WorldWideScience

Sample records for body condition loss

  1. Body mass loss correlates with cognitive performance in primates under acute caloric restriction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villain, N; Picq, J-L; Aujard, F; Pifferi, F

    2016-05-15

    Brain functions are known to consume high levels of energy, thus, the integrity of cognitive performance can be drastically impacted by acute caloric restriction. In this study, we tested the impact of a 40% caloric restriction on the cognitive abilities of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Twenty-three male mouse lemurs were divided into two groups: 13 control animals (CTL) that were fed with 105kJ/day and 10calorie restricted (CR) animals that received 40% less food (63kJ/day) than the CTL animals. The animals were fed according to their group for 19days. Before treatment, we assessed baseline associative learning capacities, resting metabolic rates and locomotor performance of both animal groups. After treatment, we tested the same functions as well as long-term memory. Our results showed that CR animals had lower learning performance following caloric restriction. The effects of caloric restriction on memory recall varied and depended on the metabolism of the individual animal. Body mass loss was linked to memory test performance in the CR group, and lower performance was observed in individuals losing the most weight. While CR was observed to negatively impact learning, locomotor capacities were preserved in CR animals, and there were higher resting metabolic rates in the CR group. Our data reinforce the strong link between energy allocation and brain function, and suggest that in the context of food shortage, learning capacities could be a limiting parameter in the adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:26952885

  2. Associations between the clinical signs of chronic endometritis with ovarian cysts and body condition loss in German Holstein Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Tsousis, Georgios; Sharifi, Reza; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective field study was to associate the type and smell of discharge, the size of the uterus, the ovarian and treatment status, and the time to diagnosis of animals with chronic clinical endometritis (CCE) with the incidence of ovarian cysts and with a marked loss in body condition in German Holstein Friesian cows. Two hundred and sixty-four cows diagnosed with CCE from day 14 to day 42 postpartum participated in this study. In addition, 100 days milk production an...

  3. Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Plastic Surgery Statistics ASPS TV News Program History of Plastic Surgery For Medical Professionals ... Major Weight Loss Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss For Men and Women Body contouring following major weight loss improves the ...

  4. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    , especially 14, 28, and 42 days pp, were associated with lower probability to inseminate a cow. Regarding the cows that were inseminated, no influence of BCS, BFT, or NEFA levels on pregnancy per artificial insemination was found. In conclusion, cows with higher loss of body condition and elevated NEFA concentrations had higher P4 concentrations during estrus, a reduced estrous activity and insemination rate, but no depression in pregnancy per artificial insemination. PMID:26586277

  5. Assessing Body Condition from Fat on Carcass

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding assessment of body condition based on carcass fat. Provides stepwise instructions and photos on how to assess body condition from carcass fat

  6. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX, which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, convenient, and 10 minutes of VbX is equivalent to one hour of traditional exercise, where it has been marketed as the new weight-loss and body toning workout. However, research studies have shown that muscle activation is elicited but the energy demand in response to VbX is quite low. Exhaustive VbX has been reported to produce a metabolic demand of 23 ml/kg/min compared to 44 ml/kg/min from an exhaustive cycle test. Different vibration frequencies have been tested with varying amplitudes and loads, but only small increases in metabolic rate have been reported. Based on these findings it has been indirectly calculated that a VbX session of 26Hz for 3 continuous minutes would only incur a loss of ~ 10.7g fat/hr. Following a 24-week programme of VbX, no observed differences were found in body composition and following 12 months of VbX the time to reach peak O2 was significantly higher in conventional exercise compared to VbX. However, one study has reported that percentage body fat decreased by 3.2% after eight months after VbX in comparison to resistance and control groups that performed no aerobic conditioning. The evidence to date, suggests that VbX can increase whole and local oxygen uptake; however, with additional load, high vibration frequency and/or amplitude it cannot match the demands of conventional aerobic exercise. Therefore, caution is required when VbX programmes are solely used for the purpose of reducing body fat without considering dietary and

  7. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post-bariatric. The...... purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  8. New insights into body condition score and its association with fatty liver in holstein dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Šamanc H.; Kirovski Danijela; Jovanović M.; Vujanac I.; Bojković-Kovačević Slavica; Jakić-Dimić Dobrila; Prodanović R.; Stajković Silvana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between body condition and fatty liver in high-yielding dairy cows. One hundred dry Holstein cows were selected. Cows were scored once for body condition during the dry period, puerperium and month 2 of lactation, according to the system provided by Elanco Animal Health Buletin Al 8478. Body condition loss was determined as marked if loss was over 0.7 points between two consecutive phases of cycles and o...

  9. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death. PMID:27254941

  10. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. PMID:25936290

  11. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width, and...... body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  12. The Compact Body Plan of Tardigrades Evolved by the Loss of a Large Body Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Boothby, Thomas C; Giovannini, Ilaria; Rebecchi, Lorena; Jockusch, Elizabeth L; Goldstein, Bob

    2016-01-25

    The superphylum Panarthropoda (Arthropoda, Onychophora, and Tardigrada) exhibits a remarkable diversity of segment morphologies, enabling these animals to occupy diverse ecological niches. The molecular identities of these segments are specified by Hox genes and other axis patterning genes during development [1, 2]. Comparisons of molecular segment identities between arthropod and onychophoran species have yielded important insights into the origins and diversification of their body plans [3-9]. However, the relationship of the segments of tardigrades to those of arthropods and onychophorans has remained enigmatic [10, 11], limiting our understanding of early panarthropod body plan diversification. Here, we reveal molecular identities for all of the segments of a tardigrade. Based on our analysis, we conclude that tardigrades have lost a large intermediate region of the body axis-a region corresponding to the entire thorax and most of the abdomen of insects-and that they have lost the Hox genes that originally specified this region. Our data suggest that nearly the entire tardigrade body axis is homologous to just the head region of arthropods. Based on our results, we reconstruct a last common ancestor of Panarthropoda that had a relatively elongate body plan like most arthropods and onychophorans, rather than a compact, tardigrade-like body plan. These results demonstrate that the body plan of an animal phylum can originate by the loss of a large part of the body. PMID:26776737

  13. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  14. On Hydroelastic Body-Boundary Condition of Floating Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1996-01-01

    A general linear body boundary condition of hydroelastic analysis of arbitrary shaped floating structures generalizes the classic kinematic rigid-body (Timman-Newman) boundary condition for seakeeping problems. The new boundary condition is consistent with the existing theories under certain assu...

  15. The BODY-Q: A Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Weight Loss and Body Contouring Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Stefan J.; Alderman, Amy; Soldin, Mark; Thoma, Achilles; Robson, Sam; Kaur, Manraj; Papas, Athanasios; Van Laeken, Nancy; Taylor, Valerie H.; Pusic, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Body contouring performed for cosmetic purposes, or after weight loss, has the potential to improve body image and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring. In this article, we describe the psychometric properties of the BODY-Q scales after an international field-test. Methods: Weight loss and body contouring patients from Canada, United States, and United Kingdom were recruited between November 2013 and February 2015. Data were collected using an iPad directly into a web-based application or a questionnaire booklet. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used for item reduction and to examine reliability, validity, and ability to detect change. Results: The sample included 403 weight loss and 331 body contouring patients. Most BODY-Q items had ordered thresholds (134/138) and good item fit. Scale reliability was acceptable, ie, Person separation index >0.70 for 16 scales, Cronbach α ≥0.90 for 18 of 18 scales, and Test–retest ≥0.87 for 17 of 18 scales. Appearance and HRQL scores were lower in participants with more obesity-related symptoms, higher body mass index, and more excess skin and in those pre- versus postoperative body contouring. The 134 weight loss patients who completed the BODY-Q twice, either 6 weeks (weight loss/nonsurgical body contouring program) or 6 months (bariatric program) later, improved significantly on 7 appearance and 4 HRQL scales. Conclusion: The BODY-Q is a clinically meaningful and scientifically sound patient-reported outcome instrument that can be used to measure outcomes in patients who undergo weight loss and/or body contouring. PMID:27200241

  16. Analytical Loss Factors in Approximation of the Leontovich Boundary Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Baturin, S S

    2014-01-01

    Recently the new method of the Cherenkov fields and loss factors of a point-like electron bunch passing through longitudinally homogeneous structures lined with arbitrary slowdown layers was proposed. It was shown that the Cherenkov loss factor of the short bunch does not depend on the waveguide system material and is a constant for any given transverse dimensions and cross-section shapes of the waveguides. It was shown that with the proposed approach one can use a relatively simple method for the calculation of the total loss factor using an integral relation based on the cylindrical slowdown waveguide model. With this paper, we demonstrate that the same integral relation that we call relativistic Gauss theorem can be applied in case impedance boundary conditions (IBC) also known as Leontovich boundary conditions.

  17. A tale of two polar bear populations: Ice habitat, harvest, and body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, K.D.; Peacock, E.; Taylor, M.; Stirling, I.; Born, E.W.; Laidre, K.L.; Wiig, O.

    2012-01-01

    One of the primary mechanisms by which sea ice loss is expected to affect polar bears is via reduced body condition and growth resulting from reduced access to prey. To date, negative effects of sea ice loss have been documented for two of 19 recognized populations. Effects of sea ice loss on other polar bear populations that differ in harvest rate, population density, and/or feeding ecology have been assumed, but empirical support, especially quantitative data on population size, demography, and/or body condition spanning two or more decades, have been lacking. We examined trends in body condition metrics of captured bears and relationships with summertime ice concentration between 1977 and 2010 for the Baffin Bay (BB) and Davis Strait (DS) polar bear populations. Polar bears in these regions occupy areas with annual sea ice that has decreased markedly starting in the 1990s. Despite differences in harvest rate, population density, sea ice concentration, and prey base, polar bears in both populations exhibited positive relationships between body condition and summertime sea ice cover during the recent period of sea ice decline. Furthermore, females and cubs exhibited relationships with sea ice that were not apparent during the earlier period (1977-1990s) when sea ice loss did not occur. We suggest that declining body condition in BB may be a result of recent declines in sea ice habitat. In DS, high population density and/or sea ice loss, may be responsible for the declines in body condition. ?? 2011 The Society of Population Ecology and Springer.

  18. Towards a protocol for community monitoring of caribou body condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kofinas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective ecological monitoring is central to the sustainability of subsistence resources of indigenous communities. For caribou, Arctic indigenous people's most important terrestrial subsistence resource, body condition is a useful measure because it integrates many ecological factors that influence caribou productivity and is recognized by biologists and hunters as meaningful. We draw on experience working with indigenous communities to develop a body condition monitoring protocol for harvested animals. Local indigenous knowledge provides a broad set of caribou health indicators and explanations of how environmental conditions may affect body condition. Scientific research on caribou body condition provides a basis to develop a simple dichotomous key that includes back fat, intestinal fat, kidney fat and marrow¬fat, as measures of body fat, which in autumn to early winter correlates with the likelihood of pregnancy. The dichotomous key was formulated on "expert knowledge" and validated against field estimates of body composition. We compare local indigenous knowledge indicators with hunter documented data based on the dichotomous key. The potential con¬tribution of community body condition monitoring can be realized through the continued comparative analysis of datasets. Better communication among hunters and scientists, and refinement of data collection and analysis methods are recommended. Results suggest that specific local knowledge may become generalized and integrated between regions if the dichotomous key is used as a generalized (semi-quantitative index and complemented with other science and community-based assessments.

  19. Sweat loss during heat stress contributes to subsequent reductions in lower-body negative pressure tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of sweating to heat stress-induced reductions in haemorrhagic tolerance is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that fluid loss due to sweating contributes to reductions in simulated haemorrhagic tolerance in conditions of heat stress. Eight subjects (35 ± 8 years old; 77 ± 5 kg) underwent a normothermic time control and two heat stress trials (randomized). The two heat stress trials were as follows: (i) with slow intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer solution sufficient to offset sweat loss (IV trial); or (ii) without intravenous infusion (dehydration; DEH trial). Haemorrhage was simulated via progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope after core body (intestinal) temperature was raised by ~1.5°C using a water-perfused suit or a normothermic time control period. The LBNP tolerance was quantified via a cumulative stress index. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial Doppler) and mean blood pressure (Finometer®) were measured continuously. Relative changes in plasma volume were calculated from haematocrit and haemoglobin. Increases in core body temperature and sweat loss (~1.6% body mass deficit) were similar (P > 0.05) between heat stress trials. Slow intravenous infusion (1.2 ± 0.3 litres) prevented heat-induced reductions in plasma volume (IV trial, −0.6 ± 6.1%; and DEH trial, −6.6 ± 5.1%; P = 0.01). Intravenous infusion improved LBNP tolerance (632 ± 64 mmHg min) by ~20% when compared with the DEH trial (407 ± 117 mmHg min; P = 0.01), yet tolerance remained 44% lower in the IV trial relative to the time control normothermic trial (1138 ± 183 mmHg min; P < 0.01). These data indicate that although sweat-induced dehydration impairs simulated haemorrhagic tolerance, this impairment is secondary to the negative impact of heat stress itself. PMID:22872657

  20. CONDITIONAL RECURSIVE EQUATIONS ON EXCESS-OF-LOSS REINSURANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing-ping; WANG Xiao-qian; CHENG Shi-hong

    2006-01-01

    The marginal recursive equations on excess-of-loss reinsurance treaty are investignted, under the assumption that the number of claims belongs to the family consisting of Poisson, binomial and negative binomial, and that the severity distribution has bounded continuous density function. On conditional of the numbers of claims associated with the reinsurer and the cedent, some recursive equations are obtained for the marginal distributions of the total payments of the reinsurer and the cedent.

  1. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Gilmartin; Long, Andrew F.; Mark Soldin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. T...

  2. The Overall Drag Losses For A Combination of Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah Al-Janabi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain better understanding of the flow over a combination of bluff bodies in close enough proximity to strongly interact with each other. This interaction is often beneficial in that the drag of the overall system is reduced. Proto-types for this problem come from tractor- trailer and missiles, and from various add-on devices designed to reduce their drag. Thus, an experimental investigation was carried out by placing  conical frontal bodies having a base dia...

  3. Taste aversions conditioned with partial body radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced taste aversion was compared in rats which received partial body exposure to the head or abdomen with rats receiving whole body irradiation. Exposure levels ranged from 25 to 300 roentgens (R). In additional groups, saccharin aversion to partial body gamma ray exposures of the abdomen were conditioned in animals which had prior experience with the saccharin solution. Aversion was measured with a single-bottle short-term test, a 23-hour preference test and by the number of days taken to recover from the aversion. Whole-body exposure was most effective in conditioning the aversion, and exposure of the abdominal area was more effective than exposure to the head. Also, the higher the exposure, the stronger the aversion. Rats receiving prior experience with the saccharin did not condition as well as control rats with no prior saccharin experience. The possible role of radiation-induced taste aversion in human radiotherapy patients was discussed. (author)

  4. The role of pyridoxine as a countermeasure for in-flight loss of lean body mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joyce A.

    1992-01-01

    Ground based and in flight research has shown that humans, under conditions of microgravity, sustain a loss of lean body tissue (protein) and changes in several biological processes including, reductions in red blood cell mass, and neurotransmitters. The maintenance of muscle mass, the major component of lean body mass, is required to meet the needs of space station EVAs. Central to the biosynthesis of amino acids, the building blocks of protein, is pyridoxine (vitamin B-6). Muscle mass integrity requires the availability of vitamin B-6 for protein metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis. Furthermore, the formation of red blood cells require pyridoxine as a cofactor in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin, a protein that carries oxygen to tissues. In its active form, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), vitamin B-6 serves as a link between amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism through intermediates of glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, PLP is involved in the biosynthesis of hemoglobin and neurotransmitter which are necessary for neurological functions. Alterations in pyridoxine metabolism may affect countermeasures designed to overcome some of these biochemical changes. The focus of this research is to determine the effects of microgravity on the metabolic utilization of vitamin B-6, integrating nutrition as an integral component of the countermeasure (exercise) to maintain lean body mass and muscle strength. The objectives are: 1) to determine whether microgravity effects the metabolic utilization of pyridoxine and 2) to quantitate changes in B-6 vitamer distribution in tissue and excreta relative to loss of lean body tissue. The rationale for this study encompasses the unique challenge to control biochemical mechanisms effected during space travel and the significance of pyridoxine to maintain and counter muscle integrity for EVA activities. This experiment will begin to elucidate the importance of biochemical

  5. Multirods burst tests under loss-of-coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to know the upper limit of coolant flow area restriction in a fuel assembly under loss-of-coolant accidents in LWRs, burst tests of fuel bundles were performed. Each bundle consisted of 49 rods(7x7 rods), and bursts were conducted in flowing steam. In some cases, 4 rods were replaced by control rods with guide tubes in a bundle. After the burst, the ballooning behavior of each rod and the degree of coolant flow area restriction in the bundle were measured. Ballooning behavior of rods and degree of coolant flow channel restriction in bundles with control rods were not different from those without control rods. The upper limit of coolant flow channel restriction under loss-of-coolant conditions was estimated to be about 80%. (author)

  6. Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Borch Petersen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory. One neural signature of working memory load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6 ‒ 12 Hz. However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of working memory when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62 – 86 years, with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss, behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level and hearing loss; while alpha power increased with hearing loss during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe hearing loss under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of hearing loss, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  7. Estimating conditional quantiles with the help of the pinball loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the so-called pinball loss for estimating conditional quantiles is a well-known tool in both statistics and machine learning. So far, however, only little work has been done to quantify the efficiency of this tool for non-parametric (modified) empirical risk minimization approaches. The goal of this work is to fill this gap by establishing inequalities that describe how close approximate pinball risk minimizers are to the corresponding conditional quantile. These inequalities, which hold under mild assumptions on the data-generating distribution, are then used to establish so-called variance bounds which recently turned out to play an important role in the statistical analysis of (modified) empirical risk minimization approaches. To illustrate the use of the established inequalities, we then use them to establish an oracle inequality for support vector machines that use the pinball loss. Here, it turns out that we obtain learning rates which are optimal in a min-max sense under some standard assumptions on the regularity of the conditional quantile function

  8. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    OpenAIRE

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-01-01

    An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX), which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, conv...

  9. Proximate body composition and energy content of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) in relation to the condition factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulos, C. G.; Fonds, M.

    Length, wet weight, dry weight, and the content of lipid, ash and protein of young plaice were determined. The energy content of the fish was estimated by multiplying lipid and protein content by the commonly used calorific equivalents. The data were sorted from low to high condition factor of the fish and grouped according to condition factor (K = 100·W·L -3) into 8 condition groups. Mean values of percentage body composition and energy content were calculated for each condition group. Equations giving the best fit between condition factor and the parameters of body composition and energy content are presented. From the decrease in condition factor in fasting fish the relative losses of lipid and protein energy are calculated. The accuracy of equations for the calculation of energy content of plaice from condition factor is discussed.

  10. Genetic parameters for level and change of body condition score and body weight in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2002-01-01

    (Co)variance components for body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), BCS change, BW change, and milk yield traits were estimated. The data analyzed included 6646 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows with records for BCS, BW, and(or) milk yield at different stages of lactation from 74 dairy herds

  11. UREA SPACE AND BODY CONDITION SCORE TO PREDICT BODY COMPOSITION OF MEAT GOATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (n=40) were used to develop and compare body composition prediction equations for mature meat goats based on urea space (US) and body condition score (BCS). Before the experiment, one-half of the animals were managed to have high BW and BCS (1-5, with 1 being extreme...

  12. Body-loss for Popular Thin Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution, an investigation of the radio performance of recent popular phones has been done. The antenna performance has been evaluated with the newly agreed phantom head-hand measurements of the mobile antenna efficiency. It has been observed that the newer generation thin smart phones...... have worse performance than the classical phones and more surprisingly there is a loss in performance between generation of the same brand of smart phone. The effect of the performance variation between phones has been illustrated by calculating the coverage area for the voice service for Denmark with...

  13. The Overall Drag Losses For A Combination of Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Al-Janabi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to obtain better understanding of the flow over a combination of bluff bodies in close enough proximity to strongly interact with each other. This interaction is often beneficial in that the drag of the overall system is reduced. Proto-types for this problem come from tractor- trailer and missiles, and from various add-on devices designed to reduce their drag. Thus, an experimental investigation was carried out by placing  conical frontal bodies having a base diameter of 0.65 cylinder diameter with different vertex angles (30°, 50°, 70°, and 90°. It was found that, the bluffer cone with 90° vertex angle gives the best minimum drag, which is 31% lower than the drag of the isolated cylinder. Also an interesting phenomenon was observed in that, the minimum drags for all combinations are obtained at the same gap ratio (i.e.at g/d2= 0.365.

  14. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H A; Abdulmalek, M; Soh, P J; Rani, K A; Hisham, N; Vandenbosch, G A E

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade. PMID:27436496

  15. Subject-Specific Effect of Metallic Body Accessories on Path Loss of Dynamic on-Body Propagation Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, H. A.; Abdulmalek, M.; Soh, P. J.; Rani, K. A.; Hisham, N.; Vandenbosch, G. A. E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the investigation of path loss variation for subject-specific on-body radio propagation channels, considering the effect of metallic spectacles and loop like metallic accessories. Adding metallic items may affect the operability of Body Centric Wireless Communications (BCWC). Measurements were carried out in an RF-shielded room lined with microwave absorbing sheets for strategically placed bodyworn antennas covering the upper front torso and the lower limbs. The path loss of the on-body radio channel was characterized explicitly taking into account the body size of the subjects. For metallic loop-like accessories, the results indicate that for underweight subjects, there was a slightly higher influence, up to 2%, compared to normal and overweight subjects. Our findings indicate that a noticeable effect exists on on-body channels for dynamic movements where the metallic watch acts as a local scatterer that affects the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) signal path between transmitter and receiver for underweight subjects in comparison to normal and overweight subjects. The path loss decreases when the receiving terminal was positioned very close to the metallic item. If a loop-like metallic accessory is not appropriately considered when designing the radio channel on a subject, the reliability of the body-centric wireless system may degrade.

  16. Body condition predicts energy stores in apex predatory sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Austin J; Wagner, Dominique N; Irschick, Duncan J; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Animal condition typically reflects the accumulation of energy stores (e.g. fatty acids), which can influence an individual's decision to undertake challenging life-history events, such as migration and reproduction. Accordingly, researchers often use measures of animal body size and/or weight as an index of condition. However, values of condition, such as fatty acid levels, may not always reflect the physiological state of animals accurately. While the relationships between condition indices and energy stores have been explored in some species (e.g. birds), they have yet to be examined in top predatory fishes, which often undertake extensive and energetically expensive migrations. We used an apex predatory shark (Galeocerdo cuvier, the tiger shark) as a model species to evaluate the relationship between triglycerides (energy metabolite) and a metric of overall body condition. We captured, blood sampled, measured and released 28 sharks (size range 125-303 cm pre-caudal length). In the laboratory, we assayed each plasma sample for triglyceride values. We detected a positive and significant relationship between condition and triglyceride values (P fisheries, because these individuals are likely to have the highest potential for successful reproduction. Our results suggest that researchers may use either plasma triglyceride values or an appropriate measure of body condition for assessing health in large sharks. PMID:27293643

  17. Changing Body Image and Well-Being: Following the Experience of Massive Weight Loss and Body Contouring Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Gilmartin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the perception of changing body image and well-being for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following massive weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital in the south of England. Semi-structured interviews were carried out and a thematic analysis of the data undertaken. The results provide important insights regarding body contouring influencing body image change and the adjustment process involved. The ability to pursue self-esteem and the accruing social benefits is emphasized in the interrelated sub themes including social acceptance, undoing depression and sexual vitality. Body contouring surgery following massive weight loss appears to facilitate improvement in body image and well-being. Adjustment to the changing body image is both empowering and challenging. Supportive educational programmes need to be developed to assist this transition to a more positive body image and appreciation; these could usefully include access to and involvement with patient support groups.

  18. Visualizing mushroom body response to a conditioned odor in honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Till; Menzel, Randolf

    2001-11-01

    Combining differential conditioning with optophysiological recordings of bee brain activity allows the investigation of learning-related changes in complex neural systems. In this study we focused on the mushroom bodies of the bee brain. Presenting different odors to the animal leads to significant activation of the mushroom body lips. After differential conditioning, the rewarded odor leads to stronger activation than it did before training. Activation by the unrewarded odor remains unchanged. These results resemble findings in the bee's antennal lobes, which are the first olfactory relay station in the insect brain. As an integrative neural network, enhanced activation of the mushroom body lip may carry additional information, i.e., for processing odor concentrations.

  19. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  20. Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podstawski Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

  1. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention, or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention, and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze. We predicted (1 better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2 better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration.

  2. Advances in weight loss surgery and body contouring after weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K Herman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles K Herman1,2, Ari S Hoschander3, Nicolas Teleo1, Berish Strauch21Pocono Medical Center/Pocono Health System, East Stroudsburg, PA, 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, NY; 3Northshore Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, NY, USAAbstract: Surgical treatment for morbid obesity has been increasing over the last few years. Historically, bariatric surgery had been plagued by complications, both technical and metabolic. The criteria to decide if a patient should have bariatric surgery required that the patient’s morbid obesity was contributing to an otherwise imminent demise. Now, with improved techniques, laparoscopic surgery and better understanding of the metabolic consequences of bariatric surgeries, it is presumed that the benefits outweigh the risks of bariatric surgery in increasing numbers of patients. Additionally, the post-bariatric procedures for body contouring have many documented complications. Most of these can be related to the nutritional status of obese patients and the relative immunodeficiency that obese patients possess. After a thorough literature search it appears that bariatric surgery and post-bariatric body contouring are, indeed, safer than previously thought.Keywords: body contouring, gastric bypass, bariatric surgery

  3. Effects of neckbands on body condition of migratory geese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Ringing and marking are widely used techniques in avian ecology to assist studies of migration, survival and behaviour, and often used approaches to estimate population sizes. Only rarely however, are the effects of these markings on bird viability thoroughly tested. Using an abdominal profile...... index (API) of marked geese and body mass of recaptured birds previously marked, this study investigated the effect of neckbands on body condition of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus at different temporal scales, and evaluated to what extent capture, handling and banding affected these birds on...

  4. Approaches to estimate body condition from slaughter records in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olofsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term fluctuations in population densities of reindeer and caribou are common, where pasture is the limiting resource. Pasture quality affects the nutritional status and production of the animals. Therefore, continuous information about changes in the grazing resources is important when making management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate different possibilities of using routine and additional slaughter records as body condition indicators, and thereby indicators of pasture resources in the summer ranges of reindeer husbandry. Records from 696 reindeer slaughtered in the winter 2002/2003 were included in the study. We developed a model with carcass weight as body condition indicator and two different models combining fatness, conformation, carcass weight, and body size as body condition indicators. The results showed age and sex dependent differences between the variables, and differentiation of animal age and sex improved the precision of models. Adjusting weight for body size also improved weight as a body condition indicator in adults. Conformation and fatness had good resemblance to weight and body size adjusted weight and should preferably be included, together with carcass weight and body size measures, when estimating body condition from carcasses. Our analysis showed that using non-invasive slaughter records is a good and non-expensive method of estimating body condition in reindeer. Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Tillvägagångssätt för skattning avkroppskondition hos ren från slaktregistreringarFluktuationer i ren- och caribou-populationers täthet över tiden är vanliga då betet är en begränsad resurs och beteskvalitén påverkar djurens kondition och produktion. Kontinuerligt uppdaterad information om förändringar i betesresurserna är viktigt i samband med beslutsfattande om förvaltning avresurserna. Syftet med denna studie var att utvärdera olika möjliga sätt att anv

  5. Impact of Indoor Environment on Path Loss in Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Hausman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of an example indoor environment on narrowband radio channel path loss for body area networks operating around 2.4 GHz is investigated using computer simulations and on-site measurements. In contrast to other similar studies, the simulation model included both a numerical human body phantom and its environment—room walls, floor and ceiling. As an example, radio signal attenuation between two different configurations of transceivers with dipole antennas placed in a direct vicinity of a human body (on-body scenario is analyzed by computer simulations for several types of reflecting environments. In the analyzed case the propagation environments comprised a human body and office room walls. As a reference environment for comparison, free space with only a conducting ground plane, modelling a steel mesh reinforced concrete floor, was chosen. The transmitting and receiving antennas were placed in two on-body configurations chest–back and chest–arm. Path loss vs. frequency simulation results obtained using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method and a multi-tissue anthropomorphic phantom were compared to results of measurements taken with a vector network analyzer with a human subject located in an average-size empty cuboidal office room. A comparison of path loss values in different environments variants gives some qualitative and quantitative insight into the adequacy of simplified indoor environment model for the indoor body area network channel representation.

  6. Bulimia nervosa symptomatology and body image disturbance associated with distance running and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D A; Fuller, R D

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. Bulimics differed from runners and controls on most measures. Thus, the results did not support the proposition that weight loss through running leads to problems related to eating and body image. The failure to find disturbances in body image in runners suggests that body image disturbances are not a direct result of weight loss, as suggested by some theorists. PMID:1422651

  7. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Nayera E. Hassan; El-Masry, Sahar A; Rokia El-Banna; Salwa M. Elshebini; Muhamed Al-Tohamy; Salwa El-Batrawy; Nihad H. Ahmed; Dalia Adel; Enas Abdel Rasheed; Mohamed Selim; Mohamed S. El Hussieny; Aya Khalil; Manal Mouhamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The thre...

  8. Body protein losses estimated by nitrogen balance and potassium-40 counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body protein losses estimated from N balance were compared with those estimated by 40K counting. Six nonlactating dairy cows were fed an adequate N diet for 7 wk, a low N diet for 9 wk, and a replete N diet for 3 wk. The low N diet contained high cell wall grass hay plus ground corn, starch, and molasses. Soybean meal was added to the low N diet to increase N in the adequate N and replete N diets. Intake was measured daily. Digestibilities, N balance, and body composition (estimated by 40K counting) were determined during each dietary regimen. During low N treatment, hay dry matter intake declined 2 kg/d, and supplement increased about .5 kg/d. Dry matter digestibility was not altered by N treatment. Protein and acid detergent fiber digestibilities decreased from 40 and 36% during adequate N to 20 and 2%, respectively, during low N. Fecal and urinary N also declined when cows were fed the low N diet. By the end of repletion, total intake, fiber, and protein digestibilities as well as N partition were similar to or exceeded those during adequate N intake. Body protein (N) loss was estimated by N balance to be about 3 kg compared with 8 kg by 40K counting. Body fat losses (32 kg) were large because of low energy digestibility and intake. Seven kilograms of body fat were regained during repletion, but there was no change in body protein

  9. Applying twisted boundary conditions for few-body nuclear systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Christopher; Luu, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twist angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length L ≈8 -14 fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogs of "i-periodic" twist angles that eliminate the leading-order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  10. Applying Twisted Boundary Conditions for Few-body Nuclear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Körber, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We describe and implement twisted boundary conditions for the deuteron and triton systems within finite-volumes using the nuclear lattice EFT formalism. We investigate the finite-volume dependence of these systems with different twists angles. We demonstrate how various finite-volume information can be used to improve calculations of binding energies in such a framework. Our results suggests that with appropriate twisting of boundaries, infinite-volume binding energies can be reliably extracted from calculations using modest volume sizes with cubic length $L\\approx8-14$ fm. Of particular importance is our derivation and numerical verification of three-body analogue of `i-periodic' twist angles that eliminate the leading order finite-volume effects to the three-body binding energy.

  11. Interoception: the sense of the physiological condition of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, A D

    2003-08-01

    Converging evidence indicates that primates have a distinct cortical image of homeostatic afferent activity that reflects all aspects of the physiological condition of all tissues of the body. This interoceptive system, associated with autonomic motor control, is distinct from the exteroceptive system (cutaneous mechanoreception and proprioception) that guides somatic motor activity. The primary interoceptive representation in the dorsal posterior insula engenders distinct highly resolved feelings from the body that include pain, temperature, itch, sensual touch, muscular and visceral sensations, vasomotor activity, hunger, thirst, and 'air hunger'. In humans, a meta-representation of the primary interoceptive activity is engendered in the right anterior insula, which seems to provide the basis for the subjective image of the material self as a feeling (sentient) entity, that is, emotional awareness. PMID:12965300

  12. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Body Condition in the Australasian Gannet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Lauren P.; Wells, Melanie R.; Rodríguez-Malagón, Marlenne A.; Tew, Emma; Speakman, John R.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual size dimorphism is widespread throughout seabird taxa and several drivers leading to its evolution have been hypothesised. While the Australasian Gannet (Morus serrator) has previously been considered nominally monomorphic, recent studies have documented sexual segregation in diet and foraging areas, traits often associated with size dimorphism. The present study investigated the sex differences in body mass and structural size of this species at two colonies (Pope’s Eye, PE; Point Danger, PD) in northern Bass Strait, south-eastern Australia. Females were found to be 3.1% and 7.3% heavier (2.74 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.67 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) than males (2.66 ± 0.03, n = 92; 2.48 ± 0.03 kg, n = 43) at PE and PD, respectively. Females were also larger in wing ulna length (0.8% both colonies) but smaller in bill depth (PE: 2.2%; PD: 1.7%) than males. Despite this dimorphism, a discriminant function provided only mild accuracy in determining sex. A similar degree of dimorphism was also found within breeding pairs, however assortative mating was not apparent at either colony (R2 < 0.04). Using hydrogen isotope dilution, a body condition index was developed from morphometrics to estimate total body fat (TBF) stores, where TBF(%) = 24.43+1.94*(body mass/wing ulna length) – 0.58*tarsus length (r2 = 0.84, n = 15). This index was used to estimate body composition in all sampled individuals. There was no significant difference in TBF(%) between the sexes for any stage of breeding or in any year of the study at either colony suggesting that, despite a greater body mass, females were not in a better condition than males. While the driving mechanism for sexual dimorphism in this species is currently unknown, studies of other Sulids indicate segregation in foraging behaviour, habitat and diet may be a contributing factor. PMID:26637116

  13. Body ion loss as a bioindicator of water quality impaired by coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of surface waters receiving discharges from coal mines is currently based on performance standards set by the EPA after passage of the Clean Water Act. These standards were technology-driven and reflect the Best Achievable Control Technology (BAT) available at the time of promulgation. Changes proposed as part of the upcoming reauthorization of the US Clean Water Act suggest that such technology-based standards may be reevaluated in light of more recent information on the toxicological effect of mine discharges on aquatic biota. The authors present here a physiological-based method for evaluating the site-specific toxicity of mine-derived discharges into receiving waters. They tested the usefulness of the body ion loss rate bioassay by exposing fathead minnows, brook charr and stoneflies to coal mine-impacted waters (elevated acidity and trace metals) in the field and to artificial mine water (AMW) in the laboratory. Body ion loss rate was significantly correlated with levels of mine pollution in the field. Body ion loss measured in AMW revealed strong interactions between metals and acid. Because the test animals exhibited differing levels of sensitivity to mine discharge, the selection of an appropriate organism for the body ion loss bioassay may vary depending on the (1) physical characteristics, (2) chemical characteristics and (3) pre-existing level of mine impact of the receiving waters

  14. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for 13 weeks

  15. Influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladojević Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation. The experiment included 60 sows, half breed developed by cross breeding of Big Yorkshire and Swedish Landrace in lactation. Body weight of the sows (kg was determined 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after farrowing. On the basis of the obtained values, there was calculated the difference in body weight between two consecutive investigation periods. The sows were divided into two groups and held in different housing conditions: 30 of them were held in extensive, and other 30 sows in intensive way of farming. In regard to number of farrowing, the sows were divided into three groups: sows with one or two farrowing (group P1, n=20, with three or four farrowing (group P2, n=20, and sows that farrowed five or more times (P3,n=20. In regard to number of pigs in litter, the sows were divided into two groups: the first (Group I, n=30 with sows that had up to eight pigs, and the second (Group II, n=30 with sows that had nine or more pigs in litter. The obtained results showed that in all perids of the investigation during lactation, body weight in sows held in extensive farming conditions was statistically significantly higher compared to those from intensive farming conditions. On the other hand, the loss of body weight during lactation was significantly higher in sows from extensive in regard to intensive farming conditions in the first two weeks of lactation. The sows with bigger number of farrowing had greater body weight, compared to those with smaller number of farrowing. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight loss during lactation, between sows with different number of farrowing, but considering that the sows with less farrowings had significantly lower body weight, they consequently lost more weight in percentage. The sows with greater number of pigs

  16. Creation and validation of a novel body condition scoring method for the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the zoo setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Julie; Sanchez, Jessica N

    2015-11-01

    This research aims to validate a novel, visual body scoring system created for the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) suitable for the zoo practitioner. Magellanics go through marked seasonal fluctuations in body mass gains and losses. A standardized multi-variable visual body condition guide may provide a more sensitive and objective assessment tool compared to the previously used single variable method. Accurate body condition scores paired with seasonal weight variation measurements give veterinary and keeper staff a clearer understanding of an individual's nutritional status. San Francisco Zoo staff previously used a nine-point body condition scale based on the classic bird standard of a single point of keel palpation with the bird restrained in hand, with no standard measure of reference assigned to each scoring category. We created a novel, visual body condition scoring system that does not require restraint to assesses subcutaneous fat and muscle at seven body landmarks using illustrations and descriptive terms. The scores range from one, the least robust or under-conditioned, to five, the most robust, or over-conditioned. The ratio of body weight to wing length was used as a "gold standard" index of body condition and compared to both the novel multi-variable and previously used single-variable body condition scores. The novel multi-variable scale showed improved agreement with weight:wing ratio compared to the single-variable scale, demonstrating greater accuracy, and reliability when a trained assessor uses the multi-variable body condition scoring system. Zoo staff may use this tool to manage both the colony and the individual to assist in seasonally appropriate Magellanic penguin nutrition assessment. PMID:26768691

  17. Use of a Body Condition Score Technique to Assess Health Status in a Rat Model of Polycystic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman, Debra L; Swan, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Simple and noninvasive methods of assessing health and wellbeing are valuable when performing clinical evaluation of rodents used in biomedical research. Body condition score (BCS) techniques have been described for a variety of species, including mice. This method can be a sensitive objective assessment of weight loss in animal models where organ enlargement, ascites, or tumor development may mask weight loss. Although deposition of fat is similar in rats and mice, the mouse BCS technique ha...

  18. Body condition score (BCS and metabolic status of shelter dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andrighetto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A group of 147 shelter dogs were weighted and assigned a body condition score (BCS using a 9 point scale system, in order to evaluate the prevalence of obesity in the kennel. More than 60% of the animals showed a BCS³6 (overweight and obese and this condition was mainly attributed to an excess of carbohydrates and fat in the diet. In 67/147 dogs, a blood sample was drawn and the effects of BCS, age and time spent in the shelter were evaluated on biochemical parameters. Obese dogs showed significantly higher levels of triglycerides (P<0.01, while increasing BCS determined only an increasing non significant trend on cholesterol values. Age influenced creatinine (P<0.05 and the oldest dogs scoring BCS³6 registered significant higher NEFA (P<0.05 and CK (P=0.01 levels. Time spent in the shelter did not affect any parameter. The dogs’ metabolic condition reflects the need of taking more care of the quality of feed administered in the shelters to avoid the negative health effects caused by chronic obesity.

  19. Bowhead whale body condition and links to summer sea ice and upwelling in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, John C.; Druckenmiller, Matthew L.; Laidre, Kristin L.; Suydam, Robert; Person, Brian

    2015-08-01

    We examined the response of bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) body condition to summer sea ice conditions and upwelling-favorable winds. We used a long-term dataset collected from whales of the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort Seas (BCB) stock to estimate various body condition indices (BCI's) for individual whales that were harvested by Alaskan Eskimos. A series of offshore regions frequented by bowhead whales in summer were delineated and used to quantify interannual summertime environmental conditions including: (a) mean open water fraction, (b) duration of melt season, (c) date of continuous freeze-up, and (d) mean upwelling-favorable wind stress. Body condition was analyzed relative to these metrics for both the preceding summer feeding season and the previous three seasons combined. Our analysis indicates a significant increase in the long-term trend in an axillary girth-based body condition index (BCIG) over the study period (1989-2011). The increase in BCIG is likely associated with the trend in overall reduction of sea ice, including increased duration of open water, changes in upwelling potential (wind stress), and possibly higher primary production in the Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem favoring water-column invertebrates. We found strong significant positive correlations between BCIG and late summer open water fraction in the Beaufort Sea and smaller nearshore areas off the Mackenzie Delta and west of Banks Island. Additionally, BCIG was positively and significantly correlated with duration of melt season, later date of freeze-up in the Beaufort Sea, and upwelling-favorable winds on the Mackenzie shelf and west of Banks Island. A strong seasonal difference in BCI's was noted for subadult bowheads, presumably associated with summer feeding; however, yearlings were found to drop in BCI over at least the first summer after weaning. Our results indicate an overall increase in bowhead whale body condition and a positive correlation with summer sea ice loss over the

  20. Ultra-wideband Propagation Loss Around a Human Body in Various Surrounding Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H.; Kobayashi, T.

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) technologies have been anticipated for use in wireless body area networks (WBAN) because of their low power consumption and anti-multipath capabilities. This chapter presents the UWB (3.1-10.6 GHz) propagation loss in WBAN scenarios between on-body antennas in three different surrounding environments. The measurements were performed in a 3-m radio anechoic chamber, a classroom, and a small room. The propagation paths were roughly divided into line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) ones. Small rooms, particularly NLOS, yielded higher reception power than larger rooms. This was attributed to the ample multipath from the nearby floor, walls, and ceiling. The UWB maximum propagation losses in three surrounding environments were smaller than ones of CW (6.85 GHz). This is because nulls caused by interference were cancelled out by the ultra-wide bandwidth. The propagation losses of low-band (3.4-4.8 GHz) and high-band (7.25-10.25 GHz) UWB were also evaluated. In WBAN scenarios, the low-band yielded lower propagation loss than the high-band and approximately the same loss as the full-band UWB (3.1-10.6 GHz).

  1. Improving Initial Conditions for Cosmological $N$-Body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Garrison, Lehman H; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V; Pinto, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    In cosmological $N$-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete "macroparticles" suppresses the growth of structure. This effect occurs even on scales many times larger than the particle spacing; for example, modes above $k_{\\rm Nyquist}/4$ inherit a 1 to 3% error in the matter power spectrum at $z=1$. Particle linear theory (PLT) (Marcos et al. 2006) analytically describes this effect for particle lattices and reveals that the continuum growing modes are not the proper lattice growing modes, which excites transient power. We develop initial conditions with the correct growing modes and additionally rescale these modes to account for growth suppression. We also introduce a scheme for computing second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT) from direct force calculations without using Fourier transforms. We test rescaling and our 2LPT by comparing the $z=1$ haloes and power spectra with those of an oversampled reference simulation. The combination of rescaling and 2LPT achieves 1% accur...

  2. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM, free fat mass (FFM, lean body mass (LBM and total body fluid (TBF in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90 who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated. Body weight, total body fluid, body fat percentage and fat mass of soccer players were measured by using BIA(Tanita method before and after the matches. Paired t test has been used to compare pretest and posttest values. Pearson's correlation analysis has been used to determine relationship between tests values. Statistically differences has been determined between pre-post body weight and body fat TBF (p<0,01. Also, highly negative correlation has been determined between pre-post body fluide loss percentage differences and pre-post body fat mass percentage differences (r=-,766; p<0,001. Theoretically, body fat loss is expected following weight loss after computation, anything but rising rate of body fat was observed. So it is speculated that bio-electric facing more resistance in the body due to fluid loss. Therefore more body fat calculated. Dehydration should be taken into account for the measurements made by the BIA method, because of changes in body fat percentages. It is suggested that fluid intake of the subjects should be under control before the measurementin the studies.

  3. Sub-Poissonian atom number fluctuations by three-body loss in mesoscopic ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Whitlock, S; Spreeuw, R J C

    2009-01-01

    We show that three-body loss of trapped atoms leads to sub-Poissonian atom number fluctuations. We prepare hundreds of dense ultracold ensembles in an array of magnetic microtraps which undergo rapid three-body decay. The shot-to-shot fluctuations of the number of atoms per trap are sub-Poissonian, for ensembles comprising 50--300 atoms. The measured relative variance or Fano factor $F=0.53\\pm 0.22$ agrees very well with the prediction by an analytic theory ($F=3/5$) and numerical calculations. These results will facilitate studies of quantum information science with mesoscopic ensembles.

  4. Sub-Poissonian atom-number fluctuations by three-body loss in mesoscopic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, S; Ockeloen, C F; Spreeuw, R J C

    2010-03-26

    We show that three-body loss of trapped atoms leads to sub-Poissonian atom-number fluctuations. We prepare hundreds of dense ultracold ensembles in an array of magnetic microtraps which undergo rapid three-body decay. The shot-to-shot fluctuations of the number of atoms per trap are sub-Poissonian, for ensembles comprising 50-300 atoms. The measured relative variance or Fano factor F=0.53+/-0.22 agrees very well with the prediction by an analytic theory (F=3/5) and numerical calculations. These results will facilitate studies of quantum information science with mesoscopic ensembles. PMID:20366518

  5. Quantum Zeno suppression of three-body losses in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the possibility of suppressing three-body losses in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates via the quantum Zeno effect, which means the delay of quantum evolution by frequent measurements. It turns out that this requires very fast measurements with the rate being determined by the spatial structure of the three-body form factor, i.e., the point interaction approximation δ3(r-r') is not adequate. Since the molecular binding energy Eb provides a natural limit for the measurement rate, this suppression mechanism can only work if the form factor possesses certain special properties.

  6. Relationship between ultrasound measurements of body fat reserves and body condition score in female donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, M; Payan-Carreira, R; Silva, S R

    2013-08-01

    Several methods have been developed to monitor body fat reserves of farm animals and body condition scoring (BCS) is generally assumed to be the most practical. Objective methods, such as real time ultrasonography (RTU), are accepted methods for measuring fat reserves in several farm species but there is no published information about the use of RTU to monitor body fat reserves in donkeys. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between RTU measurements and BCS in female donkeys (jennies) (n=16) with a BCS of 3-7 on a 9 point scale. Ultrasound images were captured using an Aloka 500-V scanner equipped with a 7.5 MHz probe and subcutaneous fat (SF, range: 1.0-14.0mm) and thoracic wall tissue (TD, range: 5.6-21.4mm) depths measurements were determined. A significant correlation was found between BCS and all RTU measurements (0.65

  7. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  8. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Silke Dietze; Lees, Katarina R.; Heidrun Fink; Jan Brosda; Jörg-Peter Voigt

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Food deprivation protocols are frequently used in behavioral studies. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. Regarding the refinement of experiments involving animals, this study investigated the effects of food deprivation on body weight loss and behavior in male and female rats. Sex difference in behavior and motivational state after food deprivation is the main finding of the study. The data highlights the need for tailored...

  9. Post-Bariatric Surgery Satisfaction and Body-Contouring Consideration after Massive Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh M Aldaqal; Ahmad M Makhdoum; Ali M Turki; Awan, Basim A; Osama A Samargandi; Hytham Jamjom

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following a bariatric surgery and massive weight-loss, the outcome is usually sullied by consequences on the body′s contour and redundant skin. Aims: We aimed to record the frequency of contour irregularities and quantify patients′ satisfaction with appearance and anticipations from body contouring surgery. Materials and Methods: The ethical committee at King Abdulaziz University Hospital approved the study, and patients were consented. A cross-sectional study targeting the post-b...

  10. Fuel behavior under loss-of-coolant-accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is a comprehensive summary of the main results of the KfK/PNS investigations on LWR fuel behavior under LOCA conditions. These investigations were started in 1973 and will be finished in 1983. It is shown that the dominant phenomena, such as the deformation and failure of the cladding, the high temperature steam oxidation, the interaction of the cladding with fuel and fission products, and the influence of thermohydraulics on the cladding deformation are well understood today. All results confirm that under LOCA conditions the coolability of the core is not questioned and the fission product release is well below license limits. (orig.)

  11. Effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition score in Brahman cattle raised under tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón, Violeta; Galina, Carlos S; Rubio, Ivette; Corro, Manuel; Salmerón, Frida

    2016-04-01

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of restricted suckling on the onset of follicular dynamics and body condition, multiparous Bos indicus cows were distributed in two groups. One group (RS=36) was subjected to a scheme of restricted suckling starting at 21 days postpartum. Calves were allowed to suckle once per day for a period of two h whilst the control group (C=18) remained with their dams at all times. At calving, body condition score, back fat thickness and body weight had similar values (p>0.05) for both groups. By day 85 postpartum both groups had recorded losses in body weight. The cows in the continuous group formed a greater (p0.05). The number of cows that exhibited estrus after 45 days, was greater (p0.05). A regime of restricted suckling favors the earlier growth of follicles and the prompt restoration of ovarian activity. PMID:26936657

  12. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  13. Methane output of tortoises: its contribution to energy loss related to herbivore body mass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragna Franz

    Full Text Available An increase in body mass (M is traditionally considered advantageous for herbivores in terms of digestive efficiency. However, recently increasing methane losses with increasing M were described in mammals. To test this pattern in non-mammal herbivores, we conducted feeding trails with 24 tortoises of various species (M range 0.52-180 kg fed a diet of grass hay ad libitum and salad. Mean daily dry matter and gross energy intake measured over 30 consecutive days scaled to M(0.75 (95%CI 0.64-0.87 and M(0.77 (95%CI 0.66-0.88, respectively. Methane production was measured over two consecutive days in respiration chambers and scaled to M(1.03 (95%CI 0.84-1.22. When expressed as energy loss per gross energy intake, methane losses scaled to 0.70 (95%CI 0.47-1.05 M(0.29 (95%CI 0.14-0.45. This scaling overlaps in its confidence intervals to that calculated for nonruminant mammals 0.79 (95%CI 0.63-0.99 M(0.15 (95%CI 0.09-0.20, but is lower than that for ruminants. The similarity between nonruminant mammals and tortoises suggest a common evolution of the gut fauna in ectotherms and endotherms, and that the increase in energetic losses due to methane production with increasing body mass is a general allometric principle in herbivores. These findings add evidence to the view that large body size itself does not necessarily convey a digestive advantage.

  14. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  15. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  16. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000...... were wide (mean±7-8.5kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean±3.7-4.6kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample...

  17. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  18. Validation of a Body Condition Scoring System in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): Inter- and Intrarater Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Clingerman, Karen J; Summers, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective semiquantitative method of assessing body fat and muscle. Scoring systems use a scale in which the midrange represents optimal body condition, lower values represent lean to emaciated conditions, and higher values indicate excessive body fat. A valid BCS system is clearly described, relevant to the species, shows agreement within and between raters, and is consistent with objective measures. The goal of the current study was to assess intra- and in...

  19. Herbivore Body Condition Response in Altered Environments: Mule Deer and Habitat Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bergman, Eric J.; Doherty, Paul F.; Chad J Bishop; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Bradley A Banulis

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFB...

  20. Whole-body vibration training as complement to programs aimed at weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cristi-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Whole-body vibration training (WBVT has been shown to be an extremely useful tool for increasing muscle mass, bone tissue, muscle power, flexibility, and strength, among others. However, to date, there are few studies on the effects of WBVT on energy metabolism and whether this tool could be able to enhance weight loss in addition to a nutritional plan and/or exercise. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the most recent studies on vibration training in order to determine whether this method constitutes a reliable complement to programs aimed at weight loss. Methods: An updated literature search was conducted using PubMed, SciELO and SPORTDiscus. In addition, a detailed search was also performed from references given in selected studies. Results: WBVT appears to be associated with three pathways involved in weight loss: inhibition of adipogenesis and reduction of fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and increase in muscle mass. After analysing the literature, none of the results for the proposed pathways are consistent, and indeed are often contradictory. Conclusion: Further in-depth research is required on this subject. However, WBVT would appear to be a safe method, and may possibly yield benefits, mainly as regards muscle mass, which in turn might promote weight loss when combined with a nutritional plan and a traditional exercise program.

