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Sample records for body composition studies

  1. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  2. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  3. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  4. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  5. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  6. Impact of Incident Heart Failure on Body Composition Over Time in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Daniel E; Santanasto, Adam J; Boudreau, Robert; Harris, Tamara; Kanaya, Alka M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Butler, Javed; Kizer, Jorge R; Newman, Anne B

    2017-09-01

    Prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases significantly with age, coinciding with age-related changes in body composition that are common and consequential. Still, body composition is rarely factored in routine HF care. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort study of nondisabled adults. Using yearly dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition was assessed in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study over 6 years, comparing those who developed incident HF versus those who did not. Among 2815 Health, Aging, and Body Composition participants (48.5% men; 59.6% whites; mean age, 73.6±2.9 years), 111 developed incident HF over the 6-year study period. At entry into the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, men and women who later developed HF had higher total body mass when compared with those versus those who did not develop HF (men, 80.9±10 versus 78.6±12.9 kg, P =0.05; women, 72.7±15.0 versus 68.2±14.2 kg, P =0.01, respectively). However, after developing HF, loss of total lean body mass was disproportionate; men with HF lost 654.6 versus 391.4 g/y in non-HF participants, P =0.02. Loss of appendicular lean mass was also greater with HF (-419.9 versus -318.2 g/y; P =0.02), even after accounting for total weight change. Among women with HF, loss of total and appendicular lean mass were also greater than in non-HF participants but not to the extent seen among men. Incident HF in older adults was associated with disproportionate loss of lean mass, particularly among men. Prognostic implications are significant, with key sex-specific inferences on physical function, frailty, disability, and pharmacodynamics that all merit further investigation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  8. BODY COMPOSITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A knowledge of the exact chemical composition of .he live animal at any given stage would therefore not only permit a more precise evaluation of feeds, but it could conceivably be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock and would undoubtedly be a use- ful diagnostic tool of metabolic and physiological dis- orders.

  9. Body composition in men with anorexia nervosa: Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Milanese, Chiara; Bazzani, Paola Vittoria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    To compare body composition patterns before and after complete weight restoration in men with anorexia nervosa. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure body composition patterns in 10 men with anorexia nervosa before and after complete weight restoration, and in 10 healthy men matched to age and patients' post-treatment body mass index (BMI). Before weight restoration, men with anorexia nervosa displayed lower total body fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LBM) than those in the healthy comparison group, with a greater FM loss from the extremity than the trunk region. After short-term weight restoration, patients displayed complete normalization in total LBM and FM, but greater deposition of FM in the trunk region. Short-term weight restoration can normalize body composition patterns in men with anorexia nervosa, but results in a central adiposity phenotype. The clinical implication of this finding is unknown, but should be explored given the high levels of concern about central adiposity in anorexia nervosa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. BODY COMPOSITION AND MORTALITY IN PREVALENT HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS: HEMO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Filipowicz, Rebecca; Greene, Tom H.; Wei, Guo; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Both higher body size (as indicated by body mass index- BMI) and higher muscle mass (as indicated by serum creatinine- (SCr)) are associated with better survival in HD patients (pts) but the relative importance of muscle vs. body size is not established. In the current study, the associations of SCr, BMI and the ratio of Scr to BMI with time to death were examined in Cox proportional hazards models using HEMO study data. Details of HEMO Study have been published elsewhere. In the current stud...

  11. Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: The Role of Body Composition and Muscle Strength: From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suskind, Anne M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Subak, Leslee L.; Reinders, I.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steve; Cauley, Jane A.; Harris, Tamara B; Huang, Alison J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospective relationships between body composition and muscle strength with predominantly stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in older women. DESIGN: Prospective community-dwelling observational cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body

  12. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either......I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... a watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  13. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  14. Eating frequency and weight and body composition: a systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Kac, Gilberto; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2017-08-01

    The present review aimed to examine the association of eating frequency with body weight or body composition in adults of both sexes. PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched. PRISMA and MOOSE protocols were followed. Observational studies published up to August 2016 were included. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed with the Downs and Black checklist. A systematic review of the literature. Adults (n 136 052); the majority of studies were developed in the USA and Europe. Thirty-one articles were included in the review: two prospective and twenty-nine cross-sectional studies. Thirteen per cent of the studies received quality scores above 80 %. The assessment of eating frequency and body composition or body weight varied widely across the studies. Potential confounders were included in 73 % of the studies. Fourteen studies reported an inverse association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition, and seven studies found a positive association. The majority of studies applied multiple analyses adjusted for potential confounders, such as sex, age, education, income, smoking, physical activity and alcohol intake. Six studies took into account under-reporting of eating frequency and/or energy intake in the analysis, and one investigated the mediation effect of energy intake. There is not sufficient evidence confirming the association between eating frequency and body weight or body composition when misreporting bias is taken into account. However, in men, a potential protective effect of high eating frequency was observed on BMI and visceral obesity.

  15. Changes in body weight, composition, and shape: a 4-year study of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Simmons, Karla P; Connell, Lenda Jo; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body composition, and shape in a group of male and female students over the 4-year college period. Anthropometric assessments including height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and body shape (via 3-dimensional body scanning) were conducted at the beginning of the freshman year and end of the senior year in 131 college students. Four-year changes included significant (p obese increased from 18% to 31%. The number of females and males with ≥30% and 20% body fat, respectively, increased from n = 14 to n = 26 (with n = 4 exhibiting normal weight obesity) over the 4-year period. The waist circumference changes were significantly (p obesity and normal weight obesity among this college population suggests the need for additional health promotion strategies on college campuses.

  16. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, A; Heitmann, B L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, inexpensive and non-invasive technique to measure body composition and is therefore suitable in field studies and larger surveys. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an overview of BIA-derived body fat percentages (B...

  17. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  18. Body composition, eating disorder psychopathology, and psychological distress in anorexia nervosa: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Milanese, Chiara; Calugi, Simona; Pellegrini, Massimo; Battistini, Nino Carlo; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-04-01

    Although the effect of immediate weight restoration on body composition and body fat distribution has previously been studied in anorexia nervosa (AN), its influence in women with AN on eating disorder psychopathology and psychological distress has not previously been investigated to our knowledge. We assessed body composition and fat mass distribution before and after body weight restoration and investigated any relation between changes in body fat patterns of patients with AN treated in a specialist inpatient unit and their eating disorder and psychological distress features. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 50 female, adult patients with AN before and after complete weight restoration [body mass index (BMI; in kg/m²) ≥18.5] and 100 healthy control subjects matched by age and posttreatment BMI of study group participants. Eating disorder psychopathology and psychological distress were assessed in the AN group before and after weight restoration by using the Eating Disorder Examination interview and the Global Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI-GSI), respectively. After the achievement of complete weight restoration, patients with AN had higher trunk (P eating disorder psychopathology in the AN group, and the only significant predictor of change in BSI-GSI was the baseline BSI-GSI score. The normalization of body weight in patients with AN is associated with a preferential distribution of body fat in central regions, which does not, however, seem to influence either eating disorder psychopathology or psychological distress scores.

  19. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K.; Visscher, P.M.; Erbas, B.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition in women and men, and to assess the impact of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 325 female and 299 male like-sex healthy twin pairs, on average 38 y old (18-67 y......), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program....... Further, these variance components were analysed as linear functions of age. RESULTS: In both women and men genetic contributions were significant for all phenotypes. Heritability for body mass index was 0.58 and 0.63; for body fat%, 0.59 and 0.63; for total skinfolds, 0.61 and 0.65; for extremity...

  1. Genetic admixture and body composition in Puerto Rican adults from the Boston Puerto Rican osteoporosis study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population admixture plays a role in the risk of chronic conditions that are related to body composition; however, our understanding of these associations in Puerto Ricans, a population characterized by multiple ancestries, is limited. This study investigated the relationship between genetic admixtu...

  2. Physical activity, exercise, and inflammatory markers in older adults : findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbert, Lisa H; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tracy, Russell P; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Pahor, Marco; Taaffe, Dennis R; Brach, Jennifer S; Rubin, Susan; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers, with consideration for body fatness and antioxidant use. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. SETTING: Metropolitan areas surrounding

  3. Comparative Study of Anthropometric Measurement and Body Composition between Elite Handball and Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldijana Muratovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric characteristics and body composition of elite handball and basketball players as well as to make comparisons between them. Fifty-nine males were enrolled in the study, divided into three groups: fifteen handball players, fourteen basketball players and thirty healthy sedentary subjects. The descriptive statistics were expressed as a mean (SD for each variable, while the ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc tests were carried out to detect the effects of each type of sport. The results showed there was no significant difference in body mass index among the groups, while a significant difference was found for body height and body weight as well as for all three of the body contents measured (muscle, bone and fat among the groups. These findings may give coaches from the region better working knowledge and suggest to them to follow recent selection process methods and to be more careful during the recruitment.

  4. Assessment methods of body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment has an important role in many fields of medicine, in evaluation of health status of the individual, as well as in sports sciences as a part of physiological profile of athletes. There are several methods for body composition assessment, which provide indirect data on the body structure. For instance in anthropometry, simple techniques such as skinfold measurements provide simply, quick and nonexpensive assessment of body fat mass. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is described as a method with rising validity, especially for measurement in regional body composition. The value of BIA in routine clinical terms is still limited, while DXA has potential of becoming new golden standard for body composition assessment. More sophisiticated methods such is MRI have advantage over other techniques for estimation of regional body composition, since it provides the only accurate and viable approach for the estimation of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. This method is limited to experimental studies on smaller group of individuals, since it is expensive and not available to routine assessment. Combination of more methods may be the best approach for obtaining accurate results and informations about health status of individual.

  5. Two-body in vitro wear study of some current dental composites and amalgams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X; Marquis, P M; Shortall, A C

    1999-08-01

    Wear resistance of restorative materials is a major concern in clinical practice for restorations involving occlusion. The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composites in stress-bearing posterior situations has restricted even wider clinical application of this type of restorative material. This in vitro study compared the relative wear resistance of a selection of current dental composites and amalgams under cyclic loading to explore the wear mechanisms operating on these materials and to assess their relative potential clinical wear resistance under variable masticatory loads. A 2-body in vitro wear test was undertaken on a selection of 2 Ultrafine Compact-Filled composites, 1 microfilled composite, and 3 dental amalgams. An alternating sine curve load (0.5 to 15 N) was applied to the wear surface through a rotating countersample with a purpose-built system to simulate the variable loading pattern that occurs during mastication. Under conditions simulating the repetitive cyclic loading pattern that may occur intraorally in high stress occlusal contact situations, the Ultrafine Compact-Filled composites exhibited a delamination wear pattern and had a significantly lower wear resistance than the amalgams. By comparison, the microfilled composite (Silux Plus) displayed an improved wear resistance that was superior to some amalgams. Dispersalloy had the best wear resistance among the materials selected. The wear of Ultrafine Compact-Filled composite and microfilled composite differed and reflect different operative wear mechanisms. For amalgams, the size, shape, and composition of the particles had an effect on the wear resistance of the materials.

