal genotype on milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance, and production efficiency across 2 consecutive grazing seasons (2014 and 2015). A total of 753 records from 177 dairy cows were available for analysis: 68 Holstein-Friesian and 71 Jersey × Holstein-Friesian (JxHF) cows each year of the experiment under a pasture-based seasonal production system. Animals within each breed group were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 whole-farm SR treatments defined in terms of body weight per hectare (kg of body weight/ha): low (1,200 kg of body weight/ha), medium (1,400 kg of body weight/ha), and high (1,600 kg of body weight/ha), and animals remained in the same SR treatments for the duration of the experiment. Individual animal DMI was estimated 3 times per year at grass using the n-alkane technique: March (spring), June (summer), and September (autumn), corresponding to 45, 111, and 209 d in milk, respectively. The effects of SR, animal genotype, season, and their interactions were analyzed using mixed models. Milk production, body weight, and production efficiency per cow decreased significantly as SR increased due to reduced herbage availability per cow and increased grazing severity. As a percentage of body weight, JxHF cows had higher feed conversion efficiency, higher DMI and milk solids (i.e., kg of fat + kg of protein) production, and also required less energy intake to produce 1 kg of milk solids. The increased production efficiency of JxHF cows at a similar body weight per hectare in the current analysis suggests that factors other than individual cow body weight contribute to the improved efficiency within intensive grazing systems. The results highlight the superior productive efficiency of high genetic potential crossbred dairy cows within intensive pasture-based milk production systems at higher SR where feed availability is restricted. Copyright © 2017

  14. Body Condition Scores and Evaluation of Feeding Habits of Dogs and Cats at a Low Cost Veterinary Clinic and a General Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Sapowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed body condition scores (BCS and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n=149 and a general practice (n=166. BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices. Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P<0.001 and education (P<0.001 compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P<0.001 and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P<0.001. Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P=0.083, with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P=0.046, but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P=0.230. Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P=0.004. Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.

  15. Plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin in relation to changes in body condition score in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, H V; Hernández-Cerón, J; Keislert, D H; Gutierrez, C G

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships among plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, and IGF-I with dynamic changes in body condition scores (BCS) in heifers. Nineteen Zebu-Brown Swiss crossbred heifers, 24 to 30 mo old, weighing 322 +/- 9 kg, and with an initial BCS of 2.6 +/- 0.11 (range = 1 to 9) were used. Heifers were fed 60% of their maintenance requirements until they reached a BCS of Heifers were then maintained at that level for 25 d, after which they were fed to gain 1 kg of body weight daily until a BCS of 6 was reached. Heifers were weighed weekly and BCS was measured every 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected twice weekly, and leptin and insulin were determined by RIA. An immunoradiometric assay was used to measure IGF-I from one sample every 2 wk. Plasma concentrations of leptin were positively correlated during nutritional restriction (NR) and weight gain (WG) periods with BCS (r = 0.47 for NR, and r = 0.83 for WG; P weight (r = 0.40 for NR, and r = 0.78 for WG; P weight gain, leptin concentration increased at BCS 3 and thereafter for each integer change in the BCS. Regression analysis showed that changes in body weight affect leptin concentrations within a given BCS. There was a decrease in IGF-I as BCS declined (P weight gain, by contrast, IGF-I increased significantly (P heifers with BCS 1 (P heifers of BCS 2 and 3, insulin did not differ and was lower than in heifers of BCS 1 (P heifers at BCS 4 to 6. Leptin was positively correlated (P heifers, as well as an indicator of nutritional status.

  16. The effect of the maturity and prior breeding activity of rams and body condition score of ewe hoggets on the reproductive performance of ewe hoggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, P R; Smith, S L; Morel, P C H; Morris, S T; West, D M

    2009-10-01

    To determine the effect of age and prior use of mature rams at a given ram-to-ewe ratio, and the effect of body condition on breeding performance and pregnancy rate of ewe hoggets. Ewe hoggets (n=733) aged 7-8 months were weighed and their body condition scored, then randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (Day 0) and joined with either four two-tooth rams (20 months of age) not used previously (n=244; Two-tooth), four mixed-aged mature rams that had not been used earlier in the season (n=244; Mature-fresh), or four mixed-aged mature rams that had been used with mature ewes immediately prior to joining with hoggets (n=245; Mature-used). The breeding period was 34 days. Ewe hoggets were identified as having been marked during the first 17 days only, during both 17-day periods, during the second 17 days only, or not marked. Hoggets were re-weighed on Day 34, and pregnancy status determined using ultrasound on Day 92. The breeding soundness of the rams was assessed on Days -34 and -1. Semen samples obtained from the rams did not differ significantly in any of the parameters measured (p>0.05). Ewe hoggets joined with Mature-fresh rams were less likely (p0.05). Hoggets marked in the first 17 days only were heavier (pewe hoggets. Further studies are warranted to verify this result. The re-use of rams without reducing breeding performance would reduce breeding costs and may make breeding hoggets a more viable option for farmers. The BCS of ewe hoggets affected breeding performance, and can thus be used to identify those animals most suitable for breeding.

  17. Association between Lameness and Indicators of Dairy Cow Welfare Based on Locomotion Scoring, Body and Hock Condition, Leg Hygiene and Lying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanoon, Siti Z.; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mansor, Rozaihan; Syed-Hussain, Sharifah Salmah

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Lameness is a major welfare issue in dairy cows. Locomotion scoring (LS) is mostly used in identifying lame cows based on gait and postural changes. However, lameness shares some important associations with body condition, hock condition, leg hygiene and behavioral changes such as lying behavior. These measures are considered animal-based indicators in assessing welfare in dairy cows. This review discusses lameness as a welfare problem, the use of LS, and the relationship with the aforementioned welfare assessment protocols. Such information could be useful in depicting the impact on cow welfare as well as in reducing the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds. Abstract Dairy cow welfare is an important consideration for optimal production in the dairy industry. Lameness affects the welfare of dairy herds by limiting productivity. Whilst the application of LS systems helps in identifying lame cows, the technique meets with certain constraints, ranging from the detection of mild gait changes to on-farm practical applications. Recent studies have shown that certain animal-based measures considered in welfare assessment, such as body condition, hock condition and leg hygiene, are associated with lameness in dairy cows. Furthermore, behavioural changes inherent in lame cows, especially the comfort in resting and lying down, have been shown to be vital indicators of cow welfare. Highlighting the relationship between lameness and these welfare indicators could assist in better understanding their role, either as risk factors or as consequences of lameness. Nevertheless, since the conditions predisposing a cow to lameness are multifaceted, it is vital to cite the factors that could influence the on-farm practical application of such welfare indicators in lameness studies. This review begins with the welfare consequences of lameness by comparing normal and abnormal gait as well as the use of LS system in detecting lame cows. Animal-based measures related to

  18. Levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I and thyroid hormones in relation to the body condition score changes in periparturient dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insulin, insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I and thyroid hormones in relation to the body condition score (BCS of periparturient dairy cows. The study was carried out on twenty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows with average milk production of 7000 L/305 days in the previous lactation, parity ranging from 2-4. All cows were BCS scored during the early dry period, 7±3 days before and after parturition. Based on the BCS at the early dry period, cows were divided in two groups: cows with high BCS (3.75- 4.25, HBCS, n=10, and cows with moderate BCS (2.75-3.75, MBCS, n=10. Blood samples were taken at the time of BCS evaluation. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, triiodothyroinine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA, INEP-Zemun, Serbia. Statistical differences between mean values were determined using Student t-test (p0.05. IGF-I level in HBCS cows at days 7±3 before calving was significantly higher (16.28±3.07:11.76±2.28, p<0.01, with a reverse relationship after calving (3.77±1.64:8.46±2.37, p<0.01. Insulin level was significantly lower at 7±3 days before calving in HBCS cows (16.26±4.60:20.18±4.96mIU/L, p<0.05. Thyroid hormones levels were significantly lower in HBCS group et all examined periods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002 i br. 31003

  19. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen

    2014-09-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Evaluation of plasma islet amyloid polypeptide and serum glucose and insulin concentrations in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Michael S; Hegstad-Davies, Rebecca L; Wang, Qi; Hardy, Robert M; Armstrong, P Jane; Jordan, Kathryn; Johnson, Kenneth H; O'Brien, Timothy D

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate and compare circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), insulin, and glucose in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score (BCS) and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. 109 (82 nondiabetic, 21 nonketoacidotic diabetic, and 6 ketoacidotic diabetic) cats. Cats were examined and BCSs were assessed on a scale of 1 to 9. After food was withheld for 12 hours, blood was collected and plasma concentrations of IAPP and serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured. Differences in these values were evaluated among nondiabetic cats grouped according to BCS and in diabetic cats grouped as ketoacidotic or nonketoacidotic on the basis of clinicopathologic findings. Correlations were determined among variables. In nondiabetic cats, BCS was significantly and positively correlated with circulating IAPP and insulin concentrations. Mean plasma IAPP concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 7, and mean serum insulin concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 8. Serum glucose concentrations were not significantly different among nondiabetic cats. Mean IAPP concentrations were similar between nonketoacidotic diabetic cats and nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 8 or 9. Mean IAPP concentrations were significantly reduced in ketoacidotic diabetic cats, compared with those of nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 6 through 8 and of nonketoacidotic diabetic cats. Results indicated that increased BCS (a measure of obesity) is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IAPP and insulin in nondiabetic cats.

  1. The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Cranston

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0 and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. Methods On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a “Moderate’ or ‘Unrestricted’ nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning. The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM/ha (Moderate and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted. Results There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05 on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (p1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.

  2. The potential interaction between ewe body condition score and nutrition during very late pregnancy and lactation on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, L M; Kenyon, P R; Corner-Thomas, R A; Morris, S T

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to determine the impact of ewe body condition score (BCS) (over a range of 2.0 to 3.0) and nutritional treatments (consisting of differing herbage masses) during very late pregnancy and lactation and their potential interaction on the performance of twin-bearing ewes and their lambs to weaning. On day 142 of pregnancy, twin-bearing ewes with a BCS of 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 were allocated to a "Moderate' or 'Unrestricted' nutritional treatment until day 95 of lactation (weaning). The nutritional treatments aimed to achieve average herbage masses of 1,200 to 1,300 kg dry matter (DM)/ha (Moderate) and 1,500 to 1,800 kg DM/ha (Unrestricted). There were no three-way interactions between ewe BCS group, nutritional treatment and time for any ewe or lamb parameter. The nutritional treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on lamb birth or weaning weight. Lambs born to Moderate ewes had greater survival and total litter weight at weaning (p1,200 kg DM/ha during very late pregnancy and lactation.

  3. Effects of prepartal body condition score and peripartal energy supply of dairy cows on postpartal lipolysis, energy balance and ketogenesis: an animal model to investigate subclinical ketosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kirsten; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Kersten, Susanne; Reiche, Dania; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-08-01

    Subclinical ketosis is a metabolic disorder which often goes undiagnosed and leads to constricted performance and an impairment of general condition. In the current study subclinical ketosis was characterised by a β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration of >1·2 mmol/l in blood serum. To generate this metabolic situation, an animal model was created. The model, based on group-specific interaction of dietary energy supply and body condition, is appropriate for testing the medical effectiveness of treating this kind of ketosis and its concomitants. During the trial, 18 dairy cows (primiparous and pluriparous) were assigned, according to their body condition score (BCS) 6 weeks before expected parturition, to a normal [6.78 MJ net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg dry matter; 20% concentrate] or to a high-energy feeding group (7·71 MJ NEL/kg dry matter; 60% concentrate). Therefore cows with the highest BCS were allocated to the high-energy group to enhance the contrast with the control group. Statistical analysis was done using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Effects were declared significant when P-values were ⩽0.05. Owing to the higher energy concentration and dry matter intake, the energy intake and balance was significantly higher in the high-energy feeding group, with strong effects on lipid metabolism and health in blood and liver post partum. Within the first 2 weeks after calving, 8 out of 9 cows (89%) of the high-energy group had BHB values indicative of subclinical ketosis. These cows also had significantly higher values of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), aspartate transaminase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) post partum, as well as a raised total lipid content of the liver. RQUICKI, a calculated parameter which is based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin and NEFA to assess the insulin sensitivity, was not affected by treatment. Therefore, RQUICKI does not seem to be the right parameter for diagnosing decreased insulin sensitivity in cows

  4. The contribution of previous lameness events and body condition score to the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds: A study of 2 herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, L V; Green, M J; Green, L E; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C; Archer, S C; Huxley, J N

    2018-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that low body condition and previous occurrence of lameness increase the risk of future lameness in dairy cows. To date the population attributable fraction (PAF), which provides an estimate of the contribution that a risk factor makes toward the total number of disease events in a population, has not been explored for lameness using longitudinal data with repeated measures. Estimation of PAF helps to identify control measures that could lead to the largest improvements on-farm. The aim of this study was to use longitudinal data to evaluate the proportion of lameness that could be avoided in 2 separate herds (2 populations) through (1) reduced recurrence of previous lameness events, (2) and moving body condition score (BCS) into more optimal ranges. Data were obtained from 2 UK dairy herds: herd A, a 200-cow herd with 8 yr of data from a total of 724 cows where lameness events were based on weekly locomotion scores (LS; 1 to 5 scale), and herd B, a 600-cow herd with data recorded over 44 mo from a total of 1,040 cows where treatment of clinical cases was used to identify lameness events. The PAF for categories of BCS were estimated using a closed equation appropriate for multiple exposure categories. Simulation models were used to explore theoretical scenarios to reflect changes in BCS and recurrence of previous lameness events in each herd. For herd A, 21.5% of the total risk periods (cow-weeks) contained a lameness event (LS 3, 4, or 5), 96% of which were repeat events and 19% were recorded with BCS events were based on 2 consecutive weeks of LS 4 or 5, 4% of risk periods were recorded as lame, of which 89.5% were repeat events. For herd B, 16.3% of the total risk periods (consecutive 30 d) contained a lameness event (72.6% were repeat events) and 20% were recorded with BCS ≤2 (0 to 120 d previously). The median PAF for all previous lameness was between 79 and 83% in the 2 herds. Between 9 and 21% of lameness events could be attributed

  5. Body condition score and plane of nutrition prepartum affect adipose tissue transcriptome regulators of metabolism and inflammation in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Kanwal, M; Bulgari, O; Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M; Heiser, A; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrating a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving have challenged the management practice of increasing dietary energy density during the last ~3 wk prepartum. Despite our knowledge at the whole-animal level, the tissue-level mechanisms that are altered in response to feeding management prepartum remain unclear. Our hypothesis was that prepartum body condition score (BCS), in combination with feeding management, plays a central role in the peripartum changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 prepartum BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale; BCS4, BCS5) obtained via differential feeding management during late-lactation, and 2 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75 and 125% of estimated requirements). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression of targets related to fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, lipolysis), adipokine synthesis, and inflammation. Both prepartum BCS and feeding management had a significant effect on mRNA and miRNA expression throughout the peripartum period. Overfed BCS5 cows had the greatest prepartum expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an overall greater expression of leptin (LEP); BCS5 was also associated with greater overall adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), whereas overfeeding upregulated expression of proadipogenic miRNA. Higher postpartum expression of chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was detected in overfed BCS5 cows. Feed-restricted BCS4 cows had the highest overall interleukin 1 (IL1B) expression. Prepartum feed restriction

  6. Effects of propylene glycol supplementation on blood indicators of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Ionuţ Borş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of propylene glycol on metabolic variables of hepatic function, body condition score, milk fat-protein concentration and reproductive performance of dairy cows after ending administration. Postparturient dairy cows (n = 200 of Holstein Friesian breed were divided into two groups of 100 individuals. The experimental group received during days 0-7 post partum an oral daily dose of 600 ml of propylene glycol; the control group was without any supplement. The hepatic enzymes, glucose, cholesterol and serum albumin were measured on days 10-15, 45-50 and 70 post partum. Reproduction indicators of dairy cows were calculated from the farm recording data and the milk data record from a regular dairy control (days 10, 20, 30, and 50 post partum. Animals that received propylene glycol in the first 7 days post partum had reduced activities of aspartate transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase, elevated cholesterol concentration (P 0.05 and low milk fat percentage (P P 0.05. Our results suggest that some blood indicators of hepatic function, milk fat concentration and calving to first oestrus interval can be improved for 70 days post partum by the use of propylene glycol drenching in the first 7 days post partum. The beneficial effect of this treatment could be evaluated by easily available data, which can be used by practitioners in the field to analyze fertility problems in dairy herds and more exactly to examine whether metabolic stress, among other factors, is involved in the fertility problem.

  7. Use of AI technician scores for body condition, uterine tone and uterine discharge in a model with disease and milk production parameters to predict pregnancy risk at first AI in holstein dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffler, S.H.; Vries, de M.J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Zeeuw, de A.C.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Graaf, de F.M.; Brand, A.

    1999-01-01

    Technicians recorded body condition score (BCS) and several parameters related to estrus and/or metritis for 1694 first insemination cows on 23 farms. Additional variables for modeling the adjusted odds ratios (OR) for pregnancy were data on disease prior to or within 21 days of AI and test day milk

  8. Genetic analysis of milk β-hydroxybutyrate and its association with fat-to-protein ratio, body condition score, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum in early first lactation of Canadian Holsteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, A; Jamrozik, J; Schenkel, F S; Moore, R K; Lefebvre, D M; Kelton, D F; Miglior, F

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in early first lactation of Canadian Holstein cows and to examine its genetic association with indicators of energy balance (fat-to-protein ratio and body condition score) and metabolic diseases (clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum). Data for milk BHBA recorded between 5 and 100 d in milk was obtained from Valacta (Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada), the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement organization responsible for Québec and Atlantic provinces. Test-day milk samples were analyzed by mid-infrared spectrometry using previously developed calibration equations for milk BHBA. Test-day records of fat-to-protein ratio were obtained from the routine milk recording scheme. Body condition score records were available from the routine type classification system. Data on clinical ketosis and displaced abomasum recorded by producers were available from the national dairy cattle health system in Canada. Data were analyzed using linear animal models. Heritability estimates for milk BHBA at different stages of early lactation were between 0.14 and 0.29. Genetic correlations between milk BHBA were higher between adjacent lactation intervals and decreased as intervals were further apart. Correlations between breeding values for milk BHBA and routinely evaluated traits revealed that selection for lower milk BHBA in early lactation would lead to an improvement of several health and fertility traits, including SCS, calving to first service, number of services, first service to conception, and days open. Also, lower milk BHBA was associated with a longer herd life, better conformation, and better feet and legs. A higher genetic merit for milk yield was associated with higher milk BHBA, and, therefore, a greater susceptibility to hyperketonemia. Milk BHBA at the first test-day was moderately genetically correlated with fat-to-protein ratio (0.49), body condition score (-0.35), and

  9. LA CONDICIÓN CORPORAL COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA PRONOSTICAR EL POTENCIAL REPRODUCTIVO EN HEMBRAS BOVINAS DE CARNE BODY CONDITION SCORE AS TOOL TO PREDICT THE REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BEEF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Correa-Orozco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el efecto de la condición corporal (CC sobre el desempeño reproductivo y la función endocrina en vacas de carne. Los intervalos parto al primer estro y ovulación, intervalos desde el parto a la actividad luteal normal y a la concepción son más cortos en vacas con CC moderada cuando son comparados con vacas delgadas. El tamaño del folículo dominante al primer estro es más grande y la tasa de preñez es mayor para vacas con condición moderada en comparación con vacas delgadas. Además, han sido estudiados los efectos de la CC sobre la secreción de hormona luteinizante, estradiol, leptina, insulina y factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina I (IGF-I. El programa para inducción de la ovulación puede aumentar la tasa de preñez en vacas de carne con CC pobre. Sin embargo, la eficacia del protocolo para inducir el estro y la ovulación es dependiente de la CC. En conclusión, la CC es un indicador útil del estado de energía y potencial reproductivo, por sus efectos sobre la dinámica folicular, actividad ovárica, función endocrina y tasa de preñez en vacas de carne.The objective of this review is to describe the effect of body condition score (BCS on reproductive performance and endocrine function of beef cows. Interval to first estrus and ovulation, interval from parturition to normal luteal activity and to conception are shorter for moderate body condition cows than thin cows. Size of the dominant follicle at the first estrus is larger and pregnancy rate is greater for moderate condition cows as compared with thin cows. In addition has been studied to effects of BCS on secretion of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, leptin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. The program for induction of ovulation can increase the pregnancy rate in beef cows in poor body condition. However, the effectiveness of the protocol for inducing estrus and ovulation is dependent on body condition

  10. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Scale Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A procedure is described for estimating the reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement of scale scores incorporating the discrete transformation of raw scores to scale scores. The method is illustrated using a strong true score model, and practical applications are described. (SLD)

  11. Lo Score: un algoritmo per investigare la Body Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Gioa Monda

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Both inside and outside theatre, body work is the first and principle aspect of work on the ‘self’. It is the first inescapable step in the path toward the aware action which in theatre is the “action in perception”, i.e. thinking-in-movement. This aware thought involves the whole background of the person. It is an action that arises only when the person is present and at the same time dynamically involved entirely in the environment: it is the perceptual consciousness that integrates the planning of the action with the execution of the same action. “Thinking-in-movement” is a dynamic process that is not possible to be codified: it is a language that asks to be experienced in order to be able to be understood and learned. Therefore, what is the Score? Is it a concept, a method of movement, or a digital tool? Perhaps it is each one of these things. The Score is an indispensable algorithm to read the dance that the human writes in order to obtain information, transfer them and so continue in the evolution of the body knowledge. The Score is the medium in which the human being structured tensions are shaped: i.e., an alternative site to understand the potential instigation of the human body and the organization of his residual actions. In this article I will read the score like a crystal: metaphor of the shaped dynamism innate in the expressive movement. I will explain how this crystal is the necessary channel to make sure the choreographic counterpoint can show up during the live performance. I will explore what this means for the choreographers involved in Motion Bank - William Forsythe, Deborah Hay, Jonathan Burrows and Matteo Fargion - analyzing the somatic connections between their dance-making and the score-creation.

  12. 24 CFR 902.35 - Financial condition scoring and thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Indicator #2: Financial Condition § 902.35.... Each financial condition component has several levels of performance, with different point values for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial condition scoring and...

  13. Heritability of live weight and condition score in a Holstein herd and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although live weight could be used as an indirect indicator of feed intake and efficiency of milk production, other body conformation traits could also be used. There is a need in the South African dairy industry for a selection index based on production parameters and some traits such as live weight, condition score or ...

  14. Revisions of rump fat and body scoring indices for deer, elk, and moose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Vales, David J.; Irwin, Larry L.; Hall, P. Briggs; Spencer, Rocky D.; Murphie, Shannon L.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Miller, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Because they do not require sacrificing animals, body condition scores (BCS), thickness of rump fat (MAXFAT), and other similar predictors of body fat have advanced estimating nutritional condition of ungulates and their use has proliferated in North America in the last decade. However, initial testing of these predictors was too limited to assess their reliability among diverse habitats, ecotypes, subspecies, and populations across the continent. With data collected from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) during initial model development and data collected subsequently from free-ranging mule deer and elk herds across much of the western United States, we evaluated reliability across a broader range of conditions than were initially available. First, to more rigorously test reliability of the MAXFAT index, we evaluated its robustness across the 3 species, using an allometric scaling function to adjust for differences in animal size. We then evaluated MAXFAT, rump body condition score (rBCS), rLIVINDEX (an arithmetic combination of MAXFAT and rBCS), and our new allometrically scaled rump-fat thickness index using data from 815 free-ranging female Roosevelt and Rocky Mountain elk (C. e. roosevelti and C. e. nelsoni) from 19 populations encompassing 4 geographic regions and 250 free-ranging female mule deer from 7 populations and 2 regions. We tested for effects of subspecies, geographic region, and captive versus free-ranging existence. Rump-fat thickness, when scaled allometrically with body mass, was related to ingesta-free body fat over a 38–522-kg range of body mass (r2 = 0.87; P 12% body fat. This bias translated into a difference between subspecies, because Rocky Mountain elk tended to be fatter than Roosevelt elk in our sample. Effects of observer error with the rBCS also existed for mule deer with moderate to high levels of body fat, and deer body size significantly affected accuracy of the MAXFAT predictor

  15. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Prescott

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI, an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002. For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%. However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78. Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06, and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58. In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10-5. Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk.

  16. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  17. Condição corporal, variação de peso e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de cria em pastagem nativa no Pantanal Body condition score, weight variation and reproductive performance of beef cows in rangelands from the Pantanal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Santos

    2009-02-01

    probabilidade de produção de um bezerro por vaca por ano.The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition score (BCS on reproductive performance of beef cows before and after calving and to evaluate the calving probability using body condition score and weight variation during critical periods of the cow reproductive cycle. From 2001 to 2005, the body condition score was recorded in 248 multiparous cows raised in native pastures, submitted to different supplementation treatments (mineral mixture only - control; dry supplement; liquid supplement and liquid supplement for cow and calves. Weighing and body condition evaluation were made on a 1-9 point scale in August (prepartum period, 60-90 days before parturition and January (postpartum and reproductive period. A reproduction score was created in function of the body scores in four consecutive years. Except for the treatment, the other factors (body condition score in the prepartum and postpartum periods and cow age influenced the reproduction score. Thus, the calving probabilities were estimated for all cows. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to evaluate the calving probability in function of the exploratory variables over time. Calving probability higher than 80% was obtained when cows scored 5,5 before calving. In relation to weight, the results showed that about 60% of calving cows maintained or gained weight in the postpartum period, leading to increase in the rebreeding probability. Similar situation occurred with single cows; however, the calving probability was lower. These results indicate that the calving probability using BCS is better estimated before calving. Furthermore, it indicates the presence of cows more adapted to the Pantanal climatic and feeding conditions than others.

  18. Effect of Body Condition Score and Nutritional Flushing on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    crosses, respectively. Similarly, flushing with PM diet significantly (p<0.05) increased the. BCS values in Spanish and F1 genotypes by 19.6% and 10.7%, respectively. In the high BCG, the ... supplements (Urrutia-Morales et al., 2012). The onset of ...

  19. Influence of sex, age and body condition score on carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that where carcass quality is a major goal given the right market guidelines, farmer can make use of the sex differences in the proportion and distribution of carcass tissue to serve the consumer markets with meat goat of their preference. Keywords: Carcass composition, tissue distribution, market goats. Tanzania ...

  20. Body condition of Morelet’s Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brandt, Laura A.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen; Jeffery, Brian; McMurry, Scott T.; Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Vinci, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Body condition factors have been used as an indicator of health and well-being of crocodilians. We evaluated body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in northern Belize in relation to biotic (size, sex, and habitat) and abiotic (location, water level, and air temperature) factors. We also tested the hypothesis that high water levels and warm temperatures combine or interact to result in a decrease in body condition. Size class, temperature, and water level explained 20% of the variability in condition of Morelet's Crocodiles in this study. We found that adult crocodiles had higher condition scores than juveniles/subadults but that sex, habitat, and site had no effect. We confirmed our hypothesis that warm temperatures and high water levels interact to decrease body condition. We related body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles to natural fluctuations in air temperatures and water levels in northern Belize, providing baseline conditions for population and ecosystem monitoring.

  1. Body hair scores and total hair diameters in healthy women in the Kirikkale Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagsoz, Nevin; Kamaci, Mansur; Orbak, Zerrin

    2004-06-30

    It was aimed to determine the normal hair scores of women of Kirikkale region according to the Ferriman- Gallwey scale and to investigate the relationship between the hair shaft diameter and hair scores. Hair scores were calculated in 204 healthy women, and hair shaft diameters were measured from the hair samples collected from 60 patients. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance and blood androgen levels were determined. Neutral, hormonal and total hair scores were 2.1 1.4, 3.1 2.7 and 5.2 3.6, respectively. The average total hair diameter and hormonal hair diameter were 191.93 90.49 m and 121.8 75.9 m respectively. The correlation between total hair diameter and total hair score was statistically significant (r=0.704 p 0.001). Also, the correlation between hormonal hair diameter and hormonal hair score was statistically significant (r=0.724 p 0.001). While hair scores and diameters show meaningful positive correlation with androgen levels, they show negative correlation with age. In our population, 95% value of total hair score was 11, and for the hormonal score, it was 9. Hair diameters increase with hair score, regardless of total or hormonal of hair scores. Hair scores and hair diameters may be affected by blood androgens in healthy women.

  2. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  3. On Hydroelastic Body-Boundary Condition of Floating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1996-01-01

    A general linear body boundary condition of hydroelastic analysis of arbitrary shaped floating structures generalizes the classic kinematic rigid-body (Timman-Newman) boundary condition for seakeeping problems. The new boundary condition is consistent with the existing theories under certain...

  4. Body condition variation in kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) nestlings in relation to breeding conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costantini, David; Casagrande, Stefania; Carello, Livia; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2009-01-01

    The body condition index (i.e., body mass corrected for age or size differences) is commonly used to investigate offspring condition in nestling birds. The body condition index reflects different parameters related to the general nutritional state of nestlings and may predict survival prospects.

  5. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Administration and governing body. 486...: Administration and governing body. (a) While an OPO may have more than one board, the OPO must have an advisory... any other activity of the OPO and may not serve as the OPO's governing body or board of directors...

  6. Evaluating indices of body condition in two cricket species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clint D; Tawes, Brittany R; Worthington, Amy M

    2014-01-01

    Body mass components (dry mass, lean dry mass, water mass, fat mass) in each sex correlate strongly with body mass and pronotum length in Gryllus texensis and Acheta domesticus. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression underestimates the scaling relationship between body mass and structural size (i.e., pronotum length) in both cricket species compared with standard major axis (SMA) regression. Standardized mass components correlate more strongly with scaled mass index () than with residual body mass (R i). R i represents the residuals from an OLS regression of log body mass against log pronotum length. Neither condition index predicts energy stores (i.e., fat content) in G. texensis. R i is not correlated with energy stores in A. domesticus whereas is negatively correlated. A comparison of condition index methods using published data showed that neither sex nor diet quality affected body condition at adulthood in G. texensis when using the scaled mass index. However, the residual index suggested that sex had a significant effect on body condition. Further, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) suggested that diet quality significantly affects body mass while statistically controlling for body size (i.e., body condition). We conclude that the statistical assumptions of condition index methods must be met prior to use and urge caution when using methods that are based on least squares in the y -plane (i.e., residual index ANCOVA). PMID:25512844

  7. 42 CFR 482.12 - Condition of participation: Governing body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Administration § 482.12 Condition of participation: Governing body. The hospital must have an effective governing body legally responsible for the conduct of the hospital as an institution. If a hospital does not have an...

  8. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    suggest that genetic variants influencing body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women independently on the effect on WHR. The stronger effect of the GRSwomen implies heterogenic effects of the WHRadjBMI variants on weight loss. A strong effect of rs1358980-T in the VEGFA locus suggests......BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability...... to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi...

  9. Immune phenotype and body condition in roe deer: individuals with high body condition have different, not stronger immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Gilot-Fromont

    Full Text Available An efficient immunity is necessary for host survival, but entails energetic costs. When energy is limited, immunocompetence and body condition should co-vary positively among individuals and, depending on body condition, individuals should allocate more either in innate immunity or in adaptive response. We tested whether immune phenotype depends on body condition in large mammals, using data from two contrasted populations of roe deer Capreolus capreolus in France. Roe deer living at Chizé, a forest with poor habitat quality, were expected to show lower values for body condition and immune parameters than roe deer at Trois Fontaines, a forest with high habitat quality. From 285 blood samples collected between December 2009 and March 2011, we measured seven metabolic parameters and ten immunological parameters. A Principal Component Analysis showed that all indicators of body condition co-varied positively and were lowest at Chizé. Several immunological indicators correlated to body condition and differed between Trois Fontaines and Chizé. However, high body condition was not associated to a high average level of immunocompetence, but instead to high levels of indicators of acute inflammatory innate response, while low body condition was associated to high levels of monocytes and lymphocytes, possibly reflecting adaptive immunity. Limited data suggest that the difference between populations was not related to the presence of specific parasite species, however parasite exposure and stress have to be investigated to gain a more complete understanding of the determinants of immunity.

  10. Immune phenotype and body condition in roe deer: individuals with high body condition have different, not stronger immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Jégo, Maël; Bonenfant, Christophe; Gibert, Philippe; Rannou, Benoit; Klein, François; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    An efficient immunity is necessary for host survival, but entails energetic costs. When energy is limited, immunocompetence and body condition should co-vary positively among individuals and, depending on body condition, individuals should allocate more either in innate immunity or in adaptive response. We tested whether immune phenotype depends on body condition in large mammals, using data from two contrasted populations of roe deer Capreolus capreolus in France. Roe deer living at Chizé, a forest with poor habitat quality, were expected to show lower values for body condition and immune parameters than roe deer at Trois Fontaines, a forest with high habitat quality. From 285 blood samples collected between December 2009 and March 2011, we measured seven metabolic parameters and ten immunological parameters. A Principal Component Analysis showed that all indicators of body condition co-varied positively and were lowest at Chizé. Several immunological indicators correlated to body condition and differed between Trois Fontaines and Chizé. However, high body condition was not associated to a high average level of immunocompetence, but instead to high levels of indicators of acute inflammatory innate response, while low body condition was associated to high levels of monocytes and lymphocytes, possibly reflecting adaptive immunity. Limited data suggest that the difference between populations was not related to the presence of specific parasite species, however parasite exposure and stress have to be investigated to gain a more complete understanding of the determinants of immunity.

  11. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  12. Predicting success of metabolic surgery: age, body mass index, C-peptide, and duration score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wei-Jei; Hur, Kyung Yul; Lakadawala, Muffazal; Kasama, Kazunori; Wong, Simon K H; Chen, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yi-Chih; Ser, Kong-Han

    2013-01-01

    Surgery is the most effective treatment of morbid obesity and leads to dramatic improvements in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gastrointestinal metabolic surgery has been proposed as a treatment option for T2DM. However, a grading system to categorize and predict the outcome of metabolic surgery is lacking. The study setting was a tertiary referral hospital (Taoyuan City, Taoyuan County, Taiwan). We first evaluated 63 patients and identified 4 factors that predicted the success of T2DM remission after bariatric surgery in this cohort: body mass index, C-peptide level, T2DM duration, and patient age. We used these variables to construct the Diabetes Surgery Score, a multidimensional 10-point scale along which greater scores indicate a better chance of T2DM remission. We then validated the index in a prospective collected cohort of 176 patients, using remission of T2DM at 1 year after surgery as the outcome variable. A total of 48 T2DM remissions occurred among the 63 patients and 115 remissions (65.3%) in the validation cohort. Patients with T2DM remission after surgery had a greater Diabetes Surgery Score than those without (8 ± 4 versus 4 ± 4, P Surgery Score also had a greater rate of success with T2DM remission (from 33% at score 0 to 100% at score 10); A 1-point increase in the Diabetes Surgery Score translated to an absolute 6.7% in the success rate. The Diabetes Surgery Score is a simple multidimensional grading system that can predict the success of T2DM treatment using bariatric surgery among patients with inadequately controlled T2DM. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the validity of using unverified indices of body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, J.L.; Esler, Daniel; Flint, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Condition indices are commonly used in an attempt to link body condition of birds to ecological variables of interest, including demographic attributes such as survival and reproduction. Most indices are based on body mass adjusted for structural body size, calculated as simple ratios or residuals from regressions. However, condition indices are often applied without confirming their predictive value (i.e., without being validated against measured values of fat and protein), which we term 'unverified' use. We evaluated the ability of a number of unverified indices frequently found in the literature to predict absolute and proportional levels of fat and protein across five species of waterfowl. Among indices we considered, those accounting for body size never predicted absolute protein more precisely than body mass, however, some indices improved predictability of fat, although the form of the best index varied by species. Further, the gain in precision by using a condition index to predict either absolute or percent fat was minimal (rise in r2???0.13), and in many cases model fit was actually reduced. Our data agrees with previous assertions that the assumption that indices provide more precise indicators of body condition than body mass alone is often invalid. We strongly discourage the use of unverified indices, because subjectively selecting indices likely does little to improve precision and might in fact decrease predictability relative to using body mass alone. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  14. Modelo de simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas bovinas de corte com base no escore de condição corporal Simulation model of the reproductive performance of beef cows based on body condition score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Silveira da Fontoura Júnior

    2009-08-01

    generating results for the herd, based on the body condition score (BCS at calving and age at sexual maturity. The model is empiric and dynamic, containing deterministic and stochastic elements. The model was developed based on the relationship between BCS and postpartum interval for lactating cows; for heifers and non-lactating cows, the conception rate was based on the probability to conceive; for heifers, body weight and age at puberty were the limiting factors. The model has two forms of reading inputs: from a parturition report generated by software or from raw data provided by the user. Input data are considered averages, except for those defining the reproductive season. The model assigns a standard deviation to each variable, with normal distribution. The final output is in the form of a report providing the annual amount of kg of weaned calves per cow, among other information. Inputs may be freely changed to evaluate the impact of new parameters on the output. This model contributes to a greater understanding of the production system studied and allows simulation of the reproductive performance of beef cows at calving from their BCS. Once validated, it is envisioned that the model will be a valuable tool to aid decision-making.

  15. The association of pre-operative body pain diagram scores with pain outcomes following total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, A J; Selzer, F; Losina, E; Usiskin, I; Collins, J E; Lee, Y C; Band, P; Dalury, D F; Iorio, R; Kindsfater, K; Katz, J N

    2017-05-01

    Approximately 20% of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) recipients have suboptimal pain relief. We evaluated the association between pre-surgical widespread body pain and incomplete pain relief following TKA. This prospective analysis included 241 patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) undergoing unilateral TKA who completed questionnaires preoperatively and up to 12 months post-operatively. Questionnaires included the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scale and a body pain diagram. We derived the number of non-index painful body regions from the diagram. We used Poisson regression to determine the association between painful body regions identified preoperatively and both WOMAC pain at follow-up and improvement in pain as defined by the minimal clinically important difference (MCID). Mean subject age was 66 years (SD 9), and 61% were females. Adjusting for age, sex, co-morbid conditions, baseline pain, pain catastrophizing, and mental health, we found that more widespread body pain was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting 12-month WOMAC pain score >15 (relative risk [RR] per painful body region 1.39, 95% CI 1.18-1.63) and a greater likelihood of failing to achieve the MCID (RR 1.47, 95% CI 1.16-1.86).). Pain catastrophizing was an independent predictor of persistent pain and failure to improve by the MCID (RR 3.57, 95% CI 1.73-7.31). Pre-operative widespread pain was associated with greater pain at 12-months and failure to reach the MCID. Widespread pain as captured by the pain diagram, along with the pain catastrophizing score, may help identify persons with suboptimal TKA outcome. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in human cranial trait scores: effects of population, age, and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Heather M; Sholts, Sabrina B; Mosca, Laurel A

    2014-06-01

    Sex estimation from the skull is commonly performed by physical and forensic anthropologists using a five-trait scoring system developed by Walker. Despite the popularity of this method, validation studies evaluating its accuracy across a variety of samples are lacking. Furthermore, it remains unclear what other intrinsic or extrinsic variables are related to the expression of these traits. In this study, cranial trait scores and postcranial measurements were collected from four diverse population groups (U.S. Whites, U.S. Blacks, medieval Nubians, and Arikara Native Americans) following Walker's protocols (total n = 499). Univariate and multivariate analyses were utilized to evaluate the accuracy of these traits in sex estimation, and to test for the effects of population, age, and body size on trait expressions. Results revealed significant effects of population on all trait scores. Sample-specific correct sex classification rates ranged from 74% to 94%, with an overall accuracy of 85% for the pooled sample. Classification performance varied among the traits (best for glabella and mastoid scores and worst for nuchal scores). Furthermore, correlations between traits were weak or nonsignificant, suggesting that different factors may influence individual traits. Some traits displayed correlations with age and/or postcranial size that were significant but weak, and within-population analyses did not reveal any consistent relationships between these traits across all groups. These results indicate that neither age nor body size plays a large role in trait expression, and thus does not need to be incorporated into sex estimation methods. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Approaches to daily body condition management in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Terue

    2016-11-01

    To clarify the characteristics of sub-groups of patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease having similar approaches to daily body condition management. Prior literature has shed light on the experience of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and revealed that these patients engage in many activities and try different things in their daily lives to regulate and manage their body condition. The research so far has all been qualitative, comprising mostly interviews, and no quantitative studies have been performed. In this study, cluster analysis was used to show that subgroups of patients with similar characteristics undertake similar approaches to body condition management. Descriptive, correlational study. Invitations to participate in the survey were extended to patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of questionnaire scores relating to nine different categories of daily body condition management actions. The characteristics of the body condition management approaches, in each subgroup, were investigated using analysis of variance and multiple comparisons. The cluster analysis produced six subgroups, each defined by the effort expended as part of their body condition management. The subgroups also differed depending on patient age and disease severity. Body condition management approaches taken by patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are overall, comprehensive approaches. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were subgrouped based on their engagement in body conditioning. Relationships between the subgroups and the engagement in body conditioning, age and shortness of breath severity were observed. The care of patient support should be comprehensive and depend on their age and the duration of the disease. In addition, it should be long term and recognise that the patients are living their own respective lives. Such considerations and

  18. The veld condition score: An evaluation in situations of known past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... relation to their agricultural value for grazing animals. There are still, however, aspects which give rise to concern and it would be advisable to develop the method further before its adaptation for general use. Keywords: grazing; method; natal; south africa; stocking rate; technique; veld; veld condition; veld condition score ...

  19. 76 FR 10047 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... accepted accounting principles (GAAP)-based financial information. This notice updates and clarifies the... Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... under the financial condition indicator of the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS). This notice...

  20. Visual body-scores selection and its influence on body size and ultrasound carcass traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M N; Ferraz, J B S; Pedrosa, V B; Silva, S L; Gomes, R C; Cucco, D C; Santana, M H A; Campos, J H A; Barbosa, V N; Castro, F S F; Novais, F J; Oliveira, E C M

    2015-12-01

    Genetic parameters, genetic trends, and genetic progress of carcass traits were estimated for 12,447 Nellore individuals from different Brazilian herds. The following carcass traits were analyzed: visual body scores of conformation (CONF), precocity (PREC), and muscularity (MUSC); rump width (RW) and rump length (RL), body size (frame); and ultrasound evaluation of ribeye area (REA), backfat thickness (BFT), and rump fat thickness (RFT). Heritability estimates (± SE) for CONF, PREC, and MUSC were 0.23 ± 0.02, 0.33 ± 0.03, and 0.31 ± 0.02, respectively. The heritability estimates (± SE) for RW, RL, and frame were 0.25 ± 0.05, 0.16 ± 0.04, and 0.31 ± 0.03, respectively. Ultrasound of the REA, BFT, and RFT presented mean heritability estimates (± SE) of 0.38 ± 0.03, 0.44 ± 0.04, and 0.47 ± 0.04, respectively. The visual body score of CONF had high genetic correlations with RW, RL, and frame (0.74 ± 0.09, 0.82 ± 0.08, and 0.83 ± 0.04, respectively), indicating a high association of CONF with the measurements related to body structure. The REA had no correlation with BFT and RFT (-0.09 ± 0.04 and -0.03 ± 0.04, respectively) and showed only a moderate genetic correlation with MUSC (0.39 ± 0.05). The BFT and RFT had moderate genetic correlations with PREC (0.36 ± 0.07 and 0.29 ± 0.07, respectively) and no correlation with frame (-0.02 ± 0.03 and 0.05 ± 0.05, respectively), suggesting that selection for frame had no effect on the subcutaneous fat content of the carcass. Low genetic trends and low genetic progress were obtained for REA (0.026 cm, 0.02%), BFT (0.0031 mm, 0.05%), and RFT (0.0013 mm, 0.02%), with no significant values of genetic progress detected throughout the studied period. The CONF, PREC, and MUSC presented high genetic trends (0.030 points, 0.030 points, and 0.029 points, respectively) and high genetic progress (0.60%, 0.56%, and 0.59%, respectively), indicating a significant genetic progress for these traits throughout the evaluated

  1. A combination of body condition measurements is more informative than conventional condition indices: temporal variation in body condition and corticosterone in brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T

    2008-02-01

    The body condition index is a common method for quantifying the energy reserves of individual animals. Because good body condition is necessary for reproduction in many species, body condition indices can indicate the potential reproductive output of a population. Body condition is related to glucocorticoid production, in that low body condition is correlated to high concentrations of corticosterone in reptiles. We compared the body condition index and plasma corticosterone levels of brown tree snakes on Guam in 2003 to those collected in 1992/1993 to determine whether that population still showed the chronic stress and poor condition apparent in the earlier study. We also examined the relationship between fat mass, body condition and plasma corticosterone concentrations as indicators of physiological condition of individuals in the population. Body condition was significantly higher in 2003 than in the earlier sample for mature male and female snakes, but not for juveniles. The significantly lower levels of corticosterone in all three groups in 2003 suggests that although juveniles did not have significantly improved energy stores they, along with the mature males and females, were no longer under chronic levels of stress. Although the wet season of 2002 was unusually rainy, low baseline levels of corticosterone measured in 2000 indicate that the improved body condition of snakes in 2003 is likely the result of long-term changes in prey populations rather than annual variation in response to environmental conditions.

  2. Genetic association between body composition measured by ultrasound and visual scores in Brazilian Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, D G M; Baldi, F; Lôbo, R B; Koury Filho, W; Sainz, R D; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of body composition traits measured by ultrasound, growth traits, and visual scores as well as their genetic associations in Nelore cattle. A total of 9,765, 13,285, 13,061, 12,811, 3,484, 3,484, 3,483, and 3,303 records of weight at time of ultrasound measure (W550), 12th-13th rib LM area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), rump fat thickness (RF), visual scores for body structure (BS), finishing precocity (FP), muscling (MS), and sheath and navel characteristics (SN), respectively, were used. The model included contemporary group (defined as year and season of birth, sex, and management group) as a fixed effect and age of dam at calving and age of the animal (linear and quadratic effects) as covariates. The direct additive genetic effect was included as a random effect. The analyses also included 46,157 observations of BW adjusted to 120 d. The (co)variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multitrait animal model. Heritability estimates for W550, LMA, BF, RF, BS, FP, MS, and SN were 0.37 ± 0.030, 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.02, 0.28 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.05, and 0.38 ± 0.06, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between visual scores and LMA were moderate and positive, ranging from 0.37 to 0.44. Similar results were obtained for the estimated genetic correlations between FP and MS with fat thickness measures (BF and RF). Low genetic correlations were estimated between SN and BS and between SN and the body composition traits, indicating that selection for body composition traits and BS will not affect sheath and navel size. The estimated genetic correlations between weight adjusted to 120 d of age (W120) and W550 and BS were high (0.87 and 0.91) and moderate with LMA (0.49 and 0.55), FP (0.37 and 0.41), and MS (0.47 and 0.55). The visual scores and ultrasound-measured body composition traits have enough genetic variation for

  3. [Clinical assessment of body hair in Colombian women: determining the cutoff score that defines hirsutism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Xiomara; Vergara, Jéssica Inés; Wandurraga, Edwin Antonio; Rey, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Hirsutism is a medical entity defined as the excessive growth of body hair in women with a male distribution pattern. For evaluation it is used a visual analog scale designed by Ferriman and Gallwey in the United Kingdom in 1961, subsequently modified by Hatch. This scale consists of nine body areas, obtaining a minimum total value of 0 and a maximum of 36. It has been established a value greater than 8 points for diagnosis of hirsutism in European women, but it is recommended that the diagnosis of hirsutism should be individualized according to the study population. To determine the most appropriate cutoff point for the diagnosis of hirsutism in a Colombian population by applying the Ferriman-Gallwey Modified scale. A random scale was applied to 323 women from Santander, between the ages of 18 and 50, and without risk factors for hirsutism. It was obtained a score between 0 and 9 in the Ferriman-Gallwey modified scale, and 53.5% of the women had an overall score between 0 and 1 points. The 96% of those examined evidenced a Ferriman-Gallwey score modified less or equal to 6. It is suggest a value less than or equal to 6 as the cutoff point for the diagnosis of hirsutism in our region.