  1. Continuous stellar mass-loss in N-body models of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jungwiert, B; Palous, J; Jungwiert, Bruno; Combes, Francoise; Palous, Jan

    2001-01-01

    We present an N-body computer code - aimed at studies of galactic dynamics - with a CPU-efficient algorithm for a continuous (i.e. time-dependent) stellar mass-loss. First, we summarize available data on stellar mass-loss and derive the long-term (20 Gyr) dependence of mass-loss rate of a coeval stellar population. We then implement it, through a simple parametric form, into a particle-mesh code with stellar and gaseous particles. We perform several tests of the algorithm reliability and show an illustrative application: a 2D simulation of a disk galaxy, starting as purely stellar but evolving as two-component due to gradual mass-loss from initial stars and due to star formation. In a subsequent paper we will use the code to study what changes are induced in galactic disks by the continuous gas recycling compared to the instantaneous recycling approximation, especially the changes in star formation rate and radial inflow of matter.

  2. A Link Loss Model for the On-body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Rohit

    2013-01-01

    Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from the transceiver in one ear to the transceiver in other ear and the effect of the protruding part of the outer ear called pinna. Simulations are done to validate the model using in-the-ear (ITE) placement of antennas at 2.45 GHz on two heterogeneous phantoms of different age-group and body size. The model agrees with the simulations. The ear-to-ear link loss between the antennas for the binaural hearing aids in the homogeneous SAM phantom is compared with a heterogeneous phantom. It is found that the absence of the pinna an...

  3. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Blomqvist Kim H; Lundbom Jesper; Lundbom Nina; Sepponen Raimo E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA) is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm) were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 c...

  4. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  5. Parametrization of the operational conditions of whole body counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the variables affecting the response in whole body counting systems are theoretically parametrized. These variables include the number of detectors, detector orientation relative to the human body, the presence of collimation systems and the shape of such collimators. The results of this study led to the development of a new whole body counter whose response could be adjusted to any required degree according to the problem under study. The response adjustment is simply achieved by displacing the detectors relative to a fixed collimation system. The calculated response of the proposed system is checked experimentally and the agreement is excellent. (orig.)

  6. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T;

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  7. Genetic Parameters for Body condition score, Body weigth, Milk yield and Fertility estimated using random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, D.P.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Evans, R.D.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Genetic (co)variances between body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), milk yield, and fertility were estimated using a random regression animal model extended to multivariate analysis. The data analyzed included 81,313 BCS observations, 91,937 BW observations, and 100,458 milk test-day yields

  8. Variable Scheduling to Mitigate Channel Losses in Energy-Efficient Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavy Libman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a typical body area network (BAN setting in which sensor nodes send data to a common hub regularly on a TDMA basis, as defined by the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard. To reduce transmission losses caused by the highly dynamic nature of the wireless channel around the human body, we explore variable TDMA scheduling techniques that allow the order of transmissions within each TDMA round to be decided on the fly, rather than being fixed in advance. Using a simple Markov model of the wireless links, we devise a number of scheduling algorithms that can be performed by the hub, which aim to maximize the expected number of successful transmissions in a TDMA round, and thereby significantly reduce transmission losses as compared with a static TDMA schedule. Importantly, these algorithms do not require a priori knowledge of the statistical properties of the wireless channels, and the reliability improvement is achieved entirely via shuffling the order of transmissions among devices, and does not involve any additional energy consumption (e.g., retransmissions. We evaluate these algorithms directly on an experimental set of traces obtained from devices strapped to human subjects performing regular daily activities, and confirm that the benefits of the proposed variable scheduling algorithms extend to this practical setup as well.

  9. Effect of surface conditions on runoff and soil loss for chernozem soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dębicki R.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall simulation tests were conducted to determine the effect of the initial water content and surface micro-relief changes on runoff, and soil loss for chernozem soil. The studies showed that soil loss by wash was mostly affected by the surface micro-relief, whereas soil loss by splash by the initial water content. Runoff amount was less dependent than the soil loss upon the initial surface conditions and was mostly affected by the seal formation. The highest amount of splash and wash suggest that the time of seal formation at the soil surface was most susceptible to soil erosion.

  10. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Lauren B., E-mail: lstadler@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Su, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuansu@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Moline, Christopher J., E-mail: christopher.moline@hdrinc.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ernstoff, Alexi S., E-mail: alexer@dtu.dk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Love, Nancy G., E-mail: nglove@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss.

  11. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss

  12. INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE FLUID LOSS AND BODY FAT PERCENTAGE BY USING BIA METHOD TO DETERMİNE BODY COMPOSİTİON

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet; VAN, Ali; Yücel

    2015-01-01

    Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) is so popular technique to analysis body fat mass (BFM), free fat mass (FFM), lean body mass (LBM) and total body fluid (TBF) in both healthy and patient subjects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the acute weight(fluid) loss on body fat mass and percentage by using BIA method. In this study 43 soccer players (age: 21.90; length: 179.62and weight: 73.90) who playing in college league in Afyonkarahisar province has been participated....

  13. Body condition of Morelet’s Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) from northern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Brandt, Laura A.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Hart, Kristen; Jeffery, Brian; McMurry, Scott T.; Platt, Steven G.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Vinci, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Body condition factors have been used as an indicator of health and well-being of crocodilians. We evaluated body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles (Crocodylus moreletii) in northern Belize in relation to biotic (size, sex, and habitat) and abiotic (location, water level, and air temperature) factors. We also tested the hypothesis that high water levels and warm temperatures combine or interact to result in a decrease in body condition. Size class, temperature, and water level explained 20% of the variability in condition of Morelet's Crocodiles in this study. We found that adult crocodiles had higher condition scores than juveniles/subadults but that sex, habitat, and site had no effect. We confirmed our hypothesis that warm temperatures and high water levels interact to decrease body condition. We related body condition of Morelet's Crocodiles to natural fluctuations in air temperatures and water levels in northern Belize, providing baseline conditions for population and ecosystem monitoring.

  14. Body size and condition influence migration timing of juvenile Arctic grayling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Kurt C.; Wipfli, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Seitz, Andrew C

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater fishes utilising seasonally available habitats within annual migratory circuits time movements out of such habitats with changing hydrology, although individual attributes of fish may also mediate the behavioural response to environmental conditions. We tagged juvenile Arctic grayling in a seasonally flowing stream on the Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska and recorded migration timing towards overwintering habitat. We examined the relationship between individual migration date, and fork length (FL) and body condition index (BCI) for fish tagged in June, July and August in three separate models. Larger fish migrated earlier; however, only the August model suggested a significant relationship with BCI. In this model, 42% of variability in migration timing was explained by FL and BCI, and fish in better condition were predicted to migrate earlier than those in poor condition. Here, the majority (33%) of variability was captured by FL with an additional 9% attributable to BCI. We also noted strong seasonal trends in BCI reflecting overwinter mass loss and subsequent growth within the study area. These results are interpreted in the context of size and energetic state-specific risks of overwinter starvation and mortality (which can be very high in the Arctic), which may influence individuals at greater risk to extend summer foraging in a risky, yet prey rich, habitat. Our research provides further evidence that heterogeneity among individuals within a population can influence migratory behaviour and identifies potential risks to late season migrants in Arctic beaded stream habitats influenced by climate change and petroleum development.

  15. A feasibility study of altered spatial distribution of losses induced by eddy currents in body composition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sepponen Raimo E; Blomqvist Kim H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tomographic imaging has revealed that the body mass index does not give a reliable state of overall fitness. However, high measurement costs make the tomographic imaging unsuitable for large scale studies or repeated individual use. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a new electromagnetic method and its feasibility for assessing body composition. The method is called body electrical loss analysis (BELA). Methods The BELA method uses a high-Q parallel reson...

  16. Improving Initial Conditions for Cosmological $N$-Body Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Garrison, Lehman H.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Ferrer, Douglas; Metchnik, Marc V.; Pinto, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    In cosmological $N$-body simulations, the representation of dark matter as discrete "macroparticles" suppresses the growth of structure. This effect occurs even on scales many times larger than the particle spacing; for example, modes above $k_{\\rm Nyquist}/4$ inherit a 1 to 3% error in the matter power spectrum at $z=1$. Particle linear theory (PLT) (Marcos et al. 2006) analytically describes this effect for particle lattices and reveals that the continuum growing modes are not the proper la...

  17. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-02-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  18. Aerobic Exercise and Whole-Body Vibration in Offsetting Bone Loss in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Yang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis and its associated fractures are common complications of aging and most strategies to prevent and/or treat bone loss focused on antiresorptive medications. However, aerobic exercise (AEX and/or whole-body vibration (WBV might have beneficial effect on bone mass and provide an alternative approach to increase or maintain bone mineral density (BMD and reduce the risk of fractures. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the potential benefits of AEX and WBV on BMD in older population and discuss the possible mechanisms of action. Several online databases were utilized and based on the available literature the consensus is that both AEX and WBV may increase spine and femoral BMD in older adults. Therefore, AEX and WBV could serve as nonpharmacological and complementary approaches to increasing/maintaining BMD. However, it is uncertain if noted effects could be permanent and further studies are needed to investigate sustainability of either type of the exercise.

  19. Loss of Ia-bearing splenic adherent cells after whole body ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily uv irradiation of mice results in a marked decrease in the antigen-presenting capability of SAC from these mice after 1 wk of uv exposure. To directly examine this cell population, we developed a technique for purifying SAC that involves passing mouse splenocytes through two cycles of glass adherence with an intervening incubation on rabbit anti-mouse Ig-coated dishes. SAC from externally uv irradiated mice prepared by this method, when pulsed with antigen, activate primed T cells to proliferate much less efficiently than SAC from normal mice. Both the proportion and absolute number of Ia-bearing cells in this purified SAC population from uv irradiated mice are considerably smaller than that seen in similarly prepared populations from normal mice. Previous adjuvant immunization was shown to override functional defects elicited by external uv irradiation. This demonstration of a uv irradiation induced selective loss of Ia bearing splenic adherent cells and the functional consequences of this loss provide further evidence for the importance of Ia-bearing accessory cells in antigen presentation of T dependent antigens, and provides insight into the origin of the immunologic defects induced by whole body uv irradiation

  20. Sauna-Induced Body Mass Loss in Young Sedentary Women and Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI and body mass loss (BML induced by thermal stress in a dry sauna. The study was conducted on a group of 674 sedentary students, 326 women and 348 men aged 19-20. The correlations between BMI scores and BML were determined. The subjects were placed in supine position in a dry sauna for two sessions of 10 minutes each with a 5-minute break. The influence of BMI on the amount of BML in the sauna was determined by nonlinear stepwise regression. The smallest BML was noted in underweight subjects; students with normal weight lost more weight, whereas the greatest BML was reported in overweight and obese subjects. Persons with a high BMI are at higher risk of dehydration, and they should pay particular attention to replenishing fluids during a visit to the sauna. The proposed equations for calculating BML based on a person's BMI can be useful in estimating the amount of fluids that should be replenished by both men and women during a visit to a dry sauna.

  1. Thermal Behavior of Aerospace Spur Gears in Normal and Loss-of-Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Testing of instrumented spur gears operating at aerospace rotorcraft conditions was conducted. The instrumented gears were operated in a normal and in a loss-of-lubrication environment. Thermocouples were utilized to measure the temperature at various locations on the test gears and a test utilized a full-field, high-speed infrared thermal imaging system. Data from thermocouples was recorded during all testing at 1 hertz. One test had the gears shrouded and a second test was run without the shrouds to permit the infrared thermal imaging system to take data during loss-of-lubrication operation. Both tests using instrumented spur gears were run in normal and loss-of-lubrication conditions. Also the result from four other loss-of-lubrication tests will be presented. In these tests two different torque levels were used while operating at the same rotational speed (10000 revolutions per minute).

  2. Evaporative Heat Loss form the Human Body in Different Thermal Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Ramanathan

    1967-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relation of the evaporative heat loss to theraal stress in naturally acclimatized subjects under Indian conditions. The environmental conditions under which the subjects were made to perform light exercise ranged from 18.9Degree C E.T to 30Degree C E.T. The evaporative heat was found to be significantly correlated to the 1% level with the air and effective temperatures, with correlation constants of 0.79 & 0.80 respectively. The average rate of change of the evaporative heatloss with air temperature was 15.4 K cal/Hr/Degree C and with the effective temperature 9.1 K cal/Hr/Degree C.

  3. Genetic estimation of iron losses in strip wound toroidal cores under PWM flux conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently estimation of iron losses in electrical steels have become very significant for the manufacture of well-designed magnetic devices that are to be subjected to electronically generated voltage excitations such as pulse width-modulated (PWM) voltage excitation. In this study, iron loss components were estimated by means of the genetic algorithms method and electrical steel manufacturers' data. The results were compared with those obtained by a widely used classical method. The comparison has shown that the genetic algorithms method improved loss estimation with respect to the classical method under both sinusoidal and PWM flux conditions

  4. 42 CFR 486.324 - Condition: Administration and governing body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hospital represented. (6) An organ donor family member. (b) The OPO board described in paragraph (a) of... FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Requirements for Certification and Designation and Conditions for Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Organ Procurement Organization Process Performance Measures § 486.324...

  5. Distribution of AC loss in a HTS magnet for SMES with different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y., E-mail: xuyinghust@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Jiao, F. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Song, M.; Cao, K.; Wang, D. [Yunnan Electric Power Research Institute, Kunming City 650217 (China); Wang, L.; Dong, H. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, R and D Center of Applied Superconductivity, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We present a model to calculate the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet. •Comparative analysis of AC loss with different operating conditions has done. •The nonuniform distribution factor “d” is proposed to estimate the inhomogeneity of a storage magnet. •The model predicts the loss distribution and crucial areas which are suffering from the high AC loss. This is significant for the conduction-cooled structure design. -- Abstract: The AC loss induced in superconducting tape may affect the performance of a superconducting device applied to power system, such as transformer, cable, motor and even Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The operating condition of SMES is changeable due to the need of compensation to the active or reactive power according to the demand of a power grid. In this paper, it is investigated that the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet on different operating conditions, which is based on finite element method (FEM) and measured properties of BSCCO/Ag tapes. This analytical method can be used to optimize the SMES magnet.

  6. ACUTE EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED REGIMEN OF RAPID BODY MASS LOSS IN COMBAT SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Ereline

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1 and immediately after (Test 2 RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea. Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rad·s-1 (218.6 ± 40.9 vs. 234.4 ± 42.2 N·m; p = 0.013 and 3.14 rad·s-1 (100.3 ± 27.8 vs. 111.7 ± 26.2 N·m; p = 0.008. The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 ± 2326 vs. 7452 ± 3080 J; p = 0.003 as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 ± 29.9 vs. 98.6 ± 36.4 J·kg-1; p = 0.034, respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmol·l-1 (p = 0.003. The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 ± 29.1 vs. 67.6 ± 26.5 mmol·l-1; p = 0.082. The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes

  7. Body conditions and stomach contents of subadult trout during fall and winter in three Wyoming tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebdon, J.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    2001-01-01

    We studied three tailwaters in Wyoming from October 1997 through February 1998 to determine whether body conditions of stocked, subadult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss or cutthroat trout O. clarki declined from fall through winter and to assess whether lack of food in stomachs might be related to any declines. Body conditions of rainbow trout in two tailwaters remained high through the winter. Body conditions of cutthroat trout in a third tailwater declined between October and February but not to levels anticipated to affect the overwinter survival of the fish. Trout with substantial amounts of food in their stomachs were found throughout the fall and winter in all three tailwaters. In no subadult trout in any of the three tailwaters did we observe rapid declines in body conditions during fall or continuous declines in body conditions to very low levels by the end of winter in association with low biomass of food in stomachs.

  8. Distribution of AC loss in a HTS magnet for SMES with different operating conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Tang, Y.; Ren, L.; Jiao, F.; Song, M.; Cao, K.; Wang, D.; Wang, L.; Dong, H.

    2013-11-01

    The AC loss induced in superconducting tape may affect the performance of a superconducting device applied to power system, such as transformer, cable, motor and even Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). The operating condition of SMES is changeable due to the need of compensation to the active or reactive power according to the demand of a power grid. In this paper, it is investigated that the distribution of AC loss for a storage magnet on different operating conditions, which is based on finite element method (FEM) and measured properties of BSCCO/Ag tapes. This analytical method can be used to optimize the SMES magnet.

  9. Health technology assessment of non-invasive interventions for weight loss and body shape in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojomi, Marzieh; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Velayati, Ashraf; Naghibzadeh-Tahami, Ahmad; Dadgostar, Haleh; Ghorabi, Gholamhossein; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Yaghoubi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity and diet-related chronic diseases is increasing in Iran, and prevention and treatment strategies are needed to address this problem. The aim of this study was to determine the outcome, cost, safety and cost-consequence of non-invasive weight loss interventions in Iran. Methods: We performed a systematic review to compare non-invasive interventions (cryolipolysis and radiofrequency/ ultrasonic cavitation) with semi-invasive (lipolysis) and invasive (liposuction). A sensitive electronic searching was done to find available interventional studies. Reduction of abdomen circumference (cm), reduction in fat layer thickness (%) and weight reduction (kg) were outcomes of efficacy. Meta-analysis with random models was used for pooling efficacy estimates among studies with the same follow-up duration. Average cost per intervention was estimated based on the capital, maintenance, staff, consumable and purchase costs. Results: Of 3,111 studies identified in our reviews, 13 studies assessed lipolysis, 10 cryolipolysis and 8 considered radiofrequency. Nine studies with the same follow-up duration in three different outcome group were included in meta-analysis. Radiofrequency showed an overall pooled estimate of 2.7 cm (95% CI; 2.3-3.1) of mean reduction in circumference of abdomen after intervention. Pooled estimate of reduction in fat layer thickness was 78% (95% CI; 73%-83%) after Lipolysis and a pooled estimate of weight loss was 3.01 kg (95% CI; 2.3-3.6) after lipousuction. The cost analysis revealed no significant differences between the costs of these interventions. Conclusion: The present study showed that non-invasive interventions appear to have better clinical efficacy, specifically in the body shape measurement, and less cost compared to invasive intervention (liposuction) PMID:27390717

  10. Status Report on Spent Fuel Pools under Loss-of-Cooling and Loss-of-Coolant Accident Conditions - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, the Nuclear Energy Agency Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations decided to launch several high-priority activities to address certain technical issues. Among other things, it was decided to prepare a status report on spent fuel pools (SFPs) under loss of cooling accident conditions. This activity was proposed jointly by the CSNI Working Group on Analysis and Management of Accidents (WGAMA) and the Working Group on Fuel Safety (WGFS). The main objectives, as defined by these working groups, were to: - Produce a brief summary of the status of SFP accident and mitigation strategies, to better contribute to the post-Fukushima accident decision making process; - Provide a brief assessment of current experimental and analytical knowledge about loss of cooling accidents in SFPs and their associated mitigation strategies; - Briefly describe the strengths and weaknesses of analytical methods used in codes to predict SFP accident evolution and assess the efficiency of different cooling mechanisms for mitigation of such accidents; - Identify and list additional research activities required to address gaps in the understanding of relevant phenomenological processes, to identify where analytical tool deficiencies exist, and to reduce the uncertainties in this understanding. The proposed activity was agreed and approved by CSNI in December 2012, and the first of four meetings of the appointed writing group was held in March 2013. The writing group consisted of members of the WGAMA and the WGFS, representing the European Commission and the following countries: Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA. This report mostly covers the information provided by these countries. The report is organised into 8 Chapters and 4 Appendices: Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Spent fuel pools; Chapter 3: Possible accident

  11. In-to-Out Body Antenna-Independent Path Loss Model for Multilayered Tissues and Heterogeneous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kurup

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate multilayered lossy and heterogeneous media for wireless body area networks (WBAN to develop a simple, fast and efficient analytical in-to-out body path loss (PL model at 2.45 GHz and, thus, avoid time-consuming simulations. The PL model is an antenna-independent model and is validated with simulations in layered medium, as well as in a 3D human model using electromagnetic solvers.

  12. In-to-out body antenna-independent path loss model for multilayered tissues and heterogeneous medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Divya; Vermeeren, Günter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Joseph, Wout; Martens, Luc

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate multilayered lossy and heterogeneous media for wireless body area networks (WBAN) to develop a simple, fast and efficient analytical in-to-out body path loss (PL) model at 2.45 GHz and, thus, avoid time-consuming simulations. The PL model is an antenna-independent model and is validated with simulations in layered medium, as well as in a 3D human model using electromagnetic solvers. PMID:25551483

  13. Moisture Absorption, Mass Loss and Evaporative Resistance of Clothing in Transient Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuansi Gao; Ingvar Holmér

    2006-01-01

    The water vapour resistance of clothing ensembles is not as commonly determined as dry thermal insulation. The measurement techniques are more complicated and the measurement values differ among laboratories. Due to complicated moisture transfer process through clothing ensemble, the moisture absorbed and evaporated varies in transient and steady state phases depending on properties,thickness of clothing, and environmental conditions. The purpse of this study was to measure moisture gain inside hygroscopic underwear, and hydrophobic and permeable outer wear as a function of time, to investigate mass loss from "skin" as well as from the manikin, to quantify evaporative heat loss and total heat loss from the manikin,and to determine water vapour resistance of clothing.Manikin Tore was used by wearing wet "skin" to simulate sweating condition. Moisture content in the inner garment gain shows an exponential relation against time. Moisture in the outer permeable layer shows little gain. On the contrary,mass loss directly from the wet skin decreases exponentially. The mass loss from the manikin is relatively stable throughout three test phases. The evaporative heat loss is about 2/3 of the total heat loss from the sweating manikin. While measuring the evaporative resistance of clothing ensembles with hygroscopic inner garment and permeable outer garment, unlike to measure ensembles with impermeable outer layer, one hour measurement time is enough to get relatively stable results. The variation between the 1st hour and the 3rd hour is less than 5%. The length of transient period and measurement time is dependent on the permeability, thickness of clothing ensembles and environmental conditions.

  14. Music venues and hearing loss: Opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions in order to reduce the risk for music-induced hearing loss in people who attend music venues. Individual semi-structured interviews were held with 20 representatives of music venues and of governmental organ

  15. Children's Performance in Complex Listening Conditions: Effects of Hearing Loss and Digital Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of hearing loss (HL) on children's performance for an auditory task under demanding listening conditions and to determine the effect of digital noise reduction (DNR) on that performance. Method: Fifty children with normal hearing (NH) and 30 children with HL (8-12 years of age) categorized words in the presence of…

  16. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  17. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A.; Meehan, Cheryl L.; Hogan, Jennifer N.; Brown, Janine L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest). A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana) and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40%) and 5 (34%) categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2). The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. PMID:27415629

  18. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112

  19. Body electrical loss analysis (BELA in the assessment of visceral fat: a demonstration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blomqvist Kim H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body electrical loss analysis (BELA is a new non-invasive way to assess visceral fat depot size through the use of electromagnetism. BELA has worked well in phantom measurements, but the technology is not yet fully validated. Methods Ten volunteers (5 men and 5 women, age: 22-60 y, BMI: 21-30 kg/m2, waist circumference: 73-108 cm were measured with the BELA instrument and with cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI at the navel level, navel +5 cm and navel -5 cm. The BELA signal was compared with visceral and subcutaneous fat areas calculated from the MR images. Results The BELA signal did not correlate with subcutaneous fat area at any level, but correlated significantly with visceral fat area at the navel level and navel +5 cm. The correlation was best at level of navel +5 cm (R2 = 0.74, P 2, LOOCV = 40.1 cm2, where SEE is the standard error of the estimate and LOOCV is the root mean squared error of leave-one-out style cross-validation. The average estimate of repeatability of the BELA signal observed through the study was ±9.6 %. One of the volunteers had an exceptionally large amount of visceral fat, which was underestimated by BELA. Conclusions The correlation of the BELA signal with the visceral but not with the subcutaneous fat area as measured by MRI is promising. The lack of correlation with the subcutaneous fat suggests that subcutaneous fat has a minor influence to the BELA signal. Further research will show if it is possible to develop a reliable low-cost method for the assessment of visceral fat either using BELA only or combining it, for example, with bioelectrical impedance measurement. The combination of these measurements may help assessing visceral fat in a large scale of body composition. Before large-scale clinical testing and ROC analysis, the initial BELA instrumentation requires improvements. The accuracy of the present equipment is not sufficient for such new technology.

  20. Chironomidae (Diptera, Chironomidae) as biological indicators of water bodies ecological condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents data confirming that Chironomidae are good to be used as an indicative criterion when classifying lakes. It was found that their quantity and presence of certain species could serve as an index in assessment of water body ecological condition. Results of cytotaxonomic analysis helped to reveal the nature of Chironomini species diversity in STS water bodies. (author)

  1. Sufficient conditions for the existence of a bound state in the N-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple sufficient conditions for the existence of a bound state in the system of N particles interacting via a purely attractive two-body potential are provided. This method is based on a variational approach. (Author)

  2. A feasibility study of altered spatial distribution of losses induced by eddy currents in body composition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepponen Raimo E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomographic imaging has revealed that the body mass index does not give a reliable state of overall fitness. However, high measurement costs make the tomographic imaging unsuitable for large scale studies or repeated individual use. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a new electromagnetic method and its feasibility for assessing body composition. The method is called body electrical loss analysis (BELA. Methods The BELA method uses a high-Q parallel resonant circuit to produce a time-varying magnetic field. The Q of the resonator changes when the sample is placed in its coil. This is caused by induced eddy currents in the sample. The new idea in the BELA method is the altered spatial distribution of the electrical losses generated by these currents. The distribution of losses is varied using different excitation frequencies. The feasibility of the method was tested using simplified phantoms. Two of these phantoms were rough estimations of human torso. One had fat in the middle of its volume and saline solution in the outer shell volume. The other had reversed conductivity distributions. The phantoms were placed in the resonator and the change in the losses was measured. Five different excitation frequencies from 100 kHz to 200 kHz were used. Results The rate of loss as a function of frequency was observed to be approximately three times larger for a phantom with fat in the middle of its volume than for one with fat in its outer shell volume. Conclusions At higher frequencies the major signal contribution can be shifted toward outer shell volume. This enables probing the conductivity distribution of the subject by weighting outer structural components. The authors expect that the loss changing rate over frequency can be a potential index for body composition analysis.

  3. Relationship between body condition of American alligators and water depth in the Everglades, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Ikuko; Rice, Kenneth G.; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    Feeding opportunities of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in freshwater wetlands in south Florida are closely linked to hydrologic conditions. In the Everglades, seasonally and annually fluctuating surface water levels affect populations of aquatic organisms that alligators consume. Since prey becomes more concentrated when water depth decreases, we hypothesized an inverse relationship between body condition and water depth in the Everglades. On average, condition of adult alligators in the dry season was significantly higher than in the wet season, but this was not the case for juveniles/subadults. The correlation between body condition and measured water depth at capture locations was weak; however, there was a significant negative correlation between the condition and predicted water depth prior to capture for all animals except for spring juveniles/subadults which had a weak positive condition-water depth relationship. Overall, a relatively strong inverse correlation occurred at 10-49 days prior to the capture day, suggesting that current body condition of alligators may depend on feeding opportunities during that period. Fitted regression of body condition on water depth (mean depth of 10 days when condition-water depth correlation was greatest) resulted in a significantly negative slope, except for spring adult females and spring juveniles/subadults for which slopes were not significantly different from zero. Our results imply that water management practices may be critical for alligators in the Everglades since water depth can affect animal condition in a relatively short period of time.

  4. Genetic covariance between indices of body condition and immunocompetence in a passerine bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens Ian PF

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Condition-dependence is a ubiquitous feature of animal life histories and has important implications for both natural and sexual selection. Mate choice, for instance, is typically based on condition-dependent signals. Theory predicts that one reason why condition-dependent signals may be special is that they allow females to scan for genes that confer high parasite resistance. Such explanations require a genetic link between immunocompetence and body condition, but existing evidence is limited to phenotypic associations. It remains unknown, therefore, whether females selecting males with good body condition simply obtain a healthy mate, or if they acquire genes for their offspring that confer high immunocompetence. Results Here we use a cross-foster experimental design to partition the phenotypic covariance in indices of body condition and immunocompetence into genetic, maternal and environmental effects in a passerine bird, the zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata. We show that there is significant positive additive genetic covariance between an index of body condition and an index of cell-mediated immune response. In this case, genetic variance in the index of immune response explained 56% of the additive genetic variance in the index of body condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that, in the context of sexual selection, females that assess males on the basis of condition-dependent signals may gain genes that confer high immunocompetence for their offspring. More generally, a genetic correlation between indices of body condition and imuunocompetence supports the hypothesis that parasite resistance may be an important target of natural selection. Additional work is now required to test whether genetic covariance exists among other aspects of both condition and immunocompetence.

  5. The Protective Effect of Conditioning on Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Is Frequency-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pourbakht

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared the extent of temporary threshold shift (TTS and hair cell loss following high level 4 kHz noise exposure with those preconditioned with moderate level 1 and 4 kHz octave band noise. Fifteen Male albino guinea pigs (300- 350 g in weight were randomly allocated into three groups: those exposed to 4 kHz octave band noise at 102 dB SPL (group 1, n=5; those conditioned with 1 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, 6 hours per day for 5 days, then exposed to noise (group 2, n=5; those conditioned with 4 kHz octave band noise at 85 dB SPL, then exposed to noise (group 3, n=5. An hour and one week after noise exposure, threshold shifts were evaluated by auditory-evoked brainstem response (ABR and then animals were euthanized for histological evaluation. We found that TTS and cochlear damage caused by noise exposure were significantly reduced by 1 kHz and 4 kHz conditioning (P<0.001. We also showed that 4 kHz protocol attenuates noise- induced TTS but no significant TTS reduction occurred by 1 kHz conditioning. Both protocol protected noise-induced cochlear damage. We concluded that lower tone conditioning could not protect against higher tone temporary noise-induced hearing loss, thus conditioning is a local acting and frequency-dependent phenomenon.

  6. Loss coefficient of nitrogenous non-point source pollution under various precipitation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,calibrations of non-point source (NPS) pollution models are performed based on Black River basin historical real-time runoff data,sedimentation record data,and NPS sources survey information.The concept of NPS loss coefficient for the watershed or the loss coefficients (LC) for simplicity is brought up by examining NPS build-up and migration processes along riverbanks in natural river systems.The historical data is used for determining the nitrogenous NPS loss coefficient for five land use types including farmland,urban land,grassland,shrub land,and forest under different precipitation conditions.The comparison of outputs from Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and coefficient export method showed that both methods could obtain reasonable LC.The high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.94722) between those two sets of calculation results justified the consistency of those two models.Another result in the study is that different combinations of precipitation condition and land use types could significantly affect the calculated loss coefficient.As for the adsorptive nitrogen,the order of impact on LC for different land use types can be sorted as:farm land > urban land > grassland > shrub land > forest while the order was farmland > grass land > shrub land > forest > urban land for soluble nitrogen.

  7. Survey of prevalence of overweight body condition in laboratory-housed cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sharon A; Leslie, Ken E; Pearl, David L; Fournier, Jocelyn; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-07-01

    Excessive weight gain has been reported to occur in captive cynomolgus macaques with little to no change in diet. Overweight body condition can result in development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes and should be avoided. The purpose of this survey was to assess the prevalence of overweight cynomolgus macaques in North American research facilities, including breeding colonies and short-term and long-term facilities, and to describe current methods used to assess body condition. The survey consisted of 51 questions covering animal population demographics, body weight and body condition scoring, feeding, and behavior. Voluntary participants included veterinarians and animal care managers. Respondents from 13 facilities completed the survey, and information was collected on 17,500 cynomolgus macaques. The majority of surveyed facilities housed juvenile and young adult macaques. The reported prevalence of overweight (greater than 10% of ideal body weight) animals ranged between 0% and 20% and reportedly was more frequent in animals younger than 10 y. Most facilities had weight reduction strategies in place. Despite these programs, a significant proportion of animals were reported as being overweight. The results of this survey demonstrate that most North American facilities housing cynomolgus macaques recognize the importance of tracking body condition regularly. However, implementing effective weight reduction programs may be difficult in captive housing environments. Because of the potential for adverse health effects, facilities should have a means of regularly tracking body weight as well as an action plan for managing overweight animals. PMID:20819384

  8. Influence of body condition on influenza A virus infection in mallard ducks: experimental infection data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin M Arsnoe

    Full Text Available Migrating waterfowl are implicated in the global spread of influenza A viruses (IAVs, and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos are considered a particularly important IAV reservoir. Prevalence of IAV infection in waterfowl peaks during autumn pre-migration staging and then declines as birds reach wintering areas. Migration is energetically costly and birds often experience declines in body condition that may suppress immune function. We assessed how body condition affects susceptibility to infection, viral shedding and antibody production in wild-caught and captive-bred juvenile mallards challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV H5N9. Wild mallards (n = 30 were separated into three experimental groups; each manipulated through food availability to a different condition level (-20%, -10%, and normal ±5% original body condition, and captive-bred mallards (n = 10 were maintained at normal condition. We found that wild mallards in normal condition were more susceptible to LPAIV infection, shed higher peak viral loads and shed viral RNA more frequently compared to birds in poor condition. Antibody production did not differ according to condition. We found that wild mallards did not differ from captive-bred mallards in viral intensity and duration of infection, but they did exhibit lower antibody titers and greater variation in viral load. Our findings suggest that reduced body condition negatively influences waterfowl host competence to LPAIV infection. This observation is contradictory to the recently proposed condition-dependent hypothesis, according to which birds in reduced condition would be more susceptible to IAV infection. The mechanisms responsible for reducing host competency among birds in poor condition remain unknown. Our research indicates body condition may influence the maintenance and spread of LPAIV by migrating waterfowl.

  9. Initial Condition Model from Imaginary Part of Action and the Information Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, H B

    2009-01-01

    We review slightly a work by Horowitz and Maldecena solving the information loss problem for black holes by having inside the blackhole - near to the singularity - a boundary condition, as e.g the no boundary proposal by Hartle and Hawking. Here we propose to make this boundary condition come out of our imaginary action model (together with Masao Ninomiya). This model naturally begins effectively to set up boundaries - whether it be in future or past! - especially strongly whenever we reach to high energy physics regimes, such as near the black hole singularity, or in Higgs producing machines as LHC or SSC. In such cases one can say our model predicts miracles. The point is that you may say that the information loss problem, unless you solve it in other ways, call for such a violation of time causality as in our imaginary action model!

  10. Exposure to the Proton Scavenger Glycine under Alkaline Conditions Induces Escherichia coli Viability Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Vanhauteghem; Geert Paul Jules Janssens; Angelo Lauwaerts; Stanislas Sys; Filip Boyen; Eric Cox; Evelyne Meyer

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometr...

  11. Asynchronous vegetation phenology enhances winter body condition of a large mobile herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Kate R; Rice, Mindy B; Anderson, Charles R; Bishop, Chad; Hobbs, N T

    2015-10-01

    Understanding how spatial and temporal heterogeneity influence ecological processes forms a central challenge in ecology. Individual responses to heterogeneity shape population dynamics, therefore understanding these responses is central to sustainable population management. Emerging evidence has shown that herbivores track heterogeneity in nutritional quality of vegetation by responding to phenological differences in plants. We quantified the benefits mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) accrue from accessing habitats with asynchronous plant phenology in northwest Colorado over 3 years. Our analysis examined both the direct physiological and indirect environmental effects of weather and vegetation phenology on mule deer winter body condition. We identified several important effects of annual weather patterns and topographical variables on vegetation phenology in the home ranges of mule deer. Crucially, temporal patterns of vegetation phenology were linked with differences in body condition, with deer tending to show poorer body condition in areas with less asynchronous vegetation green-up and later vegetation onset. The direct physiological effect of previous winter precipitation on mule deer body condition was much less important than the indirect effect mediated by vegetation phenology. Additionally, the influence of vegetation phenology on body fat was much stronger than that of overall vegetation productivity. In summary, changing annual weather patterns, particularly in relation to seasonal precipitation, have the potential to alter body condition of this important ungulate species during the critical winter period. This finding highlights the importance of maintaining large contiguous areas of spatially and temporally variable resources to allow animals to compensate behaviourally for changing climate-driven resource patterns. PMID:26009244

  12. Economic Estimation of the Losses Caused by Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China From the Perspective of Water Bodies' Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; You, Zhen; Liu, Bo

    2016-02-01

    The number of surface water pollution accidents (abbreviated as SWPAs) has increased substantially in China in recent years. Estimation of economic losses due to SWPAs has been one of the focuses in China and is mentioned many times in the Environmental Protection Law of China promulgated in 2014. From the perspective of water bodies' functions, pollution accident damages can be divided into eight types: damage to human health, water supply suspension, fishery, recreational functions, biological diversity, environmental property loss, the accident's origin and other indirect losses. In the valuation of damage to people's life, the procedure for compensation of traffic accidents in China was used. The functional replacement cost method was used in economic estimation of the losses due to water supply suspension and loss of water's recreational functions. Damage to biological diversity was estimated by recovery cost analysis and damage to environmental property losses were calculated using pollutant removal costs. As a case study, using the proposed calculation procedure the economic losses caused by the major Songhuajiang River pollution accident that happened in China in 2005 have been estimated at 2263 billion CNY. The estimated economic losses for real accidents can sometimes be influenced by social and political factors, such as data authenticity and accuracy. Besides, one or more aspects in the method might be overestimated, underrated or even ignored. The proposed procedure may be used by decision makers for the economic estimation of losses in SWPAs. Estimates of the economic losses of pollution accidents could help quantify potential costs associated with increased risk sources along lakes/rivers but more importantly, highlight the value of clean water to society as a whole. PMID:26805869

  13. Using time-dependent models to investigate body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, P.S.; Wylie, G.D.; Halstead, B.J.; Casazza, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Identifying links between phenotypic attributes and fitness is a primary goal of reproductive ecology. Differences in within-year patterns of body condition between sexes of gartersnakes in relation to reproduction and growth are not fully understood. We conducted an 11-year field study of body condition and growth rate of the giant gartersnake Thamnophis gigas across 13 study areas in the Central Valley of California, USA. We developed a priori mixed effects models of body condition index (BCI), which included covariates of time, sex and snout-vent length and reported the best-approximating models using an information theoretic approach. Also, we developed models of growth rate index (GRI) using covariates of sex and periods based on reproductive behavior. The largest difference in BCI between sexes, as predicted by a non-linear (cubic) time model, occurred during the mating period when female body condition (0.014??0.001 se) was substantially greater than males (-0.027??0.002 se). Males likely allocated energy to search for mates, while females likely stored energy for embryonic development. We also provided evidence that males use more body energy reserves than females during hibernation, perhaps because of different body temperatures between sexes. We found GRI of male snakes was substantially lower during the mating period than during a non-mating period, which indicated that a trade-off existed between searching for mates and growth. These findings contribute to our understanding of snake ecology in a Mediterranean climate. ?? 2009 The Zoological Society of London.

  14. Loss of Body Weight and Fat and Improved Lipid Profiles in Obese Rats Fed Apple Pomace or Apple Juice Concentrate

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Kyung-Dong; Han, Chan-Kyu; Lee, Bog-Hieu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of apple pomace (AP) and apple juice concentrate (AC) supplementation on body weight and fat loss as well as lipid metabolism in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Diet-induced obese rats were assigned to three groups (n=8 for each group): high fat diet (HFD) control, HFD containing 10% (w/w) AP, and HFD containing 10% (w/w) AC. There was also a normal diet group (n=8). After 5 weeks, body weight gain, adipose tissue weight, serum and he...

  15. Evaluation of the performance degradation at PAFC effect of operating conditions on acid loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyoshi, Hideaki; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masahiro [Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    As a complimentary research project to the demonstration project of 5MW and 1 MW PAFC plants, the mechanism and rate of deterioration of the cells and stacks have been studied from 1995 FY conducted by NEDO, with the objective of establishing an estimation method for the service life-time of the cell stacks. As part of this project, this work has been performed to clarify basic phenomena of the performance degradation at PAFCs jointly by Yamanashi University, PAFC-TRA and PAFC manufacturers. The acid loss into exhaust gases is one of life limiting factors in PAFCs. To design the cells of long-life, it is important to estimate the phosphoric acid loss and to contrive ideas eliminating it. With the objective of obtaining basic data for simulating the acid loss in the large size cells, the effect of the operating conditions on the acid loss into exhaust gases has been studied experimentally by using a single cell with an active electrode area of 100 cm{sup 2}.

  16. Herbivore body condition response in altered environments: mule deer and habitat management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Bergman

    Full Text Available The relationships between habitat, body condition, life history characteristics, and fitness components of ungulates are interwoven and of interest to researchers as they strive to understand the impacts of a changing environment. With the increased availability of portable ultrasound machines and the refinement of hormonal assays, assessment of ungulate body condition has become an accessible monitoring strategy. We employed body condition scoring, estimation of % ingesta-free body fat (%IFBF, assessment of free thyroid hormones (FT4 and FT3, and assessment of pregnancy, as metrics to determine if landscape-level habitat treatments affected body condition of adult (≥ 1.5 years old female mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus. All body condition related metrics were measured on 2 neighboring study areas--a reference area that had received no habitat treatments and a treatment study area that had received mechanical removal of pinyon pine (Pinyus edulis--Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma forest, chemical control of weeds, and reseeding with preferred mule deer browse species. A consistent trend of higher %IFBF was observed in the treatment study area [Formula: see text] than in the reference study area [Formula: see text], although variation of estimates was larger than hypothesized. A similar pattern was observed with higher thyroid hormones concentrations being observed in the treatment study area, but large amounts of variation within concentration estimates were also observed. The consistent pattern of higher body condition related estimates in our treatment study area provides evidence that large mammalian species are sensitive to landscape change, although variation within estimates underlie the challenge in detecting population level impacts stemming from environmental change.

  17. A Link Loss Model for the On-body Propagation Channel for Binaural Hearing Aids

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Rohit; Johansson, Anders J.

    2013-01-01

    Binaural hearing aids communicate with each other through a wireless link for synchronization. A propagation model is needed to estimate the ear-to-ear link loss for such binaural hearing aids. The link loss is a critical parameter in a link budget to decide the sensitivity of the transceiver. In this paper, we have presented a model for the deterministic component of the ear-to-ear link loss. The model takes into account the dominant paths having most of the power of the creeping wave from t...

  18. Temperature distribution in the human body under various conditions of induced hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobko, O. V.; Perelman, T. L.; Fradkin, S. Z.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model based on heat balance equations was developed for studying temperature distribution in the human body under deep hyperthermia which is often induced in the treatment of malignant tumors. The model yields results which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The distribution of temperature under various conditions of induced hyperthermia, i.e. as a function of water temperature and supply rate, is examined on the basis of temperature distribution curves in various body zones.

  19. Full body photography in the massive weight loss population: an inquiry to optimize patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasicek, Philip; Kaswan, Sumesh; Messing, Susan; Gusenoff, Jeffrey A

    2013-11-01

    Medical photography of body contouring patients often requires complete nudity, placing patients in a vulnerable situation. We investigated patient perspectives on full body photography in an effort to better protect the patients and enhance comfort with the photography process. Sixty-five massive weight loss patients were identified who underwent body contouring surgery with full body photography. Photographs were taken at the time of initial consult, time of marking, and postoperatively. A retrospective chart review was performed to assess body mass indices and comorbidities, and a telephone survey inquired about several aspects of the photographic process. Fifty-six (86%) patients participated. Patients were more comfortable at the time of markings (P = 0.0004) and at the postoperative session (P = 0.0009). Patients' perception of positive body image increased after body contouring surgery (P < 0.0001). Patients who reported being comfortable at their initial session had a higher body mass index (P = 0.0027). Professionalism of the staff was rated as the most important aspect of the photographic process. Patients preferring a chaperone of the same sex tended to be less comfortable with the process (P = 0.015). Most patients preferred the surgeon as the photographer (P = 0.03). Patient comfort with full body photography improves quickly as they move through the surgical process. Maintaining professionalism is the most important factor in achieving patient trust and comfort. Limiting the number of observers in the room, providing explicit details of the photography process, and having at least 1 person of the same sex in the room can optimize patient safety and comfort. PMID:23542830

  20. The impact of initial conditions in N-body simulations of debris discs

    CERN Document Server

    Thilliez, E

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulations are a crucial tool to understand the relationship between debris discs and planetary companions. However, simulations throughout the literature have been conducted with various initial conditions often with little or no justification. In this paper, we aim to study the dependence on the initial conditions of N-body simulations modelling the interaction between a massive and eccentric planet on an exterior debris disc. To achieve this, we first classify three broad approaches used in the literature and provide some physical context for when each category should be used. We then run a series of N-body simulations, that include radiation forces acting on small grains, with varying initial conditions across the three categories. We test the influence of the initial parent body belt width, eccentricity, and alignment with the planet on the resulting debris disc structure and compare the final peak emission location, disc width and offset of synthetic disc images produced with a radiative tran...

  1. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite-Element Model (GHBMC) Under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwansik; Kim, Taewung; Panzer, Matthew B; Crandall, Jeff R

    2016-08-01

    In previous shoulder impact studies, the 50th-percentile male GHBMC human body finite-element model was shown to have good biofidelity regarding impact force, but under-predicted shoulder deflection by 80% compared to those observed in the experiment. The goal of this study was to validate the response of the GHBMC M50 model by focusing on three-dimensional shoulder kinematics under a whole-body lateral impact condition. Five modifications, focused on material properties and modeling techniques, were introduced into the model and a supplementary sensitivity analysis was done to determine the influence of each modification to the biomechanical response of the body. The modified model predicted substantially improved shoulder response and peak shoulder deflection within 10% of the observed experimental data, and showed good correlation in the scapula kinematics on sagittal and transverse planes. The improvement in the biofidelity of the shoulder region was mainly due to the modifications of material properties of muscle, the acromioclavicular joint, and the attachment region between the pectoralis major and ribs. Predictions of rib fracture and chest deflection were also improved because of these modifications. PMID:26753830

  2. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations. PMID:23844558

  3. Kinetics of Pb and U losses from metamict zircon under different P-T-X conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peculiarities of the kinetics of Pb and U migration from zircon under elevated P, T - parameters depending on the solution chemical composition. 206Pb and 238U contents in zircon were measured in experiments in the case of zircon-solution interaction. It is shown that Pb migration from metamict zircon is controlled by transportation of its atoms in the solution. Low activation energy of Pb in the mineral explains the observed large losses of radiogenic Pb under hypergene conditions. Recrystallization process in the temperature range of 400-600 deg C hampers the migration of Pb atoms. U migration from zircon to the solution is accompanied by its entry into new compounds

  4. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Michaely, Erez

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass-loss and mass-transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass-loss and mass-transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass-loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital...

  5. Investigation on the choice of boundary conditions and shape functions for flexible multi-body system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke-Qi Pan; Jin-Yang Liu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine the correctness and efficiency of the choice of boundary conditions when using assumed mode approach to simulate flexible multi-body systems.The displacement field due to deformation is approximated by the Rayleigh-Ritz assumed modes in floating frame of reference (FFR) formulation.The deformations obtained by the absolute nodal coordinate (ANC) formulation which are transformed by two sets of reference coordinates are introduced as a criterion to verify the accuracy of the simulation results by using the FFR formulation.The relationship between the deformations obtained from different boundary conditions is revealed.Numerical simulation examples demonstrate that the assumed modes with cantilevered-free,simply-supported and freefree boundary conditions without inclusion of rigid body modes are suitable for simulation of flexible multi-body system with large over all motion,and the same physical deformation can be obtained using those mode functions,differ only by a coordinate transformation.It is also shown that when using mode shapes with statically indeterminate boundary conditions,significant error may occur.Furthermore,the slider crank mechanism with rigid crank is accurate enough for investigating boundary condition problem of flexible multi-body system,which cost significant less simulating time.

  6. Investigation on the choice of boundary conditions and shape functions for flexible multi-body system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ke-Qi; Liu, Jin-Yang

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this investigation is to examine the correctness and efficiency of the choice of boundary conditions when using assumed mode approach to simulate flexible multi-body systems. The displacement field due to deformation is approximated by the Rayleigh-Ritz assumed modes in floating frame of reference (FFR) formulation. The deformations obtained by the absolute nodal coordinate (ANC) formulation which are transformed by two sets of reference coordinates are introduced as a criterion to verify the accuracy of the simulation results by using the FFR formulation. The relationship between the deformations obtained from different boundary conditions is revealed. Numerical simulation examples demonstrate that the assumed modes with cantilevered-free, simply-supported and free-free boundary conditions without inclusion of rigid body modes are suitable for simulation of flexible multi-body system with large over all motion, and the same physical deformation can be obtained using those mode functions, differ only by a coordinate transformation. It is also shown that when using mode shapes with statically indeterminate boundary conditions, significant error may occur. Furthermore, the slider crank mechanism with rigid crank is accurate enough for investigating boundary condition problem of flexible multi-body system, which cost significant less simulating time. The project was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (10872126) and the Research Fund of the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (20100073110007).

  7. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH. PMID:23544135

  8. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Vanhauteghem

    Full Text Available Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG, but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine, under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.

  9. Determination of clothing evaporative resistance on a sweating thermal manikin in an isothermal condition: heat loss method or mass loss method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2011-08-01

    This paper addresses selection between two calculation options, i.e heat loss option and mass loss option, for thermal manikin measurements on clothing evaporative resistance conducted in an isothermal condition (T(manikin) = T(a) = T(r)). Five vocational clothing ensembles with a thermal insulation range of 1.05-2.58 clo were selected and measured on a sweating thermal manikin 'Tore'. The reasons why the isothermal heat loss method generates a higher evaporative resistance than that of the mass loss method were thoroughly investigated. In addition, an indirect approach was applied to determine the amount of evaporative heat energy taken from the environment. It was found that clothing evaporative resistance values by the heat loss option were 11.2-37.1% greater than those based on the mass loss option. The percentage of evaporative heat loss taken from the environment (H(e,env)) for all test scenarios ranged from 10.9 to 23.8%. The real evaporative cooling efficiency ranged from 0.762 to 0.891, respectively. Furthermore, it is evident that the evaporative heat loss difference introduced by those two options was equal to the heat energy taken from the environment. In order to eliminate the combined effects of dry heat transfer, condensation, and heat pipe on clothing evaporative resistance, it is suggested that manikin measurements on the determination of clothing evaporative resistance should be performed in an isothermal condition. Moreover, the mass loss method should be applied to calculate clothing evaporative resistance. The isothermal heat loss method would appear to overestimate heat stress and thus should be corrected before use. PMID:21669906

  10. Pretest analysis of containment studies facility model for simulated loss of coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental facility called Containment Studies Facility (CSF) has been constructed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay for the purpose of research and development in the area of nuclear reactor containment thermal hydraulics. The facility consists of reinforced concrete containment structural model and a Primary Heat Transport Model (PHTM) vessel. The containment model is approximately 1:250 volumetrically scaled down model of a 220 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) containment system and the PHTM represents the primary heat transport system of the prototype reactor. The PHTM with a pressure vessel and associated pump and piping system is designed for simulating the Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) or Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) conditions within the containment model. As part of CSF project thermal hydraulic analysis, a pretest analysis was carried out for simulated LOCA conditions. Blow down mass and energy discharge data were obtained using Relap/MOD3.2 code for different blow down conditions and were used as inputs to CONTRAN code for simulating LOCA or main steam line break (MSLB) conditions in the containment model. Pressure and temperature transients in the CSF model for different blow down conditions and a number of parametric studies were conducted to assess the influence of a large number of thermodynamic and geometrical parameters which are known to affect the transients and alter the peak pressure and temperature values. (author)

  11. Validation of a Body Condition Scoring System in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta): Assessment of Body Composition by using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Summers, Laura; Clingerman, Karen J; Yang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective semiquantitative method of assessing body fat and muscle by palpation of key anatomic features. A previously published BCS system for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) uses a scale comprising both whole and half units, in which the midrange represents optimal body condition (3.0), lower values represent emaciated to lean conditions (1.0 to 2.0), and higher values (4.0 to 5.0) indicate excessive body fat. A valid BCS system is well described, relevan...