  6. Anthropometric evaluation of body composition in ballet dancers. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlet Betancourt León

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p115 The body of the adolescent dancer is the result of morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations due to specific physical training. For the ballet master, body weight is irrelevant to evaluating the technical and artistic performance and beauty of a figure. All ballet dancers must have bodies that conform to the canon of international ballet in order to be able to perform in public. The purpose of this study is to describe the changes in the body composition of dancers at the Cuban National School of Ballet between two points in their training process. This was a longitudinal study of 54 girls and 40 boys, aged between 15 and 20 years old. An anthropometric protocol of 6 measurements was employed in order to determine body composition using the Durnin and Rahaman method for females and the Parizková and Buzková method for males. The main results demonstrate signifi cant increases in both weight and height for age in both sexes, and it was observed that height growth velocity decreased with age. The female dancers exhibited stable body fat percentages for all ages while male dancers signifi cantly reduced this percentage from one year to the next. The female students exhibited higher mean percentage body fat values than the normal range established in Cuba for elite athletes from competitive artistic sports and professional dancers, while the male students exhibited body fat percentages that were similar to these specialized groups.

  7. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1986-01-01

    The development and clinical application of a number of nuclear techniques for studying body composition is described. These techniques include delayed neutron activation for the analysis of calcium, phsophorus, sodium and chlorine and prompt-gamma activation for the measurement of nitrogen and cadmium. In addition, the measurement of in vivo iron by nuclear resonance scattering and lead by x-ray fluorescence is described. (author)

  8. Feasibility of MR-Based Body Composition Analysis in Large Scale Population Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne West

    Full Text Available Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects.3,000 participants in the in-depth phenotyping arm of the UK Biobank imaging study underwent a comprehensive MR examination. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with the dual-echo Dixon Vibe protocol, covering neck to knees. Subjects were scanned with six slabs in supine position, without localizer. Automated body composition analysis was performed using the AMRA Profiler™ system, to segment and quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT and thigh muscles. Technical quality assurance was performed and a standard set of acceptance/rejection criteria was established. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all volume measurements and quality assurance metrics.Of the 3,000 subjects, 2,995 (99.83% were analysable for body fat, 2,828 (94.27% were analysable when body fat and one thigh was included, and 2,775 (92.50% were fully analysable for body fat and both thigh muscles. Reasons for not being able to analyse datasets were mainly due to missing slabs in the acquisition, or patient positioned so that large parts of the volume was outside of the field-of-view.In conclusion, this study showed that the rapid UK Biobank MR-protocol was well tolerated by most subjects and sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource.

  9. Protein intake during pregnancy and offspring body composition at 6 years: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Tielemans (Myrte); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.C. Kiefte-de Jong (Jessica)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: Intra-uterine exposure to protein may affect body composition and may increase the prevalence of childhood adiposity. Therefore, we examined whether protein intake during pregnancy is associated with offspring body composition at the age of 6 years and whether associations

  10. Blood pressure during pregnancy, neonatal size and altered body composition: the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, A P; Shapiro, A L B; Sauder, K A; Kaar, J L; Ringham, B M; Glueck, D H; Galan, H L; Dabelea, D

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate associations between changes in maternal arterial pressure during normotensive pregnancies and offspring birth weight and body composition at birth. Prospective study of 762 pregnant normotensive Colorado women, recruited from outpatient obstetrics clinics. Repeated arterial pressure measurements during pregnancy were averaged within the second and third trimesters, respectively. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between second to third trimester changes in arterial pressure and small-for-gestational-age birth weight, fat mass, fat-free mass and percent body fat. A greater second to third trimester increase in maternal arterial pressure was associated with greater odds of small-for-gestational-age birth weight. Greater increases in maternal diastolic blood pressure were associated with reductions in offspring percent body fat (-1.1% in highest vs lowest quartile of increase, 95% confidence interval: -1.9%, -0.3%). Mid-to-late pregnancy increases in maternal arterial pressure, which do not meet clinical thresholds for hypertension are associated with neonatal body size and composition.

  11. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  12. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  13. Yogurt consumption, body composition, and metabolic health in the Québec Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; Doyon, Caroline Y; Després, Jean-Pierre; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Drapeau, Vicky; Tremblay, Angelo

    2017-06-02

    The aim was to compare the anthropometric and metabolic profiles and lifestyle behaviours of yogurt consumers and non-consumers and to determine if the observed differences persisted after adjustment for diet quality and related variables. Using cross-sectional and follow-up data from the Québec Family Study, men and women were classified into yogurt consumers (n = 269; 96 men and 173 women) and non-consumers (n = 570; 279 men and 291 women), and their anthropometric measurements, metabolic profiles, and lifestyle factors were compared. Men yogurt consumers had a lower body weight, BMI, % body fat, waist circumference and lower plasma insulin, and C-peptide concentrations in response to oral glucose, while women yogurt consumers had lower waist circumference, BMI, % body fat, plasma glucose, insulin, and C-peptide compared with non-consumers (P composition. Yogurt consumption is associated with body composition and metabolic health benefits that are not entirely explained by a global effect of diet quality.

  14. Gender Differences in the Association between Sleep Duration and Body Composition: The Cardia Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre St-Onge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration has been inversely associated with body mass index (BMI. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat in Black and White individuals from the CARDIA study. Box-Tidwell regression models were adjusted for age and race (Model 1, additional lifestyle and demographic variables (Model 2, and physical activity (Model 3. There were significant interactions between sleep and gender for the main outcome variables. In men, there was a trend for an inverse relationship between reported sleep duration and BMI in Model 2  (β=−0.20,P=.053 but not model 3  (β=−0.139,P=.191. In women, inverse relationships were observed between sleep duration and BMI (β=−0.294,P=.005 and waist circumference (β=−0.442,P=.059, in Model 2. These associations became nonsignificant in model 3 (BMI: β=−0.172,P=.084; waist circumference: β=−0.161,P=.474. Our results are consistent with previous findings that sleep is associated with BMI and other body composition variables. However, the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and body composition may be stronger in women than in men.

  15. Are resin composites suitable replacements for amalgam? A study of two-body wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Dimitra; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2015-07-01

    Wear resistance is an important property of the dental materials, particularly for large restorations in the posterior regions and for the patients suffering from parafunctional activities. Additionally, the wear resistance of flowable composite resin materials is a clinical concern, although they are popular among dentists because of their easy handling. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the wear resistance of nine composite resins both condensable (G-aenial posterior, Venus, GrandioSO, Tetric EvoCeram, Ceram X duo, Filtek Supreme XTE) and new-generation flowable resin composites (G-aenial Universal Flo, GrandioSO Flow and GrandioSO Heavy Flow) and to compare these results with amalgam. Eight specimens of each material were subjected to two-body wear tests, using a chewing simulator. The wear region of each material was examined under profilometer, measuring the vertical loss (μm) and the volume loss (mm(3)) of the materials. Additionally, SEM analysis was performed to assess surfaces irregularities. The results showed significant difference of the vertical loss and the volume loss of the examined materials (p amalgam had the best wear resistance, two condensable resin composites (GrandioSO, Ceram X duo) and all flowable materials had no significant difference with amalgam. GrandioSO had the highest wear resistance and Filtek Supreme XTE the lowest wear resistance. The majority of resin composites had good wear resistance and similar to amalgam. Based on the in vitro measurements of two-body wear resistance, the new resin composites could replace amalgam for restorations placed in occlusal stress-bearing regions. New-generation flowable resin materials may also be used in occlusal contact restorations.

  16. Maternal fuels and metabolic measures during pregnancy and neonatal body composition: the healthy start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crume, Tessa L; Shapiro, Allison L; Brinton, John T; Glueck, Deborah H; Martinez, Mercedes; Kohn, Mary; Harrod, Curtis; Friedman, Jacob E; Dabelea, Dana

    2015-04-01

    The impact of specific maternal fuels and metabolic measures during early and late gestation on neonatal body composition is not well defined. To determine how circulating maternal glucose, lipids, and insulin resistance in the first and second halves of pregnancy influence neonatal body composition. A prospective pre-birth cohort enrolling pregnant women, the Healthy Start Study, was conducted, in which fasting maternal serum samples were collected twice during pregnancy to measure glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and free fatty acids. Neonatal body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography. An observational epidemiology study of pregnant women attending obstetric clinics at the University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Center. This analysis includes 804 maternal-neonate pairs. A strong positive linear relationship between maternal estimated insulin resistance (homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance) in the first half of pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (FM) and FM percentage (FM%) was detected, independent of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI). In the second half of pregnancy, positive linear relationships between maternal glucose levels and offspring FM and FM% were observed, independent of prepregnancy BMI. An inverse relationship was detected between high-density lipoprotein in the first half of pregnancy and FM, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Free fatty acid levels in the second half of pregnancy were positively associated with higher birth weight, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Maternal insulin resistance in the first half of pregnancy is highly predictive of neonatal FM%, whereas maternal glycemia, even within the normal range, is an important driver of neonatal adiposity in later pregnancy, independent of prepregnancy BMI. Our data provide additional insights on potential maternal factors responsible for fetal fat accretion and early development of adiposity.

  17. Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, U K; Við Streym, S; Mosekilde, L

    2012-01-01

    loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding. INTRODUCTION: Conflicting results have been reported on effects of pregnancy and breastfeeding on BMD and body composition (BC). In a controlled cohort study, we elucidate......-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. RESULTS: Compared with controls, BMD decreased significantly during pregnancy by 1.8 ± 0.5% at the lumbar spine, 3.2 ± 0.5% at the total hip, 2.4 ± 0.3% at the whole body, and 4.2 ± 0.7% at the ultra distal forearm. Postpartum, BMD decreased......-pregnancy level independently of breastfeeding length. Reversal of changes in fat mass depends on breastfeeding status....