  4. Body Mass Index z-Scores and Weight Status Predict Conduct Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Anna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2017-11-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether baseline body mass index (BMI) z-scores and weight status predicted conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in 368 adolescents (15-17 years). Participants in the 10th and 11th grades completed self-report questionnaires at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up. Baseline BMI z-scores and weight status were derived from self-reports of height and weight. CD symptoms were assessed using a symptom checklist. Covariates included baseline demographics, depressive symptoms, alcohol consumption, drug use, and a retrospective report of CD symptoms before age 15 years. A cubic association was observed between baseline BMI z-scores and follow-up CD symptoms (p = .047), such that a positive association emerged only among adolescents with BMI z-scores of greater than ∼1.5. Adolescents who were obese at baseline reported more follow-up CD symptoms than nonoverweight adolescents (p = .008). Higher baseline BMI z-scores were associated with increased odds of endorsing probable CD at follow-up (p's < .03). Obese adolescents were more likely to report the presence of probable CD at follow-up than overweight and nonoverweight adolescents (p's ≤ .01). Findings suggest that nutritional status, particularly high BMI z-scores and obese weight status, may contribute to elevated CD symptoms during adolescence, which should be dually addressed in screening and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic risk scores link body fat distribution with specific cardiometabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Sandholt, Camilla H; Andersson Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Forty-nine known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (WHRadjBMI) were recently suggested to cluster into three groups with different associations to cardiometabolic traits. Genetic risk scores of the clusters...... on the risk of incident diabetes and associations with detailed cardiometabolic phenotypes were tested. METHODS: In a prospective study of 6,121 Inter99 individuals, the risk of incident diabetes using Cox proportional hazards regression was evaluated. Using linear regession, the associations between genetic...... risk scores and anthropometry and blood samples at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test were tested. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. RESULTS: Cluster 1 associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR = 1.05, P = 2.74 × 10(-) (4) ) and with a poor metabolic profile...

  6. Verificação e calibração do modelo de simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte baseado no escore de condição corporal avaliação interna Verification and calibration of a simulation model for reproductive performance of beef cows based on body condition score internal evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Silveira da Fontoura Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com os objetivos de demonstrar e fazer a avaliação interna do modelo matemático desenvolvido para descrever o processo reprodutivo em sistemas de produção e simular o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte a partir do escore de condição corporal ao parto (ECCPAR. O modelo é baseado na relação entre o ECCPAR e o intervalo parto-concepção (IPC para vacas com cria ao pé; para novilhas e vacas vazias à concepção, foi baseado na probabilidade de ocorrência. Para a avaliação interna do modelo, foi utilizada a metodologia de verificação e calibração. O uso da técnica de variação dos dados de entrada foi feito por meio da construção de cenários, variando ECCPAR, data de início da estação reprodutiva (IER, data média do parto (DPAR e ganho médio diário do nascimento ao desmame (GMDND. Esses cenários serviram também para demonstração do modelo. Por meio da calibração, foram escolhidos novos desvios-padrão para as variáveis: período de gestação, GMDND e data média do parto (DPAR. Os testes de degenerescência e independência de sementes geradoras de números aleatórios, após a calibração, comprovaram coerência do modelo na geração de aleatoriedade para as variáveis de interesse. A variação nos dados de entrada indicou eficácia do modelo para simular a dinâmica do processo reprodutivo, no entanto ajustes na taxa de concepção de primíparas são necessários para que o modelo simule valores compatíveis com a realidade.This work was carried out with the goal of demonstrating and performing internal evaluation of the mathematical model developed to describe the reproductive performance in production systems and to simulate reproductive performance of beef cows from the body condition score at calving (BCSAC. This model is based on the relationship between BCSAC and the interval between calving and conception (ICC for lactating cows; for heifers and empty cows at

  7. Optimum Conditions for Artificial Fruiting Body Formation of Cordyceps cardinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Young; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2010-01-01

    Stromatal fruiting bodies of Cordyceps cardinalis were successfully produced in cereals. Brown rice, German millet and standard millet produced the longest-length of stromata, followed by Chinese pearl barley, Indian millet, black rice and standard barley. Oatmeal produced the shortest-length of fruiting bodies. Supplementation of pupa and larva to the grains resulted in a slightly enhanced production of fruiting bodies; pupa showing better production than larva. 50~60 g of brown rice and 10~20 g of pupa mixed with 50~60 mL of water in 1,000 mL polypropylene (PP) bottle was found to be optimum for fruiting body production. Liquid inoculation of 15~20 mL per PP bottle produced best fruiting bodies. The optimal temperature for the formation of fruiting bodies was 25℃, under conditions of continuous light. Few fruiting bodies were produced under the condition of complete darkness, and the fresh weight was considerable low, compared to that of light condition. PMID:23956641

  8. Relationship between body condition and energy mobilization in rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.W. Calle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work was performed to examine the relationships between measures of body condition and energy mobilization in rabbit does. The variables studied were body weight (BW, perirenal fat thickness (PFT, basal non-esterified fatty acid concentration (NEFAb and non-esterified fatty acids after lipolysis stimulation by isoproterenol (NEFAr. The effect of time of measuring (at mating, delivery and 10 d after delivery was estimated in 157 primiparous does. Correlations between body condition components were estimated and a principal component analysis performed. The does decreased BW (6% and PFT (3%, and increased NEFAb (25% and NEFAr (16% from mating to delivery. Later, NEFAb and NEFAr decreased around 20% from delivery to 10 d after delivery without changing perirenal fat thickness. All BW and PFT lay in the first principal component, and all NEFA traits lay in the second component, showing low correlations with body condition measurements. Both NEFA traits showed high positive correlations when measured at the same time (0.65, 0.72 and 0.69, but low correlations when measured at different times (0.09, to 0.20. We conclude that although body weight and perirenal fat thickness are good predictors of body condition, NEFA should be used when an accurate measurement of energetic mobilization is needed, due to their low correlation.

  9. Body Movement Music Score – Introduction of a newly developed model for the analysis and description of body qualities, movement and music in music therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Agnieszka Skrzypek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In music therapy, there is a range of music therapy concepts that, in addition to music, describe and analyse the body and movement. A model that equally examines the body, movement and music has not been developed. The Body Movement Music Score (BMMS is a newly developed and evaluated music therapy model for analysing body qualities, movement, playing style of musical instruments and music and to describe body behaviour and body expression, movement behaviour and movement expression, playing behaviour and musical expression in music therapy treatment. The basis for the development of the Body Movement Music Score was the evaluation of the analytical movement model Emotorics-Emotive Body Movement Mind Paradigm (Emotorics-EBMMP by Yona Shahar Levy for the analysis and description of the emotive-motor behaviour and movement expression of schizophrenic patients in music therapy treatment. Participants and procedure The application of the Body Movement Music Score is presented in a videotaped example from the music therapy treatment of one schizophrenic patient. Results The results of applying the Body Movement Music Score are presented in the form of Body Qualities I Analysis, Body Qualities II Analysis, Movement Analysis, Playing Style Analysis and Music Analysis Profiles. Conclusions The Body Movement Music Score has been developed and evaluated for the music therapy treatment of schizophrenic patients. For the development of the model, a proof of reliability is necessary to verify the reliability and limitations of the model in practice and show that the Body Movement Music Score could be used for both practical and clinical work, for documentation purposes and to impact research in music therapy.

  10. The effect of body condition on ovarian activity of free ranging tropical jennies (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, A; Bekana, M; Schwartz, H J; Hildebrandt, T

    2006-02-01

    Serial ultrasonography was performed on seven jennies to study the effect of seasonally fluctuating body condition on ovarian activity during the dry, short rainy and long rainy seasons. Kendall Tau correlations and differences of least square mean values were compared. A distinct seasonal pattern was observed both in body condition and ovarian activity. The mean (+/-SD) Body Condition Score (BCS) was lowest during the dry season 2.6 +/- 0.45 when compared with 3.5 +/- 0.52 and 3.9 +/- 0.58 during the short and long rainy seasons, respectively. The mean (+/-SD) number of total follicles was also proportionally low 7.3 +/- 1.6 during the dry season compared with 9.6 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 3.3 found during the short and the long rainy seasons, respectively. The BCS was positively correlated to the total number of follicles and the diameter of the largest follicle during all seasons. Periods of increasing BCS and transition between seasons with both increasing and decreasing body conditions were strongly correlated to the number and size of ovarian follicles. Seasonal fluctuation in the body condition was found to be the result of variation in feed resource and ovarian activity was also closely following this seasonal pattern. The improvement in body condition has generally, a positive impact on emergence of small growing follicles there by having influence on the total count of ovarian follicles.

  11. Effects of neckbands on body condition of migratory geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    on short, medium and longer terms. Our results indicated that body condition of geese were negatively affected in the days immediately succeeding capture, but that only a minor effect persisted on a seasonal scale. We found no support for a long term effect of neckbands on the body mass of individual birds......Ringing and marking are widely used techniques in avian ecology to assist studies of migration, survival and behaviour, and often used approaches to estimate population sizes. Only rarely however, are the effects of these markings on bird viability thoroughly tested. Using an abdominal profile...... index (API) of marked geese and body mass of recaptured birds previously marked, this study investigated the effect of neckbands on body condition of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus at different temporal scales, and evaluated to what extent capture, handling and banding affected these birds...

  12. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  13. Jump conditions for thin bodies from an action principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, James

    2015-03-01

    Thin, flexible bodies such as strings, sheets, and rods often sustain kinky geometric features, or experience discontinuous contact forces in their interactions with obstacles. The physics of dynamic and static versions of these phenomena differ. Kink/shock propagation, impact, peeling, unwrapping, tearing and cracking all occur at geometric locations in a body that do not correspond to material points. I will discuss how the jump conditions for momentum and energy across such moving discontinuities may be derived from an action principle for an extended body with time-dependent, non-material boundaries.

  14. Analysis of Urine as Indicators of Specific Body Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Souradeep; Saha, Triya; Narendrakumar, Uttamchand

    2017-11-01

    Urinalysis can be defined as a procedure for examining various factors of urine, which include physical properties, particulate matter, cells, casts, crystals, organisms and solutes. Urinalysis is recommended to be a part of the initial examination of all patients as its cheap, feasible and gives productive results. This paper focuses on the analysis of urine collected at specific body conditions. Here we illustrate the urine profile of different persons having various body conditions, which include, having urinary tract infection, undergoing strenuous exercise, having back pain regularly, having very low urine output and a person who is on 24 hours of diet. Examination of urine collected from different persons having specific body conditions usually helps us in the diagnosis of various diseases, which it indicates.

  15. Assessment of gender differences in body composition and physical fitness scoring in Saudi adults by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dokhi, Laila; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a global problem that is reaching epidemic proportions. Body composition is an important parameter for humans because previous studies indicate high values of body fat as a predictor of mortality. The aim of the study was to assess gender differences in body composition and physical fitness in Saudi adult population. This epidemiological cross-sectional study included 411 healthy adult Saudi subjects aged 18-72 years (mean +/- SD, 36.91 +/- 15.22). All participants underwent body composition analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, with a commercially available body analyzer (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). Measurements included body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, target weight, fat control, muscle control and fitness scoring based on target values. The mean BMI of the whole study population was 27.22 +/- 5.65 (median = 26.80, range = 15.6-55.4). The mean fitness score was 69.3 +/- 8.48 (median = 71.0, range = 29-99). Significant gender differences were observed in BMI, fitness score, percent body fat, and other parameters of body composition. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity, percent body fat (%BF) and poor fitness is high in Saudi population with significant gender differences. In this regard, public awareness programs including exercise and diet teaching are required at large scale to cope up with the growing burden of obesity.

  16. research note condition scoring as a guide to the nutritional status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RESEARCH NOTE. CONDITION SCORING AS A GUIDE TO THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF THE BEEF COW. AND ITS IMPLICATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE. Receipt of MS I9-08-1981. A. van Niekerk. Cedara College of Agriailture & Research Instiruft, Private Bag X9059, Pietermarinburg. (Key words:.

  17. Body mass index and age affect Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores in male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Charlotte J; Corfe, Bernard M; Richardson, J Craig; Dettmar, Peter W; Paxman, Jenny R

    2009-06-01

    This cross-sectional analysis evaluated the effect of age and body mass index (BMI) on Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores in males. Subjects (n = 60) were recruited according to BMI status. Each completed the 51-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. The group was split at the median age to produce a "younger" and "older" group for statistical analysis. A 2-way between-groups analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of BMI on disinhibition (P = .003) and hunger (P = .041) with higher levels found in overweight males compared to healthy-weight counterparts. A significant main effect of age on hunger (P = .046) demonstrated older males were less susceptible to hunger than younger males. These insights provide a better understanding of eating behavior across the male life cycle and may assist health professionals to better guide men in weight management in the light of rising overweight/obesity.

  18. On docking, scoring and assessing protein-DNA complexes in a rigid-body framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Parisien

    Full Text Available We consider the identification of interacting protein-nucleic acid partners using the rigid body docking method FTdock, which is systematic and exhaustive in the exploration of docking conformations. The accuracy of rigid body docking methods is tested using known protein-DNA complexes for which the docked and undocked structures are both available. Additional tests with large decoy sets probe the efficacy of two published statistically derived scoring functions that contain a huge number of parameters. In contrast, we demonstrate that state-of-the-art machine learning techniques can enormously reduce the number of parameters required, thereby identifying the relevant docking features using a miniscule fraction of the number of parameters in the prior works. The present machine learning study considers a 300 dimensional vector (dependent on only 15 parameters, termed the Chemical Context Profile (CCP, where each dimension reflects a specific type of protein amino acid-nucleic acid base interaction. The CCP is designed to capture the chemical complementarities of the interface and is well suited for machine learning techniques. Our objective function is the Chemical Context Discrepancy (CCD, which is defined as the angle between the native system's CCP vector and the decoy's vector and which serves as a substitute for the more commonly used root mean squared deviation (RMSD. We demonstrate that the CCP provides a useful scoring function when certain dimensions are properly weighted. Finally, we explore how the amino acids on a protein's surface can help guide DNA binding, first through long-range interactions, followed by direct contacts, according to specific preferences for either the major or minor grooves of the DNA.

  19. Association of a body mass index genetic risk score with growth throughout childhood and adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    Full Text Available While the number of established genetic variants associated with adult body mass index (BMI is growing, the relationships between these variants and growth during childhood are yet to be fully characterised. We examined the association between validated adult BMI associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and growth trajectories across childhood. We investigated the timing of onset of the genetic effect and whether it was sex specific.Children from the ALSPAC and Raine birth cohorts were used for analysis (n = 9,328. Genotype data from 32 adult BMI associated SNPs were investigated individually and as an allelic score. Linear mixed effects models with smoothing splines were used for longitudinal modelling of the growth parameters and measures of adiposity peak and rebound were derived.The allelic score was associated with BMI growth throughout childhood, explaining 0.58% of the total variance in BMI in females and 0.44% in males. The allelic score was associated with higher BMI at the adiposity peak (females  =  0.0163 kg/m(2 per allele, males  =  0.0123 kg/m(2 per allele and earlier age (-0.0362 years per allele in males and females and higher BMI (0.0332 kg/m(2 per allele in females and 0.0364 kg/m(2 per allele in males at the adiposity rebound. No gene:sex interactions were detected for BMI growth.This study suggests that known adult genetic determinants of BMI have observable effects on growth from early childhood, and is consistent with the hypothesis that genetic determinants of adult susceptibility to obesity act from early childhood and develop over the life course.

  20. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention, or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention, and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze. We predicted (1 better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2 better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration.

  1. Influence of body condition on incidence and degree of hepatic lipidosis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of energy status of cows, estimated by body condition score, on the incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis during the early stage of lactation. Cows were divided into four groups: dry, early puerperal, early lactation and late lactation period. Each group consisted of 60 cows. Body condition was scored by the method established in Elaco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. According to this method, body condition score is represented numerically from 1 to 5 points. Liver samples for pathohistological analyses were taken by biopsy from early lactation cows (60. day of lactation. Fat content in hepatocytes was determined morphometrically and results were compared with criteria based on total lipid and triglyceride content in liver tissue. On farm A, average body condition scores were in a range from 3.31, at sixty days of lactation, to 3.86 points in the dry period. Nevertheless, the range was wider on farm B, and was from 2.18 points at sixty days of lactation to 4.15 points at the dry period. Besides, differences in average body condition scores were higher than 1 point, and in some cases (between late lactation or dry period to sixty days of lactation were almost 2 points. The incidence and the degree of hepatic lipidosis strongly differ between the two examined farms. On farm A the incidence of hepatic lipidosis was 18.33 percent, while on farm B that percent was much higher (43.32. A significant difference was established in the degree of hepatic lipidosis between those two farms. On farm A diffuse hepatic lipidosis was determined in 5.0 percent of cows, while on farm B that percent was 18.33. According to these results, most of the cows on farm B had uncontrolled lipomobilisation and severe fatty liver during the early lactation period, probably due to the obesity of these cows in late lactation and the dry period.

  2. Herbivore body condition response in altered environments: mule deer and habitat management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Bergman

    Full Text Available The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF, assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3, and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥ 1.5 years old female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus. All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas--a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis--Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area [Formula: see text] than in the reference study area [Formula: see text], although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change.

  3. Approaches to estimate body condition from slaughter records in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olofsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term fluctuations in population densities of reindeer and caribou are common, where pasture is the limiting resource. Pasture quality affects the nutritional status and production of the animals. Therefore, continuous information about changes in the grazing resources is important when making management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate different possibilities of using routine and additional slaughter records as body condition indicators, and thereby indicators of pasture resources in the summer ranges of reindeer husbandry. Records from 696 reindeer slaughtered in the winter 2002/2003 were included in the study. We developed a model with carcass weight as body condition indicator and two different models combining fatness, conformation, carcass weight, and body size as body condition indicators. The results showed age and sex dependent differences between the variables, and differentiation of animal age and sex improved the precision of models. Adjusting weight for body size also improved weight as a body condition indicator in adults. Conformation and fatness had good resemblance to weight and body size adjusted weight and should preferably be included, together with carcass weight and body size measures, when estimating body condition from carcasses. Our analysis showed that using non-invasive slaughter records is a good and non-expensive method of estimating body condition in reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Tillvägagångssätt för skattning avkroppskondition hos ren från slaktregistreringarFluktuationer i ren- och caribou-populationers täthet över tiden är vanliga då betet är en begränsad resurs och beteskvalitén påverkar djurens kondition och produktion. Kontinuerligt uppdaterad information om förändringar i betesresurserna är viktigt i samband med beslutsfattande om förvaltning avresurserna. Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera olika möjliga sätt att anv

  4. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P Angel

    Full Text Available Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope's Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43 at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7% than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04. Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF stores, where TBF(% = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length - 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15. This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(% between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor.

  5. Relationships between host body condition and immunocompetence, not host sex, best predict parasite burden in a bat-helminth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Pearl, Christopher A; Vonhof, Maarten J

    2016-06-01

    Sex-biased parasitism highlights potentially divergent approaches to parasite resistance resulting in differing energetic trade-offs for males and females; however, trade-offs between immunity and self-maintenance could also depend on host body condition. We investigated these relationships in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to determine if host sex or body condition better predicted parasite resistance, if testosterone levels predicted male parasite burdens, and if immune parameters could predict male testosterone levels. We found that male and female hosts had similar parasite burdens and female bats scored higher than males in only one immunological measure. Top models of helminth burden revealed interactions between body condition index and agglutination score as well as between agglutination score and host sex. Additionally, the strength of the relationships between sex, agglutination, and helminth burden is affected by body condition. Models of male parasite burden provided no support for testosterone predicting helminthiasis. Models that best predicted testosterone levels did not include parasite burden but instead consistently included month of capture and agglutination score. Thus, in our system, body condition was a more important predictor of immunity and worm burden than host sex.

  6. A conditioned visual orientation requires the ellipsoid body in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Deliang; Li, Meixia; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Orientation, the spatial organization of animal behavior, is an essential faculty of animals. Bacteria and lower animals such as insects exhibit taxis, innate orientation behavior, directly toward or away from a directional cue. Organisms can also orient themselves at a specific angle relative to the cues. In this study, using Drosophila as a model system, we established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm based on a flight simulator in which a stationary flying fly could control the rotation of a visual object. By coupling aversive heat shocks to a fly's orientation toward one side of the visual object, we found that the fly could be conditioned to orientate toward the left or right side of the frontal visual object and retain this conditioned visual orientation. The lower and upper visual fields have different roles in conditioned visual orientation. Transfer experiments showed that conditioned visual orientation could generalize between visual targets of different sizes, compactness, or vertical positions, but not of contour orientation. Rut-Type I adenylyl cyclase and Dnc-phosphodiesterase were dispensable for visual orientation conditioning. Normal activity and scb signaling in R3/R4d neurons of the ellipsoid body were required for visual orientation conditioning. Our studies established a visual orientation conditioning paradigm and examined the behavioral properties and neural circuitry of visual orientation, an important component of the insect's spatial navigation. © 2014 Guo et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. The impact of body condition after calving on metabolism and milk progesterone profiles in two breeds of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Lisa A; Båge, Renée; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-10-20

    Optimal body condition in early lactation is generally accepted as a prerequisite for good reproductive performance. Examination of milk progesterone profiles offers an objective method for characterization of postpartum ovarian activity in dairy cows. The present study investigated the relationship between body condition after calving, some metabolic parameters in blood plasma, and fertility, as reflected by milk progesterone profiles in the two dairy breeds Swedish Red (SR) and Swedish Holstein (SH). Multiparous dairy cows (n = 73) of SR and SH breeds were selected and divided into three groups based on their body condition score (BCS) after parturition. Selected plasma metabolites were determined, milk progesterone profiles were identified and body condition was scored. Over-conditioned cows and atypical progesterone profiles were more common among SR cows. Insulin sensitivity was lower and IGF 1 higher among SR cows. Insulin was positively related to body condition, but not related to breed. Atypical progesterone profiles were more common and insulin sensitivity lower in SR than in SH cows, but the SR breed had a higher proportion of over-conditioned SR cows. It is reasonable to assume that breed differences in body condition contributed to these results.

  8. Efeito da monensina sódica sobre a produção e composição do leite, a produção de mozzarela e o escore de condição corporal de búfalas Murrah Effect of monensin on milk production and composition, production of mozzarela cheese and body condition score of Murrah Buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Andrighetto

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de monensina sódica sobre a produção, composição do leite, produção de mozzarela e o escore de condição corporal de búfalas da raça Murrah. O experimento foi conduzido na Área de Produção de Bubalinos da UNESP- FMVZ Botucatu/SP, utilizando-se vinte e quatro búfalas da raça Murrah, submetidas a dois tratamentos, T1: sem adição de monensina sódica na dieta T2: adição de 300 mg de monensina sódica por búfala por dia na dieta, durante os primeiros 150 dias de lactação. Os animais receberam dieta composta por silagem de sorgo, capim-elefante e concentrado. Semanalmente, foram anotadas as produções de leite, coletando-se amostras, para a determinação dos teores de proteína, gordura, sólidos totais, e avaliando-se o peso vivo e escore de condição corporal. Foram calculadas as produções de mozzarella, leite (total e média diária, produção de leite corrigida para 270 dias de lactação, produções de proteína e de gordura e relação proteína:gordura. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado. Não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos para produção média diáriade leite, produção total corrigida para 270 dias, produção de leite no pico da lactação, produção de mozzarella, porcentagens de proteína e sólidos totais, relação proteína:gordura, peso vivo e escore de condição corporal. A monensina influenciou positivamente, com diferenças estatísticas entre os tratamentos na produção diária de proteína (T1 = 47,10 g, T2 = 162,07 g, gordura (T1 = 226,90 g, T2 = 259,62 g e a porcentagem de gordura do leite (T1 = 5,41%, T2 = 5,84%.The effect of monensin on milk production, milk composition and body condition score of buffaloes cows in early lactation was evaluated. Twenty four Murrah buffalo cows were submitted to two treatments T1 (0 mg of monensin/buffalo cow/day T2 (300 mg of monensin/buffalo cow/day evaluated during the 150 first

  9. A Comparison of Three Methods for Computing Scale Score Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement. ACT Research Report Series, 2013 (7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, David; Traynor, Anne; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Professional standards for educational testing recommend that both the overall standard error of measurement and the conditional standard error of measurement (CSEM) be computed on the score scale used to report scores to examinees. Several methods have been developed to compute scale score CSEMs. This paper compares three methods, based on…

  10. Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A D

    2003-08-01

    Converging evidence indicates that primates have a distinct cortical image of homeostatic afferent activity that reflects all aspects of the physiological condition of all tissues of the body. This interoceptive system, associated with autonomic motor control, is distinct from the exteroceptive system (cutaneous mechanoreception and proprioception) that guides somatic motor activity. The primary interoceptive representation in the dorsal posterior insula engenders distinct highly resolved feelings from the body that include pain, temperature, itch, sensual touch, muscular and visceral sensations, vasomotor activity, hunger, thirst, and 'air hunger'. In humans, a meta-representation of the primary interoceptive activity is engendered in the right anterior insula, which seems to provide the basis for the subjective image of the material self as a feeling (sentient) entity, that is, emotional awareness.

  11. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  12. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage) such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous interpretation of

  13. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Milenkaya

    Full Text Available Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch, a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for commonly used condition indices: mass adjusted for body size, muscle and fat scores, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. Our study population is well suited for this research because individuals forage in common areas and do not hold territories such that variation in condition between individuals is not confounded by differences in habitat quality. Furthermore, we controlled for factors that are known to impact condition indices in our study population (e.g., breeding stage such that we assessed individual condition relative to others in the same context. Condition indices that reflect energy reserves predicted both the probability of an individual fledging young and the number of young produced that survived to independence, but only during some years. Those that were relatively heavy for their body size produced about three times more independent young compared to light individuals. That energy reserves are a meaningful predictor of reproductive success in a sedentary passerine supports the idea that energy reserves are at least sometimes predictors of fitness. However, hematological indices failed to predict reproductive success and none of the indices predicted survival. Therefore, some but not all condition indices may be informative, but because we found that most indices did not predict any component of fitness, we question the ubiquitous

  14. Medical conditions and body pain in patients presenting orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana Lúcia; Runho, Gabriel Henrique Farto; Siqueira, José Tadeu Tesseroli de; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2012-05-01

    To verify the frequency of self-reported medical conditions and pain areas in orofacial pain patients, comparing them with patients from the routine dental care. Data were collected from archives of the Orofacial Pain Clinic (Group A, n=319) and of the routine dental care clinics (Group B, n=84) at Faculdade de Odontologia de Araraquara, São Paulo, in Brazil. All individuals answered a standardized clinical questionnaire and completed a body map indicating their pain areas. The Mann-Whitney's test demonstrated that Group A presented a higher mean number of medical reports than Group B (p=0.004). In both groups, Pearson's correlation test showed that the highest frequencies of medical conditions were positively correlated to highest frequencies of painful areas (0.478, p=0.001 and 0.246, p=0.000, respectively). Group A tended to report more medical conditions and there was a positive correlation between the number of medical conditions and the one of pain areas for both groups.

  15. Improving initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Lehman H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V.; Pinto, Philip A.

    2016-10-01

    In cosmological N-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete `macroparticles' suppresses the growth of structure, such that simulations no longer reproduce linear theory on small scales near kNyquist. Marcos et al. demonstrate that this is due to sparse sampling of modes near kNyquist and that the often-assumed continuum growing modes are not proper growing modes of the particle system. We develop initial conditions (ICs) that respect the particle linear theory growing modes and then rescale the mode amplitudes to account for growth suppression. These ICs also allow us to take advantage of our very accurate N-body code ABACUS to implement second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) in configuration space. The combination of 2LPT and rescaling improves the accuracy of the late-time power spectra, halo mass functions, and halo clustering. In particular, we achieve 1 per cent accuracy in the power spectrum down to kNyquist, versus kNyquist/4 without rescaling or kNyquist/13 without 2LPT, relative to an oversampled reference simulation. We anticipate that our 2LPT will be useful for large simulations where fast Fourier transforms are expensive and that rescaling will be useful for suites of medium-resolution simulations used in cosmic emulators and galaxy survey mock catalogues. Code to generate ICs is available at https://github.com/lgarrison/zeldovich-PLT.

  16. Assessing new terminal body and facial hair growth during pregnancy: toward developing a simplified visual scoring system for hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yabo; Han, Yang; Wang, Wenjun; Du, Tao; Li, Yu; Zhang, Jianping; Yang, Dongzi; Zhao, Xiaomiao

    2016-02-01

    To study the distribution and progression of terminal hair growth in pregnant women and to determine the feasibility of a simplified scoring system for assessing hirsutism. Prospective follow-up observational study. Academic hospital. A total of 115 pregnant women (discovery cohort) and 1,159 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (validation cohort). Facial and body terminal hair growth assessed by modified Ferriman and Gallwey score system (mFG score), and total testosterone (TT) level detected by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Degree of facial and body terminal hair growth. The serum TT level and mFG score increased as pregnancy progressed. Both the prospective study and receiver operating characteristics curve indicated that the body areas with the greatest contribution to hirsutism (defined as an mFG score ≥5) with new terminal hair growth were the upper lip, lower back, lower abdomen, and thigh. A simplified mFG scoring system (sFG) was developed, and a cutoff value of ≥3 was defined as hirsutism. Pregnant hirsute women were distinguished from nonhirsute women with an accuracy of 95.2%, sensitivity of 96.8%, and specificity of 94.3% for detecting hirsutism. This was further validated in the PCOS population with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 97.6%, 96.4%, and 96.4%, respectively. This study suggests that the upper lip, lower back, lower abdomen, and thigh may be an effective simplified combination of the mFG system for the evaluation of excess hair growth in Chinese women. ChiCTR-OCH-14005012. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Newborn regional body composition is influenced by maternal obesity, gestational weight gain and the birthweight standard score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, E M; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, K

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigated whether newborn body composition is influenced by prepregnancy obesity and gestational weight gain (GWG) and explored any associations between body composition and birthweight standard score (z-score), categorised by size for gestational age. METHODS: We recruited 231...... the offspring of normal weight mothers. The infants' fat mass increased by 11 g (p associations between prepregnancy obesity and fat-free mass. The fat percentage was significantly higher in infants who were large for gestational age (15.3%) than small...... for gestational age (5.2%) and appropriate for gestational age (9.8%) (p associated with a higher proportion of abdominal fat mass (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Infants born to obese mothers had higher fat mass at birth, with abdominal fat accumulation. Low birthweight...

  18. Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, R S; Soren, N M; Sahoo, A; Karim, S A

    2012-01-01

    Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P alimentation of cull ewes with challenged feeding of concentrate at 2.5% of LW on a basal roughage diet for a period of 3 months may have promise for better economic return to the farmers with possibly meeting quality mutton for human consumption.

  19. FMS™ scores and low-back loading during lifting--whole-body movement screening as an ergonomic tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Frost, David M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2014-05-01

    Previous research suggests that a general whole-body movement screen could be used to identify personal movement attributes that promote potentially injurious low-back loading patterns at work. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) composite scores and the low-back loading response to lifting. Fifteen men who scored greater than 14 on the FMS (high-scorers) and 15 height- and weight-matched low-scorers (FMS axes, but there was a tendency for the lumbar spine to be more deviated in the low-scorers. Using the previously established injury prediction threshold value of 14, the composite FMS score was not related to the peak low-back loading magnitudes in lifting. Though not statistically significant, the tendency for the lumbar spines of low-scorers to be more deviated when the peak low-back compression force was imposed could be biomechanically meaningful because spinal load tolerance varies with posture. Future attempts to modify or reinterpret FMS scoring are warranted given that several previous studies have revealed links between composite FMS scores and musculoskeletal complaints. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 77 FR 47707 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... should be automatic quality control reinspection when a score decreases by 20 points or more from one... automatic quality assurance re-inspection when the score changes by 20 or more points from the previous..., such as blocking egress by placement of furniture or adding additional locks after the PHA's inspection...

  1. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.

  3. Relationship between functional movement screen scores, core strength, posture, and body mass index in school children in Moldova.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ulrike H; Johnson, A Wayne; Adamson, Brynn

    2015-05-01

    The assessment of functionality should include parameters that consider postural control, limb asymmetries, range of motion limitations, proprioceptive deficits, and pain. An increasingly popular battery of tests, the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), is purported to assess the above named parameters. The purpose of our study was twofold: (a) to report differences in total FMS scores in children, provide preliminary normative reference values of each of the 7 individual FMS scores for both genders and report on asymmetries and (b) to evaluate the relationship between total FMS scores, age, body mass index (BMI), core strength/stability, and postural angles to explore the possibility of using the FMS in the assessment of children's functional fitness. Descriptive data on 77 children aged 8-11 years were collected. The children performed core strength/stability exercises. Photographs were taken from a lateral view for later calculation of postural angles. The children performed the FMS while being videotaped for later review. The average total FMS score (of 21) was 14.9 (+1.9), and BMI was 16.4 (+2.2). Static posture is not related to results of the FMS. Core strength was positively correlated to the total FMS score (r = 0.31; p = 0.006). Over 60% demonstrated at least 1 asymmetry. The individual test scores indicate that none of the test items is too difficult for the children. Based on the screen's correlation to core strength, and the fact that it identifies areas of asymmetry, we suggest to further investigate its possible use in the assessment of children's functional fitness.

  4. Validation of the ocular trauma score for intraocular foreign bodies in deadly weapon-related open-globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Melih H; Aydin, Ali; Sonmez, Murat; Ayata, Ali; Ersanli, Dilaver

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic value of the Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) in cases of deadly weapon-related open-globe injuries with intraocular foreign bodies. A retrospective, interventional case series included 20 eyes of 20 patients who had deadly weapon-related open-globe injuries with intraocular foreign bodies. The OTS was calculated for each patient by adding the determined numbers of OTS variables at presentation (initial visual acuity, rupture, endophthalmitis, perforating injury, retinal detachment, and afferent pupillary defect). Patients were categorized based on their score (category 1 through 5). Final visual acuities in the OTS categories were calculated and compared to those in OTS study group. No statistically significant difference was found between the categorical distributions of the study patients and those in the OTS study group. No patient in the study was in category 5. The OTS, which was designed to predict visual outcomes of general ocular trauma, may also provide reliable information about the prognosis of deadly weapon-related open-globe injuries with intraocular foreign bodies.

  5. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  6. A statistical analysis of the body condition of cows from two veterinary stations in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saporu, F.W.O.

    2003-12-01

    The improvement of livestock production is important for Zimbabwe's agriculturally base economy. This paper examines the relationship between the body condition and metabolic parameters of female cows, for the better understanding of traditional livestock farming in Zimbabwe. The data analysed are part of the baseline data on the improvement of livestock production, collected from two sites Chinamora and Bulawayo. Body condition is indexed by body score. Thirty-five variables are examined. The variable selection method employed is stepwise regression. Regression model assumptions of normality and independent observations are checked using normal probability plot and Durbin-Watson statistics for autocorrelation of residuals. Collinearity and outlier problems are examined using eigenanalysis and influence statistics. The effect of some factors, such as, site, which relates to livestock management, parity and season, categorized by the quality of forage available for grazing, are also studied. The data are analysed using SAS statistical package on a Personal Computer. The results show that only about four variables substantially influence the relationship in each of the two sites considered. For the better managed site, Bulawayo, these are PCV, Calcium and WBC. Strongyles, Progesterone Level, Phosphate and HB are obtained in Chinamora. Negative correlation coefficient corresponds to strongyles only. That is, the effect of stronglyes is to reduce the value of bodyscore. For other variables, an improvement in their respective values will bring about improved body condition. Site difference is identified as a factor affecting the relationship. This emphasizes the role of good management in livestock production. Parity and season are also identified. Only two interactions are significant; site-season and a progesterone level-season interaction. The latter is obtained only in Chinamora site and it can be deduced that the cyclic cows are exposed to the risk of loosing their

  7. Effect of post-partum body condition score on milk yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean fat, protein and lactose content of the milk was 4.22, 4.15 and 4.00 %, respectively, while the mean fat, protein and lactose yield was 0.269, 0.272 and 0.261 kg/day. The ratios of the milk composition were FPR (1.02), FLR (1.03) and PLR (104). There was relatively high variability in the population of the ...

  8. Assessing the potential value for an automated dairy cattle body condition scoring system through stochastic simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.M.; Boehlje, M.D.; Gray, A.W.; Hogeveen, H.; Kenyon, S.J.; Eicher, S.D.; Schutz, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm

  9. A functional approach to the body condition assessment of lactating donkeys as a tool for welfare evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Valle

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The breeding of lactating donkeys is increasing in Western Europe; with it the evaluation of body condition is growing in importance since it is considered a key principle for their welfare. However, assessment of body condition is a complex task, since several factors are involved. The aim of the present study is to investigate which animal-based indicators are the most reliable to describe the body condition of lactating donkeys. For this purpose, new animal-based indicators, which are easy to measure in field conditions (including body measurements, fatty neck score (FNS, dental score, are recorded and their relationship with BCS (a proxy measure for overall adiposity was assessed. The ones that reveal an association with the BCS are included in an integrated principal component analysis to understand which are the most related to BCS. Methods Fifty-three healthy lactating donkeys of various breeds, including 7 Martina Franca, 10 Ragusano, 2 Romagnolo and 34 crossbreeds, were evaluated. The animal-based indicators that were recorded were: length (OP, olecranon tuber-pinbone and SH, shoulder-hip, heart girth (HG, abdominal circumference (AC, neck length (NL, neck height (NH and neck thickness (NT at 0.50 and neck circumference (NC at 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75, body condition score (BCS and fatty neck score (FNS. The owners’ evaluation of the BCS was also considered. A dental assessment was performed and the month of lactation and age of each animal was recorded. Results No correlation was found between BCS and the other morphometric body measurements. On the contrary the FNS was correlated with the morphometric measurements of the neck (positive correlation to 0.50 NH and 0.50 NT, 0.50 NC, 0.75 mean NC, and negative correlation to the mean NC:NH and mean NC:NT, 0.50 NC:NT and 0.50 NC:NH ratios. A significant inverse relationship was identified between BCS and dental score. A Principal Component analysis (PCA separated the BCS classes on

  10. Heightened clinical utility of smartphone versus body-worn inertial system for shoulder function B-B score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Pichonnaz

    Full Text Available The B-B Score is a straightforward kinematic shoulder function score including only two movements (hand to the Back + lift hand as to change a Bulb that demonstrated sound measurement properties for patients for various shoulder pathologies. However, the B-B Score results using a smartphone or a reference system have not yet been compared. Provided that the measurement properties are comparable, the use of a smartphone would offer substantial practical advantages. This study investigated the concurrent validity of a smartphone and a reference inertial system for the measurement of the kinematic shoulder function B-B Score.Sixty-five patients with shoulder conditions (with rotator cuff conditions, adhesive capsulitis and proximal humerus fracture and 20 healthy participants were evaluated using a smartphone and a reference inertial system. Measurements were performed twice, alternating between two evaluators. The B-B Score differences between groups, differences between devices, relationship between devices, intra- and inter-evaluator reproducibility were analysed.The smartphone mean scores (SD were 94.1 (11.1 for controls and 54.1 (18.3 for patients (P < 0.01. The difference between devices was non-significant for the control (P = 0.16 and the patient group (P = 0.81. The analysis of the relationship between devices showed 0.97 ICC, -0.6 bias and -13.2 to 12.0 limits of agreement (LOA. The smartphone intra-evaluator ICC was 0.92, the bias 1.5 and the LOA -17.4 to 20.3. The smartphone inter-evaluator ICC was 0.92, the bias 1.5 and the LOA -16.9 to 20.0.The B-B Score results measured with a smartphone were comparable to those of an inertial system. While single measurements diverged in some cases, the intra- and inter-evaluator reproducibility was excellent and was equivalent between devices. The B-B score measured with a smartphone is straightforward and as efficient as a reference inertial system measurement.

  11. Direct vertebral body derotation, thoracoplasty, or both: which is better with respect to inclinometer and scoliosis research society-22 scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samdani, Amer F; Hwang, Steven W; Miyanji, Firoz; Lonner, Baron; Marks, Michelle C; Sponseller, Paul D; Newton, Peter O; Cahill, Patrick J; Shufflebarger, Harry L; Betz, Randal R

    2012-06-15

    Prospective, longitudinal cohort (nonrandomized). To compare thoracoplasty (Th), direct vertebral body derotation (DVBD), and Th and DVBD with respect to correction of the rib prominence and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) self-image scores in patients undergoing surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Rib prominence correction is one of the main goals of AIS surgery. Th and DVBD are powerful tools for correction of the rib prominence; however, a paucity of literature exists comparing Th, DVBD, and Th and DVBD. A prospective longitudinal database was queried to identify patients with AIS who underwent a posterior spinal fusion with pedicle screws and 2 years of follow-up. A total of 326 patients were identified and divided into 3 groups: (1) Th alone (N = 47), (2) DVBD alone (N = 196), and (3) both Th and DVBD (N = 83). Patients were subdivided into categories on the basis of their preoperative inclinometer reading: (1) ≤9° (mild), (2) 10 to 15° (moderate), and (3) ≥ 16° (severe). Pre- and postoperative inclinometer readings and SRS self-image scores were compared using analysis of variance. Overall, the groups were similar preoperatively except for the DVBD group having higher percentage of thoracic flexibility. The preoperative rib prominence values were Th = 13.2, DVBD = 14.0, and Th and DVBD = 12.9 (P = 0.27). Taken collectively, the postoperative 2-year inclinometer readings were similar for all 3 groups (Th = 5.2, DVBD = 7.0, Th and DVBD = 5.6; P = 0.66). However, the SRS-22 self-image scores were significantly better for patients having both Th and DVBD (Th = 3.37, DVBD = 3.44, Th and DVBD = 3.76; P self-image scores were highest in the Th and DVBD group. In patients with larger rib prominences, the addition of Th was necessary for optimal rib prominence correction, but there was no difference in SRS-22 self-image scores. Our results suggest that Th alone, DVBD alone, or both Th and DVBD provide equivalent inclinometer results in patients

  12. Uninvolved Maternal Feeding Style Moderates the Association of Emotional Overeating to Preschoolers' Body Mass Index z-Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Maren; Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti

    2016-09-01

    To examine the relation between preschoolers' eating behaviors and body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) and the moderating role of permissive parent feeding styles in these associations. Cross-sectional study involving mothers' report of food-related parenting styles and child eating behaviors. Small city in southern Mississippi. Mother-preschooler dyads (n = 104). Child body BMIz. Moderated multiple regression. An uninvolved feeding style moderated the relationship between emotional eating and BMIz such that children with higher emotional overeating scores had higher a BMIz in the presence of an uninvolved feeding style (B = 2.16; P = .01). An uninvolved feeding style may be a risk factor for higher BMIz in preschoolers who tend to overeat to cope with negative emotions. For other children in this population, self-regulatory aspects of eating may be more important than mothers' feeding style in the maintenance of healthy weight. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Image-based modeling and scoring of Howell-Jolly Bodies in human erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angay, Oguzhan; Friedrich, Mike; Pinnecker, Jürgen; Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga; Hempel, Klaus; Heinze, Katrin G

    2017-05-24

    The spleen selectively removes cells with intracellular inclusions, for example, detached nuclear fragments in circulating erythrocytes, called Howell-Jolly Bodies (HJBs). With absent or deficient splenic function HJBs appear in the peripheral blood and can be used as a simple and non-invasive risk-indicator for fulminant potentially life-threatening infection after spleenectomy. However, it is still under debate whether counting of the rare HJBs is a reliable measure of splenic function. Investigating HJBs in premature erythrocytes from patients during radioiodine therapy gives about 10 thousand times higher HJB counts than in blood smears. However, we show that there is still the risk of false-positive results by unspecific nuclear remnants in the prepared samples that do not originate from HJBs, but from cell debris residing above or below the cell. Therefore, we present a method to improve accuracy of image-based tests that can be performed even in non-specialized medical institutions. We show how to selectively label HJB-like clusters in human blood samples and how to only count those that are undoubtedly inside the cell. We found a "critical distance" d crit referring to a relative HJB-Cell distance that true HJBs do not exceed. To rule out false-positive counts we present a simple inside-outside-rule based on d crit -a robust threshold that can be easily assessed by combining conventional 2D imaging and straight-forward image analysis. Besides data based on fluorescence imaging, simulations of randomly distributed HJB-like objects on realistically modelled cell objects demonstrate the risk and impact of biased counting in conventional analysis. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. 24 CFR 200.857 - Administrative process for scoring and ranking the physical condition of multifamily housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative process for scoring.... The administrative process provided in this section does not prohibit the Office of Housing, the DEC... GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Physical Condition of Multifamily Properties § 200.857 Administrative...

  15. Body condition explains migratory performance of a long-distance migrant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Niles, Lawrence J; Dey, Amanda; Aubry, Yves; Friis, Christian; Koch, Stephanie; Anderson, Alexandra M; Smith, Paul A

    2017-11-15

    Body condition (i.e. relative mass after correcting for structural size) affects the behaviour of migrating birds, but how body condition affects migratory performance, timing and fitness is still largely unknown. Here, we studied the effects of relative body condition on individual departure decisions, wind selectivity, flight speed and timing of migration for a long-distance migratory shorebird, the red knot Calidris canutus rufa. By using automated VHF telemetry on a continental scale, we studied knots' migratory movements with unprecedented temporal resolution over a 3-year period. Knots with a higher relative body condition left the staging site later than birds in lower condition, yet still arrived earlier to their Arctic breeding grounds compared to knots in lower relative body condition. They accomplished this by selecting more favourable winds at departure, thereby flying faster and making shorter stops en route Individuals with a higher relative body condition in spring migrated south up to a month later than individuals in lower condition, suggesting that individuals in better condition were more likely to have bred successfully. Moreover, individuals with a lower relative body condition in spring had a lower probability of being detected in autumn, suggestive of increased mortality. The pressure to arrive early to the breeding grounds is considered to be an important constraint of migratory behaviour and this study highlights the important influence of body condition on migratory decisions, performance and potentially fitness of migrant birds. © 2017 The Authors.

  16. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  17. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    2017-09-04

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of body weight and condition changes after parturition on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean weight loss for Friesians from calving to commencement of luteal activity was 0.45 kg/day while that of Sahiwals was 0.64 kg/day. The relative weight loss was 6 and 7% for Friesians and Sahiwals respectively. The mean body condition loss for the two breeds showed Sahiwals lost less body condition at ...

  19. Body composition estimation using skinfolds in children with and without health conditions affecting growth and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Danielle; Weber, David; Leonard, Mary B.; Magge, Sheela N.; Kelly, Andrea; Stallings, Virginia A.; Pipan, Mary; Stettler, Nicolas; Zemel, Babette S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Body composition prediction equations using skinfolds are useful alternatives to advanced techniques, but their utility across diverse pediatric populations is unknown. Aim To evaluate published and new prediction equations across diverse samples of children with health conditions affecting growth and body composition. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures were obtained in children with Down syndrome (n=59), Crohn disease (n=128), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (n=67), and a healthy reference group (n=835). Published body composition equations were evaluated. New equations were developed for ages 3 to 21y using the healthy reference sample and validated in other groups and national survey data. Results Fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) from published equations were highly correlated with DXA-derived measures (r=0.71 to 0.98), but with poor agreement (mean difference: 2.4kg, −1.9kg, and 6.3% for FM, FFM and %BF). New equations produced similar correlations (r=0.85 to 1.0) with improved agreement for the reference group (0.2kg, 0.4kg, and 0.0% for FM, FFM and %BF, respectively), and in sub-groups. Conclusions New body composition prediction equations show excellent agreement with DXA, and improve body composition estimation in healthy children and those with selected conditions affecting growth. PMID:27121656

  20. Food restriction during pregnancy: effects on body condition and productive performance of primiparous rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Menchetti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of feed restriction at different stages of rabbit pregnancy on body condition and productive performance. Just after insemination, pregnant primiparous New Zealand White does were assigned to 4 groups (10/group: the control group (C was fed with 130  g/d of commercial feed while the others received 90 g/d from day 0 to 9 (R1, from day 9 to 18 (R2 or from day 19 to 28 (R3 of pregnancy and 130 g/d the remaining periods. A 3-point scale for loin and rump was used to calculate the aggregate body condition score (BCS, while perirenal fat weight (PFW was estimated by ultrasound measurement of its thickness. The C does showed a positive balance of the pregnancy (0-26 d for both body weight (P<0.001 and PFW (P<0.01. In particular, these increases occurred in the first 18 d of pregnancy (BW: P<0.001; PFW: P<0.05. The R1 does showed compensatory body growth after feed restriction (10-18 d: P<0.01, but lower BCS (P<0.05 at 26 d compared to control group. Feed restriction in mid and late pregnancy determined negative PFW balance (0-26  d: P<0.05, lower BCS at 26  d (R2: P<0.05 or lower BW gain compared to control (R3: P<0.05. The effects of feed restriction on productive performance depended on the restriction period: while R1 does did not show any differences compared to C, restriction during the last third of pregnancy increased perinatal (9.9 vs. 16.1%; P<0.05 and pre-weaning mortality (10.6 vs. 36.7%; P<0.01. However, milk production was lower in all restricted groups (C: 156, R1: 132, R2: 133; R3: 124  g/d; P<0.001, respectively. Thus, the energy deficit due to concurrent undernutrition and metabolic demands during pregnancy has short- and long-term consequences on both mother and offspring.