  12. Body size and mating success in Drosophila willistoni are uncorrelated under laboratory conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    L. Basso Da Silva; V. L. S. Valente

    2001-08-01

    Mating activity and wing length were investigated in the F1 progeny of Drosophila willistoni females collected in the field to examine any possible relationship between body size and mating success. The flies were observed in a mating chamber under laboratory conditions. No significant differences in wing length were observed between copulating and noncopulating flies, and there was no significant correlation between wing length and copulation latency for both males and females. These results therefore suggest that the commonly accepted view that large body size is positively correlated with mating success in Drosophila does not always hold true. The results support the view that the extent of environmentally induced variation in body size may be an important factor in determining whether an association between body size and mating success is observed in Drosophila species.

  13. Ghrelin improves body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism associated with angiotensin II-induced cachexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masako; Yamaki, Akira; Furuya, Mayumi; Inomata, Norio; Minamitake, Yoshiharu; Ohsuye, Kazuhiro; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-10-10

    Ghrelin is a gastric peptide that regulates energy homeostasis. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is known to induce body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In this study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on body weight and muscle catabolism in mice treated with Ang II. The continuous subcutaneous administration of Ang II to mice for 6 days resulted in cardiac hypertrophy and significant decreases in body weight gain, food intake, food efficiency, lean mass, and fat mass. In the gastrocnemius muscles of Ang II-treated mice, the levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were decreased, and the levels of mRNA expression of catabolic factors were increased. Although the repeated subcutaneous injections of ghrelin (1.0mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days) did not affect cardiac hypertrophy, they resulted in significant body weight gains and improved food efficiencies and tended to increase both lean and fat mass in Ang II-treated mice. Ghrelin also ameliorated the decreased IGF-1 levels and the increased mRNA expression levels of catabolic factors in the skeletal muscle. IGF-1 mRNA levels in the skeletal muscle significantly decreased 24h after Ang II infusion, and this was reversed by two subcutaneous injections of ghrelin. In C2C12-derived myocytes, the dexamethasone-induced mRNA expression of atrogin-1 was decreased by IGF-1 but not by ghrelin. In conclusion, we demonstrated that ghrelin improved body weight loss and skeletal muscle catabolism in mice treated with Ang II, possibly through the early restoration of IGF-1 mRNA in the skeletal muscle and the amelioration of nutritional status. PMID:22750276

  14. Genetic analysis of body condition score of lactating Dutch Holstein and Red-and-White heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Dobbelaar, P.; Jong, de G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for body condition scores (BCS) from the Dutch type classification system. Data included 108,809 Holstein (H) and 26,208 Red-and-White (R) heifers from 9701 herds that were scored once during lactation on a 1 to 9 scale (1 = ema

  15. Effect of Lactose as a Prebiotic on Turkey Body Weight Under Commercial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of a commercially available lactic acid bacteria (LAB) probiotic alone and supplemented with lactose as prebiotic, was evaluated for effects on turkey body weight during the brooding and grow out phases under commercial conditions in two experiments. Turkey poults were given the probioti...

  16. Seasonal change in tropical habitat quality and body condition for a declining migratory songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Emily A; Rotenberg, James A; Stutchbury, Bridget J M

    2015-10-01

    Many migratory songbirds spend their non-breeding season in tropical humid forests, where climate change is predicted to increase the severity and frequency of droughts and decrease rainfall. For conservation of these songbirds, it is critical to understand how resources during the non-breeding season are affected by seasonal patterns of drying, and thereby predict potential long-term effects of climate change. We studied habitat quality for a declining tropical forest-dwelling songbird, the wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), and tested the hypothesis that habitat moisture and arthropod abundance are drivers of body condition during the overwintering period. We examined habitat moisture, abundance of arthropods and fruit, and condition of individual birds (n = 418) in three habitat types--mature forest, mature forest with increased presence of human activity, and riparian scrub--from October to April. We found a strong pattern of habitat drying from October (wet season) to March (prior to spring migration) in all habitats, with concurrent declines in arthropod and fruit abundance. Body condition of birds also declined (estimated ~5 % decline over the wintering period), with no significant difference by habitat. Relatively poor condition (low body condition index, low fat and pectoral muscles scores) was equally apparent in all habitat types in March. Climate change is predicted to increase the severity of dry seasons in Central America, and our results suggest that this could negatively affect the condition of individual wood thrushes. PMID:26001604

  17. Rapid body mass loss affects erythropoiesis and hemolysis but does not impair aerobic performance in combat athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, D; Feist, J; Jost, J; Kieser, M; Friedmann-Bette, B

    2016-05-01

    Rapid body mass loss (RBML) before competition was found to decrease hemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) in elite boxers. This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of this observation. Fourteen well-trained combat athletes who reduced body mass before competitions (weight loss group, WLG) and 14 combat athletes who did not practice RBML (control group, CON) were tested during an ordinary training period (t-1), 1-2 days before an official competition (after 5-7 days RBML in WLG, t-2), and after a post-competition period (t-3). In WLG, body mass (-5.5%, range: 2.9-6.8 kg) and Hbmass (-4.1%) were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced after RBML and were still decreased by 1.6% (P < 0.05) and 2.6% (P < 0.001) at t-3 compared with t-1. After RBML, erythropoietin, reticulocytes, haptoglobin, triiodothyronine (FT3 ), and free androgen index (FAI) were decreased compared with t-1 and t-3. An increase occurred in ferritin and bilirubin. Peak treadmill-running performance and VO2peak did not change significantly, but performance at 4-mmol lactate threshold was higher after RBML (P < 0.05). In CON, no significant changes were found in any parameter. Apparently, the significant decrease in Hbmass after RBML in combat athletes was caused by impaired erythropoiesis and increased hemolysis without significant impact on aerobic performance capacity. PMID:25916419

  18. Weight loss on stimulant medication: how does it affect body composition and bone metabolism? – A prospective longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulton Alison

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Children treated with stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD often lose weight. It is important to understand the implications of this during growth. This prospective study was designed to quantify the changes in body composition and markers of bone metabolism on starting treatment. Methods 34 children (29 boys aged 4.7 to 9.1 years newly diagnosed with ADHD were treated with dexamphetamine or methylphenidate, titrating the dose to optimise the therapeutic response. Medication was continued for as long as clinically indicated. Body composition and bone density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured at baseline, 6 months and 3 years; changes were analysed in Z-scores based on data from 241 healthy, local children. Markers of bone turnover were measured at baseline, 3 months and 3 years. Results Fat loss of 1.4±0.96kg (total fat 5.7±3.6 to 4.3±3.1kg, p Conclusions Stimulant medication was associated with early fat loss and reduced bone turnover. Lean tissue including bone increased more slowly over 3 years of continuous treatment than would be expected for growth in height. There was long-term improvement in the proportion of central fat for height. This study shows that relatively minor reductions in weight on stimulant medication can be associated with long-term changes in body composition. Further study is required to determine the effects of these changes on adult health.

  19. DETERMINATION OF PREDICTION EQUATIONS TO ESTIMATE BODY CONDITION SCORE FROM BODY SIZE AND TESTICULAR TRAITS OF YANKASA RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yakubu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to develop prediction models using stepwise multiple linear regressionanalysis for estimating the body condition score (BCS from the body weight (BW, testicular length(TL, testicular diameter (TD and scrotal circumference (SC of indigenous Yankasa rams. Data wereobtained from 120 randomly selected rams with approximately two and half years of age, from differentextensively managed herds in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Although pairwise phenotypic correlationsindicated strong association (P<0.01 among the measured variables, there was collinearity problembetween BW and SC as revealed by the variance inflation factors (VIF and tolerance valves (T. TheVIT was higher than 10 (VIF = 19.45 and 16.65 for BW and SC, respectively. The Twas smaller than0.1 (T = 0.05 and 0.06 in BW and SC, respectively. BW was retained among the collinear variables, andwas singly accounted for 83.7% of the variation in BCS. However, a slight improvement was obtainedfrom the prediction of BCS from BW and TL [coefficient of determination (R2, adjusted R2 and rootmean squares error (RMSE were 85.3%, 85.1% and 0.305, respectively]. The prediction of the BCS ofYankasa rams from BW and testicular measurements could therefore be a potential tool for sustainableproduction and improvement of small ruminants in Nigeria.

  20. Experimental reduction of winter food decreases body condition and delays migration in a long-distance migratory bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Nathan W; Sherry, Thomas W; Marra, Peter P

    2015-07-01

    Many tropical habitats experience pronounced dry seasons, during which arthropod food availability declines, potentially limiting resident and migratory animal populations. In response to declines in food, individuals may attempt to alter their space use to enhance access to food resources, but may be socially constrained from doing so by con- and heterospecifics. If social constraints exist, food declines should result in decreased body condition. In migratory birds, correlational evidence suggests a link between body condition and migration timing. Poor body condition and delayed migration may, in turn, impact fitness in subsequent seasons via carry-over effects. To determine if winter food availability affects space use, inter- and intraspecific competition, body composition (i.e., mass, fat, and pectoral muscle), and migration timing, we experimentally decreased food availability on individual American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) territories in high-quality mangrove habitat. Redstarts on control territories experienced -40% loss of food due to the seasonal nature of the environment. Redstarts on experimental territories experienced -80% declines in food, which closely mimicked natural declines in nearby, low-quality, scrub habitat. Individuals on food-reduced territories did not expand their territories locally, but instead either became non-territorial "floaters" or remained on territory. Regardless of territorial status, food-reduced American Redstarts all deposited fat compared to control birds. Fat deposits provide insurance against the risk of starvation, but, for American Redstarts, came at the expense of maintaining pectoral muscle. Subsequently, food-reduced American Redstarts experienced, on average, a one-week delay in departure on spring migration, likely due to the loss of pectoral muscle. Thus, our results demonstrate experimentally, for the first time, that declines in winter food availability can result in a fat-muscle trade-off, which, in

  1. Three-body loss of trapped ultracold $^{87}$Rb atoms due to a Feshbach resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Yurovsky, V A

    2002-01-01

    The loss of ultracold trapped atoms in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance is treated as a two-stage reaction, using the Breit-Wigner theory. The first stage is the formation of a resonant diatomic molecule, and the second one is its deactivation by inelastic collisions with other atoms. This model is applied to the analysis of recent experiments on $^{87}$Rb, leading to an estimated value of $6\\times 10^{-11}$ cm$^{3}/$s for the deactivation rate coefficient.

  2. Adverse foraging conditions may impact body mass and survival of a high Arctic seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, A.M.A.; Welcker, J.; Steen, H.; Hamer, K.C.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Fort, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Cornick, L.A.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.

    2011-01-01

    Tradeoffs between current reproduction and future survival are widely recognized, but may only occur when food is limited: when foraging conditions are favorable, parents may be able to reproduce without compromising their own survival. We investigated these tradeoffs in the little auk (Alle alle), a small seabird with a single-egg clutch. During 2005-2007, we examined the relationship between body mass and survival of birds breeding under contrasting foraging conditions at two Arctic colonies. We used corticosterone levels of breeding adults as a physiological indicator of the foraging conditions they encountered during each reproductive season. We found that when foraging conditions were relatively poor (as reflected in elevated levels of corticosterone), parents ended the reproductive season with low body mass and suffered increased post-breeding mortality. A positive relationship between body mass and post-breeding survival was found in one study year; light birds incurred higher survival costs than heavy birds. The results of this study suggest that reproducing under poor foraging conditions may affect the post-breeding survival of long-lived little auks. They also have important demographic implications because even a small change in adult survival may have a large effect on populations of long-lived species. ?? 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Bulimia nervosa symptomatology and body image disturbance associated with distance running and weight loss.

    OpenAIRE

    Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D. A.; Fuller, R D

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. ...

  4. Second-order cosmological perturbation theory and initial conditions for $N$-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Christopherson, Adam J; Rampf, Cornelius; Malik, Karim A

    2015-01-01

    We use gauge-invariant cosmological perturbation theory to calculate the displacement field that sets the initial conditions for $N$-body simulations. Using first and second-order fully relativistic perturbation theory in the synchronous-comoving gauge, allows us to go beyond the Newtonian predictions and to calculate relativistic corrections to it. We use an Einstein-de Sitter model, including both growing and decaying modes in our solutions. The impact of our results should be assessed through the implementation of the featured displacement in cosmological $N$-body simulations.

  5. FTO Genotype and 2-Year Change in Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Response to Weight-Loss Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Qi, Qibin; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Frank B.; Sacks, Frank M.; Qi, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) genotype may interact with dietary intakes in relation to adiposity. We tested the effect of FTO variant on weight loss in response to 2-year diet interventions. FTO rs1558902 was genotyped in 742 obese adults who were randomly assigned to one of four diets differing in the proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrate. Body composition and fat distribution were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and comput...

  6. Review of experimental data for modelling LWR fuel cladding behaviour under loss of coolant accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massih, Ali R. [Quantum Technologies AB, Uppsala Science Park (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    Extensive range of experiments has been conducted in the past to quantitatively identify and understand the behaviour of fuel rod under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors (LWRs). The obtained experimental data provide the basis for the current emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria under LOCA conditions for LWRs. The results of recent experiments indicate that the cladding alloy composition and high burnup effects influence LOCA acceptance criteria margins. In this report, we review some past important and recent experimental results. We first discuss the background to acceptance criteria for LOCA, namely, clad embrittlement phenomenology, clad embrittlement criteria (limitations on maximum clad oxidation and peak clad temperature) and the experimental bases for the criteria. Two broad kinds of test have been carried out under LOCA conditions: (i) Separate effect tests to study clad oxidation, clad deformation and rupture, and zirconium alloy allotropic phase transition during LOCA. (ii) Integral LOCA tests, in which the entire LOCA sequence is simulated on a single rod or a multi-rod array in a fuel bundle, in laboratory or in a tests and results are discussed and empirical correlations deduced from these tests and quantitative models are conferred. In particular, the impact of niobium in zirconium base clad and hydrogen content of the clad on allotropic phase transformation during LOCA and also the burst stress are discussed. We review some recent LOCA integral test results with emphasis on thermal shock tests. Finally, suggestions for modelling and further evaluation of certain experimental results are made.

  7. Review of experimental data for modelling LWR fuel cladding behaviour under loss of coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extensive range of experiments has been conducted in the past to quantitatively identify and understand the behaviour of fuel rod under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors (LWRs). The obtained experimental data provide the basis for the current emergency core cooling system acceptance criteria under LOCA conditions for LWRs. The results of recent experiments indicate that the cladding alloy composition and high burnup effects influence LOCA acceptance criteria margins. In this report, we review some past important and recent experimental results. We first discuss the background to acceptance criteria for LOCA, namely, clad embrittlement phenomenology, clad embrittlement criteria (limitations on maximum clad oxidation and peak clad temperature) and the experimental bases for the criteria. Two broad kinds of test have been carried out under LOCA conditions: (i) Separate effect tests to study clad oxidation, clad deformation and rupture, and zirconium alloy allotropic phase transition during LOCA. (ii) Integral LOCA tests, in which the entire LOCA sequence is simulated on a single rod or a multi-rod array in a fuel bundle, in laboratory or in a tests and results are discussed and empirical correlations deduced from these tests and quantitative models are conferred. In particular, the impact of niobium in zirconium base clad and hydrogen content of the clad on allotropic phase transformation during LOCA and also the burst stress are discussed. We review some recent LOCA integral test results with emphasis on thermal shock tests. Finally, suggestions for modelling and further evaluation of certain experimental results are made

  8. Results comparison and model validation for flood loss functions in Australian geographical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh Nafari, R.; Ngo, T.; Lehman, W.

    2015-06-01

    Rapid urbanisation, climate change and unsustainable developments are increasing the risk of floods, namely flood frequency and intensity. Flood is a frequent natural hazard that has significant financial consequences for Australia. The emergency response system in Australia is very successful and has saved many lives over the years. However, the preparedness for natural disaster impacts in terms of loss reduction and damage mitigation has been less successful. This study aims to quantify the direct physical damage to residential structures that are prone to flood phenomena in Australia. In this paper, the physical consequences of two floods from Queensland have been simulated, and the results have been compared with the performance of two selected methodologies and one newly derived model. Based on this analysis, the adaptability and applicability of the selected methodologies will be assessed in terms of Australian geographical conditions. Results obtained from the new empirically-based function and non-adapted methodologies indicate that it is apparent that the precision of flood damage models are strongly dependent on selected stage damage curves, and flood damage estimation without model validation results in inaccurate prediction of losses. Therefore, it is very important to be aware of the associated uncertainties in flood risk assessment, especially if models have not been adapted with real damage data.

  9. Non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary condition for modelling turbocharger turbine pulsating flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary for pulse flow turbine modelling. • Predictions show convincing results against experimental and literature data. • Predicted pulse pressure propagation is in good agreement with literature data. • New methodology is time efficient and requires minimal geometrical inputs. - Abstract: This paper presents a simplified methodology of pulse flow turbine modelling, as an alternative over the meanline integrated methodology outlined in previous work, in order to make its application to engine cycle simulation codes much more straight forward. This is enabled through the development of a bespoke non-adiabatic pressure loss boundary to represent the turbine rotor. In this paper, turbocharger turbine pulse flow performance predictions are presented along with a comparison of computation duration against the previously established integrated meanline method. Plots of prediction deviation indicate that the mass flow rate and actual power predictions from both methods are highly comparable and are reasonably close to experimental data. However, the new boundary condition required significantly lower computational time and rotor geometrical inputs. In addition, the pressure wave propagation in this simplified unsteady turbine model at different pulse frequencies has also been found to be in agreement with data from the literature, thereby supporting the confidence in its ability to simulate the wave action encountered in turbine pulse flow operation

  10. Generation of mice harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Stephen A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The zinc finger transcription factor GATA6 is believed to have important roles in the development of several organs including the liver, gastrointestinal tract and heart. However, analyses of the contribution of GATA6 toward organogenesis have been hampered because Gata6-/- mice fail to develop beyond gastrulation due to defects in extraembryonic endoderm function. We have therefore generated a mouse line harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6 using Cre/loxP technology. LoxP elements were introduced into introns flanking exon 2 of the Gata6 gene by homologous recombination in ES cells. Mice containing this altered allele were bred to homozygosity and were found to be viable and fertile. To assess the functional integrity of the loxP sites and to confirm that we had generated a Gata6 loss-of-function allele, we bred Gata6 'floxed' mice to EIIa-Cre mice in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, and to Villin-Cre mice that express Cre in the epithelial cells of the intestine. We conclude that we have generated a line of mice in which GATA6 activity can be ablated in a cell type specific manner by expression of Cre recombinase. This line of mice can be used to establish the role of GATA6 in regulating embryonic development and various aspects of mammalian physiology.

  11. Containment closure time following loss of cooling under shutdown conditions of YGN units 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The YGN Units 3 and 4 plant conditions during shutdown operation were reviewed to identify the possible event scenarios following the loss of shutdown cooling. The thermal hydraulic analyses were performed for the five cases of RCS configurations under the worst event scenario, unavailable secondary cooling and no RCS inventory makeup, using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code to investigate the plant behavior. From the analyses results, times to boil, times to core uncovery and times to core heat up were estimated to determine the containment closure time to prevent the uncontrolled release of fission products to atmosphere. These data provide useful information to the abnormal procedure to cope with the event. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  12. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.;

    2015-01-01

    We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox...... condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated...... their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss....

  13. Ripple current loss measurement with DC bias condition for high temperature superconducting power cable using calorimetry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.W.; Kim, J.G.; Kim, A.R. [Changwon National University, 9 sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Park, M., E-mail: paku@changwon.ac.k [Changwon National University, 9 sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, I.K. [Changwon National University, 9 sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, K.D.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Cho, J.W. [Superconducting Device and Cryogenics Group, Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon, 641-120 (Korea, Republic of); Won, Y.J. [Korea Electric Power Corporation, 411, youngdong-dearo, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-01

    The authors calculated the loss of the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model cable using Norris ellipse formula, and measured the loss of the model cable experimentally. Two kinds of measuring method are used. One is the electrical method, and the other is the calorimetric method. The electrical method can be used only in AC condition. But the calorimetric method can be used in both AC and DC bias conditions. In order to propose an effective measuring approach for Ripple Dependent Loss (RDL) under DC bias condition using the calorimetric method, Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) wires were used for the HTS model cable, and the SUS tapes were used as a heating tape to make the same pattern of the temperature profiles as in the electrical method without the transport current. The temperature-loss relations were obtained by the electrical method, and then applied to the calorimetric method by which the RDL under DC bias condition was well estimated.

  14. Ripple current loss measurement with DC bias condition for high temperature superconducting power cable using calorimetry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors calculated the loss of the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model cable using Norris ellipse formula, and measured the loss of the model cable experimentally. Two kinds of measuring method are used. One is the electrical method, and the other is the calorimetric method. The electrical method can be used only in AC condition. But the calorimetric method can be used in both AC and DC bias conditions. In order to propose an effective measuring approach for Ripple Dependent Loss (RDL) under DC bias condition using the calorimetric method, Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) wires were used for the HTS model cable, and the SUS tapes were used as a heating tape to make the same pattern of the temperature profiles as in the electrical method without the transport current. The temperature-loss relations were obtained by the electrical method, and then applied to the calorimetric method by which the RDL under DC bias condition was well estimated.

  15. Fluctuating water depths affect American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) body condition in the Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Laura A.; Beauchamp, Jeffrey S.; Jeffery, Brian M.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Mazzotti, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Successful restoration of wetland ecosystems requires knowledge of wetland hydrologic patterns and an understanding of how those patterns affect wetland plant and animal populations.Within the Everglades, Florida, USA restoration, an applied science strategy including conceptual ecological models linking drivers to indicators is being used to organize current scientific understanding to support restoration efforts. A key driver of the ecosystem affecting the distribution and abundance of organisms is the timing, distribution, and volume of water flows that result in water depth patterns across the landscape. American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) are one of the ecological indicators being used to assess Everglades restoration because they are a keystone species and integrate biological impacts of hydrological operations through all life stages. Alligator body condition (the relative fatness of an animal) is one of the metrics being used and targets have been set to allow us to track progress. We examined trends in alligator body condition using Fulton’s K over a 15 year period (2000–2014) at seven different wetland areas within the Everglades ecosystem, assessed patterns and trends relative to restoration targets, and related those trends to hydrologic variables. We developed a series of 17 a priori hypotheses that we tested with an information theoretic approach to identify which hydrologic factors affect alligator body condition. Alligator body condition was highest throughout the Everglades during the early 2000s and is approximately 5–10% lower now (2014). Values have varied by year, area, and hydrology. Body condition was positively correlated with range in water depth and fall water depth. Our top model was the “Current” model and included variables that describe current year hydrology (spring depth, fall depth, hydroperiod, range, interaction of range and fall depth, interaction of range and hydroperiod). Across all models, interaction

  16. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, S.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kariya, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  17. Three-Body Continuum Wave Functions with a Box Boundary Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we investigate the connection between discretized three-body continuum wave functions, in particular via a box boundary condition, and the wave functions computed with the correct asymptotics. The three-body wave functions are in both cases obtained by means of the adiabatic expansion method. The information concerning all the possible incoming and outgoing channels, which appears naturally when the continuum is not discretized, seems to be lost when the discretization is implemented. In this work we show that both methods are fully equivalent, and the full information contained in the three-body wave function is actually preserved in the discrete spectrum. Therefore, in those cases when the asymptotic behaviour is not known analytically, i.e., when the Coulomb interaction is involved, the discretization technique can be safely used. (author)

  18. Three-body continuum wave functions with a box boundary condition

    CERN Document Server

    Garrido, E

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate the connection between discretized three-body continuum wave functions, in particular via a box boundary condition, and the wave functions computed with the correct asymptotics. The three-body wave functions are in both cases obtained by means of the adiabatic expansion method. The information concerning all the possible incoming and outgoing channels, which appears naturally when the continuum is not discretized, seems to be lost when the discretization is implemented. In this work we show that both methods are fully equivalent, and the full information contained in the three-body wave function is actually preserved in the discrete spectrum. Therefore, in those cases when the asymptotic behaviour is not known analytically, i.e., when the Coulomb interaction is involved, the discretization technique can be safely used.

  19. Technology of formation of vertical stability bodies of children aged 7 10 years of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storozhik A.I.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose the development of technology forming the vertical stability of the body of primary school children with impaired hearing. We study the main directions, methods and techniques used in the process of physical education primary school children with impaired hearing. There was a significant backlog of children in this nosology in the development of the equilibrium function. Highlighted the principles of technology forming the vertical stability of hearing children. The technology includes: the goals, objectives, direction and implementation stages, means and methods, criteria for evaluation and the expected effect of the pedagogical impact. The technology will fulfill its function in the event that the child was significantly improved lung function equilibrium amplitude common center of gravity of the body in the main stand on a fixed support with their eyes open; amplitude common center of gravity in the sample Romberg, while retaining posture in the test Bondarevsky. It is noted that the criterion of efficiency of the technology are: improved posture, increase the level of physical fitness, the appearance of confidence in his walk and accuracy in the movements and gestures.

  20. Validity of air-displacement plethysmography in the assessment of body composition changes in a 16-month weight loss program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hull Holly R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the accuracy of air displacement plethysmography (ADP and dual energy x-ray absorptionmetry (DXA in tracking changes in body composition after a 16 month weight loss intervention in overweight and obese females. Methods 93 healthy female subjects (38.9 ± 5.7 yr, 159.8 ± 5.6 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg, 30.0 ± 3.4 kg/m2 completed a 16 month weight loss intervention. Eligible subjects attended 15 treatment sessions occurring over the course of 4 months with educational content including topics relating to physical activity and exercise, diet and eating behavior, and behavior modification. In the remaining 12 months, subjects underwent a lifestyle program designed to increase physical activity and improve eating habits. Before and after the intervention, subjects had their percent body fat (%fat, fat mass (FM, and fat-free mass (FFM assessed by DXA and ADP. Results Significant differences (p ≤ 0.001 were found between DXA and ADP at baseline %fat (46.0 % fat vs. 42.0 % fat, FM (35.3 kg vs. 32.5 kg and FFM (40.8 kg vs. 44.2 kg as well as at post intervention for %fat (42.1% fat vs. 38.3 % fat, FM (30.9 kg vs. 28.4 kg and FFM (41.7 kg vs. 44.7 kg. At each time point, ADP %fat and total FM was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.001 than DXA while FFM was significantly higher (p ≤ 0.001. However, both techniques tracked %fat changes similarly considering that there were no differences between the two means. Furthermore, a Bland-Altman analysis was performed and no significant bias was observed, thus demonstrating the ability of ADP to measure body fat across a wide range of fatness. Conclusion At baseline and post weight loss, a significant difference was found between ADP and DXA. However, the results indicate both methods are highly related and track changes in %fat similarly after a weight loss program in overweight and obese females. Additionally, the mean changes in %fat were similar between the two techniques, suggesting

  1. Severe dopaminergic neuron loss in rhesus monkey brain impairs morphine-induced conditioned place preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that dopamine is critical for reward, but the precise role of dopamine in reward remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of dopaminergic neurons in the primate brain is required for the expression of conditioned reward by measuring the performance of dopamine-deficient rhesus monkeys in a morphine-induced conditioned place preference paradigm. Animals with mild Parkinsonian symptoms successfully developed and retained a morphine preference that was equivalent to control monkeys. However, these monkeys could not maintain the preference as well as controls when they retained severe Parkinsonian symptoms. On the other hand, monkeys initially in a severe Parkinsonian state developed a preference for morphine, but this preference was weaker than that of the controls. Histological results showed that the loss of dopaminergic neurons in monkeys that had severe Parkinsonian symptoms was about 80% in comparison to the control monkeys. All these data suggest that a severely impaired dopamine system alters rewarding-seeking behavior in non-human primates.

  2. Body condition and habitat use by Hermann's tortoises in burnt and intact habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Lecq, S.; Ballouard, J.-M.; Caron, S.; Livoreil, B.; Seynaeve, V.; Matthieu, L.-A.; Bonnet, X.

    2014-01-01

    In Mediterranean regions, fires threaten terrestrial tortoises. Nevertheless, varying proportions of adults survive fire; these surviving individuals can play a central role for population recovery. The regions devastated by fire often include important habitat of Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni hermanni), so assessing the ability of survivors to persist is essential for conserving the species. Body-condition indices provide an integrative estimate of how well individuals cope with envi...

  3. Influence of foraging ecology and body condition on contaminant bioaccumulation in a top marine predator

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Sarah Elendil Hardee

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contaminants are a continued threat to marine wildlife because they are globally dispersed, bioaccumulate in top predators, and can disrupt physiological pathways, thus leading to adverse health effects. For adult marine mammals, the main source of contaminants is through their diet, therefore foraging behavior, including geographic location, foraging depth, and prey type, may exacerbate or mitigate contaminant exposure. Fluctuating body condition can also significantly affect c...

  4. Thermo-physical properties of body-centered cubic iron-magnesium alloys under extreme conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kádas, K.; Ahuja, R.; Johansson, B; Eriksson, O.; Vitos, L.

    2011-01-01

    Using density functional theory formulated within the framework of the exact muffin-tin orbitals method, we investigate the thermo-physical properties of body-centered cubic (bcc) iron-magnesium alloys, containing 5 and 10 atomic % Mg, under extreme conditions, at high pressure and high temperature. The temperature effect is taken into account via the Fermi-Dirac distribution of the electrons. We find that at high pressures pure bcc iron is dynamically unstable at any temperature, having a ne...

  5. Management factors affecting stereotypies and body condition score in nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island

    OpenAIRE

    Christie, Julie L.; Hewson, Caroline J.; Riley, Christopher B.; McNiven, Mary A.; Dohoo, Ian R.; Bate, Luis A.

    2006-01-01

    In North America, there are few representative data about the effects of management practices on equine welfare. In a randomized survey of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island (response rate 68.4%), owners completed a pretested questionnaire and a veterinarian examined each horse. Regression analyses identified factors affecting 2 welfare markers: body condition score (BCS) and stereotypic behavior. Horses’ BCSs were high (mean 5.7, on a 9-point scale) and were associated with sex (ma...

  6. Dominance rank is associated with body condition in outdoor-living domestic horses (Equus caballus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Sarah L.; Nicol, Christine J.; Harris, Patricia A.; Rands, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to explore the association between dominance rank and body condition in outdoor group-living domestic horses, Equus caballus. Social interactions were recorded using a video camera during a feeding test, applied to 203 horses in 42 herds. Dominance rank was assigned to 194 individuals. The outcome variable body condition score (BCS) was recorded using a 9-point scale. The variables age and height were recorded and considered as potential confounders or effect modifiers. Results were analysed using multivariable linear and logistic regression techniques, controlling for herd group as a random effect. More dominant (p = 0.001) individuals generally had a higher body condition score (p = 0.001) and this association was entirely independent of age and height. In addition, a greater proportion of dominant individuals fell into the obese category (BCS ≥ 7/9, p = 0.005). There were more displacement encounters and a greater level of interactivity in herds that had less variation in age and height, lending strength to the hypothesis that phenotypic variation may aid cohesion in group-living species. In addition there was a strong quadratic relationship between age and dominance rank (p < 0.001), where middle-aged individuals were most likely to be dominant. These results are the first to link behavioural predictors to body condition and obesity status in horses and should prompt the future consideration of behavioural and social factors when evaluating clinical disease risk in group-living animals. PMID:25937683

  7. Variations in Return Loss of Patch Antennas in the Close Proximity of Human Body and Rectangular and Cylindrical Phantoms at 1.8 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance evaluation of an antenna in the presence of human body is attracting considerable interest due to the increasing use of Body Area Networks (BAN). This study investigates the variations in matching of linearly polarised and circularly polarised patch antennas due to the presence of human body and glass fibre Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM). The return loss at 1.8 GHz is measured at varying distances to study the matching behaviour. It was found that flat section phantom gave optimal return loss closer to its surface than an actual human. Also the optimal return loss for a circularly polarised antenna is at a distance that is double than that for a linearly polarised antenna. The findings of this research are particularly useful when considering the separation distance between wearable antenna and human body in both intra and inter body wireless connectivity. (author)

  8. Effects of aging on whole body and segmental control while obstacle crossing under impaired sensory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Alison C; Deshpande, Nandini

    2014-06-01

    The ability to safely negotiate obstacles is an important component of independent mobility, requiring adaptive locomotor responses to maintain dynamic balance. This study examined the effects of aging and visual-vestibular interactions on whole-body and segmental control during obstacle crossing. Twelve young and 15 older adults walked along a straight pathway and stepped over one obstacle placed in their path. The task was completed under 4 conditions which included intact or blurred vision, and intact or perturbed vestibular information using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). Global task performance significantly increased under suboptimal vision conditions. Vision also significantly influenced medial-lateral center of mass displacement, irrespective of age and GVS. Older adults demonstrated significantly greater trunk pitch and head roll angles under suboptimal vision conditions. Similar to whole-body control, no GVS effect was found for any measures of segmental control. The results indicate a significant reliance on visual but not vestibular information for locomotor control during obstacle crossing. The lack of differences in GVS effects suggests that vestibular information is not up-regulated for obstacle avoidance. This is not differentially affected by aging. In older adults, insufficient visual input appears to affect ability to minimize anterior-posterior trunk movement despite a slower obstacle crossing time and walking speed. Combined with larger medial-lateral deviation of the body COM with insufficient visual information, the older adults may be at a greater risk for imbalance or inability to recover from a possible trip when stepping over an obstacle. PMID:24746603

  9. Home range, body condition, and survival of rehabilitated raccoons (Procyon lotor) during their first winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Molly; Wilson, James A

    2015-01-01

    The effects of raccoon (Procyon lotor) rehabilitation on postrelease survivorship are unknown. Raccoon rehabilitation success was measured as differences in prewinter body condition, home range size, distance to manmade structures, and during-winter survival between raccoons in the wild and those who have been rehabilitated. Prewinter body condition did not differ between wild and rehabilitated raccoons, but there was a trend for rehabilitated raccoons to have better body conditions. There was no difference between wild and rehabilitated raccoon adaptive kernel (AK) home range for 95% and 90% AK home ranges, or for core (50% AK) use areas. There was no sex difference in distance traveled from the release site within rehabilitated raccoons. However, rehabilitated raccoons were found significantly closer (49.4 ± 4.7 m) to manmade structures than wild raccoons (92.2 ± 14.4 m), and female raccoons were found significantly closer (64.8 ± 4.5 m) to manmade structures than male raccoons (72.3 ± 17.6 m). The results of this study indicate that raccoons can be successfully rehabilitated, but they may occupy habitat closer to manmade structures than wild raccoons. PMID:25257398

  10. Effects of the initial conditions on cosmological $N$-body simulations

    CERN Document Server

    L'Huillier, Benjamin; Kim, Juhan

    2014-01-01

    Cosmology is entering an era of percent level precision due to current large observational surveys. This precision in observation is now demanding more accuracy from numerical methods and cosmological simulations. In this paper, we study the accuracy of $N$-body numerical simulations and their dependence on changes in the initial conditions and in the simulation algorithms. For this purpose, we use a series of cosmological $N$-body simulations with varying initial conditions. We test the influence of the initial conditions, namely the pre-initial configuration (preIC), the order of the Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT), and the initial redshift, on the statistics associated with the large scale structures of the universe such as the halo mass function, the density power spectrum, and the maximal extent of the large scale structures. We find that glass or grid pre-initial conditions give similar results at $z\\lesssim 2$. However, the initial excess of power in the glass initial conditions yields a subtle di...

  11. Evaluering af overensstemmelsen af body condition score og feline body mass index sammenlignet med dual energy X-ray absorptiometry hos katte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Michael; Hølmkjær, Kirsten Madsen; Cronin, Anna;

    2016-01-01

    Formål: Obesitet er et stigende problem blandt katte, og der er derfor brug for nemme, billige og hurtige metoder til vurdering af kattes kropssammensætning i praksis. Indeværende studie sammenligner to klinisk applicerbare metoder: Body condition score (BCS) og feline body mass index (FBMI) mod...

  12. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 μg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20–22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats. - Highlights: ► We examined mercury in endangered California clapper rails within tidal marshes. ► Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site. ► Mercury concentrations in blood, feathers, and eggs were considered elevated. ► Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. ► Results indicate detrimental effects of mercury on endangered clapper rails. - Mercury contamination in endangered California clapper rails was influenced by tidal marsh site and increased mercury resulted in reduced bird body condition.

  13. Can intradermal administration of angiotensin II influence human heat loss responses during whole body heat stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Naoto; Meade, Robert D; Paull, Gabrielle; McGinn, Ryan; Foudil-bey, Imane; Akbari, Pegah; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if angiotensin II, which can increase the production of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress), modulates heat loss responses of cutaneous blood flow and sweating. We tested the hypothesis that angiotensin II-induced increases in oxidative stress impair cutaneous perfusion and sweating during rest and exercise in the heat. Eleven young (24 ± 4 yr) healthy adults performed two 30-min cycling bouts at a fixed rate of metabolic heat production (400 W) in the heat (35°C). The first and second exercises were followed by a 20- and 40-min recovery. Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for continuous administration of either: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 10 μM angiotensin II, 3) 10 mM ascorbate (an antioxidant), or 4) a combination of 10 μM angiotensin II + 10 mM ascorbate. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler perfusion units/mean arterial pressure) and sweating (ventilated capsule) were evaluated at each skin site. Compared with control, angiotensin II reduced both CVC and sweating at baseline resting and during each recovery in the heat (all P 0.05). When ascorbate was coinfused with angiotensin II, the effect of angiotensin II on sweating was abolished (all P > 0.05); however, its effect on CVC at baseline resting and during each recovery remained intact (all P < 0.05). We show angiotensin II impairs cutaneous perfusion independent of oxidative stress, while it impairs sweating through increasing oxidative stress during exposure to an ambient heat stress before and following exercise. PMID:25767030

  14. Influences of immunocontraception on time budgets, social behavior, and body condition in feral horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J.I.; Cade, B.S.; Hobbs, N.T.

    2010-01-01

    Managers concerned with shrinking habitats and limited resources for wildlife seek effective tools for limiting population growth in some species. Fertility control is one such tool, yet little is known about its impacts on the behavioral ecology of wild, free-roaming animals. We investigated influences of the immunocontraceptive porcine zona pellucida (PZP) on individual and social behavior in bands of feral horses (Equus caballus) in three discrete populations and used 14 hierarchical mixed effect models to gain insight into the influences of PZP treatment on feral horse behavior. A model of body condition was the strongest predictor of feeding, resting, maintenance, and social behaviors, with treated females allocating their time similarly to control females. Time spent feeding declined 11.4% from low condition to high condition females (F1,154 = 26.427, P horses appear to be limited primarily to reproductive behaviors and most other differences detected were attributed to the effects of body condition, band fidelity, or foal presence. PZP is a promising alternative to traditional hormone-based contraceptives and appears to contribute few short-term behavioral modifications in feral horses.

  15. Body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, W.L.; Ankney, C.D.; Roster, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    We studied body condition, food habits, and molt status of late-wintering ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) using drainwater evaporation ponds in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Levels of body fat and protein were similar by sex but varied by age (adults greater than immatures). Masses of breast and leg muscle protein were greatest in adult males and lowest in immature males, but similar in adult and immature females. Fat and protein levels in late-wintering ruddy ducks were independent of their body size. We detected no differences among sex-age classes in the proportion of animal foods consumed. Aquatic invertebrates composed 85% of the diet; midge larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) and brine flies (Diptera: Ephydridae) were the principal taxa consumed. Molt score by feather region and overall molt score did not vary by sex or age. Light to moderate molt (25 to 50% molting feathers) was recorded in all feather regions. High levels of body fat and protein were attributed to premigratory hyperphagia and consumption of foods with a high protein:energy ratio.

  16. Dietary behaviors and body image recognition of college students according to the self-rated health condition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mi Joung; Lim, Ye Rom; Kwak, Ho Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study was done to investigate the relationship between the perception of body image, body weight satisfaction or dietary behavior and self-rated health status in Korean college students. Subjects, 285 college students, were divided into three groups (healthy, normal, and unhealthy) according to the answer for the self-rated health question. Information about demographic status, self-rated health condition, height and weight, perception of body image, satisfaction of body weight, concern ...

  17. A statistical analysis of the body condition of cows from two veterinary stations in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement of livestock production is important for Zimbabwe's agriculturally base economy. This paper examines the relationship between the body condition and metabolic parameters of female cows, for the better understanding of traditional livestock farming in Zimbabwe. The data analysed are part of the baseline data on the improvement of livestock production, collected from two sites Chinamora and Bulawayo. Body condition is indexed by body score. Thirty-five variables are examined. The variable selection method employed is stepwise regression. Regression model assumptions of normality and independent observations are checked using normal probability plot and Durbin-Watson statistics for autocorrelation of residuals. Collinearity and outlier problems are examined using eigenanalysis and influence statistics. The effect of some factors, such as, site, which relates to livestock management, parity and season, categorized by the quality of forage available for grazing, are also studied. The data are analysed using SAS statistical package on a Personal Computer. The results show that only about four variables substantially influence the relationship in each of the two sites considered. For the better managed site, Bulawayo, these are PCV, Calcium and WBC. Strongyles, Progesterone Level, Phosphate and HB are obtained in Chinamora. Negative correlation coefficient corresponds to strongyles only. That is, the effect of stronglyes is to reduce the value of bodyscore. For other variables, an improvement in their respective values will bring about improved body condition. Site difference is identified as a factor affecting the relationship. This emphasizes the role of good management in livestock production. Parity and season are also identified. Only two interactions are significant; site-season and a progesterone level-season interaction. The latter is obtained only in Chinamora site and it can be deduced that the cyclic cows are exposed to the risk of loosing their

  18. Pre- and post-conditioning hormesis in elderly mice, rats, and humans: its loss and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    This paper assessed differences and similarities in the capacity for preconditioning (PC) and post-conditioning (PostC) to prevent ischemic reperfusion (IR) damage to the heart in the old/elderly as compared to young adult mice, rats, and humans. While PC reliably reduces myocardial ischemia-induced heart damage by about 30-60 % in young adult (2-3 months old) mice and rats, such protection begins to diminish in middle age (1 year old) and is fully lost in the old and elderly (≥18 months). Common rearing practices (i.e., no exercise; ad libitum feeding) are strongly associated with the loss of PC to prevent IR damage to the heart in old/elderly rodents. Substantial restoration of lost PC in old/elderly animal models is affected via various types of exercise and exercise protocols, several types of dietary interventions and pharmacological means. Evidence of PC-mediated cardioprotection in old/elderly humans via epidemiological investigations has been reported using multiple research protocols. These findings suggest the need for animal studies to better reflect human dietary, exercise and lifestyle patterns to enhance their extrapolative relevance. PMID:27075594

  19. Body condition and physical care scales in three cases of dog hoarding from Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2006 Belgrade city officials were planning to take steps to reduce the city’s stray dog population. The plan was to sterilize (spay or neuter, microchip and vaccinate about 5000 dogs during the next two years. The plan was set to kick into action at the start of September in 2006, with a monthly goal of spaying or neutering at least 255 dogs. Taking the program one step further, approximately 15000 dog owners will be given free microchips for their dogs, among them owners of private dogs' shelters, too. A professional team of four members was formed with the aim to visit all private shelters for dogs in Belgrade. The team found three cases of dog hoarding. In all of them, hoarders claimed to possess a "no-kill" shelter for dogs. These hoarders were likely to exhibit characteristics between overwhelmed caregivers and rescuer hoarders. These cases of hoarding are described in this paper from the dog abuse aspect. The two parts of Tufts Animal Care and Condition (TACC scales were used for this purpose (body condition and physical care scales. Body condition and physical care were evaluated in 429 dogs (220 dogs in the first, 157 dogs in the second and 52 dogs in the third hoarder. There were significant differences (P<0.0001 only for body condition of dogs in three cases of hoarders. Inadequate diet was the main reason for this state. Physical care of dogs ranged from borderline to terrible without significant differences between three cases of animal hoarding.

  20. Feeder reconfiguration for loss reduction in three phase distribution system under unbalanced loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rugthaicharoencheep, N.; Sirisumrannukul, S.

    2011-07-15

    Many methods have been used to reduce active power loss in power systems. One efficient method is feeder reconfiguration, which refers to a process consisting of the closing and opening of switches in a power distribution system to alter the network topology and thus the flow of power from the substation to the customers. The advantages obtained include real power loss reduction, balancing system load, bus voltage profile improvement and increasing system security and reliability. A great deal of work has been done on feeder reconfiguration, mainly to reduce power loss, as it is attractive to power utilities. This paper presents a Tabu search-based optimization technique to find the optimal solution of feeder reconfiguration in unbalanced loading distribution systems to reduce power loss. It concluded that the optimal on/off patterns of sectioning switches and tie switches can be identified to give the minimum power loss, introducing significant savings on the annual cost of energy loss in the system.

  1. Drifting invertebrates, stomach contents, and body conditions of juvenile rainbow trout from fall through winter in a Wyoming tailwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, D.G.; Hubert, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the availability of drifting invertebrates and the stomach contents and body conditions of stocked (hatchery) and naturally spawned (wild) juvenile (20-25 cm total length) rainbow trout from fall through winter in the Big Horn River downstream from Boysen Dam in Wyoming. When the density and biomass of drifting invertebrates declined with water temperature during the fall, stomach contents and body conditions substantially decreased among both wild and stocked fish. During the coldest portion of the winter, the density of small drifting invertebrates increased as did the body conditions of both wild and hatchery trout. We suggest that the perceived increase in body conditions during late winter was due to survival of fish with higher body conditions and not growth of fish from fall to late winter.

  2. Identity transformation and a changed lifestyle following dramatic weight loss and body-contouring surgery: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Jo; Long, Andrew; Soldin, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article reports on two major quality-of-life perception changes for patients who had undergone plastic surgery following dramatic weight loss. The exploratory, qualitative study was undertaken with 20 patients from one teaching hospital. In-depth interviews were conducted, and a thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. The results provide unique glimpses of surgical consumption empowering and facilitating 'identity transformation', embracing improved physical function and enhanced self-esteem, confidence and quality of life, and a 'changed lifestyle'. For a minority, identity transformation was sometimes interrupted by 'identity lag', posing the need for additional health-care support throughout the adjustment process. The study provides additional insight into existing quantitative studies, adding to the body of knowledge in this area. PMID:24296742

  3. Short-run Effects of Job Loss on Health Conditions, Health Insurance, and Health Care Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Jessamyn Schaller; Ann Huff Stevens

    2014-01-01

    Job loss in the United States is associated with long-term reductions in income and long-term increases in mortality rates. This paper examines the short- to medium-term changes in health, health care access, and health care utilization after job loss that lead to these long-term effects. Using a sample with more than 9800 individual job losses and longitudinal data on a wide variety of health-related measures and outcomes, we show that job loss results in worse self-reported health, includin...

  4. Losses in coils for any space and time variations of electromagnetic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a circuit model, loss calculations have been carried out for coils made of twisted filamentary composites which undergo any space and time variations of the magnetic induction and of the transport current. This model has been tested by measuring losses in solenoids and in ''special coils'' which look like small Tokamaks, where the composite which carries a time-dependent current is submitted to simultaneous transverse and longitudinal magnetic induction changes. Experimental and theoretical values are in good agreement within about 5% to 15% for hysteretic losses and within 10% to 20% for eddy current losses. 10 refs

  5. L^1 -optimality conditions for the circular restricted three-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the L^1 -minimization for the translational motion of a spacecraft in the circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is considered. Necessary conditions are derived by using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle (PMP), revealing the existence of bang-bang and singular controls. Singular extremals are analyzed, recalling the existence of the Fuller phenomenon according to the theories developed in (Marchal in J Optim Theory Appl 11(5):441-486, 1973; Zelikin and Borisov in Theory of Chattering Control with Applications to Astronautics, Robotics, Economics, and Engineering. Birkhäuser, Basal 1994; in J Math Sci 114(3):1227-1344, 2003). The sufficient optimality conditions for the L^1 -minimization problem with fixed endpoints have been developed in (Chen et al. in SIAM J Control Optim 54(3):1245-1265, 2016). In the current paper, we establish second-order conditions for optimal control problems with more general final conditions defined by a smooth submanifold target. In addition, the numerical implementation to check these optimality conditions is given. Finally, approximating the Earth-Moon-Spacecraft system by the CRTBP, an L^1 -minimization trajectory for the translational motion of a spacecraft is computed by combining a shooting method with a continuation method in (Caillau et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 114:137-150, 2012; Caillau and Daoud in SIAM J Control Optim 50(6):3178-3202, 2012). The local optimality of the computed trajectory is asserted thanks to the second-order optimality conditions developed.

  6. Impact of the spray drying conditions and residence time distribution on lysine loss in spray dried infant formula

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz-Schug, Iris; Foerst, Petra; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    International audience The essential amino acid lysine plays an important role for the nutritional quality of infant formula. Unfortunately, it is easily damaged during spray drying which is usually used to produce infant formula powders. In this study, we showed that the extent of lysine loss can be controlled by adjusting the air inlet temperature and the air-to-liquid ratio. Depending on the spray drying conditions, 10.4 ± 2.9% lysine loss down to no lysine loss was determined after spr...

  7. The Effect of Sintering Conditions on the Power Loss Characteristics of Mn-Zn Ferrites for High Frequency Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Y.; Suh, J.; Shin, M.; Han, S.

    1997-01-01

    The sintering temperature significantly changed the microstructure and effected the power loss behavior at the frequency range over 100kHz. The best power loss characteristics at 100kHz-200mT and 500kHz-50mT were observed in the samples sintered at 1300°C and 1250°C, respectively. Those results indicated that the power loss depended on the grain size, electrical resistivity and density of sintered cores. To maintain the stoichiometry at the sintering condition, the ferrite cores were processe...

  8. Analyses and estimation of insulation material release E.ON-PWR under loss of coolant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, strainers on the suction side of the ECCS pumps in Barsebaeck NPP Unit 2 became partially and temporary clogged with mineral wool after steam jet induced releases of parts of the mineral wool insulation. Although Barsebaeck NPP Unit 2 is a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) this event induced large investigations to understand und maintain strainer clogging effects after a loss-of-coolant accident for all reactor types The strainer performance must be adequate LOCA and post-LOCA. Therefore clogging has to be avoided basically or at least minimized to acceptable pressure loss rates with respect to the needed suction head of the emergency cooling pumps (NPSH) and to the designed differential pressure of the strainers themselves. These aspects might become safety relevant for the emergency core cooling procedure after LOCA if not acceptable conditions are expected within the accident control phase or later during the post accident phase. In any case counter actions, technical provisions and procedures have to be planned and described in the operational manuals. Especially for the German Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) a program was launched by the German Utilities together with the plant manufacturer in order to carry out theoretical and experimental analyses about the behavior of released insulation particles of mineral wool and/or other materials such as micro porous materials. The program was run over years and technically finalized in 2008. Main aspects and results cover all effects of the handled materials, of their specific behavior and of the interactions with the strainers as part of the emergency core cooling systems. The intensive investigations covered all aspects to be considered for an overall understanding and analyses of a loss of coolant event (LOCA) with an induced release of insulation particles and accompanying effects which may affect the strainer function regarding to clogging and the corresponding counteractions. Therefore starting with the

  9. Loss of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor expression promotes the accumulation of lysobisphosphatidic acid in multilamellar bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, B J; Row, P E; Bright, N A; Luzio, J P; Davidson, H W

    2000-11-01

    A number of recent studies have highlighted the importance of lipid domains within endocytic organelles in the sorting and movement of integral membrane proteins. In particular, considerable attention has become focussed upon the role of the unusual phospholipid lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA). This lipid appears to be directly involved in the trafficking of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, and accumulates in a number of lysosomal storage disorders. Antibody-mediated disruption of LBPA function also leads to mis-sorting of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors. We now report that the converse is also true, and that spontaneous loss of cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors from a rat fibroblast cell line led to the formation of aberrant late endocytic structures enriched in LBPA. Accumulation of LBPA was directly dependent upon the loss of the receptors, and could be reversed by expression of bovine cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors in the mutant cell line. Ultrastructural analysis indicated that the abnormal organelles were electron-dense, had a multi-lamellar structure, accumulated endocytosed probes, and were distinct from dense-core lysosomes present within the same cells. The late endocytic structures present at steady state within any particular cell likely reflect the balance of membrane traffic through the endocytic pathway of that cell, and the rate of maturation of individual endocytic organelles. Moreover, there is considerable evidence which suggests that cargo receptors also play a direct mechanistic role in membrane trafficking events. Therefore, loss of such a protein may disturb the overall equilibrium of the pathway, and hence cause the accumulation of aberrant organelles. We propose that this mechanism underlies the phenotype of the mutant cell line, and that the formation of inclusion bodies in many lysosomal storage diseases is also due to an imbalance in membrane trafficking within the endocytic pathway

  10. Management factors affecting stereotypies and body condition score in nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Julie L; Hewson, Caroline J; Riley, Christopher B; McNiven, Mary A; Dohoo, Ian R; Bate, Luis A

    2006-02-01

    In North America, there are few representative data about the effects of management practices on equine welfare. In a randomized survey of 312 nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island (response rate 68.4%), owners completed a pretested questionnaire and a veterinarian examined each horse. Regression analyses identified factors affecting 2 welfare markers: body condition score (BCS) and stereotypic behavior. Horses' BCSs were high (mean 5.7, on a 9-point scale) and were associated with sex (males had lower BCSs than females; P stereotypies. Some of these results contradict those of other studies perhaps because of populations concerned. PMID:16579039

  11. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the variation in backfat at weaning and its relations to reproduction results in organic sow herds in Denmark. The study included eight herds and 573 sows. The average backfat at weaning (mean = 13 mm; SD = 4.2 mm) ranging from 10.5 to 17.3 mm among herds shows that...... it is possible to avoid poor body condition at weaning even with a lactation length of seven weeks or more. No main effect of backfat at weaning on reproduction performance was found, but the probability of a successful reproduction after weaning tended to decrease with decreasing backfat for first...