  18. Cross-lagged associations between children's stress and adiposity: the Children's Body Composition and Stress study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, Nathalie; Sioen, Isabelle; Boone, Liesbet; Clays, Els; Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2015-01-01

    The public health threats stress and adiposity have previously been associated with each other. Longitudinal studies are needed to reveal whether this association is bidirectional and the moderating factors. In the longitudinal Children's Body Composition and Stress study, 316 children (aged 5-12 years) had measures of stress (questionnaires concerning negative life events, problem behavior, and emotions) and adiposity (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio, and fat percentage) in three waves at 1-year intervals. The bidirectionality of the association between stress and adiposity was examined using cross-lagged analyses. We tested moderation by cortisol and life-style (physical activity, screen time, food consumption, eating behavior and sleep duration). Adiposity (body mass index: β = 0.48 and fat percentage: β = 0.18; p stress levels, but stress was not directly related to subsequent increases in adiposity indices. Cortisol and life-style factors displayed a moderating effect on the association between stress and adiposity. Stress was positively associated with adiposity in children with high cortisol awakening patterns (β = 0.204; p = .020) and high sweet food consumption (β = 0.190; p = .031), whereas stress was associated with lower adiposity in the most active children (β = -0.163; p = .022). Stress is associated with the development of children's adiposity, but the effects depend on cortisol levels and life-style factors. This creates new perspectives for multifactorial obesity prevention programs. Our results also highlight the adverse effect of an unhealthy body composition on children's psychological well-being.

  19. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kojo Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n=27] and mixed feeding [MF; n=13] in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3 kg versus 59.9 kg; P=.034. Infant birth weight was slightly higher among the MF group than their EBF counterparts (3.5 kg versus 3.4 kg, although the differences were not statistically significant. At 3 months postpartum, mean infant FMI (4.1 kg/m2 versus 3.8 kg/m2 and percent body fat (24.4% versus 23.1% were slightly higher among EBF infants than MF infants. In terms of growth velocity, EBF infants gained weight faster than their MF counterparts, although the differences were not statistically significant. The findings from this study suggest that EBF may promote faster weight gain and increase in both fat mass index (FMI and percent body fat in the early postpartum period in addition to the numerous health benefits enjoyed by the infant and the mother who exclusively breastfeeds her newborn.

  20. Anthropometric and body composition characteristics during pregnancy: a study from West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arnab

    2012-06-01

    The present cross-sectional study was aimed at investigating changes in anthropometric, body composition and blood pressure characteristics during pregnancy. A total of 406 healthy, pregnant women aged between 16 and 33 years participated in the study. Pregnant women were recruited from the outpatient department of the two-referral hospital in Bolpur subdivision of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Anthropometric measures such as height, weight, three circumferences and skinfold thickness at four sites (biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailaic) were obtained using standard techniques. Percentages of body fat (%BF), intra abdominal visceral fat (IVF), basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body mass index (BMI) were measured using an Omron body fat analyser. Two forenoon blood pressure measurements were also taken and averaged for analysis. Subjects were categorized into three trimester groups: Group I, n=30; Group II, n=163; and Group III, n=213. ANOVA with Scheffe's post-hoc test revealed that Group I had significantly lower mean than both Group II and Group III for systolic blood pressure and IVF, whereas Group I had significantly lower mean than Group III for BMI, BMR, %BF, diastolic blood pressure and skinfolds. The mean change in maternal weight from the first to the third trimester was merely 3 kg. Mean waist circumference varied from the first to the third trimester but not from the first to the second trimester. Furthermore, significantly increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed across the trimesters. However, longitudinal studies involving interaction of body fat topography and pregnancy-induced hormones are required to further our understanding of gestation mechanism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean...

  2. Percentile reference values for anthropometric body composition indices in European children from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Kovacs, E; Moreno, L A; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Kourides, Y; Siani, A; Lauria, F; Sioen, I; Claessens, M; Mårild, S; Lissner, L; Bammann, K; Intemann, T; Buck, C; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D

    2014-09-01

    To characterise the nutritional status in children with obesity or wasting conditions, European anthropometric reference values for body composition measures beyond the body mass index (BMI) are needed. Differentiated assessment of body composition in children has long been hampered by the lack of appropriate references. The aim of our study is to provide percentiles for body composition indices in normal weight European children, based on the IDEFICS cohort (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS). Overall 18,745 2.0-10.9-year-old children from eight countries participated in the study. Children classified as overweight/obese or underweight according to IOTF (N=5915) were excluded from the analysis. Anthropometric measurements (BMI (N=12 830); triceps, subscapular, fat mass and fat mass index (N=11,845-11,901); biceps, suprailiac skinfolds, sum of skinfolds calculated from skinfold thicknesses (N=8129-8205), neck circumference (N=12,241); waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (N=12,381)) were analysed stratified by sex and smoothed 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentile curves were calculated using GAMLSS. Percentile values of the most important anthropometric measures related to the degree of adiposity are depicted for European girls and boys. Age- and sex-specific differences were investigated for all measures. As an example, the 50th and 99th percentile values of waist circumference ranged from 50.7-59.2 cm and from 51.3-58.7 cm in 4.5- to <5.0-year-old girls and boys, respectively, to 60.6-74.5 cm in girls and to 59.9-76.7 cm in boys at the age of 10.5-10.9 years. The presented percentile curves may aid a differentiated assessment of total and abdominal adiposity in European children.

  3. Genetic and environmental factors in body composition. A review based upon studies of familial aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José António Ribeiro Maia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal dessa revisão foi abordar aspectos relacionados com a influência dos fatores genéticos e ambientais nos indicadores da composição corporal. Realizou-se uma pesquisa na base de dados Pubmed, selecionandose os estudos que apresentassem informações acerca de agregação familiar, com base em estimativas de heritabilidade, em delineamentos de famílias nucleares e/ou pedigrees extensos, em que as técnicas para a avaliação da composição corporal fossem a densitometria computadorizada por absorciometria radiológica de dupla energia, a pesagem hidrostática, a tomografi a computadorizada, a impedância bioelétrica ou a mensuração de dobras cutâneas. Os resultados mostraram que uma parte moderada a elevada dos diferentes fenótipos da composição corporal são condicionados por fatores genéticos, evidenciando uma forte agregação familiar. Verifi cou-se uma ampla variabilidade nas estimativas de heritabilidade inter e intra fenótipos. Além das diferenças nas técnicas utilizadas, a discrepância pode ser devida a aspectos relacionados com a magnitude da amostra, aspectos étnicos e culturais inerentes a cada população e o design do estudo. Conclui-se que os fenótipos da composição corporal são de natureza multifatorial onde, em alguns casos, o ambiente possui uma forte contribuição na característica observada. Os fatores genéticos são responsáveis por 30 a 76% da variabilidade dos diferentes fenótipos da composição corporal. ABSTRACT The main purpose of this study was to review relevant information related to genetic and environmental factors influencing different indicators of body composition. Based upon Pubmed data, a search was made concerning studies related to information of familial aggregation with heritability estimates using nuclear families and/or extended pedigree and which had assessed body composition by means of DEXA, hydrostatic weighting, computerized tomography, bioelectric

  4. Predictors of Infant Body Composition at 5 Months of Age: The Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Katherine A; Kaar, Jill L; Starling, Anne P; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Dabelea, Dana

    2017-04-01

    To examine associations of demographic, perinatal, and infant feeding characteristics with offspring body composition at approximately 5 months of age. We collected data on 640 mother/offspring pairs from early pregnancy through approximately 5 months of age. We assessed offspring body composition with air displacement plethysmography at birth and approximately 5 months of age. Linear regression analyses examined associations between predictors and fat-free mass, fat mass, and percent fat mass (adiposity) at approximately 5 months. Secondary models further adjusted for body composition at birth and rapid infant growth. Greater prepregnant body mass index and gestational weight gain were associated with greater fat-free mass at approximately 5 months of age, but not after adjustment for fat-free mass at birth. Greater gestational weight gain was also associated with greater fat mass at approximately 5 months of age, independent of fat mass at birth and rapid infant growth, although this did not translate into increased adiposity. Greater percent time of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with lower fat-free mass (-311 g; P composition by demographic, perinatal, and infant feeding characteristics, although our data also show that increased adiposity at birth persists through approximately 5 months of age. Our findings warrant further research into implications of differences in infant body composition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Wang, Fei; Ma, Cong; Zhao, Xiao-Lan; Zeng, Qiang; Fei, Ao

    2018-02-20

    Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. A total of 12,018 Chinese adults were included. Body composition indices, such as BMI, BFP, WHtR, and WHR, and metabolic parameters, such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2h PBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and white blood cell count (WBC), were measured and analyzed. All analyses were stratified by gender. All body composition indices and metabolic parameters except 2h PBG differed significantly between males and females (all P composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.

  6. Hybrid-Wing-Body Vehicle Composite Fuselage Analysis and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in the structural analysis of a Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) fuselage concept is presented with the objective of structural weight reduction under a set of critical design loads. This pressurized efficient HWB fuselage design is presently being investigated by the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project in collaboration with the Boeing Company, Huntington Beach. The Pultruded Rod-Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) composite concept, developed at the Boeing Company, is approximately modeled for an analytical study and finite element analysis. Stiffened plate linear theories are employed for a parametric case study. Maximum deflection and stress levels are obtained with appropriate assumptions for a set of feasible stiffened panel configurations. An analytical parametric case study is presented to examine the effects of discrete stiffener spacing and skin thickness on structural weight, deflection and stress. A finite-element model (FEM) of an integrated fuselage section with bulkhead is developed for an independent assessment. Stress analysis and scenario based case studies are conducted for design improvement. The FEM model specific weight of the improved fuselage concept is computed and compared to previous studies, in order to assess the relative weight/strength advantages of this advanced composite airframe technology

  7. Anthropometric evaluation of body composition in ballet dancers. A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Díaz Sánchez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The body of the adolescent dancer is the result of morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations due to specific physical training. For the ballet master, body weight is irrelevant to evaluating the technical and artistic performance and beauty of a figure. All ballet dancers must have bodies that conform to the canon of international ballet in order to be able to perform in public. The purpose of this study is to describe the changes in the body composition of dancers at the Cuban National School of Ballet between two points in their training process. This was a longitudinal study of 54 girls and 40 boys, aged between 15 and 20 years old. An anthropometric protocol of 6 measurements was employed in order to determine body composition using the Durnin and Rahaman method for females and the Parizková and Buzková method for males. The main results demonstrate signifi cant increases in both weight and height for age in both sexes, and it was observed that height growth velocity decreased with age. The female dancers exhibited stable body fat percentages for all ages while male dancers signifi cantly reduced this percentage from one year to the next. The female students exhibited higher mean percentage body fat values than the normal range established in Cuba for elite athletes from competitive artistic sports and professional dancers, while the male students exhibited body fat percentages that were similar to these specialized groups. Resumo El cuerpo humano del bailarín adolescente es resultado de las adaptaciones orfológicas-fi siológicas y conductuales de un entrenamiento físico particular. Para los maestros de ballet el peso corporal no es relevante en la evaluación técnica-artística y de belleza de la fi gura del danzante. Cada bailarín tiene que cumplir con los cánones internacionales de fi gura del ballet para presentarse en el escenario artístico. El objetivo de esta investigación es describir las variaciones de la