  1. Body Image and Quality of Life in Adolescents With Craniofacial Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crerand, Canice E; Sarwer, David B; Kazak, Anne E; Clarke, Alexandra; Rumsey, Nichola

    2017-01-01

      To evaluate body image in adolescents with and without craniofacial conditions and to examine relationships between body image and quality of life.   Case-control design.   A pediatric hospital's craniofacial center and primary care practices.   Seventy adolescents with visible craniofacial conditions and a demographically matched sample of 42 adolescents without craniofacial conditions.   Adolescents completed measures of quality of life and body image including satisfaction with weight, facial and overall appearance, investment in appearance (importance of appearance to self-worth), and body image disturbance (appearance-related distress and impairment in functioning).   Adolescents with craniofacial conditions reported lower appearance investment (P body image disturbance, and lower weight satisfaction compared with males (P body image disturbance was associated with lower quality of life (P body image disturbance, or satisfaction with appearance.   Body image and quality of life in adolescents with craniofacial conditions are similar to nonaffected youth. Relationships between body image and quality of life emphasize that appearance perceptions are important to adolescents' well-being regardless of whether they have a facial disfigurement. Investment in one's appearance may explain variations in body image satisfaction and serve as an intervention target, particularly for females.

  2. Purines and Carotid Body: New Roles in Pathological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia V. Conde

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is known that adenosine and adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP are excitatory mediators involved in carotid body (CB hypoxic signaling. The CBs are peripheral chemoreceptors classically defined by O2, CO2, and pH sensors. When hypoxia activates the CB, it induces the release of neurotransmitters from chemoreceptor cells leading to an increase in the action potentials frequency at the carotid sinus nerve (CSN. This increase in the firing frequency of the CSN is integrated in the brainstem to induce cardiorespiratory compensatory responses. In the last decade several pathologies, as, hypertension, diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea and heart failure have been associated with CB overactivation. In the first section of the present manuscript we review in a concise manner fundamental aspects of purine metabolism. The second section is devoted to the role of purines on the hypoxic response of the CB, providing the state-of-the art for the presence of adenosine and ATP receptors in the CB; for the role of purines at presynaptic level in CB chemoreceptor cells, as well as, its metabolism and regulation; at postsynaptic level in the CSN activity; and on the ventilatory responses to hypoxia. Recently, we have showed that adenosine is involved in CB hypersensitization during chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, which mimics obstructive sleep apnea, since caffeine, a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist that inhibits A2A and A2B adenosine receptors, decreased CSN chemosensory activity in animals subjected to CIH. Apart from this involvement of adenosine in CB sensitization in sleep apnea, it was recently found that P2X3 ATP receptor in the CB contributes to increased chemoreflex hypersensitivity and hypertension in spontaneously hypertension rats. Therefore the last section of this manuscript is devoted to review the recent findings on the role of purines in CB-mediated pathologies as hypertension, diabetes and sleep apnea emphasizing the potential

  3. Patterns of body condition use and its impact on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Savietto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 nulliparous crossbred rabbit females were, a posteriori, divided into 2 experimental groups according to their natural “decision” to conceive or not at day 11 post first parturition (L: solely-lactating or LP: lactating-pregnant. This design allowed us to study the evolution of body reserves around first parturition and its influence on the future reproductive success of rabbit females. Primiparous rabbit females that failed to conceive when inseminated at day 11 post-partum (L seemed to have a higher perirenal fat thickness (PFT 12 d pre-partum (+0.25 mm; P=0.079 than females that conceived (LP. In the subsequent days, L females showed a significantly higher mobilisation rate than LP females (on av.–0.12 and –0.07 mm of PFT per day, respectively; P=0.007, reaching a lower PFT at partum (5.17 mm vs. 5.62 mm, respectively; P = 0.002. However, due to a greater recovery rate observed in L females (+0.15 vs. +0.08 mm of PFT per day for L and LP females, respectively; P=0.007, PFT at 10 d post-partum was similar (on av. 5.86 mm. These different patterns showed that PFT level at 12 d pre-partum and PFT mobilisation rate onwards seems to drive the start of a new pregnancy. It also seems to modify the energy metabolism of rabbit females, allowing does to recover perirenal fat tissue without compromising the production of milk necessary for the current litter.

  4. The Effect of Body Weight on Heat Strain Indices in Hot and Dry Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Being overweight is a characteristic that may influence a person’s heat exchange. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body weight on heat strain indices in hot and dry climatic conditions. Materials and Methods This study was completed with a sample of 30 participants with normal weights, as well as 25 participants who were overweight. The participants were physically inactive for a period of 120 minutes in a climatic chamber with hot and dry conditions (22 - 32°C and with 40% relative humidity (RH.The physiological strain index (PSI and heat strain score index (HSSI questionnaires were used. Simultaneous measurements were completed during heat exposure for periods of five minutes. The resting periods acted as the initial measurements for 15 minutes. Results In both groups, oral temperature, heart rate, and thermal perceptual responses increased during heat exposure. The means and standard deviations of heart rate and oral temperature were gathered when participants were in hot and dry climatic conditions and were not physically active. The heart rates and oral temperatures were 79.21 ± 5.93 bpm and 36.70 ± 0.45°C, respectively, for those with normal weights. For overweight individuals, the measurements for heart rate and oral temperature reached 82.21 ± 8.9 bpm and 37.84 ± 0.37°C, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that, compared to participants with normal weights, physiological and thermal perceptual responses were higher in overweight participants. Therefore, overweight individuals should avoid hot/dry weather conditions to decrease the amount of heat strain.

  5. Synergistic effects of seasonal rainfall, parasites and demography on fluctuations in springbok body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy C.; Versfeld, Wilferd D.; Kilian, J. Werner; Getz, Wayne M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary 1. Seasonality of rainfall can exert a strong influence on animal condition and on host-parasite interactions. The body condition of ruminants fluctuates seasonally in response to changes in energy requirements, foraging patterns and resource availability, and seasonal variation in parasite infections may further alter ruminant body condition. 2. This study disentangles effects of rainfall and gastrointestinal parasite infections on springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) body condition and determines how these factors vary among demographic groups. 3. Using data from four years and three study areas, we investigated i) the influence of rainfall variation, demographic factors and parasite interactions on parasite prevalence or infection intensity, ii) whether parasitism or rainfall is a more important predictor of springbok body condition and iii) how parasitism and condition vary among study areas along a rainfall gradient. 4. We found that increased parasite intensity is associated with reduced body condition only for adult females. For all other demographic groups, body condition was significantly related to prior rainfall and not to parasitism. Rainfall lagged by two months had a positive effect on body condition. 5. Adult females showed evidence of a “periparturient rise” in parasite intensity, and had higher parasite intensity and lower body condition than adult males after parturition and during early lactation. After juveniles were weaned, adult females had lower parasite intensity than adult males. Sex differences in parasitism and condition may be due to differences between adult females and males in the seasonal timing of reproductive effort and its effects on host immunity, as well as documented sex differences in vulnerability to predation. 6. Our results highlight that parasites and the environment can synergistically affect host populations, but that these interactions might be masked by their interwoven relationships, their differential

  6. Suplementação de propilenoglicol para vacas no período peri-parto: efeitos sobre incidência de cetose, produção leiteira, escore corporal e primeiro estro pós-parto - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2143 Supplementation of propyleneglycol to dairy cows in the periparturient period: effects on incidence of ketosis, milk yield, body condition score, and first estrus postpartum - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2143

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi objetivo deste estudo analisar os efeitos da suplementação de propilenoglicol para vacas em lactação sob a ocorrência de cetose e as suas conseqüências na: a produção de leite; e b variação do escore de condição de corporal e primeiro estro pós-parto. Vinte e três vacas da raça Holandesa foram alocadas em dois tratamentos: 1 300mL de propilenoglicol (grupo tratamento, 11 vacas, 2 300 ml de água (grupo controle, 12 vacas, administrados através de beberagem no período peri-parto. Foram colhidas amostras de plasma para análise de ß-hidroxibutirato e realizada a avaliação do escore de condição (ECC corporal. A incidência de cetose subclínica foi de 9,1% e 33,5%; o primeiro estro pós-parto foi em média 40,18 e 45,17 dias no grupo tratamento e controle, respectivamente. Não houve efeito do tratamento ou tempo sobre produção de leite, embora a interação tempo tratamento foi significativa. O ECC do grupo tratamento foi maior que o do grupo controle, mas não sofreu variação nos primeiros 60 dias de lactação.The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of propyleneglycol supplementation to the periparturient cows on the occurrence of ketosis and its consequences on: a milk yield; b variation of body condition score and first estrus postpartum. Twenty-three Holstein cows were distributed into two treatments: a 300mL of propyleneglycol (group treatment, 11 cows, b 300mL of water (group control, 12 cows, administered through drench in the periparturient period. Plasma samples were collected to the analysis of ß-hydroxybutyrate and the body condition score (BCS was carried out. The incidence of subclinical ketosis was 9.1 and 33.5%, and the first postpartum estrus was in an average of 40.18 and 45.17 days, in the treatment groups and control, respectively. There was no effect of treatment or time on milk yield, although the interaction of time&lowest;treatment was significant. The BCS of the treatment group was

  7. Changes in the blood indicators and body condition of high yielding Holstein cows with retained placenta and ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Nogalski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition in the dry period and the early lactation period on the incidence of retained placenta and ketosis in 94 high-yielding Holstein-Friesian cows. Body condition scoring was performed every two weeks from the beginning of the dry period until week 18 of lactation. Blood for the measuring of indicators of metabolism was sampled in weeks 1 and 2 ante partum and in weeks 1, 2, 3, 7 and 15 post partum. Retained placenta was reported in 11 cows, and ketosis was diagnosed in 18 animals. One week ante partum, the serum profile of cows diagnosed with ketosis during lactation revealed 0.52 mmol/l β-hydroxybutyric acid and 0.29 mmol/l non-esterified fatty acids on average. One week post partum, the serum profile of cows with ketosis revealed 1.59 mmol/l β-hydroxybutyric acid and 1.09 mmol/l non-esterified fatty acids and cows with retained placenta 1.65 and 1.41, respectively. From the week 5 ante partum to the point of lowest body condition the average body condition loss reached 1.4 points in cows with retained placenta, 1.1 points in cows with ketosis, and 0.8 points in healthy cows. Retained placenta and ketosis increased significantly conception rates by 0.47 and 0.50, respectively. Our results show that monitoring changes in the body condition and non-esterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyric acid blood levels in high-yielding cows in the transition period, followed by taking relevant disease-control measures, may be effective in reducing the incidence of retained placenta and ketosis in dairy cattle herds.

  8. An individual reproduction model sensitive to milk yield and body condition in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun-Lafleur, L; Cutullic, E; Faverdin, P; Delaby, L; Disenhaus, C

    2013-08-01

    To simulate the consequences of management in dairy herds, the use of individual-based herd models is very useful and has become common. Reproduction is a key driver of milk production and herd dynamics, whose influence has been magnified by the decrease in reproductive performance over the last decades. Moreover, feeding management influences milk yield (MY) and body reserves, which in turn influence reproductive performance. Therefore, our objective was to build an up-to-date animal reproduction model sensitive to both MY and body condition score (BCS). A dynamic and stochastic individual reproduction model was built mainly from data of a single recent long-term experiment. This model covers the whole reproductive process and is composed of a succession of discrete stochastic events, mainly calving, ovulations, conception and embryonic loss. Each reproductive step is sensitive to MY or BCS levels or changes. The model takes into account recent evolutions of reproductive performance, particularly concerning calving-to-first ovulation interval, cyclicity (normal cycle length, prevalence of prolonged luteal phase), oestrus expression and pregnancy (conception, early and late embryonic loss). A sensitivity analysis of the model to MY and BCS at calving was performed. The simulated performance was compared with observed data from the database used to build the model and from the bibliography to validate the model. Despite comprising a whole series of reproductive steps, the model made it possible to simulate realistic global reproduction outputs. It was able to well simulate the overall reproductive performance observed in farms in terms of both success rate (recalving rate) and reproduction delays (calving interval). This model has the purpose to be integrated in herd simulation models to usefully test the impact of management strategies on herd reproductive performance, and thus on calving patterns and culling rates.

  9. Densitometer-Specific Differences in the Correlation Between Body Mass Index and Lumbar Spine Trabecular Bone Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Gillian; Berger, Claudie; Leslie, William D; Hans, Didier; Langsetmo, Lisa; Hanley, David A; Kovacs, Christopher S; Prior, Jerrilyn C; Kaiser, Stephanie M; Davison, K Shawn; Josse, Robert; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan R; Goltzman, David; Morin, Suzanne N

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a gray-level texture measure derived from lumbar spine dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) images that predicts fractures independent of bone mineral density (BMD). Increased abdominal soft tissue in individuals with elevated body mass index (BMI) absorbs more X-rays during image acquisition for BMD measurement and must be accommodated by the TBS algorithm. We aimed to determine if the relationship between BMI and TBS varied between 2 major manufacturers' densitometers, because different densitometers accommodate soft tissues differently. We identified 1919 women and 811 men, participants of the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, aged ≥40 yr with lumbar spine DXA scans acquired on GE Lunar (4 centers) or Hologic (3 centers) densitometers at year 10 of follow-up. TBS was calculated for L1-L4 (TBS iNsight® software, version 2.1). A significant negative correlation between TBS and BMI was observed when TBS measurements were performed on Hologic densitometers in men (Pearson r = -0.36, p Hologic and GE Lunar densitometers in men and women. In conclusion, BMI significantly affects TBS values in men and women when measured on Hologic but not GE Lunar densitometers. This finding has implications for clinical and research applications of TBS, especially when TBS is measured sequentially on DXA densitometers from different manufacturers or when results from different machines are pooled for analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Patient perceptions of the Raynaud's Condition Score diary provide insight into its performance in clinical trials of Raynaud's phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, John D; Saketkoo, Lesley A; Domsic, Robyn T

    2018-03-07

    The recent report by Denton et al. [1] adds to previous well-designed negative placebo-controlled clinical trials of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The primary endpoint was the weekly average number of RP attacks, with secondary endpoints including daily RP attack duration and RP severity (the single-item Raynaud's Condition Score [RCS]), that together comprise the RCS diary. The accompanying editorial, provides insightful suppositions of factors contributing to the disappointing performance of the RCS diary in clinical trials [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-01-01

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their tem...

  12. Effects of the initial conditions on cosmological $N$-body simulations

    OpenAIRE

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2014-01-01

    Cosmology is entering an era of percent level precision due to current large observational surveys. This precision in observation is now demanding more accuracy from numerical methods and cosmological simulations. In this paper, we study the accuracy of $N$-body numerical simulations and their dependence on changes in the initial conditions and in the simulation algorithms. For this purpose, we use a series of cosmological $N$-body simulations with varying initial conditions. We test the infl...

  13. Body Condition Indices Predict Reproductive Success but Not Survival in a Sedentary, Tropical Bird

    OpenAIRE

    Milenkaya, Olga; Catlin, Daniel H.; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival ove...

  14. Effects of Body Weight and Condition Changes After Parturition on the Reproductive Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indetie, D.E.; Indetie, A.; Kinywa, J.; Lukibisi, F; Musalia, L.; Bebe, B.; Wathuta, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has a profound influence on reproductive performance after parturition. Cows are in a typical state of negative energy balance, because nutritional requirements for milk production and maintenance of body function exceed that ingested from the feed. This is reflected by changes in body weight and condition postpartum which influence resumption of ovarian activity. The study objectives were to assess weight and body condition changes after parturition and their influence on reproductive performance of Sahiwal and Friesian lactating cows. Forty in-calf cows comprising 20 Friesians and Sahiwals were selected and upon calving, observed for 24 weeks postpartum. Parameters recorded were weekly live weight and body condition scores postpartum while reproductive attributes included days to commencement of luteal activity and insemination. Data was analyzed using GLM of SAS. There were breed differences in weight of cows at the start of the experiment with Friesians being heavier than Sahiwals. Friesians lost a mean of 31.2 Kg from calving to commencement of luteal activity which occurred 10 weeks postpartum and improved from this loss to register a deficit of 11.3 kg at insemination which occurred 14 weeks after calving while the Sahiwals lost a mean of 27 kg after 6 weeks postpartum at commencement of luteal activity and a further 8 kg to insemination occurring 10 weeks after calving. The mean weight loss for Friesians from calving to commencement of luteal activity was 0.45 kg/day while that of Sahiwals was 0.64 kg/day. The relative weight loss was 6 and 7% for Friesians and Sahiwals respectively. The mean body condition loss for the two breeds showed Sahiwals lost less body condition at commencement of luteal activity than Friesians (-0.19 vs -0.33) and resumed cyclicity earlier than Friesians which had better recovery rates from weight and body condition depression postpartum. This shows that Friesians lose weight rapidly and quickly recover at time of

  15. Asynchronous vegetation phenology enhances winter body condition of a large mobile herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Kate R; Rice, Mindy B; Anderson, Charles R; Bishop, Chad; Hobbs, N T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how spatial and temporal heterogeneity influence ecological processes forms a central challenge in ecology. Individual responses to heterogeneity shape population dynamics, therefore understanding these responses is central to sustainable population management. Emerging evidence has shown that herbivores track heterogeneity in nutritional quality of vegetation by responding to phenological differences in plants. We quantified the benefits mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) accrue from accessing habitats with asynchronous plant phenology in northwest Colorado over 3 years. Our analysis examined both the direct physiological and indirect environmental effects of weather and vegetation phenology on mule deer winter body condition. We identified several important effects of annual weather patterns and topographical variables on vegetation phenology in the home ranges of mule deer. Crucially, temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were linked with differences in body condition, with deer tending to show poorer body condition in areas with less asynchronous vegetation green-up and later vegetation onset. The direct physiological effect of previous winter precipitation on mule deer body condition was much less important than the indirect effect mediated by vegetation phenology. Additionally, the influence of vegetation phenology on body fat was much stronger than that of overall vegetation productivity. In summary, changing annual weather patterns, particularly in relation to seasonal precipitation, have the potential to alter body condition of this important ungulate species during the critical winter period. This finding highlights the importance of maintaining large contiguous areas of spatially and temporally variable resources to allow animals to compensate behaviourally for changing climate-driven resource patterns.

  16. Insects for breakfast and whales for dinner: the diet and body condition of dingoes on Fraser Island (K’gari)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendorff, Linda; Leung, Luke K.-P.; McKinnon, Allan; Hanger, Jon; Belonje, Grant; Tapply, Jenna; Jones, Darryl; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    Top-predators play stabilising roles in island food webs, including Fraser Island, Australia. Subsidising generalist predators with human-sourced food could disrupt this balance, but has been proposed to improve the overall health of the island’s dingo (Canis lupus dingo) population, which is allegedly ‘starving’ or in ‘poor condition’. We assess this hypothesis by describing the diet and health of dingoes on Fraser Island from datasets collected between 2001 and 2015. Medium-sized mammals (such as bandicoots) and fish were the most common food items detected in dingo scat records. Stomach contents records revealed additional information on diet, such as the occurrence of human-sourced foods. Trail camera records highlighted dingo utilisation of stranded marine fauna, particularly turtles and whales. Mean adult body weights were higher than the national average, body condition scores and abundant-excessive fat reserves indicated a generally ideal-heavy physical condition, and parasite loads were low and comparable to other dingo populations. These data do not support hypotheses that Fraser Island dingoes have restricted diets or are in poor physical condition. Rather, they indicate that dingoes on Fraser Island are capable of exploiting a diverse array of food sources which contributes to the vast majority of dingoes being of good-excellent physical condition. PMID:27009879

  17. Carry-over or compensation? The impact of winter harshness and post-winter body condition on spring-fattening in a migratory goose species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper; Tombre, Ingunn M.

    2015-01-01

    effect of winter harshness on post-winter body condition. However, this effect was compensated along the spring migration corridor, and did not persist long enough to influence future reproduction. This highlights the importance of temporal scale when assessing impacts of environmental effects......Environmental conditions at one point of the annual cycle of migratory species may lead to cross-seasonal effects affecting fitness in subsequent seasons. Based on a long-term mark-resighting dataset and scoring of body condition in an arctic breeding goose species, we demonstrate a substantial......, and suggests a state-dependent physiological mechanism adjusting energy accumulation according to internal energy stores carried into spring. In support of these findings, the development of body condition was unaffected by whether geese used supplementary feeding sites or not. While there was no effect...

  18. Using time-dependent models to investigate body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, P.S.; Wylie, G.D.; Halstead, B.J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying links between phenotypic attributes and fitness is a primary goal of reproductive ecology. Differences in within-year patterns of body condition between sexes of gartersnakes in relation to reproduction and growth are not fully understood. We conducted an 11-year field study of body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake Thamnophis gigas across 13 study areas in the Central Valley of California, USA. We developed a priori mixed effects models of body condition index (BCI), which included covariates of time, sex and snout-vent length and reported the best-approximating models using an information theoretic approach. Also, we developed models of growth rate index (GRI) using covariates of sex and periods based on reproductive behavior. The largest difference in BCI between sexes, as predicted by a non-linear (cubic) time model, occurred during the mating period when female body condition (0.014??0.001 se) was substantially greater than males (-0.027??0.002 se). Males likely allocated energy to search for mates, while females likely stored energy for embryonic development. We also provided evidence that males use more body energy reserves than females during hibernation, perhaps because of different body temperatures between sexes. We found GRI of male snakes was substantially lower during the mating period than during a non-mating period, which indicated that a trade-off existed between searching for mates and growth. These findings contribute to our understanding of snake ecology in a Mediterranean climate. ?? 2009 The Zoological Society of London.

  19. A systematic analysis of scoring functions in rigid-body protein docking: The delicate balance between the predictive rate improvement and the risk of overtraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas-Bautista, Didier; Moal, Iain H; Fernández-Recio, Juan

    2017-07-01

    Protein-protein interactions play fundamental roles in biological processes including signaling, metabolism, and trafficking. While the structure of a protein complex reveals crucial details about the interaction, it is often difficult to acquire this information experimentally. As the number of interactions discovered increases faster than they can be characterized, protein-protein docking calculations may be able to reduce this disparity by providing models of the interacting proteins. Rigid-body docking is a widely used docking approach, and is often capable of generating a pool of models within which a near-native structure can be found. These models need to be scored in order to select the acceptable ones from the set of poses. Recently, more than 100 scoring functions from the CCharPPI server were evaluated for this task using decoy structures generated with SwarmDock. Here, we extend this analysis to identify the predictive success rates of the scoring functions on decoys from three rigid-body docking programs, ZDOCK, FTDock, and SDOCK, allowing us to assess the transferability of the functions. We also apply set-theoretic measure to test whether the scoring functions are capable of identifying near-native poses within different subsets of the benchmark. This information can provide guides for the use of the most efficient scoring function for each docking method, as well as instruct future scoring functions development efforts. Proteins 2017; 85:1287-1297. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. How you look versus how you feel: Associations between BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, and self-worth for African American and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a fenced nature reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; De Barba, Marta; Taberlet, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    body condition had different diets, i.e., the fecal samples of red deer in poorer body condition contained significantly more Ericaceae sequences than red deer in good body condition. This may imply that certain functions of red deer in ecosystems, such as regeneration of heather by grazing, may depend...

  2. Toxicity After Central versus Peripheral Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: A Propensity Score Matched-Pair Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangona, Victor S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Aneese, Andrew M. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Marina, Ovidiu; Hymas, Richard V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Ionascu, Dan; Robertson, John M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Gallardo, Lori J. [Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Grills, Inga Siiner, E-mail: igrills@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, Michigan (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare toxicity after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for “central” tumors—within 2 cm of the proximal bronchial tree or with planning tumor volume (PTV) touching mediastinum—versus noncentral (“peripheral”) lung tumors. Methods and Materials: From November 2005 to January 2011, 229 tumors (110 central, 119 peripheral; T1-3N0M0 non–small-cell lung cancer and limited lung metastases) in 196 consecutive patients followed prospectively at a single institution received moderate-dose SBRT (48-60 Gy in 4-5 fractions [biologic effective dose=100-132 Gy, α/β=10]) using 4-dimensional planning, online image-guided radiation therapy, and institutional dose constraints. Clinical adverse events (AEs) were graded prospectively at clinical and radiographic follow-up using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Pulmonary function test (PFT) decline was graded as 2 (25%-49.9% decline), 3 (50.0%-74.9% decline), or 4 (≥75.0% decline). Central/peripheral location was assessed retrospectively on planning CT scans. Groups were compared after propensity score matching. Characteristics were compared with χ{sup 2} and 2-tailed t tests, adverse events with χ{sup 2} test-for-trend, and cumulative incidence using competing risks analysis (Gray's test). Results: With 79 central and 79 peripheral tumors matched, no differences in AEs were observed after 17 months median follow-up. Two-year cumulative incidences of grade ≥2 pain, musculoskeletal, pulmonary, and skin AEs were 14%, 5%, 6%, and 10% (central) versus 19%, 10%, 10%, and 3% (peripheral), respectively (P=.31, .38, .70, and .09). Grade ≥2 cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and central nervous system AEs were rare (<1%). Two-year incidences of grade ≥2 clinical AEs (28% vs 25%, P=.79), grade ≥2 PFT decline (36% vs 34%, P=.94), grade ≥3 clinical AEs (3% vs 7%, P=.48), and grade ≥3 PFT decline (0 vs 10%, P=.11) were similar for central versus peripheral

  3. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meillère, Alizée; Brischoux, François; Parenteau, Charline; Angelier, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability). In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging) and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels) between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  4. Influence of Urbanization on Body Size, Condition, and Physiology in an Urban Exploiter: A Multi-Component Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizée Meillère

    Full Text Available Consistent expanding urbanization dramatically transforms natural habitats and exposes organisms to novel environmental challenges, often leading to reduced species richness and diversity in cities. However, it remains unclear how individuals are affected by the urban environment and how they can or cannot adjust to the specific characteristics of urban life (e.g. food availability. In this study, we used an integrative multi-component approach to investigate the effects of urbanization on the nutritional status of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We assessed several morphological and physiological indices of body condition in both juveniles (early post-fledging and breeding adults from four sites with different levels of urbanization in France, Western Europe. We found that sparrows in more urbanized habitats have reduced body size and body mass compared to their rural conspecifics. However, we did not find any consistent differences in a number of complementary indices of condition (scaled mass index, muscle score, hematocrit, baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels between urban and rural birds, indicating that urban sparrows may not be suffering nutritional stress. Our results suggest that the urban environment is unlikely to energetically constrain adult sparrows, although other urban-related variables may constrain them. On the other hand, we found significant difference in juvenile fat scores, suggesting that food types provided to young sparrows differed highly between habitats. In addition to the observed smaller size of urban sparrows, these results suggest that the urban environment is inadequate to satisfy early-life sparrows' nutritional requirements, growth, and development. The urban environment may therefore have life-long consequences for developing birds.

  5. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  6. Physical condition of female students with different level of body mass deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kolokoltsev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to study the features of morphofunctional and motor characteristics of female students with body mass deficiency and with normal body mass. Material : it was examined 17-21-year-old female students (n=1937. All students were in the main medical group according to the health condition and attended classes on discipline Physical culture. It was carried out the anthropometrical and physiometric examination of female students. Results : It was determined the low integrated criterion of physical fitness of female students with body mass deficiency. It was defined the dependence between the decrease in level of physical fitness and decrease in body mass of female students. It was determined reliable differences between the morphofunctional parameters and results of motor tests of female students with different body mass. Conclusions : The obtained data allow to correct educational process on physical training of students using integrative pedagogical methods and methods of training.

  7. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  8. Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z-scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meema, S.; Meema, H.E.

    1982-08-01

    Z-scores express, differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determined z-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males, z-scores were calculated for age, but in the females z-scores for menopausal status (years postmenopausal exclusive of years on estrogen treatment) were found to be more appropriate. With few exceptions, changes in a disease were of a similar order in both sexes. For bone minerals mass few mean z-scores were significantly increased, but diseases with significantly decreased mean z-scores were numerous. The usefulness of z-scores in diagnosis and study of metabolic bone disease is discussed.

  9. Evaluation of cortical bone mass, thickness and density by z-scores in osteopenic conditions and in relation to menopause and estrogen treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meema, S.; Meema, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Z-scores express, differences from normals in standard deviation units, and are particularly useful for comparison of changes where normal values are age- and sex-dependent. We determined z-scores for bone mineral mass, cortical thickness, and bone mineral density in the radius in various conditions and diseases in both sexes. In the males, z-scores were calculated for age, but in the females z-scores for menopausal status (years postmenopausal exclusive of years on estrogen treatment) were found to be more appropriate. With few exceptions, changes in a disease were of a similar order in both sexes. For bone minerals mass few mean z-scores were significantly increased, but diseases with significantly decreased mean z-scores were numerous. The usefulness of z-scores in diagnosis and study of metabolic bone disease is discussed. (orig.)

  10. A tale of two polar bear populations: Ice habitat, harvest, and body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, K.D.; Peacock, E.; Taylor, M.; Stirling, I.; Born, E.W.; Laidre, K.L.; Wiig, O.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms by which sea ice loss is expected to affect polar bears is via reduced body condition and growth resulting from reduced access to prey. To date, negative effects of sea ice loss have been documented for two of 19 recognized populations. Effects of sea ice loss on other polar bear populations that differ in harvest rate, population density, and/or feeding ecology have been assumed, but empirical support, especially quantitative data on population size, demography, and/or body condition spanning two or more decades, have been lacking. We examined trends in body condition metrics of captured bears and relationships with summertime ice concentration between 1977 and 2010 for the Baffin Bay (BB) and Davis Strait (DS) polar bear populations. Polar bears in these regions occupy areas with annual sea ice that has decreased markedly starting in the 1990s. Despite differences in harvest rate, population density, sea ice concentration, and prey base, polar bears in both populations exhibited positive relationships between body condition and summertime sea ice cover during the recent period of sea ice decline. Furthermore, females and cubs exhibited relationships with sea ice that were not apparent during the earlier period (1977-1990s) when sea ice loss did not occur. We suggest that declining body condition in BB may be a result of recent declines in sea ice habitat. In DS, high population density and/or sea ice loss, may be responsible for the declines in body condition. ?? 2011 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  11. Hormonal State Comparison (Progesterone, Estradiol, and Leptin) of Body Fat and Body Mass Indices in Mexican Women as a Risk Factor for Neonatal Physiologic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Moreno, Magdalena; Galicia-Castillo, Oscar R; Aguilera-Reyes, Ulises; Varea-González, Carlos; Bernis-Carro, Cristina; García-López, Georgina I

    2015-06-01

    Describe the impact of teen pregnancy on later ovarian activity and metabolic hormones considering the concentration of current levels of ovarian steroids and leptin in a sample of Mexican females. Cross-sectional study in the maternity of the General Hospital of Atlacomulco and campus of the Autonomous University of the State of Mexico. 71 women between the ages of 18 and 24, and 160 neonates seen between March 2010 and June 2012. The measurements obtained included anthropometric body composition (bioelectrical impedance), serum hormone quantification of ovarian steroids and leptin (immunoassays), and the Apgar scores, height, and weight in neonates. Statistical analysis included ANOVA, Student, and chi-square for P weights (P = .001) and Apgar scores (P = .001) were lower in neonates of adolescent mothers than in neonates of adult mothers. There was no association between maternal age with the anthropometric variables studied. Early reproduction represents a metabolic stress condition that modifies the long term ovarian activity and metabolic hormones, and impacts the morbidity-mortality of the mother and offspring in a later vital life cycle stage. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The epidemiology of gastrointestinal parasitism and body condition in free-ranging herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infections and pasture contamination, and assessed the body condition of free-ranging wild herbivores (i.e. Chital or Spotted Deer, Sambar and Nilgai in Van Vihar National Park, Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh. The work was carried out in three distinct seasons (i.e. winter, summer and rainy for a period of 1 year (2005-06. Faecal samples were collected and screened for the presence of eggs/oocysts/cysts of parasites on the basis of qualitative and quantitative estimation techniques, and the body condition of animals was evaluated on a point scale.

  13. Body condition and the adrenal stress response in captive American kestrel juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, J A; Dufty, A M

    1998-01-01

    We examined the adrenal response to handling stress of birds in different body conditions. In order to affect the birds' body condition, young (73-d old) female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were maintained for 6 wk on one of three diets: a control diet (fed ad lib.) and two calorically restricted diets. To invoke a stress response, we removed birds from their cages and took repeated blood samples over the course of an hour. All birds responded to handling stress with an increase in plasma corticosterone, but control birds (in good body condition) showed a more rapid increase to maximum corticosterone levels, followed by a decrease. Both groups of food-restricted birds had a slower rate of increase to maximum corticosterone levels and then maintained high corticosterone levels through 60 min. These results suggest that birds in good physical condition respond more quickly to stressors and adapt physiologically to stressful situations more rapidly than do birds in poor physical condition. This difference may reflect the ability of birds in good condition to mobilize fat for energy, while birds in poor condition must mobilize protein (i.e., muscle).

  14. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite-Element Model (GHBMC) Under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    In previous shoulder impact studies, the 50th-percentile male GHBMC human body finite-element model was shown to have good biofidelity regarding impact force, but under-predicted shoulder deflection by 80% compared to those observed in the experiment. The goal of this study was to validate the response of the GHBMC M50 model by focusing on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics under a whole-body lateral impact condition. Five modifications, focused on material properties and modeling techniques, were introduced into the model and a supplementary sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of each modification to the biomechanical response of the body. The modified model predicted substantially improved shoulder response and peak shoulder deflection within 10% of the observed experimental data, and showed good correlation in the scapula kinematics on sagittal and transverse planes. The improvement in the biofidelity of the shoulder region was mainly due to the modifications of material properties of muscle, the acromioclavicular joint, and the attachment region between the pectoralis major and ribs. Predictions of rib fracture and chest deflection were also improved because of these modifications.

  15. Modelling accidental hypothermia effects on a human body under different pathophysiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccarelli, Alberto; Boileau, Etienne; Parthimos, Dimitris; Nithiarasu, Perumal

    2017-12-01

    Accidental exposure to cold water environment is one of the most challenging situations in which hypothermia occurs. In the present work, we aim to characterise the energy balance of a human body subjected to such extreme environmental conditions. This study is carried out using a recently developed computational model and by setting boundary conditions needed to simulate the effect of cold surrounding environment. A major finding is the capacity of the body core regions to maintain their temperature high for a substantial amount of time, even under the most extreme environmental conditions. We also considered two disease states that highlight the spectrum of possible pathologies implicated in thermal regulation of the human body. These states are (i) cardiomyopathy, which affects the operating capacity of the heart, and (ii) malnutrition, which directly impairs the body's ability to regulate heat exchange with the environment. We have found that cardiomyopathy has little influence on the thermal balance of the human body, whereas malnutrition has a profound negative effect on the thermal balance and leads to dramatic reduction in core temperature.

  16. Methods of body orientation in space in the absence of support under weightless conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeremin, A. V.; Stepantsov, V. I.; Chekidra, I. F.; Borisenko, I. P.; Kolosov, I. A.

    1975-01-01

    The experience accumulated in training subjects in methods of body orientation in space indicates the necessity of clear planning of the training process. After theoretical familiarization with the principles of body orientation in space and reviewing training films, practical mastery of the body orientation methods begins with working out of the individual elements on the Zhukovskiy stool. Then, the correctness and sequence of movements are carefully mastered in water, and the motor skills are then reinforced under time deficit conditions, on the vaulting bars, trampolines, and, in the concluding stage of training, the methods of orienting the body in space in weightlessness are worked out in laboratory-aircraft, with and without the spacesuit and with and without a load.

  17. ENDURANCE TRAINING IN FASTING CONDITIONS: BIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS AND BODY WEIGHT MANAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Salar, Néstor; Urdampilleta Otegui, Aritz; Roche Collado, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    in the majority of sports the athlete is required to achieve optimal conditions both at a muscular and metabolic level as well as in body composition, increasing the lean body mass and maintaining a low body fat mass. In this context, different training protocols have been proposed in order to reduce body fat content, by maximizing fat use instead of glycogen. to verify if the training while fasting favours the use of fatty acids due to the low glycogen levels, allowing an improvement in the performance ant the control of body weight. protocols have been published, differing in time periods and exercise intensity. In addition, several markers ranging from gene expression analysis to determination of circulating parameters have been assessed in order to interpret the results. Discusion: at low intensities of endurance-based exercises, adipose tissue lipolysis and muscle fat oxidation rate seem to be higher in fasting than in fed state. On the other hand, glucose metabolism is adapted in order to save glycogen stores, possibly through gluconeogenesis activation. Finally, it has been observed that protein degradation is mainly downregulated. Only one study analyses changes in body composition after fasting during long periods, thus further work is necessary to demonstrate that this is the best method to control body fat. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. Amphibian malformations and body condition across an agricultural landscape of northwest Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Cecilia; Aráoz, Ezequiel

    2016-09-26

    Agricultural landscapes support large amphibian populations because they provide habitat for many species, although agriculture affects amphibians through various mechanisms. Pollution with agrochemicals is the major threat to amphibian populations after habitat loss, as chemicals alter the ecophysiology of amphibians, putting their health and survival at risk. We aimed to assess the effect of different environments, sites, width of forest buffers and sampling years on the health of amphibians, which was estimated through the prevalence of malformations and body condition. During 3 yr of pitfall trapping, we captured 4491 amphibians. The prevalence of malformations was higher in the croplands than in the forests, while the body condition was better within forests. The prevalence of malformations was higher in the narrower forest site than in the wider forest site. The prevalence of malformations and the body condition were higher in the third year. The prevalence of malformations differed by species. We found 11 types of malformation, which mainly affected limbs and were unilateral or bilaterally asymmetrical. Our results showed that the prevalence of malformations and body condition reflect different aspects of the health of amphibians and that forest individuals are healthier than those from croplands. The results also highlight the importance of spatial configuration besides the conservation of natural habitats to preserve healthy amphibians in agricultural landscapes. The types of malformation that we found suggest that agrochemicals could be an important cause of malformations.

  19. Stress Reduction and Mood Enhancement in Four Exercise Modes: Swimming, Body Conditioning, Hatha Yoga, and Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Bonnie G.; Owen, David R.

    1988-01-01

    Differences in mood before and after class of college students taking different courses (swimming, body conditioning, hatha yoga, fencing exercise, and lecture) were analyzed using the Profile Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that courses which meet four requirements involving aerobics, noncompetitiveness,…

  20. Resveratrol-Induced Effects on Body Fat Differ Depending on Feeding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton-Laskibar, Iñaki; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Aguirre, Leixuri; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; González, Marcela; Portillo, María P

    2017-11-29

    Science constantly seeks to identify new molecules that could be used as dietary functional ingredients in the fight against obesity and its co-morbidities. Among them, polyphenols represent a group of molecules of increasing interest. One of the most widely studied polyphenols is resveratrol ( trans -3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), which has been proposed as an "energy restriction mimetic" because it can exert energy restriction-like effects. The aim of this review is to analyze the effects of resveratrol on obesity under different feeding conditions, such as overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction, in animals and humans. The vast majority of the studies reported have addressed the administration of resveratrol to animals alongside an obesogenic diet. Under these experimental conditions usually a decreased body weight amount was found. To date, studies that focus on the effects of resveratrol under normal feeding or energy restriction conditions in animals and humans are scarcer. In these studies no changes in body fat were reported. After analyzing the results obtained under overfeeding, normal feeding, and energy restriction conditions, it can be stated that resveratrol is useful in reducing body fat accumulation, and thus preventing obesity. Nevertheless, for ethical reasons, these results have been obtained in animals. By contrast, there are no evidences showing the usefulness of this phenolic compound in reducing previously accumulated body fat. Consequently, as of yet, there is not scientific support for proposing resveratrol as a new anti-obesity treatment tool.

  1. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    that it is possible to avoid poor body condition at weaning even with a lactation length of seven weeks or more. No main effect of backfat at weaning on reproduction performance was found, but the probability of a successful reproduction after weaning tended to decrease with decreasing backfat for first parity sows...

  2. Carry-over effects of body condition in the early pregnant ewe on peri-partum adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rodríguez, J; Estopañan, G; Sanz, A; Dervishi, E; Govoni, N; Tamanini, C; Joy, M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the carry-over effects of ewe body reserves during early pregnancy on peri-partum adipose tissue metabolism. Forty-nine multiparous ewes were divided in three categories according to their body condition score (BCS) at day 30 of pregnancy (BCS  3, 3.25-3.5). Live-weight (LW) and BCS gains from 1st to 4th month of pregnancy were greater in ewes with BCS 3 animals. In contrast, in the last month of pregnancy, there was BCS decrease in all groups, although LW continued increasing. There were no differences in LW or BCS across ewe categories during this period. Peripheral leptin levels throughout the three last weeks of pregnancy were greater in ewes with BCS > 3 than in the rest, but this difference did not persist after lambing. Plasma metabolites related to energy metabolism, milk yield and lamb growth were not affected by ewe BCS in early pregnancy. Long-chain saturated milk fatty acids (FA) (C16-C24) were greater in ewes with lowest BCS (Ewes with greater BCS showed greater monounsaturated and lowest polyunsaturated milk FA content. Ewe post-mating body reserves affect both pre-partum leptinaemia and post-partum milk polyunsaturated fatty acids content, but it had little effect on lamb performance. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The impact of bodyweight and body condition on behavioral testing for painful diabetic neuropathy in the streptozotocin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoybergs, Yves M J J; Biermans, Ria L V; Meert, Theo F

    2008-05-02

    The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model is widely used for the induction of neuropathy in the rat. In this model, diabetic animals often display chronic illness, which raises objections not only on ethical but also on scientific grounds. In this study, the investigators set out to determine the impact of bodyweight and body condition (BC) on behavioral testing in the rat. Animals were allocated to four different groups as a function of their bodyweight, in particular one control group and three experimental groups with different starting weights (low bodyweight [LBW], medium bodyweight [MBW] and high bodyweight [HBW]), the groups having been rendered diabetic with an intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65mg/kg). Bodyweight, blood glucose, body condition and thresholds for mechanical hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia were measured or evaluated over a 68-day period. Animals with a LBW at the start of the experiment showed a gradual increase in BW with a decrease in mechanical nociceptive thresholds, while MBW and HBW animals presented a decrease in both thresholds and BW. The body condition score (BCS) decreased in all STZ-treated groups over time. Since correlations between mechanical thresholds and BW were similar between the control group and the HBW and MBW groups, the loss in BW clearly contributed to the decrease in thresholds. In the LBW group, thresholds and BW correlated negatively, so that the decrease in thresholds was mainly caused by the development of a painful neuropathy. From an ethical and a scientific point of view, in the STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy model, animals should be chosen on the basis of bodyweight and it must also be ensured that STZ is correctly dosed.

  4. Condition-dependent trade-offs between sexual traits, body condition and immunity: the effect of novel habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Carrasco, Maider; Head, Megan L; Jennions, Michael D; Cabido, Carlos

    2016-06-21

    The optimal allocation of resources to sexual signals and other life history traits is usually dependent on an individual's condition, while variation in the expression of sexual traits across environments depends on the combined effects of local adaptation, mean condition, and phenotypic responses to environment-specific cues that affect resource allocation. A clear contrast can often be drawn between natural habitats and novel habitats, such as forest plantations and urban areas. In some species, males seem to change their sexual signals in these novel environments, but why this occurs and how it affects signal reliability is still poorly understood. The relative size of sexual traits and level of immune responses were significantly lower for male palmate newts Lissotriton helveticus caught in pine and eucalyptus plantations compared to those caught in native forests, but there was no habitat-dependent difference in body condition (n = 18 sites, 382 males). The reliability with which sexual traits signalled body condition and immune responses was the same in all three habitats. Finally, we conducted a mesocosm experiment in which males were maintained in pine, eucalypt or oak infused water for 21 days. Males in plantation-like water (pine or eucalypt) showed significantly lower immune responses but no change in body condition. This matches the pattern seen for field-caught males. Unlike field-caught males, however, there was no relationship between water type and relative sexual trait size. Pine and eucalyptus plantations are likely to be detrimental to male palmate newt because they are associated with reduced immune function and smaller sexual traits. This could be because ecological aspects of these novel habitats, such as high water turbidity or changes in male-male competition, drive selection for reduced investment into sexual traits. However, it is more probable that there are differences in the ease of acquisition, hence optimal allocation, of

  5. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  6. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  7. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  8. Lean birds in the city: body size and condition of house sparrows along the urbanization gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liker, A; Papp, Z; Bókony, V; Lendvai, A Z

    2008-07-01

    1. Urbanized habitats differ from natural ones in several ecological features, including climate, food availability, strength of predation and competition. Although the effects of urbanization on avian community composition are well known, there is much less information about how individual birds are affected by these human-generated habitat differences. 2. In this study we investigated the relationships between the morphological characteristics and the degree of habitat urbanization in house sparrows, Passer domesticus (Linne 1758) . We collected data for more than 1000 non-breeding adult birds in Hungary between 1997 and 2006, from seven sites including farmlands, suburban areas and city centres. 3. We found that the body mass, tarsus length and body condition of free-living sparrows differed among the sites: birds in more urbanized habitats were consistently smaller and in worse condition than birds in more rural habitats. A composite measure of habitat urbanization (based on building density, road density and vegetation cover) explained over 75% of variance between sites in the studied traits, after we controlled for the effects of sex, year, season and time of capture. 4. The difference in body mass between rural and urban sparrows was significant when birds were kept in aviaries under identical conditions, with constant ad libitum food availability. It is therefore unlikely that the reduced body size and condition of urban sparrows are a consequence of reduced access to food for adults (e.g. due to strong competition), or their short-term responses to high food predictability (e.g. by strategic mass regulation). 5. We suggest that habitat differences in nestling development or adaptive divergence of sparrow populations due to distinct environmental conditions (such as differing predation pressure) may account for the differences along the urbanization gradient.

  9. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John C.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Suydam, Robert; Person, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We examined the response of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) body condition to summer sea ice conditions and upwelling-favorable winds. We used a long-term dataset collected from whales of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas (BCB) stock to estimate various body condition indices (BCI's) for individual whales that were harvested by Alaskan Eskimos. A series of offshore regions frequented by bowhead whales in summer were delineated and used to quantify interannual summertime environmental conditions including: (a) mean open water fraction, (b) duration of melt season, (c) date of continuous freeze-up, and (d) mean upwelling-favorable wind stress. Body condition was analyzed relative to these metrics for both the preceding summer feeding season and the previous three seasons combined. Our analysis indicates a significant increase in the long-term trend in an axillary girth-based body condition index (BCIG) over the study period (1989-2011). The increase in BCIG is likely associated with the trend in overall reduction of sea ice, including increased duration of open water, changes in upwelling potential (wind stress), and possibly higher primary production in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem favoring water-column invertebrates. We found strong significant positive correlations between BCIG and late summer open water fraction in the Beaufort Sea and smaller nearshore areas off the Mackenzie Delta and west of Banks Island. Additionally, BCIG was positively and significantly correlated with duration of melt season, later date of freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, and upwelling-favorable winds on the Mackenzie shelf and west of Banks Island. A strong seasonal difference in BCI's was noted for subadult bowheads, presumably associated with summer feeding; however, yearlings were found to drop in BCI over at least the first summer after weaning. Our results indicate an overall increase in bowhead whale body condition and a positive correlation with summer sea ice loss over the

  10. The metabolic cost of nesting: body condition and blood parameters of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger in Central Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Barão-Nóbrega, José António Lemos; Marioni, Boris; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Nogueira, António José Arsénia; Lima, Emerson Silva; Magnusson, William Ernest; Da Silveira, Ronis; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood par...

  11. Differences in body mass index z-scores and weight status in a Dutch pediatric psychiatric population with and without use of second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogd, Sjoerd; Overbeek, Wieske A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Correll, Christoph U; de Graeff, Elisabeth R; Staal, Wouter G

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. In a chart review study of psychiatric outpatients aged ≤ 18 years treated with SGAs and psychiatric controls without lifetime SGA, use body mass index (BMI) z-scores between patients and controls were compared in the entire sample, patients without co-medications, diagnostic subgroups, and age subgroups. In patients with follow-up data, weight z-score change was calculated. Altogether, 592 Caucasian patients aged 4-18 (mean: 10.0) years with a psychiatric diagnosis were included. BMI z-scores in 96 youth treated with SGAs for 9.0 ± 6.1 months were significantly higher than in 496 patients without lifetime SGA use (0.81 ± 1.1 vs. 0.05 ± 1.2; pz-score differences remained significant in all age groups z-score increased significantly from -0.17 ± 1.5 to 0.25 ± 1.4 (p<0.0001) with 12.5% transitioning to overweight or obese status. These data show robust and significant differences in sex- and age-adjusted body weight and weight status in young pediatric Caucasian samples with and without use of SGAs independent of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) diagnosis and nonantipsychotic medications. Weight status and metabolic effects of SGAs require careful attention, especially in youth.

  12. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Escaler, X; De La Torre, O; Farhat, M

    2015-01-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to thei r surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at t...