  12. Effect of geometry and operating conditions on spur gear system power loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N. E.; Loewenthal, S. H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an analysis of the effects of spur gear size, pitch, width and ratio on total mesh power loss for a wide range of speeds, torques and oil viscosities are presented. The analysis uses simple algebraic expressions to determine gear sliding, rolling and windage losses and also incorporates an approximate ball bearing power loss expression. The analysis shows good agreement with published data. Large diameter and fine-pitched gears had higher peak efficiencies but lower part-load efficiency. Gear efficiencies were generally greater than 98 percent except at very low torque levels. Tare (no-load) losses are generally a significant percentage of the full-load loss except at low speeds.

  13. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B; Henriques, Felipe S; Sertié, Rogério A L; Franco, Felipe O; Santos, Kaltinaitis B; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S; Neves, Rodrigo X; Farmer, Stephen R; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B; Batista, Miguel L

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to

  14. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Beluzi

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re

  15. Events of elevated somatic cell counts in high-producing dairy cows are associated with daily body weight loss in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Straten, M; Friger, M; Shpigel, N Y

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine associations between body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) variables indicating a more severe negative energy balance in early lactation and events of somatic cell counts (SCC) >250,000 cells/mL and SCC >400,000 cells/mL in dairy cows. We studied lactations from 634 primiparous and 1,086 multiparous Israeli Holstein dairy cows originating from 7 commercial dairy farms. Generalized mixed models with a random herd effect were used to quantify the effects of BW and BCS variables in early lactation on events of elevated SCC. Data were analyzed using 2 different approaches. In the first approach, only first events in a lactation were taken into account, whereas in the second approach, all events in a lactation were analyzed and repeated events from the same cow were accounted for. Although no associations were found between the different BW and BCS variables and first events of elevated SCC, associations were present between these variables and events of elevated SCC when all events were analyzed. The cumulative incidence of a lactation with multiple events of SCC >250,000 cells/mL was 8.8 and 27.7% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The odds of an event of SCC >250,000 cells/mL were 25% greater for cows belonging to the upper quartile in relative BW loss from calving to nadir BW (loss >12.3, 15.0, and 15.7% for first-, second-, and third- parity and greater cows, respectively) compared with cows losing less relative BW. Odds of an event were 44% greater for cows with ketosis when compared with cows without. The cumulative incidence of a lactation with multiple events of SCC >400,000 cells/mL was 4.1 and 14.3% for primiparous and multiparous cows, respectively. The odds of an event of SCC >400,000 cells/mL were 43% greater for cows belonging to the upper quartile in relative BW loss from calving to nadir BW compared with cows losing less relative BW. Odds of an event were 33% greater for cows with

  16. Initial Conditions for Accurate N-Body Simulations of Massive Neutrino Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Zennaro, Matteo; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Carbone, Carmelita; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Guzzo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The set-up of the initial conditions in cosmological N-body simulations is usually implemented by rescaling the desired low-redshift linear power spectrum to the required starting redshift consistently with the Newtonian evolution of the simulation. The implementation of this practical solution requires more care in the context of massive neutrino cosmologies, mainly because of the non-trivial scale-dependence of the linear growth that characterises these models. In this work we consider a simple two-fluid, Newtonian approximation for cold dark matter and massive neutrinos perturbations that can reproduce the cold matter linear evolution predicted by Boltzmann codes such as CAMB or CLASS with a 0.1% accuracy or below for all redshift relevant to nonlinear structure formation. We use this description, in the first place, to quantify the systematic errors induced by several approximations often assumed in numerical simulations, including the typical set-up of the initial conditions for massive neutrino cosmolog...

  17. N-body simulations with generic non-Gaussian initial conditions II: Halo bias

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We present N-body simulations for generic non-Gaussian initial conditions with the aim of exploring and modelling the scale-dependent halo bias. This effect is evident at very large scales requiring large simulation boxes. In addition, the previously available prescription to implement generic non-Gaussian initial conditions has been improved to keep under control higher-order terms which were spoiling the power spectrum on large scales. We pay particular attention to the differences between physical, inflation-motivated primordial bispectra and their factorizable templates, and to the operational definition of the non-Gaussian halo bias (which has both a scale-dependent and an approximately scale-independent contributions). We find that analytic predictions for both the non-Gaussian halo mass function and halo bias work well once a calibration factor (which was introduced before) is calibrated on simulations. The halo bias remains therefore an extremely promising tool to probe primordial non-Gaussianity and ...

  18. Forces of Space Non-Holonomity as the Necessary Condition for Motion of Space Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The motion of a satellite in the gravitational field of the Earth is studied. The condition of weightlessness in terms of physical observable quantities is formulated. It is shown that the motion of all planets in the Solar system satisfy this condition. The exact solution of non-null geodesic lines describing the motion of a satellite in a state of weightlessness is obtained. It is shown that two kinds of rotational forces (forces of non-holonomity exist: the inner force is linked to a gravitational potential, the outer force changes geometric properties of a space. The latter force causes both anisotropy of the velocity of light and additional displacement of mass-bearing bodies.

  19. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nell, Lucas A; Frederick, Peter C; Mazzotti, Frank J; Vliet, Kent A; Brandt, Laura A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations) shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes) actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction. PMID:26934602

  20. Presence of Breeding Birds Improves Body Condition for a Crocodilian Nest Protector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A Nell

    Full Text Available Ecological associations where one species enhances habitat for another nearby species (facilitations shape fundamental community dynamics and can promote niche expansion, thereby influencing how and where species persist and coexist. For the many breeding birds facing high nest-predation pressure, enemy-free space can be gained by nesting near more formidable animals for physical protection. While the benefits to protected species seem well documented, very few studies have explored whether and how protector species are affected by nest protection associations. Long-legged wading birds (Pelecaniformes and Ciconiiformes actively choose nesting sites above resident American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis, apparently to take advantage of the protection from mammalian nest predators that alligator presence offers. Previous research has shown that wading bird nesting colonies could provide substantial food for alligators in the form of dropped chicks. We compared alligator body condition in similar habitat with and without wading bird nesting colonies present. Alligator morphometric body condition indices were significantly higher in colony than in non-colony locations, an effect that was statistically independent of a range of environmental variables. Since colonially nesting birds and crocodilians co-occur in many tropical and subtropical wetlands, our results highlight a potentially widespread keystone process between two ecologically important species-groups. These findings suggest the interaction is highly beneficial for both groups of actors, and illustrate how selective pressures may have acted to form and reinforce a strongly positive ecological interaction.

  1. Body condition score and its correlation with ultrasonographic back fat thickness in transition crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Singh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the effect of the transition to body condition score (BCS and ultrasonographic back fat thickness (USG BFT in crossbred cows. Materials and Methods: A total of 101 multiparous crossbred cows in advanced pregnancy from organized dairy farm were taken up for study. The cows were grouped according to transition stage, i.e. far off dry (FOD, close up dry (CUD and fresh (F. BCS was estimated by using the five point visual BCS technique with 0.5 increments. The USG BFT was measured by real-time ultrasound using a portable Sonosite instrument. Results: In cows with BCS 2-2.5, the BFT of F period was significantly lower than FOD period. In cows with BCS 3-3.5, the mean BFT at F period was significantly reduced as compared to FOD and CUD period. The overall correlation coefficient between BCS and BFT for different transition stages was 84%, 79% and 75% for FOD, CUD and F period, respectively. Conclusion: The USG BFT gives an accurate measure of fat reserves in cows. The cows with BCS of ≥3.5 entering the transition period are more prone to lose body condition and hence require better and robust management during the transition period.

  2. Do digestive contents confound body mass as a measure of relative condition in nestling songbirds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M.; Peterson, Sean M.; Lehman, Justin A.; Kramer, Gunnar R.; Vernasco, Ben J.; Andersen, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Relative nestling condition, typically measured as nestling mass or as an index including nestling mass, is commonly purported to correlate with fledgling songbird survival. However, most studies directly investigating fledgling survival have found no such relationship. We weighed feces and stomach contents of nestling golden-winged warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera) to investigate the potential contribution of variation in digestive contents to differences in nestling mass. We estimated that the mass of a seventh-day (near fledging) nestling golden-winged warbler varies by 0.65 g (approx. 9% of mean nestling mass) depending on the contents of the nestling's digestive system at the time of weighing, and that digestive contents are dissimilar among nestlings at any moment the brood is removed from the nest for weighing. Our conservative estimate of within-individual variation in digestive contents equals 72% and 24% of the mean within-brood and population-wide range in nestling mass, respectively. Based on our results, a substantive but typically unknown amount of the variation in body mass among nestlings is confounded by differences in digestive contents. We conclude that short-term variation in digestive contents likely precludes the use of body mass, and therefore any mass-dependent index, as a measure of relative nestling condition or as a predictor of survival in golden-winged warblers and likely in many other songbirds of similar size.

  3. Intraspecific scaling in frog calls: the interplay of temperature, body size and metabolic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Lucia; Arim, Matías; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Understanding physiological and environmental determinants of strategies of reproductive allocation is a pivotal aim in biology. Because of their high metabolic cost, properties of sexual acoustic signals may correlate with body size, temperature, and an individual's energetic state. A quantitative theory of acoustic communication, based on the metabolic scaling with temperature and mass, was recently proposed, adding to the well-reported empirical patterns. It provides quantitative predictions for frequencies, call rate, and durations. Here, we analysed the mass, temperature, and body condition scaling of spectral and temporal attributes of the advertisement call of the treefrog Hypsiboas pulchellus. Mass dependence of call frequency followed metabolic expectations (f~M (-0.25), where f is frequency and M is mass) although non-metabolic allometry could also account for the observed pattern. Temporal variables scaled inversely with mass contradicting metabolic expectations (d~M (0.25), where d is duration), supporting instead empirical patterns reported to date. Temperature was positively associated with call rate and negatively with temporal variables, which is congruent with metabolic predictions. We found no significant association between temperature and frequencies, adding to the bulk of empirical evidence. Finally, a result of particular relevance was that body condition consistently determined call characteristics, in interaction with temperature or mass. Our intraspecific study highlights that even if proximate determinants of call variability are rather well understood, the mechanisms through which they operate are proving to be more complex than previously thought. The determinants of call characteristics emerge as a key topic of research in behavioural and physiological biology, with several clear points under debate which need to be analysed on theoretical and empirical grounds. PMID:26552381

  4. The influence of diet on nestling body condition of an apex predator: a multi-biomarker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resano-Mayor, Jaime; Hernández-Matías, Antonio; Real, Joan; Parés, Francesc; Moleón, Marcos; Mateo, Rafael; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E

    2016-04-01

    Animal body condition refers to the health and physiological state of individuals, and multiple parameters have been proposed to quantify this key concept. Food intake is one of the main determinants of individual body condition and much debate has been generated on how diet relates to body condition. We investigated this relationship in free-living Bonelli's eagle (Aquila fasciata) nestlings sampled at two geographically distant populations in Spain. Nestlings' main prey consumption was estimated by isotopic analyses. A multi-biomarker approach, including morphometric and blood biochemical measures (i.e. hematocrit, plasma biochemistry and oxidative stress biomarkers), enabled us to integrate all the body condition measures taken. A greater consumption of a preferred prey [i.e. the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)] improved nestling body condition, as indicated by lower levels of cholesterol in plasma, greater activity of enzymes mediating in protein catabolism, higher levels of tocopherol and glutathione, and less glutathione peroxidase activity, which also suggested lower degree of oxidative stress. On the other hand, increased diet diversity was positively correlated with higher levels of oxidized glutathione, which suggests that these nestlings had poorer body condition than those with a higher frequency of preferred prey consumption. Several factors other than diet [i.e. altitude of nesting areas, nestling sex and age, sampling time (before or after midday) and recent food ingestion] had an effect on certain body condition measures. Our study reveals a measurable effect of diet on a predator's body condition and demonstrates the importance of considering the potential influence of multiple intrinsic and extrinsic factors when assessing animal body condition. PMID:26857272

  5. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; Edwards, David; Friggens, N C

    2012-01-01

    Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to health, reproduction and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EBalinout), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity......, growth and pregnancy). Except milk yield, direct measurements of these are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates involve considerable error sources, so limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EBalbody) using body weight (BW) and body....... Further, the FEC profile did not suggest any systematic bias in EBalbody with stage of lactation. Moreover we successfully modeled EBalbody differences between breeds, parities and diets. For the farmer, the ability to predict energy balance for individual cows on-farm without having to measure feed...

  6. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. Early Postmenopausal Intervention Cohort (EPIC) study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Cizza, G; Bjarnason, N H;

    1999-01-01

    Thinness (low percentage of body fat, low body mass index [BMI], or low body weight) was evaluated as a risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) or increased bone loss in a randomized trial of alendronate for prevention of osteoporosis in recently postmenopausal women with normal bone mass (n...... = 1609). The 2-year data from the placebo group were used (n = 417). Percentage of body fat, BMI, and body weight were correlated with baseline BMD (r = -0. 13 to -0.43, p < 0.01) and 2-year bone loss (r = -0.14 to -0.19, p < 0.01). Women in the lowest tertiles of percentage of body fat or BMI had up to...... 12% lower BMD at baseline and a more than 2-fold higher 2-year bone loss as compared with women in the highest tertiles (p body fat or BMI had higher baseline levels of urine N-telopeptide cross-links (r = -0.24 to -0.31, p < 0.0001) and serum osteocalcin...

  7. Comparison of synchronous and asynchronous generators on the level of losses in conditions of small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the use of asynchronous generators instead of synchronous in conditions of small HPP leads to increase of losses of energy in the block the turbine - the generator - the transformer approximately on 30 % the cost of which during a year is commensurable with the cost of the generator. The use of asynchronous generators instead of synchronous in conditions of small HPP is inexpedient

  8. Quantification of discreteness effects in cosmological N-body simulations: Initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relation between the results of cosmological N-body simulations, and the continuum theoretical models they simulate, is currently not understood in a way which allows a quantification of N dependent effects. In this first of a series of papers on this issue, we consider the quantification of such effects in the initial conditions of such simulations. A general formalism developed in [A. Gabrielli, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066131 (2004).] allows us to write down an exact expression for the power spectrum of the point distributions generated by the standard algorithm for generating such initial conditions. Expanded perturbatively in the amplitude of the input (i.e. theoretical, continuum) power spectrum, we obtain at linear order the input power spectrum, plus two terms which arise from discreteness and contribute at large wave numbers. For cosmological type power spectra, one obtains as expected, the input spectrum for wave numbers k smaller than that characteristic of the discreteness. The comparison of real space correlation properties is more subtle because the discreteness corrections are not as strongly localized in real space. For cosmological type spectra the theoretical mass variance in spheres and two-point correlation function are well approximated above a finite distance. For typical initial amplitudes this distance is a few times the interparticle distance, but it diverges as this amplitude (or, equivalently, the initial redshift of the cosmological simulation) goes to zero, at fixed particle density. We discuss briefly the physical significance of these discreteness terms in the initial conditions, in particular, with respect to the definition of the continuum limit of N-body simulations

  9. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Brock

    Full Text Available Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on

  10. Experimental energy loss of slow H+ and H2+ in channeling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interactions of hydrogen molecular ions (H2+) and protons in the low energy range (E direction of a monocrystalline gold thin film have been performed. From the energy loss data we determine the stopping power ratio, which shows a significant negative ''vicinage effect,'' giving a reduced energy loss of molecular fragments and recombined molecules as compared to the energy loss of protons. This effect is more pronounced in the case of detected molecules. Computational simulations, where nonlinear models are included, qualitatively agree with our experimental results and suggest that some pairs of ions travel and emerge from the crystal with appropriate internuclear distances and relative velocities and are able to recombine at the exit

  11. Determination of Rational Load of Power Transformers under Conditions of Minimum Power Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Radkevich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical expressions have been obtained that allow to determine a number of transformers being operated either in parallel or separately for a common load and ensuring minimum power losses. An electrical load exists in the case of an unequal load of reciprocally reserved transformers. In order to reduce power losses it is expediently to change the number of operating transformers. It has been found out that a value of the load depends on the rate of transformer utilization at the initial mode. In case of load decrease timely transformer trip reduces consumption of active and reactive power as well. Consequently, such trip increases power factor of a consumer load.

  12. A comparison of several indices for assessing body condition of Mongolian gazelle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Riney kidney fat index (RKFI), whole kidney fat index (WKFI), femur marrow fat index (FMFI), and tibia marrow fat index (TMFI) of 51 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa), collected in Hulunbeier grassland, Inner Mongolian, China, were measured during spring, autumn and winter in 1997-98. These different indexes were compared for using them in assessing the body condition. There was a linear relationship (y=0.9444x-20.139; r=0.9454; p<0.01) between RKFI and KMFI. A linear relationship (y=0.9348x+1.1843; r=0.9875; P<0.01) between TMFI and FMFI also occurred for gazelles. There was a curvilinear relationship (y=31.44Ln(x) -44.403; r=0.8643; P<0.01) between FMFI and RKFI. FMFI remained high, while RKFI decreased to a certain extent. After most of the kidney fat was used, the femur marrow fat abruptly decreased. The results showed that the kidney fat index is more adequate for evaluating the population nutrition in good condition, but marrow fat index was more useful for assessing in poorer nutritional condition.

  13. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  14. Book review: media and the rhetoric of body perfection: cosmetic surgery, weight loss and beauty in popular culture by Deborah Harris-Moore

    OpenAIRE

    Monson, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Against the background of the so-called ‘obesity epidemic’, Media and the Rhetoric of Body Perfection critically examines the discourses of physical perfection that pervade Western societies, aiming to shed new light on the rhetorical forces behind body anxieties and extreme methods of weight loss and beautification. Drawing on interview material with cosmetic surgery patients and offering fresh analyses of various texts from popular culture, this book examines the ways in which the media cap...

  15. Does mercury contamination reduce body condition of endangered California clapper rails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Overton, Cory T.; Casazza, Michael L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Keister, Robin A.; Herzog, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    We examined mercury exposure in 133 endangered California clapper rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) within tidal marsh habitats of San Francisco Bay, California from 2006 to 2010. Mean total mercury concentrations were 0.56 μg/g ww in blood (range: 0.15–1.43), 9.87 mg/g fw in head feathers (3.37–22.0), 9.04 μg/g fw in breast feathers (3.68–20.2), and 0.57 μg/g fww in abandoned eggs (0.15–2.70). We recaptured 21 clapper rails and most had low within-individual variation in mercury. Differences in mercury concentrations were largely attributed to tidal marsh site, with some evidence for year and quadratic date effects. Mercury concentrations in feathers were correlated with blood, and slopes differed between sexes (R2 = 0.58–0.76). Body condition was negatively related to mercury concentrations. Model averaged estimates indicated a potential decrease in body mass of 20e22 g (5–7%) over the observed range of mercury concentrations. Our results indicate the potential for detrimental effects of mercury contamination on endangered California clapper rails in tidal marsh habitats.

  16. The Effect of Body Condition Score in Karacabey Merino at Lambing on the Lamb Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Koycu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of the Body Condition Score (BCS at lambing on birth weight, weaning weightand average daily gain until weaning was investigated. At the study, 317 ewes and their 425 lambs wereused. BCS of ewes was taken just before lambing and made three BCS groups as ≤2, 3 and 4 ≥ respectively.The differences of the groups of lambs birth weight according to BCS at lambing were significant(p<0.05. Weaning weight and average daily gain from birth to weaning was similar for ≤2 and 3 BCSgroups. Although were differenced from BCS ≥4 group (p<0.05.As a result, in addition to BCS age and birth type were significantly effected the birth weight, weaningweight and average daily gain from birth to weaning (p<0.05.

  17. Technical characteristics and optimum application conditions of in-situ leaching of uranium ore body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on theoretical studies and field tests of in-situ leaching of uranium ore body, it is found that the method has very important technical characteristics that the height of heap is extraordinarily high, the shape of heap is irregular, the heap site is enclosed and hidden beneath the surface, the ore can only be fragmented for one time, the fragment size and composition are very important, and the measures to prevent underground pollution have to be taken necessarily. These technical characteristics have to be taken into account and comprehensive quantitative studies have to be conducted in accordance with the criteria of whether the application conditions are very favourable, favourable or unfavourable before the decision is made to adopt the in-situ leaching method

  18. Necessary conditions for accurate computations of three-body partial decay widths

    CERN Document Server

    Garrido, E; Fedorov, D V

    2008-01-01

    The partial width for decay of a resonance into three fragments is largely determined at distances where the energy is smaller than the effective potential producing the corresponding wave function. At short distances the many-body properties are accounted for by preformation or spectroscopic factors. We use the adiabatic expansion method combined with the WKB approximation to obtain the indispensable cluster model wave functions at intermediate and larger distances. We test the concept by deriving conditions for the minimal basis expressed in terms of partial waves and radial nodes. We compare results for different effective interactions and methods. Agreement is found with experimental values for a sufficiently large basis. We illustrate the ideas with realistic examples from $\\alpha$-emission of $^{12}$C and two-proton emission of $^{17}$Ne. Basis requirements for accurate momentum distributions are briefly discussed.

  19. Effects of Variable Food Supply on the Body Condition of Breeding Tawny Owls Strix aluco in Southern Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Tapio Solonen

    2011-01-01

    Body condition of boreal species of vole-eaters seems to vary in accordance with fluctuating vole populations. Tawny owls Strix aluco of temperate origin were studied to reveal if they show a similar pattern during nestling period near the northern limit of the species' range. The body condition of tawny owls was not considerably affected by the annual fluctuations of small voles indicated by regional vole indices and local prey samples. There were some significant relationships with some alt...

  20. Body fat and condition in sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus, from southern Australian waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Karen; Hindell, Mark A; Thiele, Deborah

    2003-04-01

    Blubber thickness (n=102) and lipid content (n=37) were measured in sperm whales from three mass stranding events on the west and north-west coasts of Tasmania, Australia in February 1998. Blubber thickness was highly variable, ranging from 43.0 to 168.0 mm (mean 98.4+/-18.4 mm) while lipid fat content, also highly variable, ranged from 16.19 to 89.34% (mean 49.2+/-17.9%). Blubber thickness was significantly and positively related to total length, but a blubber thickness index based on the residuals of this relationship was not related to age, sex or reproductive condition. No relationship was found between blubber thickness index and blubber lipid content, indicating that blubber thickness may not provide a comprehensive indication of body fat condition in sperm whales when only measured at a single site. Blubber lipid content was not related to total length, age or sex. Blubber lipid content was stratified vertically throughout the blubber layer, suggesting that the inner blubber layer may be a more active site for lipid deposition and mobilisation, while the outer blubber layer may serve in a structural or thermoregulatory role. The social structure and foraging ecology of this species may serve to minimise the need to rely on stored energy reserves to meet reproductive energy requirements. In addition, the broader role of blubber for structural, buoyancy and insulative functions coupled with high individual variability may cause a lack of obvious relationships between these variables and body size, age, sex and reproductive state in this species. PMID:12814793

  1. Effect of the electrolyte composition on the losses of fluorides under various temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazhin, V. Yu.; Feshchenko, R. Yu.; Vlasov, A. A.; Sharipov, D. D.

    2012-02-01

    The problem of the losses of the components of cryolite-alumina melts during the electrolytic reduction of aluminum is discussed; it is closely related to the problems of resource-saving and an increase in the efficiency of electrolytic cells. The results of investigating the synthesized and standard industrial electrolyte samples are reported.

  2. Navier-Stokes equations with periodic boundary conditions and pressure loss

    OpenAIRE

    Amrouche, Chérif; Batchi, Macaire; Batina, Jean

    2007-01-01

    10 pages. We present in this note the existence and uniqueness results for the Stokes and Navier-Stokes equations which model the laminar flow of an incompressible fluid inside a two-dimensional channel of periodic sections. The data of the pressure loss coefficient enables us to establish a relation on the pressure and to thus formulate an equivalent problem.

  3. Development of 4S and related technologies (7). Analytical evaluation of RVACS performance under loss of stacks condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4S (Super-Safe, Small and Simple) reactor is a sodium-cooled fast reactor aiming at an application to dispersed energy source and multi-purpose use. An introduction of RVACS (Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System) can enhance the passive decay heat removal capability. In the present study, the RVACS performance in 4S reactor (10MWe, pool-type) was analytically evaluated under the functional loss of RVACS stack condition, which is considered as a beyond design basis event. A protected loss of heat sink accident was selected and simulated to evaluate the capability of RVACS to cool the plant under such an unusual condition. The three-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis was conducted by PHOENICS code. Analytical results show that the functional loss of air outlet stack has more effect on RVACS performance than that of air inlet stack. The air flow rate in RVACS under the functional loss of one out of two outlet stacks decreases up to approximately 60% and the heat removal rate approximately 70%, comparing with those under the normal stack condition. However, the maximum hot plenum temperature is low enough to satisfy the safety criteria. (author)

  4. The Effect of Body Weight on Heat Strain Indices in Hot and Dry Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Being overweight is a characteristic that may influence a person’s heat exchange. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body weight on heat strain indices in hot and dry climatic conditions. Materials and Methods This study was completed with a sample of 30 participants with normal weights, as well as 25 participants who were overweight. The participants were physically inactive for a period of 120 minutes in a climatic chamber with hot and dry conditions (22 - 32°C and with 40% relative humidity (RH.The physiological strain index (PSI and heat strain score index (HSSI questionnaires were used. Simultaneous measurements were completed during heat exposure for periods of five minutes. The resting periods acted as the initial measurements for 15 minutes. Results In both groups, oral temperature, heart rate, and thermal perceptual responses increased during heat exposure. The means and standard deviations of heart rate and oral temperature were gathered when participants were in hot and dry climatic conditions and were not physically active. The heart rates and oral temperatures were 79.21 ± 5.93 bpm and 36.70 ± 0.45°C, respectively, for those with normal weights. For overweight individuals, the measurements for heart rate and oral temperature reached 82.21 ± 8.9 bpm and 37.84 ± 0.37°C, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that, compared to participants with normal weights, physiological and thermal perceptual responses were higher in overweight participants. Therefore, overweight individuals should avoid hot/dry weather conditions to decrease the amount of heat strain.

  5. Water level influences on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae in a Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Filippo Gonzalez Neves dos Santos

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of water level fluctuations on body condition of Geophagus brasiliensis were studied in a 30 km² Brazilian oligotrophic reservoir. Physiological condition (K and gonadosomatic index (GSI were compared according to water level (low and high. Females' best conditions were associated to higher resources availability during high water, since gonad development did not change between low and high water. Males' condition did not change between water levels, while the highest gonad development occurred in low water. Females presented higher reproductive investment than males, which allocated most of energy for somatic development. This strategy could be a mechanism to undergo the stress caused by oligotrophic characteristics of the reservoir enhanced during low water level.Efeitos do nível da água na condição de Geophagus brasiliensis foram analisados em um reservatório oligotrófico. A condição fisiológica (K e o índice gonadossomático (IGS foram comparados entre os níveis da água (baixo e alto. Melhores condições de fêmeas foram associadas a maiores disponibilidades de recursos no nível alto, já que o desenvolvimento gonadal não variou. Não foram registradas diferenças na condição de machos, contudo maiores valores de IGS ocorreram no nível baixo. Fêmeas apresentaram elevado investimento reprodutivo, enquanto machos investiram mais no desenvolvimento somático. Tal estratégia pode ser um mecanismo para suportar o estresse causado pelas características oligotróficas do reservatório, intensificadas durante o período de níveis baixos da água.

  6. Performance and perspectives of the diamond based Beam Condition Monitor for beam loss monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2080862

    2015-01-01

    At CMS, a beam loss monitoring system is operated to protect the silicon detectors from high particle rates, arising from intense beam loss events. As detectors, poly-crystalline CVD diamond sensors are placed around the beam pipe at several locations inside CMS. In case of extremely high detector currents, the LHC beams are automatically extracted from the LHC rings.Diamond is the detector material of choice due to its radiation hardness. Predictions of the detector lifetime were made based on FLUKA monte-carlo simulations and irradiation test results from the RD42 collaboration, which attested no significant radiation damage over several years.During the LHC operational Run1 (2010 â?? 2013), the detector efficiencies were monitored. A signal decrease of about 50 times stronger than expectations was observed in the in-situ radiation environment. Electric field deformations due to charge carriers, trapped in radiation induced lattice defects, are responsible for this signal decrease. This so-called polarizat...

  7. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Ask ...

  8. Appropriate solid-body models as initial conditions for SPH-based numerical collision experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, C.; Maindl, T. I.; Dvorak, R.; Schäfer, C.; Speith, R.

    2016-02-01

    Providing the simulation algorithm with suitable initial conditions is a crucial first step in almost all numerical computations, except for the most trivial cases. Even the most sophisticated simulation program will not produce meaningful results if not started with an appropriate initial configuration, satisfying demands like isotropy, a low level of noise and physical accuracy. Some of these requirements are unique to Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) - the numerical method considered here - others are of fundamental relevance, independent of the chosen numerical technique. The main focus of this work lies on considerations concerning initial conditions for subsequent SPH simulation runs. The geometrical arrangement of an initial SPH particle setup is discussed, particularly w.r.t. regular lattice configurations and associated symmetry effects. In order to avoid unphysical behavior the initial particle configuration has to be in a relaxed (i.e. equilibrated) state where necessary. This is of particular importance for simulations of giant collisions, where the involved bodies naturally exhibit a hydrostatic internal structure. Beyond the common numerical procedure, a semi-analytical approach for relaxation is introduced and validated, practically eliminating the need for spending significant amounts of valuable computing time solely for the production of a relaxed initial state in a lot of situations. Finally the basic relevance of relaxation itself is studied, focusing on collision simulations in different mass ranges important in the context of planet formation and the transport of water.

  9. Relationships between hepatic trace element concentrations, reproductive status, and body condition of female greater scaup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badzinski, Shannon S., E-mail: sbadzinski@bsc-eoc.or [Long Point Waterfowl, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port Rowan, Ontario N0E 1M0 (Canada); Flint, Paul L., E-mail: pflint@usgs.go [U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 (United States); Gorman, Kristen B., E-mail: kgorman@alumni.sfu.c [Centre for Wildlife Ecology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6 (Canada); Petrie, Scott A., E-mail: spetrie@bsc-eoc.or [Long Point Waterfowl, Bird Studies Canada, PO Box 160, Port Rowan, Ontario N0E 1M0 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    We collected female greater scaup (Aythya marila) on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska during two breeding seasons to determine if concentrations of 18 trace elements in livers and eggs were elevated and if hepatic concentrations correlated with body condition or affected reproductive status. Fifty-six percent, 5%, and 42% of females, respectively, had elevated hepatic cadmium (Cd: >3 mug g{sup -1} dry weight [dw]), mercury (Hg: >3 mug g{sup -1} dw), and selenium (Se: >10 mug g{sup -1} dw). Somatic protein and lipid reserves were not correlated with hepatic Cd or Hg, but there was a weak negative correlation between protein and Se. Hepatic Cd, Hg, and Se were similar in females that had and had not initiated egg production. In a sample of six eggs, 33% and 100%, respectively, contained Se and Hg, but concentrations were below embryotoxicity thresholds. We conclude that trace element concentrations documented likely were not adversely impacting this study population. - Some female greater scaup initiate nesting with elevated hepatic concentrations of some trace elements, but adverse effects on condition and productivity are unlikely.

  10. Modelling of losses in multi-stage axial compressors with subsonic conditions / William James Swift

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, William James

    2003-01-01

    The need was identified to develop an analytical performance prediction code for subsonic multistage axial compressors that can be included in network analysis software. It was found that performance calculations based on an elementary one-dimensional meanline prediction method could achieve remarkable accuracy, provided that sound models are used for the losses, deviation and the onset of rotating stall. Consequently, this study focuses on gaining more expertise on the modelli...

  11. Matrix Converter Bi-directional Switch Power Loss and Cooling Condition Estimation for Integrated Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolovs, A; Galkins, I

    2010-01-01

    In this paper power loss estimation of bi-directional switch of matrix converter is done by means of calculation and experiments. For safe operation of power devices an efficient cooling system of specific device must be designed. This work is part of a greater project of integrated matrix converter AC drives and the cooling problem here is viewed in context of this task. It is necessary to develop a compact power board and cooling system to extract excessive heat from power devices.

  12. Loss of photoreactivation in UV-irradiated cultured fish cells under different conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAF-MM1 cells derived from a goldfish have photoreactivability for the damage induced by ultraviolet light. When UV-irradiated cells were incubated in the dark at 260C, the longest interval in which photoreactivation (PR) was observed, measured by colony formation technique, was about 30h after the UV irradiation. However, if the cells were incubated at 200C, the effective time was prolonged. Since each time appeared to correspond to the doubling time of the cells at each temperature, the loss of photoreactivability is suggested to be closely related to cell growth or progression of cell cycle. The loss of PR was not observed in the cells held in confluence up to 48h after UV irradiation. Photoreactivating enzyme in growing CAF-MM1 cells incubated in the dark for 24h after UV irradiation was shown to be active, so that it is not possible that the cause of the loss of PR is change in the activity of photoreactivating enzyme. (author)

  13. Long-term loss rates of radioisotopes of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term loss rates of cobalt, zinc, ruthenium, caesium and silver by Mytilus edulis soft parts as well as shells were measured under field conditions in the Mediterranean Sea at Monaco during a period of 13 months after experimental contamination. For all 5 elements, the loss could be described by two exponential functions for the soft parts and one for the shells. Biological half lives for the long-lived compartment ranged from ∼20 days for caesium to 100 - 200 days for cobalt, zinc, ruthenium and silver for soft parts as well as for shells. A comparison with results from similar experiments performed under very different environmental conditions in the Baltic Sea indicated that caesium and maybe silver had a faster turnover in the warm and saline Mediterranean, whereas loss rates for cobalt and zinc were comparable. It is argued, that reliable deduction of loss rates require experiments running over several months to a year, and it is pointed out that shorter term experiments - even up to 3 months - may give biased results. (author)

  14. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress.

  15. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of ...

  16. Severe dopaminergic neuron loss in rhesus monkey brain impairs morphine-induced conditioned place preference

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Ting; Rizak, Joshua Dominic; Wang, Jianhong; Yang, Shangchuan; Ma, Yuanye; Hu, Xintian

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that dopamine (DA) is critical for reward, but the precise role of DA in reward remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of dopaminergic neurons in the primate brain is required for the expression of conditioned reward by measuring the performance of DA-deficient rhesus monkeys in a morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Animals with mild Parkinsonian symptoms successfully developed and retained a morphine preference tha...

  17. Severe dopaminergic neuron loss in rhesus monkey brain impairs morphine-induced conditioned place preference

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Yan; Yuanye Ma

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that dopamine is critical for reward, but the precise role of dopamine in reward remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of dopaminergic neurons in the primate brain is required for the expression of conditioned reward by measuring the performance of dopamine-deficient rhesus monkeys in a morphine-induced conditioned place preference paradigm. Animals with mild Parkinsonian symptoms successfully developed and retained a morphine preference th...

  18. A graphite oxidation experiment to high weight loss under CAGR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of moderator graphite with radiolysed carbon dioxide coolant has been the subject of intensive study during the development of the UK Magnox and Civil Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor programme. Irradiation of carbon dioxide gives rise to short lived, energetic, species and graphite undergoes significant oxidation, even at moderator temperatures of around 670 K. Reaction is essentially confined to the internal porosity and, since this increases with oxidation, exponential weight loss of the structural material can occur. To retain adequate moderator strength over the station life, inhibitors are added to the coolant. The accepted mechanism of inhibition by the major carbon monoxide and methane additives is a competition with the graphite pore wall for the oxidising species. Further inhibition may result from the formation of a sacrificial surface layer, particularly derived from the oxidation of methane. It follows that, in the presence of inhibitors, oxidation should be confined to the smaller pores; where the probability is highest that the majority of oxidising species will reach the pore wall. In order to test this heterogeneous weight loss model, an ambitious experiment was mounted using the Anglo-French BFB loop in the Siloe reactor at CEN Grenoble in France. This experiment has now been completed and the results of some of the measurements which have been made are reported in this paper. (author)

  19. Relationships between host body condition and immunocompetence, not host sex, best predict parasite burden in a bat-helminth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Elizabeth M; Pearl, Christopher A; Vonhof, Maarten J

    2016-06-01

    Sex-biased parasitism highlights potentially divergent approaches to parasite resistance resulting in differing energetic trade-offs for males and females; however, trade-offs between immunity and self-maintenance could also depend on host body condition. We investigated these relationships in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, to determine if host sex or body condition better predicted parasite resistance, if testosterone levels predicted male parasite burdens, and if immune parameters could predict male testosterone levels. We found that male and female hosts had similar parasite burdens and female bats scored higher than males in only one immunological measure. Top models of helminth burden revealed interactions between body condition index and agglutination score as well as between agglutination score and host sex. Additionally, the strength of the relationships between sex, agglutination, and helminth burden is affected by body condition. Models of male parasite burden provided no support for testosterone predicting helminthiasis. Models that best predicted testosterone levels did not include parasite burden but instead consistently included month of capture and agglutination score. Thus, in our system, body condition was a more important predictor of immunity and worm burden than host sex. PMID:26898834

  20. Role of Protein Carbonylation in Skeletal Muscle Mass Loss Associated with Chronic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barreiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle dysfunction, characterized by a reductive remodeling of muscle fibers, is a common systemic manifestation in highly prevalent conditions such as chronic heart failure (CHF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cancer cachexia, and critically ill patients. Skeletal muscle dysfunction and impaired muscle mass may predict morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic diseases, regardless of the underlying condition. High levels of oxidants may alter function and structure of key cellular molecules such as proteins, DNA, and lipids, leading to cellular injury and death. Protein oxidation including protein carbonylation was demonstrated to modify enzyme activity and DNA binding of transcription factors, while also rendering proteins more prone to proteolytic degradation. Given the relevance of protein oxidation in the pathophysiology of many chronic conditions and their comorbidities, the current review focuses on the analysis of different studies in which the biological and clinical significance of the modifications induced by reactive carbonyls on proteins have been explored so far in skeletal muscles of patients and animal models of chronic conditions such as COPD, disuse muscle atrophy, cancer cachexia, sepsis, and physiological aging. Future research will elucidate the specific impact and sites of reactive carbonyls on muscle protein content and function in human conditions.

  1. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: Relationships with feeding ecology and body condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglei, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: eva.fuglei@npolar.no; Bustnes, J.O. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Hop, H. [Norwegian Polar Institute, The Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Mork, T. [National Veterinary Institute, Regional Laboratory, N-9292 Tromso (Norway); Bjoernfoth, H. [MTM Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden); Bavel, B. van [MTM Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43 < p < 0.97) and age (0.15 < p < 0.95) were not significantly related to any of the organohalogen groups. Body condition showed a significant inverse relationship with {sigma}PBDE, {sigma}Chlordane and HCB, suggesting that increased tissue contaminant concentrations are associated with depletion of adipose tissue. The seasonal cyclic storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue, characteristic in Arctic wildlife, may then provide increased input of contaminants to sensitive, vital effect organs. Trophic position was estimated by {delta} {sup 15}N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. - High contaminant concentrations in the coastal ecotype of arctic fox may cause toxic health effects due to huge annual cyclic variation in storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue.

  2. Body condition of gilts at the end of gestation affects their mammary development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Duarte, C R A; Vignola, M; Palin, M-F

    2016-05-01

    The impact of body condition at 110 d of gestation on mammary gland development, mammary gene expression, and hormonal and metabolite status of gilts was studied. Thirty-nine gilts were equally divided into 3 groups based on their backfat thickness at the end of gestation: 1) low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm), 2) medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm), or 3) high backfat (HBF; 21-26 mm). Gilts had similar BW (138.1 ± 8.2 kg) and backfat thicknesses (16.4 ± 1.0 mm) at mating and the 3 groups were achieved via ingestion of varying amounts of feed throughout gestation. Jugular blood samples were obtained from all gilts at mating and at 109 d of gestation to assess hormonal and metabolic statuses, and animals were slaughtered on d 110 to collect mammary glands for compositional analyses and for measure of gene expression. The LBF gilts had less extraparenchymal tissue ( 0.10). There was a tendency for circulating leptin concentrations on d 109 of gestation to be lower in LBF gilts than in MBF gilts ( 0.10). Current results demonstrate that being too thin at the end of gestation (12-15 mm backfat) has a negative impact on mammary development in gilts, whereas having backfats varying from 17 to 26 mm seems to have no detrimental effects on mammogenesis. Backfat thickness in late pregnancy must therefore be considered to achieve optimal sow lactation performance. PMID:27285687

  3. Relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive outcomes in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Eun-Kyung; Jeong, Jae-Kwan; Choi, In-Soo; Kang, Hyun-Gu; Hur, Tai-Young; Jung, Young-Hun; Kim, Ill-Hwa

    2015-07-15

    We determined the relationships among ketosis, serum metabolites, body condition, and reproductive disorders and performance in dairy cows. Blood samples from 213 dairy cows were collected at 4 and 2 weeks prepartum, just after calving, and at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum to measure serum β-hydroxybutyrate, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), glucose, total cholesterol, urea nitrogen, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and progesterone concentrations. Cows were grouped on the basis of the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration at 1 and/or 2 weeks postpartum into two groups: the ketotic group (≥1200 μmol/L, n = 59) and the nonketotic group (endometritis was diagnosed by observation of vaginal discharges (>50% pus), and subclinical endometritis was diagnosed by evaluation of uterine cytology (>18% neutrophils) at 4 weeks postpartum. Ovarian cysts were diagnosed by ultrasonography, and resumption of postpartum cyclicity was evaluated by progesterone concentrations (≥1 ng/mL) at 4, 6, and 8 weeks postpartum. In the ketotic group, NEFA levels were higher (P ≤ 0.0005), whereas glucose (P endometritis (odds ratio = 2.55) and ovarian cysts (odds ratio = 2.80) were higher (P cows. PMID:25872806

  4. A novel human body exergy consumption formula to determine indoor thermal conditions for optimal human performance in office buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Zhao, Jianing; Olesen, Bjarne W.;

    2013-01-01

    obtained in simulated office environments in winter. The results show that human body exergy consumption and human performance are inversely as operative temperature changes from 17 to 28°C or human thermal sensation changes from −1.0 to +1.4, and that optimum thermal comfort cannot be expected to lead to......In this paper, a novel human body exergy consumption formula was derived strictly according to Gagge's two-node thermal transfer model. The human body exergy consumption calculated by the formula was compared with values calculated using Shukuya's formula for a typical office environment. The...... results show that human body exergy consumption calculated by either of these formulas reaches a minimum under the same thermal condition. It is shown that this is in accordance with expectation. The relation between human performance and human body exergy consumption was studied by analyzing the data...

  5. Listening in adverse conditions: Masking release and effects of hearing loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersgaard, Claus Forup Corlin

    Speech perception is a complex process involving the ability to detect the speech signal, separate it from interfering sounds and decode the transmitted speech information. In contrast to normalhearing (NH) listeners, hearing-impaired (HI) listeners often show a large reduction in the masking...... release (MR), which is the improvement in speech intelligibility when the interferer is different from steady-state noise (e.g., a competing talker). MR is usually measured as the difference in speech reception thresholds (SRTs), the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) where 50% of the speech is understood, and...... and HI listeners, to study the effects of hearing loss on the ability to decode speech, and to establish a framework for modeling speech intelligibility based on an auditory processing model. The first part of the thesis established the modeling framework and showed that, by using a model that...

  6. Body Condition in the Eurasian Woodcock Wintering in the West of France: Practical Study for Wildlife Management during Cold Spells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin, J-P.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola is one of the most widespread species of the Scolopax genus in temperate regions. However, population levels can be greatly affected by harsh cold spells that led woodcocks to starve by exhaustion of their body fuels. To better understand the vulnerability of woodcocks to such climatic conditions it is of a major importance to determine the amount of their body reserves (both lipids and proteins throughout the wintering season. This was performed on 55 individuals collected by hunters in the western part of France during two consecutive winters under mild weather conditions. Body reserves, that can be mobilised, were determined as the difference between the total amount of lipids and proteins minus the values obtained on starved individuals found dead during previous cold spells. Overall, body reserves did not significantly change over both winters (p > 0.40, the maximal mean value (1539 ± 117 kJ being however reached in January. Storing body fuels would not adversely affect wing and power loading, suggesting that the amount of body reserves would agree with the "starvation-predation trade-off". If woodcocks sit through a cold spell, their mean survival time (or fasting endurance would be 6.5 ± 0.5 days; 25 to 40% of the birds would have a life expectancy of 7-9 days, and about 8 to17% less than 5 days. On the contrary, if woodcocks immediately leave their wintering quarter, they would be able to perform a trip of 740 ± 50 km, 20 to 40% of the woodcocks being able to fly over 750 km. Body mass explains only 47 to 57% of the fasting endurance and flight autonomy variations, and therefore we recommend a further carcass analysis to accurately estimate body condition. These results underscore the suitability of determining the state of body reserves for practical cases of population management and hunting policy during cold spells.

  7. Effect of tesofensine on bodyweight loss, body composition, and quality of life in obese patients: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Madsbad, Sten; Breum, Leif; Jensen, Thomas J; Kroustrup, Jens Peter; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight-loss drugs produce an additional mean weight loss of only 3-5 kg above that of diet and placebo over 6 months, and more effective pharmacotherapy of obesity is needed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tesofensine-an inhibitor of the presynaptic uptake of noradrenaline, do......, dopamine, and serotonin-in patients with obesity. METHODS: We undertook a phase II, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in five Danish obesity management centres. After a 2 week run-in phase, 203 obese patients (body-mass index 30-......BACKGROUND: Weight-loss drugs produce an additional mean weight loss of only 3-5 kg above that of diet and placebo over 6 months, and more effective pharmacotherapy of obesity is needed. We assessed the efficacy and safety of tesofensine-an inhibitor of the presynaptic uptake of noradrenaline...

  8. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volek JS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare the effects of isocaloric, energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate ketogenic (VLCK and low-fat (LF diets on weight loss, body composition, trunk fat mass, and resting energy expenditure (REE in overweight/obese men and women. Design Randomized, balanced, two diet period clinical intervention study. Subjects were prescribed two energy-restricted (-500 kcal/day diets: a VLCK diet with a goal to decrease carbohydrate levels below 10% of energy and induce ketosis and a LF diet with a goal similar to national recommendations (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~60:25:15%. Subjects: 15 healthy, overweight/obese men (mean s.e.m.: age 33.2 2.9 y, body mass 109.1 4.6 kg, body mass index 34.1 1.1 kg/m2 and 13 premenopausal women (age 34.0 2.4 y, body mass 76.3 3.6 kg, body mass index 29.6 1.1 kg/m2. Measurements: Weight loss, body composition, trunk fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and resting energy expenditure (REE were determined at baseline and after each diet intervention. Data were analyzed for between group differences considering the first diet phase only and within group differences considering the response to both diets within each person. Results Actual nutrient intakes from food records during the VLCK (%carbohydrate:fat:protein = ~9:63:28% and the LF (~58:22:20% were significantly different. Dietary energy was restricted, but was slightly higher during the VLCK (1855 kcal/day compared to the LF (1562 kcal/day diet for men. Both between and within group comparisons revealed a distinct advantage of a VLCK over a LF diet for weight loss, total fat loss, and trunk fat loss for men (despite significantly greater energy intake. The majority of women also responded more favorably to the VLCK diet, especially in terms of trunk fat loss. The greater reduction in trunk fat was not merely due to the greater total fat loss, because the ratio of trunk fat/total fat was also significantly reduced during the VLCK diet in men and women

  9. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (Pelephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (Pelephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants. PMID:24718304

  10. Evaluation of body condition in pregnant rabbit does by ultrasound scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mugnai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of animal body composition is necessary in nutritional study, and during the last two decades many efforts have been made to find non-destructive methods to predict in vivo body composition in different species (Fortune-Lamothe et al., 2002. A good technique for measuring body composition should be accurate, easily utilisable, inexpensive, applicable to a wide range of ages and to live animal with minimal perturbation of behaviour...

  11. Age and sex dependence of body potassium based on studies of 40K under Indian conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium plays an important role in human life 40K is a naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium (K) with an abundance of 0.0118%. The measurement of body 40K in a whole-body counter (WBC) provides a sensitive technique to estimate the total body potassium (TBK). Information on TBK of Indians with age and sex is scanty. Therefore, a systematic study was taken up to generate this information using a sensitive WBC

  12. Supplementing five-point body condition score with body fat percentage increases the sensitivity for assessing overweight status of small to medium sized dogs

    OpenAIRE

    ARAI, Toshiro

    2012-01-01

    Gebin Li,1 Peter Lee,1 Nobuko Mori,1 Ichiro Yamamoto,1 Koh Kawasumi,1 Hisao Tanabe,2 Toshiro Arai11Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 2Komazawa Animal Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground and methods: Currently, five-point body condition scoring (BCS) is widely used by veterinarians and clinicians to assess adiposity in dogs in Japan. However, BCS score assignment is subjective in nature, and most clinicians do not score...