  8. EFFECTS OF AN EXTREME ENDURANCE RACE ON ENERGY BALANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bircher

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study was to examine energy expenditure (EE in one cyclist during an extreme endurance cycling race - the "XXAlps 2004" (2,272 km distance and 55,455 m altitude which was completed in 5 days and 7 hours - and whether the energy deficit derives primarily from the degradation of subcutaneous adipose tissue or loss of muscle mass. Energy intake (EI was continuously recorded. EE was estimated using two different methods: 1 Continuous heart rate recording using a portable heart rate monitor (POLAR® S710 and 2 using the individual relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake (VO2 determined under laboratory conditions. Body composition was assessed by measuring body mass, skinfold thickness and extremity circumferences. The cyclist lost 2.0 kg body mass, corresponding to 11,950 kcal (50 MJ. Fat mass was reduced by 790 g (7,110 kcal; 30 MJ and fat free mass by 1.21 kg (4,840 kcal; 20 MJ. Circumferences of the lower extremities were reduced, in contrast skinfold thickness at the lower limbs increased. Energy deficit (ED was calculated as the difference between EI and EE. Energy deficit using continuous heart rate monitoring was 29,554 kcal (124 MJ, and using the individual relationship between heart rate and VO2 was 7,111 kcal (30 MJ. The results show that the difference between ED due to decreased body mass and ED estimated from continuous heart rate monitoring was 74 MJ (124 MJ - 50 MJ. In contrast the difference between ED due to decreased body mass and ED estimated from laboratory data was 20 MJ (30 - 50 MJ. This difference between methodologies cannot properly be explained. Body mass and skinfold thickness may be overestimated due to hypoproteinemic oedemas during endurance exercise. Data from the present study suggests the individual relationship between heart rate and VO2 may provide a closer estimation of EE during extreme endurance exercise compared with corresponding data derived from continuous heart rate monitoring

  9. Dietary Antioxidants and FEV1 Decline: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Amy R; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Harris, Tamara B; Holvoet, Paul; Jensen, Robert L; Newman, Anne B; Lee, Jung Sun; Yende, Sachin; Bauer, Doug; Cassano, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Increased antioxidant defenses are hypothesized to decrease age- and smoking-related decline in lung function. The relation of dietary antioxidants, smoking, and forced expiratory volume in the 1st second of effort (FEV1) was investigated in community-dwelling older adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. 1,443 participants completed a food frequency questionnaire, self-reported smoking history, and had measurements of FEV1 at both baseline and after 4 years of follow-up. The association of dietary intake of nutrients and foods with antioxidant properties and rate of FEV1 decline was investigated using hierarchical linear regression models. In continuing smokers (current smokers at both time points), higher vitamin C and higher intake of fruits and vegetables were associated with an 18 and 24 ml/year slower rate of FEV1 decline compared to lower intake (Pantioxidant properties may modulate lung function decline in older adults exposed to cigarette smoke. PMID:22005919

  10. Nuclear-based techniques for the in vivo study of human body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    This report comprises working papers presented at an Advisory Group Meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Fourteen contributions from seven countries describe measurement systems, and their applications, for the in vivo study of human body composition, mainly with respect to the elements calcium, nitrogen, sodium, chlorine, phosphorus, cadmium and lead. The techniques used include neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, computerized axial tomography, nuclear resonance scattering and photon absorptiometry. Also included is a collection of ''system descriptions'' containing information on equipment developed for such measurements at seventeen centres in eight countries (institute address and name of persons to contact for more information, overall system performance, irradiation and country device, estimated cost)

  11. Body composition in preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Letícia Duarte; Méio, Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker; Gomes Junior, Saint Clair S; de Abranches, Andrea Dunshee; Soares, Fernanda Valente Mendes; Moreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes

    2018-02-06

    The comparison of body composition parameters between the small for gestational age (SGA) and appropriate for gestational age (AGA) at term, 1, 3 and 5 months corrected ages in very preterm infants. This cohort study included 92 preterm infants at term age, younger than 32 weeks or preterm infants had less lean mass (g), fat mass (g) and percent fat mass but a greater LM/FM index than AGA infants (Ppreterm infants when compared to AGA preterm infants. However, the SGA preterm infants remained lighter, shorter and with smaller head circumferences than the AGA preterm infants until 3 months of corrected age. The greater lean tissue deficits and an earlier "catch-up" in fat in the SGA group can reflect growth patterns variability since the early life.

  12. Study of Body Composition and Metabolic Parameters in HIV-1 Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudath Gundurao Sreekantamurthy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART containing protease inhibitors (PIs had been often associated with lipodystrophy. However, there are only few studies on association of nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI and NNRTI with lipodystrophy. Study Design. One hundred and one HIV male patients were categorised into ART naïve (n=22, zidovudine (n=22, stavudine (n=18, tenofovir (n=15, and PIs (n=24 based HAART. Their clinicoepidemiological data had been entered in preformed pro forma. The body composition, using TANITA machine and metabolic parameters like lipid profile, blood sugars was analysed. Results. Clinically, lipoatrophy of face was most prevalent in HIV patients on stavudine (15 patients, 83.3% and PIs (20 patients, 83.3% based HAART. The mean BMI among study population was in normal range. Excess visceral fat was most prevalent among patients on PIs, 4 patients (16.7%. The waist-hip ratio was significantly higher in PIs (P=0.01 based HAART. There was no significant difference among different study populations in terms of BMI (P=0.917, body water (P=0.318, body fat (P=0.172, bone mass (P=0.200, and muscle mass (P=0.070. Hypertriglyceridiemia was found in stavudine, tenofovir, and protease inhibitors regimens. Low levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL was found zidovudine, stavudine, and PIs regimens. Fasting and postprandial hyperglycaemia was found PIs and impaired glucose tolerance in stavudine regimen. Conclusion. Patients on PIs were associated with truncal obesity and lipoatrophy of face, along with dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia. Stavudine based regimen is associated with hypertriglyceridiemia and low HDL along with lipoatrophy of face.

  13. Genotype by Energy Expenditure Interaction and Body Composition Traits: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. Methods and Results. A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. Conclusions. TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals’ BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.

  14. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction and body composition traits: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, D M; Katzmarzyk, P T; Diego, V P; Gomes, T N; Santos, F K; Blangero, J; Maia, J A

    2014-01-01

    Energy expenditure has been negatively correlated with fat accumulation. However, this association is highly variable. In the present study we applied a genotype by environment interaction method to examine the presence of Genotype x by Total Daily Energy Expenditure and Genotype x by Daily Energy Expenditure interactions in the expression of different body composition traits. A total of 958 subjects from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. TDEE and DEE were assessed using a physical activity recall. Body fat percentages were measured with a bioelectrical impedance scale. GxTDEE and GxDEE examinations were performed using SOLAR 4.0 software. All BC traits were significantly heritable, with heritabilities ranging from 21% to 34%. The GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction models fitted the data better than the polygenic model for all traits. For all traits, a significant GxTDEE and GxDEE interaction was due to variance heterogeneity among distinct levels of TDEE and DEE. For WC, GxTDEE was also significant due to the genetic correlation function. TDEE and DEE are environmental constraints associated with the expression of individuals' BC genotypes, leading to variability in the phenotypic expression of BC traits.

  15. Body composition monitoring and nutrition in maintenance hemodialysis and CAPD patients--a multicenter longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sharon; Abraham, Georgi; Vijayan, Madhusudan; Thandavan, Thigarajan; Mathew, Milly; Veerappan, Ilangovan; Revathy, Laxmi; Alex, Merina E

    2015-02-01

    Hydration and nutritional status of end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are linked to increased morbidity and mortality. Body composition monitoring (BCM) by multi-frequency bioimpedance spectroscopy (MFBS) is considered to be a superior modality of fluid assessment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) dialysis. We did a longitudinal prospective study in South India on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients over 24 months and looked at impact of baseline nutritional parameters and body composition parameters on 24-month mortality. Ninety-nine patients stable on dialysis for at least 3 months were recruited (MHD 85, CAPD 14) at baseline and at 24 months, 41 were alive and 33 had expired, 12 had undergone renal transplant and 13 were lost to follow-up. BCM and nutritional assessment were done at baseline and at follow-up. Baseline overhydration (OH) differed significantly between surviving and dead patients (p < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between OH and mortality showed that the best cut-off point to differentiate between survived and expired patients was 3.15 L. ROC curve for BMI showed lower than cut-off of 22.65 kg/m(2) to predict mortality with sensitivity 41.30% and specificity 81.81%. At follow-up, triceps skin fold thickness (TSF), biceps skin fold thickness (BSF) and mid arm circumference (MAC) increased significantly from baseline (p < 0.001, p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). Overhydration and BMI are important predictors of mortality in dialysis patients. Improvement in anthropometric markers TSF, BSF and MAC in MHD patients was associated with survival.