  13. The Matter Bispectrum in N-body Simulations with non-Gaussian Initial Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Sefusatti, Emiliano; Crocce, Martin; Desjacques, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the dark matter bispectrum in N-body simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions of the local kind for a large variety of triangular configurations and compare them with predictions from Eulerian perturbation theory up to one-loop corrections. We find that the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity at large scales, when compared to perturbation theory, are well described by the initial component of the matter bispectrum, linearly extrapolated at the redshift of ...

  14. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.

  15. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

    2015-03-01

    Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was

  16. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  17. Matrix Intensification Affects Body and Physiological Condition of Tropical Forest-Dependent Passerines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2015-01-01

    Matrix land-use intensification is a relatively recent and novel landscape change that can have important influences on the biota within adjacent habitat patches. While there are immediate local changes that it brings about, the influences on individual animals occupying adjacent habitats may be less evident initially. High-intensity land use could induce chronic stress in individuals in nearby remnants, leading ultimately to population declines. We investigated how physiological indicators and body condition measures of tropical forest-dependent birds differ between forest adjacent to surface mining sites and that near farmlands at two distances from remnant edge in southwest Ghana. We used mixed effects models of several condition indices including residual body mass and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios (an indicator of elevated chronic stress) to explore the effect of matrix intensity on forest-dependent passerines classed as either sedentary area-sensitive habitat specialists or nomadic generalists. Individual birds occupying tropical forest remnants near surface mining sites were in poorer condition, as indicated by lower residual body mass and elevated chronic stress, compared to those in remnants near agricultural lands. The condition of the sedentary forest habitat specialists white-tailed alethe, Alethe diademata and western olive sunbird, Cyanomitra obscura was most negatively affected by high-intensity surface mining land-use adjacent to remnants, whereas generalist species were not affected. Land use intensification may set in train a new trajectory of faunal relaxation beyond that expected based on habitat loss alone. Patterns of individual condition may be useful in identifying habitats where species population declines may occur before faunal relaxation has concluded.

  18. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R 2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20–22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. - Highlights: ► We examined mercury in endangered California clapper rails within tidal marshes. ► Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site. ► Mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs were considered elevated. ► Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. ► Results indicate detrimental effects of mercury on endangered clapper rails. - Mercury contamination in endangered California clapper rails was influenced by tidal marsh site and increased mercury resulted in reduced bird body condition.

  19. Body mass index, Bishop score, and sonographic measurement of the cervical length as predictors of successful labor induction in twin gestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyo-Hoon; Hong, Joon-Seok; Kang, Woong-Sun; Shin, Dong-Myung; Kim, Shi-Nae

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of body mass index (BMI), Bishop score, and sonographic measurement of cervical length for predicting successful labor induction (defined as an ability to achieve the active phase of labor corresponding to a cervical dilatation of > or =4 cm within 12 h of initiating oxytocin) in near-term twin gestations. This prospective, observational study enrolled 72 consecutive women with twin gestations at >36.0 weeks' gestation who were scheduled for induction of labor. Transvaginal ultrasound for measurement of the cervical length was performed and the Bishop score was determined by digital examination. The BMI was calculated based on the weight and height at the time of induction. Labor induction was successful in 63% (45/72) of women. The mean BMI was significantly lower in women who had successfully induced labor, but no significant differences existed with respect to the mean cervical length, median Bishop score, proportion of parous and nulliparous women, and the mean total birth weight of the twin pairs between the two patient groups. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that only BMI provided a significant contribution in predicting successful labor induction. BMI independently predicted the success of labor induction in twin gestations but the sonographic measurement of the cervical length and Bishop score had poor predictive values for successful induction.

  20. Negative covariance between parasite load and body condition in a population of feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeffe, Lucie; McLoughlin, Philip D; Medill, Sarah A; Stewart, Kathrine; Andres, Daniel; Shury, Todd; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily; Gilleard, John S; Poissant, Jocelyn

    2016-07-01

    In wild and domestic animals, gastrointestinal parasites can have significant impacts on host development, condition, health, reproduction and longevity. Improving our understanding of the causes and consequences of individual-level variation in parasite load is therefore of prime interest. Here we investigated the relationship between strongyle fecal egg count (FEC) and body condition in a unique, naturalized population of horses that has never been exposed to anthelmintic drugs (Sable Island, Nova Scotia, Canada). We first quantified variation in FEC and condition for 447 individuals according to intrinsic (sex, age, reproductive status, social status) and extrinsic (group size, location, local density) variables. We then quantified the repeatability of measurements obtained over a field season and tested for covariance between FEC and condition. FECs were high relative to other horse populations (mean eggs per gram ± SD = 1543·28 ± 209·94). FECs generally decreased with age, were higher in lactating vs non-lactating females, and unexpectedly lower in males in some part of the island. FECs and condition were both spatially structured, with patterns depending on age, sex and reproductive status. FECs and condition were both repeatable. Most notably, FECs and condition were negatively correlated, especially in adult females.

  1. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis.

  2. Does habitat disturbance affect stress, body condition and parasitism in two sympatric lemurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotoniaina, Josué H; Kappeler, Peter M; Ravoniarimbinina, Pascaline; Pechouskova, Eva; Hämäläinen, Anni M; Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kraus, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how animals react to human-induced changes in their environment is a key question in conservation biology. Owing to their potential correlation with fitness, several physiological parameters are commonly used to assess the effect of habitat disturbance on animals' general health status. Here, we studied how two lemur species, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius) and the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), respond to changing environmental conditions by comparing their stress levels (measured as hair cortisol concentration), parasitism and general body condition across four habitats ordered along a gradient of human disturbance at Kirindy Forest, Western Madagascar. These two species previously revealed contrasting responses to human disturbance; whereas M. murinus is known as a resilient species, C. medius is rarely encountered in highly disturbed habitats. However, neither hair cortisol concentrations nor parasitism patterns (prevalence, parasite species richness and rate of multiple infections) and body condition varied across the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results indicate that the effect of anthropogenic activities at Kirindy Forest is not reflected in the general health status of both species, which may have developed a range of behavioural adaptations to deal with suboptimal conditions. Nonetheless, a difference in relative density among sites suggests that the carrying capacity of disturbed habitat is lower, and both species respond differently to environmental changes, with C. medius being more negatively affected. Thus, even for behaviourally flexible species, extended habitat deterioration could hamper long-term viability of populations.

  3. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  4. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P social behavior (F1,154 = 15.064, P < 0.001). There was no difference detected in body condition of treated versus control females (F1,154 = 0.033, P = 0.856), but females with a dependent foal had lower body condition than those without a foal (F1,154 = 4.512, P = 0.038). Herding behavior was best explained by a model of treatment and the interaction of band fidelity and foal presence (AICc weight = 0.660) which estimated no difference in rate of herding behavior directed toward control versus treated females (F1,102 = 0.196, P = 0.659), but resident females without a dependent foal were herded 50.9% more than resident females with a foal (F3,102 = 8.269, P < 0.001). Treated females received 54.5% more reproductive behaviors from stallions than control mares (F1,105 = 5.155, P = 0.025), with the model containing only treatment being the most-supported (AICc weight = 0.530). Treated and control females received harem-tending behaviors from stallions equally (F1,105 = 0.001, P = 0.969) and agonistic behaviors from stallions equally (F1,105 < 0.001, P = 0.986). Direct effects of PZP treatment on the behavior of

  5. Lower urinary tract conditions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: correlation of symptoms based on validated scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgu, Berk; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Gurkan, Kagan; Uslu, Runa; Soygur, Tarkan

    2011-02-01

    We investigated whether certain voiding problems have a higher incidence in patients with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity compared to age matched controls. We used the Conners Parent Rating Scale-revised for attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity and lower urinary tract symptom score to evaluate voiding problems. A total of 62 children with attention deficit disorder and 124 healthy controls were enrolled. We evaluated uroflowmetry patterns in both groups. Residual urine volumes and Bristol stool scale were noted. We examined the correlation between total Conners Parent Rating Scale-revised and lower urinary tract symptom score in patients with attention deficit disorder. Additionally we analyzed each index of the Conners Parent Rating Scale-revised separately in terms of correlation with symptom subgroups for lower urinary tract symptom scores. Mean ± SD total lower urinary tract symptom score was 11.1 ± 2.9 in patients with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity and 3.2 ± 1.3 in controls, a difference that was statistically significantly (p Scale-revised. If a child with attention deficit disorder has a high index in the Conners Parent Rating Scale-revised, he or she is more likely to have urgency. Also, if a child with attention deficit disorder has a high hyperactivity subscale score, he or she is more likely to have enuresis. Voiding problems are more common in children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity than in age matched controls. Urgency and enuresis are the outstanding problems in children with attention deficit disorder. Simultaneous use of the Conners Parent Rating Scale-revised and lower urinary tract symptom score questionnaire should be encouraged in patients with attention deficit disorder to allow a structured and quantitative evaluation of these overlapping problems. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Covariation between eumelanic pigmentation and body mass only under specific conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulin, Alexandre

    2009-03-01

    Identifying the factors that mediate covariation between an ornament and other phenotypic attributes is important to determine the signaling function of ornaments. Sign and magnitude of a covariation may vary across environments if the expression of the ornament or of its linked genes regulating correlated phenotypes is condition-dependent. I investigated in the barn owl Tyto alba whether sign and magnitude of covariation between body mass and two heritable melanin-based plumage ornaments change with food supply, along the reproductive cycle and from the morning to the evening. Using a dataset of 1,848 measurements of body mass in 336 breeding females, I found that females displaying large black spots were heavier than conspecifics with smaller spots in the afternoon (i.e., a long time after the last feeding) but not in the morning (i.e., a short time after the last feeding). This is consistent with the recently proposed hypothesis that eumelanin-based ornaments are associated with the ability to maintain energy balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Thus, covariation between melanin-based coloration and body mass can be detected only under specific conditions potentially explaining why it has been reported in only ten out of 28 vertebrate species. The proposition that ornamented individuals achieve a higher fitness than drab conspecifics only in specific environments should be tested for other ornaments.

  7. Scoring CT/HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers: effects of patient's age, body mass index and common laboratory test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, T.; Huuskonen, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); University of Birmingham, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38-80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall thickness and bronchiectasis. Multivariate statistical analyses were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. Increasing age, blood haemoglobin value and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated positively with several HRCT signs. Increasing BMI was associated with a decrease in several signs, especially parenchymal bands, honeycombing, all kinds of emphysema and bronchiectasis. The latter finding might be due to the suboptimal image quality in obese individuals, which may cause suspicious findings to be overlooked. Background data, including patient's age and body constitution, should be considered when CT/HRCT images are interpreted. (orig.)

  8. Trace Conditioning in Drosophila Induces Associative Plasticity in Mushroom Body Kenyon Cells and Dopaminergic Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina V. Dylla

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic neurons (DANs signal punishment and reward during associative learning. In mammals, DANs show associative plasticity that correlates with the discrepancy between predicted and actual reinforcement (prediction error during classical conditioning. Also in insects, such as Drosophila, DANs show associative plasticity that is, however, less understood. Here, we study associative plasticity in DANs and their synaptic partners, the Kenyon cells (KCs in the mushroom bodies (MBs, while training Drosophila to associate an odorant with a temporally separated electric shock (trace conditioning. In most MB compartments DANs strengthened their responses to the conditioned odorant relative to untrained animals. This response plasticity preserved the initial degree of similarity between the odorant- and the shock-induced spatial response patterns, which decreased in untrained animals. Contrary to DANs, KCs (α'/β'-type decreased their responses to the conditioned odorant relative to untrained animals. We found no evidence for prediction error coding by DANs during conditioning. Rather, our data supports the hypothesis that DAN plasticity encodes conditioning-induced changes in the odorant's predictive power.

  9. L^1 -optimality conditions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the L^1 -minimization for the translational motion of a spacecraft in the circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is considered. Necessary conditions are derived by using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP), revealing the existence of bang-bang and singular controls. Singular extremals are analyzed, recalling the existence of the Fuller phenomenon according to the theories developed in (Marchal in J Optim Theory Appl 11(5):441-486, 1973; Zelikin and Borisov in Theory of Chattering Control with Applications to Astronautics, Robotics, Economics, and Engineering. Birkhäuser, Basal 1994; in J Math Sci 114(3):1227-1344, 2003). The sufficient optimality conditions for the L^1 -minimization problem with fixed endpoints have been developed in (Chen et al. in SIAM J Control Optim 54(3):1245-1265, 2016). In the current paper, we establish second-order conditions for optimal control problems with more general final conditions defined by a smooth submanifold target. In addition, the numerical implementation to check these optimality conditions is given. Finally, approximating the Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system by the CRTBP, an L^1 -minimization trajectory for the translational motion of a spacecraft is computed by combining a shooting method with a continuation method in (Caillau et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 114:137-150, 2012; Caillau and Daoud in SIAM J Control Optim 50(6):3178-3202, 2012). The local optimality of the computed trajectory is asserted thanks to the second-order optimality conditions developed.

  10. A simplified thermoregulation model of the human body in warm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baizhan; Yang, Yu; Yao, Runming; Liu, Hong; Li, Yongqiang

    2017-03-01

    Thermoregulation models of the human body have been widely used in thermal comfort studies. The existing models are complicated and not fully verified for application in China. This paper presents a simplified thermoregulation model which has been statistically validated by the predicted and measured mean skin temperature in warm environments, including 21 typical conditions with 400 Chinese subjects. This model comprises three parts: i) the physical model; ii) the controlled system; and iii) the controlling system, and considers three key questions formerly ignored by the existing models including: a) the evaporation efficiency of regulatory sweat; b) the proportional relation of total skin blood flow and total heat loss by regulatory sweating against body surface area; and c) discrepancies in the mean skin temperatures by gender. The developed model has been validated to be within the 95% confidence interval of the population mean skin temperature in three cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationships among Body Condition, Insulin Resistance and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression during the Grazing Season in Mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Shaimaa; Elo, Kari; Jaakkola, Seija; Karikoski, Ninja; Boston, Ray; Reilas, Tiina; Särkijärvi, Susanna; Saastamoinen, Markku; Kokkonen, Tuomo

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance have been shown to be risk factors for laminitis in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition during the grazing season on insulin resistance and the expression of genes associated with obesity and insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Sixteen Finnhorse mares were grazing either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG) or semi-natural grassland (NG) from the end of May to the beginning of September. Body measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and neck and tailhead SAT gene expressions were measured in May and September. At the end of grazing, CG had higher median body condition score (7 vs. 5.4, interquartile range 0.25 vs. 0.43; P=0.05) and body weight (618 kg vs. 572 kg ± 10.21 (mean ± SEM); P=0.02), and larger waist circumference (P=0.03) than NG. Neck fat thickness was not different between treatments. However, tailhead fat thickness was smaller in CG compared to NG in May (P=0.04), but this difference disappeared in September. Greater basal and peak insulin concentrations, and faster glucose clearance rate (P=0.03) during IVGTT were observed in CG compared to NG in September. A greater decrease in plasma non-esterified fatty acids during IVGTT (P<0.05) was noticed in CG compared to NG after grazing. There was down-regulation of insulin receptor, retinol binding protein 4, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and up-regulation of adiponectin (ADIPOQ), adiponectin receptor 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expressions in SAT of both groups during the grazing season (P<0.05). Positive correlations were observed between ADIPOQ and its receptors and between SCD and ADIPOQ in SAT (P<0.01). In conclusion, grazing on CG had a moderate effect on responses during IVGTT, but did not trigger insulin resistance. Significant temporal differences in gene expression profiles were observed during the grazing season. PMID:25938677

  12. Weight, body condition, milk production, and metabolism of Nellore cows when their calves are submitted to different supplementation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes da Silva, Aline; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; da Silva Amorim, Lincoln; Detmann, Edenio; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; de Souza Duarte, Márcio; Henrique de Moura, Felipe; Prímola de Melo, Luciano; Henrique Silva E Paiva, Paulo; Manso, Marcos Rocha; Valério de Carvalho, Victor

    2017-02-01

    Creep feeding has been used to reduce calves' nutritional dependence on the cow, but research results under tropical conditions have not been conclusive about the effects on the cow. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high and low supplementation levels for Nellore heifer calves on performance, milk production, and metabolic profile of their mothers. Fifty multiparous Nellore cows and their respective calves were used. The following treatments were evaluated: 0-control, no supplement was fed to calves; 3-calves received supplement in the amount of 3 g/kg of body weight (BW); 6-calves received supplement in the amount of 6 g/kg of BW. There was no significant effect of level of supplementation offered to offspring on cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and subcutaneous fat thickness (P > 0.05). Level of supplementation of heifer calves did not significantly affect milk production corrected to 4% of fat (P > 0.05). Fat, protein, lactose, and total solids of the milk also did not differ among supplementation strategies (P > 0.05). Level of supplement fed to calves had no effect on cows' glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, total protein, and albumin levels (P > 0.05), but cows nursing calves that did not receive supplement had lower level of serum urea N (SUN; P < 0.05). We conclude that creep feeding in the amounts of 3 or 6 g/kg of BW daily has no major impact on dams' performance and metabolism.

  13. Climate Effects on Growth, Body Condition, and Survival Depend on the Genetic Characteristics of the Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Diaz, Cristina; Breedveld, Merel C; Fitze, Patrick S

    2017-11-01

    Climatic change is expected to affect individual life histories and population dynamics, potentially increasing vulnerability to extinction. The importance of genetic diversity has been highlighted for adaptation and population persistence. However, whether responses of life-history traits to a given environmental condition depend on the genetic characteristics of a population remains elusive. Here we tested this hypothesis in the lizard Zootoca vivipara by simultaneously manipulating habitat humidity, a major climatic predictor of Zootoca's distribution, and adult male color morph frequency, a trait with genome-wide linkage. Interactive effects of humidity and morph frequency had immediate effects on growth and body condition of juveniles and yearlings, as well as on adult survival, and delayed effects on offspring size. In yearlings, higher humidity led to larger female body size and lower humidity led to higher male compared to female survival. In juveniles and yearlings, some treatment effects were compensated over time. The results show that individual responses to environmental conditions depend on the population's color morph frequency, age class, and sex and that these affect intra- and inter-age class competition. Moreover, humidity affected the competitive environment rather than imposing trait-based selection on specific color morphs. This indicates that species' responses to changing environments (e.g., to climate change) are highly complex and difficult to accurately reconstruct and predict without information on the genetic characteristics and demographic structure of populations.

  14. Education and inequalities in risk scores for coronary heart disease and body mass index: evidence for a population strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sze Yan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Glymour, M Maria

    2012-09-01

    Concerns have been raised that education may have greater benefits for persons at high risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) than for those at low risk. We estimated the association of education (less than high school, high school, or college graduates) with 10-year CHD risk and body mass index (BMI), using linear and quantile regression models, in the following two nationally representative datasets: the 2006 wave of the Health and Retirement Survey and the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Higher educational attainment was associated with lower 10-year CHD risk for all groups. However, the magnitude of this association varied considerably across quantiles for some subgroups. For example, among women in NHANES, a high school degree was associated with 4% (95% confidence interval = -9% to 1%) and 17% (-24% to -8%) lower CHD risk in the 10th and 90th percentiles, respectively. For BMI, a college degree was associated with uniform decreases across the distribution for women, but with varying increases for men. Compared with those who had not completed high school, male college graduates in the NHANES sample had a BMI that was 6% greater (2% to 11%) at the 10th percentile of the BMI distribution and 7% lower (-10% to -3%) at the 90th percentile (ie, overweight/obese). Estimates from the Health and Retirement Survey sample and the marginal quantile regression models showed similar patterns. Conventional regression methods may mask important variations in the associations between education and CHD risk.

  15. Changes in body fat percentage during body weight stable conditions of increased daily protein intake vs. control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    The objective of this study was to examine if increased protein intake vs. control influences body fat percentage during stable body weight. Body composition was assessed before and after a 3-month isoenergetic dietary intervention of 2MJ/d supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual ad libitum energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group (n=12) and an isoenergetic combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group (n=12). Daily protein intake was calculated from a 24h urinary nitrogen. Body composition was measured by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a method that allows for estimation of 4-body compartments (fat and lean; water, bone and rest). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their habitual physical activity. Daily protein intake increased in the protein group during the intervention compared to baseline with +11±14g (Pbody fat percentage showed a significant group×time interaction of decreased body fat percentage of -1.0±1.1% of the protein group vs. 0.1±0.6% of the control group (Pbody fat percentage decreased with unchanged physical activity during 3months of stable body weight. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A validation of 11 body-condition indices in a giant snake species that exhibits positive allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Bryan G; Snow, Ray W; Reed, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    Body condition is a gauge of the energy stores of an animal, and though it has important implications for fitness, survival, competition, and disease, it is difficult to measure directly. Instead, body condition is frequently estimated as a body condition index (BCI) using length and mass measurements. A desirable BCI should accurately reflect true body condition and be unbiased with respect to size (i.e., mean BCI estimates should not change across different length or mass ranges), and choosing the most-appropriate BCI is not straightforward. We evaluated 11 different BCIs in 248 Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus), organisms that, like other snakes, exhibit simple body plans well characterized by length and mass. We found that the length-mass relationship in Burmese pythons is positively allometric, where mass increases rapidly with respect to length, and this allowed us to explore the effects of allometry on BCI verification. We employed three alternative measures of 'true' body condition: percent fat, scaled fat, and residual fat. The latter two measures mostly accommodated allometry in true body condition, but percent fat did not. Our inferences of the best-performing BCIs depended heavily on our measure of true body condition, with most BCIs falling into one of two groups. The first group contained most BCIs based on ratios, and these were associated with percent fat and body length (i.e., were biased). The second group contained the scaled mass index and most of the BCIs based on linear regressions, and these were associated with both scaled and residual fat but not body length (i.e., were unbiased). Our results show that potential differences in measures of true body condition should be explored in BCI verification studies, particularly in organisms undergoing allometric growth. Furthermore, the caveats of each BCI and similarities to other BCIs are important to consider when determining which BCI is appropriate for any particular taxon.

  17. Blood parasites, body condition, and wing length in two subspecies of yellow wagtail (Motacilla flava) during migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurulinkov, Peter; Chakarov, Nayden; Daskalova, Girgina

    2012-05-01

    Blood parasites of migrating yellow wagtails of two subspecies--Motacilla flava feldegg and Motacilla flava flava-were studied on a sample of 473 birds caught in spring and autumn periods in Bulgaria. We controlled eight "migration waves" (flocks captured in different evenings) of yellow wagtails for four parameters--average body mass, average fat level, average wing length, and average prevalence of different hematozoan species. Gametocytes or meronts of a total of six species of hematozoa belonging to three genera were identified-Haemoproteus motacillae, Haemoproteus anthi, Plasmodium relictum, Plasmodium subpraecox, Plasmodium cathemerium, and Tryponosoma avium. Mixed infections were detected in 31 cases, of which 14 were of H. anthi/H. motacillae type. Parasite species composition was similar in the two studied subspecies of M. flava. We did not find any significant differences in the overall infection prevalence or number of infecting parasites between M. f. flava and M. f. feldegg. Parasite prevalence and the number of co-infecting parasites in spring were much higher than in fall. Season had a strong influence on the prevalence of H. anthi and H. motacillae, and for both, there was a marginally significant interaction between subspecies and season, but not a season-independent influence of subspecies. Males of M. f. feldegg had a significantly higher overall blood parasite prevalence and prevalence of H. anthi than females. Sex-related differences in the prevalence of other parasites were not significant. Migration waves of yellow wagtails differed in overall infection status and in H. motacillae prevalence, but not for H. anthi prevalence. We also found significant differences in fat score, weight, and wing length between the studied migration waves of the yellow wagtails. Fat scores of birds infected with different hematozoa were lower compared with those of the non-infected birds. This only marginally was true for body weight and was not the case for wing

  18. Relationship between Bone-Specific Physical Activity Scores and Measures for Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young College Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SoJung Kim

    Full Text Available The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between bone-specific physical activity (BPAQ scores, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD in healthy young college women.Seventy-three college women (21.7 ± 1.8 years; 162.1 ± 4.6 cm; 53.9 ± 5.8 kg between the ages of 19 and 26 years were recruited from the universities in Seoul and Gyeonggi province, South Korea. We used dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure the lumbar spine (L2-L4 and proximal femur BMD (left side; total hip, femoral neck. The BPAQ scores (past, pBPAQ; current, cBPAQ; total, tBPAQ were used to obtain a comprehensive account of lifetime physical activity related to bone health. We used X-scan plus II instrumentation to measure height (cm, weight (kg, fat free mass (FFM, kg, percent body fat (%, and body mass index (BMI. Participants were asked to record their 24-hour food intake in a questionnaire.There were positive correlations between BPAQ scores and total hip (pBPAQ r = 0.308, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.286, p = 0.014 and FN BMD (pBPAQ r = 0.309, p = 0.008; tBPAQ, r = 0.311, p = 0.007, while no significant relationships were found in cBPAQ (p > 0.05. When FFM, Vitamin D intake, cBPAQ, pBPAQ, and tBPAQ were included in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, FFM and pBPAQ were predictors of total hip, accounting for 16% (p = 0.024, while FFM and tBPAQ predicted 14% of the variance in FN (p = 0.015. Only FFM predicted 15% of the variance in L2-L4 (p = 0.004. There was a positive correlation between Vitamin D intake and L2-L4 (p = 0.025, but other dietary intakes variables were not significant (p > 0.05.BPAQ-derived physical activity scores and FFM were positively associated with total hip and FN BMD in healthy young college women. Our study suggests that osteoporosis awareness and effective bone healthy behaviors for college women are required to prevent serious bone diseases later in life.

  19. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escaler, X; De La Torre, O; Farhat, M

    2015-01-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to their surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at the LMH-EPFL cavitation tunnel. The three first modes of vibration have been determined and analysed under various hydrodynamic conditions ranging from air and still water to partial cavitation and supercavitation. A remote nonintrusive excitation system with piezoelectric patches has been used for the experiments. The effects of the cavity properties and the lateral gap size on the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. As a result, the significance of several parameters in the design of such structures is discussed. (paper)

  20. Review of parameters influencing the structural response of a submerged body under cavitation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaler, X.; De La Torre, O.; Farhat, M.

    2015-12-01

    Submerged structures that operate under extreme flows are prone to suffer large scale cavitation attached to their surfaces. Under such conditions the added mass effects differ from the expected ones in pure liquids. Moreover, the existence of small gaps between the structure and surrounding bodies filled with fluid also influence the dynamic response. A series of experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out with a truncated NACA0009 hydrofoil mounted as a cantilever beam at the LMH-EPFL cavitation tunnel. The three first modes of vibration have been determined and analysed under various hydrodynamic conditions ranging from air and still water to partial cavitation and supercavitation. A remote nonintrusive excitation system with piezoelectric patches has been used for the experiments. The effects of the cavity properties and the lateral gap size on the natural frequencies and mode shapes have been determined. As a result, the significance of several parameters in the design of such structures is discussed.

  1. Spectroscopy of {sup 12}C within the boundary condition for three-body resonant states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, Chie [Meme Media Laboratory, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: chie@nucl.sci.hokudai.ac.jp; Kato, Kiyoshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    The 3{alpha}-cluster structure of excited states in {sup 12}C is investigated by taking into account the correct boundary condition for three-body resonant states. In this study, we adopt the Complex Scaling Method (CSM), which enables us to obtain the resonant states that can be described as square integrable states with the same boundary conditions as those of the bound states, and calculate not only resonance energies but also the total decay widths of the 3{alpha} system. We compare the calculated resonance parameters to the experimental data and also to the previous 3{alpha} model results obtained with a bound state approximation. Our results well explain the many observed levels and give an assurance for the presence of the second 2{sup +} state, which is expected by the 3{alpha} model calculations with the approximations of bound state or two-body scattering. As for the negative-parity states, it is considered that the calculated 4{sup -} state is assigned to the observed E{sub x}=13.4MeV state. Through the calculation of channel amplitudes, the obtained third 0{sup +} state is found to have a s-wave dominant and a more dilute structure compared to the second 0{sup +} state.

  2. [Obesity paradox or reverse epidemiology: is high body weight a protective factor for various chronic conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, T E; Rieder, A

    2010-03-01

    Overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for the development of disease and death in the general population. However, in people with various conditions (old age, wasting diseases, heart diseases or renal dialysis) overweight and obesity are associated with a higher survival rate. The terms "reverse epidemiology" or "obesity paradox" have been suggested to describe this finding. However, it still remains uncertain, whether this phenomenon is attributable to a real protective effect of high body fat mass. Methodological problems in studies suggesting an obesity paradox such as survivor bias, selection bias, lead time bias or, in meta analyses, publication bias and confounders have been discussed. These cannot, however, entirely explain the observed phenomenon. Biological models, examining possible explanations for the protective effect of high body mass, for instance, in wasting diseases and elderly patients, have also been produced. In particular high inflammation markers combined with malnutrition predict a high mortality rate among patients with various medical conditions: overweight and obesity could counter these effects. Possible implications for clinical and public health recommendations regarding weight management and nutrition are issues for future research. In elderly subjects and patients with a poor prognosis the impact of weight management on quality of life should also be taken into account.

  3. Three-body correlations and conditional forces in suspensions of active hard disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Andreas; Richard, David; Speck, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Self-propelled Brownian particles show rich out-of-equilibrium physics, for instance, the motility-induced phase separation (MIPS). While decades of studying the structure of liquids have established a deep understanding of passive systems, not much is known about correlations in active suspensions. In this work we derive an approximate analytic theory for three-body correlations and forces in systems of active Brownian disks starting from the many-body Smoluchowski equation. We use our theory to predict the conditional forces that act on a tagged particle and their dependence on the propulsion speed of self-propelled disks. We identify preferred directions of these forces in relation to the direction of propulsion and the positions of the surrounding particles. We further relate our theory to the effective swimming speed of the active disks, which is relevant for the physics of MIPS. To test and validate our theory, we additionally run particle-resolved computer simulations, for which we explicitly calculate the three-body forces. In this context, we discuss the modeling of active Brownian swimmers with nearly hard interaction potentials. We find very good agreement between our simulations and numerical solutions of our theory, especially for the nonequilibrium pair-distribution function. For our analytical results, we carefully discuss their range of validity in the context of the different levels of approximation we applied. This discussion allows us to study the individual contribution of particles to three-body forces and to the emerging structure. Thus, our work sheds light on the collective behavior, provides the basis for further studies of correlations in active suspensions, and makes a step towards an emerging liquid state theory.

  4. Body size and condition influence migration timing of juvenile Arctic grayling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Seitz, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes utilising seasonally available habitats within annual migratory circuits time movements out of such habitats with changing hydrology, although individual attributes of fish may also mediate the behavioural response to environmental conditions. We tagged juvenile Arctic grayling in a seasonally flowing stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska and recorded migration timing towards overwintering habitat. We examined the relationship between individual migration date, and fork length (FL) and body condition index (BCI) for fish tagged in June, July and August in three separate models. Larger fish migrated earlier; however, only the August model suggested a significant relationship with BCI. In this model, 42% of variability in migration timing was explained by FL and BCI, and fish in better condition were predicted to migrate earlier than those in poor condition. Here, the majority (33%) of variability was captured by FL with an additional 9% attributable to BCI. We also noted strong seasonal trends in BCI reflecting overwinter mass loss and subsequent growth within the study area. These results are interpreted in the context of size and energetic state-specific risks of overwinter starvation and mortality (which can be very high in the Arctic), which may influence individuals at greater risk to extend summer foraging in a risky, yet prey rich, habitat. Our research provides further evidence that heterogeneity among individuals within a population can influence migratory behaviour and identifies potential risks to late season migrants in Arctic beaded stream habitats influenced by climate change and petroleum development.

  5. Fingermark evidence evaluation based on automated fingerprint identification system matching scores: the effect of different types of conditioning on likelihood ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberink, Ivo; de Jongh, Arent; Rodriguez, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    In recent studies, the evidential value of the similarity of minutiae configurations of fingermarks and fingerprints, for example expressed by automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS), is determined by likelihood ratios (LRs). The paper explores whether there is an effect on LRs if conditioning takes place on specified fingers, fingerprints, or fingermarks under competing hypotheses: In addition, an approach is explored where conditioning is asymmetric. Comparisons between fingerprints and simulated fingermarks with eight minutiae are performed to produce similarity score distributions for each type of conditioning, given a fixed AFIS matching algorithm. Both similarity scores and LRs are significantly different if the conditioning changes. Given a common-source scenario, "LRs" resulting from asymmetric conditioning are on average higher. The difference may reach a factor of 2000. As conditioning on a suspect's finger(print) is labor-intensive and requires a cooperating suspect, it is recommended to just condition on the number of minutiae in the fingermark. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Effects of microplastic exposure on the body condition and behaviour of planktivorous reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Mia O.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of a pollutant on the base of the food web can have knock-on effects for trophic structure and ecosystem functioning. In this study we assess the effect of microplastic exposure on juveniles of a planktivorous fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus), a species that is widespread and abundant on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Under five different plastic concentration treatments, with plastics the same size as the natural food particles (mean 2mm diameter), there was no significant effect of plastic exposure on fish growth, body condition or behaviour. The amount of plastics found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract was low, with a range of one to eight particles remaining in the gut of individual fish at the end of a 6-week plastic-exposure period, suggesting that these fish are able to detect and avoid ingesting microplastics in this size range. However, in a second experiment the number of plastics in the GI tract vastly increased when plastic particle size was reduced to approximately one quarter the size of the food particles, with a maximum of 2102 small (plastic exposure period. Under conditions where food was replaced by plastic, there was a negative effect on the growth and body condition of the fish. These results suggest plastics could become more of a problem as they break up into smaller size classes, and that environmental changes that lead to a decrease in plankton concentrations combined with microplastic presence is likely have a greater influence on fish populations than microplastic presence alone. PMID:29494635

  7. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Brock

    Full Text Available Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on

  8. The metabolic cost of nesting: body condition and blood parameters of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão-Nóbrega, José António Lemos; Marioni, Boris; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Nogueira, António José Arsénia; Lima, Emerson Silva; Magnusson, William Ernest; Da Silveira, Ronis; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz

    2018-01-01

    Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood parameters of nesting females. Body condition and plasmatic concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, lactate and uric acid of nesting females were significantly different from those of non-nesting females and males in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Our study also demonstrated that nest age and distance to water had a negative effect on female body condition in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Female C. crocodilus attending older nests or nests built further away from permanent water bodies tended to have lower body condition. Our results demonstrate that the nesting strategy of C. crocodilus has a metabolic cost associated with nest attendance for nesting females, which appear to depend on accumulated energetic reserves during nest attendance. In contrast, nest attendance had little effect on the physiology of female M. niger.

  9. Study of guided wave propagation on a plate between two solid bodies with imperfect contact conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvantín, A J; Diosdado-De-la-Peña, J A; Limon-Leyva, P A; Hernández-Rodríguez, E

    2018-02-01

    In this work, fundamental symmetric Lamb wave S0 mode is characterized in terms of its velocity variation as function of the interfacial conditions between solid bodies in contact. Imperfect contact conditions are numerically and experimentally determined by using ultrasonic Lamb wave propagation parameters. For the study, an experimental system was used, formed by two solid aluminum rods (25.4mm in diameter) axially loading a thin aluminum plate to control contact interfacial stiffness. The axially applied load on the aluminum plate was varied from 0MPa to 10MPa. Experimental Lamb wave signals were excited on the plate through two longitudinal contact transducers (1MHz of central frequency) using a pitch-catch configuration. Numerical simulations of contact conditions and Lamb wave propagation were performed through Finite Element Analysis (FEA) in commercial software, ANSYS 15®. Simulated Lamb wave signals were generated by means of a 5 cycles tone burst signals with different frequency values. Results indicate a velocity change in both, experimental and simulated Lamb wave signals as function of the applied load. Finally, a comparison between numerical results and experimental measurements was performed obtaining a good agreement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tochilinite: A Sensitive Indicator of Alteration Conditions on the CM Asteroidal Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L. B.; Bourcier, W. L.

    1996-03-01

    Each CM chondrite experienced a different degree of aqueous alteration. As a group, then, these meteorites preserve tangible evidence of asteroidal reactions that were interrupted at many different stages of completion. Geochemical modeling of CM reaction progress should elucidate the nature of the accreted CM materials and the specific types of asteroidal processes and conditions that subsequently influenced them. However, most of the minerals in CM chondrites are stable under a wide range of environmental conditions, which hinders efforts to capitalize on the diverse degree of CM alteration. Petrologic evidence suggests that Fe-rich tochilinite, the widespread mineralic component of CM chondrites previously referred to as "poorly characterized phase (PCP)", may be the most sensitive indicator of the conditions of CM alteration. This possibility has not previously been explored because thermodynamic data for tochilinite are lacking. We have estimated the thermodynamic properties of tochilinite from mixing equations and then calculated its stability limits with associated non-silicate phases as a function of PS2, PO2, and PCO2. The resultant phase relations : a) are consistent with mineral association in CM chondrites, b) indicate that the CM fluids were S-depleted and extremely reducing, c) imply the possibility of H2 gas seeps on the CM parent body, and d) suggest that the alteration of CM materials occurred at significant asteroidal depths.

  11. Effects of impoundment on the body condition of fish in the Manso reservoir, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Lopes de Moura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the body condition de Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro, Auchenipterus osteomystax, Pimelodus maculatus, Psectrogaster curviventris and Schizodon borellii in the Manso reservoir, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, during the first years after its formation (years I, II, III and IV. We hypothesized that sudden environmental changes alter differently the body condition, according to the time (sampling years and sex of individuals. Also, we checked the influence of the amount of food ingested and the reproductive status on nutritional status of the species. METHODS: The body condition (Kn, the feeding activity (SRI and reproductive (GSI were calculated only for adults. The difference between the sampling years and sexes (used as factors was assessed using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test. Temporal influence was tested by Spearman correlation and the interaction between both factors by PERMANOVA. RESULTS: The values of the Kn showed two groups: group 1: species whose body condition decreased in the year II, with a posterior increase (A. pantaneiro, P. curviventris and S. borelli, considered sensitive to the reservoir filling; group 2: species whose body condition increased in the year II (A. osteomystax and P. maculatus, indicating a more rapid adaptation to new environmental conditions. Still, all parameters investigated were somehow affected by the dam, mainly the body condition and gonadosomatic index for several species. On the other hand, the least affected factor was the feeding activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results did not evidence a same pattern of either increase or decrease of body condition for all species examined, since everything indicates that responses are species-specific. Even with a lack of consistency in some results, we can draw some suggestions for future investigations. Responses to these questions will certainly contribute to aggregate data to help better explain the body condition of fish species in dammed

  12. Health, body condition and blood metabolites in reindeer after submaintenance feed intake and subsequent feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nilsson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from experimentally induced poor nutritional conditions to feeding was studied with 69 eight-month-old female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. During a pre-experimental period, all reindeer were fed a simulated winter diet with 80% lichens Cladina spp. and 20% Vaccinum myrtillus shrubs and Salix spp. leaves (lichen diet ad lib. The reindeer were divided into five groups. A control group (group C was fed the lichen diet ad lib. throughout the experiment. Four groups were fed half of that ration for eight days and were then totally deprived of feed for one day (restriction period. During the following 34 days (feeding period the groups were re-fed the lichen diet (group L, fed pelleted reindeer feed combined with either lichen (group PL or grass silage (group PS, or fed silage with a gradually increasing addition of pellets (group SP. Weekly measurements of blood samples and body weighr showed that the control group remained clinically healthy and had stable blood plasma concentrations of protein, urea, glucose and insulin throughout the experiment, but they lost weight. At slaughter, before and after the restriction period, all animals had lost rumen-free body weight, but the reindeer fed a restricted amount of feed lost more than the control group. Also the plasma metabolites were affected by the restricted feeding, with increased concentrations of urea and decreased concentrations of glucose. Group L responded immediately to the ad lib. feeding with blood metabolite levels rapidly approaching those of group C. The body weight developments were similar in groups L and C. Although the feed rations were increased gradually, diarrhoea occurred in some animals belonging to groups PL and PS within the first week of the feeding period. All reindeer recovered, after antibiotic treatment of the worst affected animals. The PL and PS groups, which had high contents of metabolisable energy and crude protein in their diets, showed

  13. The association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and body mass index z-scores in different settings among toddlers and preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie

    2016-07-20

    Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep are all movement behaviors that range on a continuum from no or low movement, to high movement. Consistent associations between movement behaviors and adiposity indicators have been observed in school-age children. However, limited information exists in younger children. Since approximately 50 % of Canadian children ≤5 years of age attend non-parental care, movement behaviors within and outside of the child care setting are important to consider. Therefore, this study examined the association between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) inside and outside of child care, with body mass index (BMI) z-scores, among a sample of toddlers and preschoolers. Children aged 19-60 months (n = 100) from eight participating child care centers throughout Alberta, Canada participated. Movement behaviors inside child care were accelerometer-derived (light physical activity, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and time spent in sedentary bouts lasting 1-4, 5-9, 10-14 and ≥15 min) and questionnaire-derived (daytime sleep). Movement behaviors outside of child care were questionnaire-derived (MVPA, screen and non-screen sedentary behavior, and nighttime sleep). Demographic information (child age, child sex, and parental education) was also questionnaire-derived. Height and weight were measured, and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores were calculated using World Health Organization growth standards. The association between movement behaviors and BMI z-scores were examined using linear regression models. Hours/day of sedentary bouts lasting 1-4 min (β =-0.8, 95 % CI:-1.5,-0.1) and nighttime sleep (β = 0.2, 95 % CI: 0.1, 0.4) were associated with BMI z-scores. However, after adjusting for demographics variables, sedentary bouts lasting 1-4 min (β =-0.7; 95 % CI:-1.5, 0.0) became borderline non-significant, while nighttime sleep (β = 0.2, 95 % CI: 0

  14. Effects of Plyometric Versus Concentric and Eccentric Conditioning Contractions on Upper-Body Postactivation Potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Gert; Parstorfer, Mario

    2017-07-01

    There are limited data on postactivation potentiation's (PAP) effects after plyometric conditioning contractions (CCs), especially in the upper body. This study compared plyometric CCs with concentric-eccentric and eccentric CCs aiming to improve upper-body power performance due to a PAP effect. Sixteen resistance-trained males completed 3 experimental trials in a randomized order that comprised either a plyometric (PLY), a concentric-eccentric (CON), or an eccentric-only (ECC) CC. Maximal muscle performance, as determined by a ballistic bench-press throw, was measured before (baseline) and 1, 4, 8, 12, and 16 min after each CC. Compared with baseline, bench-press power was significantly enhanced only in CON (P = .046, ES = 0.21) after 8 min of recovery. However, the results obtained from the comparisons between baseline power performance and the individual best power performance for each subject after each CC stimulus showed significant increases in PLY (P < .001, ES = 0.31) and CON (P < .001, ES = 0.38). There was no significant improvement in ECC (P = .106, ES = 0.11). The results indicate that only CON CCs generated increases in bench-press power after 8 min of rest. However, considering an individual rest interval, PLY CCs led to an enhanced power performance in the bench-press exercise, and this increase was comparable to that induced by CON CCs. Due to the easy practical application before a competition, PLY CCs might be an interesting part of warm-up strategies aiming to improve upper-body power performance by reason of PAP.

  15. What Have the Difference Scores Not Been Telling Us? A Critique of the Use of Self-Ideal Discrepancy in the Assessment of Body Image and Evaluation of an Alternative Data-Analytic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafri, Guy; van den Berg, Patricia; Brannick, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Difference scores are often used as a means of assessing body image satisfaction using silhouette scales. Unfortunately, difference scores suffer from numerous potential methodological problems, including reduced reliability, ambiguity, confounded effects, untested constraints, and dimensional reduction. In this article, the methodological…

  16. Effects of training distance on feed intake, growth, body condition and muscle glycogen content in young Standardbred horses fed a forage-only diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringmark, S; Revold, T; Jansson, A

    2017-10-01

    This study examined feed intake, growth, body condition, muscle glycogen content and nutrition-related health in 16 Standardbred horses fed a high-energy, forage-only diet ad libitum and allocated to either a control training programme (C-group) or a training programme with the high-intensity training distance reduced by 30% (R-group), from January as 2-year olds until December as 3-year olds. Feed intake was recorded on 10 occasions during 3 consecutive days. Body weight was recorded once in a week and height, body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness and thickness of the m. longissimus dorsi were measured at 7±3-week intervals throughout the study. Muscle biopsies of the m. gluteus medius were taken in December as 2-year olds and in November as 3-year olds and analysed for glycogen content. Nutrition-related health disorders were noted when they occurred. Horses consumed 1.7% to 2.6% dry matter of BW, corresponding to 19 to 28 MJ metabolisable energy/100 kg BW. There were no differences between training groups in feed intake or any of the body measurements. The pooled weekly BCS was maintained between 4.8 and 5.1 (root mean square error (RMSE)=0.4). Muscle glycogen content was 587 and 623 mmol/kg dry weight (RMSE=68) as 2- and 3-year olds, respectively, and there was no difference between training groups. When managed under normal conditions, no nutrition-related health disorders or stereotypic behaviours were observed. It was concluded that the training programme did not affect feed intake, growth, BCS or muscle glycogen content. In addition, the forage-only diet did not appear to prohibit muscle glycogen storage, growth or maintenance of body condition, and seemed to promote good nutrition-related health.

  17. THE DEPENDENCE OF SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY FROM BODY MASS INDEX IN CONDITIONALLY HEALTHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alumuku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 102 conditionally healthy volunteers aged from 19 to 30 years (average age is 19,53 ± 11 years the volatility of heart rate variability (HRV spectral parameters depending on body mass index (BMI were evaluated. According to WHO recommendations on the calculation and interpretation of BMI were such groups of volunteers: underweight, normal body weight, overweight, obesity I degree, obesity II degree, obesity III degree. Among HRV parameters were evaluated total power (TP, ms2, power of very low frequency (VLF, ms2, low frequency (LF, ms2 and high frequency (HF, ms2 domains of HRV spectrum in the 5-minute intervals of ECG in I standard lead. The data were processed by methods of nonparametric statistics. It was established that spectral characteristics of HRV in volunteers with normal BMI have a high TP with harmonious relations between VLF, LF and HF domains; decreased or increased BMI provokes TP reduction by decreasing power of all domains of HRV (VLF, LF, HF with a predominance of VLF proportion and this effect increases with the degree of deviation of the parameter.

  18. Is risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions associated with pre-pregnancy body mass index and parity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene

    Background Obesity among women may influence the risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions (MSCs) and contribute to poor quality of life. Parity, which constitutes a sudden natural increase in weight as well it affects long-term body mass index (BMI), may put strain on the musculoskeletal....... Information on height and weight prior to pregnancy was obtained from telephone interviews and parity from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Diagnoses on degenerative MSC including osteoarthritis, disc disorders, low back pain, and soft tissue disorders were obtained from the National Patient Registry......% confidence interval 1.41-1.83]). Conclusions High pre-pregnancy BMI increased the occurrence of degenerative MSC in the years following pregnancy and childbirth. In combination with increasing pre-pregnancy BMI, higher parity added to an already elevated risk. Prevention of maternal overweight may reduce...

  19. Establishment Success of the Beetle Tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta Depends on Dose and Host Body Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Dhakal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasite effects on host fitness and immunology are often intensity-dependent. Unfortunately, only few experimental studies on insect-parasite interactions attempt to control the level of infection, which may contribute substantial variation to the fitness or immunological parameters of interest. The tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta—flour beetle Tenebrio molitor model—has been used extensively for ecological and evolutionary host–parasite studies. Successful establishment of H. diminuta cysticercoids in T. molitor relies on ingestion of viable eggs and penetration of the gut wall by the onchosphere. Like in other insect models, there is a lack of standardization of the infection load of cysticercoids in beetles. The aims of this study were to: (1 quantify the relationship between exposure dose and establishment success across several H. diminuta egg concentrations; and (2 test parasite establishment in beetles while experimentally manipulating host body condition and potential immune response to infection. Different egg concentrations of H. diminuta isolated from infected rat feces were fed to individual beetles 7–10 days after eclosion and beetles were exposed to starvation, wounding, or insertion of a nylon filament one hour prior to infection. We found that the establishment of cysticercoids in relation to exposure dose could be accurately predicted using a power function where establishment success was low at three lowest doses and higher at the two highest doses tested. Long-term starvation had a negative effect on cysticercoid establishment success, while insertion of a nylon filament and wounding the beetles did not have any effect compared to control treatment. Thus, our results show that parasite load may be predicted from the exposure dose within the observed range, and that the relationship between dose and parasite establishment success is able to withstand some changes in host body condition.