  13. Conditions of the fluid in the RHRS pipe line after the loss and restart of the RHRS pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to a recent event at pressurized water reactor (PWR), the impact of a loss of shutdown cooling during reduced RCS inventory conditions was evaluated. The evaluation for the loss of RHRS assumed loss of shutdown cooling initially and then the RHRS pumps were restored. This analysis is based upon a decay heat rate corresponding to 2.66 days following reactor shutdown with an initial liquid level at the elevation of the reactor flange. When the RHRS pump was restored, the calculation revealed that a void fraction of 10-50% could exist in the hot leg pipe where the RHRS pumps take suction. The study presented in this paper was conducted to determine the maximum voids permissible in the hot leg piping and still ensure that the water entering the RHRS pump did not have steam voids. RELAP5 was used to perform this evaluation. RELAP5/M3.3 is a computer code used for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of transients and small-break accidents and transients in light-water nuclear power plants. It uses a one-dimensional, two-fluid model, consisting of steam and water, with the possibility of the vapor phase containing a non-condensable component. A model of the piping was developed and the conditions presented above were analyzed and the fluid conditions were reviewed. The results of the RELAP5 analyses indicated that for voids 30% or less in the hot leg, the RHRS pump would have adequate suction flow to remain in a stable operational condition. (author)

  14. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up. RESULTS: Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  15. Experiments on high temperature graphite and steam reactions under loss of coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To obtain fundamental data for safety analyses of fusion reactors with regard to loss of coolant inside the vacuum vessel, the rate of corrosion reaction between high temperature graphite and steam was measured experimentally between 1000 and 1600 C. A preliminary experiment gave an activation energy for reaction between oxygen and isotropic graphite as 45kJmol-1. The reaction rate with steam depended on temperature, with an inflection point near 1300 C. The activation energy was about 270kJmol-1 at temperatures below 1300 C, and 104kJmol-1 at higher temperatures. The energy was not strongly dependent on the graphite properties, but the reaction rate varied with them. The reactivity of the isotropic graphite was more than twice as high as that of C/C composite. The molar ratio of the product gases [H2]/[CO] increased slightly with increasing temperature. Although the [CO]/[CO2] ratio also increased with temperature to 1300 C, it decreased above this temperature. This behavior reflects a change in reaction mechanism near this temperature; the composition of the product gas could be estimated numerically using elementary reaction rates. (orig.)

  16. Investigation of the silicon loss in APS MoSi2 under the range of typical spray conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MoSi2 provides good high temperature oxidation and corrosion resistance. However, the lower silicides such as Mo5Si3 do not provide such resistance. In this study, air plasma sprayed (APS) MoSi2 particle temperatures and velocities were measured under various torch conditions chosen to span the majority of typically utilized spray parameters. Empirical models of particle temperature and velocity were computed from the data. Three spray conditions were chosen to produce high, medium and low particle temperature and velocities. Coatings produced under these spray conditions were characterized by profile tracing, quantitative x-ray diffraction, and SEM analysis. The Mo5Si3 level in the coatings ranged from 5% to 8% while the Mo5Si3 level in the starting powder was 0.6%. Particle size, particle trajectory, and torch parameters were found to be important factors in the Si loss process when APS depositing MoSi2

  17. Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2009-10-01

    The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n=206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A.: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium concentrations were variable and influenced by several factors, including species, region, reproductive stage, age, and sex. Adult Se concentrations (microg/g dry wt) in livers ranged from 3.07 to 48.70 in avocets (geometric mean +/- standard error, 7.92 +/- 0.64), 2.28 to 41.10 in stilts (5.29 +/- 0.38), 3.73 to 14.50 in Forster's terns (7.13 _ 0.38), and 4.77 to 14.40 in Caspian terns (6.73 +/- 0.78). Avocets had higher Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay, whereas stilt Se concentrations were similar between these regions and Forster's terns had lower Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay. Female avocets had higher Se concentrations than male avocets, but this was not the case for stilts and Forster's terns. Of the factors assessed, reproductive stage had the most consistent effect among species. Prebreeding birds tended to have higher liver Se concentrations than breeding birds, but this trend was statistically significant only for Forster's terns. Forster's tern chicks had lower Se concentrations than Forster's tern adults, whereas avocet and stilt adults and chicks were similar. Additionally, body condition was negatively related to liver Se concentrations in Forster's tern adults but not in avocet, stilt, or Caspian tern adults and chicks. These variable results illustrate the complexity of Se bioaccumulation and highlight the need to sample multiple species and examine several factors to assess the impact of Se on wildlife. PMID:19459720

  18. Impacts of parturition and body condition score on glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Melanie; Hussen, Jamal; Drong, Caroline; Meyer, Ulrich; von Soosten, Dirk; Frahm, Jana; Daenicke, Sven; Breves, Gerhard; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-15

    The peripartal period of dairy cows is associated with a higher incidence of infectious diseases like mastitis or metritis, particularly in high-yielding animals. The onset of lactation induces a negative energy balance and a shift of glucose distribution toward the udder. Glucose is used as primary fuel by monocytes which give rise to macrophages, key cells in the defense against pathogens. The aim of this study was to analyze whether animals with high or low body condition score (BCS) differ in composition and glucose uptake capacities of bovine monocyte subsets. Blood samples were taken from 27 dairy cows starting 42 days before parturition until day 56 after parturition. The cows were allocated to two groups according to their BCS. A feeding regime was applied, in which the BCS high group received higher amounts of concentrate before parturition and concentrate feeding was more restricted in the BCS high group after parturition compared with the BCS low group, to promote postpartal lipolysis and enhance negative energy balance in the BCS high group. Blood cell counts of classical (cM), intermediate (intM) and nonclassical monocytes (ncM) were increased at day 7 after calving. In the BCS low group intM numbers were significantly higher compared to the BCS high group at day 7 after parturition. Within the BCS low group cows suffering from mastitis or metritis showed significantly higher numbers of cM, intM and ncM at day 7 after parturition. Classical monocytes and intM showed similar glucose uptake capacities while values for ncM were significantly lower. Compared with antepartal capacities and irrespective of BCS and postpartal mastitis or metritis, glucose uptake of all monocyte subsets decreased after parturition. In conclusion, whereas glucose uptake capacity of bovine monocyte subsets is altered by parturition, it is not linked to the energy supply of the animals or to postpartal infectious diseases. PMID:25980551

  19. Experimental investigations of BWR pressure suppression pool behavior under loss of coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments discussed in this paper look into different processes which may occur during a loss-of-coolant accident in the pressure suppression pool of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). These processes include: a) development of a thermal stratification, b) bubble dynamics and related water flow during continuous release of air and c) air blowdown and associated water slug phenomenon in the water pool. The experiments have been performed in the THAI test facility, which is a cylindrical vessel of 9.2 m height, 3.2 m diameter and with a gas volume of 60 m3. The variation in the investigated test parameters included, steam and air mass flux, initial water pool temperature, blowdown pressures, downcomer submergence, etc. A systematic variation of the test parameters allowed better understanding of the phenomena. Experiments discussed in this paper were performed with a vertical downcomer of 0.1 m diameter and 2 m submergence depth in the water pool. For the blowdown experiments, a separate interconnecting vessel of 1 m3 volume was used to inject air at pressures between 3 bar and 10 bar. A high speed camera (1000 fps) was installed to visualize the formation and propagation of air bubbles in the suppression pool and the resulting pool swelling phenomena. Customized instrumentation applied during the tests included grids of densely spaced thermocouples and of pressure transducers at various locations in order to capture the temperature distribution in the pool and the water slug induced pressure loadings, respectively. The present paper discusses the main outcome of the selected experiments. On the whole the experimental data may be very useful for code validation. (authors)

  20. Microbial fixation of CO2 in water bodies and in drylands to combat climate change, soil loss and desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federico; Olguín, Eugenia J; Diels, Ludo; De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-01-25

    The growing concern for the increase of the global warming effects due to anthropogenic activities raises the challenge of finding novel technological approaches to stabilize CO2 emissions in the atmosphere and counteract impinging interconnected issues such as desertification and loss of biodiversity. Biological-CO2 mitigation, triggered through biological fixation, is considered a promising and eco-sustainable method, mostly owing to its downstream benefits that can be exploited. Microorganisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and some autotrophic bacteria could potentially fix CO2 more efficiently than higher plants, due to their faster growth. Some examples of the potential of biological-CO2 mitigation are reported and discussed in this paper. In arid and semiarid environments, soil carbon sequestration (CO2 fixation) by cyanobacteria and biological soil crusts is considered an eco-friendly and natural process to increase soil C content and a viable pathway to soil restoration after one disturbance event. Another way for biological-CO2 mitigation intensively studied in the last few years is related to the possibility to perform carbon dioxide sequestration using microalgae, obtaining at the same time bioproducts of industrial interest. Another possibility under study is the exploitation of specific chemotrophic bacteria, such as Ralstonia eutropha (or picketii) and related organisms, for CO2 fixation coupled with the production chemicals such as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). In spite of the potential of these processes, multiple factors still have to be optimized for maximum rate of CO2 fixation by these microorganisms. The optimization of culture conditions, including the optimal concentration of CO2 in the provided gas, the use of metabolic engineering and of dual purpose systems for the treatment of wastewater and production of biofuels and high value products within a biorefinery concept, the design of photobioreactors in the case of phototrophs are some

  1. Conditional deletion of ferritin H in mice induces loss of iron storage and liver damage

    OpenAIRE

    Darshan, Deepak; Vanoaica, Liviu; Richman, Larry; Beermann, Friedrich; Kühn, Lukas C.

    2009-01-01

    Ferritin plays a central role in iron metabolism by acting both as iron storage and detoxifying protein. We have generated a ferritin H allele with loxP sites and studied the conditional ferritin H deletion in adult mice. Ten days after Mx-Cre induced deletion, ferritin H mRNA was below 5% in the liver, spleen and bone marrow of deleted mice compared to control littermates. Mice lost their cellular iron stores indicating the requirement of ferritin H in iron deposition. Serum iron and...

  2. Multi-rod burst test under a loss-of-coolant accident condition, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-rod burst test No. 7806 was performed with a views to estimating the quantitative channel blockage caused by the ballooning of fuel assembly during a postulated LOCA. The test was conducted under conditions of initial internal pressure 20 kg/cm2, steam flow rate 0.4 g/cm2min and heating rate 90C/sec. Following results were obtained: (1) Internal pressure increased up to 28 kg/cm2 during the heat-up stage, the average burst pressure of 49 rods being measured to be about 26 kg/cm2. (2) Almost all ruptured claddings had relatively short ballooned region length expanded above 34%. The length ranged from 0 to 40 mm, being much shorter than those measured in other tests performed under different conditions. (3) Maximum channel blockage of the assembly(7 x 7) was measured to be 36.2%, while was 43.4% in the interior rods(5 x 5) which had relatively uniform temperature distribution in the radial direction of the rod. These values were also smaller than those measured in other tests. (author)

  3. Body Condition Affects Blood Alkaloid and Monoterpene Kinetics and Voluntary Intake of Chemically-Defended Plants by Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants are a substantial component of grazinglands worldwide. Higher losses to poisonous plants are often observed in times of drought or at high stocking rates. Increased incidences of fatal poisoning may occur because plants can be more toxic under these conditions or because limited acc...

  4. Estimation of spray system efficiency in case of loss in coolant severe accident condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of pressurize surge line double ended break accident analysis in case of failure of ECCS at Armenian NPP are presented. Based on the analysis results the assessment of spray system efficiency on decreasing confinement pressure and amount radioactive material is carried out. Hydrogen behavior in confinement is analyzed. The occurrence of conditions for possible hydrogen burning in the confinement is assessed as well. Likelihood of accident is in the range of 10-7. However for accident analysis purposes of such kind of accidents needs to be taken into account. The analysis shows that the main contributor in release decrease is spray system availability factor. Unavailability of spray system could lead to the increase of radioactive release by factor 8

  5. Induction of c-Fos expression in the mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus and dorsal hippocampus after fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo, Nélida M; González-Pardo, Héctor; López, Matías; Cantora, Raúl; Arias, Jorge L

    2007-09-14

    The aim of the present study was to provide further evidence on the role of particular subdivisions of the mammillary bodies, anterior thalamus and dorsal hippocampus to contextual and auditory fear conditioning. We used c-Fos expression as a marker of neuronal activation to compare rats that received tone-footshock pairings in a distinctive context (conditioned group) to rats being exposed to both the context and the auditory CS without receiving footshocks (unconditioned group), and naïve rats that were only handled. Fos immunoreactivity was significantly increased only in the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus and the lateral mammillary nucleus of the conditioned group. However, the dorsal hippocampus showed the highest density of c-Fos positive nuclei in the naïve group as compared to the other groups. Together, our data support previous studies indicating a particular involvement of the mammillary bodies and anterior thalamus in fear conditioning. PMID:17683804

  6. Whole body 59Fe-elimination rates and corresponding blood losses in patients with factitious anemia induced by self-blood letting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within a year two cases were identified and quantitated for blood losses by whole body counting of retained iron. Whereas the 2 patients did not lose much blood during their observation within the hospital their blood losses increased upon release from the hospital. Although they lost about 5 liter blood in 50 days faecal occult blood tests were always negative and the daily faecal and urinary 59Fe-excretion was within the normal range. Haemoglobin and erythrocyte levels were stable during the periods of clinical observation when the whole body 59Fe-elimination rates were only just above the normal range. These values dropped however to very low values during or following periods of extremely elevated whole body 59Fe-elimination rates immediately after release of the patients from the hospital. Blood losses of up to 145 ml/d (=50 mg Fe/d) can be compensated by oral ferrous iron therapy with 4 x 50 = 200 mg Fe2+ /d. The patients did however refuse to take oral or parenteral iron and insisted in one case on regular blood transfusions twice per week. Two more probable cases of factitious anemia were subsequently observed and partially investigated. (orig./MG)

  7. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pwater consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  8. Pioglitazone Treatment Increases Survival and Prevents Body Weight Loss in Tumor–Bearing Animals: Possible Anti-Cachectic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B.; Henriques, Felipe S.; Rogério A L Sertié; Franco, Felipe O.; Kaltinaitis B Santos; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S.; Neves, Rodrigo X.; Farmer, Stephen R.; Seelaender, Marília; Fábio B Lima; Batista Jr., Miguel L.

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglita...

  9. Body condition and forage type influence intramuscular and rump fat, and reproductive performance of postpartum Brahman-influenced cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiparous Brahman-influenced cows were managed to achieve marginal (BCS = 4.9 ± 0.1; n = 55) or moderate (BCS = 6.5 ± 0.1; n = 55) body condition (BC) to determine the influence of forage type on estrous characteristics, intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), rump fat (RF), and reproductive performan...

  10. Genetic correlations between body condition score, yield and fertility in Holstein heifers estimated by random regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Jong, de G.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty type classifiers scored body condition (BCS) of 91,738 first-parity cows from 601 sires and 5518 maternal grandsires. Fertility data during first lactation were extracted for 177,220 cows, of which 67,278 also had a BCS observation, and first-lactation 305-d milk, fat, and protein yields were

  11. SERUM LIPID PROFILE OF SPAYED AND NON-SPAYED FEMALE DOGS ASSOCIATED WITH THE BODY CONDITION SCORE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Almeida Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neutering females may be associated to weight gain in dogs. In order to diagnose possible alterations, such as diabetes and hyperlipidemias, laboratory assessment of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism is important. The aim of this study was to verify glycemia and serum lipid profile in non-spayed and spayed female dogs, and associate these results with the body condition score. Thirty-two spayed (n=16 and non-spayed (n=16 female dogs had their blood collected for biochemical analysis, and were classified as to their body condition score (BCS. Nine had normal BCS, 10 were overweight, and 13 were obese. Little difference was observed among spayed and non-spayed dogs. Glycemia of spayed canine females is higher than that of non-spayed dogs, regardless of the body condition score. Likewise, total cholesterol levels are higher in non-spayed females. The HDL is higher in non-spayed obese dogs than in spayed dogs with the same body condition, this parameter did not differ in other weight groups. Contrary to what happens in post-menopausal women, spaying dogs does not seem to have such a strong effect on the metabolic parameters assessed. This study revealed unique results, where neither spaying nor weight group had a strong association with metabolic alterations.

  12. Multi-rod burst test under a loss-of coolant accident condition, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-rod burst test of No.7808 bundle was performed in steam to estimate quantitative coolant flow channel restriction caused by the ballooning of zircaloy claddings in a fuel assembly during a LOCA transient in LWRs. The test was conducted under the condition that the initial internal pressure in each rod was 35kg/cm2 (RT) and the heating rate was 90C/s in steam with flow rate of 0.4g/cm2.min. The following results were obtained; (1) Maximum and burst pressures in rods were in the range 45 to 48kg/cm2 and 41 to 45kg/cm2, respectively. The burst temperature of cladding were estimated to be 850 to 8800C. (2) Axial portions of tubes with greater than 34% strain were observed in the range 0 to 40mm in most rod. The mean length was 19mm in the bundle. (3) The degree of maximum increase in cross-sectional area is 54.2% in the bundle(7 x 7) and 66.9% in the internal rods(5 x 5). (4) Maximum channel area restriction was 40.5% in the bundle(7 x 7) and 51.4% in the internal rods(5 x 5). (author)

  13. Influence of strand surface condition on interstrand contact resistance and coupling loss in NbTi-wound Rutherford cables

    CERN Document Server

    Sumption, M D; Scanlan, R M; Nijhuis, A; ten Kate, H H J; Kim, S W; Wake, M; Shintomi, T

    1999-01-01

    Presented in this work are the results of directly measured and AC- loss-derived interstrand contact resistance (ICR) measurements performed magnetically or resistively on bare-Cu and coated-strand pairs, calorimetrically on $9 11-strand Rutherford cables wound with strands that had been coated with various metallic and insulating layers, and calorimetrically and magnetically on 28-strand Rutherford cables (LHC-type) wound with bare-Cu-, Ni-, and $9 stabrite-plated strands. Comparisons are made of the effects of various conditions of heat treatment, HT (time and temperature), and pressure (applied during HT and then either maintained or re-applied during measurement). The $9 resulting ICRs are compared and interpreted in terms of the oxide layer on the strand coating and its response to curing conditions. (66 refs).

  14. Hydrologic Conditions that Influence Streamflow Losses in a Karst Region of the Upper Peace River, Polk County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, P.A.; Lewelling, B.R.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Peace River from Bartow to Fort Meade, Florida, is described as a groundwater recharge area, reflecting a reversal from historical groundwater discharge patterns that existed prior to the 1950s. The upper Peace River channel and floodplain are characterized by extensive karst development, with numerous fractures, crevasses, and sinks that have been eroded in the near-surface and underlying carbonate bedrock. With the reversal in groundwater head gradients, river water is lost to the underlying groundwater system through these karst features. An investigation was conducted to evaluate the hydrologic conditions that influence streamflow losses in the karst region of the upper Peace River. The upper Peace River is located in a basin that has been altered substantially by phosphate mining and increases in groundwater use. These alterations have changed groundwater flow patterns and caused streamflow declines through time. Hydrologic factors that have had the greatest influence on streamflow declines in the upper Peace River include the lowering of the potentiometric surfaces of the intermediate aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer beneath the riverbed elevation due to below-average rainfall (droughts), increases in groundwater use, and the presence of numerous karst features in the low-water channel and floodplain that enhance the loss of streamflow. Seepage runs conducted along the upper Peace River, from Bartow to Fort Meade, indicate that the greatest streamflow losses occurred along an approximate 2-mile section of the river beginning about 1 mile south of the Peace River at Bartow gaging station. Along the low-water and floodplain channel of this 2-mile section, there are about 10 prominent karst features that influence streamflow losses. Losses from the individual karst features ranged from 0.22 to 16 cubic feet per second based on measurements made between 2002 and 2007. The largest measured flow loss for all the karst features was about 50 cubic

  15. Assessing the cost of helping: the roles of body condition and oxidative balance in the Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janske van de Crommenacker

    Full Text Available In cooperatively breeding species, helping close relatives may provide important fitness benefits. However, helping can be energetically expensive and may result in increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Consequently, an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance can lead to higher oxidative stress susceptibility. Given the potential costs of helping, it may be that only individuals with a sufficiently good body condition and/or stable oxidative balance can afford to help. Knowledge about relationships between social status and oxidative balance in cooperatively breeding systems is still limited. Studying these relationships is important for understanding the costs of helping and physiological pressures of reproduction. Here we evaluate the relationship between helping behaviour, body condition and oxidative balance in a wild population of the cooperatively breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis. In this species, some subordinate individuals help dominant birds with the rearing of young, while others refrain from any assistance. We assessed body condition and oxidative parameters of birds of different social status caught during different breeding stages. We found that, prior to breeding, female subordinates that did not subsequently help (non-helpers had significantly lower body condition and higher ROMs (reactive oxygen metabolites than helpers and dominants. During the later stages of breeding, body condition was low in dominants and helpers, but high in non-helpers. Differences in oxidative balance between individuals of different social status were found only during nest care: Dominant males occupied with guarding behaviours tended to have relatively high oxidative stress susceptibility. Furthermore, dominant and helper females showed elevated antioxidant capacity (measured as OXY in the weeks just prior to egg-laying, possibly representing a change in their reproductive physiology. The results imply that an individuals

  16. The influence of body size, condition index and tidal exposure on the variability in metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels are commonly used to monitor metal pollution despite high inter-individual variability in tissue concentrations. In this study, influences of body size, condition index and tidal height on concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated. Body weight was inversely related to metal concentrations and for Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn the regression was affected by tidal height. Except for As, Fe and Mn metal concentrations were inversely related to physiological status though no differences between essential and non-essential metals were obvious. After correcting for body size, tidal height was related positively to As, Cd and Zn, negatively related to Cu, Fe and Mn while Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were independent of tidal height. The study recommends stringent measures during sampling for biomonitoring or metal concentrations at each location must be normalized to a common body size, CI and tidal height. - Body size, condition index and shore height can modify metal concentrations in mussels and if not taken into account, can lead to wrong interpretation of monitoring data

  17. The influence of body size, condition index and tidal exposure on the variability in metal bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mubiana, Valentine K. [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: kayawevalentine.mubiana@ua.ac.be; Vercauteren, Kathleen [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2006-11-15

    Mussels are commonly used to monitor metal pollution despite high inter-individual variability in tissue concentrations. In this study, influences of body size, condition index and tidal height on concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were investigated. Body weight was inversely related to metal concentrations and for Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn the regression was affected by tidal height. Except for As, Fe and Mn metal concentrations were inversely related to physiological status though no differences between essential and non-essential metals were obvious. After correcting for body size, tidal height was related positively to As, Cd and Zn, negatively related to Cu, Fe and Mn while Co, Cr, Ni and Pb were independent of tidal height. The study recommends stringent measures during sampling for biomonitoring or metal concentrations at each location must be normalized to a common body size, CI and tidal height. - Body size, condition index and shore height can modify metal concentrations in mussels and if not taken into account, can lead to wrong interpretation of monitoring data.

  18. Investigation of body's impedance under different conditions for electro-acupuncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer controlled automated setup has been designed to investigate the body acupuncture points (bio-active points) by using a probes matrix which exerts a uniform pressure on the body. 16 probes matrix was placed in a 15 : 15 mm/sup 2/ dielectric substrate with 5 mm inter probe distance, compatible with the average diameter of the points. These probes have been designed to facilitate a semiconductor injection laser for probing of the points along with optical and/or electric signal. The bioactive points were identified by evaluating the impedance between each probe and a hand held electrode through a micro-controlled scan. This also allowed the selection of an appropriate signal - DC, AC or tidal waveform, for the electric treatment of bioactive points. It has been found that body impedance decreases with the increase of measuring voltage. Moreover, for current-voltage characteristics a nonlinearity coefficient in the range 2-3 was also observed. The study revealed that at low applied voltages 0.l V, the impedance depends on the polarity of the applied signal. Furthermore, body impedance decreases nonlinearly by increasing the probe's pressure on the skin, which may be attributed to piezo resistive effect. By using the AC and Dc measurements an appropriate body equivalent circuit is proposed in this investigation. (author)

  19. Change in the Beaufort Sea ecosystem: Diverging trends in body condition and/or production in five marine vertebrate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, L. A.; Smith, T. G.; George, J. C.; Sandstrom, S. J.; Walkusz, W.; Divoky, G. J.

    2015-08-01

    Studies of the body condition of five marine vertebrate predators in the Beaufort Sea, conducted independently during the past 2-4 decades, suggest each has been affected by biophysical changes in the marine ecosystem. We summarize a temporal trend of increasing body condition in two species (bowhead whale subadults, Arctic char), in both cases influenced by the extent and persistence of annual sea ice. Three other species (ringed seal, beluga, black guillemot chicks), consumers with a dietary preference for Arctic cod, experienced declines in condition, growth and/or production during the same time period. The proximate causes of these observed changes remain unknown, but may reflect an upward trend in secondary productivity, and a concurrent downward trend in the availability of forage fishes, such as the preferred Arctic cod. To further our understanding of these apparent ecosystem shifts, we urge the use of multiple marine vertebrate species in the design of biophysical sampling studies to identify causes of these changes. Continued long-term, standardized monitoring of vertebrate body condition should be paired with concurrent direct (stomach contents) or indirect (isotopes, fatty acids) monitoring of diet, detailed study of movements and seasonal ranges to establish and refine baselines, and identification of critical habitats of the marine vertebrates being monitored. This would be coordinated with biophysical and oceanographic sampling, at spatial and temporal scales, and geographic locations, that are relevant to the home range, critical habitats and prey of the vertebrate indicator species showing changes in condition and related parameters.

  20. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50 and free-ranging (n = 57 female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01, indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5 was lower (P<0.001 than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5. In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants.

  1. Effectiveness of biological geotextiles in reducing runoff and soil loss under different environmental conditions using laboratory and field plot data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, T.

    2009-04-01

    Preliminary investigations suggest biological geotextiles could be an effective and inexpensive soil conservation method, with enormous global potential. Biological geotextiles are a possible temporary alternative for vegetation cover and can offer immediate soil protection. However, limited data are available on the erosion-reducing effects of biological geotextiles. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of selected types of biological geotextile in reducing runoff and soil loss under controlled laboratory conditions and under field conditions reflecting different environments (i.e. continental, temperate and tropical). In laboratory experiments, interrill runoff, interrill erosion and concentrated flow erosion were simulated using various rainfall intensities, flow shear stresses and slope gradients. Field plot data on the effects of biological geotextiles on sheet and rill erosion were collected in several countries under natural rainfall (U.K., Hungary, Lithuania, South Africa, Brazil, China and Thailand). The laboratory experiments indicate that all tested biological geotextiles were effective in reducing interrill runoff (on average 59% of the value for bare soil) and interrill erosion rates (on average 16% of the value for bare soil). Since simulated concentrated flow discharge sometimes flowed below the geotextiles, the effectiveness in reducing concentrated flow erosion was significantly less (on average 59% of the value for bare soil). On field plots, where both interrill and rill erosion occur, all tested geotextiles reduced runoff depth by a mean of 54% of the control value for bare soil and in some cases, runoff depth increased compared to bare soil surfaces, which can be attributed to the impermeable and hydrophobic characteristics of some biological geotextiles. In the field, soil loss rates due to interrill and rill erosion were reduced by a mean of 21% of the value of bare soil by biological geotextiles. This study

  2. Impact of boundary conditions on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting human body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    sitting occupant. CFD predictions were performed to explain the reason for a skewness in the thermal plume above a sitting thermal manikin with realistic body shape, size, and surface temperature distribution, measured in a climate chamber with mean radiant temperature equal to the room air temperature...

  3. Set-up errors in patients undergoing image guided radiation treatment. Relationship to body mass index and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jørgen; Bertelsen, Anders; Hansen, Christian Rønn;

    2008-01-01

    Limit protocol and compared to pre-treatment CT images. The average 3D deviation from three initial cone beam scans was compared to deviations at the 10th and 20th treatment session and correlated by linear regression analysis to height, weight, and BMI, and in H&N to weight loss as expressed...

  4. BODY COMPOSITION AND PLASMA ADIPOCYTOKINS, GHRELIN AND INSULIN BEFORE AND AFTER WEIGHT LOSS IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determine the relationships between changes in body composition, and plasma concentrations of hormones (acylation stimulating protein (ASP), adiponectin, leptin, insulin, and ghrelin), complement C3 and C-reactive protein (CRP). 35 overweight/obese (BMI 28-39 kg/m2), hyperlipidemic women aged 35-60 ...

  5. Maternal low protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1 mediated thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  6. Effects of altitude and beehive bottom board type on wintering losses of honeybee colonies under subtropical climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucak-Koc, A.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of altitude and beehive bottom board types (BBBT) on the wintering performance of honeybee colonies were investigated in the South Aegean Region of Turkey: Experiment I (E-I), with 32 colonies, in 2010-2011, and Experiment II (E-II), with 20 colonies, in 2011-2012. Each lowland (25 m) and highland (797 m) colony was divided randomly into two BBBT subgroups, open screen floor (OSF) and normal bottom floor (NBF), and wintered for about three months. In E-I, the local genotype Aegean ecotype of Anatolian bee (AE) and Italian race (ItR) were used, while in E-II, only the AE genotype was present. In E-I, the effect of wintering altitudes on the number of combs covered with bees (NCCB), and the effects of BBBT on brood area (BA) and the NCCB were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), but the effects of genotype on BA and NCCB were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). In the E-II, the effect of wintering altitude on beehive weight was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), while its effect on the NCCB was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The wintering losses in the highland and lowland groups in E-I were determined to be 25% and 62.5% respectively. In contrast to this result, no loss was observed in E-II for both altitudes. In E-I, the wintering losses for both OSF and NBF groups were the same (43.75%). In conclusion, under subtropical climatic conditions, due to variations from year to year, honeybee colonies can be wintered more successfully in highland areas with OSF bottom board type. (Author)

  7. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar; Vergara-Diaz; Shawn; C.Kefauver; Abdelhalim; Elazab; Maria; Teresa; Nieto-Taladriz; José; Luis; Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen(Warrior/Ambition),against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red,Green, Blue(RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity.RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust(R2= 0.581 and R2= 0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI(R2= 0.118 and R2= 0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  8. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Omar Vergara-Diaz; Shawn C. Kefauver; Abdelhalim Elazab; Maria Teresa Nieto-Taladriz; José Luis Araus

    2015-01-01

    The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition), against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB) images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2=0.581 and R2=0.536, respectively), far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2=0.118 and R2=0.128, respectively). In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7%of the yield losses.

  9. Effects of altitude and beehive bottom board type on wintering losses of honeybee colonies under subtropical climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytul Ucak-Koc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of altitude and beehive bottom board types (BBBT on the wintering performance of honeybee colonies were investigated in the South Aegean Region of Turkey: Experiment I (E-I, with 32 colonies, in 2010–2011, and Experiment II (E-II, with 20 colonies, in 2011–2012. Each lowland (25 m and highland (797 m colony was divided randomly into two BBBT subgroups, open screen floor (OSF and normal bottom floor (NBF, and wintered for about three months. In E-I, the local genotype Aegean ecotype of Anatolian bee (AE and Italian race (ItR were used, while in E-II, only the AE genotype was present. In E-I, the effect of wintering altitudes on the number of combs covered with bees (NCCB, and the effects of BBBT on brood area (BA and the NCCB were found to be statistically significant (p0.05. In the E-II, the effect of wintering altitude on beehive weight was found to be statistically significant (p0.05. The wintering losses in the highland and lowland groups in E-I were determined to be 25% and 62.5% respectively. In contrast to this result, no loss was observed in E-II for both altitudes. In E-I, the wintering losses for both OSF and NBF groups were the same (43.75%. In conclusion, under subtropical climatic conditions, due to variations from year to year, honeybee colonies can be wintered more successfully in highland areas with OSF bottom board type.

  10. Grain yield losses in yellow-rusted durum wheat estimated using digital and conventional parameters under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Vergara-Diaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The biotrophic fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is the causal agent of the yellow rust in wheat. Between the years 2010–2013 a new strain of this pathogen (Warrior/Ambition, against which the present cultivated wheat varieties have no resistance, appeared and spread rapidly. It threatens cereal production in most of Europe. The search for sources of resistance to this strain is proposed as the most efficient and safe solution to ensure high grain production. This will be helped by the development of high performance and low cost techniques for field phenotyping. In this study we analyzed vegetation indices in the Red, Green, Blue (RGB images of crop canopies under field conditions. We evaluated their accuracy in predicting grain yield and assessing disease severity in comparison to other field measurements including the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, leaf chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, and canopy temperature. We also discuss yield components and agronomic parameters in relation to grain yield and disease severity. RGB-based indices proved to be accurate predictors of grain yield and grain yield losses associated with yellow rust (R2 = 0.581 and R2 = 0.536, respectively, far surpassing the predictive ability of NDVI (R2 = 0.118 and R2 = 0.128, respectively. In comparison to potential yield, we found the presence of disease to be correlated with reductions in the number of grains per spike, grains per square meter, kernel weight and harvest index. Grain yield losses in the presence of yellow rust were also greater in later heading varieties. The combination of RGB-based indices and days to heading together explained 70.9% of the variability in grain yield and 62.7% of the yield losses.

  11. Development and validation of a visual body condition scoring system for dairy goats with picture-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Brandão, S; Monteiro, A; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G

    2015-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols. Currently used scoring systems in dairy goats require animal restraint for body palpation. In this study, the Animal Welfare Indicators project (AWIN) proposes to overcome this constraint by developing a scoring system based only on visual assessment. The AWIN visual body condition scoring system highlights representative animals from 3 categories: very thin, normal, and very fat, and was built from data sets with photographs of animals scored by a commonly used 6-point scoring system that requires palpation in 2 anatomical regions. Development of the AWIN scoring system required 3 steps: (1) identification and validation of a body region of interest; (2) sketching the region from photographs; and (3) creation of training material. The scoring system's reliability was statistically confirmed. An initial study identified features in the rump region from which we could compute a set of body measurements (i.e., measures based on anatomical references of the rump region) that showed a strong correlation with the assigned BCS. To validate the result, we collected a final data set from 171 goats. To account for variability in animal size and camera position, we mapped a subset of features to a standard template and aligned all the rump images before computing the body measurements. Scientific illustrations were created from the aligned images of animals identified as representative of each category to increase clarity and reproducibility. For training material, we created sketches representing the threshold between consecutive categories. Finally, we conducted 2 field reliability studies. In the first test, no training was given to 4 observers, whereas in the second, training using the threshold images was delivered to the same observers. In the first experiment, interobserver results

  12. The effects of acute stress exposure on neural correlates of Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea H Lewis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence brain regions involved in associative learning such as the ventral striatum.

  13. Cortisol and Estradiol Profile in Cross-bred Ettawa Does: The Effects of Body Condition Scoring (BCS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puji Astuti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Body Condition Scoring (BCS is an estimation of the muscle and fat development of an animal. Thin ewes that are fighting to maintain their own body weight and low concentration of cortisol are not able to ovulate as ewes in a more desirable condition due to lack of oestradiol concentration. The aims of this research are to monitor the cortisol and oestradiol profile in Cross-bred ettawa does and to determine effect of BCS on the cortisol and oestradiol profile. Eight does were used in this research. These animals were devided equally into 2 groups based on Body Condition Scoring (BCS, namely BCS 2, which body weight range between 25-30 kgs as group I ( >n=4 and BCS 3 which consists of ettawa with body weight range between 33-40 kg as group II ( n=4 . All animals were synchronized using implant of CIDR and PGF2alpha. Blood from jugular vein were collected every 3 and 6 hours as soon as oestrus until 72 hours. Serum contained cortisol and oestradiol then assayed using ELISA

method. Cortisol and oestradiol concentrations were compared between groups by T test. The results showed that average concentration of cortisol is 47.17 ± 42.19 ng/mL for BCS 2 and 112.40±74.41ng/mL for BCS 3 (P<0.05, whereas concentration of oestradiol is 72.25±30.62 pg/mL for BCS 2 and 145.72±100.18 pg/mL for BCS 3 (P<0.05.  Either cortisol or oestradiol have very synchronized wave except 2 of animals from BCS 2 (50%, which has tendency to suppress each other. It was concluded that profile of cortisol and oestradiol hormone have a very similar pattern, and BCS can affect hormone profile.

  • CANSWEL-2: a computer model of the creep deformation of Zircaloy cladding under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANSWEL-2 code models cladding creep deformation under conditions relevant to a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurised water reactor (PWR). It considers in detail the centre rod of a 3 x 3 nominally square array, taking into account azimuthal non-uniformities in cladding thickness and temperature, and the mechanical restraint imposed on contact with neighbouring rods. Any of the rods in the array may assume a non-circular shape. Models are included for primary and secondary creep, dynamic phase change and superplasticity when both alpha- and beta-phase Zircaloy are present. A simple treatment of oxidation strengthening is incorporated. Account is taken of the anisotropic creep behaviour of alpha-phase Zircaloy which leads to cladding bowing. The CANSWEL-2 model is used both as a stand-alone code and also as part of the LOCA analysis code MABEL-2. (author)

  • 42 CFR 485.56 - Condition of participation: Governing body and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of Participation: Comprehensive Outpatient Rehabilitation Facilities § 485.56... land; the improvement of land, buildings, and equipment; and the replacement, modernization,...

  • Lengthening of the remating interval improves body condition and reproduction efficiency of lactating rabbit does

    OpenAIRE

    Marongiu, Maria Laura; Gulinati, Alessandro; Bomboi, Giovanni Cristoforo; Sechi, Pietro; Floris, Basilio Remo

    2009-01-01

    The requirements of intensively reared rabbit does are very high because of the overlapping of lactation and pregnancy. In this situation, it is important to adopt the most appropriate reproductive system to improve the energy balance of the lactating does and to maximise their productive potential. Previous studies demonstrated that an increase of dietary energy content is often not sufficient to cancel the energy deficit and avoid intense body mobilisation. A negative energy bal...

  • $L^1$-optimality conditions for circular restricted three-body problems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the L1-minimization for the translational motion of a spacecraft in a circular restricted three-body problem (CRTBP) is considered. Necessary con- ditions are derived by using the Pontryagin Maximum Principle, revealing the existence of bang-bang and singular controls. Singular extremals are detailed, re- calling the existence of the Fuller phenomena according to the theories developed by Marchal in Ref. [14] and Zelikin et al. in Refs. [12, 13]. The sufficient opti- mality con...

  • Primordial star formation: relative impact of H2 three-body rates and initial conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, S; Grassi, T

    2013-01-01

    Population III stars are the first stars in the Universe to form at z=20-30 out of a pure hydrogen and helium gas in minihalos of 10^5-10^6 M$_\\odot$ . Cooling and fragmentation is thus regulated via molecular hydrogen. At densities above 10^8 cm$^{-3}$, the three-body H2 formation rates are particularly important for making the gas fully molecular. These rates were considered to be uncertain by at least a few orders of magnitude. We explore the impact of new accurate three-body H2 formation rates derived by Forrey (2013) for three different minihalos, and compare to the results obtained with three-body rates employed in previous studies. The calculations are performed with the cosmological hydrodynamics code ENZO (release 2.2) coupled with the chemistry package KROME (including a network for primordial chemistry), which was previously shown to be accurate in high resolution simulations. While the new rates can shift the point where the gas becomes fully molecular, leading to a different thermal evolution, th...

  • Mood after various brief exercise and sport modes: aerobics, hip-hop dancing, ice skating, and body conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue. PMID:17879660

  • Ultrasonic estimates of fat thickness, C measurement and longissimus dorsi depth in rasa aragonesa ewes with same body condition score

    OpenAIRE

    Delfa, R.; Teixeira, A.; Blasco, I.; COLOMER-ROCHER, F.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic estimates of fat thickness, C measurement and longissimus dorsi depth were assessed in 14 Rasa Aragonesa ewes with same body condition score. The ultrasonic estimates have been used for predicting tota1 carcass fat and muscle. The 76% of the variation in carcass lumbar fat thickness was accounted for by variation in lumbar fat thickness assessed by ultrasonic machine, whereas 53% of the variation in C measurement was accounted. Nevertheless only 5% of variation in m. Longissi...

    1. Determining the relationship between nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages and their health and body compositions

      OpenAIRE

      Hüseyin GÜMÜŞ; Bulduk, Sıdıka; Akdevelioğlu, Yasemin

      2011-01-01

      Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls) within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were c...

    2. Use of metabolic profiles and body condition scoring for the assessment of energy status of dairy cows

      OpenAIRE

      Prodanović R.; Sladojević Ž.; Kirovski D.; Vujanac I.; Ivetić V.; Savić B.; Kureljušić B.; Stevančević M.

      2012-01-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the significance of body condition scoring and metabolic profile test for estimation of energy status of healthy high-yielding dairy cows. Twenty one healthy cows (primiparous and secundiparous) were divided into three groups: dry cows, early puerperal cows and early lactating cows. Cow’s energy status was estimated by the analysis of blood samples for beta-hydroxybutirate (BHBA) and glucose. Additionally, urea, total bil...

    3. Do leucocyte profiles reflect temporal and sexual variation in body condition over the breeding cycle in Southern Rockhopper Penguins?

      OpenAIRE

      Dehnhard, Nina; Poisbleau, Maud; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra

      2011-01-01

      Abstract Southern Rockhopper Penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome) have a strongly synchronised breeding cycle with a fixed pattern of nest attendance for males and females. We studied leucocyte profiles and the development of granulocyte/lymphocyte (G/L) ratios as an indicator of stress. Variation in G/L ratios were related to sex and breeding stage, but not individual body condition. G/L ratios were similar for males and females during the first part of the incubation period ...

    4. Comparison of estimated core body temperature measured with the BioHarness and rectal temperature under several heat stress conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Seo, Yongsuk; DiLeo, Travis; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor

      2016-08-01

      Monitoring and measuring core body temperature is important to prevent or minimize physiological strain and cognitive dysfunction for workers such as first responders (e.g., firefighters) and military personnel. The purpose of this study is to compare estimated core body temperature (Tco-est), determined by heart rate (HR) data from a wearable chest strap physiology monitor, to standard rectal thermometry (Tre) under different conditions.  Tco-est and Tre measurements were obtained in thermoneutral and heat stress conditions (high temperature and relative humidity) during four different experiments including treadmill exercise, cycling exercise, passive heat stress, and treadmill exercise while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE).  Overall, the mean Tco-est did not differ significantly from Tre across the four conditions. During exercise at low-moderate work rates under heat stress conditions, Tco-est was consistently higher than Tre at all-time points. Tco-est underestimated temperature compared to Tre at rest in heat stress conditions and at a low work rate under heat stress while wearing PPE. The mean differences between the two measurements ranged from -0.1 ± 0.4 to 0.3 ± 0.4°C and Tco-est correlated well with HR (r = 0.795 - 0.849) and mean body temperature (r = 0.637 - 0.861).  These results indicate that, the comparison of Tco-est to Tre may result in over- or underestimation which could possibly lead to heat-related illness during monitoring in certain conditions. Modifications to the current algorithm should be considered to address such issues. PMID:26954265

    5. Impact of preoperative weight loss and body composition changes on postoperative outcome in surgery for inflammatory bowel disease.

      OpenAIRE

      Higgens, C S; Keighley, M. R.; Allan, R N

      1984-01-01

      One hundred and twenty seven patients undergoing elective surgery for inflammatory bowel disease were divided into three groups according to their preoperative ideal body weight (less than 80%, 80-90%, and greater than 90%). The groups were well matched in respect of age, sex, corticosteroid therapy, pre-existing sepsis, peroperative antimicrobial chemotherapy, and resection site. None received peroperative nutritional support. The postoperative outcome was similar in each of the three nutrit...

    6. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

      2016-01-01

      Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p 50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

    7. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Niswender Kevin D

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

    8. Crack modelling for the assessment of stiffness loss of reinforced concrete structures under mechanical loading - determination of the permeability of the micro-cracked body

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We propose a model describing the evolution of mechanical and permeability properties of concrete under slow mechanical loading. Calling upon the theory of continua with microstructure, the kinematic of the domain is enriched by a variable characterising size and orientation of the crack field. We call upon configurational forces to deal with crack propagation and we determine the balance equations governing both strain and propagation. The geometry of the microstructure is representative of the porous media: the permeability is obtained from the resolution of Stokes equations in an elementary volume. An example has been treated: we considered simple assumptions (uniform crack field, application of linear fracture mechanics...) and we determined the behaviour of a body under tensile loading. Strain, crack propagation and stiffness loss are completely assessed. Finally the evolution of permeability is plotted: once activated, crack propagation is the main cause of water tightness loss. (author)

    9. Optimized Bose-Einstein-condensate production in a dipole trap based on a 1070-nm multifrequency laser: Influence of enhanced two-body loss on the evaporation process

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We present an optimized strategy for the production of tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) of 87Rb in a crossed dipole trap with direct loading from a magneto-optical trap. The dipole trap is created with light of a multifrequency fiber laser with a center wavelength of 1070 nm. Evaporative cooling is performed by ramping down the laser power only. A comparison of the resulting atom number in an almost pure BEC to the initial atom number and the value for the gain in phase space density per atom lost confirm that this straightforward strategy is very efficient. We observe that the temporal characteristics of evaporation sequence are strongly influenced by power-dependent two-body losses resulting from enhanced optical pumping to the higher-energy hyperfine state. We characterize these losses and compare them to results obtained with a single-frequency laser at 1030 nm.

    10. Is whole-body trauma MDCT justified in patients in good clinical condition but with dangerous trauma mechanism?

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Background: To assess whether whole body MDCT is justified in patients in good clinical condition yet with dangerous trauma mechanism. Material/Methods:The study included 81 patients who were examined between January and July 2008 with whole-body trauma CT protocol. Inclusion into the study was based on a dangerous trauma mechanism and the possibility of an unbiased calculation of the weighted revised trauma score (RTSw). All examinations were performed with 16 row MDCT scanner located in emergency department. The cut off of the RTSw over 6.0 was used to separate the patients in good clinical condition. The CT examinations and medical records of patients were reviewed to assess the number of significant injuries, the need for emergency surgery and other types of medical treatment, the number of negative CT examinations, the number of patients admitted to hospital, and mortality. Results: 28 life-threatening injuries were found in 21 of 61 patients with RTS over 6.0 (34.4%). Only two of those patients required emergency surgery (laparotomy). CT studies were negative for traumatic injuries in 22 patients from this group (36.0%). Conclusions: Whole-body MDCT may detect injuries in patients in good clinical condition, with some of them demanding medical treatment. Still, further studies are required to balance the advantages of MDCT and potentially harmful effects of radiation dose, especially better triage systems and low-dose protocols are needed

    11. Can Body Condition and Somatic Indices be Used to Evaluate Metal-Induced Stress in Wild Small Mammals?

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nicolas Tête

      Full Text Available Wildlife is exposed to natural (e.g., food availability and quality, parasitism and anthropogenic stressors (e.g., habitat fragmentation, toxicants. Individual variables (e.g., age, gender affect behaviour and physiology of animals. Together, these parameters can create both great inter-individual variations in health indicators and interpretation difficulties. We investigated the relevance of body condition and somatic indices (liver, kidneys as indicators of health status in wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus, n = 560 captured along a metal pollution gradient in four landscape types (30 sampling squares 500-m sided. The indices were calculated using a recently proposed standard major axis regression instead of an ordinary least square regression. After considering age and gender for the body condition index, no landscape type influence was detected in the indices. However, important index variability was observed between sampling squares; this effect was included as a random effect in linear models. After integrating all individual and environmental variables that may affect the indices, cadmium (Cd concentrations in both the liver and kidneys were negatively related to body condition and liver indices only for individuals from highly contaminated sites. Lead in the liver was negatively related to the liver index, and Cd in kidneys was positively linked to the kidney index, potentially suggesting metal-induced stress. However, interpretation of these indices as a wildlife ecotoxicology tool should be performed with caution due to the sensitivity of potentially confounding variables (e.g., individual factors and environmental parameters.

    12. Body fat loss and compensatory mechanisms in response to different doses of aerobic exercise - a randomized controlled trial in overweight sedentary males

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Larsen, Mads Rosenkilde; Auerbach, Pernille Landrock; Reichkendler, Michala Holm; Ploug, Thorkil; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Sjödin, Anders Mikael

      2012-01-01

      limited. A randomized controlled trial was performed in healthy sedentary moderately overweight young men to examine the effects of increasing doses of aerobic exercise on body composition, accumulated energy balance, and the degree of compensation. Eighteen participants were randomized to a continuous...... sedentary control group, 21 to a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) and 22 to a high dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) exercise group for 13 weeks, corresponding to approximately 30 and 60 minutes of daily aerobic exercise, respectively. Body weight (MOD: -3.6kg, P......The amount of weight loss induced by exercise is often disappointing. A diet-induced negative energy balance triggers compensatory mechanisms, e.g. lower metabolic rate and increased appetite. However, knowledge about potential compensatory mechanisms triggered by increased aerobic exercise is...

    13. Insects for breakfast and whales for dinner: the diet and body condition of dingoes on Fraser Island (K'gari).

      Science.gov (United States)

      Behrendorff, Linda; Leung, Luke K-P; McKinnon, Allan; Hanger, Jon; Belonje, Grant; Tapply, Jenna; Jones, Darryl; Allen, Benjamin L

      2016-01-01

      Top-predators play stabilising roles in island food webs, including Fraser Island, Australia. Subsidising generalist predators with human-sourced food could disrupt this balance, but has been proposed to improve the overall health of the island's dingo (Canis lupus dingo) population, which is allegedly 'starving' or in 'poor condition'. We assess this hypothesis by describing the diet and health of dingoes on Fraser Island from datasets collected between 2001 and 2015. Medium-sized mammals (such as bandicoots) and fish were the most common food items detected in dingo scat records. Stomach contents records revealed additional information on diet, such as the occurrence of human-sourced foods. Trail camera records highlighted dingo utilisation of stranded marine fauna, particularly turtles and whales. Mean adult body weights were higher than the national average, body condition scores and abundant-excessive fat reserves indicated a generally ideal-heavy physical condition, and parasite loads were low and comparable to other dingo populations. These data do not support hypotheses that Fraser Island dingoes have restricted diets or are in poor physical condition. Rather, they indicate that dingoes on Fraser Island are capable of exploiting a diverse array of food sources which contributes to the vast majority of dingoes being of good-excellent physical condition. PMID:27009879

    14. 环境温度和体内储备物共同影响煤山雀夜间体重的下降%Nocturnal body ass loss in coal tits Periparus ater:the combined effects of ambient temperature and body reserves

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Vicente POLO; Luis M·Crrascal

      2008-01-01

      环境温度和体内储备物水平被认为是鸟类在静止状态下能量利用的重要调节因子(夜间体重降低).然而,以往的研究没有把环境温度和体内储备物对夜间能量维持加以明确的区分.为了研究环境温度是否是为煤山雀(Periparus ater)夜间体重调节的直接因子,在自由取食条件下,实验室控制日-日和日-夜环境温度.温度变化模拟西班牙中部地中海山区秋季日-夜温度的变化.夜间体重取决于黄昏时的体重以及前一天体重的增加值.当前一日白天煤山雀体重增加最大时,记录夜间体重最大降低的比率.然而,环境温度的不可预见性没有影响煤山雀夜间体重降低,可以解释煤山雀内在的生理能量平衡.这些结果提示,当一些环境因子如温度变得不可预见时,鸟类在狭小范围内保持体内储备物%The environmental temperature and the l evel of body reserves have been described as important regulating factors of the amount of energy used at resting (I.e. Nocturnal body mass loss). However, because these variables are associ ated in natural conditions, previous studies have not made a clear distinction between the separate effect of ambient temperature and body reserves on nightly energy management. To investigate whether ambient temperature acts as a proximate factor on nocturnal body mass regulation in captive coal tits Periparus ater, the day-to-day and day-to-night changes in environmental temperatures were experimentally manipulated, under unrestricted food availability. The experiment was conducted within the normal autumn range of temperature variation in a mountain area of continental Mediterranean climate in Central Spain. Nocturnal body mass loss depended on the level of body mass at dusk and daily body-mass gain in the previous day. The largest rates of body mass loss at night were recorded when birds ended the previous day-time period with the highest levels of body reserves obtained

    15. Novel application of pre-operative vertebral body embolization to reduce intraoperative blood loss during a three-column spinal osteotomy for non-oncologic spinal deformity.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tuchman, Alexander; Mehta, Vivek A; Mack, William J; Acosta, Frank L

      2015-04-01

      Three column osteotomies (3CO) of the lumbar spine are powerful corrective procedures used in the treatment of kyphoscoliosis. Their efficacy comes at the cost of high reported complication rates, notably significant estimated blood loss (EBL). Previously reported techniques to reduce EBL have had modest efficacy. Here we describe a potential technique to decrease EBL during pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) of the lumbar spine by means of pre-operative vertebral body embolization - a technique traditionally used to reduce blood loss prior to spinal column tumor resection. We present a 62-year-old man with iatrogenic kyphoscoliosis who underwent staged deformity correction. Stage 1 involved thoracolumbar instrumentation followed by transarterial embolization of the L4 vertebral body through bilateral segmental arteries. A combination of polyvinyl alcohol particles and Gelfoam (Pfizer, New York, NY, USA) were used. Following embolization there was decreased angiographic blood flow to the small vessels of the L4 vertebral body, while the segmental arteries remained patent. Stage 2 consisted of an L4 PSO and fusion. The EBL during the PSO procedure was 1L, which compared favorably to that during previous PSO at this institution as well as to quantities reported in previous literature. There have been no short term (5 month follow-up) complications attributable to the vertebral body embolization or surgical procedure. Although further investigation into this technique is required to better characterize its safety and efficacy in reducing EBL during 3CO, we believe this patient illustrates the potential utility of pre-operative vertebral embolization in the setting of non-oncologic deformity correction surgery. PMID:25564274

    16. Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) based Mismatching Losses Reduction under Fast-Shaded Conditions of PV Modules

      Science.gov (United States)

      Syafaruddin; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Karatepe, Engin; Hiyama, Takashi

      Fast-moving irradiance condition is one of problems that need to be solved in the non-stationary conventional maximum power point (MPP) trackers of PV system. Under sudden irradiance changes, the output power is changed drastically that leads to the shifting in MPP voltage. Conventional MPP algorithms may start continuously to search for finding the optimum point. However, suddenly another shadow can occur prior to complete removing of previous shadow. Continuing the tracking process under this condition will cause to lose energy. This paper presents the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) as the power compensation method for improving the maximum power transfer of PV system under short-term period of shading. Several scenarios are tested in this work by measurement the percentage of power compensation, for instance the effect of capacitor size to the period of shading, the effects of shading period to the level shading intensity and cell temperature. This paper is directly purposed to reduce the power losses for moving objects powered by solar energy, such as solar car and solar boat systems.