  16. Impact of Wheelchair Rugby on Body Composition of Subjects With Tetraplegia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, José I; Costa e Silva, Anselmo de A; Borges, Mariane; Tanhoffer, Ricardo A; Godoy, Priscila S; Calegari, Décio R; Santos, Allan de O; Ramos, Celso D; Nadruz Junior, Wilson; Cliquet Junior, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the longitudinal effects of wheelchair rugby (WR) training on body composition of subjects with tetraplegia. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and after WR training. Faculty of physical education settings. Individuals with tetraplegia (N=13; age, 26.6±6.0y). Four sessions per week of WR training composed by aerobic and anaerobic activities and technical and tactical aspects of WR. The average time of intervention was 8.1±2.5 months. Body composition assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. After training, fat mass was significantly reduced in the whole body (15,191±4603 vs 13,212±3318 g, P=.016), trunk (7058±2639 vs 5693±1498 g, P=.012), and legs (2847±817 vs 2534±742 g, P=.003). Conversely, increased bone mineral content (183±35 vs 195±32 g, P=.01) and fat-free mass (2991±549 vs 3332±602 g, P=.016) in the arms and reduced bone mineral content in the trunk (553±82 vs 521±86 g, P=.034) were observed after training. Furthermore, no significant correlation between the duration of training and changes in body composition was detected. Regular WR training increased lean mass and bone mineral content in the arms and decreased total body fat mass. Conversely, WR training was associated with decreased bone mineral content in the trunk. These results suggest that regular WR training improves body composition in subjects with tetraplegia. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The study of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry on body composition components in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhongkui; Chen Wei; Long Liling; Li Xiaoyang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the correlation of the bone mineral density (BMD) and the body composition components of body mass index (BMI), FAT and LEAN in Chinese obesity. Methods: There were 150 cases in obesity group diagnosed by BMI, including 75 males [ median age 46 years, mean weight (89.64 ± 8.33) kg] and 75 females [median age 45 years, mean weight (77.23 ± 6.85) kg]. There were 150 persons with normal BMI in the control group, including 75 males [(median age 47 years, mean weight (62.34 ± 5.72) kg] and 75 females [ median age 45 years, mean weight (50.16 ± 5.06) kg]. The body height and weight of 300 persons in two groups were measured respectively and ,simultaneously calculated the BMI. These data and the body composition parameters measured by the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in these two groups were compared and analyzed. The data obtained used two-sample t-test analysis, bi-variable correlation used Pearson linear correlation analysis and multi-variable correlation used multiple linear regression analysis. Results: FAT of arms, legs trunk and total body of male cases in obesity group was (2.90 ± 0.57), (7.48 ± 1.46), (15.67 ± 3.05), (30.92 ± 5.94) kg respectively, FAT% was (30.9 ± 5.1)%, (30.6 ± 5.8)%, (37.3 ± 4.7)%, (35.1 ± 4.4)% respectively, it was significantly higher than that in control group [FAT was (1.12 ± 0.64), (3.27 ± 1.22), (6.71 ± 3.29), (11.61 ± 5.16) kg respectively, FAT% was (15.4 ± 4.8)%, (16.5 ± 5.0)%, (21.8 ± 5.8)%, (18.6 ± 5.3)% respectively], P 2 respectively, it was significantly higher than that in control group [ LEAN was (22.89 ± 1.68), (48.89 ± 3.72) kg respectively, BMD was (0.89 ± 0.07), (1.15 ± 0.06) g/cm 2 respectively], P 2 respectively, and there were no statistical significance compared with those in control group [LEAN was (5.99 ± 0.72), (16.83 ± 1.67) kg respectively, BMD was (0.90 ± 0.08), (1.29 ± 0.09) g/cm 2 respectively]. FAT of arms, legs, trunk and total body of females in

  18. Body composition impacts appetite regulation in middle childhood. A prospective study of Norwegian community children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-05-30

    Research suggests a role for both fat mass and muscle mass in appetite regulation, but the longitudinal relationships between them have not yet been examined in children. The present study therefore aimed to explore the prospective relationships between fat mass, muscle mass and the appetitive traits food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in middle childhood. Food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness were measured using the parent-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in a representative sample of Norwegian 6 year olds, followed up at 8 and 10 years of age (n = 807). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Applying a structural equation modeling framework we found that higher fat mass predicted greater increases in food responsiveness over time, whereas greater muscle mass predicted decreases in satiety responsiveness. This pattern was consistent both from ages 6 to 8 and from ages 8 to 10 years. Our study is the first to reveal that fat mass and muscle mass predict distinct changes in different appetitive traits over time. Replication of findings in non-European populations are needed, as are studies of children in other age groups. Future studies should also aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Association between body composition and stair negotiation ability among individuals >55 years of age: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dip RM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Renata Maciulis Dip, Marcos AS Cabrera, Sabrina Ferrari Prato Department of Public Health, Postgraduate Program in Public Health, State University of Londrina (UEL, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Background: Loss of muscle strength exerts a considerable impact on the quality of life and mortality of older adults. The present household survey study measured body composition and muscle strength with the aim of analyzing the roles of low lean mass, low muscle strength and obesity in stair negotiation ability and the effect of comorbidities on the relationship between body composition and functional capacity.Methods: Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis and muscle strength was assessed with a hand grip dynamometer. The study population comprised individuals >55 years of age from a medium-sized Brazilian municipality. The sample included 451 participants.Results: A total of 368 subjects were interviewed; their ages varied from 56 to 91 years. Among males, low muscle strength was associated with stair negotiation difficulty independent of muscle mass, age and obesity but muscle mass was not. However, when we analyzed comorbidities and body composition jointly, chronic lower limb pain and obesity were independently associated with stair negotiation difficulty but body composition and age were not. Among women, after comorbidities were included into the model, low muscle strength and obesity remained associated with stair negotiation difficulty as chronic lower limb pain and depression. The relationship between muscle function and comorbidities is discussed in this article. Keywords: sarcopenia, obesity, depression, older people

  20. Diet composition and body composition in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, L M; Davies, P S

    2000-07-01

    In studies of adult humans and in animal models, dietary intakes of the macronutrients, particularly fat, are related to body composition; however, data on children are more scarce. We sought to determine whether diet composition is related to percentage body fat in children aged 1.5-4.5 y. In 77 preschool children, a 4-d weighed-food record was used to determine intakes of total energy and energy from each macronutrient. An oxygen-18 dilution method was used to calculate percentage body fat. Habitual physical activity level was determined by calculating the ratio of total energy expenditure (from stable isotope analyses) to predicted basal metabolic rate. Dietary intake and body-composition data were analyzed to evaluate whether diet composition was related to body fat. Further analyses incorporating physical activity level were performed. Percentage body fat was not significantly correlated with dietary intake variables (total energy or percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate, or protein) and did not differ significantly among 3 increasing levels of each dietary intake variable by analysis of variance. In multiple regression analysis, physical activity level was related to body fat whereas diet composition was not. We found no relations between dietary intakes of total energy, fat, carbohydrate, or protein and percentage body fat in children. The relation between fat intake and body fat may develop over time and may not be evident in preschool children. Energy expenditure, in particular physical activity level, may have a greater influence on body composition in early childhood.

  1. Bicarbonate Concentration, Acid-Base Status, and Mortality in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Rachel A.; Shlipak, Michael G.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Huston, Hunter K.; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Patel, Kushang V.; Newman, Anne B.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Ix, Joachim H.; Fried, Linda F.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Low serum bicarbonate associates with mortality in CKD. This study investigated the associations of bicarbonate and acid-base status with mortality in healthy older individuals. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We analyzed data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective study of well functioning black and white adults ages 70–79 years old from 1997. Participants with arterialized venous blood gas measurements (n=2287) were grouped into metabolic acidosis, 1.21 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46) for respiratory alkalosis, and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for metabolic alkalosis categories. Respiratory acidosis did not associate with mortality. Conclusions In generally healthy older individuals, low serum bicarbonate associated with higher mortality independent of systemic pH and potential confounders. This association seemed to be present regardless of whether the cause of low bicarbonate was metabolic acidosis or respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis also associated with higher mortality. PMID:26769766

  2. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    Background: Birth weight and high weight gain the first years of life is associated with later body composition and increased risk of obesity. A detailed description of body composition at 3 years of age and factors related to the distribution of fat and fat-free mass is interesting, since body...... with later increased adiposity risk. Growth in early childhood is highly related to the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. Objectives: Data used in this thesis is from the prospective cohort study SKOT which includes 330 children examined at 9, 18 and 36 months of age. The main objective with this Ph......D study was to look at which factors were related to body composition at 3 years of age with a special focus on factors related to later obesity risk. A methodological objective was to be able to predict body composition by using bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry. Secondly, an objective...

  3. Cystatin C and mortality risk in the elderly: the health, aging, and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlipak, Michael G; Wassel Fyr, Christina L; Chertow, Glenn M; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Tylavsky, Frances A; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steven R; Newman, Anne B; Fried, Linda F

    2006-01-01

    Kidney dysfunction is known to decrease life expectancy in the elderly. Cystatin C is a novel biomarker of kidney function that may have prognostic utility in older adults. The association of cystatin C with mortality was evaluated in a biracial cohort of black and white ambulatory elderly and compared with that of serum creatinine concentrations. The Health, Aging and Body Composition study is a cohort of well-functioning elderly that was designed to evaluate longitudinal changes in weight, body composition, and function. A total of 3075 participants who were aged 70 to 79 yr and had no disability were recruited at sites in Memphis, TN, and Pittsburgh, PA, between April 1997 and June 1998 with a follow-up of 6 yr. At entry, the mean cystatin C was 1.05 mg/L and the mean creatinine was 1.06 mg/dl. After 6 yr of follow-up, 557 participants had died. The mortality rates in each ascending cystatin C quintile were 1.7, 2.7, 2.9, 3.1, and 5.4%/yr. After adjustment for demographic risk factors, comorbid health conditions, and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, IL-6. and TNF-alpha), each quintile of cystatin C was significantly associated with increased mortality risk compared with the lowest: Hazard ratios (HR; 95% confidence intervals) quintile 1, -1.0 (referent); quintile 2, -1.74 (1.21 to 2.50); quintile 3, -1.51 (1.05 to 2.18); quintile 4, -1.49 (1.04 to 2.13); and quintile 5, -2.18 (1.53 to 3.10). These associations did not differ by gender or race. Results were consistent for cardiovascular and other-cause mortality, but not cancer mortality. Creatinine quintiles were not associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment (HR: 1.0 [referent], 1.00 [0.72 to 1.39], 0.95 [0.68 to 1.32], 1.11 [0.79 to 1.57], 1.16 [0.86 to 1.58]). Cystatin C is a strong, independent risk factor for mortality in the elderly. Future studies should investigate whether cystatin C has a role in clinical medicine.