  20. Ethanol concentration in food and body condition affect foraging behavior in Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Francisco; Korine, Carmi; Kotler, Burt P; Pinshow, Berry

    2008-06-01

    Ethanol occurs in fleshy fruit as a result of sugar fermentation by both microorganisms and the plant itself; its concentration [EtOH] increases as fruit ripens. At low concentrations, ethanol is a nutrient, whereas at high concentrations, it is toxic. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on the foraging behavior of frugivorous vertebrates depend on its concentration in food and the body condition of the forager. We predicted that ethanol stimulates food consumption when its concentration is similar to that found in ripe fruit, whereas [EtOH] below or above that of ripe fruit has either no effect, or else deters foragers, respectively. Moreover, we expected that the amount of food ingested on a particular day of feeding influences the toxic effects of ethanol on a forager, and consequently shapes its feeding decisions on the following day. We therefore predicted that for a food-restricted forager, ethanol-rich food is of lower value than ethanol-free food. We used Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) as a model to test our hypotheses, and found that ethanol did not increase the value of food for the bats. High [EtOH] reduced the value of food for well-fed bats. However, for food-restricted bats, there was no difference between the value of ethanol-rich and ethanol-free food. Thus, microorganisms, via their production of ethanol, may affect the patterns of feeding of seed-dispersing frugivores. However, these patterns could be modified by the body condition of the animals because they might trade-off the costs of intoxication against the value of nutrients acquired.

  1. Effect of Heart Rate and Body Mass Index on the Interscan and Interobserver Variability of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring at Prospective ECG-Triggered 64-Slice CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Jun; Kiguchi, Masao; Fujioka, Chikako [Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsuura, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Hideya; Kitagawa, Toshiro; Ito, Katsuhide [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    To test the effects of heart rate, body mass index (BMI) and noise level on interscan and interobserver variability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring on a prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-triggered 64-slice CT. One hundred and ten patients (76 patients with CAC) were scanned twice on prospective ECG-triggered scans. The scan parameters included 120 kV, 82 mAs, a 2.5 mm thickness, and an acquisition center at 45% of the RR interval. The interscan and interobserver variability on the CAC scores (Agatston, volume, and mass) was calculated. The factors affecting the variability were determined by plotting it against heart rate, BMI, and noise level (defined as the standard deviation: SD). The estimated effective dose was 1.5 {+-} 0.2 mSv. The mean heart rate was 63 {+-} 12 bpm (range, 44-101 bpm). The patient BMIs were 24.5 {+-} 4.5 kg/m{sup 2} (range, 15.5-42.3 kg/m2). The mean and median interscan variabilities were 11% and 6%, respectively by volume, and 11% and 6%, respectively, by mass. Moreover, the mean and median of the algorithms were lower than the Agatston algorithm (16% and 9%, respectively). The mean and median interobserver variability was 10% and 4%, respectively (average of algorithms). The mean noise levels were 15 {+-} 4 Hounsfield unit (HU) (range, 8-25 HU). The interscan and interobserver variability was not correlated with heart rate, BMI, or noise level. The interscan and interobserver variability of CAC on a prospective ECG-triggered 64-slice CT with high image quality and 45% of RR acquisition is not significantly affected by heart rate, BMI, or noise level. The volume or mass algorithms show reduced interscan variability compared to the Agatston scoring (p < 0.05)

  2. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  3. Body Composition Explains Greater Variance in Weight-for-Length Z-scores than Mid-Upper Arm Circumference during Infancy - A Secondary Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos; Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Admassu, Bitiya; Kæstel, Pernille; Michaelsen, Kim F; Friis, Henrik; Wells, Jonathan CK

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Traditionally, weight-for-length/height z-score (WLZ) was used to assess wasting (a mortality risk factor) in children 0-59 months. A recent consultation reached a majority position that mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) is a better mortality predictor than WLZ in children 6-59 months. In addition, MUAC collected at the ages of 6-14 weeks has shown to identify infants more likely to die before reaching one year. To understand which body compartment is most affected by undernutrition, associations between anthropometric indicators and body composition data have been studied in children aged 6-59 months. To our knowledge, no such study has been done in children aged 0-6 months. We aimed to study these associations. Methods: Weight, length, MUAC, and lean and fat mass (LM and FM, respectively) obtained by air-displacement plethysmography of infants aged 0-6 months were obtained from an Ethiopian birth cohort study. The data, originally used to construct body composition reference data, measured infants at birth, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 months of age. A complete set of measurements available for 2506 out of a total of 2777 child measurements (563/598, 403/436, 414/444, 413/446, 368/415, and 345/441 in each age, respectively) was used for this analys, E-mail: is. Weight and length data were transformed to sex-and age-specific weight-for-length z-score (WLZ) values using the 2006 WHO growth standards. To remove the confounding positive association between LM or FM and length, we calculated sex- and age-specific standardised residuals values obtained from regressing LM or FM on length, separately by sex and age of measurement. The associations between MUAC, WLZ, length, and body composition residuals were assessed using correlation analysis. We used regression analysis to assess the independent contribution of body composition residuals to MUAC and WLZ. All analyses were done separately by age. Results: MUAC was strongly and positively correlated

  4. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho [Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-09-15

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI.

  5. Factors associated with pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using fractionated total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Hwa Kyung; Yoon, Hong In; Cho, Jae Ho

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary toxicities, including infectious pneumonia (IP) and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS), are serious side effects of total body irradiation (TBI) used for myeloablative conditioning. This study aimed to evaluate clinical factors associated with IP and IPS following TBI. Fifty-eight patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent TBI before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2014 were reviewed. Most patients (91%) received 12 Gy in 1.5 Gy fractions twice a day. Pulmonary toxicities were diagnosed based on either radiographic evidence or reduced pulmonary function, and were subdivided into IP and IPS based on the presence or absence of concurrent infection. Pulmonary toxicities developed in 36 patients (62%); 16 (28%) had IP and 20 (34%) had IPS. IP was significantly associated with increased treatment-related mortality (p = 0.028) and decreased survival (p = 0.039). Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk of developing IPS was significantly higher in patients who received stem cells from a matched unrelated donor than from a matched sibling donor (p = 0.021; hazard ratio [HR] = 12.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46–110.30). Combining other conditioning agents with cyclophosphamide produced a higher tendency to develop IP (p = 0.064; HR = 6.19; 95% CI, 0.90–42.56). IP and IPS involve different risk factors and distinct pathogeneses that should be considered when planning treatments before and after TBI

  6. Hypoxic areas, density-dependence and food limitation drive the body condition of a heavily exploited marine fish predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Käll, Filip; Hansson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Investigating the factors regulating fish condition is crucial in ecology and the management of exploited fish populations. The body condition of cod (Gadus morhua) in the Baltic Sea has dramatically decreased during the past two decades, with large implications for the fishery relying on this re...

  7. The adolescent body image satisfaction scale for males: exploratory factor analysis and implications for strength and conditioning professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, James E; Mullin, Elizabeth M; Maurer-Starks, Suanne S; Rovito, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is evidence of reliability and validity for the Adolescent Body Image Satisfaction Scale (ABISS), an instrument previously developed to measure adolescent body image. A sample (N = 330) of adolescent males, aged 14-19 years, completed the ABISS to determine current body image satisfaction. Data were analyzed for measures of instrument composite reliability and initial content and construct validity. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor solution (16 total items), which explained 42.7% of variance in the model. Composite reliability for the subscales, body competence, body inadequacy, and internal conflict ranged from 0.64 to 0.82. Exploratory factor analysis of the ABISS provides initial psychometric support for a valid and reliable measure for assessing adolescent male body image, which also can be used as a needs assessment tool. Strength and conditioning professionals should be aware of their athlete and client psychological attributes, many of whom are adolescents. Understanding how adolescents view their bodies and their body image will assist professionals in designing appropriate, health-promotive strength programs, while at the same time monitoring for signs of body image dissatisfaction. Assessing body image can help heighten awareness and possibly encourage preventative programming to help avert negative health practices (e.g., performance-enhancing drug use, exercise addictions, disordered eating). The ABISS seems to have preliminary psychometric support to be a valid and reliable instrument that helps gauge at-risk populations.

  8. Associations between chronic conditions, body functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions: a cross-sectional approach in Spanish non-clinical populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Damián, Javier; Andrés-Prado, María José; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Forjaz, Maria João; Castellote, Juan Manuel; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Comín, Magdalena; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

    2016-06-14

    To analyse the relationships between chronic conditions, body functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. A cross-sectional study. 2 geographical areas in the Autonomous Region of Aragon, Spain, namely, a rural area, Cinco Villas, and an urban area in the city of Zaragoza. 864 individuals selected by simple random sampling from the register of Social Security card holders, aged 50 years and over, positive to disability screening. ICF Checklist-body function domains, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, 36-item (WHODAS-36)) global scores and medical diagnoses (chronic conditions) from primary care records. Mild disability (WHODAS-36 level 5-24%) was present in 51.5% of the sample. In the adjusted ordinal regression model with WHODAS-36 as the dependent variable, disability was substantially associated with moderate-to-complete impairment in the following functions: mental, OR 212.8 (95% CI 72 to 628.9); neuromusculoskeletal, OR 44.8 (24.2 to 82.8); and sensory and pain, OR 6.3 (3.5 to 11.2). In the relationship between health conditions and body function impairments, the strongest links were seen for: dementia with mental functions, OR 50.6 (25.1 to 102.1); cerebrovascular disease with neuromusculoskeletal function, OR 5.8 (3.5 to 9.7); and chronic renal failure with sensory function and pain, OR 3.0 (1.49 to 6.4). Dementia, OR 8.1 (4.4 to 14.7) and cerebrovascular disease, OR 4.1 (2.7 to 6.4) were associated with WHODAS-36 scores. Body functions are heterogeneously linked to limitations in activities and restrictions on participation, with the highest impact being due to mental and musculoskeletal functions. This may be relevant for disability assessment and intervention design, particularly if defined on a body function basis. Control of specific health conditions, such as dementia and cerebrovascular disease, appears to be paramount in

  9. [Study on the facial and body terminal hair growth in women in Guangdong by using modified Ferriman-Gallwey scoring system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiao-miao; Ni, Ren-min; Huang, Jia; Huang, Li-li; Du, Shang-ming; Ma, Meng-jun; Lin, Dan-yu; Yang, Dong-zi

    2013-06-01

    To study growth of facial and body terminal hair of women in Guangdong province and its relationship with age, menstrual irregularities and polycystic ovary, and determine normative cut-off score of modified Ferriman and Gallwey (mFG). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2988 women at age of 20-45 years from 16 communities of two urban and two rural regions in Guangdong province from June 2008 to July 2009. Terminal body hair growth was assessed by using the modified Ferriman and Gallwey (mFG) scoring system. The normative cut-off value of mFG were calculated by using the K-means cluster analysis (K=2). Those women were classified into following groups, including 982 women at group of ages of 20- years, 765 women at group of 26- years, 597 women at group of 31- years, 384 women at group of 36- years, 260 women at group of 41-45 years. Due to absence or errors of medical records, some cases were excluded from this study. Based on menses irregularities (MI), polycystic ovaries (PCO), there were 488 cases in MI group, 2413 cases in normal menses group, 568 cases in PCO group, and 2207 cases in non-PCO group finally. The incidences of acne, MI, acanthosis nigricans, and polycystic ovaries were also analyzed in all the hirsute groups. (1) among 2988 women, it was observed 149 women (5%) with mFG≥7,314 women (10.5%) with ≥5,747 women with mFG≥2. (2) Cluster analysis identified an mFG score of 5 as the cut-off value that define abnormal hirsute in the total population and all the sub-groups with/without MI or PCO; (3) Based on age classification, it was found that increased age was associated with decreased trends of the percentile and cut-off value of hirsutism. The value of hirsutism of mFG were 6 in group of 20- years, 5 in group of 26- years, 4 in groups of 31- years, 36- years and 41-45 years. (4) The prevalence of acne, menstrual irregularities and POC were 45.5% (143/314), 73.6% (231/314), 25.8% (81/314) in total population, 25.1% (671/2674), 16.1% (431

  10. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years.

  11. Metabolic demands of body armor on physical performance in simulated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Richard; Deuster, Patricia A; Talbot, Laura A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical work performance, energy cost, and physiological fatigue in military personnel during simulated operational conditions. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 34 military personnel volunteered to undergo two experimental conditions: with body armor (BA+) and without BA (BA-). Subjects walked on a treadmill for 30 minutes and completed a physical performance battery during each of two sessions, which were separated by > or = 5 days. Subjects with BA+ as compared with BA- had significantly greater increases in: oxygen uptake (VO2) at slow (16.8 +/- 1.5 vs. 18.8 +/- 1.7 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and moderate paces (34.8 +/- 3.9 vs. 40.8 +/- 5.0 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)); blood lactate at a moderate pace (4.0 +/- 2.4 vs. 6.7 +/- 2.6 mmol/L); heart rate at slow (107 +/- 14 vs. 118 +/- 16 beats per minute) and moderate paces (164 +/- 16 vs. 180 +/- 13 beats per minute); and ratings of perceived physical exertion at slow (8.4 +/- 1.5 vs. 10.4 +/- 1.8) and moderate paces (14.3 +/- 2.3 vs. 16.7 +/- 2.1). Physical tasks were significantly affected by BA: under BA+, men performed 61% fewer pull-ups and women's hang time was reduced by 63%; stair stepping was reduced by 16% for both men and women. BA significantly impacted the physical work capacity of militarily relevant tasks. Specifically, wearing BA significantly increased VO2 when walking at both slow and moderate paces. The potential for physical exhaustion is high and performance of physical tasks is markedly impaired when wearing BA.

  12. Stress and body condition in a population of largemouth bass: implications for red-sore disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC); Hazen, T.C.

    1980-09-01

    The body conditions, K = 10/sup 5/(weight, g)/(standard length)/sup 3/, and various hematological characters were examined for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) taken from Par Pond, a reservoir heated by effluent from a nuclear production reactor at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Largemouth bass with K less than 2.0 had significantly lower (P < 0.05) hematocrits, hemoglobin concentrations, total red blood cell counts, total white blood cell counts, and lymphocyte fractions, and significantly higher granulocyte fractions and cortisol concentrations, than those with K greater than 2.0; monocyte, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte fractions were not different between the two K-factor groupings. When data were pooled, all blood variables except the reticulocyte fraction were significantly correlated with K. Hematocrit, the lymphocyte fraction, and cortisol concentration account for 20.5% of the variation in K. These data support a previous hypothesis that elevated water temperature promotes stress. Stress within the Par Pond largemouth bass population may play an important role in the epizootiology of red-sore disease caused by the gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila.

  13. Relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2015-07-15

    We determined the relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive disorders and performance in dairy cows. Blood samples from 213 dairy cows were collected at 4 and 2 weeks prepartum, just after calving, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum to measure serum β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glucose, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and progesterone concentrations. Cows were grouped on the basis of the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration at 1 and/or 2 weeks postpartum into two groups: the ketotic group (≥1200 μmol/L, n = 59) and the nonketotic group (50% pus), and subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by evaluation of uterine cytology (>18% neutrophils) at 4 weeks postpartum. Ovarian cysts were diagnosed by ultrasonography, and resumption of postpartum cyclicity was evaluated by progesterone concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum. In the ketotic group, NEFA levels were higher (P ≤ 0.0005), whereas glucose (P ketosis, increased reproductive disorders, and decreased reproductive performance in dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of microplastic exposure on the body condition and behaviour of planktivorous reef fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchell, Kay; Hoogenboom, Mia O

    2018-01-01

    The effect of a pollutant on the base of the food web can have knock-on effects for trophic structure and ecosystem functioning. In this study we assess the effect of microplastic exposure on juveniles of a planktivorous fish (Acanthochromis polyacanthus), a species that is widespread and abundant on Indo-Pacific coral reefs. Under five different plastic concentration treatments, with plastics the same size as the natural food particles (mean 2mm diameter), there was no significant effect of plastic exposure on fish growth, body condition or behaviour. The amount of plastics found in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract was low, with a range of one to eight particles remaining in the gut of individual fish at the end of a 6-week plastic-exposure period, suggesting that these fish are able to detect and avoid ingesting microplastics in this size range. However, in a second experiment the number of plastics in the GI tract vastly increased when plastic particle size was reduced to approximately one quarter the size of the food particles, with a maximum of 2102 small (microplastic presence is likely have a greater influence on fish populations than microplastic presence alone.

  15. Self perception score from zero to ten correlates well with standardized scales of adolescent self esteem, body dissatisfaction, eating disorders risk, depression, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dea, Jennifer A

    2009-01-01

    The ability to quickly and reliably assess mental health status would assist health workers, educators and youth workers to provide appropriate early intervention for adolescents. To investigate the validity of a simple self perception score out of ten by correlating the self perception scores of adolescents from a normal, community sample of adolescents with their scores on standardized mental health measures. Study group was 470 early adolescent students aged 11.0-14.5 years from grades 7 and 8 in two secondary schools. Self perception was self reported using a score of zero to ten points, and the scores were then correlated with scores on the Harter Self Perception Profile, Beck Junior Depression, Speilberger State and Trait Anxiety and the Eating Disorders Inventory. A High Risk group (self perception adolescents also had poor self esteem and risk for depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. Self perception scores correlated positively with self esteem and self concept subscales and it was negatively associated with depression, state and trait anxiety, and EDI scores. Of the 15.1% high risk adolescents in the overall sample, 78% scored below the group average on the mean of all Harter Self Concept scores; 70% scored above average for Beck Depression; 64% and 74% scored above average on Speilberger State/Trait Anxiety respectively; 80% scored higher than the average on the group mean EDI. A self perception score from zero to ten can be a simple and accurate way of gaining an initial insight into the current mental health status of adolescents.

  16. Wet Belly in Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus in Relation to Body Condition, Body Temperature and Blood Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsson K

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Wet belly, when the reindeer becomes wet over the lower parts of the thorax and abdomen, sometimes occurs in reindeer during feeding. In a feeding experiment, 11 out of 69 reindeer were affected by wet belly. The problem was first observed in 7 animals during a period of restricted feed intake. When the animals were then fed standard rations, 3 additional animals fed only silage, and 1 fed pellets and silage, became wet. Four animals died and 1 had to be euthanised. To investigate why reindeer developed wet belly, we compared data from healthy reindeer and reindeer affected by wet belly. Urea, plasma protein, glucose, insulin and cortisol were affected by restricted feed intake or by diet but did not generally differ between healthy reindeer and those with wet belly. The wet animals had low body temperature and the deaths occurred during a period of especially cold weather. Animals that died were emaciated and showed different signs of infections and stress. In a second experiment, with 20 reindeer, the feeding procedure of the most affected group in the first experiment was repeated, but none of the reindeer showed any signs of wet belly. The study shows that wet belly is not induced by any specific diet and may affect also lichen-fed reindeer. The fluid making the fur wet was proven to be of internal origin. Mortality was caused by emaciation, probably secondary to reduced energy intake caused by diseases and/or unsuitable feed.

  17. A novel human body exergy consumption formula to determine indoor thermal conditions for optimal human performance in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    obtained in simulated office environments in winter. The results show that human body exergy consumption and human performance are inversely as operative temperature changes from 17 to 28°C or human thermal sensation changes from −1.0 to +1.4, and that optimum thermal comfort cannot be expected to lead......In this paper, a novel human body exergy consumption formula was derived strictly according to Gagge's two-node thermal transfer model. The human body exergy consumption calculated by the formula was compared with values calculated using Shukuya's formula for a typical office environment....... The results show that human body exergy consumption calculated by either of these formulas reaches a minimum under the same thermal condition. It is shown that this is in accordance with expectation. The relation between human performance and human body exergy consumption was studied by analyzing the data...

  18. Evaluation of body condition in pregnant rabbit does by ultrasound scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mugnai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of animal body composition is necessary in nutritional study, and during the last two decades many efforts have been made to find non-destructive methods to predict in vivo body composition in different species (Fortune-Lamothe et al., 2002. A good technique for measuring body composition should be accurate, easily utilisable, inexpensive, applicable to a wide range of ages and to live animal with minimal perturbation of behaviour...

  19. Effect of hibernation and reproductive status on body mass and condition of coastal brown bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderbrand, G.V.; Schwartz, C. C.; Robbins, C.T.; Hanley, Thomas A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effect of hibernation and reproductive status on changes in body mass and composition of adult female brown bears (Ursus arctos) on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. This information is fundamental to understanding nutritional ecology of wild brown bear populations. Six adult females handled in the fall and following spring (paired samples) lost 73 ± 22 kg (x̄ ± SD; 32 ± 10%) of fall body mass over 208 ± 19 days. Of this mass loss, 56 ± 22% (55 ± 22 kg) was lipid and 44 ± 22% (43 ± 21 kg) was lean body mass. Catabolism of lipid stores accounted for 88.4 ± 8.1% of the body energy used to meet maintenance demands. Overwinter differences in body composition of adult females assessed only once in either the fall (n = 21) or spring (n = 32) were similar to those of paired samples. Relative fatness of bears entering the den was positively related to the contribution of fat (%) to body mass (P hibernation. Thus, relative fatness at the onset of fasting influences the relative proportion of lipid stores and lean body mass catabolized to meet protein and energy demands during hibernation. In the spring, lone females had greater body and lean masses than females with cubs of the year or yearlings. Lipid content was greatest in lone females in the fall. Studies using body mass and composition as indices of population health should consider season or reproductive class.

  20. Body condition of gilts at the end of gestation affects their mammary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Duarte, C R A; Vignola, M; Palin, M-F

    2016-05-01

    The impact of body condition at 110 d of gestation on mammary gland development, mammary gene expression, and hormonal and metabolite status of gilts was studied. Thirty-nine gilts were equally divided into 3 groups based on their backfat thickness at the end of gestation: 1) low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm), 2) medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm), or 3) high backfat (HBF; 21-26 mm). Gilts had similar BW (138.1 ± 8.2 kg) and backfat thicknesses (16.4 ± 1.0 mm) at mating and the 3 groups were achieved via ingestion of varying amounts of feed throughout gestation. Jugular blood samples were obtained from all gilts at mating and at 109 d of gestation to assess hormonal and metabolic statuses, and animals were slaughtered on d 110 to collect mammary glands for compositional analyses and for measure of gene expression. The LBF gilts had less extraparenchymal tissue ( gilts. Mammary parenchyma from LBF gilts also tended to contain less DM ( gilts. None of the 15 genes studied in mammary parenchymal tissue differed in terms of expression level, and the rate of mammary cell proliferation was similar among treatments ( > 0.10). There was a tendency for circulating leptin concentrations on d 109 of gestation to be lower in LBF gilts than in MBF gilts ( gilts did not differ from those of the other treatments ( > 0.10). Current results demonstrate that being too thin at the end of gestation (12-15 mm backfat) has a negative impact on mammary development in gilts, whereas having backfats varying from 17 to 26 mm seems to have no detrimental effects on mammogenesis. Backfat thickness in late pregnancy must therefore be considered to achieve optimal sow lactation performance.

  1. Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n = 206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, USA: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium concentrations were variable and influenced by several factors, including species, region, reproductive stage, age, and sex. Adult Se concentrations (μg/g dry wt) in livers ranged from 3.07 to 48.70 in avocets (geometric mean ± standard error, 7.92 ± 0.64), 2.28 to 41.10 in stilts (5.29 ± 0.38), 3.73 to 14.50 in Forster's terns (7.13 ± 0.38), and 4.77 to 14.40 in Caspian terns (6.73 ± 0.78). Avocets had higher Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay, whereas stilt Se concentrations were similar between these regions and Forster's terns had lower Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay. Female avocets had higher Se concentrations than male avocets, but this was not the case for stilts and Forster's terns. Of the factors assessed, reproductive stage had the most consistent effect among species. Prebreeding birds tended to have higher liver Se concentrations than breeding birds, but this trend was statistically significant only for Forster's terns. Forster's tern chicks had lower Se concentrations than Forster's tern adults, whereas avocet and stilt adults and chicks were similar. Additionally, body condition was negatively related to liver Se concentrations in Forster's tern adults but not in avocet, stilt, or Caspian tern adults and chicks. These variable results illustrate the complexity of Se bioaccumulation and highlight the need to sample multiple species and examine several factors to assess the impact of Se on wildlife.

  2. Condição corporal e desempenho produtivo de cabras Alpinas no início de lactação Body condition and productive performance of Alpine goat in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires Barbosa

    2009-11-01

    the body condition score (BCS - low (1.00 - 2.75; intermediate (2.75 - 3.50 and high (3.50 - 5.00 and evaluated from kidding to the eighth week of lactation. The feed intake and milk production were recorded on a daily basis and the body weight, body condition score and milk composition at weekly intervals. Animals with a high body condition score presented lower dry matter intake, neutral detergent fiber and crude protein compared to those with low and intermediate body condition scores. The average time for dry matter intake recovery of the animals with the three body condition scores was 16 days (2.3 weeks postpartum, and stabilization by the end of the experiment. In the sixth week of lactation, animals with low body condition score had the same body weight of animals with intermediate body condition score. There was no effect of the body condition at birth on the body condition score changes and milk production during the experiment. The milk fat content of animals with high body condition score was lower in the first two weeks postpartum compared to animals with low and intermediate body condition score. The high body condition at birth influences negatively the ad libtum intake of dairy goats in the early lactation, but when it is used feed of high quality with high energy levels, the influence of the body condition at birth is nil to variations in weight, BCS and milk production.

  3. Dietary plasticity in a nutrient-rich system does not influence brown bear (Ursus arctos) body condition or denning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipane, Lindsey S.; Belant, Jerrold L.; Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Gustine, David D.; Hiller, Tim L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Mangipane, Buck A.; Hilderbrand, Grant

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral differences within a population can allow use of a greater range of resources among individuals. The brown bear (Ursus arctos) is a generalist omnivore that occupies diverse habitats and displays considerable plasticity in food use. We evaluated whether brown bear foraging that resulted in deviations from a proposed optimal diet influenced body condition and, in turn, denning duration in Lake Clark National Park and Preserve, Alaska. To assess assimilated diet, we used sectioned guard hair samples (n = 23) collected in autumn to determine stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. To index proportional contributions of meat and vegetation to assimilated diets, we compared the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) values of hair samples with the values identified for major food categories. We then compared percentage body fat and body mass in relation to the proportion of assimilated meat in the diet using linear models. We also examined the influence of autumn percentage body fat and mass on denning duration. Percentage body fat was not influenced by the proportion of assimilated meat in the diet. Additionally, percentage body fat and body mass did not influence denning duration. However, body mass of bears assimilating proportionately more meat was greater than bears assimilating less meat. Our results provide support for previous findings that larger bears consume higher amounts of protein to maintain their body size and therefore forage further from the proposed optimal diet. Additionally, our results demonstrate that individuals can achieve similar biological outcomes (e.g., percentage body fat) despite variable foraging strategies, suggesting that individuals within generalist populations may confer an adaptive advantage through behavioral plasticity.

  4. A genetic risk score combining 32 SNPs is associated with body mass index and improves obesity prediction in people with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chi-Fa; Breen, Gerome; Czamara, Darina; Corre, Tanguy; Wolf, Christiane; Kloiber, Stefan; Bergmann, Sven; Craddock, Nick; Gill, Michael; Holsboer, Florian; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Korszun, Ania; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lucae, Susanne; Maier, Wolfgang; Mors, Ole; Owen, Michael J; Rice, John; Rietschel, Marcella; Uher, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Craig, Ian W; Farmer, Anne E; Lewis, Cathryn M; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Preisig, Martin; McGuffin, Peter; Rivera, Margarita

    2015-04-17

    Obesity is strongly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and various other diseases. Genome-wide association studies have identified multiple risk loci robustly associated with body mass index (BMI). In this study, we aimed to investigate whether a genetic risk score (GRS) combining multiple BMI risk loci might have utility in prediction of obesity in patients with MDD. Linear and logistic regression models were conducted to predict BMI and obesity, respectively, in three independent large case-control studies of major depression (Radiant, GSK-Munich, PsyCoLaus). The analyses were first performed in the whole sample and then separately in depressed cases and controls. An unweighted GRS was calculated by summation of the number of risk alleles. A weighted GRS was calculated as the sum of risk alleles at each locus multiplied by their effect sizes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to compare the discriminatory ability of predictors of obesity. In the discovery phase, a total of 2,521 participants (1,895 depressed patients and 626 controls) were included from the Radiant study. Both unweighted and weighted GRS were highly associated with BMI (P depression status and GRS, there was further improvement in AUC in the ROC analysis when depression status was added to the model (AUC = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.68-0.73; χ(2) = 28.64; P depressed patients than in healthy controls. Again, GRS discriminated obesity better in depressed patients compared to healthy controls. We later replicated these analyses in two independent samples (GSK-Munich and PsyCoLaus) and found similar results. A GRS proved to be a highly significant predictor of obesity in people with MDD but accounted for only modest amount of variance. Nevertheless, as more risk loci are identified, combining a GRS approach with information on non-genetic risk factors could become a useful strategy in identifying MDD patients at higher risk of developing obesity.

  5. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Henry S.; El ghormli, Laure; Jago, Russell; Foster, Gary D.; McMurray, Robert G.; Buse, John B.; Stadler, Diane D.; Treviño, Roberto P.; Baranowski, Tom; HEALTHY Study Group

    2014-01-01

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R 2) and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R 2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R 2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20) than for WHtR (0.17–0.28). Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic) or girls (systolic and diastolic). In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart. PMID:25132986

  6. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  7. Effects of experimentally increased egg production on female body condition and laying dates in the great skua Stercorarius skua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmbach, E; Griffiths, R; Crane, JE; Furness, RW

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of increased egg production on body condition as well as on measures of reproductive performance in great skuas, Stercorarius skua, over two subsequent years. We experimentally increased egg production from the normal two to six eggs. Six eggs might also be produced under

  8. Effects of short-term fasting on stress physiology, body condition, and locomotor activity in wintering male white-crowned sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jesse S; Pérez, Jonathan H; Meddle, Simone L; Wingfield, John C

    2017-08-01

    For wild free-living animals the availability of food resources can be greatly affected by environmental perturbations such as weather events. In response to environmental perturbations, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to adjust physiology and behavior. The literature asserts that during weather events food intake declines leading to changes in HPA axis activity, as measured by both baseline and stress-induced glucocorticoid concentrations. Here we investigated how body condition, locomotor activity, and stress physiology were affected by varying lengths of a fast (1, 2, 6, and 24h; similar to that experienced by free-living birds) compared to when food was provided ad libitum in captive wintering male white-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii, exposed to a short day photoperiod. Baseline corticosterone concentrations were increased for all fasting durations but were highest in 6 and 24h fasted birds. Stress-induced corticosterone was elevated in 1h fasted birds with a trend for the 2h of fast; no other differences were found. Baseline corticosterone concentrations were negatively related to both total fat scores and body mass. All birds lost body mass regardless of fast length but birds fasted for 24h lost the most. Fat scores declined in the 6 and 24h groups, and no measureable changes were detected in pectoralis muscle profile. Locomotor activity was increased over the entire period in which food was removed regardless of fasting duration. Together this suggests that reduced food availability is responsible, at least in part, for the rapid elevation both baseline corticosterone under any duration of fast and stress-induced concentrations during short-term fasts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... score (BCS) and heart girth (HG) were obtained at approximately 2 and 5 wk pp and at time of first insemination. The effects of supplemental feeding with GLY or PG on the plasma concentrations of glucose, NEFA, BHBA, insulin, and IGF-1, and BCS, HG, and occurrence of disease were analyzed....... No differences in BCS or HG or in plasma concentrations of glucose, BHBA, NEFA, or IGF-1 were found between the control group and any of the treatment groups. Cows in the GLY group had lower plasma insulin concentrations during DIM 0 to 63 compared with group CON, but no difference in insulin was found between...

  10. Analysis of preoperative condition and interstage mortality in Norwood and hybrid procedures for hypoplastic left heart syndrome using the Aristotle scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David F A; Cutler, Lindsay; Tibby, Shane M; Vimalesvaran, Sunitha; Qureshi, Shakeel Ahmed; Rosenthal, Eric; Anderson, David; Austin, Conal; Bellsham-Revell, Hannah; Krasemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The 'hybrid procedure', consisting of surgical banding of the pulmonary arteries with intraoperative stenting of the arterial duct, was developed as primary palliation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS), avoiding the risks of cardiopulmonary bypass. In many centres, it is reserved for low birth weight, premature or unstable neonates; however, its role in such high risk cases of HLHS has yet to be defined. The preoperative condition of all patients with HLHS who underwent either the hybrid or the Norwood procedure for HLHS between 2005-2011 was analysed retrospectively, using a modified comprehensive Aristotle score. We then compared operative, interstage and 1 year mortalities between the groups after Aristotle adjustment via Cox proportional hazards analyses. Of 138 patients with HLHS, 27 had hybrid and 111 Norwood procedures. The hybrid group had significantly higher Aristotle scores (mean 4.1 vs 1.8; pAristotle adjusted hazard ratio for mortality among hybrid patients of 1.09 (95% CI 0.56 to 2.11, p=0.80). Applying a hybrid approach to high risk patients with HLHS produces a comparable early and interstage mortality risk to lower risk patients undergoing the Norwood procedure. Prospective studies are needed to establish whether the hybrid procedure is a viable alternative to the Norwood procedure in all HLHS patients in terms of both mortality and long term morbidity.

  11. Assessing the Cost of Helping: The Roles of Body Condition and Oxidative Balance in the Seychelles Warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Crommenacker, Janske; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2011-01-01

    In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis). In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers) had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites) than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY) in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals' oxidative balance may

  12. Northern pintail body condition during wet and dry winters in the Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Body weights and carcass composition of male and female adult northern pintails (Anas acuta) were investigated in the Sacramento Valley, California, from August to March 1979-82. Pintails were lightweight, lean, and had reduced breast, leg, and heart muscles during August-September. Ducks steadily gained weight after arrival; and body, carcass (body wt minus feathers and gastrointestinal content), fat protein, and muscle weights peaked in October-November. Fat-free dry weight remained high but variable the rest of the winter, whereas body and carcass weight and fat content declined to lows in December or January, then increased again in February or March. Gizzard weights declined from early fall to March. Males were always heavier than females, but females were fatter (percentage) than males during mid-winter. Mid-winter body weight, carcass fat, and protein content were significantly (P weight and composition during winter are probably adaptations to mild climate, predictable food supplies, and requirements for pair formation and molt.

  13. Investigation of body's impedance under different conditions for electro-acupuncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.M.; Abrarov, S.; Khan, R.R.; Maqsood, R.S.; Qaiser, M.A.; Karimov, Kh. S.

    2001-01-01

    A computer controlled automated setup has been designed to investigate the body acupuncture points (bio-active points) by using a probes matrix which exerts a uniform pressure on the body. 16 probes matrix was placed in a 15 : 15 mm/sup 2/ dielectric substrate with 5 mm inter probe distance, compatible with the average diameter of the points. These probes have been designed to facilitate a semiconductor injection laser for probing of the points along with optical and/or electric signal. The bioactive points were identified by evaluating the impedance between each probe and a hand held electrode through a micro-controlled scan. This also allowed the selection of an appropriate signal - DC, AC or tidal waveform, for the electric treatment of bioactive points. It has been found that body impedance decreases with the increase of measuring voltage. Moreover, for current-voltage characteristics a nonlinearity coefficient in the range 2-3 was also observed. The study revealed that at low applied voltages 0.l V, the impedance depends on the polarity of the applied signal. Furthermore, body impedance decreases nonlinearly by increasing the probe's pressure on the skin, which may be attributed to piezo resistive effect. By using the AC and Dc measurements an appropriate body equivalent circuit is proposed in this investigation. (author)

  14. Effect of adverse environmental conditions and protective clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Wood, Andrew W

    2017-07-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, simulating a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worker wearing protective clothing subject to RF-EMF exposure, and subject to various environmental conditions including high ambient temperature and high humidity, with full thermoregulatory mechanisms in place. How the human body responds in various scenarios was investigated, and the information was used to consider safety limits in current international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards. It was found that different environmental conditions had minimal impact on the magnitude of the thermal response due to RF-EMF exposure, and that the current safety factor of 10 applied in international RF-EMF safety guidelines and standards for RF-EMF workers is generally conservative, though it is only narrowly so when workers are subjected to the most adverse environmental conditions. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:356-363, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Body temperature rhythm and control of the time of the best physical condition by performing physical labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imafuku, Michio

    2016-01-01

    The initial examination of a male subject's body temperature revealed that it was highest during the evening. Based on this observation, I measured grasping power, calculation speed, performance time on a light sensory task and body temperature, all of which were highest or best during the evening. The time of this subject's best physical condition shifted from the evening to morning hours when the subject executed hard physical labor in the morning, and the shifted phase was maintained after the termination of the labor period.

  16. The athlete's body and the global condition: Tongan rugby players in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of rugby professionals from Tonga to Japan and points beyond poses new questions about the role of the body as a mediator between the subjective and the objective, which anthropologists and other social scientists have generally examined within the confines of specific societies.

  17. Genetic Risk Score Mendelian Randomization Shows that Obesity Measured as Body Mass Index, but not Waist:Hip Ratio, Is Causal for Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jodie N; O'Mara, Tracy A; Marquart, Louise; Webb, Penelope M; Attia, John; Medland, Sarah E; Cheng, Timothy; Dennis, Joe; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Scott, Rodney J; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Rübner, Matthias; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Amant, Frederic; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Cunningham, Julie M; Dowdy, Sean C; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Njølstad, Tormund S; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Werner, Henrica M J; Ashton, Katie A; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Anthony; Mints, Miriam; Tham, Emma; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Hopper, John L; Peto, Julian; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Giles, Graham G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D P; Tomlinson, Ian; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Thompson, Deborah J; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2016-11-01

    The strongest known risk factor for endometrial cancer is obesity. To determine whether SNPs associated with increased body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with endometrial cancer risk, independent of measured BMI, we investigated relationships between 77 BMI and 47 WHR SNPs and endometrial cancer in 6,609 cases and 37,926 country-matched controls. Logistic regression analysis and fixed effects meta-analysis were used to test for associations between endometrial cancer risk and (i) individual BMI or WHR SNPs, (ii) a combined weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) for BMI or WHR. Causality of BMI for endometrial cancer was assessed using Mendelian randomization, with BMIwGRS as instrumental variable. The BMIwGRS was significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 3.4 × 10 -17 ). Scaling the effect of the BMIwGRS on endometrial cancer risk by its effect on BMI, the endometrial cancer OR per 5 kg/m 2 of genetically predicted BMI was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.89-2.21], larger than the observed effect of BMI on endometrial cancer risk (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.44-1.68, per 5 kg/m 2 ). The association attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for BMI (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.39; P = 5.3 × 10 -4 ). There was evidence of directional pleiotropy (P = 1.5 × 10 -4 ). BMI SNP rs2075650 was associated with endometrial cancer at study-wide significance (P < 4.0 × 10 -4 ), independent of BMI. Endometrial cancer was not significantly associated with individual WHR SNPs or the WHRwGRS. BMI, but not WHR, is causally associated with endometrial cancer risk, with evidence that some BMI-associated SNPs alter endometrial cancer risk via mechanisms other than measurable BMI. The causal association between BMI SNPs and endometrial cancer has possible implications for endometrial cancer risk modeling. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1503-10. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Genetic risk score Mendelian randomization shows obesity measured as body mass index, but not waist:hip ratio, is causal for endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jodie N; O’Mara, Tracy A; Marquart, Louise; Webb, Penelope M; Attia, John; Medland, Sarah E; Cheng, Timothy; Dennis, Joe; Holliday, Elizabeth G; McEvoy, Mark; Scott, Rodney J; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Hodgson, Shirley V; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Fasching, Peter A; Hein, Alexander; Rübner, Matthias; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Dörk, Thilo; Dürst, Matthias; Hillemanns, Peter; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Amant, Frederic; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Lambrechts, Diether; Neven, Patrick; Cunningham, Julie M; Dowdy, Sean C; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Winham, Stacey J; Njølstad, Tormund S; Salvesen, Helga B; Trovik, Jone; Werner, Henrica MJ; Ashton, Katie A; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Anthony; Mints, Miriam; Tham, Emma; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Hopper, John L; Peto, Julian; Swerdlow, Anthony J; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Meindl, Alfons; Brauch, Hiltrud; Lindblom, Annika; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Couch, Fergus J; Giles, Graham G; Kristensen, Vessela N; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D P; Tomlinson, Ian; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Thompson, Deborah J; Spurdle, Amanda B

    2016-01-01

    Background The strongest known risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC) is obesity. To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with increased body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with EC risk, independent of measured BMI, we investigated relationships between 77 BMI and 47 WHR SNPs and EC in 6,609 cases and 37,926 country-matched controls. Methods Logistic regression analysis and fixed-effects meta-analysis were used to test for associations between EC risk and (i) individual BMI or WHR SNPs, (ii) a combined weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) for BMI or WHR. Causality of BMI for EC was assessed using Mendelian randomization, with BMIwGRS as instrumental variable. Results The BMIwGRS was significantly associated with EC risk (P=3.4×10−17). Scaling the effect of the BMIwGRS on EC risk by its effect on BMI, the EC odds ratio (OR) per 5kg/m2 of genetically predicted BMI was 2.06 (95% confidence interval(CI)=1.89–2.21), larger than the observed effect of BMI on EC risk (OR=1.55, 95%CI 1.44–1.68, per 5kg/m2). The association attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for BMI (OR=1.22, 95%CI=1.10–1.39,P=5.3×10−4). There was evidence of directional pleiotropy (P=1.5×10−4). BMI SNP rs2075650 was associated with EC at study-wide significance (P<4.0×10−4), independent of BMI. EC was not significantly associated with individual WHR SNPs or the WHRwGRS. Conclusions BMI, but not WHR, is causally associated with EC risk, with evidence that some BMI-associated SNPs alter EC risk via mechanisms other than measurable BMI. Impact The causal association between BMI SNPs and EC has possible implications for EC risk modeling. PMID:27550749

  19. Sample size evaluation for a multiply matched case-control study using the score test from a conditional logistic (discrete Cox PH) regression model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, John M

    2008-06-30

    The conditional logistic regression model (Biometrics 1982; 38:661-672) provides a convenient method for the assessment of qualitative or quantitative covariate effects on risk in a study with matched sets, each containing a possibly different number of cases and controls. The conditional logistic likelihood is identical to the stratified Cox proportional hazards model likelihood, with an adjustment for ties (J. R. Stat. Soc. B 1972; 34:187-220). This likelihood also applies to a nested case-control study with multiply matched cases and controls, selected from those at risk at selected event times. Herein the distribution of the score test for the effect of a covariate in the model is used to derive simple equations to describe the power of the test to detect a coefficient theta (log odds ratio or log hazard ratio) or the number of cases (or matched sets) and controls required to provide a desired level of power. Additional expressions are derived for a quantitative covariate as a function of the difference in the assumed mean covariate values among cases and controls and for a qualitative covariate in terms of the difference in the probabilities of exposure for cases and controls. Examples are presented for a nested case-control study and a multiply matched case-control study.

  20. Toxicity of DDT to Japanese quail as influenced by body weight, breeding condition, and sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gish, C.D.; Chura, N.J.

    1970-01-01

    Controlled experiments were utilized to simulate the stresses on wild birds of breeding condition and of weight loss due to migration. Light conditions in the laboratory were manipulated to produce Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in breeding condition and not in breeding condition. Within each of these groups, some birds were partially starved before dosage and some were fully fed. Birds were then fed dietary levels of 0, 700, 922, 1214, or 1600 ppm dry weight of p,p?-DDT for a period of 20 days or until death. Birds partially starved before dosage were more susceptible to DDT intoxication than nonstarved ones, and birds not in breeding condition were slightly more so than birds in breeding condition. Similarly, males died earlier than females, and the birds of the lighter weight strain used in the second half of the study died earlier than the birds of the heavier strain used in the first half. The heavier birds of each sex not only survived longer than lighter individuals receiving the same treatments, but they also lost a greater proportion of their weight before death. During the early portion of the dosage period, females in breeding condition were less sensitive to DDT than were females not in breeding condition and males. After 10 days on dosage, however, the cumulative mortality of females in breeding condition rapidly approached that of males and of females not in breeding condition. Food restriction prior to dosage, strains of quail, breeding conditions, and sexes resulted in weight differences and a corresponding accentuation or delay of the effects of the different levels of DDT.

  1. Propensity Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…

  2. The effects of tail autotomy on survivorship and body growth of Uta stansburiana under conditions of high mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, David M; Thompson, John N

    1994-12-01

    We examined the effects of tail autotomy on survivorship and body growth of both adult and juvenile Uta stansburiana by directly manipulating tail condition. Tail loss decreased neither survivorship nor rate of body growth for individuals in two natural populations. Lack of an influence of tail loss on survivorship in these two populations may be the result of high mortality. Under high mortality any differential effects of tail loss will be lower than in populations facing lower mortality. Growth experiments in the laboratory demonstrated that, under conditions of minimal environmental variation and social interactions, there is no tradeoff between body growth and tail regeneration as has been suggested for other species of lizards. One possible reason for this difference is that U. stansburiana does not use the tail as a storage organ for lipids. The original and regenerated tails are composed mainly of protein. In general, any differential body growth between tailed and tailless individuals may be due to social interactions and not a diversion of limited energy into tail regeneration.

  3. Purification of inclusion bodies using PEG precipitation under denaturing conditions to produce recombinant therapeutic proteins from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanhuan; Li, Ninghuan; Xie, Yueqing; Jiang, Hua; Yang, Xiaoyi; Cagliero, Cedric; Shi, Siwei; Zhu, Chencen; Luo, Han; Chen, Junsheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Menglin; Feng, Lei; Lu, Huili; Zhu, Jianwei

    2017-07-01

    It has been documented that the purification of inclusion bodies from Escherichia coli by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) may benefit subsequent refolding and recovery of recombinant proteins. However, loading volume and the high cost of the column limits its application in large-scale manufacturing of biopharmaceutical proteins. We report a novel process using polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation under denaturing conditions to replace SEC for rapid purification of inclusion bodies containing recombinant therapeutic proteins. Using recombinant human interleukin 15 (rhIL-15) as an example, inclusion bodies of rhIL-15 were solubilized in 7 M guanidine hydrochloride, and rhIL-15 was precipitated by the addition of PEG 6000. A final concentration of 5% (w/v) PEG 6000 was found to be optimal to precipitate target proteins and enhance recovery and purity. Compared to the previously reported S-200 size exclusion purification method, PEG precipitation was easier to scale up and achieved the same protein yields and quality of the product. PEG precipitation also reduced manufacturing time by about 50 and 95% of material costs. After refolding and further purification, the rhIL-15 product was highly pure and demonstrated a comparable bioactivity with a rhIL-15 reference standard. Our studies demonstrated that PEG precipitation of inclusion bodies under denaturing conditions holds significant potential as a manufacturing process for biopharmaceuticals from E. coli protein expression systems.

  4. An accurate and adaptable photogrammetric approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds using an unmanned aerial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Douglas J; Hinke, Jefferson T; Perryman, Wayne L; Goebel, Michael E; LeRoi, Donald J

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinnipeds. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) are an apex predator in coastal Antarctica whose body condition could be a valuable indicator of ecosystem health. We aerially surveyed leopard seals of known body size and mass to test the precision and accuracy of photogrammetry from a small UAS. Flights were conducted in January and February of 2013 and 2014 and 50 photogrammetric samples were obtained from 15 unrestrained seals. UAS-derived measurements of standard length were accurate to within 2.01 ± 1.06%, and paired comparisons with ground measurements were statistically indistinguishable. An allometric linear mixed effects model predicted leopard seal mass within 19.40 kg (4.4% error for a 440 kg seal). Photogrammetric measurements from a single, vertical image obtained using UAS provide a noninvasive approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds that may be widely applicable.

  5. An accurate and adaptable photogrammetric approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds using an unmanned aerial system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Krause

    Full Text Available Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinnipeds. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx are an apex predator in coastal Antarctica whose body condition could be a valuable indicator of ecosystem health. We aerially surveyed leopard seals of known body size and mass to test the precision and accuracy of photogrammetry from a small UAS. Flights were conducted in January and February of 2013 and 2014 and 50 photogrammetric samples were obtained from 15 unrestrained seals. UAS-derived measurements of standard length were accurate to within 2.01 ± 1.06%, and paired comparisons with ground measurements were statistically indistinguishable. An allometric linear mixed effects model predicted leopard seal mass within 19.40 kg (4.4% error for a 440 kg seal. Photogrammetric measurements from a single, vertical image obtained using UAS provide a noninvasive approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds that may be widely applicable.

  6. Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.

  7. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues.