    17. Conditional transgenic mice expressing C-terminally truncated human α-synuclein (αSyn119 exhibit reduced striatal dopamine without loss of nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Flint Beal M

      2009-07-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Missense mutations and multiplications of the α-synuclein gene cause autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD. α-Synuclein protein is also a major component of Lewy bodies, the hallmark pathological inclusions of PD. Therefore, α-synuclein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic PD. To model α-synuclein-linked disease in vivo, transgenic mouse models have been developed that express wild-type or mutant human α-synuclein from a variety of neuronal-selective heterologous promoter elements. These models exhibit a variety of behavioral and neuropathological features resembling some aspects of PD. However, an important deficiency of these models is the observed lack of robust or progressive nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal degeneration that is characteristic of PD. Results We have developed conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice that can express A53T, E46K or C-terminally truncated (1–119 human α-synuclein pathological variants from the endogenous murine ROSA26 promoter in a Cre recombinase-dependent manner. Using these mice, we have evaluated the expression of these α-synuclein variants on the integrity and viability of nigral dopaminergic neurons with age. Expression of A53T α-synuclein or truncated αSyn119 selectively in nigrostriatal pathway dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months fails to precipitate dopaminergic neuronal loss in these mice. However, αSyn119 expression in nigral dopaminergic neurons for up to 12 months causes a marked reduction in the levels of striatal dopamine and its metabolites together with other subtle neurochemical alterations. Conclusion We have developed and evaluated novel conditional α-synuclein transgenic mice with transgene expression directed selectively to nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons as a potential new mouse model of PD. Our data support the pathophysiological relevance of C-terminally truncated α-synuclein species in vivo. The

    18. The Influence of Body Size and Food Preparation Practices on the Uptake and Loss of Radionuclides in Cumbrian Winkles

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      It has been suggested that larger winkles may show higher concentrations of radioactivity and that critical group members, when providing MAFF with sub-samples of winkles they have collected, retain the largest organisms for consumption. If both these hypotheses are true, this could imply higher doses than typically estimated. Conversely, it is assumed that winkles are consumed immediately following collection, without gut clearance, which may overestimate the consumption dose. Results obtained in this study indicate the following. (1) Inverse correlations are observed between concentration and body size for 106Ru and 241Am. A positive relationship is observed for 60Co. Although concentrations of 137Cs decrease with increasing body size the negative correlation is not significant, while 110Agm concentration is independent of body size. (2) There is no evidence that critical group consumers retain larger organisms. In any case, consuming larger or smaller winkles, over the size range tested, probably does not affect dose uptake by more than 10%. (3) Concentrations of plutonium and americium decline to 50% of original by soaking winkles for 18 h. Concentrations of caesium are also reduced. (4) Concentrations of 106Ru, 110Agm and 60Co are not reduced by soaking. Overall, current approaches to deriving consumption doses are not likely to suffer from selection bias. Overnight soaking of winkles in saline solution could decrease radiation doses to consumers by a factor of nearly 2; provided that the fractional gut transfer of activity remaining is unaffected. This last assumption, however is questionable and the current approach should provide a 'reasonably conservative' dose estimate appropriate to critical group studies. (author)

    19. Effects of body condition on buoyancy in endangered North Atlantic right whales.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nousek-McGregor, Anna E; Miller, Carolyn A; Moore, Michael J; Nowacek, Douglas P

      2014-01-01

      Buoyancy is an important consideration for diving marine animals, resulting in specific ecologically relevant adaptations. Marine mammals use blubber as an energy reserve, but because this tissue is also positively buoyant, nutritional demands have the potential to cause considerable variation in buoyancy. North Atlantic right whales Eubalaena glacialis are known to be positively buoyant as a result of their blubber, and the thickness of this layer varies considerably, but the effect of this variation on buoyancy has not been explored. This study compared the duration and rate of ascending and descending glides, recorded with an archival tag, with blubber thickness, measured with an ultrasound device, in free-swimming right whales. Ascending whales with thicker blubber had shorter portions of active propulsion and longer passive glides than whales with thinner blubber, suggesting that blubber thickness influences buoyancy because the buoyant force is acting in the same direction as the animal's movement during this phase. Whales with thinner layers also used similar body angles and velocities when traveling to and from depth, while those with thicker layers used shallower ascent angles but achieved higher ascent velocities. Such alterations in body angle may help to reduce the cost of transport when swimming against the force of buoyancy in a state of augmented positive buoyancy, which represents a dynamic response to reduce the energetic consequences of physiological changes. These results have considerable implications for any diving marine animal during periods of nutritional stress, such as during seasonal migrations and annual variations in prey availability. PMID:24457930

    20. Comparing histology and gonadosomatic index for determining spawning condition of small-bodied riverine fishes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.; Papoulias, D.M.

      2008-01-01

      We compared gonadosomatic index (GSI) and histological analysis of ovaries for identifying reproductive periods of fishes to determine the validity of using GSI in future studies. Four small-bodied riverine species were examined in our comparison of the two methods. Mean GSI was significantly different between all histological stages for suckermouth minnow and red shiner. Mean GSI was significantly different between most stages for slenderhead darter; whereas stages 3 and 6 were not significantly different, the time period when these stages are present would allow fisheries biologists to distinguish between the two stages. Mean GSI was not significantly different for many histological stages in stonecat. Difficulties in distinguishing between histological stages and GSI associated with stonecat illustrate potential problems obtaining appropriate sample sizes from species that move to alternative habitats to spawn. We suggest that GSI would be a useful tool in identifying mature ovaries in many small-bodied, multiple-spawning fishes. This information could be combined with data from histology during mature periods to pinpoint specific spawning events. ?? 2007 Blackwell Munksgaard.

    1. The influence of the electrophoretic conditions on the metal binding protein losses in proteomics by PAGE-LA-ICP-MS

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Complete text of publication follows. The use of Laser Ablation (LA) Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) Mass Spectrometry (MS) has undergone a considerable increase as a detection system of metals in proteins after separation by both one dimensional (1D) and bidimensional (2D) Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (PAGE). In this regard, it is very important to maintain the integrity of metal-protein binding during all the process. When the object of the study is a heteroatom-containing protein, such as P and Se, the element is strongly bound to the protein and the binding is not broken during the electrophoretic procedure. However, metal-binding proteins in which metal-protein interactions are weaker can loss the metal during electrophoretic separation, especially when using a denaturing one. Because of this, great efforts must be made to develop new strategies to separate proteins without breaking the metal-protein binding. We have developed some experiments to investigate the influence of electrophoretic conditions on the subsequent detection of metals by LA-ICP-MS of two metal-binding proteins , superoxide dismutase (SOD), containing Zn and Cu, and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), containing Zn. We have studied not only the nature of the electrophoretic method, but also the influence of the intensity applied, the trailing ion and the post-separation gel treatment. We recommended the use of tricine as trailing ion for SOD in SDS-PAGE. Non denaturing PAGE based in tricine is preferred to preserved metals-protein binding for ADH. With respect to the intensity applied, it has been observed that as higher intensity is applied the possibility of metal-protein binding losses is higher. The results showed that it is better to avoid staining procedures because they can alter the stability of the metal-protein complexes and prevent detecting metals bound to proteins.

    2. Insects for breakfast and whales for dinner: the diet and body condition of dingoes on Fraser Island (K’gari)

      Science.gov (United States)

      Behrendorff, Linda; Leung, Luke K.-P.; McKinnon, Allan; Hanger, Jon; Belonje, Grant; Tapply, Jenna; Jones, Darryl; Allen, Benjamin L.

      2016-01-01

      Top-predators play stabilising roles in island food webs, including Fraser Island, Australia. Subsidising generalist predators with human-sourced food could disrupt this balance, but has been proposed to improve the overall health of the island’s dingo (Canis lupus dingo) population, which is allegedly ‘starving’ or in ‘poor condition’. We assess this hypothesis by describing the diet and health of dingoes on Fraser Island from datasets collected between 2001 and 2015. Medium-sized mammals (such as bandicoots) and fish were the most common food items detected in dingo scat records. Stomach contents records revealed additional information on diet, such as the occurrence of human-sourced foods. Trail camera records highlighted dingo utilisation of stranded marine fauna, particularly turtles and whales. Mean adult body weights were higher than the national average, body condition scores and abundant-excessive fat reserves indicated a generally ideal-heavy physical condition, and parasite loads were low and comparable to other dingo populations. These data do not support hypotheses that Fraser Island dingoes have restricted diets or are in poor physical condition. Rather, they indicate that dingoes on Fraser Island are capable of exploiting a diverse array of food sources which contributes to the vast majority of dingoes being of good-excellent physical condition. PMID:27009879

    3. Fuel Behaviour and Modelling under Severe Transient and Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) Conditions. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In recent years the demands on 'fuel duties' have increased, including transient regimes, higher burnups and longer fuel cycles. To satisfy these demands, fuel vendors have developed and introduced new cladding and fuel material designs to provide sufficient margins for safe operation of the fuel components. National and international experimental programmes have been launched, and models have been developed or adapted to take into account the changed conditions. These developments enable water cooled reactors, which contribute about 95% of the nuclear power in the world today, to operate safely under all operating conditions; moreover, even under severe transient or accident conditions, such as reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) or loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs), the behaviour of the fuel can be adequately predicted and the consequences of such events can be safely contained. In 2010 the IAEA Technical Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (TWGFPT) recommended that a technical meeting on ''Fuel Behaviour and Modelling under Severe Transient and LOCA Conditions'' be held in Japan. The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 highlighted the need to address this subject, and despite the difficult situation in Japan at the time, the recommended plan was confirmed, and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) hosted the technical meeting in Mito, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan, from 18 to 21 October 2011. This meeting was the eighth in a series of IAEA meetings, which reflects Member States' continuing interest in the above issues. The previous meetings were held in 1980 (jointly with OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Helsinki, Finland), 1983 (Riso, Denmark), 1986 (Vienna, Austria), 1988 (Preston, United Kingdom), 1992 (Pembroke, Canada), 1995 (Dimitrovgrad, Russian Federation) and 2001 (Halden, Norway). The purpose of the technical meeting was to provide a forum for international experts to review the current situation and the state of

    4. Set-up errors in patients undergoing image guided radiation treatment. Relationship to body mass index and weight loss

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Background. The purpose of this study was to quantify the set-up errors of patient positioning during IGRT and to correlate set-up errors to patient-specific factors such as weight, height, BMI, and weight loss. Patients and methods. Thirty four consecutively treated head-and-neck cancer patients (H and N) and 20 lung cancer patients were investigated. Patients were positioned using customized immobilization devices consisting of vacuum cushions and thermoplastic shells. Treatment was given on an Elekta Synergy accelerator. Cone-beam acquisitions were obtained according to a standardized Action Limit protocol and compared to pre-treatment CT images. The average 3D deviation from three initial cone beam scans was compared to deviations at the 10th and 20th treatment session and correlated by linear regression analysis to height, weight, and BMI, and in H and N to weight loss as expressed by the relative weight change over time. Results. The SD of the translational and rotational random set-up errors during the first three sessions for H and N were 0.9mm (Left-Right), 1.1mm (Anterior-Posterior), 0.7mm (Cranio-Caudal) and 0.7 deg (LR-axis), 0.5 deg (AP-axis), and 0.7 deg (CC-axis). The equivalent data for lung cancer patients were 1.1mm (LR), 1.1mm (AP), 1.5 mm (CC) and 0.5 deg (LR-axis), 0.6 deg (AP-axis), and 0.4 deg (CC-axis). The median BMI for H and N and lung was 25.8 (17.6-39.7) and 23.7 (17.4-38.8), respectively. The median weekly weight change for HandN was -0.3% (-2.0 to 1.1%). With H and N and lung cancer analyzed separately, no statistically significant correlation was observed between set-up errors and height, weight, BMI, or weight change during treatment, irrespectively whether the 3D deviations from the initial three cone beam scans or scans from the 10th or 20th treatment sessions were used. Conclusion. This IGRT study did not support the hypothesis that set-up errors during radiotherapy are correlated to patient height, weight, BMI, or weight loss

    5. Loss of Control and Instrument Proficiency: A Case Study of a GA Pilot’s Loss of Control While Operating in Instrument Meteorological Conditions

      OpenAIRE

      Edwards, William Jeffrey "Jeff"

      2014-01-01

      General Aviation (GA) safety is influenced and affected by choices pilots make with respect to their instrument proficiency and currency. Quantitative research on the instrument proficiency issues indicates a correlation between recent instrument experience and pilot skill. However, there is very little qualitative research on the subject. Qualitative research contributes to understanding the underlying issues and themes that contribute to loss of control accidents while operating in instrume...

    6. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Laurent Mosoni

      Full Text Available Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1 increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2 use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism. 3 Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism. Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin and body composition (DXA. After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS. We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia.

    7. High whey protein intake delayed the loss of lean body mass in healthy old rats, whereas protein type and polyphenol/antioxidant supplementation had no effects.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Mosoni, Laurent; Gatineau, Eva; Gatellier, Philippe; Migné, Carole; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Rémond, Didier; Rocher, Emilie; Dardevet, Dominique

      2014-01-01

      Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidative stress is also effective to improve muscle anabolism). Such comparisons and combinations were never tested before. Nutritional groups were: casein 12% protein, whey 12% protein, whey 18% protein and each of these groups were supplemented or not with polyphenols/antioxidants. During 6 months, we followed changes of weight, food intake, inflammation (plasma fibrinogen and alpha-2-macroglobulin) and body composition (DXA). After 6 months, we measured muscle mass, in vivo and ex-vivo fed and post-absorptive muscle protein synthesis, ex-vivo muscle proteolysis, and oxidative stress parameters (liver and muscle glutathione, SOD and total antioxidant activities, muscle carbonyls and TBARS). We showed that although micronutrient supplementation reduced inflammation and oxidative stress, the only factor that significantly reduced the loss of lean body mass was the increase in whey protein intake, with no detectable effect on muscle protein synthesis, and a tendency to reduce muscle proteolysis. We conclude that in healthy rats, increasing protein intake is an effective way to delay sarcopenia. PMID:25268515

    8. Effects of protein deficiency on the rate of radioactivity loss from body constituents in adult rats given 14C-amino acids

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The effect of protein deficiency on the rate of loss of radioactivity from body constituents was studied in adult rats administered 14C-Chlorella protein hydrolysate or 14C-lysine. Rats were kept on a protein-free diet for 3 weeks and then injected with labelled amino acids and fed on a protein-free diet for 3 more days to allow 14C deposition in tissues. Then they were given experimental diets (protein-free diet, 1% and 10% wheat gluten diets pair-fed with the protein-free diet, and 10% wheat gluten diet ad libitum) for 7 days and sacrificed. The rates of loss of radioactivity from tissue proteins became low in general with the extent of protein deficiency. This increased capacity of tissues to retain 14C-amino acids may result from higher efficiency of protein utilization in protein deficiency. The reutilization of free amino acids and the rate of catabolism of tissue protein are discussed on the basis of the results. The half-life of muscle protein was too long to observe the effects of experimental diets given for 7 days on the rate of loss of radioactivity. (auth.)

    9. Effect of dietary Ulva and Spirulina on weight loss and body composition of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), during a starvation period.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Güroy, D; Güroy, B; Merrifield, D L; Ergün, S; Tekinay, A A; Yiğit, M

      2011-06-01

      A study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary algal supplementation on weight loss and proximate composition in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during starvation. An algae-free control diet (C) and four experimental diets, including varying levels of raw Ulva meal (5% = U5; 10% = U10) and Spirulina meal (5% = S5; 10% = S10) were formulated. Fish were fed to satiation for 12 weeks and then subjected to a 3-week starvation period. Body weight, viscerosomatic index (VSI, %), hepatosomatic index (HSI, %), dress-out (DO, %) and chemical composition of carcass were analysed at the end of each starvation week. The accumulated weight loss of the fish fed dietary algae was almost 50% less than the control group (p algae in aquafeeds may have economical advantages in terms of reducing weight loss in fish when subjected to a short-term fasting period, that sometimes is necessary after a heavy rainfall or when fish stocks are held back to meet market demand. PMID:20880289

    10. HOLSTEIN CATTLE REPRODUCTION IN RELATION ON MILK YIELD AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

      OpenAIRE

      Miroslav MARŠÁLEK; Jana ZEDNÍKOVÁ; PEŠTA, Vladimír; KUBEŠOVÁ, Marta

      2009-01-01

      One of the basic conditions of the economical success in milk production is the high and periodic reproduction of the cows. That means the parturition of a healthy calf from every cow per a year. The development and level of reproduction functions is very susceptible to the quantity and mainly quality of nutrition. The insuffi ciency in nutrition is strongly related to the fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproduction indicators depending upon the level of the milk yiel...

    11. Body condition and gametogenic cycle of Galatea paradoxa (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Volta River estuary, Ghana

      Science.gov (United States)

      Adjei-Boateng, D.; Wilson, J. G.

      2013-11-01

      The reproductive cycle of Galatea paradoxa which is the basis for an artisanal fishery in the Volta River estuary, Ghana, was studied using condition indices and histological methods from March 2008 to July 2009. The cycle is annual with a single spawning event between June and October. Gametogenesis starts in November progressing steadily to a peak in June-July when spawning begins until October when the animal is spent. The condition indices (shell-free wet weight/total wet weight, ash-free dry weight/shell weight and gonad wet weight/shell weight) showed a clear relationship with the gametogenic stage rising from a minimum at stage (I) start of gametogenesis, to their highest values at stages (IIIA) ripe and (IIIB) start of spawning before declining significantly to stage (IV) spent.It is suggested that condition index may prove a valuable technique in fishery management to recognise the reproductive stages of G. paradoxa as it is less expensive and time consuming than histological techniques in addition to being easier to teach to non-specialists. The data presented in this study provide information on the timing of spawning events for G. paradoxa, which is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and selection of broodstock for aquaculture.

    12. Conditioning with total body irradiation for autologous bone marrow transplantation in patients with advanced neuroblastoma

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We administered a combination of chemotherapy, autologous bone marrow purged with magnet immunobeads and total body irradiation (TBI) for advanced neuroblastoma (NB). The effect of TBI was retrospectively studied with regard to hematological recovery and complications after autologous bone marrow transplantation (A-BMT). The bone marrow was engrafted in all patients, both recipients and non-recipients of TBI. In patients receiving TBI, the average number or days after A-BMT required for the white blood cell count to exceed 1,000/μl, the neutrophile count to exceed 500/μl and the platelet count to exceed 5.0 x 104/μl was 15.0±6.5, 16.0±6.4 and 59.7±24.4, respectively. In patients not receiving TBI, the corresponding figures were 12.2±6.2, 12.9±6.9 and 43.2±17.8 days, respectively. During hematological recovery after A-BMT, there was no statistical difference between patients having received TBI and those who did not receive TBI. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) was observed in four patients while receiving TBI, but no HUS developed after shielding the kidney from TBI. In terms or engraftment and complications, A-BMT can be performed on patients receiving TBI as safely as on those patients not receiving TBI. (author)

    13. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

    14. Does Influenza A affect body condition of wild mallard ducks, or vice versa?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Flint, Paul L.; Franson, J. Christian

      2009-01-01

      Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses are well documented to circulate within wild waterfowl populations (Olsen et al. 2006). It has been assumed that these infections are benign with no subsequent effects on life-history parameters. The study by Latorre-Margalef et al. (2009; hereafter L.-M. et al.) represents an important step, as they attempt to test this assumption in wild birds. L.-M. et al. captured migrating mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) at a staging area and tested them for the presence of avian influenza A virus (IAV). They related IAV infection status to body mass and duration of time spent on the staging area. Overall, the study is well designed with impressive sample sizes and the analyses are carefully conducted and presented. However, in discussing these results, the authors assume causation based upon correlation and, although they acknowledge the possibility of immunosuppression during migration due to reduced energy stores, they do not discuss it as a possible explanation for their findings. Below, we consider several of the major findings by L.-M. et al., providing alternative explanations for the results. Because the L.-M. et al. study design is correlational, it is not possible to use their data to distinguish between their interpretations and our alternative explanations.

    15. Fuel thermal/mechanical behaviour under loss of coolant accident conditions as predicted by the FACTAR code

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      FACTAR (Fuel And Channel Temperature And Response) is a computer code developed to simulate the transient thennal and mechanical behaviour of 37-element or 28-element fuel bundles within a single CANDU fuel channel for moderate (ie., sheath temperatures less than the melting point of Zircaloy) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions including transition and large break LOCAs with emergency coolant injection assumed available. FACTAR's predictions of fuel temperature and sheath failure times are used for subsequent assessment of fission product releases and fuel string expansion. In this paper, model capabilities and calculated quantities of the code are summarised. The results from overly severe test cases are presented in order to clearly demonstrate the effect on calculated fuel channel behaviour of a mechanistic assessment of fuel-to-sheath heat transfer, and the impact of using a diffusion-limited model for Zircaloy/steam reaction (i.e., FROM) as opposed to a reaction rate correlation, coupled with the assumption of unlimited steam supply. (author)

    16. HOLSTEIN CATTLE REPRODUCTION IN RELATION ON MILK YIELD AND BODY CONDITION SCORE

      OpenAIRE

      Miroslav MARŠÁLEK; Jana ZEDNÍKOVÁ; PEŠTA, Vladimír; KUBEŠOVÁ, Marta

      2009-01-01

      One of the basic conditions of the economical success in milk production is the high and periodic reproduction of the cows. That means the parturition of a healthy calf from every cow per a year. The development and level of reproduction functions is very susceptible to the quantity and mainly quality of nutrition. The insuffi ciency in nutrition is strongly related to the fertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproduction indicators depending upon the level of the milk yield a...

    17. Many-body position operator in lattice fermionic systems with periodic boundary conditions

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Hetenyi, Balazs [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Mathematisches Institut, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Informatik und Statistik, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 39, Muenchen 80333 (Germany)], E-mail: hetenyi@itp.tugraz.at

      2009-10-16

      A total position operator X in the position representation is derived for lattice fermionic systems with periodic boundary conditions. The operator is shown to be Hermitian, the generator of translations in momentum space, and its time derivative is shown to correspond to the total current operator in a periodic system. The operator is such that its moments can be calculated up to any order. To demonstrate its utility finite size scaling is applied to the Brinkman-Rice transition as well as to metallic and insulating Gutzwiller wavefunctions. (fast track communication)

    18. Prolactin levels in the formation of the adaptive body reactions under the conditions of occupational irradiation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The prolactin levels were investigated in 120 males, working with ionizing radiations (industrial enterprises). The anual radiation doses were within the maximum admitted limits, while the cummulative radiation loading was from 0.20 to 30 cGy. The results were compared with a control group of 50 males. An undulant dynamics was established with increase of the hormonal levels for the low and the highest doses. A higher concentration was also found in the younger workers. A slight correlation was observed between the prolactin levels and the length of service. The results obtained could help in a more comprehensive estimation of the adaptation mechanisms under occupational conditions. 2 tabs., 7 refs

    19. Lifestyle patterns associated with diet, physical activity, body mass index and amount of recent weight loss in a sample of successful weight losers

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Fuglestad Paul T

      2012-06-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that the interaction between biological susceptibility and environmental risk is complex and that further study of behavioral typologies related to obesity and associated behaviors is important to further elucidate the nature of obesity risk and how to approach it for intervention. The current investigation aims to identify phenotypical lifestyle patterns that might begin to unify our understanding of obesity and obesity related behaviors. Methods Individuals who had recently lost substantial weight of their own initiative completed measures of intentional weight control behaviors and lifestyle behaviors associated with eating. These behaviors were factor analyzed and the resulting factors were examined in relation to BMI, recent weight loss, diet, and physical activity. Results Four meaningful lifestyle and weight control behavioral factors were identified— regularity of meals, TV related viewing and eating, intentional strategies for weight control, and eating away from home. Greater meal regularity was associated with greater recent weight loss and greater fruit and vegetable intake. Greater TV related viewing and eating was associated with greater BMI and greater fat and sugar intake. More eating away from home was related to greater fat and sugar intake, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less physical activity. Greater use of weight control strategies was most consistently related to better weight, diet, and physical activity outcomes. Conclusions Compared to the individual behavior variables, the identified lifestyle patterns appeared to be more reliably related to diet, physical activity, and weight (both BMI and recent weight loss. These findings add to the growing body of literature identifying behavioral patterns related to obesity and the overall weight control strategy of eating less and exercising more. In future research it will be important to replicate these behavioral factors (over

    20. Effects of Weight Loss Speed on Kidney Function Differ Depending on Body Mass Index in Nondiabetic Healthy People: A Prospective Cohort.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Eiichiro Kanda

      Full Text Available Obesity is associated with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, it has been reported that weight loss is associated with incident chronic kidney disease (CKD in healthy males. The purpose of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the effects of weight loss on kidney function in healthy people in terms of body mass index (BMI and gender.A total of 8447 nondiabetic healthy people were enrolled in the Saitama Cardiometabolic Disease and Organ Impairment Study, Japan. Relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR change, BMI, and BMI change were evaluated using 3D-scatter plots with spline and generalized additive models (GAMs adjusted for baseline characteristics.The subjects were stratified into four groups according to BMI. The mean±standard deviations for males and females were, respectively, 40.11±9.49, and 40.3±9.71 years for age and 76.39±17.72 and 71.49±18.4 ml/min/1.73m2 for eGFR. GAMs showed that a decreasing BMI change (<-1 kg/m2/year was associated with a decreasing eGFR change in males with high normal BMIs (22 kg/m2≤BMI<25 kg/m2. A decreasing BMI change (<-2 kg/m2/year was associated with an increasing eGFR change in overweight males (25 kg/m2≤BMI. Among underweight females (BMI<18.5 kg/m2, decreasing BMI was observed with decreasing eGFR.These findings suggest that the benefit and risk of weight loss in relation to kidney function differs depending on BMI and weight loss speed, especially in males.

    1. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ozcelik O

      2015-07-01

      Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

    2. Evaluation of effect of body mass index and weight loss on survival of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Previous studies report body-mass index (BMI) and percent weight loss (WL) to have prognostic significance when treating patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, most of these investigations studied patients treated using different radiotherapeutic techniques. We evaluated the predictive effect of these two nutrition-related measurements on therapeutic outcome in NPC patients who only received intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) as part of their total treatment program. We retrospectively studied NPC patients treated with IMRT from January 2006 to February 2012. Cox proportional hazards was used to test the association of pretreatment BMI (<23 kg/m2 vs. ≥23 kg/m2) and percent weight loss (≥5 % vs. <5 %) during therapy and related survival rates while controlling for various potential confounders. Eighty-one (34 %) of the 238 patients had BMIs ≥23 kg/m2 at pretreatment and 150 (63 %) had significant (≥5 %) weight loss. Median follow-up time was 41.71 months; median radiotherapy was 7.46 ± 0.77 weeks. Those with BMIs ≥23 kg/m2 did not have a better 3-year overall survival (p = 0.672), 3-year disease specific survival (p = 0.341), 3-year locoregional free survival (p = 0.281), or 3-year distant metastatic free survival (p = 0.134). Those with significant WL (≥5 %) did not have worse 3-year clinical endpoints, even after stratifying magnitude of weight loss by BMI category. In sensitivity test, the adjusted hazard ratio remained statistically insignificant using different cutoffs for BMIs and percent weight loss. This study found no significant relationship between BMI and percent weight loss on survival of NPC patients receiving IMRT based therapy. Further studies might want to consider other nutrition related factors as prognostic indicators when studying the correlate between malnutrition and survival in this population. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13014-015-0443-3) contains supplementary material, which is

    3. Evaluation of Treadmill Exercise in a Lower Body Negative Pressure Chamber as a Countermeasure for Weightlessness-Induced Bone Loss: a Bed Rest Study with Identical Twins

      Science.gov (United States)

      Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Calkins, D. S.; Bawa, Maneesh; Macias, Brandon R.; Meyer, R. Scott; Hargens, Alan R.

      2003-01-01

      Counteracting bone loss is required for future space exploration. We evaluated the ability of treadmill exercise in a LBNP chamber to counteract bone loss in a 30-day bed rest study. Eight pairs of identical twins were randomly assigned to sedentary control or exercise groups. Exercise within LBNP decreased the bone resorption caused by bed rest and may provide a countermeasure for spaceflight. INTRODUCTION: Bone loss is one of the greatest physiological challenges for extended-duration space missions. The ability of exercise to counteract weightlessness-induced bone loss has been studied extensively, but to date, it has proven ineffective. We evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of two countermeasures-treadmill exercise while inside a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) chamber-on bone loss during a 30-day bed rest study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight pairs of identical twins were randomized into sedentary (SED) or exercise/LBNP (EX/LBNP) groups. Blood and urine samples were collected before, several times during, and after the 30-day bed rest period. These samples were analyzed for markers of bone and calcium metabolism. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine statistical significance. Because identical twins were used, both time and group were treated as repeated variables. RESULTS: Markers of bone resorption were increased during bed rest in samples from sedentary subjects, including the collagen cross-links and serum and urinary calcium concentrations. For N-telopeptide and deoxypyridinoline, there were significant (p < 0.05) interactions between group (SED versus EX/LBNP) and phase of the study (sample collection point). Pyridinium cross-links were increased above pre-bed rest levels in both groups, but the EX/LBNP group had a smaller increase than the SED group. Markers of bone formation were unchanged by bed rest in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that this weight-bearing exercise combined with LBNP ameliorates some of the negative

    4. Feasibility Assessment of an ISS Artificial Gravity Conditioning Facility by Means of Multi-Body Approach

      Science.gov (United States)

      Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim

      2012-07-01

      limit on the maximum centre of mass eccentricity of the complete rotating system, the displacements allowed by traditional isolation mountings are incompatible with the available volume in the ISS module. Therefore, in order to manage the eccentricity, alternative counteracting measures shall be foreseen, such as an adjustable balance mass, which is carefully positioned for each astronaut at the beginning of the exercise cycle. However, during operation, the centre of mass is instantaneously disturbed by body fluid migration as well as adjustments of torso, arms and head due to the inevitable physiological degrees of freedom granted to the exercising astronaut. The influence of all the above factors on the transmitted loads is summarised in the paper; in conclusion, an automated system capable of keeping the maximum eccentricity below the allowable boundaries is foreseeable.

    5. Advancing parity is associated with high milk production at the cost of body condition and increased periparturient disorders in dairy herds

      OpenAIRE

      Lee, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Ill-Hwa

      2006-01-01

      The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of parity on milk production, body condition change, periparturient health, and culling in Korean dairy herds. The data utilized included; milk yield, body condition score, cow parity, calving condition, periparturient disorders, culling, and reproductive status, which were recorded from 1290 calvings in eight dairy herds. The mean milk yield in cows over 305 days increased with increasing parity (p < 0.01). Cows with parities of 3, 4...

    6. Behavioral and physiological effects of a short-term feed restriction in lactating dairy cattle with different body condition scores at calving.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schütz, K E; Cox, N R; Macdonald, K A; Roche, J R; Verkerk, G A; Rogers, A R; Tucker, C B; Matthews, L R; Meier, S; Webster, J R

      2013-07-01

      Body condition score (BCS) around calving, and the typical BCS loss for up to 100 d after parturition, is associated with both production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. In addition, there is public concern that thin cows may have impaired welfare, particularly in early lactation where feed demand exceeds pasture growth, and a lag exists between peak milk energy requirements and intake. The aim of this experiment was to determine how BCS at calving influences behavioral and physiological responses to a short-term feed restriction at 47 DIM. Body condition score (on a 10-point scale) at calving was manipulated by modifying the diets in the previous lactation of healthy dairy cattle to generate 3 treatment groups: low BCS (3.4; n=17), medium BCS (4.6; n=18), or high BCS (5.4; n=20). Cows were tested in 4 groups for 8 consecutive days; testing consisted of different levels of feed allocation (d 1 and 2: 100%; d 3 and 4: 75%; d 5: 50%; d 6 to 8: 125%), where 100% was 15kg of DM/cow per day. All BCS groups had similar and marked behavioral and physiological responses to feed restriction. For example, they increased vocalization, time spent eating silage and grazing, aggressive behavior, and fat metabolism (as measured by concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids), and reduced milk production. Body condition affected some of these responses. Fewer cows with low BCS engaged in aggressive interactions in a feed competition test (trough filled with silage that could be consumed in 15 min) on the first day of feed restriction (low: 32%; medium: 74%; high: 64%; standard error of difference=15.4%). High BCS cows had greater concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids throughout the experimental period, which suggests more fat mobilization; however, plasma leptin and fecal glucocorticosteroid metabolite concentrations were unaffected by BCS. Whereas cows demonstrated marked responses to feed restriction, the results

    7. Parasitism and body condition in humpback chub from the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers, Grand Canyon, Arizona

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hoffnagle, T.; Choudhury, Anindo; Cole, R.A.

      2006-01-01

      Glen Canyon Dam has greatly altered the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. The Little Colorado River (LCR) provides a small refuge of seasonally warm and turbid water that is thought to be more suitable than the Colorado River for endangered humpback chub Gila cypha. However, the LCR has low productivity and contains nonnative fishes and parasites, which pose a threat to humpback chub. The Colorado River hosts a different suite of nonnative fishes and is cold and clear but more productive. We compared condition factor (K), abdominal fat index (AFI), and presence and number of two introduced pathogenic parasites (Lernaea cyprinacea and Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) between juvenile (parasitism and poorer body condition in humpback chub from the LCR challenge the paradigm that warmer LCR waters are more suitable for humpback chub than the colder Colorado River and indicate the need to consider the importance and benefits of all available habitats, as well as biotic and abiotic factors, when managing endangered species and their environment.

    8. Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

      CERN Document Server

      Valkenburg, Wessel

      2015-01-01

      We provide a prescription for setting initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations, which simultaneously employ Lagrangian meshes (`particles') and Eulerian grids (`fields'). Our description is based on coordinate systems in arbitrary geometry, and can therefore be used in any metric theory of gravity. We apply our prescription to a choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, and show how already in the linear regime, particle trajectories are curved. For some viable models of modified gravity, the Dark Matter trajectories are affected at the level of 5% at Mpc scales. Moreover, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description.

    9. THE GLOBAL ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THE 3D FLOW AROUND A SUBMERGED BODY

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Hou-de Han; Xin Wen

      2003-01-01

      We consider the numerical approximations of the three-dimensional steady potential flow around a body moving in a liquid of finite constant depth at constant speed and distance below a free surface in a channel. One vertical side is introduced as the upstream artificial boundary and two vertical sides are introduced as the downstream artificial boundaries. On the artificial boundaries, a sequence of high-order global artificial boundary conditions are given. Then the original problem is reduced to a problem defined on a finite computational domain, which is equivalent to a variational problem. After solving the variational problem by the finite element method, we obtain the numerical approximation of the original problem. The numerical examples show that the artificial boundary conditions given in this paper are very effective.

    10. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

      2015-03-01

      Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was

    11. Research on stability of the accumulated rock-soil body of reservoir bank under rainfall condition

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      2009-01-01

      The shear strength parameters property of rock-soil aggregates in embankment slope of reservoir,that is,the relationship between cohesion and gravel content,between friction angle and gravel content,and the relationship between cohesion and water content,between friction angle and water content,is studied based on the direct shear test results,the shear strength change law of the rock-soil aggregates is given,and the unsaturated shear strength formulation of rock-soil aggregates that could consider suction and saturation degree influence is put forward in this paper,through which the sliding or failure physical mechanism of this type of slope under the condition of rainfall infiltration is studied. Also the 3D unsteady saturated-unsaturated seepage field and its FEM resolving mode are established based on the analysis of the slope rainfall infiltration process. Case study with this method indicates that the minimum safety factor of the accumulated rock-soil aggregates dose not arrive at the moment of rainfall cessation,but appears several hours after the rainfall cessation,this phenomenon is in accordance with the practical slope engineering’s failure process and could explain appropriately the slope failure caused by rainfall infiltration. Research results in this paper have an important reference value for the research on stability of the accumulated rock-soil aggregates in embankment slope of reservoir,and can enrich the stability analysis method and relevant theory of reservoir embankment slope.

    12. Research on stability of the accumulated rock-soil body of reservoir bank under rainfall condition

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      GU ChongShi; WU HaiZhen; SU HuaiZhi

      2009-01-01

      The shear strength parameters property of rock-soil aggregates in embankment slope of reservoir, that is, the relationship between cohesion and gravel content, between friction angle and gravel content, and the relationship between cohesion and water content, between friction angle and water content, is studied based on the direct shear test results, the shear strength change law of the rock-soil aggregates is given, and the unsaturated shear strength formulation of rock-soil aggregates that could consider suction and saturation degree influence is put forward in this paper, through which the sliding or failure physical mechanism of this type of slope under the condition of rainfall infiltration is studied. Also the 3D unsteady seturated-unsaturated seepage field and its FEM resolving mode are established based on the analysis of the slope rainfall infiltration process. Case study with this method indicates that the minimum safety factor of the accumulated rock-soil aggregates dose not arrive at the moment of rainfall cessation, but appears several hours after the rainfall cessation, this phenomenon is in accordance with the practical slope engineering's failure process and could explain appropriately the slope failure caused by rainfall infiltration. Research results in this paper have an important reference value for the research on stability of the accumulated rock-soil aggregates in embankment slope of reservoir, and can enrich the stability analysis method and relevant theory of reservoir embankment slope.

    13. The Bodies Politic: Chronic Health Conditions and Voter Turnout in the 2008 Election.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gollust, Sarah E; Rahn, Wendy M

      2015-12-01

      Health policy researchers often evaluate the social and economic consequences of chronic illness, but rarely have they considered the implications of chronic illness on one important form of political participation: voting. However, if chronic illnesses - already unequally distributed in society - are associated with differential rates of voter turnout, then these inequalities in democratic representation could, in turn, produce further health inequity. In this study, we use data from eight states from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey to examine the associations between having diagnoses of five chronic conditions and turnout in the 2008 US presidential election. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and some health-related confounding factors, we find that individuals with cancer diagnoses are more likely to vote, while those with heart disease diagnoses are less likely to vote. These associations differ by race and educational status; notably, African Americans and those with lower education with cancer are even more likely to turn out to vote than whites and those with more education with cancer. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of health social movements and the role of health organizations in shaping political processes, important directions for the study of health politics. PMID:26447024

    14. Relationships among Body Condition, Insulin Resistance and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression during the Grazing Season in Mares.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Shaimaa Selim

      Full Text Available Obesity and insulin resistance have been shown to be risk factors for laminitis in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition during the grazing season on insulin resistance and the expression of genes associated with obesity and insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT. Sixteen Finnhorse mares were grazing either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG or semi-natural grassland (NG from the end of May to the beginning of September. Body measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT, and neck and tailhead SAT gene expressions were measured in May and September. At the end of grazing, CG had higher median body condition score (7 vs. 5.4, interquartile range 0.25 vs. 0.43; P=0.05 and body weight (618 kg vs. 572 kg ± 10.21 (mean ± SEM; P=0.02, and larger waist circumference (P=0.03 than NG. Neck fat thickness was not different between treatments. However, tailhead fat thickness was smaller in CG compared to NG in May (P=0.04, but this difference disappeared in September. Greater basal and peak insulin concentrations, and faster glucose clearance rate (P=0.03 during IVGTT were observed in CG compared to NG in September. A greater decrease in plasma non-esterified fatty acids during IVGTT (P<0.05 was noticed in CG compared to NG after grazing. There was down-regulation of insulin receptor, retinol binding protein 4, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and up-regulation of adiponectin (ADIPOQ, adiponectin receptor 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD gene expressions in SAT of both groups during the grazing season (P<0.05. Positive correlations were observed between ADIPOQ and its receptors and between SCD and ADIPOQ in SAT (P<0.01. In conclusion, grazing on CG had a moderate effect on responses during IVGTT, but did not trigger insulin resistance. Significant temporal differences in gene expression profiles were observed during the grazing season.

    15. Relationships among Body Condition, Insulin Resistance and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Gene Expression during the Grazing Season in Mares

      Science.gov (United States)

      Selim, Shaimaa; Elo, Kari; Jaakkola, Seija; Karikoski, Ninja; Boston, Ray; Reilas, Tiina; Särkijärvi, Susanna; Saastamoinen, Markku; Kokkonen, Tuomo

      2015-01-01

      Obesity and insulin resistance have been shown to be risk factors for laminitis in horses. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of changes in body condition during the grazing season on insulin resistance and the expression of genes associated with obesity and insulin resistance in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Sixteen Finnhorse mares were grazing either on cultivated high-yielding pasture (CG) or semi-natural grassland (NG) from the end of May to the beginning of September. Body measurements, intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), and neck and tailhead SAT gene expressions were measured in May and September. At the end of grazing, CG had higher median body condition score (7 vs. 5.4, interquartile range 0.25 vs. 0.43; P=0.05) and body weight (618 kg vs. 572 kg ± 10.21 (mean ± SEM); P=0.02), and larger waist circumference (P=0.03) than NG. Neck fat thickness was not different between treatments. However, tailhead fat thickness was smaller in CG compared to NG in May (P=0.04), but this difference disappeared in September. Greater basal and peak insulin concentrations, and faster glucose clearance rate (P=0.03) during IVGTT were observed in CG compared to NG in September. A greater decrease in plasma non-esterified fatty acids during IVGTT (P<0.05) was noticed in CG compared to NG after grazing. There was down-regulation of insulin receptor, retinol binding protein 4, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and up-regulation of adiponectin (ADIPOQ), adiponectin receptor 1 and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expressions in SAT of both groups during the grazing season (P<0.05). Positive correlations were observed between ADIPOQ and its receptors and between SCD and ADIPOQ in SAT (P<0.01). In conclusion, grazing on CG had a moderate effect on responses during IVGTT, but did not trigger insulin resistance. Significant temporal differences in gene expression profiles were observed during the grazing season. PMID:25938677

    16. Evaluation of human dental loss caused by carbamide peroxide bleacher compared with phosphoric acid conditioning - radioactive method

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The radiometric method was applied to the evaluation of dental loss caused by carbamide peroxide when it is applied on the surface layers of enamel and dentin tissues. Also the dental loss caused by the etching with 37% phosphoric acid procedure used in aesthetic restoration was assessed for comparison with those results obtained. The tooth samples irradiated with a P standard in a thermal neutron flux of the nuclear reactor were placed in contact with 10% carbamide peroxide or with 37% phosphoric acid solution. The radioactivity of 32 P transferred from the radioactive teeth to the bleaching gel or to etching acid was measured using a Geiger Muller detector to calculate the mass of P removed in this treatment and losses were calculated after obtaining their P concentrations. Results obtained indicated that enamel and dentin exposed to carbamide peroxide bleaching agent lose phosphorus. The extent of enamel loss was smaller than that obtained for dentin. In the case of acid etching, there was no difference between the results obtained for enamel and dentin loss. Also the dentin loss obtained after a treatment of 30 applications of 10% carbamide peroxide was the same magnitude of that one application of 37% phosphoric acid. (author)

    17. Assessing body condition and energy budget components by scoring abdominal profiles in free-ranging pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Madsen, J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

      2006-01-01

      An abdominal profile index (API) was developed for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus as a measure of body condition. On basis of carcass analysis of 56 adult geese with known API prior to collection, we found significant linear relationships between API against body mass, abdominal fat and tota

    18. Statistics concerning the Apollo command module water landing, including the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, sucessful impact, and body X-axis loads

      Science.gov (United States)

      Whitnah, A. M.; Howes, D. B.

      1971-01-01

      Statistical information for the Apollo command module water landings is presented. This information includes the probability of occurrence of various impact conditions, a successful impact, and body X-axis loads of various magnitudes.

    19. N-body simulations with generic non-Gaussian initial conditions I: power spectrum and halo mass function

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We address the issue of setting up generic non-Gaussian initial conditions for N-body simulations. We consider inflationary-motivated primordial non-Gaussianity where the perturbations in the Bardeen potential are given by a dominant Gaussian part plus a non-Gaussian part specified by its bispectrum. The approach we explore here is suitable for any bispectrum, i.e. it does not have to be of the so-called separable or factorizable form. The procedure of generating a non-Gaussian field with a given bispectrum (and a given power spectrum for the Gaussian component) is not univocal, and care must be taken so that higher-order corrections do not leave a too large signature on the power spectrum. This is so far a limiting factor of our approach. We then run N-body simulations for the most popular inflationary-motivated non-Gaussian shapes. The halo mass function and the non-linear power spectrum agree with theoretical analytical approximations proposed in the literature, even if they were so far developed and tested only for a particular shape (the local one). We plan to make the simulations outputs available to the community via the non-Gaussian simulations comparison project web site http://icc.ub.edu/~liciaverde/NGSCP.html

    20. Is the body condition of the invasive zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) enhanced through attachment to native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia, Unionidae)?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pilotto, Francesca; Sousa, Ronaldo; Aldridge, David C

      2016-05-15

      The invasion of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, into Western Europe and North America has driven widespread ecological change. Attachment of zebra mussels to the shell of native unionoid mussels has resulted in reductions in unionoid abundance and, in extreme cases, their localised extirpations. While the impacts of zebra mussels on infested unionoids are well documented, the possible benefits of the association to the zebra mussel have been little considered. We collected zebra mussels attached to unionoids and to inanimate structures. Zebra mussels attached to unionoids had significantly larger shells, higher standardized body mass and glycogen content than those attached to inanimate substrates, suggesting that D. polymorpha benefits from settling upon unionoids. The body condition of individual zebra mussels was negatively correlated with the number of zebra mussels attached to the unionoid, indicating intraspecific competition. Therefore, zebra mussels seem positively affected through attachment to unionoid mussels, but that these benefits decrease at higher densities of fouling. This association may offer advantages to the spread of zebra mussels within unionoid-rich systems, especially at sites with soft substrates and at the early stages of the invasion process where intraspecific competition is likely to be lower and benefits to the zebra mussels are higher. PMID:26925735

    1. Density-Dependence in Space and Time: Opposite Synchronous Variations in Population Distribution and Body Condition in the Baltic Sea Sprat (Sprattus sprattus) over Three Decades

      OpenAIRE

      Casini, Michele; ROUYER Tristan; Bartolino, Valerio; Larson, Niklas; Grygiel, Włodzimierz

      2014-01-01

      Spatio-temporal density-dependent processes are crucial regulatory factors for natural populations. However, there is a lack of studies addressing spatial density-dependence in fish growth. A previous investigation has suggested spatio-temporal density-dependence in body condition of Baltic sprat. Here, we used different techniques, such as centre of gravity, distance, and homogeneity indices, to better characterize the spatial and temporal variations in sprat density and body condition in th...

    2. A cow-level association of ruminal pH on body condition score, serum beta-hydroxybutyrate and postpartum disorders in Thai dairy cattle.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chaidate, Inchaisri; Somchai, Chanpongsang; Jos, Noordhuizen; Henk, Hogeveen

      2014-09-01

      Subacute ruminal acidosis in dairy cows occurs when ruminal pH is below about 5.5. However, the exact threshold level of ruminal pH affecting cow health is still in debate. This investigation was carried out in 505 cows within 31 farms. The postpartum disorders, including dystocia, retained placenta, anestrus, cystic ovary, metritis, clinical mastitis and lameness, were analyzed. Ruminal pH, serum beta-hydroxy butyrate (SBHB), serum urea nitrogen and body condition score (BCS) were measured once during the 3 to 6 weeks postpartum, while BCS was determined once more at 1 week before calving. Ruminal pH was determined by ruminocentesis technique. The ruminal pH was evaluated to study the association with BCS, SBHB and postpartum disorders using linear regression in a generalized linear mixed model with farm as a random effect. The results show that low ruminal pH was associated with dystocia, metritis and lameness. Moreover, a low ruminal pH can be found in cows with a high loss of BCS after calving and also in cows with low SBHB postpartum. These findings confirmed the feasibility of the ruminocentesis technique and the association of low ruminal pH on various postpartum disorders at the individual cow level. However, the consequences of low ruminal pH on dairy cow health still needs more exploration for a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms. PMID:24961478

    3. The electrostatic plasma environment of a small airless body under non-aligned plasma flow and UV conditions

      Science.gov (United States)

      Poppe, A. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Halekas, J. S.; Farrell, W. M.

      2015-12-01

      Airless bodies interact with a wide variety of plasma environments throughout the solar system. For many objects, incident plasma is nearly co-aligned with solar ultraviolet radiation leading to the development of a positively charged dayside photoelectron sheath and a negatively charged nightside plasma sheath. Other objects, however, are present in environments where the plasma flow and solar UV radiation may not co-align. These environments include, for example, the moons of Mars as they pass through the deflected Martian magnetosheath, and many of the moons of the outer planets, which are embedded in co-rotating planetary magnetospheres. The decoupling of the plasma flow and UV incidence vectors opens up a wide range of possible surface charging and near-object plasma conditions as a function of the relative plasma-UV incidence angle. Here, we report on a series of simulations of the plasma interaction of a small body (effectively smaller than both electron and ion gyroradii) with both flowing plasma and UV radiation for different plasma-UV incidence angles using an electrostatic treecode model. We describe the plasma and electric field environment both on the object surface and in the interaction region surrounding the object, including complex surface charge and electric field distributions, interactions between surface-generated photoelectrons and ambient plasma electrons, and complex potential distributions, all of which vary as a function of the relative plasma flow-UV angle. We also show that in certain conditions, non-monotonic potential structures may exist around such objects, partially similar to those found at Earth's Moon.