  4. Adverse oral health and cognitive decline: the health, aging and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Robert; Weyant, Robert J; Garcia, Melissa E; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore J; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the relationship between periodontal disease and cognitive decline. Analysis of a prospective cohort study. The Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. One thousand fifty-three participants who were administered the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) at Year 1 (baseline) and Year 3 and had participated in a comprehensive periodontal examination at Year 2. The prospective association between a range of oral health parameters and cognitive function was examined. Decline in 3MS score from Year 3 to 5 was investigated in 947 (89.9%) participants. Covariates included age, sex, education, race, cardiovascular disease and risk, and depressive symptoms. Most indicators of adverse oral health at Year 2 were associated with cognitive impairment based on averaged 3MS scores less than 80 for Years 1 and 3, but education and race substantially confounded these associations. Higher gingival index, a measure of gingival inflammation, at Year 2 remained independently associated with this definition of cognitive impairment and, in fully adjusted analyses, was also an independent predictor of a more-than-5-point cognitive decline from Year 3 to 5. Periodontitis may be a risk factor for cognitive decline. Gingivitis is reversible, and periodontitis to some degree is preventable and controllable when manifest. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify potential underlying mechanisms and oral health interventions that might ameliorate cognitive decline. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  5. Prenatal Vitamin D Intake, Cord Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, and Offspring Body Composition: The Healthy Start Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauder, Katherine A; Koeppen, Hallie J; Shapiro, Allison L B; Kalata, Kathryn E; Stamatoiu, Alexandra V; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H; Norris, Jill M; Dabelea, Dana

    2017-07-22

    Vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy may be associated with increased offspring adiposity, but evidence from human studies is inconclusive. We examined associations between prenatal vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in cord blood, and offspring size and body composition at birth and 5 months. Participants included 605 mother-offspring dyads from the Healthy Start study, an ongoing, pre-birth prospective cohort study in Denver, Colorado, USA. Prenatal vitamin D intake was assessed with diet recalls and questionnaires, and offspring body composition was measured via air displacement plethysmography at birth and 5 months. General linear univariate models were used for analysis, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), offspring sex, and gestational age at birth. Non-Hispanic white race, lower pre-pregnancy BMI, higher prenatal vitamin D intake, and summer births were associated with higher cord blood 25(OH)D. Higher 25(OH)D was associated with lower birthweight ( β = -6.22, p = 0.02), but as maternal BMI increased, this association became increasingly positive in direction and magnitude ( β = 1.05, p = 0.04). Higher 25(OH)D was also associated with lower neonatal adiposity (β = -0.02, p body composition at 5 months. Our data confirm the hypothesis that vitamin D exposure in early life is associated with neonatal body size and composition. Future research is needed to understand the implications of these associations as infants grow.

  6. Relationship between body composition and postural control in prepubertal overweight/obese children: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrasa-Sapiña, Israel; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Cabeza-Ruiz, Ruth; Redón, Pau; Lurbe, Empar; García-Massó, Xavier

    2018-02-01

    Excess body weight during childhood causes reduced motor functionality and problems in postural control, a negative influence which has been reported in the literature. Nevertheless, no information regarding the effect of body composition on the postural control of overweight and obese children is available. The objective of this study was therefore to establish these relationships. A cross-sectional design was used to establish relationships between body composition and postural control variables obtained in bipedal eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions in twenty-two children. Centre of pressure signals were analysed in the temporal and frequency domains. Pearson correlations were applied to establish relationships between variables. Principal component analysis was applied to the body composition variables to avoid potential multicollinearity in the regression models. These principal components were used to perform a multiple linear regression analysis, from which regression models were obtained to predict postural control. Height and leg mass were the body composition variables that showed the highest correlation with postural control. Multiple regression models were also obtained and several of these models showed a higher correlation coefficient in predicting postural control than simple correlations. These models revealed that leg and trunk mass were good predictors of postural control. More equations were found in the eyes-open than eyes-closed condition. Body weight and height are negatively correlated with postural control. However, leg and trunk mass are better postural control predictors than arm or body mass. Finally, body composition variables are more useful in predicting postural control when the eyes are open. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  8. Effects of a Deca Iron Triathlon on body composition: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Schück, R; Andonie, J L; Kohler, G

    2008-04-01

    We investigated energy balance and change of body composition in one athlete in a multistage triathlon, the World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon 2006, where athletes had to perform one Ironman triathlon of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.195 km running per day for ten consecutive days. In one well-experienced male ultra-endurance triathlete, we measured body mass, skinfold thicknesses and perimeters of extremities, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat. Energy intake was measured by analysis of nutrition, and energy expenditure was calculated using a portable heart rate monitor. This was performed to quantify energy deficit. In addition, bio-impedance measurements were performed to determine fluid metabolism. The athlete finished the race in 128 hours, 22 minutes and 42 seconds in 3rd position. Body mass decreased by 1 kilogram, skeletal muscle mass decreased by 0.9 kilograms and calculated fat mass decreased by 0.8 kilograms. Total body water increased by 2.8 liters. Total energy expenditure for the Deca Iron was 89,112 kilocalories and a total energy deficit of 11,480 kilocalories resulted. We presume that energy deficit was covered by consumption of adipose subcutaneous tissue as well as skeletal muscle mass; the degradation of muscle mass seems to lead to hypoproteinemic edemas.

  9. Body composition: Where and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations of Body Composition Measurements with Serum Lipid, Glucose and Insulin Profile: A Chinese Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To quantitate and compare the associations of various body composition measurements with serum metabolites and to what degree genetic or environmental factors affect obesity-metabolite relation. Methods Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), lean body mass (LBM), percent body fat (PBF), fasting serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, insulin and lifestyle factors were assessed in 903 twins from Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated from fasting serum glucose and insulin. Linear regression models and bivariate structural equation models were used to examine the relation of various body composition measurements with serum metabolite levels and genetic/environmental influences on these associations, respectively. Results At individual level, adiposity measurements (BMI, WC and PBF) showed significant associations with serum metabolite concentrations in both sexes and the associations still existed in male twins when using within-MZ twin pair comparison analyses. Associations of BMI with TG, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly stronger in male twins compared to female twins (BMI-by-sex interaction p = 0.043, 0.020 and 0.019, respectively). Comparison of various adiposity measurements with levels of serum metabolites revealed that WC explained the largest fraction of variance in serum LDL-C, TG, TC and glucose concentrations while BMI performed best in explaining variance in serum HDL-C, insulin and HOMA-IR levels. Of these phenotypic correlations, 64–81% were attributed to genetic factors, whereas 19–36% were attributed to unique environmental factors. Conclusions We observed different associations between adiposity and serum metabolite profile and demonstrated that WC and BMI explained the largest fraction of variance in serum lipid profile and insulin

  11. Pre- and Postoperative Body Composition and Metabolic Characteristics in Patients with Acromegaly: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods. We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT, the visceral fat index (VFI, sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW, intracellular water (ICW, and extracellular water (ECW were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Total energy expenditure (TEE and basal metabolism (BM were measured with a cardiopulmonary and metabolic analyzer (CMA. Tricep skinfold thickness (TST, bicep circumference, waistline, hipline, and calf circumference were measured with a skinfold caliper and tape. These indices were measured before surgery and 3 months and 1 year after surgery. Results. Overall, AT, VFI, and TST were lower, whereas sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, TBW, ICW, ECW, TEE, and BM were higher in acromegaly patients. Postoperatively, TST rose initially and then decreased, the waistline increased, and sclerotin, skeletal muscle, TEE, and BM decreased. Changes in these indices differed with gender and age in unique patterns. Conclusions. Body composition and metabolism in acromegaly patients changed after surgery, and gender and age influenced these changes.

  12. Current body composition measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Thaisa; Gallagher, Dympna

    2017-10-01

    The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots. Available techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need for methods that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. Based on the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians, and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning prior to conception, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods with application beginning during gestation, that is, fetal development.

  13. Is a fall just a fall : correlates of falling in healthy older persons. The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rekeneire, Nathalie; Visser, Marjolein; Peila, Rita; Nevitt, Michael C; Cauley, Jane A; Tylavsky, Frances A; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: To identify factors associated with falling in well-functioning older people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses of report of falls over the past 12 months using baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. SETTING: Clinic examinations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, or

  14. Longitudinal association between preschool fussy eating and body composition at 6 years of age: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. de Barse (Lisanne); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); E.T.M. Leermakers (Lisan); R.G. Voortman (Trudy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); L.R. Edelson (Lisa R.); O.H. Franco (Oscar); P.W. Jansen (Pauline)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children's fussy eating behavior has been related to both underweight and overweight in cross-sectional studies, but the direction of these associations and the relation with more detailed measures of body composition remains unclear. We aimed to examine whether fussy eating

  15. Postoperative changes in body composition after gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Teruo; Mizutani, Takashi; Okuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Itsuro; Tokunaga, Akira; Tajiri, Takashi; Barbul, Adrian

    2005-03-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important clinical determinants of outcome after gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to compare changes in the body composition of patients undergoing laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG), distal gastrectomy (DG), or total gastrectomy (TG). Total body protein and fat mass were measured by performing a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis using an inBody II machine (Biospace, Tokyo, Japan) in 108 patients (72 men, 36 women) who had undergone LAG (n=24), DG (n=39), or TG (n=45). Changes between the preoperative data and results obtained on postoperative day 14 and 6 months after surgery were then evaluated. The mean preoperative body weight of the subjects was 57.6+/-10.7 kg, the mean body mass index was 22.5+/-3.4 kg/m(2), and the mean fat % was 24%+/-7%. In the immediate postoperative period (14 days), the body weight loss in the LAG group was significantly lower than in the DG and TG groups (2.5+/-0.9 kg vs. 3.5+/-1.8 kg and 4.0+/-1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.0001). The body composition studies demonstrated a loss of total body protein rather than fat mass. Six months after surgery, body weight was not significantly different from preoperative values in the LAG and DG groups (-1.2+/-3.8 kg and -1.8+/-4.7 kg, respectively), but had decreased by 8.9+/-4.9 kg in the TG group (P=0.0003). A body composition analysis revealed a loss of fat mass in the DG and TG groups. The patients who underwent gastrectomy lost body protein mass during the early postoperative period. The type and extent of surgery has an effect on long-term body mass and composition. Bioelectric impedance analysis can be used to assess body composition and may be useful for nutritional assessment in patients who have undergone gastrectomy.