  8. Immunoproteomics of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with atrophic body gastritis, a predisposing condition for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Bernardini, Giulia; Possenti, Silvia; Renzone, Giovanni; Scaloni, Andrea; Santucci, Annalisa; Annibale, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    Atrophic body gastritis is considered an outcome of H. pylori infection at high risk for gastric cancer. Immunoproteomics has been used to detect H. pylori antigens, which may act as potential markers for neoplastic disease and may be used in specific serological tests. We used immunoproteome technology to identify H. pylori antigens, recognized by sera from patients with atrophic body gastritis. Here, we performed 2DE protein maps of H. pylori strain 10K, probed against single sera from 3 groups of H. pylori-positive patients (atrophic body gastritis; intestinal-type gastric cancer; peptic ulcer) and negative controls. Immunoreactive spots were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. A total of 155 immunoreactive spots were detected corresponding to 14.1% of total spots detected in our reference map of H. pylori strain 10K. Sera from atrophic body gastritis (40.5±2%) and gastric cancer patients (25.9±1.8%) showed a significantly higher and stronger mean immunoreactivity versus H. pylori antigens compared to peptic ulcer patients (11.2±1.3%). The average intensity of immunoreactivity of sera from atrophic body gastritis and gastric cancer patients was significantly stronger compared to peptic ulcer patients. Sera from atrophic body gastritis and gastric cancer patients differentially recognized 17 H. pylori spots. Immunoproteome technology may discriminate between different H. pylori-related disease phenotypes showing a serological immunorecognition pattern common to patients with gastric cancer and atrophic body gastritis, its precursor condition. This tool may be promising for developing specific serological tests to identify patients with gastritis at high risk for gastric cancer, to be evaluated in prospective investigations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasound measurements of perirenal fat thickness to estimate the body condition of reproducing rabbit does in different physiological states.

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Amorós, Juan José; Blanco, J.; Piquer, O.; Quevedo, F.; Cervera, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sixty New-Zealand x Californian multiparous rabbit does were used to evaluate the capability of a computerized ultrasound system to estimate changes in body condition at different physiological states: parturition, 21st day of lactation, weaning and 28th day of gestation. Perirenal fat weight and carcass energy concentration were significantly correlated with live weight (r = 0.58 and 0.49, respectively; P

  10. Phenotypic and genetic correlations for body structure scores (frame) with productive traits and index for CEIP classification in Nellore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimoto, A R V R; Ferraz, J B S; Balieiro, J C C; Eler, J P

    2007-03-29

    The present study was carried out to estimate both (co)variance components and genetic parameters for frame scores obtained using two methods (FRAME_GMA and FRAME_BIF) as well as phenotypic and genetic correlations with traits such as weaning weight, weight gain from weaning to yearling, scrotal circumference, muscle score, and an empiric index for animal classification for the Special Certificate of Identification and Production (CEIP). Data on 12,728 animals, raised in Southeastern Brazil, with ages from 490 to 610 days were analyzed. Estimates of heritability for FRAME_GMA and FRAME_BIF in multi-trait analysis were 0.28 and 0.24, respectively. Genetic correlation coefficients between frame scores and the growth trait were of medium magnitude, which indicates that genetic selection for weight resulted in undesirable responses, increasing the animals' frames. Small changes should be expected in the frame of animals that have been submitted to a genetic selection regarding muscle score and scrotal circumference. The low magnitude of phenotypic and genetic correlation between frame scores and the empirical selection index that classifies animals for CEIP, a Brazilian official certificate that recognizes the value of seedstock that is not registered at breeders associations, but is genetically evaluated, does not indicate important responses in giving a CEIP to animals that have been directly or indirectly selected for frame. Other studies must be performed to determine estimates of the genetic parameters for frame scores in other beef cattle populations.

  11. Dietary behaviors and body image recognition of college students according to the self-rated health condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Joung; Lim, Ye Rom

    2008-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the relationship between the perception of body image, body weight satisfaction or dietary behavior and self-rated health status in Korean college students. Subjects, 285 college students, were divided into three groups (healthy, normal, and unhealthy) according to the answer for the self-rated health question. Information about demographic status, self-rated health condition, height and weight, perception of body image, satisfaction of body weight, concern for body weight control, dietary behavior, nutritional knowledge, and health-related characteristics collected by a self-reported questionnaire. The proportion of men and women in each group was not significantly different. The academic year, major, experience of nutritional education, and type of residence were not significantly related with self-rated health but the pocket money range was significantly associated (p<0.05) with self-rated health. The proportion of subjects rated their health as unhealthy was the lowest in 210-300 thousand won pocket money range and was increased in less than 210 thousand won or over 300 thousand won pocket money ranges. There were no significant differences for age, height, weight and BMI between the groups. The body image perception and body weight satisfaction levels of healthy group was significantly higher than those of unhealthy group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively), but the level of concern for body weight control in healthy subjects was significantly lower than that in unhealthy subjects (p<0.05). The proportion of subjects reported as healthy was significantly increased with increased frequencies of following food behaviors; weekly use of protein foods (p<0.01), vegetables (p<0.05) and dairy products (p<0.01), and food habits such as "regularity of meal time" (p<0.01), "eating in moderation" (p<0.05), and "eating breakfast" (p<0.001). Overall results suggested that the college students have tended to have a better perception of

  12. Can Body Condition and Somatic Indices be Used to Evaluate Metal-Induced Stress in Wild Small Mammals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Tête

    Full Text Available Wildlife is exposed to natural (e.g., food availability and quality, parasitism and anthropogenic stressors (e.g., habitat fragmentation, toxicants. Individual variables (e.g., age, gender affect behaviour and physiology of animals. Together, these parameters can create both great inter-individual variations in health indicators and interpretation difficulties. We investigated the relevance of body condition and somatic indices (liver, kidneys as indicators of health status in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, n = 560 captured along a metal pollution gradient in four landscape types (30 sampling squares 500-m sided. The indices were calculated using a recently proposed standard major axis regression instead of an ordinary least square regression. After considering age and gender for the body condition index, no landscape type influence was detected in the indices. However, important index variability was observed between sampling squares; this effect was included as a random effect in linear models. After integrating all individual and environmental variables that may affect the indices, cadmium (Cd concentrations in both the liver and kidneys were negatively related to body condition and liver indices only for individuals from highly contaminated sites. Lead in the liver was negatively related to the liver index, and Cd in kidneys was positively linked to the kidney index, potentially suggesting metal-induced stress. However, interpretation of these indices as a wildlife ecotoxicology tool should be performed with caution due to the sensitivity of potentially confounding variables (e.g., individual factors and environmental parameters.

  13. Maternal body size and condition determine calf growth rates in southern right whales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Fredrik; Vivier, Fabien; Charlton, Claire

    2018-01-01

    The cost of reproduction is a key parameter determining a species' life history strategy. Despite exhibiting some of the fastest offspring growth rates among mammals, the cost of reproduction in baleen whales is largely unknown since standard field metabolic techniques cannot be applied. We...... quantified the cost of reproduction for southern right whales Eubalaena australis over a 3 mo breeding season. We did this by determining the relationship between calf growth rate and maternal rate of loss in energy reserves, using repeated measurements of body volume obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle...... period, and highlights the importance of sufficient maternal energy reserves for reproduction in this capital breeding species....

  14. Impact of boundary conditions on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    a sitting occupant. CFD predictions were performed to explain the reason for a skewness in the thermal plume above a sitting thermal manikin with realistic body shape, size, and surface temperature distribution, measured in a climate chamber with mean radiant temperature equal to the room air temperature......, no radiant temperature asymmetry, and air velocity lower than 0.05 m/s. The results of the CFD predictions showed that even a small non-uniformity in the temperature field (±0.01ºC) or in the velocity field (±0.005 m/s) of the surrounding environment affects the development of the thermal plume above...

  15. Long-term microplastic retention causes reduced body condition in the langoustine, Nephrops norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welden, Natalie A C; Cowie, Phillip R

    2016-11-01

    Microplastic represents a rising proportion of marine litter and is widely distributed throughout a range of marine habitats. Correspondingly, the number of reports of species containing microplastics increases annually. Nephrops norvegicus in the Firth of Clyde have previously been shown to retain large aggregations of microplastic fibres. The potential for N. norvegicus to retain plastic over an extended time period increases the likelihood of any associated negative impacts to the individual. This study represents the longest observation of the impacts of microplastic retention in invertebrates. We exposed N. norvegicus to plastic over eight months to determine the impacts of extended exposure. Over this period we compared the feeding rate, body mass, and nutritional state of plastic-fed N. norvegicus to that of fed and starved control groups. Following the experimental period, the plastic-fed langoustine contained microplastic aggregations comparable to those of small individuals from the Clyde Sea Area. Comparisons between fed, unfed and plastic-fed individuals indicated a reduction in feeding rate, body mass, and metabolic rate as well as catabolism of stored lipids in plastic contaminated animals. We conclude that N. norvegicus exposed to high levels of environmental microplastic pollution may experience reduced nutrient availability. This can result in reduced population stability and may affect the viability of local fisheries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. N-body simulations of galaxy clustering. I. Initial conditions and galaxy collapse times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarseth, S.J.; Gott, J.R. III; Turner, E.L.

    1979-03-15

    N-body simulations are used to model galaxy clustering in an expanding universe. The starting point of an N-body simulation corresponds to the epoch of protogalaxy formation when the protogalaxies become density enhancements of order unity and begin to behave like point masses. This typically occurs at a redshift of 10--30. As the models expand, the galaxies cluster; the result is remarkably similar to the observed clustering. In addition to having reasonable covariance functions the models show large empty regions containing no bright galaxies similar to those observed by Gregory and Thompson. By comparing the amplitudes of the covariance functions in the models with the observed value, we estimate the redshift of protogalaxy formation and therefore the typical galaxy collapse time T/sub c/. For H/sub 0/=50 km s/sup -1/ Mpc/sup -1/, T/sub c/approx. =2 x 10/sup 9/ yr for ..cap omega..=1, and T/sub c/approx. =3 x 10/sup 9/ yr for ..cap omega..=0.1, each estimate being uncertain by a factor of about 2.

  17. Effects of body condition on buoyancy in endangered North Atlantic right whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousek-McGregor, Anna E; Miller, Carolyn A; Moore, Michael J; Nowacek, Douglas P

    2014-01-01

    Buoyancy is an important consideration for diving marine animals, resulting in specific ecologically relevant adaptations. Marine mammals use blubber as an energy reserve, but because this tissue is also positively buoyant, nutritional demands have the potential to cause considerable variation in buoyancy. North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis are known to be positively buoyant as a result of their blubber, and the thickness of this layer varies considerably, but the effect of this variation on buoyancy has not been explored. This study compared the duration and rate of ascending and descending glides, recorded with an archival tag, with blubber thickness, measured with an ultrasound device, in free-swimming right whales. Ascending whales with thicker blubber had shorter portions of active propulsion and longer passive glides than whales with thinner blubber, suggesting that blubber thickness influences buoyancy because the buoyant force is acting in the same direction as the animal's movement during this phase. Whales with thinner layers also used similar body angles and velocities when traveling to and from depth, while those with thicker layers used shallower ascent angles but achieved higher ascent velocities. Such alterations in body angle may help to reduce the cost of transport when swimming against the force of buoyancy in a state of augmented positive buoyancy, which represents a dynamic response to reduce the energetic consequences of physiological changes. These results have considerable implications for any diving marine animal during periods of nutritional stress, such as during seasonal migrations and annual variations in prey availability.

  18. Responses to capture stress and exogenous corticosterone vary with body condition in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayger, Catherine A; Cease, Arianne J; Lutterschmidt, Deborah I

    2013-09-01

    This study examined whether hormonal and behavioral responses to capture stress and exogenous corticosterone (CORT) vary with body condition in female red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis). Female snakes were collected during the spring mating season and treated with 4 h of capture stress. We measured plasma CORT and estradiol before, during and after capture stress treatment followed by latency to copulate, a measure of female receptivity. Body condition was determined as the residual from a regression of body mass on snout-vent-length. Baseline CORT did not differ between females in positive and negative body condition, but females in negative body condition showed a significantly larger increase in plasma CORT in response to capture stress. Estradiol, which is generally low during the mating season in this population, did not change in response to capture stress. Body condition, but not capture stress, influenced latency to copulate, suggesting that females are resistant to the behavioral effects of capture stress during the spring mating season. In a second experiment, only females in negative body condition increased latency to copulate in response to injection of a physiological (15 μg) dose of exogenous CORT, while all females responded to a pharmacological (60 μg) dose. These results indicate that behavioral responses to exogenous CORT vary with female body condition during the short mating season. Taken together, our data suggest that variation in body condition may be associated with differences in HPA axis sensitivity and/or glucocorticoid receptor density in the brain. © 2013.

  19. Sex Ratio and Body Mass of Adult Herbivorous Beetles Depend on Time of Occurrence and Light Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Łukowski

    Full Text Available Body mass and sex ratio (F/M of folivorous insects are easily measured parameters that are commonly used to assess the effect of food quality, living conditions, and preferences on the selection of favourable sites for offspring. A study was conducted on the polyphagous beetle, Gonioctenaquinquepunctata (a pest of the native Prunus padus and alien P. serotina and on the monophagous beetle, Alticabrevicollis coryletorum (a pest of Corylus avellana. Both species have a similar life cycle with emergence of current-year adults in summer, and reproduction of 1-year-old insects in spring. A. brevicollis coryletorum feeds primarily on sunlit shrubs, while G. quinquepunctata prefers shaded leaves. The present study assessed the effect of time of occurrence(insect age on body mass in both sexes and on the sex ratio F/M, taking into account the influence of light conditions associated with their favoured food source (sunlit vs. shaded leaves. We hypothesized that a change in body mass in current-year insects would be determined by the amount of consumed food, while the sex ratio would be stable, when in 1-year-old insects females would die shortly after oviposition, while males would be active for a prolonged time. Results confirmed the hypothesis that changes in mass of current-year beetles was determined by the amount of food intake. We also found that in spring, unfertilized females coexist with fertilized ones and that the latter females live for some time after oviposition; resulting in fluctuations of the mean mass for females. In both species, 1-year-old beetles were heavier than current-year. The preference of A. brevicollis coryletorum for sunlit leaves results in a higher body weight than in G. quinquepunctata in both seasons. The data are consistent and indicate seasonal fluctuations in body mass and changes in the sex ratio in 1-year-old beetles, due to the entrance into their reproductive period.

  20. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  1. 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Procedures for preparing and maintaining clinical records on all patients. (6) A procedure for explaining to... of procedures for billing and accounting systems. (iii) Assistance in the development of an operating... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION...

  2. Psychological Practice in the Bodies of Internal Affairs: Current Condition and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanina O.A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main directions and reveals the content of psychological work in the bodies of internal affairs which is continuously implemented at each stage of staff performance. Among the leading areas of activity of psychologists are the following: professional psychological selection of candidates for service; psychological diagnosis of employees in the course of support of official activity; the study of the socio-psychological climate in the collectives and the moral and psychological state of the personnel; carrying out special psychophysiological studies using a polygraph; adaptation of young employees; professional psychological training of personnel; psychological prevention and correction of negative psychoemotional states; psychological counseling of personal, family and professional problems of employees. Taking into account the described state of the departmental psychological service, the prospective directions of its development are outlined, and the need to implement a systemic, integrated approach when solving problems related to the psychological maintenance of staff performance is emphasized.

  3. Electrochemical characterization of AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with simulated body fluid under infection conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Danián Alejandro; Durán, Alicia; Ceré, Silvia Marcela

    2008-05-01

    Titanium and cobalt alloys, as well as some stainless steels, are among the most frequently used materials in orthopaedic surgery. In industrialized countries, stainless steel devices are used only for temporary implants due to their lower corrosion resistance in physiologic media when compared to other alloys. However, due to economical reasons, the use of stainless steel alloys for permanent implants is very common in developing countries. The implantation of foreign bodies is sometimes necessary in the modern medical practice. However, the complex interactions between the host and the can implant weaken the local immune system, increasing the risk of infections. Therefore, it is necessary to further study these materials as well as the characteristics of the superficial film formed in physiologic media in infection conditions in order to control their potential toxicity due to the release of metallic ions in the human body. This work presents a study of the superficial composition and the corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel and the influence of its main alloying elements when they are exposed to an acidic solution that simulates the change of pH that occurs when an infection develops. Aerated simulated body fluid (SBF) was employed as working solution at 37 degrees C. The pH was adjusted to 7.25 and 4 in order to reproduce normal body and disease state respectively. Corrosion resistance was measured by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and anodic polarization curves.

  4. Feather content of porphyrins in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings depends on body condition and breeding site quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Ismael; Del Mar Delgado, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; Lourenço, Rui; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2018-02-13

    Porphyrins are pigments produced in most animal cells during the synthesis of heme, but their importance for external coloration is unclear. Owls (Order Strigiformes) are among the few animals that accumulate porphyrins in the integument, where it could serve as a means of signaling. Here we hypothesized that the porphyrin content of feathers may depend on body condition and breeding site quality in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings and thus constitute amplifiers of the quality of the area where they are born. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we found two porphyrins (protoporphyrin IX and coproporphyrin III) in the body feathers of 19 eagle owl fledglings from seven breeding territories. Coproporphyrin III, but not protoporphyrin IX feather concentration, was positively associated with the body mass of fledglings and with the quality of the breeding sites where they were reared with respect to food quality and availability. As coproporphyrin III is produced under oxidative stress, we suggest that good breeding sites may lead to fledglings in good condition. This in turn may make fledglings induce certain level of free radical and coproporphyrin III production to signal to conspecifics their site-mediated capacity to cope with oxidative stress. This is the first time that porphyrin content in the integument has been found to be related to individual quality, opening a new scenario for studying evolution of animal coloration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Bumpus in the snake den: effects of sex, size, and body condition on mortality of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, R; LeMaster, M P; Moore, I T; Olsson, M M; Mason, R T

    2001-03-01

    Huge breeding aggregations of red-sided garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) at overwintering dens in Manitoba provide a unique opportunity to identify sources of mortality and to clarify factors that influence a snake's vulnerability to these factors. Comparisons of sexes, body sizes, and body condition of more than 1000 dead snakes versus live animals sampled at the same time reveal significant biases. Three primary sources of mortality were identified. Predation by crows, Corvus brachyrhynchos (590 snakes killed), was focussed mostly on small snakes of both sexes. Crows generally removed the snake's liver and left the carcass, but very small snakes were sometimes brought back to the nest. Suffocation beneath massive piles of other snakes within the den (301 dead animals) involved mostly small males and (to a lesser extent) large females; snakes in poor body condition were particularly vulnerable. Many emaciated snakes (n = 142, mostly females) also died without overt injuries, probably due to depleted energy reserves. These biases in vulnerability are readily interpretable from information on behavioral ecology of the snakes. For example, sex biases in mortality reflect differences in postemergence behavior and locomotor capacity, the greater attractiveness of larger females to males, and the high energy costs of reproduction for females.

  6. The effect of nutrition and body condition of triplet-bearing ewes during late pregnancy on the behaviour of ewes and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronqvist, Gabriella V; Corner-Thomas, Rene A; Kenyon, Paul R; Stafford, Kevin J; Morris, Stephen T; Hickson, Rebecca Edith

    2018-04-12

    Triplet-born lambs are less likely to survive to weaning than twin-born or single-born lambs. Appropriate ewe-lamb bonding behaviours and lamb vigour behaviours are necessary for survival of lambs. The aim of this experiment was to determine whether maternal nutrition during late pregnancy influenced behaviour of the ewe and her lambs soon after birth, and to determine whether mid-pregnancy body condition score (BCS) influenced any behavioural response. The experiments included ewes that were in BCS 2.0, 2.5 or 3.0 in mid-pregnancy and were fed either ad libitum or to pregnancy-maintenance requirements in late-pregnancy (day 115 until 136 in experiment one, and day 128 until 141 in experiment two). The time taken for lambs to stand, contact dam, suck from dam and follow dam was recorded three to 18 hours after birth. The number of high- and low-pitched bleats emitted by the ewe and lambs was recorded, along with maternal behaviour score (MBS) of the ewe. Lambs in experiment two underwent a maternal-recognition test at 12 or 24 h. There were significant effects of feeding treatment on bleating behaviour of ewes and lambs, but these were inconsistent among BCS groups and between experiments. Lamb vigour behaviours were not affected by feeding treatment. In experiment one, there was no effect of feeding treatment or BCS on MBS, but in experiment two, ewes in BCS3 in mid-pregnancy had greater MBS than ewes in BCS2 in mid-pregnancy (MBS 3.1/5 vs MBS 2.1/5; P<0.05). Given there were no repeatable effects on behaviour of ewes and lambs, ad libitum feeding rather than feeding for pregnancy-maintenance requirements can not be used to improve behaviours soon after birth of triplet-bearing ewes in BCS 2 - 3 and their lambs in extensive pastoral conditions.

  7. Solving three-body-breakup problems with outgoing-flux asymptotic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randazzo, J. M.; Frapiccini, A. L.; Colavecchia, F. D.; Buezas, F.; Gasaneo, G.

    2011-01-01

    An analytically solvable three-body collision system (s wave) model is used to test two different theoretical methods. The first one is a configuration interaction expansion of the scattering wave function using a basis set of Generalized Sturmian Functions (GSF) with purely outgoing flux (CISF), introduced recently in A. L. Frapicinni, J. M. Randazzo, G. Gasaneo, and F. D. Colavecchia [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 43, 101001 (2010)]. The second one is a finite element method (FEM) calculation performed with a commercial code. Both methods are employed to analyze different ways of modeling the asymptotic behavior of the wave function in finite computational domains. The asymptotes can be simulated very accurately by choosing hyperspherical or rectangular contours with the FEM software. In contrast, the CISF method can be defined both in an infinite domain or within a confined region in space. We found that the hyperspherical (rectangular) FEM calculation and the infinite domain (confined) CISF evaluation are equivalent. Finally, we apply these models to the Temkin-Poet approach of hydrogen ionization.

  8. Dental ceramics coated with bioactive glass: Surface changes after exposure in a simulated body fluid under static and dynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, L.; Kontonasaki, E.; Zorba, T.; Chatzistavrou, X.; Pavlidou, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K.; Sklavounos, S.; Koidis, P.

    2003-07-01

    Bioactive materials develop a strong bond with living tissues through a carbonate-containing hydroxyapatite layer, similar to that of bone. The fabrication of a thin bioactive glass coating on dental ceramics used in metal-ceramic restorations, could provide a bioactive surface, which in combination with a tissue regenerative technique could lead to periodontal tissues attachment. The aim of this study was the in vitro investigation of the surface structure changes of dental ceramics used in metal-ceramic restorations, coated with a bioactive glass heat-treated at 950 °C, after exposure in a simulated body fluid (SBF) under two different soaking conditions. Coating of dental ceramics with a bioactive glass resulted in the formation of a stable and well bonded with the ceramic substrate thin layer. The growth of a well-attached carbonate apatite layer on their surface after immersion in a simulated body fluid is well evidenced under both experimental conditions, although in static environment the rate of apatite growth is constant and the grown layers seem to be more dense and compact compared with the respective layers observed on specimens under dynamic conditions.

  9. Existing Condition of Plankton in the Water Body of Muria NPP Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norma-Afiati; Yarianto-S-Budi-Susilo; Mauritz-L- Tobing; Heni-Susiati

    2007-01-01

    NPP development project is predicted have a potential impact to the water ecosystem. The source of impact is the activities at the both construction and operation stage. The scale of impact will be depending on the existing condition compared to the environmental condition changes after the project activity. Plankton is the organisms that have the significant role in terms of food chain and they are sensitive to the environmental change. Phytoplankton is the food producer in the water ecosystem; meanwhile zooplankton is the first level of consumer. The method used in this work was random sampling. Plankton sampling was using plankton net. Identification for micro-organism used microscope, while for larger organism used binocular. Calculation of abundance and species diversity index used Shannon formula. The result showed that in the vicinity of Ujung Lemahabang Site was found about 23 species of phytoplankton; number of marine phytoplankton was more than that of the fresh water ecosystem, trend of zooplankton population follows phytoplankton trend. (author)

  10. Nutrition for aging cats and dogs and the importance of body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Dorothy P

    2005-05-01

    Before recommending a diet for a senior pet, a thorough nutritional evaluation should be completed. Although many middle-aged and older pets are overweight, a large percentage of geriatric cats and dogs have a low BCS. Approximately one third of cats older than 12 years of age may have a decreased ability to digest fat, whereas one in five may have a compromised ability to digest protein. Thus, appropriate diets for these two age groups may differ considerably. Mature (middle-aged) cats would likely benefit from a lower calorie food, whereas geriatric cats (>12 years of age) may need a highly digestible nutrient-dense diet. More than 40% of dogs between the ages of 5 and 10 years are overweight or obese. Such dogs may benefit from diets with lower fat and calories. Senior dogs also have an increased need for dietary protein, however. Therefore, healthy older dogs may benefit from diets with an increased protein-to-calorie ratio, providing a minimum of 25% of calories from protein. Common obesity-related conditions in dogs or cats include DM and OA. Diabetes differs between dogs and cats. Type I diabetes, common in dogs, seems to respond to fiber-enriched diets, whereas type II diabetes, common in cats, seems to benefit from high-protein and low-carbohydrate diets. OA, an inflammatory condition that occurs in approximately 20% of dogs, may benefit from weight management and nutrients that reduce the inflammatory responses, such as long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  11. Effects of a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds and biotin compared with monensin on body condition, energy metabolism and milk performance in transition dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Janis; Deiner, Carolin; Patra, Amlan K.; Immig, Irmgard; Starke, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a combination of plant bioactive lipid compounds (also termed ‘essential oils’) and biotin (PBLC+B) could decrease the mobilization of body reserves and ketosis incidence in postpartum dairy cows. We compared non-supplemented control (CON) cows with cows receiving monensin (MON) as a controlled-release capsule at d -21, and with cows receiving PBLC+B from day (d) -21 before calving until calving (Phase 1) and further until d 37 after calving (Phase 2), followed by PBLC+B discontinuation from d 38 to d 58 (Phase 3). The PBLC+B cows had higher body weight and higher back fat thickness than CON cows and lesser body weight change than MON and CON cows in Phase 3. Body condition score was not different among groups. Milk protein concentration tended to be higher on the first herd test day in PBLC+B vs. CON cows. Milk fat concentration tended to be highest in PBLC+B cows throughout Phases 2 and 3, with significantly higher values in PBLC+B vs. MON cows on the second herd test day. Yields of energy-corrected milk were higher in PBLC+B vs. CON and MON cows in Phase 2 and higher in PBLC+B and MON cows vs. CON cows in Phase 3. The incidence of subclinical ketosis was 83%, 61% and 50% in CON, PBLC+B and MON cows, respectively, with lower mean β-hydroxybutyrate values in MON than in PBLC+B cows in Phase 1 prepartum. The serum triglyceride concentration was higher in PBLC+B vs. CON cows on d 37. No differences were observed in serum glucose, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations. Aspartate transaminase and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase but not glutamate dehydrogenase activities tended to be highest in MON and lowest in PBLC+B in Phase 2. We conclude that PBLC+B prevent body weight loss after parturition and are associated with similar ketosis incidence and partly higher yields of energy-corrected milk compared to MON supplementation of dairy cows. PMID:29584764

  12. Use of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging to Assess Digital Microvascular Function in Primary Raynaud Phenomenon and Systemic Sclerosis: A Comparison Using the Raynaud Condition Score Diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauling, John D; Shipley, Jacqueline A; Hart, Darren J; McGrogan, Anita; McHugh, Neil J

    2015-07-01

    Evaluate objective assessment of digital microvascular function using laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) in a cross-sectional study of patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), comparing LSCI with both infrared thermography (IRT) and subjective assessment using the Raynaud Condition Score (RCS) diary. Patients with SSc (n = 25) and primary RP (n = 18) underwent simultaneous assessment of digital perfusion using LSCI and IRT with a cold challenge on 2 occasions, 2 weeks apart. The RCS diary was completed between assessments. The relationship between objective and subjective assessments of RP was evaluated. Reproducibility of LSCI/IRT was assessed, along with differences between primary RP and SSc, and the effect of sex. There was moderate-to-good correlation between LSCI and IRT (Spearman rho 0.58-0.84, p 0.05 for all analyses). Reproducibility of IRT and LSCI was moderate at baseline (ICC 0.51-0.63) and immediately following cold challenge (ICC 0.56-0.86), but lower during reperfusion (ICC 0.3-0.7). Neither subjective nor objective assessments differentiated between primary RP and SSc. Men reported lower median daily frequency of RP attacks (0.82 vs 1.93, p = 0.03). Perfusion using LSCI/IRT was higher in men for the majority of assessments. Objective and subjective methods provide differing information on microvascular function in RP. There is good convergent validity of LSCI with IRT and acceptable reproducibility of both modalities. Neither subjective nor objective assessments could differentiate between primary RP and SSc. Influence of sex on subjective and objective assessment of RP warrants further evaluation.

  13. Bispectoral index scores of pediatric patients under dental treatment and recovery conditions: Study of children assigned for general anesthesia under propofol and isofloran regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Tahririan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was planned to determine the relationship between bispectoral index (BIS during dental treatment and recovery conditions in children undergoing two regimes of anesthesia of propofol and isoflurane. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial study, 57 4-7-year-old healthy children who had been referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia between 60 and 90 min were selected by convenience sampling and assigned to two groups, after obtaining their parents′ written consent. The anesthesia was induced by inhalation. For the first group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%, nitrous oxide (50%, and isoflurane (1%. For the second group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%, nitrous oxide (50%, and propofol was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 Ng/kg/min. The patients′ vital signs, BIS, and agitation scores were recorded every 10 min. The data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and t-tests at a significance level of α = 0.05 using SPSS version 20. Results: The results of independent t-test for anesthesia time showed no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and propofol (P = 0.87. Controlling age, the BIS difference between the two anesthetic agents was not significant (P > 0.05; however, it was negatively correlated with the duration of anesthesia and the discharge time (P = 0.001, r = -0.308 and (P < 0.001, r = -0.55. Conclusion: The same depth of anesthesia is produced by propofol and isoflurane, but lower recovery complications from anesthesia are observed with isoflurane.

  14. Relationship between Hydrodynamic Conditions and Water Quality in Landscape Water Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mengxin; Tian, Yimei; Zhang, Haiya; Wang, Dehong

    2018-01-01

    The urban landscape water usually lacks necessary water cycle and water speed is closed to zero, which easily lead to eutrophication in water system and deterioration of water quality. Therefore, understanding the impact of water circulation on the water quality is of great significance. With that significance, this research has been done to investigate the relationship between hydrodynamic conditions and water quality of urban landscape water based on adopted water quality indexes such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and nitrogen-ammonia (NH3-N). Moreover, MIKE 21 model is used to simulate the hydrodynamics and water quality under different cases in an urban landscape lake. The results of simulation show that water circulation system could effectively improve current speeds, reduce the proportion of stagnation area, and solve the problem of water quality deterioration caused by reclaimed water in the lake.

  15. The halo bispectrum in N-body simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefusatti, E.; Crocce, M.; Desjacques, V.

    2012-10-01

    We present measurements of the bispectrum of dark matter haloes in numerical simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions of local type. We show, in the first place, that the overall effect of primordial non-Gaussianity on the halo bispectrum is larger than on the halo power spectrum when all measurable configurations are taken into account. We then compare our measurements with a tree-level perturbative prediction, finding good agreement at large scales when the constant Gaussian bias parameter, both linear and quadratic, and their constant non-Gaussian corrections are fitted for. The best-fitting values of the Gaussian bias factors and their non-Gaussian, scale-independent corrections are in qualitative agreement with the peak-background split expectations. In particular, we show that the effect of non-Gaussian initial conditions on squeezed configurations is fairly large (up to 30 per cent for fNL = 100 at redshift z = 0.5) and results from contributions of similar amplitude induced by the initial matter bispectrum, scale-dependent bias corrections as well as from non-linear matter bispectrum corrections. We show, in addition, that effects at second order in fNL are irrelevant for the range of values allowed by cosmic microwave background and galaxy power spectrum measurements, at least on the scales probed by our simulations (k > 0.01 h Mpc-1). Finally, we present a Fisher matrix analysis to assess the possibility of constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with future measurements of the galaxy bispectrum. We find that a survey with a volume of about 10 h-3 Gpc3 at mean redshift z ≃ 1 could provide an error on fNL of the order of a few. This shows the relevance of a joint analysis of galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum in future redshift surveys.

  16. Feasibility Assessment of an ISS Artificial Gravity Conditioning Facility by Means of Multi-Body Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim

    2012-07-01

    limit on the maximum centre of mass eccentricity of the complete rotating system, the displacements allowed by traditional isolation mountings are incompatible with the available volume in the ISS module. Therefore, in order to manage the eccentricity, alternative counteracting measures shall be foreseen, such as an adjustable balance mass, which is carefully positioned for each astronaut at the beginning of the exercise cycle. However, during operation, the centre of mass is instantaneously disturbed by body fluid migration as well as adjustments of torso, arms and head due to the inevitable physiological degrees of freedom granted to the exercising astronaut. The influence of all the above factors on the transmitted loads is summarised in the paper; in conclusion, an automated system capable of keeping the maximum eccentricity below the allowable boundaries is foreseeable.

  17. Score Correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2010), s. 793-798 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : score function * correlation * rank correlation coefficient * heavy tails Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  18. Kamp K’aana, a 2-week residential weight management summer camp, shows long-term improvement in body mass index z scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n=38) or extracted from medical record (n=33). Compared with basel...

  19. Products of the Strecker Synthesis as Indicators of Parent Body Conditions of the Murchison Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Narcinda R.; Cooper, George W.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The Strecker synthesis, R2C=O + HCN + NH3 yields R2C(NH2)CN + H2O yields R2C(NH2)CO2H has been proposed as a source of amino acids in meteorites. The detection of carbonlyl compounds, the precursors of the amino acids in the Strecker synthesis, and a-hydroxy acids, important by-products of the Strecker synthesis, in the Murchison meteorite supports this conjecture. However, the following observations raise questions about the Strecker synthesis as the source of a-amino and a-hydroxy acids in Murchison: a) Imino acetic acids are also important by-products of the Strecker synthesis and have not been reported in Murchison. b) a-aminisobutyric acid (AIBA) is one of the most abundant amino acids in Murchison but the Strecker synthesis conducted at room temperature produced only small amounts of AIBA relative to other amino acids. c) If the a-amino and a-hydroxy acids observed in Murchison arose from a common precursor this ought to be reflected in their relative abundances, but the straight chain a-hydroxy acids appeared to be relatively abundant compared with the analogous a-amino acids. In order to address question a) we have examined a non-hydrolyzed aqueous extract of the Murchison meteorite. Imino di acetic acid, Imino propionic acetic acid and Imino butyric acetic acid (both isomers) have been identified in this fraction. The relative abundances of amino acids and imino acetic acids in this fraction are consistent with a Strecker synthesis at low temperature (263 K) as a origin of both the amino acids and the imino acetic acids found on Murchison. To deal with questions b) and c) we have carried out laboratory simulations of the Strecker synthesis. The starting concentrations for carbonlyl compounds used were based on estimates of what these concentrations might have been on the parent body. for the carbonyl compounds this estimate was determined by the amount of carbonyl compound found on Murchison plus the amounts of the corresponding amino acid and hydroxy acid

  20. Psychosocial and other working conditions in relation to body mass index in a representative sample of Australian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louie Amber M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between psychosocial and other working conditions and body-mass index (BMI in a working population. This study contributes to the approximately dozen investigations of job stress, which have demonstrated mixed positive and negative results in relation to obesity, overweight and BMI. Methods A cross-sectional population-based survey was conducted among working Australians in the state of Victoria. Participants were contacted by telephone from a random sample of phone book listings. Information on body mass index was self-reported as were psychosocial work conditions assessed using the demand/control and effort/reward imbalance models. Other working conditions measured included working hours, shift work, and physical demand. Separate linear regression analyses were undertaken for males and females, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results A total of 1101 interviews (526 men and 575 women were completed. Multivariate models (adjusted for socio-demographics demonstrated no associations between job strain, as measured using the demand/control model, or ERI using the effort/reward imbalance model (after further adjustment for over commitment and BMI among men and women. Multivariate models demonstrated a negative association between low reward and BMI among women. Among men, multivariate models demonstrated positive associations between high effort, high psychological demand, long working hours and BMI and a negative association between high physical demand and BMI. After controlling for the effort/reward imbalance or the demand/control model, the association between physical demand and working longer hours and BMI remained. Conclusion Among men and women the were differing patterns of both exposures to psychosocial working conditions and associations with BMI. Among men, working long hours was positively associated with higher BMI and this association was partly

  1. Experimental reduction of winter food decreases body condition and delays migration in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Nathan W; Sherry, Thomas W; Marra, Peter P

    2015-07-01

    Many tropical habitats experience pronounced dry seasons, during which arthropod food availability declines, potentially limiting resident and migratory animal populations. In response to declines in food, individuals may attempt to alter their space use to enhance access to food resources, but may be socially constrained from doing so by con- and heterospecifics. If social constraints exist, food declines should result in decreased body condition. In migratory birds, correlational evidence suggests a link between body condition and migration timing. Poor body condition and delayed migration may, in turn, impact fitness in subsequent seasons via carry-over effects. To determine if winter food availability affects space use, inter- and intraspecific competition, body composition (i.e., mass, fat, and pectoral muscle), and migration timing, we experimentally decreased food availability on individual American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) territories in high-quality mangrove habitat. Redstarts on control territories experienced -40% loss of food due to the seasonal nature of the environment. Redstarts on experimental territories experienced -80% declines in food, which closely mimicked natural declines in nearby, low-quality, scrub habitat. Individuals on food-reduced territories did not expand their territories locally, but instead either became non-territorial "floaters" or remained on territory. Regardless of territorial status, food-reduced American Redstarts all deposited fat compared to control birds. Fat deposits provide insurance against the risk of starvation, but, for American Redstarts, came at the expense of maintaining pectoral muscle. Subsequently, food-reduced American Redstarts experienced, on average, a one-week delay in departure on spring migration, likely due to the loss of pectoral muscle. Thus, our results demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, that declines in winter food availability can result in a fat-muscle trade-off, which, in

  2. Etoposide in combination with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation or busulfan as conditioning for marrow transplantation in adults and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, T.R.; Ortlieb, M.; Tefft, M.C.; Torrisi, J.; Cahill, R.; Deeg, H.J. (Georgetown Univ. Hospital, Washington, DC (United States)); Peters, C.; Gadner, H. (St. Anna' s Kinderspital, Wien (Austria)); Urban, C. (Univ. Children' s Hospital, Graz (Austria))

    1994-04-30

    In an attempt to intensify conditioning therapy for bone marrow transplantation of hematologic malignancies, a retrospective three center evaluation of escalating doses of etoposide added to cyclophosphamide and either total body irradiation or busulfan was undertaken. Seventy-six patients who received etoposide (25-65 mg/kg) added to cyclophosphamide (60-120 mg/kg) and either total body irradiation (12.0-13.2 Gy) or busulfan (12-16 mg/kg) were evaluable for toxicity. Fifty-one of the evaluable patients received allogeneic transplants, while twenty-six received autologous transplants. A comparative analysis of toxicities according to conditioning regimen, donor source and etoposide dose was made. Similar toxicities were observed among the treatment groups with the exception of more frequent skin (p = 0.03) and life threatening hepatic toxicities (p = 0.01) in the busulfan treated patients. Life threatening or fatal toxicities were not influenced by donor source, either when analyzed by treatment group or etoposide dose. Etoposide at a dose of 60-65 mg/kg in combination with TBI and cyclophosphamide was associated with a significantly increased incidence of life threatening or fatal toxicities compared with a combination using a dose of 25-50 mg/kg (15 of 24 vs. 5 of 20; p = 0.013). The maximally tolerated dose of etoposide in combination with busulfan and cyclophosphamide cannot be definitively established in this analysis in part due to the heterogeneity of the patient population and treatment schemes. Although toxicities with bone marrow transplant preparative regimens containing etoposide in combination with cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation or busulfan were frequently severe, treatment related mortality risk was believed to be acceptably low. 27 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Best Cutting Conditions for Pocket Milling in Aluminium Alloy Body Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Grubyy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, new constructive solutions, among which there are such as application of highstrength aluminum alloys for large-size case parts with the wafer design of the shell (WDS characterize modern and perspective products of the missile and space equipment (MSE. To define optimum strategy of WDS pocket treatment, the paper presents a strategy analysis of penetration and treatment in CAID "ADEM". Based on the performed optimization a combination "spiral" and penetration "spiral on a contour" has been accepted as a strategy of the pocket treatment.To optimize the cutting modes, taking into consideration an elimination of the WDS element deformations, are calculated the hard-alloy mill forces, temperatures, wear rate, size of wear, and tool life, when milling a pocket as a standard element of WDS. A calculation technique which distinctive feature is to take into account the forces and pressure from the face edge of a mill tooth is used. In particular, there is functional relationship between the wear rate of a back surface of the tool and the generalized parameter, i.e. the cutting speed relation to hardness of the wearing tool surface as a function of the cutting temperature for milling conditions of aluminum alloys on the modern CN equipment.The paper presents a sequence of formulas implemented as a calculating algorithm and appropriate calculating program. It shows power and polynomial equations obtained to establish relations of the tool life and a torque of cutting with the variable parameters, i.e. the speed, depth, feed, mill diameter and width.Modeling and optimization results show that for rough treatment of grooves, a technological restriction is machine spindle power. With fine finish and penetration a feed of the tool has to be restricted to prevent deformation of a pocket bottom.During treatment of pockets in large-size parts with WDS a lag effect of the linear drives of equipment has to be taken into consideration, when feeding

  4. Correction to: The metabolic cost of nesting: body condition and blood parameters of Caiman crocodilus and Melanosuchus niger in Central Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barão-Nóbrega, José António Lemos; Marioni, Boris; Botero-Arias, Robinson; Nogueira, António José Arsénia; Lima, Emerson Silva; Magnusson, William Ernest; Da Silveira, Ronis; Marcon, Jaydione Luiz

    2017-11-13

    Although nesting ecology is well studied in several crocodilian species, it is not known how nest attendance influences physiology and body condition of nesting females. In this study, we describe body condition and serum biochemical values of nesting female, non-nesting female and male spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) and black caiman (Melanosuchus niger) in two areas of Central Amazonia. We also evaluated the effect of nest age and nest distance to water on body condition and blood parameters of nesting females. Body condition and plasmatic concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, lactate and uric acid of nesting females were significantly different from those of non-nesting females and males in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Our study also demonstrated that nest age and distance to water had a negative effect on female body condition in C. crocodilus, but not in M. niger. Female C. crocodilus attending older nests or nests built further away from permanent water bodies tended to have lower body condition. Our results demonstrate that the nesting strategy of C. crocodilus has a metabolic cost associated with nest attendance for nesting females, which appear to depend on accumulated energetic reserves during nest attendance. In contrast, nest attendance had little effect on the physiology of female M. niger.

  5. Differences in body condition of gilts that are maintained from mating to the end of gestation affect mammary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Comi, M; Duarte, C R A; Vignola, M; Charagu, P; Palin, M-F

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if different body conditions in late gestation that are due to varying body conditions at mating affect mammary development and mammary gene expression of gilts. Gilts that were fed ad libitum in the growing period were selected based on their backfat depths to form 3 groups at mating, namely, low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm; = 14), medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm; = 15), and high backfat (HBF; 22-26 mm; = 16). During gestation, LBF, MBF, and HBF gilts were fed approximately 1.25, 1.43, and 1.63 times maintenance requirements to maintain their differences in body condition. Feed intake was increased by 1 kg in the last 10 d of gestation. Backfat depths of gilts were ultrasonically measured at mating and on d 30, 50, 70, 100, and 109 of gestation. Blood samples were obtained at mating and on d 109 of gestation to measure concentrations of IGF-1, glucose, insulin, estradiol, urea, free fatty acids, leptin, and adiponectin. Gilts were slaughtered on d 110 of gestation to collect mammary glands for compositional analyses. Mammary extraparenchymal tissue weight was lesser in LBF and MBF gilts than in HBF gilts (1,259.3, 1,402.7, and 1,951.5 ± 70.4 g, respectively; 0.10), but its composition was altered. Concentrations of DNA and RNA decreased as backfat depth increased ( gilts than in HBF gilts. On d 109 of gestation, concentrations of insulin ( gilts than in HBF gilts, whereas those of urea were greater ( 0.10) with the exception of , which had a greater expression level in LBF gilts than in MFB or HBF gilts ( gilts than in LBF gilts ( gilts that were present at mating were maintained throughout gestation, it had an impact on mammary development. Extraparenchymal tissue mass was affected and, more importantly, composition of parenchymal tissue was altered, indicating a beneficial effect of gilts being in the thinner treatment groups at mating.

  6. Identifying a reliable blubber measurement site to assess body condition in a marine mammal with topographically variable blubber, the Pacific walrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, Shawn R.; Udevitz, Mark S.; Triggs, Lisa; Paschke, Jessa; Oland, Lisa; Jay, Chadwick V.

    2015-01-01

    Pacific walruses may be unable to meet caloric requirements in the changing Arctic ecosystem, which could affect body condition and have population-level consequences. Body condition has historically been monitored by measuring blubber thickness over the xiphoid process (sternum). This may be an unreliable condition index because blubber at other sites along the body may be preferentially targeted to balance energetic demands. Animals in aquaria provided an opportunity for controlled study of how blubber topography is altered by caloric intake. Morphology, body mass, blubber thickness (21 sites), and caloric intake of five mature, nonpregnant, nonlactating female walruses were measured monthly (12 month minimum). Body condition (mass × standard length−1) was described by a model that included caloric intake and a seasonal effect, and scaled positively with estimates of total blubber mass. Blubber thicknesses (1.91–10.69 cm) varied topographically and were similar to values reported for free-ranging female walruses. Body condition was most closely related to blubber thickness measured dorsomedially in the region of the anterior insertion of the pectoral flippers (shoulders); sternum blubber thickness was a relatively poor indicator of condition. This study demonstrates the importance of validating condition metrics before using them to monitor free-ranging populations.

  7. Equations of motion and boundary conditions of physical meaning of micropolar theory of thin bodies with two small cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, M. M.; Nikabadze, M. U.; Ulukhanyan, A. R.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, microcontinuous mechanics (mechanics of media with microstructure) is being developed very intensively, which is testified by recently published papers [1-14] and by many others, as well as by the symposiumdedicated to the hundredth anniversary of the brothers Cosserat monograph [15], held inParis in 2009. A survey of foreign papers is given in [16], and a special place is occupied by earlier publications of Soviet scientists on micropolar theory of elasticity [17-24]. A brief survey of Cosserat theory of elasticity and an analysis and prospects of such theories in mechanics of rigid deformable bodies is given in [21]. It should be noted that, in a majority of cases, the structure strength calculations are based on the classical theory of elasticity. But there are materials such as animal bones, graphite, several polymers, polyurethane films, porous materials (pumice), various synthetic materials, and materials with inclusions which, under certain conditions, exhibit micropolar properties. There are effects which cannot be prescribed by the classical theory. In statics, nonclassical behavior can be observed in bending of thin films and cantilevers, in torsion of thin and thin-walled rods, and in the case of stress concentration near holes, corner points, cracks, and inclusions. For example, thin specimens are more rigid in bending and torsion as is prescribed by the classical theory [25-27]. The stress concentration near holes decreases, and the concentration factor depends on the radius [28]. The stress concentration near cracks also becomes lower. Conversely, the stress concentration near inclusions is higher than predicted by the classical theory [29-31]. If the material has no center of symmetry of elastic properties, then calculations according to the micropolar theory shows that the specimen is twisted in tension [32]. In dynamical problems, several phenomena also differ from the classical concepts. For example, shear waves propagate with dispersion

  8. The Basel experience with total body irradiation for conditioning patients with acute leukemia for allogenic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, B.; Cornu, P.; Nissen, C.; Gratwohl, A.; Sartorius, J.

    1979-01-01

    We are reporting our experience with 13 patients suffering from end stage acute leukemia that were prepared for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation by combined chemotherapy followed by high dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) and total body irradiation (TBI). Only one patient became a long term survivor. Of the evaluable 12 patients, 6 died of interstitial pneumonia, 4 of GvH and 1 of recurrent leukemia. We conclude that adding combined chemotherapy to the standard conditioning program with Cy and TBI probably increases the risk of developing fatal interstitial pneumonia without eliminating the risk of recurrent leukemia. We suggest that allogenic marrow grafts should be performed earlier in the course of refractory acute leukemias, because in patients with end stage disease its chances of being curative are small

  9. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

  10. Associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two European passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Schaefer, H Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs.

  11. Associations of forest type, parasitism and body condition of two European passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruntje Lüdtke

    Full Text Available Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio, revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs.

  12. Associations of Forest Type, Parasitism and Body Condition of Two European Passerines, Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Bruntje; Moser, Isabelle; Santiago-Alarcon, Diego; Fischer, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth KV.; Schaefer, H. Martin; Suarez-Rubio, Marcela; Tschapka, Marco; Renner, Swen C.