    4. Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Roberts Mike D

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss. Methods One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m-2, 44.8 ± 4.2% fat were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON a no diet + exercise control (ND, or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP] in addition to beginning a 3x•week-1 supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate. Results All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non

    5. Estimation of hysteretic losses for MgB2 tapes under the operating conditions of a generator

      Science.gov (United States)

      Vargas-Llanos, Carlos Roberto; Zermeño, Víctor M. R.; Sanz, Santiago; Trillaud, Frederic; Grilli, Francesco

      2016-03-01

      Hysteretic losses in the MgB2 wound superconducting coils of a 550 kW synchronous hybrid scaled generator were estimated as part of the European project SUPRAPOWER led by the Spanish Fundación Tecnalia Research & Innovation. Particular interest was given to the losses caused by the magnetic flux ripples in the rotor coils originating from the conventional stator during nominal operation. To compute these losses, a 2D finite element analysis was conducted and Maxwell’s equations written in the H-formulation were solved considering the nonlinear material properties of the conductor materials. The modeled tapes are made of multiple MgB2 filaments embedded in a Ni matrix and soldered to a high purity copper strip and insulated with Dacron braid. Three geometrical models of single tape cross sections of decreasing complexity were studied: (1) the first model reproduced closely the actual cross section obtained from tape micrographs. (2) The second model was obtained from the computed elasto-plastic deformation of a round Ni wire. (3) The third model was based on a simplified cross section with the superconducting filaments bundled in a single elliptical bulky structure. The last geometry allowed the validation of the modeling technique by comparing numerical losses with results from well-established analytical expressions. Additionally, the following cases of filament transpositions of the multi-filamentary tape were studied: no transposition, partial and full transposition; thereby improving understanding of the relevance of the tape fabrication process on the magnitude of the determination of ac losses. Finally, choosing the right level of geometrical detail, the following operational regimes of the machine and its impact on individual superconducting tape losses in the rotor were studied: bias-dc current, ramping current under ramping background field and magnetic flux ripples under dc background current and field.

    6. Body Odor

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 29 October 2014. + ... guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much more ...

    7. Health-related productivity losses increase when the health condition is co-morbid with psychological distress: findings from a large cross-sectional sample of working Australians

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vecchio Nerina

      2011-05-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The health condition of workers is known to impact on productivity outcomes. The relationship between health and productivity is of increasing interest amid the need to increase productivity to meet global financial challenges. Prevalence of psychological distress is also of growing concern in Australia with a two-fold increase in the prevalence of psychological distress in Australia from 1997-2005. Methods We used the cross-sectional data set from the Australian Work Outcomes Research Cost-benefit (WORC study to explore the impacts of health conditions with and without co-morbid psychological distress, compared to those with neither condition, in a sample of approximately 78,000 working Australians. The World Health Organisation Health and Performance Questionnaire was used which provided data on demographic characteristics, health condition and working conditions. Data were analysed using negative binomial logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression models for absenteeism and presenteeism respectively. Results For both absenteeism and presenteeism productivity measures there was a greater risk of productivity loss associated when health conditions were co-morbid with psychological distress. For some conditions this risk was much greater for those with co-morbid psychological distress compared to those without. Conclusions Co-morbid psychological distress demonstrates an increased risk of productivity loss for a range of health conditions. These findings highlight the need for further research to determine whether co-morbid psychological distress potentially exacerbates lost productivity.

    8. Transients from initial conditions based on Lagrangian perturbation theory in N-body simulations II: the effect of the transverse mode

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      We study the initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations for precision cosmology. In general, Zel'dovich approximation has been applied for the initial conditions of N-body simulations for a long time. These initial conditions provide incorrect higher-order growth. These error caused by setting up the initial conditions by perturbation theory is called transients. We investigated the impact of transient on non-Gaussianity of density field by performing cosmological N-body simulations with initial conditions based on first-, second-, and third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory in previous paper. In this paper, we evaluates the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory for several statistical quantities such as power spectrum and non-Gaussianty. Then we clarified that the effect of the transverse mode in the third-order Lagrangian perturbation theory is quite small

    9. Immediate Extinction Causes a Less Durable Loss of Performance than Delayed Extinction following Either Fear or Appetitive Conditioning

      Science.gov (United States)

      Woods, Amanda M.; Bouton, Mark E.

      2008-01-01

      Five experiments with rat subjects compared the effects of immediate and delayed extinction on the durability of extinction learning. Three experiments examined extinction of fear conditioning (using the conditioned emotional response method), and two experiments examined extinction of appetitive conditioning (using the food-cup entry method). In…

    10. Computational Evaluation of Inlet Distortion on an Ejector Powered Hybrid Wing Body at Takeoff and Landing Conditions

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tompkins, Daniel M.; Sexton, Matthew R.; Mugica, Edward A.; Beyar, Michael D.; Schuh, Michael J.; Stremel, Paul M.; Deere, Karen A.; McMillin, Naomi; Carter, Melissa B.

      2016-01-01

      Due to the aft, upper surface engine location on the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) planform, there is potential to shed vorticity and separated wakes into the engine when the vehicle is operated at off-design conditions and corners of the envelope required for engine and airplane certification. CFD simulations were performed of the full-scale reference propulsion system, operating at a range of inlet flow rates, flight speeds, altitudes, angles of attack, and angles of sideslip to identify the conditions which produce the largest distortion and lowest pressure recovery. Pretest CFD was performed by NASA and Boeing, using multiple CFD codes, with various turbulence models. These data were used to make decisions regarding model integration, characterize inlet flow distortion patterns, and help define the wind tunnel test matrix. CFD was also performed post-test; when compared with test data, it was possible to make comparisons between measured model-scale and predicted full-scale distortion levels. This paper summarizes these CFD analyses.

    11. A Comparison of the Characteristics of Planar and Axisymmetric Bluff-Body Combustors Operated under Stratified Inlet Mixture Conditions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      G. Paterakis

      2013-01-01

      Full Text Available The work presents comparisons of the flame stabilization characteristics of axisymmetric disk and 2D slender bluff-body burner configurations, operating with inlet mixture stratification, under ultralean conditions. A double cavity propane air premixer formed along three concentric disks, supplied with a radial equivalence ratio gradient the afterbody disk recirculation, where the first flame configuration is stabilized. Planar fuel injection along the center plane of the leading face of a slender square cylinder against the approach cross-flow results in a stratified flame configuration stabilized alongside the wake formation region in the second setup. Measurements of velocities, temperatures, OH∗ and CH∗ chemiluminescence, local extinction criteria, and large-eddy simulations are employed to examine a range of ultralean and close to extinction flame conditions. The variations of the reacting front disposition within these diverse reacting wake topologies, the effect of the successive suppression of heat release on the near flame region characteristics, and the reemergence of large-scale vortical activity on approach to lean blowoff (LBO are investigated. The cross-correlation of the performance of these two popular flame holders that are at the opposite ends of current applications might offer helpful insights into more effective control measures for expanding the operational margin of a wider range of stabilization configurations.

    12. Menopause and Bone Loss

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

    13. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Peptide in the Central Amygdala Causes Anorexia and Body Weight Loss via the Melanocortin and the TrkB Systems.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Iemolo, Attilio; Ferragud, Antonio; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

      2015-07-01

      Growing evidence suggests that the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/PAC1 receptor system represents one of the main regulators of the behavioral, endocrine, and autonomic responses to stress. Although induction of anorexia is a well-documented effect of PACAP, the central sites underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. The present studies addressed this question by examining the neuroanatomical, behavioral, and pharmacological mechanisms mediating the anorexia produced by PACAP in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a limbic structure implicated in the emotional components of ingestive behavior. Male rats were microinfused with PACAP (0-1 μg per rat) into the CeA and home-cage food intake, body weight change, microstructural analysis of food intake, and locomotor activity were assessed. Intra-CeA (but not intra-basolateral amygdala) PACAP dose-dependently induced anorexia and body weight loss without affecting locomotor activity. PACAP-treated rats ate smaller meals of normal duration, revealing that PACAP slowed feeding within meals by decreasing the regularity and maintenance of feeding from pellet-to-pellet; postprandial satiety was unaffected. Intra-CeA PACAP-induced anorexia was blocked by coinfusion of either the melanocortin receptor 3/4 antagonist SHU 9119 or the tyrosine kinase B (TrKB) inhibitor k-252a, but not the CRF receptor antagonist D-Phe-CRF(12-41). These results indicate that the CeA is one of the brain areas through which the PACAP system promotes anorexia and that PACAP preferentially lessens the maintenance of feeding in rats, effects opposite to those of palatable food. We also demonstrate that PACAP in the CeA exerts its anorectic effects via local melanocortin and the TrKB systems, and independently from CRF. PMID:25649277

    14. Do psychological factors help to reduce body mass in obesity or is it vice versa? Selected psychological aspects and effectiveness of the weight-loss program in the obese patients

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Monika Bąk-Sosnowska

      2013-03-01

      Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ, the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ, and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, as compared with individuals with no body mass reduction, had an early obesity onset, i.e. at the age of <10 years old (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a 15% reduction, had a later obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (P<0.001 and between 50 and 60 (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with a 15% body mass reduction, compared with individuals with no mass reduction, had previously experienced the jojo effect (P<0.001 and had successfully lost weight (P<0.001. Significantly more individuals with no body mass reduction, compared with individuals with a15% reduction, had a history of unsuccessful attempts at reducing body mass (P<0.001. We conclude that the attitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves.

    15. Auditory training can improve working memory, attention, and communication in adverse conditions for adults with hearing loss

      OpenAIRE

      Ferguson, Melanie A.; Henshaw, Helen

      2015-01-01

      Auditory training (AT) helps compensate for degradation in the auditory signal. A series of three high-quality training studies are discussed, which include, (i) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of phoneme discrimination in quiet that trained adults with mild hearing loss (n = 44), (ii) a repeated measures study that trained phoneme discrimination in noise in hearing aid (HA) users (n = 30), and (iii) a double-blind RCT that directly trained working memory (WM) in HA users (n = 57). AT res...

    16. Auditory training can improve working memory, attention and communication in adverse conditions for adults with hearing loss

      OpenAIRE

      Melanie Ann Ferguson; Helen eHenshaw

      2015-01-01

      Auditory training (AT) helps compensate for degradation in the auditory signal. A series of three high-quality training studies are discussed, (i) a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of phoneme discrimination in quiet that trained adults with mild hearing loss (n=44), (ii) a repeated measures study that trained phoneme discrimination in noise in hearing aid (HA) users (n=30), and (iii) a double-blind RCT that directly trained working memory (WM) in HA users (n=57). AT resulted in generalized ...

    17. Seasonal pattern of apoplastic solute accumulation and loss of cell turgor during ripening of Vitis vinifera fruit under field conditions

      OpenAIRE

      Wada, Hiroshi; MATTHEWS, MARK A.; Shackel, Ken A

      2009-01-01

      Using a novel pressure membrane (PM) apparatus for the extraction of apoplastic fluid from field-grown grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries, our hypothesis that significant apoplast solutes accumulate at the beginning of the ripening process (i.e. veraison), and that this accumulation might contribute to progressive berry softening due to a progressive loss of mesocarp cell turgor pressure (P) was tested. It was necessary to correct the solute potential (Ψs) of fluid collected with the PM for di...

    18. Carry-over or compensation? The impact of winter harshness and post-winter body condition on spring-fattening in a migratory goose species

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Clausen, Kevin Kuhlmann; Madsen, Jesper; Tombre, Ingunn M.

      2015-01-01

      effect of winter harshness on post-winter body condition. However, this effect was compensated along the spring migration corridor, and did not persist long enough to influence future reproduction. This highlights the importance of temporal scale when assessing impacts of environmental effects, and......Environmental conditions at one point of the annual cycle of migratory species may lead to cross-seasonal effects affecting fitness in subsequent seasons. Based on a long-term mark-resighting dataset and scoring of body condition in an arctic breeding goose species, we demonstrate a substantial...

    19. Lewy Body Disease

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lewy body disease is one of the most common causes of dementia in the elderly. Dementia is the loss of mental ... to affect normal activities and relationships. Lewy body disease happens when abnormal structures, called Lewy bodies, build ...

    20. Do Psychological Factors Help to Reduce Body Mass in Obesity or is it Vice Versa? Selected Psychological Aspects and Effectiveness of the Weight-Loss Program in the Obese Patients

      OpenAIRE

      2013-01-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Sit...

    1. Do psychological factors help to reduce body mass in obesity or is it vice versa? Selected psychological aspects and effectiveness of the weight-loss program in the obese patients

      OpenAIRE

      Monika Bąk-Sosnowska; Adam Pawlak; Violetta Skrzypulec-Plinta

      2013-01-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Sit...

    2. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index

      Science.gov (United States)

      Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

      2013-01-01

      We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

    3. Qigong as a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy: Long-Term Conditioning of Physiological Mind-Body Effects.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Matos, Luís Carlos; Sousa, Cláudia Maria; Gonçalves, Mário; Gabriel, Joaquim; Machado, Jorge; Greten, Henry Johannes

      2015-01-01

      A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM) regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of "awareness" with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in "White Ball" Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2-5 min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and "conditioned" vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire. PMID:26137485

    4. Creep and water loss characteristics in hardening bodies of water-rich filling materials%富水充填材料蠕变及其硬化体内水分损失特征

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      刘娟红; 周茜; 赵向辉

      2016-01-01

      In order to investigate the characteristics of deformation and water loss of hardened paste of water-rich filling material under aging effect, the creep property of water-rich filling materials with a certain mass ratio of water to solid was studied in different stress conditions. The deformation characteristics, water loss and its relationship with external load on the filling body in the process of creep were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal analysis- thermal gravimetry ( DTA- TG ) . It is found that the instability and failure critical stress of water-rich filling materials with a 2. 0 water-to-solid mass ratio is 1. 96 MPa, which is 90% of their compressive strength. Creep cannot affect the content of combined water in water-rich filling materials. But un-bound water in water-rich filling materials can run off when instability and failure happen. The relative loss value of unbound water content is of linear positive correlation with the external load level. The loss of unbound water can induce more interspaces in water-rich filling materials. These cracks are quickly pressed and the hardening body produces large deformation under the external load, which leads to the local instability of the filling body and thus affects the overall stability of the goaf.%为探讨富水充填材料在时效作用下的变形及其硬化体内水分损失特征,本文研究一定水固质量比的富水充填材料在不同应力水平下的蠕变性能,并通过扫描电镜观察、差热-热重分析等实验探讨充填体在蠕变过程前后的形变特征、水分损失及其与外界荷载的关系.结果表明:水固质量比为2.0的富水充填材料失稳破坏的临界应力为1.96 MPa,为其单轴抗压强度的90%;蠕变不会对富水充填材料中结合水含量造成影响;富水充填材料失稳破坏时内部结构发生非结合水的流失,非结合水含量损失相对值与所受荷载水

    5. Auditory training can improve working memory, attention and communication in adverse conditions for adults with hearing loss

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Melanie Ann Ferguson

      2015-05-01

      Full Text Available Auditory training (AT helps compensate for degradation in the auditory signal. A series of three high-quality training studies are discussed, (i a randomized controlled trial (RCT of phoneme discrimination in quiet that trained adults with mild hearing loss (n=44, (ii a repeated measures study that trained phoneme discrimination in noise in hearing aid (HA users (n=30, and (iii a double-blind RCT that directly trained working memory (WM in HA users (n=57. AT resulted in generalized improvements in measures of self-reported hearing, competing speech and complex cognitive tasks that all index executive functions. This suggests that for AT related benefits, the development of complex cognitive skills may be more important than the refinement of sensory processing. Furthermore, outcome measures should be sensitive to the functional benefits of auditory training. For WM training, lack of far-transfer to untrained outcomes suggests no generalized benefits to real-world listening abilities. We propose that combined auditory-cognitive training approaches, where cognitive enhancement is embedded within auditory tasks, are most likely to offer generalized benefits to the real-world listening abilities of adults with hearing loss.

    6. EVALUATION OF BIOAGENTS FOR MANAGEMENT OF THE ONION PURPLE BLOTCH AND BULB YIELD LOSS ASSESSMENT UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      P. M. YADAV

      2014-03-01

      Full Text Available Among the several diseases, purple blotch diseases of onion (Allium cepa L. caused by Alternaria porri (Ellis Cif. is one of the most destructive disease causing accountable losses of about 80 to 90 per cent. The results obtained on the field efficacy of different bioagents tested, Pseudomonas fluorescens--I (0.5% was found most antifungal against A. porri and recorded significantly least mean disease intensity (37.19% and gave maximum bulb yield (27183 kg/ha. Both the fungal and bacterial antagonists tested were also found effective against A. porri and recorded significantly reduced mean disease intensity thereby increased the bulb yield over unsprayed control. Based on incremental cost:benefit ratio (ICBR of the bioagents spray treatments, P. fluorescens--I (ICBR, 1:13.87 was found economical and effective for the management of purple blotch of onion followed by Bacillus subtilis (ICBR, 1:12.93.

    7. Analysis of a simulated small break in the semiscale system under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The Semiscale Mod-1 experimental program conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc., is part of the overall U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development program to investigate the behavior of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) system during an hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The Semiscale Mod-1 program is intended to provide transient thermal-hydraulic data from a simulated LOCA using a small-scale experimental nonnuclear system. The Semiscale Mod-1 program is a major contributor of experimental data that provide a means of evaluating the adequacy of overall system analytical models as well as the models of the individual system components. Selected experimental data produced by this program will also be used to aid other DOE and NRC sponsored experimental programs, such as the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) program in optimizing test series, selecting test parameters, and evaluating test results. The Semiscale Mod-1 tests are performed with an experimental system which simulates the principal features of a nuclear plant but which is smaller in volume. Nuclear heating is simulated in the tests by a core composed of an array of electrically heated rods. The core is contained in a pressure vessel which also includes a downcomer, lower plenum, and upper plenum. The Semiscale system piping is arranged such that the intact loop represents three loops of a four-loop nuclear plant, and the broken loop represents the fourth loop. In the present configuration the intact loop contains an active steam generator and pump, and the broken loop contains passive simulators for the steam generator and pump

    8. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

      Science.gov (United States)

      Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

      2010-01-01

      The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.

    9. The Longitudinal Interplay of Adolescents' Self-Esteem and Body Image: A Conditional Autoregressive Latent Trajectory Analysis

      Science.gov (United States)

      Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Maiano, Christophe; Marsh, Herbert W.; Janosz, Michel; Nagengast, Benjamin

      2011-01-01

      Self-esteem and body image are central to coping successfully with the developmental challenges of adolescence. However, the current knowledge surrounding self-esteem and body image is fraught with controversy. This study attempts to clarify some of them by addressing three questions: (1) Are the intraindividual developmental trajectories of…

    10. Effect of Olive Pulpe Levels in The Diet of Buffalo Calves on Physiological Body Functions and Productive Traits Under Heat Stress Conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The present study was planned to investigate the changes that occur in growth and some physiological traits in buffalo calves as a result of using olive pulp levels (20 or 40%) under different conditions in Egypt. The study was carried out on 30 male growing buffalo calves aged 14-16 months with average body weight 309 kg and including two experiments; the 1st was carried out under mild climate in winter season on 15 calves while the 2nd was conducted during heat stress conditions of summer season on another 15 calves. In each of the two periods, animals were divided into three equal groups (5 buffalo calves in each). The first group was considered as control to olive pulp levels of 0% . The second and third groups receive olive pulp with 20 and 40% of the ingredient ration, respectively. The results showed that heat stress conditions of hot period induced significant decreases in the levels of final live body weight (FLBW), daily body weight gain (DBWG), total body weight gain (TBWG), total protein, albumin, total lipids, total cholesterol, Ca, inorganic P and thyroid hormones level (T4 and T3). On the other hand, significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GOT and GPT as compared with animals under mild conditions was recorded. Olive pulp levels in the diet affected significantly the total body gain, daily body weight gain, total cholesterol and thyroid hormones (T4 or T3). The values were lower in the group received 40% olive pulp than in the two groups received 0 and 20.0 % olive pulp. In addition, animals received 40% olive pulp showed significant increase in urea-N, creatinine, GPT, total lipids and Ca. It could be concluded that heat stress conditions of summer period induced significant depression in daily body weight gain and changed most blood components and thyroid hormones which related to physiological functions in buffalo calves. Concerning added olive pulp to the ration of buffalo calves, it could be concluded that daily body gain of buffalo calves

    11. Hydrogen radiolytic production in light and heavy water mixtures under conditions similar to LOCA (loss of coolant accidents)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      H2, HD and D2 radiolytic yield in heavy and light water mixtures has been determined to supply the necessary data which will allow to make a realistic estimation of the solution of such gas under LOCA conditions as a function of time. (Author)

    12. Determining the relationship between body compositions and nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hüseyin Gümüş

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data’s were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as “bad” for 80.9% (n=86 as “medium” and for 3.5% (n=6 as “good”. It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in orphanages.

    13. Total body irradiation, busulfan and cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with hematological malignancies

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Between May 1989 and October 1998, 44 patients with hematological malignancies received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-matched related (n=25), unrelated (n=16) or 1 locus HLA-mismatched related donors (n=3). Busulfan (BU) (8 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (CY) (90 mg/kg) with fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (12 Gy) (n=30) or BU (16 mg/kg) and CY (120 mg/kg) (n=14) were given as conditioning regimen. All patients receiving BU/CY were transplanted from related donors in first remission of acute leukemia or in first chronic phase of CML (standard risk group; S-group). For 30 patients receiving TBI/BU/CY, 13 were transplanted in standard risk and 17 were in advanced stage of hematological malignancies (high risk group; H-group); 7 in S-group and 9 in H-group transplanted from unrelated donor. Severe regimen-related toxicity was found in 10% of patients receiving TBI/BU/CY (one in standard risk group and 2 in high risk group), but not found in patients receiving BU/CY. Probability of disease free survival (DFS) at 5 years was 38% in patients receiving BU/CY, and 43% in patients receiving TBI/BU/CY (52% in S-group and 35% in H-group). For patients transplanted from related donor at standard risk, probability of DFS was higher in patients receiving TBI/BU/CY than in patients receiving BU/CY (83% vs 38%; p<0.05). For patients receiving TBI/BU/CY as preparatory regimen, probability of DFS was higher in patients transplanted from related donors than in patients transplanted from unrelated donors (63% vs 29%; p<0.05), that was due to lower rate of non-relapse mortality (8% vs 61%; p<0.001). Probability or relapse was 33% in patients receiving BU/CY, and 28% in patients receiving TBI/BU/CY (23%, in S-group and 31% even in H-group), and no significant difference was found between the three groups. We conclude that this TBI/BU/CY regimen is well tolerated and is very effective in reducing relapse and improving survival, especially in standard risk

    14. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

      2016-03-01

      Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering

    15. Effect of chronic undernutrition on body mass and mechanical bone quality under normoxic and altitude hypoxic conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lezon, Christian; Bozzini, Clarisa; Agûero Romero, Alan; Pinto, Patricia; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Boyer, Patricia; Bozzini, Carlos E

      2016-05-01

      Both undernutrition and hypoxia exert a negative influence on both growth pattern and bone mechanical properties in developing rats. The present study explored the effects of chronic food restriction on both variables in growing rats exposed to simulated high-altitude hypoxia. Male rats (n 80) aged 28 d were divided into normoxic (Nx) and hypoxic (Hx) groups. Hx rats were exposed to hypobaric air (380 mmHg) in decompression chambers. At T0, Nx and Hx rats were subdivided into four equal subgroups: normoxic control and hypoxic controls, and normoxic growth-restricted and hypoxic growth-restricted received 80 % of the amount of food consumed freely by their respective controls for a 4-week period. Half of these animals were studied at the end of this period (T4). The remaining rats in each group continued under the same environmental conditions, but food was offered ad libitum to explore the type of catch-up growth during 8 weeks. Structural bone properties (strength and stiffness) were evaluated in the right femur midshaft by the mechanical three-point bending test; geometric properties (length, cross-sectional area, cortical mass, bending cross-sectional moment of inertia) and intrinsic properties of the bone tissue (elastic modulus) were measured or derived from appropriate equations. Bone mineralisation was assessed by ash measurement of the left femur. These data indicate that the growth-retarded effects of diminished food intake, induced either by food restriction or hypoxia-related inhibition of appetite, generated the formation of corresponding smaller bones in which subnormal structural and geometric properties were observed. However, they seemed to be appropriate to the body mass of the animals and suggest, therefore, that the bones were not osteopenic. When food restriction was imposed in Hx rats, the combined effects of both variables were additive, inducing a further reduction of bone mass and bone load-carrying capacity. In all cases, the mechanical

    16. Total body irradiation, busulfan and cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for patients with hematological malignancies

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Kai, Shunro; Misawa, Mahito; Hara, Hiroshi [Hyogo Coll. of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan)

      1999-08-01

      Between May 1989 and October 1998, 44 patients with hematological malignancies received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from HLA-matched related (n=25), unrelated (n=16) or 1 locus HLA-mismatched related donors (n=3). Busulfan (BU) (8 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (CY) (90 mg/kg) with fractionated total body irradiation (TBI) (12 Gy) (n=30) or BU (16 mg/kg) and CY (120 mg/kg) (n=14) were given as conditioning regimen. All patients receiving BU/CY were transplanted from related donors in first remission of acute leukemia or in first chronic phase of CML (standard risk group; S-group). For 30 patients receiving TBI/BU/CY, 13 were transplanted in standard risk and 17 were in advanced stage of hematological malignancies (high risk group; H-group); 7 in S-group and 9 in H-group transplanted from unrelated donor. Severe regimen-related toxicity was found in 10% of patients receiving TBI/BU/CY (one in standard risk group and 2 in high risk group), but not found in patients receiving BU/CY. Probability of disease free survival (DFS) at 5 years was 38% in patients receiving BU/CY, and 43% in patients receiving TBI/BU/CY (52% in S-group and 35% in H-group). For patients transplanted from related donor at standard risk, probability of DFS was higher in patients receiving TBI/BU/CY than in patients receiving BU/CY (83% vs 38%; p<0.05). For patients receiving TBI/BU/CY as preparatory regimen, probability of DFS was higher in patients transplanted from related donors than in patients transplanted from unrelated donors (63% vs 29%; p<0.05), that was due to lower rate of non-relapse mortality (8% vs 61%; p<0.001). Probability or relapse was 33% in patients receiving BU/CY, and 28% in patients receiving TBI/BU/CY (23%, in S-group and 31% even in H-group), and no significant difference was found between the three groups. We conclude that this TBI/BU/CY regimen is well tolerated and is very effective in reducing relapse and improving survival, especially in standard risk

    17. Axial gas transport and loss of pressure after ballooning rupture of high burn-up fuel rods subjected to LOCA conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The OECD Halden Reactor Project has implemented integral in-pile tests on issues related to fuel behaviour under LOCA conditions. In this test series, the interaction of bonded fuel and cladding, the behaviour of fragmented fuel around the ballooning area, and the axial gas communication in high burn-up rods as affected by gap closure and fuel-clad bonding are of major interest for the investigations. In the Halden reactor tests, the decay heat is simulated by a low level of nuclear heating, in contrast to the heating conditions implemented in hot laboratory set-ups, and the thermal expansion of fuel and cladding relative to each other is more similar to the real event. The paper deals with observations regarding the loss of rod pressure following the rupture of the cladding. In the majority of the tests conducted so far, the rod pressure dropped practically instantaneously as a consequence of ballooning rupture, while one test showed a remarkably slow pressure loss. The slow loss of pressure in this test was analysed, showing that the 'hydraulic diameter' of the rod over an un-distended upper part was about 30 - 35 μm which is typical of high burn-up fuel at hot-standby conditions. The 'plug' of fuel restricts the gas flow from the plenum through the fuel column and thus limits the availability of high pressure gas for driving the ballooning. This observation is relevant for the analysis of the behaviour of a full length fuel rod under LOCA conditions since restricted gas flow may influence bundle blockage and the number of failures. (authors)

    18. Analyses and estimation of insulation material release in E.ON-PWR under loss of coolant conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In 1992, strainers on the suction side of the ECCS pumps in Barsebaeck NPP Unit 2 became partially and temporary clogged with mineral wool after steam jet induced releases of parts of the mineral wool insulation. Although Barsebaeck NPP Unit 2 is a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) this event induced large investigations to understand and maintain strainer clogging effects after a loss-of-coolant accident for all reactor types. Especially for the German Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) a program was launched by the German Utilities together with the plant manufacturer. The final estimations of all theoretical and experimental results caused different steps of modifications of the insulation material, the strainer area and mesh sizes in most of the German PWR including the E.ON PWR. Moreover, interactions and procedures were carried out such as back flushing actions to remove the mineral wool from the strainers supported by an additional differential pressure measurement at the strainers. All measures were implemented to assure the performance of emergency core cooling during the containment sump recirculation mode and to improve the NPP safety. (orig.)

    19. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of various nuclear power plant cable products. Four sets of cables were aged under simultaneous thermal (≅95C) and radiation (≅0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. One set of cables was aged for 3 months, a second set was aged for 6 months, a third set was aged for 9 months, and a fourth set was not aged. A sequential accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation (≅6 kGy/hr) and high temperature steam was then performed on each set of cables. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of some popular cable products is promising. Mechanical measurements, primarily elongation, modulus, and density, were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. The broad objectives of this experimental program were twofold: (a) to determine the life extension potential of popular cable products used in nuclear power plants and (b) to determine the potential of condition monitoring for residual life assessment

    20. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal (≅ 100 degrees C) and radiation (≅0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation (≅6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, were also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400 degrees C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of many popular nuclear power plant cable products is promising and that mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials. This paper presents some recent experimental data that are not yet available elsewhere and a summary of findings from the entire experimental program

    1. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of Class 1E electrical cables: Summary of results

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This paper summarizes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of Class 1E cables used in nuclear power generating stations. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal (≅ 100C) and radiation (≅ 0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. After the aging, the cables were exposed to a simulated accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation (≅ 6 kGy/hr) followed by a high temperature steam exposure. A fourth set of cables, which were unaged, were also exposed to the accident conditions. The cables that were aged for 3 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a high temperature steam fragility test (up to 400C), while the cables that were aged for 6 months and then accident tested were subsequently exposed to a 1,000-hour submergence test in a chemical solution. The results of the tests indicate that the feasibility of life extension of many popular nuclear power plant cable products is promising and that mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation. In the high temperature steam test, ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials generally survived to higher temperatures than crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cable materials. In dielectric testing after the submergence testing, the XLPO materials performed better than the EPR materials. This paper presents some recent experimental data that are not yet available elsewhere and a summary of findings from the entire experimental program

    2. Aging, condition monitoring, and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests of class 1E electrical cables

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      This report describes the results of aging, condition monitoring, and accident testing of ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables. Three sets of cables were aged for up to 9 months under simultaneous thermal (≅100 degrees C) and radiation (≅0.10 kGy/hr) conditions. A sequential accident consisting of high dose rate irradiation (≅6 kGy/hr) and high temperature steam followed the aging. Also exposed to the accident conditions was a fourth set of cables, which were unaged. The test results indicate that most properly installed EPR cables should be able to survive an accident after 60 years for total aging doses of at least 150--200 kGy and for moderate ambient temperatures on the order of 45--55 degrees C (potentially higher or lower, depending on material specific activation energies and total radiation doses). Mechanical measurements (primarily elongation, modulus, and density) were more effective than electrical measurements for monitoring age-related degradation

    3. On being the right size: increased body size is associated with reduced telomere length under natural conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ringsby, Thor Harald; Jensen, Henrik; Pärn, Henrik; Kvalnes, Thomas; Boner, Winnie; Gillespie, Robert; Holand, Håkon; Hagen, Ingerid Julie; Rønning, Bernt; Sæther, Bernt-Erik; Monaghan, Pat

      2015-12-01

      Evolution of body size is likely to involve trade-offs between body size, growth rate and longevity. Within species, larger body size is associated with faster growth and ageing, and reduced longevity, but the cellular processes driving these relationships are poorly understood. One mechanism that might play a key role in determining optimal body size is the relationship between body size and telomere dynamics. However, we know little about how telomere length is affected when selection for larger size is imposed in natural populations. We report here on the relationship between structural body size and telomere length in wild house sparrows at the beginning and end of a selection regime for larger parent size that was imposed for 4 years in an isolated population of house sparrows. A negative relationship between fledgling size and telomere length was present at the start of the selection; this was extended when fledgling size increased under the selection regime, demonstrating a persistent covariance between structural size and telomere length. Changes in telomere dynamics, either as a correlated trait or a consequence of larger size, could reduce potential longevity and the consequent trade-offs could thereby play an important role in the evolution of optimal body size. PMID:26631569

    4. Memory loss in chemotherapy-treated rats is exacerbated in high-interference conditions and related to suppression of hippocampal neurogenesis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Winocur, Gordon; Wojtowicz, J Martin; Tannock, Ian F

      2015-03-15

      Drugs used to treat cancer have neurotoxic effects that often produce memory loss and related cognitive deficits. In a test of the hypothesis that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment is related to a loss of inhibitory control, rats injected with a combination of methotrexate+5-fluouracil or equal volumes of saline, were administered a retroactive interference task in which memory for a learned discrimination problem was tested under conditions of high- and low-interference. The drugs had no effect on original learning or on re-learning the discrimination response when there was little interference, but the chemotherapy group was severely impaired in the hippocampus-sensitive, high-interference memory test. The impaired performance correlated significantly with reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The failure to suppress interfering influences is consistent with a breakdown in pattern separation, a process that distinguishes and separates overlapping neural representations of experiences that have a high degree of similarity. PMID:25529185

    5. Body composition in clinical practice.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

      2016-08-01

      Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. PMID:26971404

    6. Body condition of the deep water demersal resources at two adjacent oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean and the influence of the environmental features

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rueda, L.; Moranta, J.; Abelló, P.; Balbín, R.; Barberá, C.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Olivar, M. P.; Ordines, F.; Ramón, M.; Torres, A. P.; Valls, M.; Massutí, E.

      2014-10-01

      Body condition indices not only are often used as reliable indicators of the nutritional status of individuals but also can they be utilized to provide insights regarding food availability and habitat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between the body condition of the demersal species and the environmental features in the water column (i.e. the hydrographic conditions and the potential trophic resources) in two proximate areas, the north and south regions of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), viz., the Balearic sub-basin (BsB) and the Algerian sub-basin (AsB), respectively, with different geomorphological and hydrodynamic features. Body condition indices were calculated for individuals of 21 demersal species including 11 teleosts, 4 elasmobranchs, 3 cephalopods and 3 crustaceans, which represented > 70-77% of the deep water resources, captured by bottom trawling. The morphometric indices, viz., Relative Condition Index (Kn) and Standardised Residuals (SR) from the length-weight relationship, were used. The results for each one of the 21 species indicated a significantly better condition in terms of Kn and SR in the BsB, for 7 and 9 species, respectively. In addition, a general model, including the 21 species together, showed better body condition in the BsB, and during the summer. The spatial and temporal differences in the body condition are discussed in the context of the environmental variables characterising both the study areas, which showed significant variations, for some of the hydrographic features (chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, salinity, potential density and temperature), as well as for some of the potential trophic resources (mesopelagic and epibenthic fauna). These findings suggest an environmental effect on the body condition of the deep-water resources in the Balearic Islands, one of the most oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean, and reveal more suitable environmental conditions for these species

    7. Hearing loss and music

      Science.gov (United States)

      Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music ... damaged by loud sounds. The human ear is like any other body part -- too much use can damaged it. Over time, repeated exposure to loud noise and music can cause hearing loss.

    8. Numerical simulation of the insulation material transport to a PWR core under loss of coolant accident conditions

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Höhne, Thomas, E-mail: T.Hoehne@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Grahn, Alexander; Kliem, Sören; Rohde, Ulrich; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Fluid Dynamics, P.O. Box 510119, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

      2013-05-15

      Highlights: ► Detailed results of a numerical simulation of the insulation material transport to a PWR core are shown. ► The spacer grid is modeled as a strainer which completely retains the insulation material carried by coolant. ► The CFD calculations showed that the fibers at the upper spacer grid plane are not uniformly distributed. ► Furthermore the pressure loss does not exceed a critical limit. ► The PWR core coolablity can be guaranteed all the time during the transient. -- Abstract: In 1992, strainers on the suction side of the ECCS pumps in Barsebäck NPP Unit 2 became partially clogged with mineral wool because after a safety valve opened the steam impinged on thermally insulated equipment and released mineral wool. This event pointed out that strainer clogging is an issue in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. Modifications of the insulation material, the strainer area and mesh size were carried out in most of the German NPPs. Moreover, back flushing procedures to remove the mineral wool from the strainers and differential pressure measurements were implemented to assure the performance of emergency core cooling during the containment sump recirculation mode. Nevertheless, it cannot be completely ruled out, that a limited amount of small fractions of the insulation material is transported into the RPV. During a postulated cold leg LOCA with hot leg ECC injection, the fibers enter the upper plenum and can accumulate at the fuel element spacer grids, preferably at the uppermost grid level. This effect might affect the ECC flow into the core and could result in degradation of core cooling. It was the aim of the numerical simulations presented to study where and how many mineral wool fibers are deposited at the upper spacer grid. The 3D, time dependent, multi-phase flow problem was modeled applying the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The CFD calculation does not yet include steam production in the core and also does not include re-suspension of the

    9. Numerical simulation of the insulation material transport to a PWR core under loss of coolant accident conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Highlights: ► Detailed results of a numerical simulation of the insulation material transport to a PWR core are shown. ► The spacer grid is modeled as a strainer which completely retains the insulation material carried by coolant. ► The CFD calculations showed that the fibers at the upper spacer grid plane are not uniformly distributed. ► Furthermore the pressure loss does not exceed a critical limit. ► The PWR core coolablity can be guaranteed all the time during the transient. -- Abstract: In 1992, strainers on the suction side of the ECCS pumps in Barsebäck NPP Unit 2 became partially clogged with mineral wool because after a safety valve opened the steam impinged on thermally insulated equipment and released mineral wool. This event pointed out that strainer clogging is an issue in the course of a loss-of-coolant accident. Modifications of the insulation material, the strainer area and mesh size were carried out in most of the German NPPs. Moreover, back flushing procedures to remove the mineral wool from the strainers and differential pressure measurements were implemented to assure the performance of emergency core cooling during the containment sump recirculation mode. Nevertheless, it cannot be completely ruled out, that a limited amount of small fractions of the insulation material is transported into the RPV. During a postulated cold leg LOCA with hot leg ECC injection, the fibers enter the upper plenum and can accumulate at the fuel element spacer grids, preferably at the uppermost grid level. This effect might affect the ECC flow into the core and could result in degradation of core cooling. It was the aim of the numerical simulations presented to study where and how many mineral wool fibers are deposited at the upper spacer grid. The 3D, time dependent, multi-phase flow problem was modeled applying the CFD code ANSYS CFX. The CFD calculation does not yet include steam production in the core and also does not include re-suspension of the

    10. High levels of prevalence related to age and body condition: host-parasite interactions in a water frog Pelophylax kl hispanicus

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Mar Comas

      2014-06-01

      Full Text Available Host traits can significantly influence patterns of infection and disease. Here, we studied the helminths parasitizing the Italian edible frog Pelophylax kl. hispanicus, giving special attention to the relationship between parasites and host traits such as sex, snout vent length, weight and body condition. The helminth community was composed of seven species: three trematode species (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Gorgodera cygnoides, Pleurogenes claviger, three nematode species (Icosiella neglecta, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Rhabdias sp. and one acanthocephalan species (Pomphorhychus laevis. We found that prevalence was positively correlated with snout-vent length and weight, but did not differ with body condition or sex. We found that prevalence and mean species richness increased with age. Our results show that abundance of Icosiella neglecta was positively correlated with higher values for host body condition. In fact, we found that high prevalence and mean species richness do not necessarily imply poorer body condition in the parasitized host. In conclusion, our results show that the helminth community in this taxon has great diversity, and this host-parasite system seems to be evolved to low levels of virulence, helminths maintaining a commensal relationship with this frog.

    11. Hair Loss

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... 2 • 3 • 4 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Trichotillomania Dealing With a Health Condition Taking Care of Your Hair Skin, Hair, and Nails Body Image and Self-Esteem Alopecia: Kayla's Story Dealing With Cancer Contact Us ...

    12. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

      2015-02-01

      Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1

    13. Determining the relationship between nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages and their health and body compositions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hüseyin Gümüş

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available Aim: The study was planned and implemented with the purpose of determining the relationship between the nutritional and physical activity conditions of adolescents living in orphanages in Ankara and their health and body compositions. Material and Methods: Research implemented by taking permission from Ethic Council of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine. 198 adolescents (115 boys, 83 girls within the age group 13-18 living in orphanages, constitute the population of the study. Data's were collected in three stages; in the first stage, the question set developed to determine the nutritional status and habits. In the second stage, food consumption and physical activities of adolescents were recorded. In the third stage, anthropometric measurements were taken. Results: It was found in the study that 13.9% of boys and 31.3% of girls had health problems. It was also found that 69.6% boys and 91.6% of girls skipped meals, and among those skipping meals, 34.8% of boys and 61.4% of girls skipped breakfast most. More than half of boys (63.0% and girls (65.0% were pickers as regards what they eat, 17.2% of adolescents never consumed milk, and 40.9% never consumed red meat. When daily mean energy and nutrient intakes of adolescents were evaluated according to Nutrition Guide Unique for Turkey, boys ate diets insufficient in vitamin A, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium and magnesium, girls ate diets insufficient in energy, vitamin A, Vitamin B1, folic acid, Vitamin B12, potassium, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Anthropometric measurements of adolescents were within normal limits; however, their activity levels were below those recommended. Conclusion: HEI (Healthy eating index score for 15.7% of adolescent boys (n=18 were evaluated as "bad" for 80.9% (n=86 as "medium" and for 3.5% (n=6 as "good". It is recommended that implementing a training program for correcting the diet habits and the knowledge in nutrition of adolescents living in

    14. Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Their Conditioned Medium Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Nude Mice

      OpenAIRE

      An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

      2013-01-01

      Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, ...

    15. Escape conditioning and low-frequency whole-body vibration - The effects of frequency, amplitude, and controls for noise and activation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wike, E. L.; Wike, S. S.

      1972-01-01

      Seven experiments are reported on low-frequency whole-body vibration and rats' escape conditioning in a modified Skinner box. In the first three studies, conditioning was observed but was independent of frequency. In experiment four, the number of escape responses was directly related to vibration amplitude. Experiment five was a control for vibration noise and noise termination; experiments six and seven studied vibration-induced activation. Noise termination did not produce conditioning. In experiment six, subjects made more responses when responding led to termination than when it did not. In experiment seven, subjects preferred a bar which terminated vibration to one which did not.

    16. Chromosomal Conditions

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Ask ...

    17. Profile and secondary flow losses in a high-lift LPT blade cascade at different reynolds numbers under steady and unsteady inflow conditions

      Science.gov (United States)

      Satta, F.; Simoni, D.; Ubaldi, M.; Zunino, P.; Bertini, F.

      2012-12-01

      The aerodynamic flow field downstream of a Low-Pressure High-Lift (HL) turbine cascade has been experimentally investigated for different Reynolds numbers under both steady and unsteady inflows, in order to analyse the cascade performance under real engine operating conditions. The Reynolds number has been varied in the range 100000conditions, respectively. The effects induced by the incoming wakes at the reduced frequency f +=0.62 on both profile and secondary flow losses have been investigated. Total pressure, velocity and secondary kinetic energy distributions at the downstream tangential plane have been measured by means of a miniaturized 5-hole probe. These quantities provide information on both blade wake and secondary flow structures (passage and horse-shoe vortices). The analysis of the results allows the evaluation of the aerodynamic performance of the HL front-loaded blade in terms of both profile and secondary losses.

    18. Experimental study results on the grounds for the behaviour of high-burnup fuel in pressurized water reactors under conditions of loss of coolant accidents

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The complex of experimental studies is performed with the aim to clarify the behaviour of WWER high-burnup (∼ 60 MW day rg-1 U) fuel elements under conditions of loss of coolant accidents. It is revealed that the gaseous fission products release increases from 15 to 100% with a temperature growth from 1000 to 2500 deg C. The study of oxidation kinetics for irradiated fuel cans of Zr-1% Nb and Eh-635 alloys shows that their oxidation at 1000 deg C is somewhat faster compared to unirradiated cans with a temperatures increase above 1200 deg C this distinction disappears. Short-term mechanical properties of irradiated and unirradiated fuel cans do not differ when the temperature increases up to typical for accident values (> 600 deg C). Brittle fracture in fuel cans is not observed at the temperature below 100 deg C. The temperature dependence of time to fracture is built for the conditions of fuel can loading with excess pressure which is typical for a design basis loss of coolant accident

    19. Measurement of {sup 40}K as an indicator of body potassium: Implication for diabetes and other disease conditions

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Maniyan, C.G.; Mohan, G.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Sujata, R.; Haridasan, P.P.; Khan, A.H

      2003-07-01

      Potassium (K) content in 408 male workers of a rare earths processing plant was estimated using a shadow shield whole body counter. The average K content in the non-vegetarian and vegetarian group was found to be 1.5 g kg{sup -1} and 2.1 g kg{sup -1} respectively. The absorbed dose due to {sup 40}K works out to 0.18 {+-} 0.02 mGy. While the K content was found to be proportional to body build index, it is inversely proportional to slenderness. Body K was maximum in the middle aged group (35-45 y) and minimum in younger and older persons. The correlation of potassium content with some disease patterns were also studied. Diabetes mellitus patients were observed to have low K content of 0.9 {+-} 0.2 g kg{sup -1} and those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders were found to have high K content 2.7 {+-} 0.3 g kg{sup -1}. The studies showed that the depletion of body K content takes place a few years prior to the clinical detection of diabetes and it builds up a few years before the clinical detection of cardiovascular disorders. It is stressed that the medical information is preliminary as the number of subjects studied was not very large. Wider and in depth study by various groups can hopefully strengthen the observation. (author)

    20. Measurement of 40K as an indicator of body potassium: Implication for diabetes and other disease conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Potassium (K) content in 408 male workers of a rare earths processing plant was estimated using a shadow shield whole body counter. The average K content in the non-vegetarian and vegetarian group was found to be 1.5 g kg-1 and 2.1 g kg-1 respectively. The absorbed dose due to 40K works out to 0.18 ± 0.02 mGy. While the K content was found to be proportional to body build index, it is inversely proportional to slenderness. Body K was maximum in the middle aged group (35-45 y) and minimum in younger and older persons. The correlation of potassium content with some disease patterns were also studied. Diabetes mellitus patients were observed to have low K content of 0.9 ± 0.2 g kg-1 and those who suffer from cardiovascular disorders were found to have high K content 2.7 ± 0.3 g kg-1. The studies showed that the depletion of body K content takes place a few years prior to the clinical detection of diabetes and it builds up a few years before the clinical detection of cardiovascular disorders. It is stressed that the medical information is preliminary as the number of subjects studied was not very large. Wider and in depth study by various groups can hopefully strengthen the observation. (author)

    1. Plastic ingestion by Flesh-footed Shearwaters (Puffinus carneipes): Implications for fledgling body condition and the accumulation of plastic-derived chemicals

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      To provide much needed quantitative data on the lethal and sublethal effects of plastic pollution on marine wildlife, we sampled breast feathers and stomach contents from Flesh-footed Shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) fledglings in eastern Australia. Birds with high levels of ingested plastic exhibited reduced body condition and increased contaminant load (p < 0.05). More than 60% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds, with 16% of fledglings failing these targets after a single feeding (range: 0.13–3.21 g of plastic/feeding). As top predators, seabirds are considered sentinels of the marine environment. The amount of plastic ingested and corresponding damage to Flesh-footed Shearwater fledglings is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate, suggesting the condition of the Australian marine environment is poor. These findings help explain the ongoing decline of this species and are worrying in light of increasing levels of plastic pollution in our oceans. - Highlights: • Proportion of the shearwater population ingesting plastic increased over four years. • Shearwater body condition is negatively influenced by the amount of ingested plastic. • Shearwater contaminant load is positively related to the amount of ingested plastic. • Many chicks exceed international targets for ingested plastic after a single feeding. • Plastic ingestion in this study is the highest reported for any marine vertebrate. - Flesh-footed Shearwaters ingest large quantities of marine plastic, which is correlated with poor body condition and increased concentrations of trace metals such as chromium

    2. Royal Order of 30 March 1981 determining the duties and conditions of operation of the public body responsible for radioactive waste and fissile materials management

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The purpose of this Royal Order is to set up a public body to be responsible for management of the storage of conditioned radioactive waste, waste disposal, its transport as well as that of plutonium-bearing or enriched fissile materials, and plutonium storage. It must become operational as soon as possible, in particular in the perspective of the Eurochemic Company's technical operations ceasing as from 31 December 1981. This body will be named the National Body for Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials (ONDRAF). As respects plutonium-bearing or enriched fissile materials, ONDRAF will deal with the transport of materials which, in accordance with the IAEA recommendations [INFCIRC/225/Rev. 1], require physical protection measures (NEA)

    3. Do Psychological Factors Help to Reduce Body Mass in Obesity or is it Vice Versa? Selected Psychological Aspects and Effectiveness of the Weight-Loss Program in the Obese Patients.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika; Pawlak, Adam; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

      2013-01-01

      The aim of this study was to assess the strength and direction of the correlation between cognitive appraisal, emotional state, social functioning and the effectiveness of a weight-loss program undertaken by obese subjects. The out-patient weight-loss program encompassed 150 obese women. Assessments were carried out at four time points: at the start of the weight-loss program and then after a 5%, 10% and a 15% reduction of the initial body mass. The research tools used were: a survey, the Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), the Emotional State Questionnaire (ESQ), and the Q-Sort Social Functioning Questionnaire. The cognitive appraisal, emotional state and social functioning of the study group changed significantly (Pobesity onset, i.e. at the age of obesity onset, i.e. between the ages of 20 and 30 (Pattitude of obese patients towards a weight-loss program is not a deciding factor for its effectiveness. As body mass reduces, the attitude improves. PMID:26973887

    4. Qigong as a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy: Long-Term Conditioning of Physiological Mind-Body Effects

      OpenAIRE

      Luís Carlos Matos; Cláudia Maria Sousa; Mário Gonçalves; Joaquim Gabriel; Jorge Machado; Henry Johannes Greten

      2015-01-01

      A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM) regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of “awareness” with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in “White Ball” Qigong to minimize anxi...

    5. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits

      OpenAIRE

      Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.

      2013-01-01

      Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); an...

    6. Experimental Evaluation of Inlet Distortion on an Ejector Powered Hybrid Wing Body at Take-off and Landing Conditions

      Science.gov (United States)

      James, Kevin D.; Tompkins, Daniel M.; Carter, Melissa B.; Shea, Patrick R.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Schuh, Michael; Sexton, Matthew R.; Beyar, Michael D.

      2016-01-01

      As part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft project, an ultra high bypass ratio engine integration on a hybrid wing body demonstration was planned. The goal was to include engine and airframe integration concepts that reduced fuel consumption by at least 50% while still reducing noise 42 db cumulative on the ground. Since the engines would be mounted on the upper surface of the aft body of the aircraft, the inlets may be susceptible to vortex ingestion from the wing leading edge at high angles of attack and sideslip, and separated wing/body flow. Consequently, experimental and computational studies were conducted to collect flow surveys useful for characterizing engine operability. The wind tunnel tests were conducted at two NASA facilities, the 14- by 22-foot at NASA Langley and the 40- by 80-foot at NASA Ames Research Center. The test results included in this paper show that the distortion and pressure recovery levels were acceptable for engine operability. The CFD studies conducted to compare to experimental data showed excellent agreement for the angle of attacks examined, although failed to match the low speed experimental data at high sideslip angles.

    7. Supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol of dairy cows in early lactation - Effects on metabolic status, body condition, and milk yield

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Lomander, H; Frössling, J; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne;

      2012-01-01

      The objective of this field study was to evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding with glycerol or propylene glycol to dairy cows in early lactation on metabolic status, body condition and milk yield. In total, 673 newly calved cows from 12 commercial Swedish dairy herds were randomized to daily...... supplementation with 450 g of glycerol (GLY), 300 g of propylene glycol (PG), or nothing (control, CON). Supplements were fed twice daily from 0 to 21 d in milk (DIM) as a top dress on concentrates. For each cow, data on parity, breed, calving date, monthly test-day milk yield, and cases of diseases were...... collected. Blood samples were taken at approximately 2, 5, and 8 wk postpartum (pp) and analyzed for glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and insulin. Samples taken within 3 wk pp were also analyzed for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Measurements of body condition...