  16. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive decline in elders: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor; Sink, Kaycee M; Sutton Tyrrell, Kim; Watson, Nora; Satterfield, Suzanne; Harris, Tamara; Yaffe, Kristine

    2013-02-01

    Arterial stiffness is a measure of subclinical cardiovascular disease and increases with age. This study examines the association between arterial stiffness and cognitive decline in a cohort of older adults. A total of 2488 subjects with baseline measure of arterial stiffness (mean age, 74.2 years; 52.3% women) were prospectively followed over 9 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse wave velocity (PWV) and analyzed in tertiles. Cognitive function was assessed using the Modified Mini-Mental State examination at baseline and repeated at years 3, 5, 8, and 10. Lower Modified Mini-Mental State examination scores indicate worse function. We fit linear mixed models to examine longitudinal changes in cognitive function over the 9 years of follow-up and logistic regression models, restricted to 1331 participants, to examine cognitive impairment defined as a decrease of ≥5 points after 9 years. We adjusted for sociodemographics, Apoe4, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The annual decrease in Modified Mini-Mental State examination scores was 0.30 points at low PWV (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.37 to -0.22), 0.46 points at middle PWV (95% CI, -0.54 to -0.39), and 0.45 points at high PWV (95% CI, -0.53 to -0.38), from fully adjusted linear mixed models. In fully adjusted models, the odds of cognitive impairment after 9 years of follow-up was 40% greater for subjects with middle PWV (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92) and 59% greater for subjects with high PWV (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16-2.18), compared with low PWV. High arterial stiffness was modestly associated with cognitive decline and impairment. Interventions to prevent arterial stiffness may be effective in delaying cognitive decline.

  17. Visual impairment and incident mobility limitations: the health, aging and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenor, Bonnielin K; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Newman, Anne B; Rubin, Susan; Wilson, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between multiple measures of visual impairment (VI) and incident mobility limitations in older adults. Prospective observational cohort study. Memphis, Tennessee, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Health, Aging and Body Composition study participants aged 70 to 79 without mobility limitations at the Year 3 visit (N = 1,862). Vision was measured at the Year 3 visit, and VI was defined as distance visual acuity (VA) worse than 20/40, contrast sensitivity (CS) less than 1.55 log Contrast, and stereoacuity (SA) greater than 85 arcsec. Incident persistent walking and stair climbing limitation was defined as two consecutive 6-month reports of any difficulty walking one-quarter of a mile or walking up 10 steps after 1, 3, and 5 years of follow-up. At Year 3 (baseline for these analyses), 7.4% had impaired VA, 27.2% had impaired CS, and 29.2% had impaired SA. At all follow-up times, the incidence of walking and stair climbing limitations was higher in participants with VA, CS, or SA impairment. After 5 years, impaired CS and SA were independently associated with greater risk of walking limitation (hazard ratio (HR)CS = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.7; HRSA = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6) and stair climbing limitation (HRCS = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.8; HRSA = 1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.7). Having impaired CS and SA was associated with greater risk of mobility limitations (HRwalking limitations = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.6-2.5; HRstair limitation = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.6-2.8). Multiple aspects of VI may contribute to mobility limitations in older adults. Addressing more than one component of vision may be needed to reduce the effect of vision impairment on functional decline. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Fluid status in peritoneal dialysis patients: the European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM study cohort.

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    Wim Van Biesen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. METHODS: We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. RESULTS: Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R² of the model = 0.57. CONCLUSIONS: The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia.

  19. The association between ambulatory activity, body composition and hip or knee joint replacement due to osteoarthritis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munugoda, I P; Wills, K; Cicuttini, F; Graves, S E; Lorimer, M; Jones, G; Callisaya, M L; Aitken, D

    2018-02-21

    To examine the association between ambulatory activity (AA), body composition measures and hip or knee joint replacement (JR) due to osteoarthritis. At baseline, 1082 community-dwelling older-adults aged 50-80 years were studied. AA was measured objectively using pedometer and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The incidence of primary (first-time) JR was determined by data linkage to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry (AOANJRR). Log binomial regression with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the risk of JR associated with baseline AA and body composition measures, adjusting for age, sex, X-ray disease severity, and pain. Over 13 years of follow-up, 74 (6.8%) participants had a knee replacement (KR) and 50 (4.7%) a hip replacement (HR). AA was associated with a higher risk of KR (RR 1.09/1000 steps/day, 95% CI 1.01, 1.16) and a lower risk of HR (RR 0.90/1000 steps/day, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99). Body mass index (BMI) (RR 1.07/kg/m 2 , 95% CI 1.03, 1.12), total fat mass (RR 1.04/kg, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), trunk fat mass (RR 1.04/kg, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), and waist circumference (RR 1.03/cm, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) were associated with a higher risk of KR. Body composition measures were not associated with HR. An objective measure of AA was associated with a small increased risk of KR and a small reduced risk of HR. Worse body composition profiles were associated with knee, but not HR. Altogether this may suggest different causal pathways for each site with regard to habitual activity and obesity. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Independent and combined influence of neonatal and current body composition on academic performance in youth: The UP & DOWN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, I; Tejero-González, C M; Castro-Piñero, J; Conde-Caveda, J; Cabanas-Sanchez, V; Sallis, J F; Veiga, Óscar L

    2015-06-01

    Unhealthy body composition is a cause for concern across the lifespan. The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined associations between neonatal and current body composition with academic performance among youth. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a total of 1557 youth (745 girls) aged 10.4 ± 3.4 years. Birth weight and length at birth were self-reported. Current body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat (BF%). Academic performance was assessed through schools records. Birth weight was related to all academic variables in boys, independent of potential confounders, including BMI; whereas WC, BMI and BF% were related to all academic performance indicators in both boys and girls, independent of potential confounders, including birth weight (all P academic performance were observed in both boys and girls for grade point average (GPA) indicator. Boys in the group with none adverse effect had significantly higher scores in GPA (score +0.535; 95% confidence interval, 0.082-0.989) than boys in the group of both adverse effects (P academic performance in youth. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  1. Sex and age specific prediction formulas for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance : a cross-validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Weststrate, J A; Seidell, J C

    In 827 male and female subjects, with a large variation in body composition and an age range of 7-83 years, body composition was measured by densitometry, anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. The relationship between densitometrically determined fat free mass (FFM) with body impedance (R),

  2. Association of DPP-4 activity with BMD, body composition, and incident hip fracture: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, L D; Bůžková, P; Fink, H A; Robbins, J A; Bethel, M; Isales, C M; Hill, W D

    2017-05-01

    There was no association of plasma DPP-4 activity levels with bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, or incident hip fractures in a cohort of elderly community-dwelling adults. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inactivates several key hormones including those that stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, and DPP-4 inhibitors (gliptins) are approved to treat diabetes. While DPP-4 is known to modulate osteogenesis, the relationship between DPP-4 activity and skeletal health is uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to examine possible associations between DPP-4 activity in elderly subjects enrolled in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and BMD, body composition measurements, and incident hip fractures. All 1536 male and female CHS participants who had evaluable DXA scans and plasma for DPP-4 activity were included in the analyses. The association between (1) BMD of the total hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and total body; (2) body composition measurements (% lean, % fat, and total body mass); and (3) incident hip fractures and plasma levels of DPP-4 activity were determined. Mean plasma levels of DPP-4 activity were significantly higher in blacks (227 ± 78) compared with whites (216 ± 89) (p = 0.04). However, there was no significant association of DPP-4 activity with age or gender (p ≥ 0.14 for both). In multivariable adjusted models, there was no association of plasma DPP-4 activity with BMD overall (p ≥ 0.55 for all) or in gender stratified analyses (p ≥ 0.23). There was also no association of DPP-4 levels and incident hip fractures overall (p ≥ 0.24) or in gender stratified analyses (p ≥ 0.39). Plasma DPP-4 activity, within the endogenous physiological range, was significantly associated with race, but not with BMD, body composition, or incident hip fractures in elderly community-dwelling subjects.

  3. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and body composition in an elderly cohort from Germany: a cross-sectional study

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    Jungert Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging evidence indicates that there is an association between vitamin D and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the level of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] in the elderly is influenced by parameters of anthropometry and body composition independent of potential confounding lifestyle factors and the level of serum intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH. Methods Cross-sectional data of 131 independently living participants (90 women, 41 men; aged 66–96 years of the longitudinal study on nutrition and health status in senior citizens of Giessen, Germany were analysed. Concentrations of 25(OHD3 and iPTH were ascertained by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Body composition was measured by a bioelectrical impedance analysis. We performed univariate and multiple regression analyses to examine the influence of body composition on 25(OHD3 with adjustments for age, iPTH and lifestyle factors. Results In univariate regression analyses, 25(OHD3 was associated with body mass index (BMI, hip circumference and total body fat (TBF in women, but not in men. Using multiple regression analyses, TBF was shown to be a negative predictor of 25(OHD3 levels in women even after controlling for age, lifestyle and iPTH (ß = −0.247; P = 0.016, whereas the associations between BMI, hip circumference and 25(OHD3 lost statistical significance after adjusting for iPTH. In men, 25(OHD3 was not affected by anthropometric or body composition variables. Conclusions The results indicate that 25(OHD3 levels are affected by TBF, especially in elderly women, independent of lifestyle factors and iPTH.

  4. Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study

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    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity (resistance exercise (HIT and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30–50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as “single-set-to-failure protocol,” while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6 s WB-EMS, 4 s rest; 85 Hz, 350 ms over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press. LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93±1.15% were significant (p=.001; however, no significant group differences were detected (p=.395. Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7±14.7%, p=.002, versus WB-EMS 7.3±10.3%, p=.012 with no significant (p=.215 between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.

  5. Composición y equilibrio corporal de personas con discapacidad intelectual: estudio descriptivo. [Body composition and body balance in people with intellectual disabilities: a descriptive study].