    2013-01-01

    Human-induced forest modification can alter parasite-host interactions and might change the persistence of host populations. We captured individuals of two widespread European passerines (Fringilla coelebs and Sylvia atricapilla) in southwestern Germany to disentangle the associations of forest types and parasitism by haemosporidian parasites on the body condition of birds. We compared parasite prevalence and parasite intensity, fluctuating asymmetries, leukocyte numbers, and the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio) among individuals from beech, mixed-deciduous and spruce forest stands. Based on the biology of bird species, we expected to find fewer infected individuals in beech or mixed-deciduous than in spruce forest stands. We found the highest parasite prevalence and intensity in beech forests for F. coelebs. Although, we found the highest prevalence in spruce forests for S. atricapilla, the highest intensity was detected in beech forests, partially supporting our hypothesis. Other body condition or health status metrics, such as the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (H/L-ratio), revealed only slight differences between bird populations inhabiting the three different forest types, with the highest values in spruce for F. coelebs and in mixed-deciduous forests for S. atricapilla. A comparison of parasitized versus non-parasitized individuals suggests that parasite infection increased the immune response of a bird, which was detectable as high H/L-ratio. Higher infections with blood parasites for S. atricapilla in spruce forest indicate that this forest type might be a less suitable habitat than beech and mixed-deciduous forests, whereas beech forests seem to be a suboptimal habitat regarding parasitism for F. coelebs. PMID:24339923

  13. Effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the body temperature of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Ibarra, N; Chávez, M; Gómez, T; Suárez, A; Valle, J A; Camacho, R L; Cervantes, M

    2018-04-01

    Feed intake and diet composition appear to affect the body temperature of pigs. Two trials were conducted to analyse the effect of feed intake level and dietary protein content on the intestinal temperature (IT) of pigs housed under thermo neutral conditions. Ten pigs (64.1 ± 1.3 kg initial body weight) fitted with an ileal cannula were used. A thermometer set to register the IT at 5-min intervals was implanted into the ileum through the cannula. In both trials, the ambient temperature ranged from 19.1 to 21.6°C and the pigs were fed at 07:00 and 19:00 hr (same amount each time). In trial 1, the pigs were fed daily 1.2 or 1.8 kg of a wheat-soybean meal diet. The IT followed a similar pattern along a 24-hr period regardless the feed intake level. The IT rapidly increased up to 0.61 and 0.74°C after the morning meal and up to 0.53 and 0.47°C after the evening meal in pigs fed 1.2 and 1.8 kg/d respectively. The postprandial IT was higher in pigs fed 1.8 kg after each meal (p level. The postprandial IT did not differ between pigs fed the low protein or the high protein (p > .10). The IT rapidly increased up to 0.66 and 0.62°C after the morning meal in pigs fed the high- and low-protein diet (p  .10). In conclusion, the feed intake level affected the IT of pigs housed under TN conditions, but the dietary protein content had no effect. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Serum POP concentrations are highly predictive of inner blubber concentrations at two extremes of body condition in northern elephant seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael G; Peterson, Sarah H; Debier, Cathy; Covaci, Adrian; Dirtu, Alin C; Malarvannan, Govindan; Crocker, Daniel E; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-11-01

    Long-lived, upper trophic level marine mammals are vulnerable to bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Internal tissues may accumulate and mobilize POP compounds at different rates related to the body condition of the animal and the chemical characteristics of individual POP compounds; however, collection of samples from multiple tissues is a major challenge to ecotoxicology studies of free-ranging marine mammals and the ability to predict POP concentrations in one tissue from another tissue remains rare. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) forage on mesopelagic fish and squid for months at a time in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, interspersed with two periods of fasting on land, which results in dramatic seasonal fluctuations in body condition. Using northern elephant seals, we examined commonly studied tissues in mammalian toxicology to describe relationships and determine predictive equations among tissues for a suite of POP compounds, including ΣDDTs, ΣPCBs, Σchlordanes, and ΣPBDEs. We collected paired blubber (inner and outer) and blood serum samples from adult female and male seals in 2012 and 2013 at Año Nuevo State Reserve (California, USA). For females (N = 24), we sampled the same seals before (late in molting fast) and after (early in breeding fast) their approximately seven month foraging trip. For males, we sampled different seals before (N = 14) and after (N = 15) their approximately four month foraging trip. We observed strong relationships among tissues for many, but not all compounds. Serum POP concentrations were strong predictors of inner blubber POP concentrations for both females and males, while serum was a more consistent predictor of outer blubber for males than females. The ability to estimate POP blubber concentrations from serum, or vice versa, has the potential to enhance toxicological assessment and physiological modeling. Furthermore, predictive equations may illuminate commonalities or

  15. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI), plasma lipid profile and gait assessment score (GAS) in dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty client-owned dogs of both sexes to determine the BMI. In addition, body condition score (BCS) and GAS were ...

  16. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  17. [Role of host in spontaneous recovery from viral hepatitis C: the body's condition at the moment of infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaguliants, M G; Ozeretskovskaia, N N; Znoĭko, O O; Tsyganova, E V

    2008-01-01

    The condition of the host at the moment of infection is that its immune competence largely determines the efficiency, kinetics, and profile (Thl/Th2) of a further specific immunity response and, accordingly, the outcome of penetration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into the body and subsequent acute infection (if it occurs). The parameters determining immune competence may include age, traumatizing exposures (operations, burns, wounds, and fractures), immunosuppressive therapy, stresses, con-infections, and alcohol use. The highest rates of spontaneous convalescence from HCV infection are observed in children and adolescents. Other human conditions are much shorter, transient; their impact is difficult to determine in the retrospective review and therefore it has not been adequately studied. Previous operations, posttransplantation immune suppression, immune modulation after blood transfusion, alcohol-induced immune imbalance, drug and narcotic intoxication are poor predictors. Immunosuppression and immune imbalance caused by viral and parasitic infections are observed among the host's temporary conditions affecting the outcome of HCV infection. The authors have analyzed the sequels of superinfections in patients with chronic hepatitis C, other hepatotropic viruses and the common liver fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The interesting therapeutic activities against HCV and parasitic infection (contamination with Echinococcus granulosus in particular), which are shown in the treatment of co-infection patients with alpha-interferon preparations that ensure normalization of immune deficiency caused by each of the infections and their increased combination. A deeper insight into the correlation between the condition of the host and its ability to eliminate the virus may be one more step on the road to the prevention of the infection and to the designing an effective vaccine against HCV.

  18. PECULIARITIES OF HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION BY THE FRUIT BODIES OF MACROMYCETES IN THE CONDITIONS OF COMBINED RADIATION AND CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Nikolaevna Anishchenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In conditions of combined radiation and chemical contamination of forest habitats (Bryansk oblast revealed cumulative activity of basidiomycetes in relation to heavy metals, the calculated accumulation factors. Used route, the research methods of the soils, determine the gross concentration of the elements x-ray fluorescence method. The intensity of accumulation of heavy metals in fruit bodies of mushrooms were evaluated using the coefficients of accumulation (or bioaccumulation factors. Analysis of concentrations of gross pollutants showed that the maximum Pb observed in the fruit bodies of Pers. Fr., Boletus edulis Rostk. and Calocybe gambosa (Fr. Singer, the concentration of As Calocybe gambosa, Boletus edulis, Russula adusta and Xerocomus subtomentosus (L. Quél. The maximum Zn content observed in the fruit bodies of the Russula alutacea (Fr. Fr., Xerocomus subtomentosus, Tricholoma equestre (L. P. Kumm., Russula adusta and Boletus edulis, Cu and Ni – Xerocomus subtomentosus, Leccinum scabrum, Boletus erythropus, Boletus edulis, Calocybe gambosa and Xerocomus subtomentosus, Fe and Mne – Boletus erythropus, Xerocomus subtomentosus and Leccinum scabrum. The total heavy metal content maximum in the fruit bodies of Xerocomus subtomentosus, Boletus erythropus и Leccinum scabrum. On the basis of rates of accumulation of fungi are divided into three groups according to intensity of accumulation of metals: the first group consists of mushrooms, the most intensively accumulate heavy metals – Russula mairei, Leccinum scabrum and Boletus erythropus; the second fungi which are characterized by the average intensity of the accumulation of TM – Xerocomus subtomentosus, Boletus edulis and Russula alutacea; the third group includes mushrooms, which are characterized by a low degree of accumulation of individual elements of the TM – Boletus erythropus, Russula adusta and Calocybe gambosa. Mushrooms – storage Co, Cu, Zn and Sr – is Xerocomus

  19. On being the right size: increased body size is associated with reduced telomere length under natural conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Pärn, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Holand, Håkon; Hagen, Ingerid Julie; Rønning, Bernt; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Monaghan, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for l...

  20. An evidence-based approach to the creation of normative data: base rates of impaired scores within a brief neuropsychological battery argue for age corrections, but against corrections for medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Megan E; Tuokko, Holly; Voll, Stacey; Simard, Martine; Griffith, Lauren E; Taler, Vanessa; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan; Raina, Parminder

    We detail a new approach to the creation of normative data for neuropsychological tests. The traditional approach to normative data creation is to make demographic adjustments based on observations of correlations between single neuropsychological tests and selected demographic variables. We argue, however, that this does not describe the implications for clinical practice, such as increased likelihood of misclassification of cognitive impairment, nor does it elucidate the impact on decision-making with a neuropsychological battery. We propose base rate analyses; specifically, differential base rates of impaired scores between theoretical and actual base rates as the basis for decisions to create demographic adjustments within normative data. Differential base rates empirically describe the potential clinical implications of failing to create an appropriate normative group. We demonstrate this approach with data from a short telephone-administered neuropsychological battery given to a large, neurologically healthy sample aged 45-85 years old. We explored whether adjustments for age and medical conditions were warranted based on differential base rates of spuriously impaired scores. Theoretical base rates underestimated the frequency of impaired scores in older adults and overestimated the frequency of impaired scores in younger adults, providing an evidence base for the creation of age-corrected normative data. In contrast, the number of medical conditions (numerous cardiovascular, hormonal, and metabolic conditions) was not related to differential base rates of impaired scores. Despite a small correlation between number of medical conditions and each neuropsychological variable, normative adjustments for number of medical conditions does not appear warranted. Implications for creation of normative data are discussed.

  1. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paterakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

  2. Computational Evaluation of Inlet Distortion on an Ejector Powered Hybrid Wing Body at Takeoff and Landing Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Daniel M.; Sexton, Matthew R.; Mugica, Edward A.; Beyar, Michael D.; Schuh, Michael J.; Stremel, Paul M.; Deere, Karen A.; McMillin, Naomi; Carter, Melissa B.

    2016-01-01

    Due to the aft, upper surface engine location on the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) planform, there is potential to shed vorticity and separated wakes into the engine when the vehicle is operated at off-design conditions and corners of the envelope required for engine and airplane certification. CFD simulations were performed of the full-scale reference propulsion system, operating at a range of inlet flow rates, flight speeds, altitudes, angles of attack, and angles of sideslip to identify the conditions which produce the largest distortion and lowest pressure recovery. Pretest CFD was performed by NASA and Boeing, using multiple CFD codes, with various turbulence models. These data were used to make decisions regarding model integration, characterize inlet flow distortion patterns, and help define the wind tunnel test matrix. CFD was also performed post-test; when compared with test data, it was possible to make comparisons between measured model-scale and predicted full-scale distortion levels. This paper summarizes these CFD analyses.

  3. Complex interplay of body condition, life history, and prevailing environment shapes immune defenses of garter snakes in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Maria G; Cunnick, Joan E; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-01-01

    The immunocompetence "pace-of-life" hypothesis proposes that fast-living organisms should invest more in innate immune defenses and less in adaptive defenses compared to slow-living ones. We found some support for this hypothesis in two life-history ecotypes of the snake Thamnophis elegans; fast-living individuals show higher levels of innate immunity compared to slow-living ones. Here, we optimized a lymphocyte proliferation assay to assess the complementary prediction that slow-living snakes should in turn show stronger adaptive defenses. We also assessed the "environmental" hypothesis that predicts that slow-living snakes should show lower levels of immune defenses (both innate and adaptive) given the harsher environment they live in. Proliferation of B- and T-lymphocytes of free-living individuals was on average higher in fast-living than slow-living snakes, opposing the pace-of-life hypothesis and supporting the environmental hypothesis. Bactericidal capacity of plasma, an index of innate immunity, did not differ between fast-living and slow-living snakes in this study, contrasting the previously documented pattern and highlighting the importance of annual environmental conditions as determinants of immune profiles of free-living animals. Our results do not negate a link between life history and immunity, as indicated by ecotype-specific relationships between lymphocyte proliferation and body condition, but suggest more subtle nuances than those currently proposed.

  4. Transients from initial conditions based on Lagrangian perturbation theory in N-body simulations II: the effect of the transverse mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatekawa, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    We study the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations for precision cosmology. In general, Zel'dovich approximation has been applied for the initial conditions of N-body simulations for a long time. These initial conditions provide incorrect higher-order growth. These error caused by setting up the initial conditions by perturbation theory is called transients. We investigated the impact of transient on non-Gaussianity of density field by performing cosmological N-body simulations with initial conditions based on first-, second-, and third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory in previous paper. In this paper, we evaluates the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory for several statistical quantities such as power spectrum and non-Gaussianty. Then we clarified that the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory is quite small

  5. Improving the Reliability of Student Scores from Speeded Assessments: An Illustration of Conditional Item Response Theory Using a Computer-Administered Measure of Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison M.; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that response latency, the amount of time it takes an individual to respond to an item, may be an important factor to consider when using assessment data to estimate the ability of an individual. Considering that tests of passage and list fluency are being adapted to a computer administration format, it is…

  6. The effect of position on the precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and correlation with body condition score in dogs and cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnvad, Charlotte R.; Nielsen, Mie E.; Hansen, Susanna E.M.

    2017-01-01

    during DEXA scanning influences results. Dogs and cats that were brought to the University Hospital for Companion Animals for euthanasia during the period 15 September–6 November 2015 were consecutively recruited if owners signed a written consent. Following euthanasia and before rigor mortis...

  7. Effects of vitamin E supplementation on and the association of body condition score with changes in peroxidative biomarkers and antioxidants around calving in dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Bouwstra, R.J.; Goselink, R.M.A.; Jorritsma, R.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Jansen, E.H.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on oxidative status in blood, liver, milk, and ovarian follicular fluid in periparturient heifers. Vitamin E supplementation started 8 wk before calving and continued until 8 wk postpartum. Grass silage was the

  8. Influence of dental correction on nociceptive test responses, fecal appearance, body condition score, and apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter of Zamorano-leones donkeys (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, J B; Ferreira, L M; Bastos, E; San Roman, F; Viegas, C; Santos, A S

    2013-10-01

    The influence of dental correction on nociceptive (pressure) test responses, fecal appearance, BCS, and apparent digestibility coefficient for DM was studied in 18 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys, an endangered local breed from the Zamora province in Spain. For this purpose, donkeys were divided into 2 homogeneous control and treatment groups, based on age, BCS, and dental findings. On d 1, 45, 90, and 135, BCS and nociceptive test responses were evaluated in all donkeys. Feed and fecal samples were collected from all donkeys for 3 consecutive days, starting at each of the aforementioned days. Apparent digestibility coefficient for DM was estimated, using ADL as an internal marker. A progressive decrease of positive nociceptive test responses was observed from d 1 up to 90 (P < 0.01) in the treatment group. No difference between groups was observed for BCS. However, BCS at d 90 was greater (P = 0.018) than observed on d 1 or 45, indicating a time influence. Concerning apparent digestibility coefficient for DM, there were differences among collection days in apparent digestibility coefficient for DM (P < 0.05). No differences in fecal appearance were observed between treatments or collection days. This study highlighted the importance of regular dental care for not only Zamorano-Leonés donkeys but also the equid population, in general, to improve their welfare.

  9. The Feasibility and Validity of Body-Worn Sensors to Supplement Timed Walking Tests for Children with Neurological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarajah, Lavan; Kane, Kyra J; Lanovaz, Joel; Bisaro, Derek; Oates, Alison; Ye, Ming; Musselman, Kristin E

    2018-08-01

    The 10-meter walk test (10 mWT) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) are assessments of speed/time with a ceiling effect in pediatric populations. This study aimed to (1) determine whether collecting spatiotemporal data with inertial sensors (Mobility Lab, APDM Inc.) during these tests improves their discriminative validity, and (2) evaluate the clinical feasibility of Mobility Lab. Fifteen children with spina bifida (SB) or cerebral palsy (CP) (7.9 ± 3.1 years old) and fifteen age- and sex-matched typically-developing (TD) children completed the 10 mWT and TUG wearing Mobility Lab. Spatiotemporal data were compared between groups. Mobility Lab's potential to distinguish children with SB/CP from TD children was examined using conditional logistic regression. Feasibility was evaluated through participant adherence and a clinical utility scale. For the 10 mWT, group differences (p Children with SB/CP took significantly longer to turn during the TUG. These five variables together distinguished the two groups (p = 0.006). 78% of participants with SB/CP completed the testing protocol. Mobility Lab scored 4/10 on the clinical utility scale. Instrumenting the 10 mWT and TUG improves the tests' ability to discriminate between children with SB/CP and TD children.

  10. Baseline ICIQ-UI score, body mass index, age, average birth weight, and perineometry duration as promising predictors of the short-term efficacy of Er:YAG laser treatment in stress urinary incontinent women: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistonić, Ivan; Fistonić, Nikola

    2018-01-23

    A growing body of evidence indicates that a non-invasive erbium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser may be an effective and highly tolerable treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. The primary objective was to identify pre-intervention predictors of short-term Er:YAG outcomes. The secondary objective was to identify patient segments with the best Er:YAG laser treatment short-term outcomes. A prospective cohort study performed in 2016 at Ob/Gyn Clinic, Zagreb, Croatia, recruited 85 female patients who suffered from SUI. The intervention was performed with a 2940 nm wave length Er:YAG laser (XS Dynamis, Fotona, Slovenia). Outcomes were absolute change in the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) and a relative decrease in ICIQ-UI score of ≥30% 2-6 months after the intervention. Age and pre-intervention ICIQ-UI values were independent significant predictors of laser treatment efficacy for SUI. A decrease in ICIQ-UI score (minimum important difference, MID) of ≥30% was independently significantly associated with body mass index and ICIQ-UI values before the intervention. All patients with four or five positive predictors saw a clinically relevant decrease in ICIQ-UI of ≥30%. The total accuracy of the predictive model defined by the area under the curve was 0.83 (95%CI 0.74-0.91). At the cut-off ≥3 positive predictors, C-index was 0.80 (95%CI 0.71-0.90), positive predictive value was 0.97 (95%CI 0.87-0.99), and negative predictive value was 0.53 (95%CI 0.45-0.55). A relevant decrease in ICIQ-UI (MID) of ≥30% can be predicted based on age, body mass index, average birth weight, perineometer squeeze duration, and ICIQ-UI scores before the intervention. The association between Q-tip test and treatment outcome was moderated by age. Q-tip was a significant predictor for patients between 44 and 53 years of age. The best results should be expected in younger women with a body mass index of ≤23

  11. Body-size structure of Central Iberian mammal fauna reveals semidesertic conditions during the middle Miocene Global Cooling Event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Menéndez

    Full Text Available We developed new quantitative palaeoclimatic inference models based on the body-size structure of mammal faunas from the Old World tropics and applied them to the Somosaguas fossil site (middle Miocene, central Iberian Peninsula. Twenty-six mammal species have been described at this site, including proboscideans, ungulates, carnivores, insectivores, lagomorphs and rodents. Our analyses were based on multivariate and bivariate regression models correlating climatic data and body-size structure of 63 modern mammal assemblages from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. The results showed an average temperature of the coldest month higher than 26°C for the Somosaguas fossil site, a mean annual thermal amplitude around 10°C, a drought length of 10 months, and an annual total precipitation greater than 200 mm per year, which are climate conditions typical of an ecotonal zone between the savanna and desert biomes. These results are congruent with the aridity peaks described over the middle Aragonian of Spain and particularly in the local biozone E, which includes Somosaguas. The aridity increase detected in this biozone is associated with the Middle Miocene Global Cooling Event. The environment of Somosaguas around 14 Ma was similar to the current environment in the Sahel region of North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the boundary area between the Kalahari and the Namib in Southern Africa, south-central Arabia, or eastern Pakistan and northwestern India. The distribution of modern vegetation in these regions follows a complex mosaic of plant communities, dominated by scattered xerophilous shrublands, semidesert grasslands, and vegetation linked to seasonal watercourses and ponds.

  12. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold-sensitive young trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki-Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise-induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold-sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty-eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold-sensitive (Cold-sensitive, n  = 7) and non-cold-sensitive (Control, n  = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then performed 30-min of moderate intensity cycling (50% peak oxygen uptake) followed by a 60-min recovery. Core and mean skin temperatures and cold sensation over the whole-body and extremities (fingers and toes) were assessed throughout. Resting core temperature was lower in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group (36.4 ± 0.3 vs. 36.7 ± 0.2°C). Core temperature increased to similar levels at end-exercise (~37.2°C) and gradually returned to near preexercise rest levels at the end of recovery (>36.6°C). Whole-body cold sensation was greater in the Cold-sensitive relative to Control group during resting at a room temperature of 23.5°C only without a difference in mean skin temperature between groups. In contrast, cold sensation of the extremities was greater in the Cold-sensitive group prior to, during and following exercise albeit this was not paralleled by differences in mean extremity skin temperature. We show that young trained females who are sensitive to cold exhibit augmented whole-body cold sensation during rest under temperate ambient conditions. However, this response is diminished during and following exercise. In contrast, cold sensation of extremities is augmented during resting that persists during and following exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. Body heat storage during physical activity is lower with hot fluid ingestion under conditions that permit full evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, A R; Lesperance, N C; Jay, O

    2012-10-01

    To assess whether, under conditions permitting full evaporation, body heat storage during physical activity measured by partitional calorimetry would be lower with warm relative to cold fluid ingestion because of a disproportionate increase in evaporative heat loss potential relative to internal heat transfer with the ingested fluid. Nine males cycled at 50% VO(2max) for 75 min at 23.6 ± 0.6 °C and 23 ± 11% RH while consuming water of either 1.5 °C, 10 °C, 37 °C or 50 °C in four 3.2 mL kg(-1) boluses. The water was administered 5 min before and 15, 30 and 45 min following the onset of exercise. No differences in metabolic heat production, sensible or respiratory heat losses (all P > 0.05) were observed between fluid temperatures. However, while the increased internal heat loss with cold fluid ingestion was paralleled by similar reductions in evaporative heat loss potential at the skin (E(sk) ) with 10 °C (P = 0.08) and 1.5 °C (P = 0.55) fluid, the increased heat load with warm (50 °C) fluid ingestion was accompanied by a significantly greater E(sk) (P = 0.04). The resultant calorimetric heat storage was lower with 50 °C water ingestion in comparison to 1.5 °C, 10 °C and 37 °C (all P heat storage derived conventionally using thermometry yielded higher values following 50 °C fluid ingestion compared to 1.5 °C (P = 0.025). Under conditions permitting full sweat evaporation, body heat storage is lower with warm water ingestion, likely because of disproportionate modulations in sweat output arising from warm-sensitive thermosensors in the esophagus/stomach. Local temperature changes of the rectum following fluid ingestion exacerbate the previously identified error of thermometric heat storage estimations. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  14. Visually scoring hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bulent O; Bolour, Sheila; Woods, Keslie; Moore, April; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is the presence of excess body or facial terminal (coarse) hair growth in females in a male-like pattern, affects 5-15% of women, and is an important sign of underlying androgen excess. Different methods are available for the assessment of hair growth in women. We conducted a literature search and analyzed the published studies that reported methods for the assessment of hair growth. We review the basic physiology of hair growth, the development of methods for visually quantifying hair growth, the comparison of these methods with objective measurements of hair growth, how hirsutism may be defined using a visual scoring method, the influence of race and ethnicity on hirsutism, and the impact of hirsutism in diagnosing androgen excess and polycystic ovary syndrome. Objective methods for the assessment of hair growth including photographic evaluations and microscopic measurements are available but these techniques have limitations for clinical use, including a significant degree of complexity and a high cost. Alternatively, methods for visually scoring or quantifying the amount of terminal body and facial hair growth have been in use since the early 1920s; these methods are semi-quantitative at best and subject to significant inter-observer variability. The most common visual method of scoring the extent of body and facial terminal hair growth in use today is based on a modification of the method originally described by Ferriman and Gallwey in 1961 (i.e. the mFG method). Overall, the mFG scoring method is a useful visual instrument for assessing excess terminal hair growth, and the presence of hirsutism, in women.

  15. A randomized controlled trial on the effect of incomplete milking during early lactation on ketonemia and body condition loss in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, P-A; Krug, C; Chorfi, Y; Dubuc, J; Lacasse, P; Roy, J-P; Santschi, D E; Dufour, S

    2018-02-21

    Limiting milk production for a short period of time in early lactation could be a relevant strategy to prevent hyperketonemia (HYK). From December 2013 to March 2015, 838 multiparous Holstein cows from 13 herds were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of incomplete milking in early lactation on ketonemia and its effect on body condition score (BCS) loss. Cows were randomly assigned 4 wk before expected calving date to 1 of 2 treatment groups, (1) a conventional milking protocol (CON) for which cows were completely milked or (2) an incomplete milking protocol (INC) for which a maximum of 10 to 14 kg of milk/d were withdrawn during the first 5 d in milk (DIM). β-Hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations were measured from blood samples collected on each cow 3 times at weekly intervals. Hyperketonemia was defined as BHB ≥1.4 mmol/L. Body condition score variation in the postcalving period was calculated by subtracting BCS assessed at wk 7 from BCS assessed at first week after calving. Effect of treatment on ketonemia and prevalence of HYK were evaluated for 4 specific time periods: 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM. Effect of treatment on ketonemia was investigated using linear mixed models with natural logarithm of BHB measurements as outcome and treatment groups as fixed effect. Generalized linear mixed models with HYK as outcome, using logit link, and treatment groups as fixed effect were used to investigate effect of treatment on odds of HYK. A logistic regression model with BCS loss (effects was used to study effect of INC on odds of having BCS loss ≥0.75. A total of 813 lactations had complete data and were used for statistical analysis of ketonemia and HYK. A total of 709 lactations had complete data and were used for analysis of BCS loss. Geometric means of blood BHB concentrations during the 1 to 3, 4 to 7, 8 to 17, and 18 to 26 DIM periods were, respectively, 0.72 (95% confidence interval = 0.66, 0.80), 0.66 (0.60, 0

  16. Increasing nest predation will be insufficient to maintain polar bear body condition in the face of sea ice loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Cody J; Richardson, Evan; McGeachy, David; Iverson, Samuel A; Gilchrist, Hugh G; Semeniuk, Christina A D

    2017-05-01

    Climate change can influence interspecific interactions by differentially affecting species-specific phenology. In seasonal ice environments, there is evidence that polar bear predation of Arctic bird eggs is increasing because of earlier sea ice breakup, which forces polar bears into nearshore terrestrial environments where Arctic birds are nesting. Because polar bears can consume a large number of nests before becoming satiated, and because they can swim between island colonies, they could have dramatic influences on seabird and sea duck reproductive success. However, it is unclear whether nest foraging can provide an energetic benefit to polar bear populations, especially given the capacity of bird populations to redistribute in response to increasing predation pressure. In this study, we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model of the predator-prey relationship between polar bears and common eiders, a common and culturally important bird species for northern peoples. Our model is composed of two types of agents (polar bear agents and common eider hen agents) whose movements and decision heuristics are based on species-specific bioenergetic and behavioral ecological principles, and are influenced by historical and extrapolated sea ice conditions. Our model reproduces empirical findings that polar bear predation of bird nests is increasing and predicts an accelerating relationship between advancing ice breakup dates and the number of nests depredated. Despite increases in nest predation, our model predicts that polar bear body condition during the ice-free period will continue to decline. Finally, our model predicts that common eider nests will become more dispersed and will move closer to the mainland in response to increasing predation, possibly increasing their exposure to land-based predators and influencing the livelihood of local people that collect eider eggs and down. These results show that predator-prey interactions can have nonlinear responses to

  17. Parasitism and body condition in humpback chub from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, Rebecca A.

    2006-01-01

    Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (prevalence and B. acheilognathi prevalence were higher in LCR fish than in Colorado River fish for all years. Mean K and AFI were 0.622 and 0.48, respectively, in the LCR and 0.735 and 2.02, respectively, in the Colorado River, indicating that fish in the Colorado River were more robust. Mean prevalence of L. cyprinacea was 23.9% and mean intensity was 1.73 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 3.2% and intensity was 1.0 L. cyprinacea/infected fish in the Colorado River. Mean prevalence of B. acheilognathi was 51.0% and mean intensity was 25.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the LCR, whereas prevalence was 15.8% and intensity was 12.0 B. acheilognathi/infected fish in the Colorado River. Increased parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.

  18. Qigong as a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy: Long-Term Conditioning of Physiological Mind-Body Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luís Carlos; Sousa, Cláudia Maria; Gonçalves, Mário; Gabriel, Joaquim; Machado, Jorge; Greten, Henry Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM) regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of "awareness" with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in "White Ball" Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2-5 min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and "conditioned" vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire.

  19. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single-nucleotide polymorphism, forage type and body condition on production traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, M A; Larson, M J; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Coffey, K P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2012-08-01

    Relating single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to (i) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and (ii) determine the associations between SNP genotype, forage and cow body condition (BC). Genotype (CC, CG or GG) and forage [Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte-infected tall fescue (KY+) vs. bermudagrass] effects on milk volume and quality were determined in Herd 1 cows (123 cows); in Herd 2 (99 cows), genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on ovarian follicle size, calving date and calving per cent were determined; and in Herd 3 (114 cows), effects of genotype and fescue cultivar [KY+ vs. non-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (HiMag4)] were related to calving per cent, calving date and weaning weights of both cow and her calf. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) transversion at base 994 (C994G) in CYP3A28 was identified. There was a genotype × forage type interaction (p productivity in cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry M.; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  1. Implications of body condition and seasonality on morphological and functional parameters of testes of Myotis nigricans (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marcelo; Soldati, Aline; Rodrigues, Sirlene S S; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos

    2018-01-12

    The insectivorous bat Myotis nigricans is widely distributed throughout the Neotropics, including Brazil, and has a reproductive biology that is affected by climate and food availability. To evaluate the reproductive capacity of this species, morphofunctional parameters of the testes were correlated with environmental variables and the body condition of individuals captured. After bats had been killed, their testes were removed, fixed in Karnovsky's fluid for 24h and embedded in resin for evaluation by light microscopy. The mean annual tubulosomatic index (0.58%) and the percentage of seminiferous tubules in the testes (88.96%) were the highest ever recorded for the Order Chiroptera. The percentage of Leydig cells and volume of the cytoplasm of Leydig cells were higher in the rainy than dry season (80.62±3.19% and 573.57±166.95μm, respectively; mean±s.d.). Conversely, the percentage of nuclei of the Leydig cells in the dry season (26.17±3.70%; mean±s.d.) and the total number of Leydig cells (6.38±1.84×109; mean±s.d.) were higher in the dry season. The results of the present study could help in future conservation of these bats because they provide a better understanding of the bats' reproductive strategies and how the species can adapt to changes.

  2. The Longitudinal Interplay of Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Body Image: A Conditional Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Maïano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W; Janosz, Michel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2011-04-11

    Self-esteem and body image are central to coping successfully with the developmental challenges of adolescence. However, the current knowledge surrounding self-esteem and body image is fraught with controversy. This study attempts to clarify some of them by addressing three questions: (1) Are the intraindividual developmental trajectories of self-esteem and body image stable across adolescence? (2) What is the direction of the relations between body image and self-esteem over time? (3) What is the role of gender, ethnicity, and pubertal development on those trajectories? This study relies on Autoregressive Latent Trajectory analyses based on data from a 4-year, 6-wave, prospective longitudinal study of 1,001 adolescents. Self-esteem and body image levels remained high and stable over time, although body image levels also tended to increase slightly. The results show that levels of self-esteem were positively influenced by levels of body image. However, these effects remained small and most of the observed associations were cross-sectional. Finally, the effects of pubertal development on body image and self-esteem levels were mostly limited to non-Caucasian females who appeared to benefit from more advanced pubertal development. Conversely, Caucasian females presented the lowest self-esteem and body image levels of all, although for them more advanced pubertal development levels were associated with a slight rise in body image over time.

  3. Monitoring Progress in Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients: Relationships between Speech Samples and Scores from the Conditioned Assessment of Speech Production (CASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertmer, David J.; Jung, Jongmin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the concurrent validity of the Conditioned Assessment of Speech Production (CASP; Ertmer & Stoel-Gammon, 2008) and data obtained from speech samples recorded at the same intervals. Method: Nineteen children who are deaf who received cochlear implants before their 3rd birthdays participated in the study. Speech samples and…

  4. Effects of the flood regime on the body condition of fish of different trophic guilds in the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujanra, F; Agostinho, A A; Hahn, N S

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of various hydrological cycles on the feeding body condition of fish species of different trophic guilds in the Paraná River floodplain, as well as the impacts of upstream impoundments on fish conditions. Attributes of the river floods (duration, time of year, intensity, and variability in a given year) and the body condition, measured by the mean residuals of length-weight ratios, of the detritivorous, herbivorous, insectivorous, invertivores, omnivorous, piscivorous, and planktivorous species were evaluated. Fish were sampled during a period before (1986-1994) and after (2000-2004) the completion of filling of the Porto Primavera Reservoir, which is located upstream from the floodplain area under study. Three sub-basins in the floodplain were sampled: the Ivinheima River, which has no dams; the Paraná River, which has several dams; and the Baia River, which is influenced by the Paraná. A two-way ANOVA identified significant variations in mean body conditions for localities and for the hydrological cycles, and the interactions were also significant. The findings revealed that before the Porto Primavera Reservoir was filled, the body condition of the feeding guilds varied similarly in the three sub basins, but this pattern was not observed after filling was completed. However, in years with minor or no floods, the body condition was high, especially in the sub-basins influenced by Porto Primavera (Paraná and Baía). Pearson's and Spearman's correlations showed that most effects of the floods were unfavorable to the body condition of the guilds, except for the annual variation in water level, which aids herbivores in accessing allochthonous food resources. Detritivores were negatively affected by all flood attributes. A correlation between the relative stomach weight (mean residual of the ratio of total and stomach weights) and the body condition demonstrated the poor relationship between the amount of food intake and

  5. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E

    2013-01-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on...... on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery.......Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters...

  6. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease: Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Data From NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-term Study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S; Leehey, Maureen A; Pontone, Gregory M; Chou, Kelvin L; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2016-03-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3-6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant's BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss ("decreasing BMI"), weight stability ("stable BMI"), or weight gain ("increasing BMI") during the study. Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss (decreasing BMI), whereas 233 (13.9%) experienced weight gain (increasing BMI). After adjusting for covariates, we

  7. Classification of slaughtered animals and estimation of body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... August 2010 were classified based on body condition scores (BCS) and other variables. A total of 6215 animals (cattle, sheep, goats and camels) were slaughtered with wide disparities in body conditions. Cattle remain the predominant animal slaughtered (67.74%) with the least predominant animal being ...

  8. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect body image Pre-baby body Pregnancy and eating disorders Looking for information on mental health conditions? Visit ... Mental health section. Fact sheets Anorexia nervosa Binge eating disorder Bulimia nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during ...

  9. Age-related sex differences in body condition and telomere dynamics of red-sided garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Nicky; Uhrig, Emily J; Krohmer, Randolph W; Waye, Heather L; Mason, Robert T; Olsson, Mats; Whittington, Camilla M; Friesen, Christopher R

    2017-04-12

    Life-history strategies vary dramatically between the sexes, which may drive divergence in sex-specific senescence and mortality rates. Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats that protect the ends of chromosomes from erosion during cell division. Telomeres have been implicated in senescence and mortality because they tend to shorten with stress, growth and age. We investigated age-specific telomere length in female and male red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis We hypothesized that age-specific telomere length would differ between males and females given their divergent reproductive strategies. Male garter snakes emerge from hibernation with high levels of corticosterone, which facilitates energy mobilization to fuel mate-searching, courtship and mating behaviours during a two to four week aphagous breeding period at the den site. Conversely, females remain at the dens for only about 4 days and seem to invest more energy in growth and cellular maintenance, as they usually reproduce biennially. As male investment in reproduction involves a yearly bout of physiologically stressful activities, while females prioritize self-maintenance, we predicted male snakes would experience more age-specific telomere loss than females. We investigated this prediction using skeletochronology to determine the ages of individuals and qPCR to determine telomere length in a cross-sectional study. For both sexes, telomere length was positively related to body condition. Telomere length decreased with age in male garter snakes, but remained stable in female snakes. There was no correlation between telomere length and growth in either sex, suggesting that our results are a consequence of divergent selection on life histories of males and females. Different selection on the sexes may be the physiological consequence of the sexual dimorphism and mating system dynamics displayed by this species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. Investigating effects of parasite infection on body condition of the Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) in the Kafue basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyeme, Musso; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Muma, John B; Nambota, Andrew M; Biffa, Demelash; Siamudaala, Victor M

    2010-12-23

    The Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche Kafuensis), a medium-sized semi-aquatic antelope, is endemic to the Kafue basin of Zambia. The population of the Kafue lechwe has significantly dropped in the last decades leading to its subsequent inclusion on the red list of endangered species. In order to save the remaining population from extinction, it has become increasingly important that the impact of parasite infection and infestation on the Kafue lechwe is investigated. Endoparasites accounted for the majority of parasites observed from a study of 40 Kafue lechwe occurring in the the Kafue basin. Amphistoma spp. were present in all animals examined, while Fasciola gigantica had a prevalence rate of 0.525 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.69) and species of Schistosoma 0.3 (95% CI: 0.15 to 0.45). Among the ectoparasites, Strobiloestrous vanzyli, had a prevalence rate of 0.15 (95% CI: 0.03 to 0.27), while Rhipicephalus appendiculatus had a prevalence of 0.075 (3/40). Our findings indicate that body condition was not influenced by the parasitic infestation in Kafue lechwe. There was no association between sex and parasitic burden (odds ratio = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3). However, an association between age and parasitic burden was observed as older animals above 15 years were more likely to get parasite infections than those aged between 1-5 years (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1-2.4). Overall, there was no evidence that parasitic infections and infestations adversely affected the lechwe population on the Kafue basin. These findings indicate that ecto- and endo-parasite infestation might not play a significant role in reducing the Kafue lechwe population on the Kafue basin.

  11. Effect of different concentrate levels in the pre and post parturition period on milk production and body score of dairy cowsEfeito de diferentes níveis de concentrado no período pré e pós-parto sobre a produção de leite e escore corporal de vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marcondes Seneda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of different levels of concentrate supplement in the pre and post-parturition periods on milk production and body score of dairy cow. 54 cows in a completely randomized design, distributed in 3 x 2 factorial arrangement, with 3 treatments, 2 periods and 9 repetitions for treatment, were used. The treatments with different levels of concentrate supplement (in dry basis in the pre-parturition periods (PRE, were: PRE1 = 0% of the body weight (BW; PRE2 = 0.5% of the BW; PRE3 = 1.0% of the BW; and in the post-parturition (POS, were: POS1 = 1kg for each 2.5 kg of produced milk; POS2 = 1kg for each 2.0kg of produced milk and POS3 = 1kg for each 1.5kg of produced milk, above 6 kg of milk a day. The milk weight and body condition scores were evaluated every seven days. There was not significant difference among the treatments of PRÉ period for milk production, however, it was verified that the increase in the PRE supplementation, improved the average body condition of animals in post parturition period. In the treatments of POS period, there was positive and increasing effect with the increasing supplementation level, on milk production and medium body score of the animals. Improvement was not observed in the milk production with the increase of supplement in the PRE period, but in the POS period there was higher milk production with the increase supplement. There were not correlation among pre-parturition treatments and milk production, but there was correlation of these with body score to the parturition (r=0.66. There was correlation of supplement levels in the post parturition with medium body score (0.36 and with milk production (0.32. It can be concluded that the increasing supplement level in the pre-parturition period improves the body score but not the milk production of the animals. The increase of supplement in the post parturition period gets better so much the body

  12. The Longitudinal Interplay of Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Body Image: A Conditional Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W.; Janosz, Michel; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Self-esteem and body image are central to coping successfully with the developmental challenges of adolescence. However, the current knowledge surrounding self-esteem and body image is fraught with controversy. This study attempts to clarify some of them by addressing three questions: (1) Are the intraindividual developmental trajectories of…

  13. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinghong; Lauber, Christian L; Czarnecki-Maulden, Gail; Pan, Yuanlong; Hannah, Steven S

    2017-01-24

    metabolic problems in humans. HPLC diets have been promoted as an effective weight loss strategy for many years, and potential effects were reported for both humans and dogs. In this study, we explored the influence of the protein and carbohydrate ratio on the gut microbiome in dogs with different body conditions. We demonstrated significant dietary effects on the gut microbiome, with greater changes in obese dogs than in lean dogs. The HPLC diet-fed dogs showed greater abundances of Firmicutes but fewer numbers of Bacteroidetes than other dogs. This knowledge will enable us to use prebiotics, probiotics, and other nutritional interventions to modulate the gut microbiota and to provide an alternative therapy for canine obesity. Copyright © 2017 Li et al.

  14. Effects of feeding frequency on growth, survival rate and body composition in sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed a commercial diet under laboratory condition

    OpenAIRE

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-01-01

    A 60 day feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, survival rate and body composition of sea bass (Lates calcarifer) juveniles fed commercial diet, reared under laboratory condition. The average initial weight of fish was 4.59 g and its initial total length of 7.11 cm was determined for the conditions factors. Ten fish were stocked in each 12 - 100 L conical fiberglass tanks filled with 90 L seawater at three replicates ...

  15. Body shape preferences: associations with rater body shape and sociosexuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Price

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence of condition-dependent mate choice in many species, that is, individual preferences varying in strength according to the condition of the chooser. In humans, for example, people with more attractive faces/bodies, and who are higher in sociosexuality, exhibit stronger preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex faces/bodies. However, previous studies have tended to use only relatively simple, isolated measures of rater attractiveness. Here we use 3D body scanning technology to examine associations between strength of rater preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex bodies, and raters' body shape, self-perceived attractiveness, and sociosexuality. For 118 raters and 80 stimuli models, we used a 3D scanner to extract body measurements associated with attractiveness (male waist-chest ratio [WCR], female waist-hip ratio [WHR], and volume-height index [VHI] in both sexes and also measured rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality. As expected, WHR and VHI were important predictors of female body attractiveness, while WCR and VHI were important predictors of male body attractiveness. Results indicated that male rater sociosexuality scores were positively associated with strength of preference for attractive (low VHI and attractive (low WHR in female bodies. Moreover, male rater self-perceived attractiveness was positively associated with strength of preference for low VHI in female bodies. The only evidence of condition-dependent preferences in females was a positive association between attractive VHI in female raters and preferences for attractive (low WCR in male bodies. No other significant associations were observed in either sex between aspects of rater body shape and strength of preferences for attractive opposite-sex body traits. These results suggest that among male raters, rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality are important predictors of preference strength for

  16. Modeling the effect of adverse environmental conditions and clothing on temperature rise in a human body exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; McIntosh, Robert L; Iskra, Steve; Wood, Andrew W

    2015-02-01

    This study considers the computationally determined thermal profile of a fully clothed, finely discretized, heterogeneous human body model, subject to the maximum allowable reference level for a 1-GHz radio frequency electromagnetic field for a worker, and also subject to adverse environmental conditions, including high humidity and high ambient temperature. An initial observation is that while electromagnetic fields at the occupational safety limit will contribute an additional thermal load to the tissues, and subsequently, cause an elevated temperature, the magnitude of this effect is far outweighed by that due to the conditions including the ambient temperature, relative humidity, and the type of clothing worn. It is envisaged that the computational modeling approach outlined in this paper will be suitably modified in future studies to evaluate the thermal response of a body at elevated metabolic rates, and for different body shapes and sizes including children and pregnant women.

  17. The costs of keeping cool in a warming world: implications of high temperatures for foraging, thermoregulation and body condition of an arid-zone bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Katherine L; Martin, Rowan O; Hockey, Philip A R; Cunningham, Susan J; Ridley, Amanda R

    2012-10-01

    Recent mass mortalities of bats, birds and even humans highlight the substantial threats that rising global temperatures pose for endotherms. Although less dramatic, sublethal fitness costs of high temperatures may be considerable and result in changing population demographics. Endothermic animals exposed to high environmental temperatures can adjust their behaviour (e.g. reducing activity) or physiology (e.g. elevating rates of evaporative water loss) to maintain body temperatures within tolerable limits. The fitness consequences of these adjustments, in terms of the ability to balance water and energy budgets and therefore maintain body condition, are poorly known. We investigated the effects of daily maximum temperature on foraging and thermoregulatory behaviour as well as maintenance of body condition in a wild, habituated population of Southern Pied Babblers Turdoides bicolor. These birds inhabit a hot, arid area of southern Africa where they commonly experience environmental temperatures exceeding optimal body temperatures. Repeated measurements of individual behaviour and body mass were taken across days varying in maximum air temperature. Contrary to expectations, foraging effort was unaffected by daily maximum temperature. Foraging efficiency, however, was lower on hotter days and this was reflected in a drop in body mass on hotter days. When maximum air temperatures exceeded 35.5 °C, individuals no longer gained sufficient weight to counter typical overnight weight loss. This reduction in foraging efficiency is likely driven, in part, by a trade-off with the need to engage in heat-dissipation behaviours. When we controlled for temperature, individuals that actively dissipated heat while continuing to forage experienced a dramatic decrease in their foraging efficiency. This study demonstrates the value of investigations of temperature-dependent behaviour in the context of impacts on body condition, and suggests that increasingly high temperatures will

  18. Simulation of the steady-state energy transfer in rigid bodies, with convective-radiative boundary conditions, employing a minimum principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gama, R.M.S. da.

    1992-08-01

    The energy transfer phenomenon in a rigid and opaque body that exchanges energy, with the environment, by convection and by diffuse thermal radiation is studied. The considered phenomenon is described by a partial differential equation, subjected to (nonlinear) boundary conditions. A minimum principle, suitable for a large class of energy transfer problems is presented. Some particular cases are simulated. (author)

  19. High levels of prevalence related to age and body condition: host-parasite interactions in a water frog Pelophylax kl hispanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Comas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Host traits can significantly influence patterns of infection and disease. Here, we studied the helminths parasitizing the Italian edible frog Pelophylax kl. hispanicus, giving special attention to the relationship between parasites and host traits such as sex, snout vent length, weight and body condition. The helminth community was composed of seven species: three trematode species (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Gorgodera cygnoides, Pleurogenes claviger, three nematode species (Icosiella neglecta, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Rhabdias sp. and one acanthocephalan species (Pomphorhychus laevis. We found that prevalence was positively correlated with snout-vent length and weight, but did not differ with body condition or sex. We found that prevalence and mean species richness increased with age. Our results show that abundance of Icosiella neglecta was positively correlated with higher values for host body condition. In fact, we found that high prevalence and mean species richness do not necessarily imply poorer body condition in the parasitized host. In conclusion, our results show that the helminth community in this taxon has great diversity, and this host-parasite system seems to be evolved to low levels of virulence, helminths maintaining a commensal relationship with this frog.

  20. Do body condition and plumage during fuelling predict northwards departure dates of Great Knots Calidris tenuirostris from north-west Australia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, PF; Piersma, T; Rogers, DI; Dekinga, A; Spaans, B; Van Gils, JA; Battley, Phil F.; Rogers, Danny I.

    It is often assumed that strong selection pressures give rise to trade-offs between body condition and time in long-distance migrating birds. Birds that are 'behind schedule' in fuel deposition or moult should delay departure, and this should result in a negative correlation between initial

  1. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  2. Differences in gestational weight gain between pregnancies before and after maternal bariatric surgery correlate with differences in birth weight but not with scores on the body mass index in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglind, D; Willmer, M; Näslund, E; Tynelius, P; Sørensen, T I A; Rasmussen, F

    2014-12-01

    Large maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with increased birth weight and increased risk of obesity in offspring, but these associations may be confounded by genetic and environmental factors. The aim was to investigate the effects of differences in GWG in all three trimesters on differences in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) scores at 4 and 6 years of age, within siblings born before and after bariatric surgery. Women with at least one child born before and one after bariatric surgery were identified in national Swedish registers. Series of weight (and height) measurements were collected from antenatal medical records, with data on the nearest pregnancies before and after bariatric surgery. The age-adjusted means of pre- and post-operative GWG of 124 women were 11.3 (standard deviation [SD] 7.2) and 8.3 (SD 6.4) kg, respectively (P = 0.01). Adjusted fixed effects regression models showed positive associations of differences in mean total GWG with differences in siblings' birth weight, 0.023 kg per 1-kg greater weight gain (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.014-0.069) and for second trimester 0.53 kg for each 1-kg greater weight per week (95% CI: 0.32-1.61), whereas no associations were found with BMI in pre-school age. This study showed positive associations between differences in total and second trimester maternal GWG and differences in children's birth weight, but no association with BMI scores in pre-school age. Maternal genetic, social and lifestyle factors fixed from one pregnancy to the next were taken into account in the analyses by the study design. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. Body Piercing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Piercing Posted under Health Guides . Updated 1 August 2017. + ... medical reasons why I should not get a piercing? Yes. There are medical conditions (see the list ...