    8. High levels of prevalence related to age and body condition: host-parasite interactions in a water frog Pelophylax kl. hispanicus

      OpenAIRE

      Mar Comas; Alexis Ribas; Concetta Milazzo; Emilio Sperone; Sandro Tripepi

      2014-01-01

      Host traits can significantly influence patterns of infection and disease. Here, we studied the helminths parasitizing the Italian edible frog Pelophylax kl. hispanicus, giving special attention to the relationship between parasites and host traits such as sex, snout vent length, weight and body condition. The helminth community was composed of seven species: three trematode species (Diplodiscus subclavatus, Gorgodera cygnoides, Pleurogenes claviger), three nematode species (Icosiella neglect...

    9. Lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations associated with dog body condition score; effect of recommended fasting duration on sample concentrations in Japanese private clinics

      OpenAIRE

      USUI, Shiho; YASUDA, Hidemi; KOKETSU, Yuzo

      2015-01-01

      The objectives of this study were to survey clinics’ guidance about recommended fasting duration (FD) prior to lipoprotein analysis, and to characterize lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in obese and overweight dogs categorized on the basis of the 5-point body condition score (BCS) scale. A dataset was created from lipoprotein analysis medical records of 1,538 dogs from 75 breeds in 354 clinics from 2012 to 2013. A phone survey was conducted to obtain the clinics’ FD. Tw...

    10. Two pieces of information in a single trait? The yellow breast of the great tit (Parus major) reflects both pigment acquisition and body condition

      OpenAIRE

      Senar, Juan Carlos; Negro, Juan José; Quesada, Javier; Ruiz, Iker; Garrido Fernández, J.

      2008-01-01

      Carotenoid-based plumage coloration has been shown to be dependent both on pigment content and feather structure. Against this background, we predict a relationship between feather pigment content and plumage hue. Furthermore, given the susceptibility of chroma to developmental perturbation of feather structure, we predict body condition to be related to chroma. We tested these predictions in the great tit, Parus major. Carotenoid content in yellow breast feathers was analysed ...

    11. Measurement of impulse peak insertion loss from two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions with an acoustic shock tube

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      William J Murphy

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available Impulse peak insertion loss (IPIL was studied with two acoustic test fixtures and four hearing protector conditions at the E-A-RCAL Laboratory. IPIL is the difference between the maximum estimated pressure for the open-ear condition and the maximum pressure measured when a hearing protector is placed on an acoustic test fixture (ATF. Two models of an ATF manufactured by the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL were evaluated with high-level acoustic impulses created by an acoustic shock tube at levels of 134 decibels (dB, 150 dB, and 168 dB. The fixtures were identical except that the E-A-RCAL ISL fixture had ear canals that were 3 mm longer than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH ISL fixture. Four hearing protection conditions were tested: Combat Arms earplug with the valve open, ETYPlugs ® earplug, TacticalPro headset, and a dual-protector ETYPlugs earplug with TacticalPro earmuff. The IPILs measured for the E-A-RCAL fixture were 1.4 dB greater than the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH ISL ATF. For the E-A-RCAL ISL ATF, the left ear IPIL was 2.0 dB greater than the right ear IPIL. For the NIOSH ATF, the right ear IPIL was 0.3 dB greater than the left ear IPIL.

    12. Evidence for density-dependent changes in body condition and pregnancy rate of North Atlantic fin whales over four decades of varying environmental conditions

      OpenAIRE

      Williams, Robert; Vikingsson, Gisli A.; Gislason, Astthor; Lockyer, Christina; New, Leslie; Thomas, Len; Hammond, Philip Steven

      2013-01-01

      A central theme in ecology is the search for pattern in the response of a species to changing environmental conditions. Natural resource management and endangered species conservation require an understanding of density-dependent and density-independent factors that regulate populations. Marine mammal populations are expected to express density dependence in the same way as terrestrial mammals, but logistical difficulties in data acquisition for many large whale species have hindered attempts...

    13. Analysis of the Loss of Feedwater scenario for RBMK-1500 by the coupled code Athlet-Quabox/Cubbox taking into account late reactor trip signals and ATWS conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      For the accident analysis of RBMK-1500 reactors the GRS system code ATHLET and the 3-dimensional-reactor core model QUABOX/CUBBOX have been adapted to the special requirements of this type of reactor and a coupled version of both codes for RBMK-1500 investigations has been developed. The coupled model was applied to analyse the event Loss of Feedwater by best estimate methods to investigate the consequences of failures of reactor trip initiations. Therefore, late trip signals where credited to determine the available time for a safe shutdown, relevant for the demands on the newly developed diverse shut down system for Ignalina NPP Unit 2. These results are also compared to cases assuming ATWS conditions. The results show that a reactor trip at t equals 143 s from the begin of the transient, neglecting two preceding trip initiations, is sufficient for a safe shut down. If the shutdown function fails (ATWS), the transient behaviour is fully determined by the reactivity feedback, which is mainly dominated by the change of fuel temperature. The loss of feedwater provides worse cooling conditions and the fuel temperatures are rising significantly causing a power reduction to about 10 %. This power reduction is not sufficient to avoid that cladding temperature limits of 1200 C degrees and pressure tube temperature limits of 650 C degrees are exceeded. The transient provides an example to demonstrate the advantage of the coupled code system in comparison to point kinetic models since local effects influencing the reactivity behaviour are taken into account and maximum loaded channels are described in an adequate manner. (authors)

    14. Fatty Acid Synthase and Hormone-sensitive Lipase Expression in Liver Are Involved in Zinc-α2-glycoprotein-induced Body Fat Loss in Obese Mice

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Feng-ying Gong; Jie-ying Deng; Hui-juan Zhu; Hui Pan; Lin-jie Wang; Hong-bo Yang

      2010-01-01

      Objective To explore the effects of zinc-a2-glycoprotein (ZAG) on body weight and body fat in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mice and the possible mechanism.Methods Thirty-six male mice were fed with standard food (SF) (n=9) and HFD (n=27), respec-tively. Five weeks later, 9 mice fed with HFD were subjected to ZAG expression plasmid DNA transfection by liposome transfection method, and another 9 mice to negative control plasmid transfection. Two weeks later, serum ZAG level in the mice was assayed by Western blot, and the effects of ZAG over-expression on body weight, body fat, serum biochemical indexes, and adipose tissue of obese mice were evaluated. The mRNA expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in liver tissue were de-termined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.Results Serum ZAG level significantly lowered in simple HFD-fed mice in comparison to SF-fed mice (0.51±0.10 AU vs. 0.75±0.07 AU, P<0.01). Further statistical analysis demonstrated that ZAG level was negatively correlated with body weight (r =-0.56, P<0.001), epididymal fat mass (r=-0. 67, P<0.001), percentage of epididymal fat (r=-0.65, P<0.001 ), and increased weight (r=-0.57, P<0.001) in simple SF-and HFD-fed mice. ZAG over-expression in obese mice reduced body weight and the percentage of epididy-mal fat. Furthermore, FAS mRNA expression decreased (P<0.01) and HSL mRNA expression increased (P<0.001) in the liver in ZAG over-expressing mice.Conclusions ZAG is closely related to obesity. Serum ZAG level is inversely correlated with body weight and percentage of body fat. The action of ZAG is associated with reduced FAS expression and in-creased HSL expression in the liver of obese mice.

    15. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jessy Bagh

      2016-08-01

      Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age. The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05 among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD production or henhoused egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05 in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white

    16. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Jane Harms, N., E-mail: naomi.harms@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada); Fairhurst, Graham D., E-mail: graham.fairhurst@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Bortolotti, Gary R., E-mail: gary.bortolotti@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Biology, 112 Science Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5E2 (Canada); Smits, Judit E.G., E-mail: judit.smits@usask.c [University of Saskatchewan, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Veterinary Pathology, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4 (Canada)

      2010-03-15

      In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

    17. Variation in immune function, body condition, and feather corticosterone in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on reclaimed wetlands in the Athabasca oil sands, Alberta, Canada

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      In the Athabasca oil sands region of northern Alberta, mining companies are evaluating reclamation using constructed wetlands for integration of tailings. From May to July 2008, reproductive performance of 40 breeding pairs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), plus growth and survival of nestlings, was measured on three reclaimed wetlands on two oil sands leases. A subset of nestlings was examined for i) feather corticosterone levels, ii) delayed-type hypersensitivity response, and iii) innate immune function. Nestlings on one of two wetlands created with oil sands process affected material (OSPM) were heavier and had greater wing-lengths, and mounted a stronger delayed-type hypersensitivity response compared those on the reference wetland. Corticosterone was significantly higher in male nestlings on one of two OSPM-containing wetland compared to the reference wetland. Body condition of 12-day-old female nestlings was inversely related to feather corticosterone. Under ideal weather conditions, reclaimed wetlands can support healthy populations of aerially-insectivorous birds. - Under ideal weather conditions, tree swallow nestlings on reclaimed OSPM-affected wetlands are in good body condition and mount strong cell-mediated immune responses.

    18. FalconIC: Initial conditions generator for cosmological N-body simulations in Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified theories

      Science.gov (United States)

      Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin

      2015-09-01

      FalconIC generates discrete particle positions, velocities, masses and pressures based on linear Boltzmann solutions that are computed by libraries such as CLASS and CAMB. FalconIC generates these initial conditions for any species included in the selection, including Baryons, Cold Dark Matter and Dark Energy fluids. Any species can be set in Eulerian (on a fixed grid) or Lagrangian (particle motion) representation, depending on the gauge and reality chosen. That is, for relativistic initial conditions in the synchronous comoving gauge, Dark Matter can only be described in an Eulerian representation. For all other choices (Relativistic in Longitudinal gauge, Newtonian with relativistic expansion rates, Newtonian without any notion of radiation), all species can be treated in all representations. The code also computes spectra. FalconIC is useful for comparative studies on initial conditions.

    19. Associations between chronic conditions, body functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions: a cross-sectional approach in Spanish non-clinical populations

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Damián, Javier; Andrés-Prado, María José; Almazán-Isla, Javier; Alcalde-Cabero, Enrique; Forjaz, Maria João; Castellote, Juan Manuel; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Comín, Magdalena; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús

      2016-01-01

      Objectives To analyse the relationships between chronic conditions, body functions, activity limitations and participation restrictions in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 2 geographical areas in the Autonomous Region of Aragon, Spain, namely, a rural area, Cinco Villas, and an urban area in the city of Zaragoza. Participants 864 individuals selected by simple random sampling from the register of Social Security card holders, aged 50 years and over, positive to disability screening. Main outcome measures ICF Checklist—body function domains, WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0, 36-item (WHODAS-36)) global scores and medical diagnoses (chronic conditions) from primary care records. Results Mild disability (WHODAS-36 level 5–24%) was present in 51.5% of the sample. In the adjusted ordinal regression model with WHODAS-36 as the dependent variable, disability was substantially associated with moderate-to-complete impairment in the following functions: mental, OR 212.8 (95% CI 72 to 628.9); neuromusculoskeletal, OR 44.8 (24.2 to 82.8); and sensory and pain, OR 6.3 (3.5 to 11.2). In the relationship between health conditions and body function impairments, the strongest links were seen for: dementia with mental functions, OR 50.6 (25.1 to 102.1); cerebrovascular disease with neuromusculoskeletal function, OR 5.8 (3.5 to 9.7); and chronic renal failure with sensory function and pain, OR 3.0 (1.49 to 6.4). Dementia, OR 8.1 (4.4 to 14.7) and cerebrovascular disease, OR 4.1 (2.7 to 6.4) were associated with WHODAS-36 scores. Conclusions Body functions are heterogeneously linked to limitations in activities and restrictions on participation, with the highest impact being due to mental and musculoskeletal functions. This may be relevant for disability assessment and intervention design, particularly if defined on a body function basis. Control of specific health

    20. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

      2015-01-01

      Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value. PMID:26658410

    1. Potential flow through a cascade of alternately displaced circular bodies: The rod-wall wind tunnel boundary conditions

      Science.gov (United States)

      Everhart, J. L.

      1984-01-01

      The classic slotted-wall boundary-condition coefficient for rod-wall wind tunnels is derived by approximating the potential flow solution through a cascade of two staggered rows of rods. A comparison with the corrected Chen and Mears solution for flow through an unstaggered cascade is made.

    2. High Whey Protein Intake Delayed the Loss of Lean Body Mass in Healthy Old Rats, whereas Protein Type and Polyphenol/Antioxidant Supplementation Had No Effects

      OpenAIRE

      Laurent Mosoni; Eva Gatineau; Philippe Gatellier; Carole Migné; Isabelle Savary-Auzeloux; Didier Rémond; Emilie Rocher; Dominique Dardevet

      2014-01-01

      Our aim was to compare and combine 3 nutritional strategies to slow down the age-related loss of muscle mass in healthy old rats: 1) increase protein intake, which is likely to stimulate muscle protein anabolism; 2) use leucine rich, rapidly digested whey proteins as protein source (whey proteins are recognized as the most effective proteins to stimulate muscle protein anabolism). 3) Supplement animals with a mixture of chamomile extract, vitamin E, vitamin D (reducing inflammation and oxidat...

    3. Body Odor (For Girls)

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 26 June 2015. + ... moisture, your body cools down. Where does body odor come from? When sweat mixes with the natural ...

    4. Tendency toward Weight Loss among Iranian Adolescent Girls: Study on Perceived Weight, Ideal Body Mass Index and Attitude toward Eating Disorders

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Malihe Farid

      2016-07-01

      Full Text Available Background Adolescents’ perception of their weight is a strong factor in shaping dietary habits and weight control and management. Among non-overweight and overweight adolescents, both overestimation and underestimation of weight status are associated with harmful effects. This study aimed to examine the relationship between perceived weight and attitude toward eating disorders among adolescent girls living in Karaj, Iran. Materials and Methods Involving a two-stage random sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 537 high school girls 14-18 years of age living in Karaj. The Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 was employed to screen for attitude toward eating disorders. Also, anthropometric measurements (weight and height, perceived and the ideal weights of the participants were assessed.  Results The average age of girls participating in the study was 16.12±1.20. According to the results, 70% of girls had normal body mass index. It was found that the ideal weight of 55% of the girls in the normal body mass index group fell under the lower than normal boundary. Moreover, the prevalence of eating disorders was estimated to be 23.6%. The attitude toward eating disorder was significantly correlated with body mass index of participants and their self-concept (P

    5. Conditional Deletion of Indian Hedgehog in Limb Mesenchyme Results in Complete Loss of Growth Plate Formation but Allows Mature Osteoblast Differentiation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Amano, Katsuhiko; Densmore, Michael J; Lanske, Beate

      2015-12-01

      Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is widely recognized as an essential factor for proper skeletal development. Previous in vivo studies using mutant Ihh mouse models were limited by perinatal lethality or carried out after a growth plate formed. Thus the important role of Ihh in mesenchymal cell differentiation has not been investigated. In this study, we established Prx1-Cre;Ihh(fl/fl) mice to ablate Ihh specifically in limb mesenchyme to allow us to observe the phenotype continuously from prenatal development to 3 weeks of age. Mutant mice displayed severe limb abnormalities characterized by complete lack of secondary ossification center and growth plate, indicating an essential role for Ihh in the development of these structures. Interestingly, we discovered that osteoblast differentiation and bone formation could occur in conditions of deficient Ihh. This is a novel finding that has not been observed because of the early lethality of previous Ihh mutants. Mature osteoblasts expressing osteocalcin could be detected in the center of mutant bones at postnatal day 10 (P10). Osteoclasts and blood vessel formation were also present, suggesting active bone remodeling. Histomorphometric analyses show a significant increase in osteoclast number with no major changes in bone formation rate at 3 weeks of age. Mutant long bones in the limbs were deformed, with cortices comprised of irregular woven bone. Also, there was a marked decrease in gene expression of osteoblastic and osteocytic markers. Moreover, mutant long bones displayed bone dysplasia in which we observed increased osteoclast activity and partially reduced osteoblastic and osteocytic differentiation that lead ultimately to loss of bone structures at 3 weeks of age. In summary, our data show for the first time, the presence of mature osteoblasts in long bones of the limbs despite the complete loss of growth plate formation due to Ihh deficiency. These data indicate an important function for Ihh in regulating limb

    6. Short communication: timeline of radiation-induced kidney function loss after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma as evaluated by serial 99mTc-DMSA SPECT/CT

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) has been proposed as a definitive treatment for patients with inoperable primary renal cell carcinoma. However, there is little documentation detailing the radiobiological effects of hypofractionated radiation on healthy renal tissue. In this study we describe a methodology for assessment of regional change in renal function in response to single fraction SABR of 26 Gy. In a patient with a solitary kidney, detailed follow-up of kidney function post-treatment was determined through 3-dimensional SPECT/CT imaging and 51Cr-EDTA measurements. Based on measurements of glomerular filtration rate, renal function declined rapidly by 34% at 3 months, plateaued at 43% loss at 12 months, with minimal further decrease to 49% of baseline by 18 months. The pattern of renal functional change in 99mTc-DMSA uptake on SPECT/CT imaging correlates with dose delivered. This study demonstrates a dose effect relationship of SABR with loss of kidney function

    7. EFFECT OF CREEP STRAIN INDUCED BY THERMAL AND RADIATION IMPACT ON STRESS-STRAIN CONDITION OF BODIES WITH CYLINDRICAL GEOMETRY

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      I. S. Kulikov

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available The paper considers peculiar features of stress-strain condition of nuclear reactor active zone elements which are under an influence of high temperature and neutron irradiation with due account of thermal and radiation creepage taking jackets of heat releasing elements in the form of hollow thick-walled cylinder as an example. The numerical results of stresses  and deformations which have been obtained with the account of creep strain and without it are presented in the paper.

    8. Associations among serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows

      OpenAIRE

      Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K.; Kasimanickam, Vanmathy R; Olsen, Jesse R; Jeffress, Erin J; Moore, Dale A; Kastelic, John P.

      2013-01-01

      Background Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions (metritis, clin...

    9. Initial conditions for cosmological N-body simulations of the scalar sector of theories of Newtonian, Relativistic and Modified Gravity

      Science.gov (United States)

      Valkenburg, Wessel; Hu, Bin

      2015-09-01

      We present a description for setting initial particle displacements and field values for simulations of arbitrary metric theories of gravity, for perfect and imperfect fluids with arbitrary characteristics. We extend the Zel'dovich Approximation to nontrivial theories of gravity, and show how scale dependence implies curved particle paths, even in the entirely linear regime of perturbations. For a viable choice of Effective Field Theory of Modified Gravity, initial conditions set at high redshifts are affected at the level of up to 5% at Mpc scales, which exemplifies the importance of going beyond Λ-Cold Dark Matter initial conditions for modifications of gravity outside of the quasi-static approximation. In addition, we show initial conditions for a simulation where a scalar modification of gravity is modelled in a Lagrangian particle-like description. Our description paves the way for simulations and mock galaxy catalogs under theories of gravity beyond the standard model, crucial for progress towards precision tests of gravity and cosmology.

    10. Formation of H2-He Substellar Bodies in Cold Conditions: Gravitational Stability of Binary Mixtures in a Phase Transition

      CERN Document Server

      Füglistaler, Andreas

      2015-01-01

      Molecular clouds consist typically of 3/4 H2, 1/4 He and traces of heavier elements. In an earlier work we showed that at very low temperatures and high densities, H2 can be in a phase transition leading to the formation of ice clumps as large as comets, or even planets. However, He has very different chemical properties and no phase transition is expected before H2 in dense ISM conditions. The gravitational stability of fluid mixtures has been studied before, but not including a phase transition. We study the gravitational stability of binary fluid mixtures with special emphasis if one component is in a phase transition. The results are aimed at applications in molecular cloud conditions. We study the gravitational stability of van der Waals fluid mixtures using linearised analysis and examine virial equilibrium conditions using the Lennard-Jones inter-molecular potential. Then, combining the Lennard-Jones and gravitational potentials, the non-linear dynamics of fluid mixtures are studied using the molecular...

    11. Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

      OpenAIRE

      Dugan Kristin; Cooke Matt; Li Rui; Iosia Mike; Nassar Erica; Kerksick Chad M; Campbell Bill; Greenwood Lori; Ferreira Maria; Rasmussen Christopher; Wilborn Colin; Magrans-Courtney Teresa; Willoughby Darryn; Soliah LuAnn; Kreider Richard B

      2011-01-01

      Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether sedentary obese women with knee OA initiating an exercise and weight loss program may experience more beneficial changes in body composition, functional capacity, and/or markers of health following a higher protein diet compared to a higher carbohydrate diet with or without GCM supplementation. Methods Thirty sedentary women (54 ± 9 yrs, 163 ± 6 cm, 88.6 ± 13 kg, 46.1 ± 3% fat, 33.3 ± 5 kg/m2) with clinically diagnosed kne...

    12. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO3 and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO3 dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H3PO4. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution

    13. Carbonated hydroxyapatite starting from calcite and different orthophosphates under moderate hydrothermal conditions: Synthesis and surface reactivity in simulated body fluid

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Pham Minh, Doan, E-mail: doan.phamminh@mines-albi.fr; Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

      2014-12-15

      Highlights: • Carbonated apatite (CAP) could be easily obtained from CaCO{sub 3} and orthophosphates. • Highest CaCO{sub 3} dissolution and apatitic carbonate content were obtained with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • A-B-type CAP was formed. • The synthesized CAP was thermally stable up to 1000 °C. • This CAP showed high biomineralization activity before and after thermal treatment. - Abstract: The one-step synthesis of carbonated hydroxyapatite (CAP) using calcite and different orthophosphates was investigated in a closed batch reactor. Only orthophosphoric acid could lead to the complete decomposition of calcite particles, when the reaction temperature was set at 80 °C. On the other hand, the reaction time and the dilution of the initial calcite suspension had no significant influence on the formation of the solid products. CAP was formed as the main crystalline calcium phosphate with the carbonate content in the range of 4.2–4.6 wt.%. The thermal decarbonation of the synthesized CAP started at 750 °C but it was only significant at 1000 °C under air atmosphere. This thermal decarbonation was total at 1200 °C or above. All CAP samples and products following thermal treatments were found bioactive in the test using simulated body fluid (SBF) solution.

    14. Qigong as a Traditional Vegetative Biofeedback Therapy: Long-Term Conditioning of Physiological Mind-Body Effects

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Luís Carlos Matos

      2015-01-01

      Full Text Available A contemporary understanding of Chinese Medicine (CM regards CM diagnosis as a functional vegetative state that may be treated by vegetative reflex therapies such as acupuncture. Within this context, traditional mind-body exercises such as Qigong can be understood as an attempt to enhance physiological proprioception, by combining a special state of “awareness” with posture, movement, and breath control. We have formerly trained young auditing flutists in “White Ball” Qigong to minimize anxiety-induced cold hands and lower anxiety-induced heart rate. Functional changes occurred 2–5 min after training and were observed over the whole training program, allowing the children to control their symptoms. In our current work, we report that warm fingers and calm hearts could be induced by the children even without Qigong exercises. Thus, these positive changes once induced and “conditioned” vegetatively were stable after weeks of training. This may show the mechanism by which Qigong acts as a therapeutic measure in disease: positive vegetative pathways may be activated instead of dysfunctional functional patterns. The positive vegetative patterns then may be available in critical stressful situations. Qigong exercise programs may therefore be understood as an ancient vegetative biofeedback exercise inducing positive vegetative functions which are added to the individual reactive repertoire.

    15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Different Macronutrient Profiles on Weight, Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in Obese Adolescents Seeking Weight Loss.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Helen Truby

      Full Text Available Adolescent obesity is difficult to treat and the optimal dietary pattern, particularly in relation to macronutrient composition, remains controversial. This study tested the effect of two structured diets with differing macronutrient composition versus control, on weight, body composition and metabolic parameters in obese adolescents.A randomized controlled trial conducted in a children's hospital.Eighty seven obese youth (means: age 13.6 years, BMI z-score 2.2, waist: height ratio 0.65, 69% female completed a psychological preparedness program and were then randomized to a short term 'structured modified carbohydrate' (SMC, 35% carbohydrate; 30% protein; 35% fat, n = 37 or a 'structured low fat' (SLF, 55% carbohydrate; 20% protein; 25% fat, n = 36 or a wait listed control group (n = 14. Anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters were measured at randomization and after 12 weeks, and analyzed under the intention to treat principle using analysis of variance models.After 12 weeks, data was collected from 79 (91% participants. BMI z-scores were significantly lower in both intervention groups compared to control after adjusting for baseline values, SLF vs. control, mean difference = -0.13 (95%CI = -0.18, -0.07, P<0.001; SMC vs. control, -0.14 (-0.19, -0.09, P<0.001, but there was no difference between the two intervention diet groups: SLF vs. SMC, 0.00 (-0.05, 0.04, P = 0.83.Both dietary patterns resulted in similar changes in weight, body composition and metabolic improvements compared to control. The use of a structured eating system which allows flexibility but limited choices can assist in weight change and the rigid application of a low fat eating pattern is not exclusive in its efficacy.International Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN49438757.

    16. Protein-pacing caloric-restriction enhances body composition similarly in obese men and women during weight loss and sustains efficacy during long-term weight maintenance

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng;

      2016-01-01

      TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men......Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in...... obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on...

    17. Theory of collisions between an atom and a diatomic molecule in the body-fixed coordinate system.)/sup a/ I. Coupled differential equation and asymptotic boundary conditions

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      The body-fixed (BF) formulation for atom--diatom scatterings is developed to the extent that one can use it to perform accurate close-coupling calculation, without introducing further approximation except truncating a finite basis set of the target molecular wave function, on the same ground as one use the space-fixed (SF) formulation. In this formulation, the coupled differential equations are solved an the boundary conditions matched entirely in the BF coordinate system. A unitary transformation is used to obtain both the coupled differential equation and the boundary condition in BF system system from SF system. All properties of the solution with respect to parity are derived entirely from the transformation, without using the parity eignfunctions of the BF frame. Boundary conditions that yield the scattering (S) matrix and the reactance (R) matrix are presented for each parity in both the far asymptotic region (where the interaction and the centrifugal potentials are both negligible) and the near asymptotic region (where the interaction potential is negligible but the centrifugal potential is not). While our differential equations are the same as those derived by others with different methods, our asymptotic boundary conditions disagree with some existing ones. With a given form of the BF coupled differential equations, the acceptable boundary conditions are discussed

    18. Sex- and age-related differences in the timing and body condition of migrating Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Sedge Warblers Acrocephalus schoenobaenus

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna

      2010-05-01

      The migration strategies of birds may vary strongly between species and also between age and/or sex groups. We studied the autumn migration and body condition of molecularly sexed Reed Warblers Acrocephalus scirpaceus and Sedge Warblers Acrocephalus schoenobaenus (211 and 208 ind., respectively) at a stopover site on Lake Druzno, Northern Poland, in 2008. Immature male Reed Warblers were caught significantly later than females (median dates 9 days later), but in the Sedge Warbler, both sexes of immatures migrated at about the same time. Adult males and females of both species did not differ in their time of migration. Adult and immature males of both species were larger (wing length and body mass) than females. In both species, fat reserves were similar in both sexes of both age classes. Adults of both sexes of Reed and Sedge Warbler were generally caught earlier than immatures. In both species, the body mass and fat reserves of immatures were generally less than in adults. The autumn protogyny of immature Reed Warblers may allow smaller females to limit competition with bigger males during migration and at the wintering grounds. In the Sedge Warbler, which tends to match its migration to peak of occurrence of superabundant food at stopover sites, both sexes gain an advantage from migrating at the same time. Since part of the measured wing length variation in both species was explained by sex differences, temporal trends in wing length recorded at stopover sites should be interpreted with caution.

    19. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lee, Taekyung; Mathew, Eshaan; Rajaraman, Santhosh; Manivasagam, Geetha; Singh, Ashok Kumar; Lee, Chong Soo

      2015-01-01

      Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt%) through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR) and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank's solution at 37°C) based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. PMID:26491322

    20. Beam Loss in Linacs

      CERN Document Server

      Plum, M A

      2016-01-01

      Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

    1. Rear shape in 3 dimensions summarized by principal component analysis is a good predictor of body condition score in Holstein dairy cows.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fischer, A; Luginbühl, T; Delattre, L; Delouard, J M; Faverdin, P

      2015-07-01

      Body condition is an indirect estimation of the level of body reserves, and its variation reflects cumulative variation in energy balance. It interacts with reproductive and health performance, which are important to consider in dairy production but not easy to monitor. The commonly used body condition score (BCS) is time consuming, subjective, and not very sensitive. The aim was therefore to develop and validate a method assessing BCS with 3-dimensional (3D) surfaces of the cow's rear. A camera captured 3D shapes 2 m from the floor in a weigh station at the milking parlor exit. The BCS was scored by 3 experts on the same day as 3D imaging. Four anatomical landmarks had to be identified manually on each 3D surface to define a space centered on the cow's rear. A set of 57 3D surfaces from 56 Holstein dairy cows was selected to cover a large BCS range (from 0.5 to 4.75 on a 0 to 5 scale) to calibrate 3D surfaces on BCS. After performing a principal component analysis on this data set, multiple linear regression was fitted on the coordinates of these surfaces in the principal components' space to assess BCS. The validation was performed on 2 external data sets: one with cows used for calibration, but at a different lactation stage, and one with cows not used for calibration. Additionally, 6 cows were scanned once and their surfaces processed 8 times each for repeatability and then these cows were scanned 8 times each the same day for reproducibility. The selected model showed perfect calibration and a good but weaker validation (root mean square error=0.31 for the data set with cows used for calibration; 0.32 for the data set with cows not used for calibration). Assessing BCS with 3D surfaces was 3 times more repeatable (standard error=0.075 versus 0.210 for BCS) and 2.8 times more reproducible than manually scored BCS (standard error=0.103 versus 0.280 for BCS). The prediction error was similar for both validation data sets, indicating that the method is not less

    2. Influence of Desorption Conditions on Analyte Sensitivity and Internal Energy in Discrete Tissue or Whole Body Imaging by IR-MALDESI

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rosen, Elias P.; Bokhart, Mark T.; Ghashghaei, H. Troy; Muddiman, David C.

      2015-06-01

      Analyte signal in a laser desorption/postionization scheme such as infrared matrix-assisted laser desorption electrospray ionization (IR-MALDESI) is strongly coupled to the degree of overlap between the desorbed plume of neutral material from a sample and an orthogonal electrospray. In this work, we systematically examine the effect of desorption conditions on IR-MALDESI response to pharmaceutical drugs and endogenous lipids in biological tissue using a design of experiments approach. Optimized desorption conditions have then been used to conduct an untargeted lipidomic analysis of whole body sagittal sections of neonate mouse. IR-MALDESI response to a wide range of lipid classes has been demonstrated, with enhanced lipid coverage received by varying the laser wavelength used for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Targeted MS2 imaging (MS2I) of an analyte, cocaine, deposited beneath whole body sections allowed determination of tissue-specific ion response factors, and CID fragments of cocaine were monitored to comment on wavelength-dependent internal energy deposition based on the "survival yield" method.

    3. Effects of ketamine on the circulatory functions and body tissue oxygenation in dogs under normal and hypovolemic conditions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chen, T S; Yeh, F C; Chou, Y P; Chen, H I

      1984-04-01

      Anesthetic induction with ketamine may cause cardiovascular (CV) stimulation and depression. The study was conducted in dogs to evaluate the dependence of ketamine-induced CV effects upon the dosage, mode of administration and experimental hypovolemic conditions. Slow ketamine infusion (n = 12) at 3 dose levels (5 mg/kg/min for 1, 2 and 4 min to a total dose of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) consistently increased the arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR). Rapid bolus injections at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg (n = 16) produced biphasic changes--decreases followed by increases in AP and HR. Profound depressor and bradycardic responses were readily observed with large dose, rapid bolus injection and during hemorrhagic hypotension. The striking CV depression in some cases became irreversible and led to death. Further study in 8 open-chest dogs revealed that ketamine infusion (a total dose of 10 mg/kg) caused slight increases in cardiac output (CO) and tissue oxygen uptake (VO2). However, the marked depressor response to bolus injection was associated with decreases in CO, total peripheral resistance, stroke volume and VO2. These inhibitory effects were prolonged after hemorrhagic hypotension. In a few cases, CO and VO2 became severely and progressively depressed and death ensued shortly following the injection. PMID:6571587

    4. Variation in body condition during the post-moult foraging trip of southern elephant seals and its consequences on diving behaviour.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Richard, Gaëtan; Vacquié-Garcia, Jade; Jouma'a, Joffrey; Picard, Baptiste; Génin, Alexandre; Arnould, John P Y; Bailleul, Frédéric; Guinet, Christophe

      2014-07-15

      Mature female southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) come ashore only in October to breed and in January to moult, spending the rest of the year foraging at sea. Mature females may lose as much as 50% of their body mass, mostly in lipid stores, during the breeding season due to fasting and lactation. When departing to sea, post-breeding females are negatively buoyant, and the relative change in body condition (i.e. density) during the foraging trip has previously been assessed by monitoring the descent rate during drift dives. However, relatively few drift dives are performed, resulting in low resolution of the temporal reconstruction of body condition change. In this study, six post-breeding females were equipped with time-depth recorders and accelerometers to investigate whether changes in active swimming effort and speed could be used as an alternative method of monitoring density variations throughout the foraging trip. In addition, we assessed the consequences of density change on the swimming efforts of individuals while diving and investigated the effects on dive duration. Both descent swimming speed and ascent swimming effort were found to be strongly correlated to descent rate during drift dives, enabling the fine-scale monitoring of seal density change over the whole trip. Negatively buoyant seals minimized swimming effort during descents, gliding down at slower speeds, and reduced their ascent swimming effort to maintain a nearly constant swimming speed as their buoyancy increased. One per cent of seal density variation over time was found to induce a 20% variation in swimming effort during dives with direct consequences on dive duration. PMID:24803471

    5. Balanced conditions or slight mass gain of glaciers in the Lahaul and Spiti region (northern India, Himalaya during the nineties preceded recent mass loss

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      C. Vincent

      2013-04-01

      Full Text Available The volume change of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (India, 32° 20 N, 77° 30' E between 1988 and 2010 has been determined using in situ geodetic measurements. This glacier has experienced only a slight mass loss between 1988 and 2010 (−3.8 ± 2.0 m w.e. (water equivalent corresponding to −0.17 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1. Using satellite digital elevation models (DEM differencing and field measurements, we measure a negative mass balance (MB between 1999 and 2010 (−4.8 ± 1.8 m w.e. corresponding to −0.44 ± 0.16 m w.e. yr−1. Thus, we deduce a slightly positive or near-zero MB between 1988 and 1999 (+1.0 ± 2.7 m w.e. corresponding to +0.09 ± 0.24 m w.e. yr−1. Furthermore, satellite DEM differencing reveals that the MB of the Chhota Shigri Glacier (−0.39 ± 0.15 m w.e. yr−1 has been only slightly less negative than the MB of a 2110 km2 glaciarized area in the Lahaul and Spiti region (−0.44 ± 0.09 m w.e. yr−1 during 1999−2011. Hence, we conclude that the ice wastage is probably moderate in this region over the last 22 yr, with near equilibrium conditions during the nineties, and an ice mass loss after. The turning point from balanced to negative mass budget is not known but lies probably in the late nineties and at the latest in 1999. This positive or near-zero MB for Chhota Shigri Glacier (and probably for the surrounding glaciers of the Lahaul and Spiti region during at least part of the 1990s contrasts with a recent compilation of MB data in the Himalayan range that indicated ice wastage since 1975. However, in agreement with this compilation, we confirm more negative balances since the beginning of the 21st century.

    6. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells or their conditioned medium prevents bone loss in ovariectomized nude mice.

      Science.gov (United States)

      An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

      2013-03-01

      Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, OVX mice treated with UCB-MSC CM (OVX-CM), zoledronate (OVX-Zol), or vehicle (OVX-Vehicle). Although the OVX-Vehicle group exhibited significantly less bone mineral density (BMD) gain compared with the Sham-Vehicle group, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC group) has effectively prevented OVX-induced bone mass attenuation. Notably, the OVX-CM group also showed BMD preservation comparable to the OVX-MSC group. In addition, microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated improved trabecular parameters in both the OVX-MSC and OVX-CM groups compared to the OVX-Vehicle or OVX-DFB group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased bone formation parameters, accompanied by increased serum procollagen type-I N-telopeptide levels in OVX-MSC and OVX-CM mice. However, cell-trafficking analysis failed to demonstrate engraftment of MSCs in bone tissue 48 h after cell infusion. In vitro, hUCB-MSC CM increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human bone marrow-derived MSCs and mRNA expression of collagen type 1, Runx2, osterix, and ALP in C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC CM significantly increased survival of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, while it inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. To summarize, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs could effectively prevent OVX-mediated bone loss in nude mice, which appears to be mediated by a paracrine mechanism rather than direct engraftment of the MSCs. PMID:23215868

    7. Período de descanso dos suínos no frigorífico e seu impacto na perda de peso corporal e em características do estômago Resting time of pigs at the processing plant: impact on body weight losses and stomach characteristics

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Osmar Antonio Dalla Costa

      2006-10-01

      Full Text Available O manejo pré-abate dos suínos, quando realizado de maneira inadequada, pode proporcionar perdas qualitativas e quantitativas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do período de descanso dos suínos no frigorífico (PDF (3, 5, 7 e 9 horas e da posição do box na carroceria do caminhão (PBO sobre a perda de peso corporal (PPC, o peso do estômago cheio (PEC e vazio (PEV, o peso do conteúdo estomacal (PCE e o escore de lesão na mucosa esofágica-gástrica (ELG. Foram utilizadas 192 fêmeas, com peso vivo médio de 130,0±9,9kg. Para a análise estatística, considerou-se no modelo os efeitos de bloco (BL, relativo à estação do ano e à granja avaliada o PDF, PBO e a interação entre PDF x BL. Não houve efeito significativo do PDF nas variáveis estudadas. Verificou-se efeito significativo da PBO somente sobre a perda de peso corporal dos suínos, sendo que animais transportados na parte da frente perderam mais peso em relação aos transportados nos boxes do meio e de trás. Observou-se que somente 11% dos suínos apresentaram ELG característico de úlcera gástrica e que uma elevada porcentagem de suínos (41,9% apresentou ELG grau 1, caracterizando paraqueratose. Conclui-se que suínos transportados em boxes localizados na parte frontal da carroceria do caminhão apresentam maior perda de peso corporal do que os demais e que a variação de 3 a 9 horas no período de descanso no frigorífico não afeta a perda de peso corporal nem as características do estômago dos animais.Pre-slaughter events might result in qualitative and quantitative losses on pig carcasses in inadequate management conditions. This study was aimed at evaluating the resting time at the processing plant (PDF= 3, 5, 7, and 9 hours and the pen position in the lorry's livestock compartment (PBO on body weight loss (PPC, weight of stomach (full= PEC and empty= PEV, weight of stomach contents (PCE and stomach lesion score (ELG related to gastric ulcer. For

    8. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Patiño, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Goodbred, Steven L; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A; Echols, Kathy; Rosen, Michael R; Torres, Leticia

      2015-08-01

      Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those

    9. Maternal low-protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1-mediated thermogenesis.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Claycombe, Kate J; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E; Roemmich, James N; Rhen, Turk; Ghribi, Othman

      2015-07-01

      Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT thermogenesis and BW of offspring in utero is not yet known. We fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley dams 8% LP or 20% normal protein (NP) diets for 3 weeks prior to breeding and through pregnancy. BW and gene expression of interscapular BAT (iBAT) thermogenic markers were measured in male fetal (gestation day 18) and neonatal (day 0 or 1) offspring. BW of neonatal LP males was lower than NP males but no difference was observed in females. Gene and protein expression of UCP-1 and transcription factors PRDM16 and PPARα in iBAT were 2- to 6-fold greater in LP than in NP male neonatal offspring. FNDC5, a precursor of irisin and activator of thermogenesis, was expressed 2-fold greater in neonatal LP iBAT than NP males. However, fetal iBAT UCP-1, PRDM16, PPARα and irisin mRNA did not differ between LP and NP groups. Maternal LP diet had no effects on placental irisin and UCP-2 expression. These results suggest that prenatal protein restriction increases the risk for low BW through mechanisms affecting full-term offspring iBAT thermogenesis but not greatly altering fetal iBAT or placental thermogenesis. PMID:25858881

    10. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hellman, Randall B; Chang, Eric; Tanner, Justin; Helms Tillery, Stephen I; Santos, Veronica J

      2015-01-01

      Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation "phantom limb pain" and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF), rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech "rubber hand" illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the "BairClaw" presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced cognitive burden

    11. A robot hand testbed designed for enhancing embodiment and functional neurorehabilitation of body schema in subjects with upper limb impairment or loss

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Randall B. Hellman

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Many upper limb amputees experience an incessant, post-amputation phantom limb pain and report that their missing limbs feel paralyzed in an uncomfortable posture. One hypothesis is that efferent commands no longer generate expected afferent signals, such as proprioceptive feedback from changes in limb configuration, and that the mismatch of motor commands and visual feedback is interpreted as pain. Non-invasive therapeutic techniques for treating phantom limb pain, such as mirror visual feedback (MVF, rely on visualizations of postural changes. Advances in neural interfaces for artificial sensory feedback now make it possible to combine MVF with a high-tech rubber hand illusion, in which subjects develop a sense of embodiment with a fake hand when subjected to congruent visual and somatosensory feedback. We discuss clinical benefits that could arise from the confluence of known concepts such as MVF and the rubber hand illusion, and new technologies such as neural interfaces for sensory feedback and highly sensorized robot hand testbeds, such as the BairClaw presented here. Our multi-articulating, anthropomorphic robot testbed can be used to study proprioceptive and tactile sensory stimuli during physical finger-object interactions. Conceived for artificial grasp, manipulation, and haptic exploration, the BairClaw could also be used for future studies on the neurorehabilitation of somatosensory disorders due to upper limb impairment or loss. A remote actuation system enables the modular control of tendon-driven hands. The artificial proprioception system enables direct measurement of joint angles and tendon tensions while temperature, vibration, and skin deformation are provided by a multimodal tactile sensor. The provision of multimodal sensory feedback that is spatiotemporally consistent with commanded actions could lead to benefits such as reduced phantom limb pain, and increased prosthesis use due to improved functionality and reduced

    12. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Stefan Hlawatsch

      2010-10-01

      Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

    13. Effects of diet type and supplementation of glucosamine, chondroitin, and MSM on body composition, functional status, and markers of health in women with knee osteoarthritis initiating a resistance-based exercise and weight loss program

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Dugan Kristin

      2011-06-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether sedentary obese women with knee OA initiating an exercise and weight loss program may experience more beneficial changes in body composition, functional capacity, and/or markers of health following a higher protein diet compared to a higher carbohydrate diet with or without GCM supplementation. Methods Thirty sedentary women (54 ± 9 yrs, 163 ± 6 cm, 88.6 ± 13 kg, 46.1 ± 3% fat, 33.3 ± 5 kg/m2 with clinically diagnosed knee OA participated in a 14-week exercise and weight loss program. Participants followed an isoenergenic low fat higher carbohydrate (HC or higher protein (HP diet while participating in a supervised 30-minute circuit resistance-training program three times per week for 14-weeks. In a randomized and double blind manner, participants ingested supplements containing 1,500 mg/d of glucosamine (as d-glucosamine HCL, 1,200 mg/d of chondroitin sulfate (from chondroitin sulfate sodium, and 900 mg/d of methylsulfonylmethane or a placebo. At 0, 10, and 14-weeks, participants completed a battery of assessments. Data were analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Results Participants in both groups experienced significant reductions in body mass (-2.4 ± 3%, fat mass (-6.0 ± 6%, and body fat (-3.5 ± 4% with no significant changes in fat free mass or resting energy expenditure. Perception of knee pain (-49 ± 39% and knee stiffness (-42 ± 37% was decreased while maximal strength (12%, muscular endurance (20%, balance indices (7% to 20%, lipid levels (-8% to -12%, homeostasis model assessment for estimating insulin resistance (-17%, leptin (-30%, and measures of physical functioning (59%, vitality (120%, and social function (66% were improved in both groups with no differences among groups. Functional aerobic capacity was increased to a greater degree for those in the HP and GCM groups while there were some trends suggesting that supplementation affected

    14. Tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm- and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys in simulated body fluid conditions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Lee T

      2015-10-01

      Full Text Available Taekyung Lee,1 Eshaan Mathew,2 Santhosh Rajaraman,2 Geetha Manivasagam,2 Ashok Kumar Singh,3 Chong Soo Lee4 1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA; 2Centre for Biomaterials Science and Technology, School for Mechanical and Building Sciences, Vellore Institute of Technology, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India; 3Defense Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad, India; 4Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology (GIFT, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH, Pohang, Republic of Korea Abstract: Development of submicrocrystalline structure in biomedical alloy such as Ti-13Nb-13Zr (in wt% through warm-rolling process has been found to enhance mechanical properties compared to conventional thermomechanical processing routes including hot-rolling process. The present study investigated the tribological and corrosion behaviors of warm-rolled (WR and hot-rolled Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys which have not been studied to date. Both tribological and corrosion experiments were carried out in simulated body fluid conditions (Hank’s solution at 37°C based on the fact that the investigated alloys would be used in a human body as orthopedic implants. The WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr demonstrated a submicrocrystalline structure that provided a significant enhancement in hardness, strength, and corrosion resistance. Meanwhile, there was no notable difference in wear resistance between the WR and hot-rolled samples despite the different microstructure and hardness. The present study confirmed the enormous potential of WR Ti-13Nb-13Zr with not only great mechanical properties but also high corrosion resistance in the simulated body fluid. Keywords: titanium alloy, multi-pass caliber-rolling, grain refinement, tribology, corrosion

    15. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Park, Jong Moo; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Jong Hoon [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

      2014-09-15

      To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.

    16. Effects of total body irradiation-based conditioning allogenic sem cell transplantation for pediatric acute leukemia: A single-institution study

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      To evaluate the effects of total body irradiation (TBI), as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT), in pediatric acute leukemia patients. From January 2001 to December 2011, 28 patients, aged less than 18 years, were treated with TBI-based conditioning for allo-SCT in our institution. Of the 28 patients, 21 patients were diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, 75%) and 7 were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 25%). TBI was completed 4 days or 1 day before stem cell infusion. Patients underwent radiation therapy with bilateral parallel opposing fields and 6-MV X-rays. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival outcomes. The 2-year event-free survival and overall survival rates were 66% and 56%, respectively (71.4% and 60.0% in AML patients vs. 64.3% and 52.4% in ALL patients, respectively). Treatment related mortality rate were 25%. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was a major complication; other complications included endocrine dysfunction and pulmonary complications. Common complications from TBI were nausea (89%) and cataracts (7.1%). The efficacy and toxicity data in this study of TBI-based conditioning to pediatric acute leukemia patients were comparable with previous studies. However, clinicians need to focus on the acute and chronic complications related to allo-SCT.

    17. Acute renal toxicity of 2 conditioning regimens in patients undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation. Total body irradiation-cyclophosphamide versus ifosfamide, carboplatin, etoposide

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Objective was to compare renal toxicity of 2 conditioning regimens of total body irradiation/cyclophosphamide TBI-Cy and Ifosfamide, Carboplatin, Etoposide ICE. Between August 1996 and February 2004, patients treated with autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation in the Department of Medical and radiation Oncology, Gulhane Military Medical School, Ankara, Turkey with 2 different conditioning regimens was comparatively analyzed for acute renal toxicity in the early post-transplant period. Forty-even patients received ICE regimen with 12 g/m2; 1.2 g/m2 and 1.2 g/m2 divided to 6 consecutive days, whereas 21 patients received 12 Gy TBI 6 fractions twice daily in 3 consecutive days and 60 mg/m2/day cyclophosphamide for 2 days. Sixty-eight patients were evaluated in this study. There was no significant difference in baseline renal function between patients in the ICE and TBI-Cy groups. Eleven patients developed nephrotoxicity 23.4% in the ICE group while one patient 4.8% in the TBI-Cy group developed nephrotoxicity in ICEgroup required hemodialysis and subsequently 48.5% of them died. In contrast, one patient 4.8% died due to nephrotoxicity despite hemodialysis in the TBI-Cy arm. This study reveals that the TBI-Cy conditioning regimen seems no more nephrotoxic than an ICE regimen particularly in patients who had used cisplatin prior to transplantation. (author)

    18. Patterns of ectoparasitism in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus: Sex-biases, seasonality, age, and effects on male body condition

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jesse E.H. Patterson

      2015-12-01

      Full Text Available Within many species, males are often more heavily parasitised than females. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including immunocompetence handicaps, sexual size dimorphism and behavioural differences. Here we set out to test the latter two hypotheses and make inferences about the former by assessing patterns of ectoparasitism across various life-history stages in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. We also conducted an ectoparasite removal experiment to investigate the effects of ectoparasites on male body condition. We found that males were more intensely parasitized than females, but only during the mating period. There was no difference in ectoparasite intensity between male and female juveniles at birth or at emergence, suggesting that ectoparasites do not exploit male red squirrels for longer-range natal dispersal. Male red squirrels in our population were slightly heavier than females, however we did not find any evidence that this dimorphism drives male-biased ectoparasitism. Finally, we could not detect an effect of ectoparasite removal on male body mass. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that ectoparasites exploit their male hosts for transmission and that male red squirrels are important for the transmission dynamics of ectoparasites in this population; however, the mechanisms (i.e., immunocompetence, testosterone are not known.

    19. The stereotactic body radiation therapy: initiation and clinical program; Principe et mise en oeuvre de la radiotherapie en conditions stereotaxiques extracranienne

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gassa, F.; Biston, M.C.; Malet, C.; Lafay, F.; Ayadi, M.; Badel, J.N.; Carrie, C.; Ginestet, C. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, Service de Radiotherapie, 69 - Lyon (France)

      2006-11-15

      We fully describe an innovative radiotherapy technique called Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT), and explain how this technique is commonly used for clinical purpose at the anticancer center Leon-Berard (Lyon, France). In this technique, a non-invasive stereotactic body frame is used to locate the tumor site with a great precision. This frame is combined with a system, which enables to track the respiratory motions (Active Breathing Control (ABC) or diaphragmatic compression (DC)) in order to reduce the treatment margins for organ motion due to breathing. Thus, the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated is considerably reduced. The dosimetry is realized with 3 CT exams performed in treatment conditions. The 3D patient 'repositioning' is done with a volume CT acquisition (kV) combined with orthogonal images (kV and MV). The SBRT requires a system to limit the organ motions. Although the ABC seems to be more fastidious for patient, it would enable to use smaller margins than with DC technique. Nevertheless, the ABC is not compatible with volume CT acquisitions, which considerably improve the patient repositioning. In conclusion, the quality of repositioning and the high level of conformation enable to deliver high equivalent doses (> 100 Gy) in hypo-fractionated mode, without increasing the treatment toxicity. The SBRT employs the last technologic innovations in radio-therapy and is therefore considered as a new efficient tool for solid tumors treatment. (author)

    20. Coupled simulation of CFD, radiation and moisture transport for sensible and latent heat loss from human body. Study of computational thermal manikin; Jinko hifu zennetsu honetsu tokusei ni kansuru CFD hosha shikke yuso rensei kaiseki. Suchi thermal manikin no kaihatsu

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Zeng, J.; Kato, S.; Murakami, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

      1998-01-01

      Described herein is coupled simulation of CFD, radiation and moisture transport, as part of the program for development of computational thermal manikin, to investigate total heat radiation characteristics from a human body. The transport phenomena are investigated for a single human body model, approximately 1.65m high, in an indoor space of 15.4m{sup 3} in volume, where the Fanger model and Gagge`s 2 node model are used to simulate heat radiation from a model. The results include heat balances on the walls, and temperature distributions, heat transport characteristics by convection and radiation, latent heat transport characteristics and wet fraction distributions over the manikin surfaces under given conditions of wind velocity, temperature and temperature distribution. It is found that both models give proper estimates for average characteristics of total heat radiation from a human body, and that the Gagge model gives slightly better results for local distributions of latent heat transfer over the body surface. 16 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.