  4. Adult survival, apparent lamb survival, and body condition of desert bighorn sheep in relation to habitat and precipitation on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overstreet, Matthew; Caldwell, Colleen A.; Cain, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The decline of desert bighorn sheep on the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (KNWR) beginning in 2003 stimulated efforts to determine the factors limiting survival and recruitment. We 1) determined pregnancy rates, body fat, and estimated survival rates of adults and lambs; 2) investigated the relationship between precipitation, forage conditions, previous year’s reproductive success, and adult body condition; 3) assessed the relative influence of body condition of adult females, precipitation, and forage characteristics on apparent survival of lambs; and 4) determined the prevalence of disease. To assess the influence of potential limiting factors on female desert bighorn sheep on the KNWR, we modeled percent body fat of adult females as a function of previous year’s reproductive effort, age class, and forage conditions (i.e., seasonal NDVI and seasonal precipitation). In addition, we assessed the relative influence of the body condition of adult females, precipitation, and forage conditions (NDVI) on length of time a lamb was observed at heel.Adult female survival was high in both 2009 (0.90 [SE = 0.05]) and 2010 (0.96 [SE = 0.03]). Apparent lamb survival to 6 months of age was 0.23 (SE = 0.05) during 2009-2010 and 0.21 (SE = 0.05) during 2010-2011 lambing seasons. Mean body fat for adult females was 12.03% (SE = 0.479) in 2009-2010 and 11.11% (SE= 0.486) in 2010-2011 and was not significantly different between years. Pregnancy rate was 100% in 2009 and 97.5% in 2010.Models containing the previous year’s reproductive effort, spring NDVI and previous year’s reproductive effort and spring precipitation best approximated data on percent body fat in adult females in 2009-2010. In 2010-2011, the two highest-ranking models included the previous year’s reproductive effort and winter NDVI and previous year’s reproductive effort, and winter and spring NDVI. None of the models assessing the influence of maternal body fat, precipitation, or forage conditions were

  5. Biochemical markers identify influences on bone and cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis - the effect of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriksen K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteoarthritis (OA involves changes in both bone and cartilage. These processes might be associated under some circumstances. This study investigated correlations between bone and cartilage degradation in patients with OA as a function of sex, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL score, Body Mass Index (BMI, oral salmon calcitonin (sCT treatment and diurnal variation. Methods This study was a 2-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study including 37 postmenopausal women and 36 men, aged 57-75 years, with painful knee OA, and a KL-score of I - III. Subjects were allocated to one of three treatment arms: 0.6 mg or 0.8 mg oral sCT, or placebo given twice-daily for 14 days. Correlations between gender, KL score, or BMI and the bone resorption marker, serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CTX-I, or the cartilage degradation marker, urine C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type II (CTX-II were investigated. Results At baseline, biomarkers indicated women with OA experienced higher bone and cartilage degradation than men. CTX-I levels were significantly higher, and CTX-II levels only marginally higher, in women than in men (p = 0.04 and p = 0.06, respectively. Increasing KL score was not correlated with bone resorption, but was significantly associated with the cartilage degradation CTX-II marker in both men and women (p = 0.007. BMI was significantly and negatively correlated to the bone resorption marker CTX-I, r = -0.40 (p = 0.002, but showed only a borderline positive correlation to CTX-II, r = 0.25 (p = 0.12. Before morning treatments on days 1 and 14, no correlation was seen between CTX-I and CTX-II in either the sCT or placebo group. However, oral sCT and food intake induced a clear correlation between these bone and cartilage degradation markers. Four hours after the first sCT dose on treatment days 1 and 14, a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p p = 0.02, but not on day 14. Conclusion Bone resorption was higher in

  6. Measurement of {sup 40}K as an indicator of body potassium: Implication for diabetes and other disease conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniyan, C.G.; Mohan, G.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Sujata, R.; Haridasan, P.P.; Khan, A.H

    2003-07-01

    Potassium (K) content in 408 male workers of a rare earths processing plant was estimated using a shadow shield whole body counter. The average K content in the non-vegetarian and vegetarian group was found to be 1.5 g kg{sup -1} and 2.1 g kg{sup -1} respectively. The absorbed dose due to {sup 40}K works out to 0.18 {+-} 0.02 mGy. While the K content was found to be proportional to body build index, it is inversely proportional to slenderness. Body K was maximum in the middle aged group (35-45 y) and minimum in younger and older persons. The correlation of potassium content with some disease patterns were also studied. Diabetes mellitus patients were observed to have low K content of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 g kg{sup -1} and those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders were found to have high K content 2.7 {+-} 0.3 g kg{sup -1}. The studies showed that the depletion of body K content takes place a few years prior to the clinical detection of diabetes and it builds up a few years before the clinical detection of cardiovascular disorders. It is stressed that the medical information is preliminary as the number of subjects studied was not very large. Wider and in depth study by various groups can hopefully strengthen the observation. (author)

  7. Trade-off between migration and reproduction : does a high workload affect body condition and reproductive state?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt-Wellenburg, Carola A.; Visser, G. Henk; Biebach, Brigitte; Delhey, Kaspar; Oltrogge, Martina; Wittenzellner, Andrea; Biebach, Herbert; Kempenaers, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Migratory birds have to invest much energy into flight to reach their summer and winter quarters. Many studies have shown how migration affects body physiology, including the accumulation of energy stores and the reduction of nonessential organs. In spring, the costs of migration may trade-off with

  8. Profile and genetic parameters of dairy cattle locomotion score and lameness across lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougioumtzis, A; Valergakis, G E; Oikonomou, G; Arsenos, G; Banos, G

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the profile of locomotion score and lameness before the first calving and throughout the first (n=237) and second (n=66) lactation of 303 Holstein cows raised on a commercial farm. Weekly heritability estimates of locomotion score and lameness, and their genetic and phenotypic correlations with milk yield, body condition score, BW and reproduction traits were derived. Daughter future locomotion score and lameness predictions from their sires��� breeding values for conformation traits were also calculated. First-lactation cows were monitored weekly from 6 weeks before calving to the end of lactation. Second-lactation cows were monitored weekly throughout lactation. Cows were locomotion scored on a scale from one (sound) to five (severely lame); a score greater than or equal to two defined presence of lameness. Cows��� weekly body condition score and BW was also recorded. These records were matched to corresponding milk yield records, where the latter were 7-day averages on the week of inspection. The total number of repeated records amounted to 12 221. Data were also matched to the farm���s reproduction database, from which five traits were derived. Statistical analyses were based on uni- and bivariate random regression models. The profile analysis showed that locomotion and lameness problems in first lactation were fewer before and immediately after calving, and increased as lactation progressed. The profile of the two traits remained relatively constant across the second lactation. Highest heritability estimates were observed in the weeks before first calving (0.66 for locomotion score and 0.54 for lameness). Statistically significant genetic correlations were found for first lactation weekly locomotion score and lameness with body condition score, ranging from ���0.31 to ���0.65 and from ���0.44 to ���0.76, respectively, suggesting that cows genetically pre-disposed for high body condition score

  9. Assessment of body work condition by RULA method in a motor vehicle industry in order to design an effective exoskeleton system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bahrami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims : physical activities in occupations like handling, static and dynamic postures, sudden movements, and repetitive postures are amongst most important risk factors of Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. There are many ergonomic methods for assessing WMSDs which can be used in different cases, but these assessments and analyses can not be beneficial by themselves and should be promoted with usable, practical suggestions to improve the work condition. Such quality is brought to this research paper by first assessing ergonomic risks level, resulted by postural stresses, with special emphasis on improper postures, forces and repeating and then using these information to design assisting device called exoskeleton for improving work condition and industrial tasks.   Methods: For assessing and analyzing upper body work condition, postures in 17 different tasks were analyzed by RULA (Rapid upper limb assessment method and a set of 60 worksheets were created out of them. Also biomechanical movement observation during normal tasks was done. Then HONDA company`s exoskeleton for lower body was analyzed and some design elements were extracted from it, to design an upper body exoskeleton based on the same design language.   Results: This Research shows that none of tasks were completely acceptable, and neck, trunk and legs were more affected by improper postures. There was no meaningful difference between right and left hand conditions in overall task and posture assessment. Research also shows dominant effect of force and repeat risk factors in tasks being harmful for upper body. Analyzing HONDA company`s exoskeleton shows the likelihood of success in upper body exoskeleton for improving work conditions and minimizing WMSDs.   Conclusion: Although redistribution or regular rotation of personnel, changing and optimizing work cycles and proper training might reduce WMSDs and improve work condition, but using an assisting device

  10. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L.; Hutton, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13–3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. - Highlights: • Proportion of the shearwater population ingesting plastic increased over four years. • Shearwater body condition is negatively influenced by the amount of ingested plastic. • Shearwater contaminant load is positively related to the amount of ingested plastic. • Many chicks exceed international targets for ingested plastic after a single feeding. • Plastic ingestion in this study is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate. - Flesh-footed Shearwaters ingest large quantities of marine plastic, which is correlated with poor body condition and increased concentrations of trace metals such as chromium

  11. Organizing effects of adverse early-life condition on body mass, compensatory growth and reproduction : experimental studies in rock pigeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Early-life food conditions can have profound impact on adult behavioural performance. In song birds, early-life food conditions affect adult physiology and cognitive performance such as song learning and spatial learning. However, effects on reproductive behaviour other than song, such as visual

  12. The relationship between body system-based chronic conditions and dental utilization for Medicaid-enrolled children: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental care is the most common unmet health care need for children with chronic conditions. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that not all children with chronic conditions encounter difficulties accessing dental care. The goals of this study are to evaluate dental care use for Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions and to identify the subgroups of children with chronic conditions that are the least likely to use dental care services. Methods This study focused on children with chronic conditions ages 3-14 enrolled in the Iowa Medicaid Program in 2005 and 2006. The independent variables were whether a child had each of the following 10 body system-based chronic conditions (no/yes): hematologic; cardiovascular; craniofacial; diabetes; endocrine; digestive; ear/nose/throat; respiratory; catastrophic neurological; or musculoskeletal. The primary outcome measure was use of any dental care in 2006. Secondary outcomes, also measured in 2006, were use of diagnostic dental care, preventive dental care, routine restorative dental care, and complex restorative dental care. We used Poisson regression models to estimate the relative risk (RR) associated with each of the five outcome measures across the 10 chronic conditions. Results Across the 10 chronic condition subgroups, unadjusted dental utilization rates ranged from 44.3% (children with catastrophic neurological conditions) to 60.2% (children with musculoskeletal conditions). After adjusting for model covariates, children with catastrophic neurological conditions were significantly less likely to use most types of dental care (RR: 0.48 to 0.73). When there were differences, children with endocrine or craniofacial conditions were less likely to use dental care whereas children with hematologic or digestive conditions were more likely to use dental care. Children with respiratory, musculoskeletal, or ear/nose/throat conditions were more likely to use most types of dental care compared to other

  13. The relationship between body system-based chronic conditions and dental utilization for Medicaid-enrolled children: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Raklios, Nicholas A

    2012-08-07

    Dental care is the most common unmet health care need for children with chronic conditions. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that not all children with chronic conditions encounter difficulties accessing dental care. The goals of this study are to evaluate dental care use for Medicaid-enrolled children with chronic conditions and to identify the subgroups of children with chronic conditions that are the least likely to use dental care services. This study focused on children with chronic conditions ages 3-14 enrolled in the Iowa Medicaid Program in 2005 and 2006. The independent variables were whether a child had each of the following 10 body system-based chronic conditions (no/yes): hematologic; cardiovascular; craniofacial; diabetes; endocrine; digestive; ear/nose/throat; respiratory; catastrophic neurological; or musculoskeletal. The primary outcome measure was use of any dental care in 2006. Secondary outcomes, also measured in 2006, were use of diagnostic dental care, preventive dental care, routine restorative dental care, and complex restorative dental care. We used Poisson regression models to estimate the relative risk (RR) associated with each of the five outcome measures across the 10 chronic conditions. Across the 10 chronic condition subgroups, unadjusted dental utilization rates ranged from 44.3% (children with catastrophic neurological conditions) to 60.2% (children with musculoskeletal conditions). After adjusting for model covariates, children with catastrophic neurological conditions were significantly less likely to use most types of dental care (RR: 0.48 to 0.73). When there were differences, children with endocrine or craniofacial conditions were less likely to use dental care whereas children with hematologic or digestive conditions were more likely to use dental care. Children with respiratory, musculoskeletal, or ear/nose/throat conditions were more likely to use most types of dental care compared to other children with chronic

  14. An accurate and adaptable photogrammetric approach for estimating the mass and body condition of pinnipeds using an unmanned aerial system

    OpenAIRE

    Krause, Douglas J.; Hinke, Jefferson T.; Perryman, Wayne L.; Goebel, Michael E.; LeRoi, Donald J.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of body size and mass are fundamental to pinniped population management and research. Manual measurements tend to be accurate but are invasive and logistically challenging to obtain. Ground-based photogrammetric techniques are less invasive, but inherent limitations make them impractical for many field applications. The recent proliferation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in wildlife monitoring has provided a promising new platform for the photogrammetry of free-ranging pinniped...

  15. Viewing television shows containing ideal and neutral body images while exercising: does type of body image content influence exercise performance and body image in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric E; Baird, Seanna A; Gilbert, Danielle N; Miller, Paul C; Bixby, Walter R

    2011-09-01

    This study examined how exposure to media containing different body image content while exercising influenced exercise performance and feelings concerning appearance. 41 females completed two sessions of cycling (30 minutes). During exercise, participants viewed a television show that contained either media-portrayed ideal or neutral female body images. There were no differences in exercise performance between conditions. Physical appearance state anxiety (PASA) decreased post-exercise. After viewing ideal bodies, participants scored higher on appearance and comparison processing. The high internalization group scored higher on appearance and comparison processing and PASA increased following ideal body image content while the low internalization group decreased.

  16. Effect of caffeine on upper-body anaerobic performance in wrestlers in simulated competition-day conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedma, Martin; Timpmann, Saima; Ööpik, Vahur

    2013-12-01

    Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) attained in upper body sprint performance test are considered important factors for competitive success in wrestling. This study aimed to determine whether acute caffeine ingestion would better maintain PP and MP across a simulated competition day in wrestling. In a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover study, 14 trained wrestlers ingested either placebo or 5 mg/kg caffeine and completed four 6-min upper body intermittent sprint performance tests with 30-min recovery periods between consecutive tests. PP and MP were recorded during and blood lactate concentration was measured before and after each test. Ratings of perceived fatigue (RPF) and exertion (RPE) were recorded before and after each test, respectively. Heart rate (HR) was monitored across the whole testing period. Mean power decreased across four tests in both trials (p caffeine trial. Both pretest blood lactate concentration and HR were higher in caffeine than in placebo trial (p caffeine ingestion has a partially detrimental effect on upper body intermittent sprint performance in trained wrestlers. Elevated HR and blood lactate levels observed between tests after caffeine ingestion suggest that caffeine may impair recovery between consecutive maximal efforts.

  17. Cafeteria diet overfeeding in young male rats impairs the adaptive response to fed/fasted conditions and increases adiposity independent of body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, H; Pomar, C A; Picó, C; Sánchez, J; Palou, A

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the effects of a short exposure to a cafeteria diet during early infancy in rats on their metabolic response to fed/fasting conditions in key tissues involved in energy homeostasis. Ten-day-old male pups were fed a control or a cafeteria diet for 12 days and then killed under ad libitum feeding conditions or 12 h fasting. The expression of key genes related to energy metabolism in liver, retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) and hypothalamus were analyzed. Despite no differences in body weight, cafeteria-fed animals had almost double the fat mass of control rats. They also showed higher food intake, higher leptinemia and altered hypothalamic expression of Neuropetide Y, suggesting a dysfunction in the control of food intake. Unlike controls, cafeteria-fed animals did not decrease WAT expression of Pparg, sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 or Cidea under fasting conditions, and displayed lower Pnpla2 expression than controls. In liver, compared with controls, cafeteria animals presented: (i) lower expression of genes related with fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis under ad libitum-fed conditions; (ii) higher expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and glucokinase under fasting conditions; (iii) greater expression of leptin and insulin receptors; and higher protein levels of insulin receptor and the pAMPK/AMPK ratio. A short period of exposure to a cafeteria diet in early infancy in rat pups is enough to disturb the metabolic response to fed/fasting conditions in key tissues involved in energy homeostasis, particularly in WAT, and hence induces an exacerbated body fat accumulation and increased metabolic risk, with no apparent effects on body weight.

  18. Morphological study of the effect of cyclophosphamide, dimethylmyleran and whole-body irradiation for the conditioning of dogs to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, L.

    1980-01-01

    Dogs were treated with either cyclophosphamide (CY) or dimethylmyleran (DMM), both cytostatics or with total body irradiation (TBI) in order to find out which agents are most suitable for conditioning for bone marrow (BM) transplantation. The histomorphological changes in various organs (lung, bone marrow, lymphatic tissues, digestive tract, liver, kidney, bladder, heart and gonads) after treatment with different doses are described. (orig./MG) [de

  19. Measurement of body condition in a common carabid beetle, Poecilus cupreus: Comparison of fresh weight, dry weight and fat content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knapp, M.; Knappová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2013), s. 1-10 ISSN 1536-2442 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Carabidae * lipid content * nutritional condition Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.921, year: 2013

  20. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B; Panda, N; Pradhan, C R; Mallik, B K; Majhi, B; Rout, S S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6(th) to 20(th) week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1(st) to 6(th) week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

  1. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessy Bagh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

  2. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  3. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Harms, N., E-mail: naomi.harms@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Fairhurst, Graham D., E-mail: graham.fairhurst@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Bortolotti, Gary R., E-mail: gary.bortolotti@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

  4. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jane Harms, N.; Fairhurst, Graham D.; Bortolotti, Gary R.; Smits, Judit E.G.

    2010-01-01

    In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

  5. Physical activity, nutrition, screen time and sleep associated with body weight and physical condition in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    l'Hoir, M.; Tetteroo, S.; Boere-Boonekamp, M.M.; Kloeze, E.; de Bakker, I; Galindo Garre, F.; Naul, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the possible relationship between (un)healthy behaviour and (over)weight and physical condition in families with young children (4-7 years), in a village (30,000 inhabitants) in the eastern part of the Netherlands, close to Germany. It is one of

  6. Physical activity, nutrition, screen time and sleep associated with body weight and physical condition in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Hoir, Monique; Tetteroo, Susanne; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; Kloeze, Elly; Bakker, Ingrid; Galindo Garre, Francisca; Naul, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the possible relationship between (un)healthy behaviour and (over)weight and physical condition in families with young children (4–7 years), in a village (30,000 inhabitants) in the eastern part of the Netherlands, close to Germany. It is one of

  7. Formation of H2-He substellar bodies in cold conditions. Gravitational stability of binary mixtures in a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füglistaler, A.; Pfenniger, D.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Molecular clouds typically consist of 3/4 H2, 1/4 He and traces of heavier elements. In an earlier work we showed that at very low temperatures and high densities, H2 can be in a phase transition leading to the formation of ice clumps as large as comets or even planets. However, He has very different chemical properties and no phase transition is expected before H2 in dense interstellar medium conditions. The gravitational stability of fluid mixtures has been studied before, but these studies did not include a phase transition. Aims: We study the gravitational stability of binary fluid mixtures with special emphasis on when one component is in a phase transition. The numerical results are aimed at applications in molecular cloud conditions, but the theoretical results are more general. Methods: First, we study the gravitational stability of van der Waals fluid mixtures using linearized analysis and examine virial equilibrium conditions using the Lennard-Jones intermolecular potential. Then, combining the Lennard-Jones and gravitational potentials, the non-linear dynamics of fluid mixtures are studied via computer simulations using the molecular dynamics code LAMMPS. Results: Along with the classical, ideal-gas Jeans instability criterion, a fluid mixture is always gravitationally unstable if it is in a phase transition because compression does not increase pressure. However, the condensed phase fraction increases. In unstable situations the species can separate: in some conditions He precipitates faster than H2, while in other conditions the converse occurs. Also, for an initial gas phase collapse the geometry is essential. Contrary to spherical or filamentary collapses, sheet-like collapses starting below 15 K easily reach H2 condensation conditions because then they are fastest and both the increase of heating and opacity are limited. Conclusions: Depending on density, temperature and mass, either rocky H2 planetoids, or gaseous He planetoids form. H2

  8. Crank-Nicholson Scheme for the Estimation of Thermal Disturbance on the Peripheral Tissues of Human Body Subjected to Oscillatory Boundary Condition and Time Dependent Heat Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, M. A.; Hussain, Fida

    2015-07-01

    To predict the behaviour of thermal physiology of a finite biological tissue in severe cold climatic conditions, a mathematical model has been established based on Pennes' bio-heat transfer equation with oscillatory boundary condition and time dependent heat source term. Crank-Nicholson scheme has been employed to obtain the solution of the boundary value problem to understand the change in stable temperature profiles at the peripheral tissues of human body subjected to forced convection due to cold. Thermal stress at these regions with respect to different input parameters has been computed under extreme environmental conditions using MATLAB Software. The results have shown a relative significance and provide a reasonable outcome in terms of variable metabolic heat generation and oscillatory heat source. The oscillations of the temperature profiles from the mean temperatures were computed in relation with tissue medium and other physiological parameters.

  9. Association of Pre-Pregnancy Body Mass Index, Pregnancy-Related Weight Changes, and Parity With the Risk of Developing Degenerative Musculoskeletal Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine how pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, and pregnancy-related weight changes are associated with long-term risk of degenerative musculoskeletal conditions. Methods A total of 79,687 mothers with singleton births from the Danish National Birth Cohort were included....... Information on height and weight prior to pregnancy and 6 months postpartum as well as gestational weight gain (GWG) was obtained from telephone interviews, while parity was derived from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Diagnoses of musculoskeletal conditions, including osteoarthritis, disc disorders, low...... of musculoskeletal conditions increased with both increasing pre-pregnancy BMI and increasing parity. Compared to normal-weight first-time mothers, the highest risk was seen in obese women with >2 births (HR 1.61 [95% confidence interval 1.41–1.83]). GWG of 10–15 kg was associated with the lowest risk...

  10. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  11. Evaluation of body mass index and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the body mass index (BMI) and plasma lipid profile in Boerboel dogs. Body weights (BW), height (H) at shoulder and waist circumference (WC) were obtained from fifty-three Boerboels to determine the BMI while, body condition score (BCS) was determined subjectively. Also 5mls of blood was obtained ...

  12. Cutaneous Bacterial Communities of a Poisonous Salamander: a Perspective from Life Stages, Body Parts and Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Eugenia; Bletz, Molly C; Duntsch, Laura; Bhuju, Sabin; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Dohrmann, Anja B; Tebbe, Christoph C; Steinfartz, Sebastian; Vences, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    Amphibian skin provides a habitat for bacterial communities in its mucus. Understanding the structure and function of this "mucosome" in the European fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) is critical in the context of novel emerging pathogenic diseases. We compare the cutaneous bacterial communities of this species using amplicon-based sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. Across 290 samples, over 4000 OTUs were identified, four of them consistently present in all samples. Larvae and post-metamorphs exhibited distinct cutaneous microbial communities. In adults, the parotoid gland surface had a community structure different from the head, dorsum, flanks and ventral side. Larvae from streams had higher phylogenetic diversity than those found in ponds. Their bacterial community structure also differed; species of Burkholderiaceae, Comamonadaceae, Methylophilaceae and Sphingomonadaceae were more abundant in pond larvae, possibly related to differences in factors like desiccation and decomposition rate in this environment. The observed differences in the cutaneous bacterial community among stages, body parts and habitats of fire salamanders suggest that both host and external factors shape these microbiota. We hypothesize that the variation in cutaneous bacterial communities might contribute to variation in pathogen susceptibility among individual salamanders.

  13. Do whole body vibration exercises affect lower limbs neuromuscular activity in populations with a medical condition? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionello, Carla Fontoura; de Souza, Patrícia Lopes; Sá-Caputo, Danubia; Morel, Danielle Soares; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Frederico, Eric Heleno Freire Ferreira; Guedes-Aguiar, Eliane; Paiva, Patricia de Castro; Taiar, Redha; Chiementin, Xavier; Marín, Pedro J; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The use of surface electromyography (sEMG) to evaluate muscle activation when executing whole body vibration exercises (WBVE) in studies provide neuromuscular findings, in healthy and diseased populations. Perform a systematic review of the effects of WBVE by sEMG of lower limbs in non-healthy populations. The search using the defined keywords was performed in PubMed, PEDRo and EMBASE databases by three independent researchers. Applying the PRISMA statement several studies were selected according to eligibility criteria and organized for the review. Full papers were included if they described effects of WBVE for the treatment of illnesses, evaluated by sEMG of lower limbs independently on the year of the publication; in comparison or associated with other treatment and evaluation techniques. Seven publications were selected; two in spinal cord injury patients, one in Friedreich's ataxia patients, three in stroke patients and one study in breast cancer survivors. Reported effects of WBV in were muscle activation by sEMG and also on strength, blood flow and exercise resistance; even in paretic limbs. By the use of sEMG it was verified that WBVE elicits muscle activation in diseased population. These results may lead to the definition of exercise protocols to maintain or increase muscular activation. However, due to the heterogeneity of methods among studies, there is currently no consensus on the sEMG signal processing. These strategies might also induce effects on muscle strength, balance and flexibility in these and other illnesses.

  14. Qigong as a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy: Long-Term Conditioning of Physiological Mind-Body Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Matos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of “awareness” with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in “White Ball” Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2–5 min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and “conditioned” vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire.

  15. Different Roles for Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies and Central Complex in Visual Learning of Colored Lights in an Aversive Conditioning Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Jenny A; Entler, Brian V; Kirkerud, Nicholas H; Schlegel, Ulrike; Galizia, C Giovanni; Barron, Andrew B

    2017-01-01

    The honey bee is an excellent visual learner, but we know little about how and why it performs so well, or how visual information is learned by the bee brain. Here we examined the different roles of two key integrative regions of the brain in visual learning: the mushroom bodies and the central complex. We tested bees' learning performance in a new assay of color learning that used electric shock as punishment. In this assay a light field was paired with electric shock. The other half of the conditioning chamber was illuminated with light of a different wavelength and not paired with shocks. The unrestrained bee could run away from the light stimulus and thereby associate one wavelength with punishment, and the other with safety. We compared learning performance of bees in which either the central complex or mushroom bodies had been transiently inactivated by microinjection of the reversible anesthetic procaine. Control bees learned to escape the shock-paired light field and to spend more time in the safe light field after a few trials. When ventral lobe neurons of the mushroom bodies were silenced, bees were no longer able to associate one light field with shock. By contrast, silencing of one collar region of the mushroom body calyx did not alter behavior in the learning assay in comparison to control treatment. Bees with silenced central complex neurons did not leave the shock-paired light field in the middle trials of training, even after a few seconds of being shocked. We discussed how mushroom bodies and the central complex both contribute to aversive visual learning with an operant component.

  16. Different Roles for Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies and Central Complex in Visual Learning of Colored Lights in an Aversive Conditioning Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A. Plath

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is an excellent visual learner, but we know little about how and why it performs so well, or how visual information is learned by the bee brain. Here we examined the different roles of two key integrative regions of the brain in visual learning: the mushroom bodies and the central complex. We tested bees' learning performance in a new assay of color learning that used electric shock as punishment. In this assay a light field was paired with electric shock. The other half of the conditioning chamber was illuminated with light of a different wavelength and not paired with shocks. The unrestrained bee could run away from the light stimulus and thereby associate one wavelength with punishment, and the other with safety. We compared learning performance of bees in which either the central complex or mushroom bodies had been transiently inactivated by microinjection of the reversible anesthetic procaine. Control bees learned to escape the shock-paired light field and to spend more time in the safe light field after a few trials. When ventral lobe neurons of the mushroom bodies were silenced, bees were no longer able to associate one light field with shock. By contrast, silencing of one collar region of the mushroom body calyx did not alter behavior in the learning assay in comparison to control treatment. Bees with silenced central complex neurons did not leave the shock-paired light field in the middle trials of training, even after a few seconds of being shocked. We discussed how mushroom bodies and the central complex both contribute to aversive visual learning with an operant component.

  17. Effect of 8 days of a hypergravity condition on the sprinting speed and lower-body power of elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Matthew J; Gabbett, Tim J; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-03-01

    -Sprinting speed and lower-body power are considered to be key physical abilities for rugby players. A method of improving the lower-body power of athletes is simulated hypergravity. This method involves wearing a weighted vest at all times during the day for an extended period of time. There are no studies that have examined the effect of hypergravity on speed or the benefit for rugby players. An experimental group (n = 8) and a control group (n = 7) of national team rugby players took part in the study, which consisted of rugby, conditioning, speed, and strength sessions. The experimental group wore a weighted vest equating to 12% of their body mass for 8 days. All players were tested for speed and lower-body power before, 2 days after, and 9 days after the intervention. Speed testing involved the athletes completing 40-m sprints with timing lights and high-speed video cameras assessing acceleration and maximal velocity sprinting kinematics. Lower-body power was assessed using weighted countermovement jumps (CMJs). No group differences were found for sprinting speed at any point. The experimental group displayed a large decrease in acceleration ground contact time (-0.01 ± 0.005 s, d = 1.07) and a moderate increase in 15-kg CMJ velocity (0.07 ± 0.11 m·s, d = 0.71). Individual responses showed that players in the experimental group had both negative and positive speed and power responses to the training intervention. Simulated hypergravity for 8 days is likely ineffective at improving sprinting speed while undergoing standard rugby training.

  18. Impact of body weight on antidiabetic treatment and predictors of weight control under real-world conditions: a 2-year follow-up of DiaRegis cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, B; Bramlage, P; Schneider, S; Tschöpe, D; Gitt, A K

    2015-12-01

    Treatment strategies for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus aim to increase physical activity, reduce body weight, and improve glucose control using weight-beneficial antidiabetic drugs. The objective of this study was to determine whether these strategies are implemented, and to identify factors predictive of glucose control and body weight management in a large, real-world patient population. The prospective DiaRegis cohort study included 3807 patients with type 2 diabetes in whom the treating physician decided to intensify and optimize treatment because of insufficient glucose control. Antidiabetic treatment of overweight and obese patients was compared with that of normal-weight patients over a 2-years follow-up period, and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of body weight loss. Among the 3807 participants, 92.5 % were overweight or obese. Normal-weight participants were more often treated with sulfonylureas or insulin, and overweight and obese patients with metformin or glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogues. Predictors of weight loss were body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) and any reported physical activity. DiaRegis study shows that under real-world conditions, antidiabetic drug therapy is performed dependent on body weight. This strategy results in adequate glucose control and moderate weight reductions in overweight and obese patients. Weight loss is affected by treatment with weight-beneficial drugs, but also by any reported physical activity. However, only a small subgroup of patients perform physical activity. Initiation and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle remains a significant challenge for physicians, and patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. The interaction of body armor, low-intensity exercise, and hot-humid conditions on physiological strain and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Joanne N; Engelen, Lian; van der Henst, Charles; Patterson, Mark J; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2011-05-01

    This project was aimed at evaluating the impact of combat armor on physiological and cognitive functions during low-intensity exercise in hot-humid conditions (36 degrees C and 60% relative humidity). Nine males participated in three trials (2.5 hours), walking at two speeds and wearing different protective equipment: control (combat uniform and cloth hat); torso armor with uniform and cloth hat; and full armor (uniform, torso armor, and helmet). As time progressed, core temperatures increased and deviated significantly among trials, rising at 0.37 degrees C h(-1) (control), 0.41 degrees C h(-1) (torso armor), and 0.51 degrees C h(-1) (full armor). Heart rates also progressively diverged, and subjects lost significantly more sweat during the two armored trials. However, cognitive-function tests revealed neither significant main effects nor time by treatment interactions. The combat armor and helmet significantly increased thermal and cardiovascular strain, but these were unlikely to lead to either exertional heat illness or impaired cognitive function during uneventful urban, military patrols in hot-humid conditions.

  20. Significance of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in body fluids as a marker related to diseased conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabe, Hiroyuki; Kato, Rina; Sasabe, Naoko; Obama, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2018-03-06

    Oxidatively modified low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) is known to be involved in various diseases, including cardiovascular diseases. The presence of oxLDL in the human circulatory system and in atherosclerotic lesions has been demonstrated using monoclonal antibodies. Studies have shown the significance of circulating oxLDL in various systemic diseases, including acute myocardial infarction and diabetic mellitus. Several different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures to measure oxLDL were utilized. Evidence has been accumulating that reveals changes in oxLDL levels under certain pathological conditions. Since oxLDL concentration tends to correlate with low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, the ratio of oxLDL and LDL rather than oxLDL concentration alone has been focused attention. In addition to circulating plasma, LDL and oxLDL are found in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), where the ratio of oxLDL to LDL in GCF is much higher than in plasma. LDL and oxLDL levels in GCF show an increase in diabetic patients and periodontal patients, suggesting that GCF might be useful in examining systemic conditions. GCF oxLDL increased when the teeth were affected by periodontitis. It is likely that oxLDL levels in plasma and GCF could reflect oxidative stress and transfer efficacy in circulatory system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Effects of the Dietary Protein and Carbohydrate Ratio on Gut Microbiomes in Dogs of Different Body Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a health epidemic in both humans and pets. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with obesity and other metabolic disorders. High-protein, low-carbohydrate (HPLC diets have been recommended for body weight loss, but little is known about their effects on the canine gut microbiome. Sixty-three obese and lean Labrador retrievers and Beagles (mean age, 5.72 years were fed a common baseline diet for 4 weeks in phase 1, followed by 4 weeks of a treatment diet, specifically, the HPLC diet (49.4% protein, 10.9% carbohydrate or a low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC diet (25.5% protein, 38.8% carbohydrate in phase 2. 16S rRNA gene profiling revealed that dietary protein and carbohydrate ratios have significant impacts on gut microbial compositions. This effect appeared to be more evident in obese dogs than in lean dogs but was independent of breed. Consumption of either diet increased the bacterial evenness, but not the richness, of the gut compared to that after consumption of the baseline diet. Macronutrient composition affected taxon abundances, mainly within the predominant phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The LPHC diet appeared to favor the growth of Bacteroides uniformis and Clostridium butyricum, while the HPLC diet increased the abundances of Clostridium hiranonis, Clostridium perfringens, and Ruminococcus gnavus and enriched microbial gene networks associated with weight maintenance. In addition, we observed a decrease in the Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and an increase in the Bacteroides to Prevotella ratio in the HPLC diet-fed dogs compared to these ratios in dogs fed other diets. Finally, analysis of the effect of diet on the predicted microbial gene network was performed using phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt.

  2. Development of an experimental model of burst fracture with damage characterization of the vertebral bodies under dynamic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germaneau, A; Vendeuvre, T; Saget, M; Doumalin, P; Dupré, J C; Brémand, F; Hesser, F; Brèque, C; Maxy, P; Roulaud, M; Monlezun, O; Rigoard, P

    2017-11-01

    Burst fractures represent a significant proportion of fractures of the thoracolumbar junction. The recent advent of minimally invasive techniques has revolutionized the surgical treatment of this type of fracture. However mechanical behaviour and primary stability offered by these solutions have to be proved from experimental validation tests on cadaveric specimens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an original and reproducible model of burst fracture under dynamic impact. Experimental tests were performed on 24 cadaveric spine segments (T11-L3). A system of dynamic loading was developed using a modified Charpy pendulum. The mechanical response of the segments (strain measurement on vertebrae and discs) was obtained during the impact by using an optical method with a high-speed camera. The production of burst fracture was validated by an analysis of the segments by X-ray tomography. Burst fracture was systematically produced on L1 for each specimen. Strain analysis during impact highlighted the large deformation of L1 due to the fracture and small strains in adjacent vertebrae. The mean reduction of the vertebral body of L1 assessed for all the specimens was around 15%. No damage was observed in adjacent discs or vertebrae. With this new, reliable and replicable procedure for production and biomechanical analysis of burst fractures, comparison of different types of stabilization systems can be envisaged. The loading system was designed so as to be able to produce loads leading to other types of fractures and to provide data to validate finite element modelling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body Weight, Carapace Length and Width Relationship and Condition Factor of the Mud Crab Scylla serrata (Forskal in Mangrove Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvabhowma Chakravarty MYLA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of length-weight and width-weight of the carapace and the relative condition factor of mud crab Scylla serrata from Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andhra Pradesh, India was the subject of present study. Significant difference in both males and females was observed between carapace length-weight, carapace width-weight with a linear relationship. The regression values of both the sexes were found to be statistically significant. The regression equations calculated for length-weight were W= 0.00000178 L 3.1139 (r= 0.95 for males, W= 0.00000520 L 2.8056 (r=0.94 for females and for sexes combined it was W = 0.0000297 L 2.9891(r= 0.94. In case of carapace width-weight relationship of males, females and sexes combined the regression equations were W= 0.00000121 CW 3.0426 (r= 0.92, W= 0.00000178 CW 2.775 (r=0.93 and W = 0.00000204 CW 2.9210(r= 0.92 respectively. The male crabs showed positive allometric growth whereas female had negative allometric growth. Analysis of covariance confirmed remarkable difference between males and females in the growth pattern. The mean relative condition factor (Kn values of both males and females and of the pooled sexes ranged from 0.680 (April to 1.029 (November. A gradual raise in Kn values was observed from small- to big- sized crabs in both the sexes. Peak values were observed in 12.0-13.9 cm size group in November.

  4. Reproductive phenology of Creole horses in Ecuador in the absence of photoperiod variation: The effects of forage availability and flooding affecting body condition of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Juan; Yoong, Washington A; Mateos, Concha; Caño Vergara, Belén; Gómez, Chian L; Macías, Verónica

    2017-12-01

    Horse reproduction tends to be seasonal. The main adjusting factor in their original temperate ranges is photoperiod variation, although it is absent in equatorial areas where horses were introduced by European colonizers. Hence, dates of reproduction in these areas may be influenced by factors affecting mares' conditions and the success of foaling. Here we study reproductive timing in Creole horses in Ecuador reared in an extensive production system. We found that foaling peaked in August. Mares' conditions showed one peak in June-July, before the start of the breeding season, and another in December, and it was highly variable along the year. Mares' conditions increased after a period of vegetation growth and thus appeared negatively associated with the increment of grass greenness (normalized difference vegetation index data). Seasonal flooding of some pasturelands during March and April appeared to seriously impair mares' conditions and probably influenced the timing of foaling toward the dry season. Our results evidenced that horse breeding in these equatorial areas tended to be seasonal and point to some key factors that influence phenology by affecting body condition of mares, which may have implications for horse biology and management. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Theory of collisions between an atom and a diatomic molecule in the body-fixed coordinate system.)/sup a/ I. Coupled differential equation and asymptotic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, B.H.; Poe, R.T.; Tang, K.T.

    1978-01-01

    The body-fixed (BF) formulation for atom--diatom scatterings is developed to the extent that one can use it to perform accurate close-coupling calculation, without introducing further approximation except truncating a finite basis set of the target molecular wave function, on the same ground as one use the space-fixed (SF) formulation. In this formulation, the coupled differential equations are solved an the boundary conditions matched entirely in the BF coordinate system. A unitary transformation is used to obtain both the coupled differential equation and the boundary condition in BF system system from SF system. All properties of the solution with respect to parity are derived entirely from the transformation, without using the parity eignfunctions of the BF frame. Boundary conditions that yield the scattering (S) matrix and the reactance (R) matrix are presented for each parity in both the far asymptotic region (where the interaction and the centrifugal potentials are both negligible) and the near asymptotic region (where the interaction potential is negligible but the centrifugal potential is not). While our differential equations are the same as those derived by others with different methods, our asymptotic boundary conditions disagree with some existing ones. With a given form of the BF coupled differential equations, the acceptable boundary conditions are discussed

  6. The role of total body irradiation (TBI) as a conditioning regime for paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: A discussion of the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, G.; Meikle, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The long term effects of TBI with children can be adverse and has resulted in a debate as to whether chemotherapy only based condition regimes could be used as an alternatives. The aim of this article is to critically evaluate the literature relating to the role of TBI as a conditioning regime in ALL in children, and if there are any alternatives to current practices or future developments. Method: Key databases were searched for terms: conditioning regimes, transplantation, TBI, whole body radiation, systemic irradiation, stem cell transplantation, hematopoietic stem cell, and transplant conditioning. Results: Thirteen research articles from a variety of publications and two guidance documents from several sources were uncovered for critical discussion. Discussion/conclusion: There is little evidence for chemotherapy only regimes in paediatric ALL, but the practice continues. Modulating doses to improve homogeneity and use of IGRT could hold a future solution to reducing long-term toxicity and maintain the efficacy of irradiation. - Highlights: • TBI regimes have adverse long term effects on development, particularly on growth. • Chemotherapy only regimes have long term effects that impact on development. • TBI is a superior to chemotherapy only conditioning regimes for paediatric ALL. • Research is being undertaken to refine TBI techniques to reduce overall toxicity.

  7. The effect of temperature and body size on filtration rates of Limnoperna fortunei (Bivalvia, Mytilidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Pestana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei, Mollusca: Bivalvia is an invasive species that has been causing considerable environmental and economic problems in South America. In the present study, filtration rates of L. fortunei were determined in the laboratory under different temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 28, and 30 ºC and two types of food (Algamac-2000® and the chlorophycean alga Scenedesmus sp.. There was a statistically significant relationship between time and filtration rates in the experiment using Scenedesmus sp., regardless of temperature. However, this pattern was absent in the experiment using Algamac, suggesting that the relationship between filtration rates and temperature might depend on the size of the filtered particles. In addition, there was no correlation between filtration rates and either shell size or condition index (the relationship between the weight and the length of a mussel. The filtration rate measured in the present study (724.94 ml/h was one of the highest rates recorded among invasive bivalves to date. Given that the colonies of the golden mussel could reach hundreds of thousands of individuals per square meter, such filtration levels could severely impact the freshwater environments in its introduced range.

  8. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taekyung; Mathew, Eshaan; Rajaraman, Santhosh; Manivasagam, Geetha; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Lee, Chong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt%) through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR) and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank's solution at 37°C) based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid.

  9. Physiological-biochemical status of perch (Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758 and roach in conditions (Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758 of excessive anthropogenic pressure on the body of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Martseniuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To establish during the spring and summer period the physiologically-biochemical response of fish to the effect of excessive anthropogenic contamination on the indicators of the maintenance of hormones and glucose in their blood plasma, and the possibility of using these indicators to assess the ecological status of the water body. Methodology. Two Lakes in the city of Kyiv were selected for research, which are characterized by various hydrochemical and toxicological indices. These water objects were Lake Kyrylivske (Opechen Upper – a water body from the system of Lakes Opechen (polluted by the water body and Lake Babyne that is on Trukhanov Island (relatively clean Lake, control. Fishing was carried out in the early spring and in the middle of the summer by hook fishing gear. In laboratory conditions, the total content of thyroxine (T4, triiodothyronine (T3 and cortisol in blood plasma of fish was determined by enzyme immunoassay, using commercial T3-EIA, T4-EIA sets (NPL Granum, Ukraine and DS-EIA-Steroid-Cortisol ("Diagnostic Systems" NGO, Russia using the Rayto RT-2100C EIA Analyzer. The glucose content was determined by spectrophotometrically glucose oxidase method using standard commercial kits "Filisit-Diagnostika" (Ukraine. Statistical data was processed using the programs Statistica 10.0 and Excel programs from the Microsoft Office suite. Findings. In the spring, excessive anthropogenic pressure on the Lake Kyrylivske causes an energy imbalance in fish, which causes the deceleration of catabolic reactions in their tissues. In this period, the perch and roach react to the conditions of existence in the Lake Kyrylivske increase in the content of cortisol in the blood compared with fish from the Lake. Babyne, what can be their reaction to excessive anthropogenic stress. Also, during this period, the low content of thyroxin and triiodothyronine in the perch from the Lake Kyrylivske was noted compared with the Lake. Babyne, which

  10. Influence of Desorption Conditions on Analyte Sensitivity and Internal Energy in Discrete Tissue or Whole Body Imaging by IR-MALDESI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elias P.; Bokhart, Mark T.; Ghashghaei, H. Troy; Muddiman, David C.

    2015-06-01

    Analyte signal in a laser desorption/postionization scheme such as infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) is strongly coupled to the degree of overlap between the desorbed plume of neutral material from a sample and an orthogonal electrospray. In this work, we systematically examine the effect of desorption conditions on IR-MALDESI response to pharmaceutical drugs and endogenous lipids in biological tissue using a design of experiments approach. Optimized desorption conditions have then been used to conduct an untargeted lipidomic analysis of whole body sagittal sections of neonate mouse. IR-MALDESI response to a wide range of lipid classes has been demonstrated, with enhanced lipid coverage received by varying the laser wavelength used for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Targeted MS2 imaging (MS2I) of an analyte, cocaine, deposited beneath whole body sections allowed determination of tissue-specific ion response factors, and CID fragments of cocaine were monitored to comment on wavelength-dependent internal energy deposition based on the "survival yield" method.

  11. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rianne M Blom

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. METHODS: Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. RESULTS: Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. CONCLUSIONS: The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  12. Body integrity identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Rianne M; Hennekam, Raoul C; Denys, Damiaan

    2012-01-01

    Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID) is a rare, infrequently studied and highly secretive condition in which there is a mismatch between the mental body image and the physical body. Subjects suffering from BIID have an intense desire to amputate a major limb or severe the spinal cord in order to become paralyzed. Aim of the study is to broaden the knowledge of BIID amongst medical professionals, by describing all who deal with BIID. Somatic, psychiatric and BIID characteristic data were collected from 54 BIID individuals using a detailed questionnaire. Subsequently, data of different subtypes of BIID (i.e. wish for amputation or paralyzation) were evaluated. Finally, disruption in work, social and family life due to BIID in subjects with and without amputation were compared. Based on the subjects' reports we found that BIID has an onset in early childhood. The main rationale given for their desire for body modification is to feel complete or to feel satisfied inside. Somatic and severe psychiatric co-morbidity is unusual, but depressive symptoms and mood disorders can be present, possibly secondary to the enormous distress BIID puts upon a person. Amputation and paralyzation variant do not differ in any clinical variable. Surgery is found helpful in all subjects who underwent amputation and those subjects score significantly lower on a disability scale than BIID subjects without body modification. The amputation variant and paralyzation variant of BIID are to be considered as one of the same condition. Amputation of the healthy body part appears to result in remission of BIID and an impressive improvement of quality of life. Knowledge of and respect for the desires of BIID individuals are the first steps in providing care and may decrease the huge burden they experience.

  13. Habitat quality of the coastal southeastern Bering Sea for juvenile flatfishes from the relationships between diet, body condition and prey availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Cynthia; Yang, Mei-Sun

    2017-01-01

    The distribution and body condition of juvenile northern rock sole (NRS), Lepidopsetta polyxystra, and yellowfin sole (YFS), Limanda aspera, were studied in relation to prey availability across the coastal shelf at the Alaska Peninsula boundary of the eastern Bering Sea (EBS) to assess spatial variability in habitat quality. Juveniles of ≤ 20 cm and adults of ≥ 30 cm total length were collected from bottom trawl catch samples at stations located 10 to 120 km from the Alaska Peninsula coast, and in bottom depths of 28 to 85 m. Stomach contents and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen from muscle tissue were analyzed to describe diet composition. The quantity and quality of prey did not significantly affect the distribution of juvenile NRS and YFS. Spatial mismatch between the diet composition and the infauna prey assemblage suggested that prey availability was not limiting across the area, allowing fish to select for prey, presumably to maximize net energy gain. The body condition of juvenile NRS was higher in the eastern section of the area (Bristol Bay) - where they shared spatial and dietary niches with juvenile YFS, than in the west section (Unimak Island) where juvenile YFS were largely absent. A difference in body condition suggests that habitat quality may be higher in Bristol Bay. For NRS, stomach contents and stable isotopes in muscle tissue indicated an ontogenetic diet shift from amphipods to polychaetes from juvenile to adult stages. In contrast, for YFS, amphipods seemed to remain the primary prey and polychaetes the least important prey from juvenile to adult stage. Given that the high prey availability found in this south coastal area of EBS extends to areas across the EBS shelf, favorable habitat for juvenile flatfishes should be extensive. However, much of this potential juvenile habitat is underutilized by NRS, which were mainly limited to Bristol Bay and the Alaska Peninsula, whereas YFS did extend north over 500 km from Bristol Bay along

  14. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study