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    Ruth Cabeza-Ruiz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la composición corporal y el equilibrio corporal de adultos con discapacidad intelectual. Métodos: Estudio transversal descriptivo y comparación de resultados con valores de referencia presentados en población sin discapacidad. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 86 hombres y 36 mujeres con discapacidad intelectual con edades comprendidas entre los 21 y los 60 años. Se evaluaron el equilibrio estático, dinámico y la composición corporal mediante las pruebas del Alpha-Fit Test Battery for Adults. Resultados: Los resultados obtenidos por los participantes fueron comparados con valores de referencia de personas sin discapacidad y se muestran como media y desviación típica para diferentes grupos de edad. Los análisis descriptivos mostraron que las personas con discapacidad obtuvieron resultados relacionados con un alto riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular en relación a la composición corporal, presentando la mayoría de ellos sobrepeso y valores elevados de circunferencia de cintura. En relación al equilibrio, tanto en posiciones estáticas como dinámicas, los participantes presentaron resultados vinculados a una baja condición física. Conclusiones: La composición corporal y la capacidad de equilibrio de las personas con discapacidad intelectual evaluadas en el presente estudio son comparables a la de adultos mayores sin discapacidad de referencia. Abstract Purpose: To assess body composition and body balance, both static and dynamic, of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was used. 86 men and 36 women with intellectual disabilities participated in the study (21-60 years old. The Alpha-Fit Test Battery for Adults was used to evaluate dynamic and static balance and body composition. Results: Results were compared to published reference values from people without disabilities. Results are showed as mean and standard deviation for each age group. Body composition variables

  6. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

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    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  7. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Shanei, Ahmad; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Khoshhali, Mehri; Asgari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body composition prediction equations by various anthropometric measures instead of a whole body DXA scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 143 adult patients underwent DXA evaluation of the whole body. The anthropometric indices were also measured. Datasets were split randomly into two parts. Multiple regression analysis with a backward stepwise elimination procedure was used as the derivation set and then the estimates were compared with the actual measurements from the whole-body scans for a validation set. The SPSS version 20 for Windows software was used in multiple regression and data analysis. Results: Using multiple linear regression analyses, the best equation for predicting the whole-body fat mass (R2 = 0.808) included the body mass index (BMI) and gender; the best equation for predicting whole-body lean mass (R2 = 0.780) included BMI, WC, gender, and age; and the best equation for predicting trunk fat mass (R2 = 0.759) included BMI, WC, and gender. Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets. PMID:25709999

  8. Does vagal nerve stimulation affect body composition and metabolism? Experimental study of a new potential technique in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocki, Jacek; Fourtanier, Gilles; Estany, Joan; Otal, Phillipe

    2006-02-01

    It has been shown that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) can affect body mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of VNS on body mass, body composition, metabolic rate, and plasma leptin and IGF-I levels. Eight female pigs were included in the study. Under general anesthesia, a bipolar electrode was implanted on the anterior vagal nerve by laparoscopy. Group A was treated by VNS, and group B was the control. After 4 weeks, stimulation was discontinued in group A and started in group B. The following parameters were evaluated: body mass, body composition, metabolic rate, plasma leptin and IGF-1 levels and intramuscular fat content (IMF). VNS attenuated body weight gain (2.28 +/- 3.47 kg vs 14.04 +/- 6.75 kg; P = .0112, for stimulation and nonstimulation periods, respectively), backfat gain (0.04 +/- 0.26 mm vs 2.31 +/- 1.12 mm) and IMF gain (-3.76 +/- 6.06 mg/g MS vs 7.24 +/- 12.90 mg/g MS; P = .0281). VNS resulted in lower backfat depth/loin muscle area ratio (0.33 +/- 0.017 vs 0.38 +/- 0.35; P = .0476). Lower plasma IGF-I concentration was found after VNS (-3.67 +/- -11.55 ng/mL vs 9.86 +/- 10.74 ng/mL; P = .0312). No significant changes in other parameters were observed. VNS affects body weight mainly at the expense of body fat resources; however, metabolic rate is not affected.

  9. Impact of maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy on neonatal body composition: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacce, Sol; Saure, Carola; Mazza, Carmen S; Garcia, Silvia; Tomzig, Rita G; Lopez, Ana P; Ribarola, Lucio; Krochick, Gabriela A

    2016-01-01

    The existence of early factors which, acting during critical periods of intrauterine or immediate postnatal development, determine long-term health has become increasingly recognized. Both high and low birth weight have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors in adulthood. Therefore, body composition at birth rather than birth weight may be a marker to predict future diseases. Maternal weight previous to and gained during pregnancy is associated with intrauterine fetal growth. To evaluate the correlation between maternal nutritional status before and during pregnancy and neonatal body composition. We studied consecutive mother-child pairs at delivery at an Argentinean public hospital during 5 months period, evaluating maternal and neonatal anthropometry before 24h of life as well as the history of the mother before and during pregnancy. Neonatal body composition was calculated according to a mathematical formula based on skinfold thickness measurement validated in newborns. Mothers of newborns with high body fat mass were more frequently obese (72.7% versus 35.1%, p 0.005), and more frequently showed weight gain above 18kg during pregnancy (76.4% versus 31%, p 0.03). Our findings confirm the hypothesis that maternal obesity before pregnancy is highly correlated with neonatal fat mass in the first hours of life. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Parental determinants of neonatal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, N C; Poole, J R; Javaid, M K; Dennison, E M; Robinson, S; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Cooper, C; Sayer, A Aihie

    2007-02-01

    The prevalence of both childhood and adult obesity is rising in the developed world, and there is increasing interest in its underlying causes. A number of studies suggest a positive relationship between birth weight and childhood body mass index, but less is known about specific prenatal environmental influences on more direct measures of obesity. We used data from the Southampton Women's Survey to investigate parental influences on neonatal body composition ascertained by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Participating mothers were characterized in detail (anthropometry, lifestyle, diet) before and during pregnancy; information was also obtained on their partners. The offspring underwent assessment of fat and lean body mass by dual x-ray absorptiometry within 2 wk of birth. Linear regression methods were used to explore the parental determinants of neonatal body composition. Complete data were available for 448 mother-offspring pairs. Taller women and those with higher parity had offspring with increased birth weight, fat, and lean mass (P body fat at birth (all P Maternal size, parity, smoking history, walking speed, and fat stores are independent determinants of neonatal body composition. If these influences are shown to have persisting effects on body composition through to adulthood, they point to novel public health interventions early in life to prevent later obesity.

  11. Associations between maternal lifestyle factors and neonatal body composition in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (Cork) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahly, Darren L; Li, Xia; Smith, Hazel A; Khashan, Ali S; Murray, Deirdre M; Kiely, Mairead E; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; McCarthy, Fergus P; Kenny, Louise C; Kearney, Patricia M

    2018-02-01

    Neonatal body composition likely mediates fetal influences on life long chronic disease risk. A better understanding of how maternal lifestyle is related to newborn body composition could thus inform intervention efforts. Using Cork participant data (n = 1754) from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) cohort study [ECM5(10)05/02/08], we estimated how pre-pregnancy body size, gestational weight gain, exercise, alcohol, smoking and diet were related to neonatal fat and fat-free mass, as well as length and gestational age at birth, using quantile regression. Maternal factors were measured by a trained research midwife at 15 gestational weeks, in addition to a 3rd trimester weight measurement used to calculate weight gain. Infant body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography. Healthy (versus excess) gestational weight gain was associated with lower median fat-free mass [-112 g, 95% confidence interval (CI): -47 to -176) and fat mass (-33 g, 95% CI: -1 to -65) in the offspring; and a 103 g decrease in the 95th centile of fat mass (95% CI: -33 to -174). Maternal normal weight status (versus obesity) was associated with lower median fat mass (-48 g, 95% CI: -12 to -84). At the highest centiles, fat mass was lower among infants of women who engaged in frequent moderate-intensity exercise early in the pregnancy (-92 g at the 95th centile, 95% CI: -168 to -16). Lastly, women who never smoked tended to have longer babies with more fat mass and fat-free mass. No other lifestyle factors were strongly related to infant body composition. These results suggest that supporting healthy maternal lifestyles could reduce the risk of excess fat accumulation in the offspring, without adversely affecting fat-free mass development, length or gestational age. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  12. Body Composition, Nutritional Profile and Muscular Fitness Affect Bone Health in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero-Bogotá, Mónica Adriana; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RíoValle, Jacqueline; Navarro-Pérez, Carmen Flores; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF) and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA) was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Standing long-jump (SLJ) and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used respectively as indicators of lower and upper body muscular fitness. A muscular index score was also computed by summing up the standardised values of both SLJ and handgrip strength. Dietary intake and degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were assessed by a 7-day recall questionnaire for food frequency and the Kidmed questionnaire. Poor bone health was considered using a z-score cut off of ≤−1.5 standard deviation. Once the results were adjusted for age and Tanner stage, the predisposing factors of having a c-BUA z-score ≤−1.5 standard deviation included being underweight or obese, having an unhealthy lean mass, having an unhealthy fat mass, SLJ performance, handgrip performance, and unhealthy muscular index score. In conclusion, body composition (fat mass and lean body mass) and MF both influenced bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Thus promoting strength adaptation and preservation in Colombian youth will help to improve bone health, an important protective factor against osteoporosis in later life. PMID:28165360

  13. Body Composition, Nutritional Profile and Muscular Fitness Affect Bone Health in a Sample of Schoolchildren from Colombia: The Fuprecol Study

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    Mónica Adriana Forero-Bogotá

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationships between body composition, nutritional profile, muscular fitness (MF and bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Participants included 1118 children and adolescents (54.6% girls. Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (c-BUA was obtained as a marker of bone health. Body composition (fat mass and lean mass was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Furthermore height, weight, waist circumference and Tanner stage were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated. Standing long-jump (SLJ and isometric handgrip dynamometry were used respectively as indicators of lower and upper body muscular fitness. A muscular index score was also computed by summing up the standardised values of both SLJ and handgrip strength. Dietary intake and degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet were assessed by a 7-day recall questionnaire for food frequency and the Kidmed questionnaire. Poor bone health was considered using a z-score cut off of ≤−1.5 standard deviation. Once the results were adjusted for age and Tanner stage, the predisposing factors of having a c-BUA z-score ≤−1.5 standard deviation included being underweight or obese, having an unhealthy lean mass, having an unhealthy fat mass, SLJ performance, handgrip performance, and unhealthy muscular index score. In conclusion, body composition (fat mass and lean body mass and MF both influenced bone health in a sample of children and adolescents from Colombia. Thus promoting strength adaptation and preservation in Colombian youth will help to improve bone health, an important protective factor against osteoporosis in later life.

  14. Lifetime psychiatric disorders and body composition: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lana J; Pasco, Julie A; Henry, Margaret J; Jacka, Felice N; Dodd, Seetal; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between depressive and anxiety disorders and indices of adiposity, including body fat mass and percent body fat, as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. In this observational study of 979 randomly-selected women aged 20-93 years, psychiatric history was ascertained using a structured clinical interview (SCID-I/NP). Total body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and weight, height and waist circumference were measured. Medication use and lifestyle factors were self-reported. Those with a lifetime history of depression had increased fat mass (+7.4%) and percent body fat (+4.3%), as well as greater mean weight (+3.3%), waist circumference (+2.9%) and BMI (+3.5%) after adjustment for age, anxiety, alcohol consumption, physical activity and past smoking. Furthermore, those meeting criteria for a lifetime history of depression had a 1.7-fold increased odds of being overweight or obese (BMI>or=25), a 2.0-fold increased odds of being obese (BMI>or=30) and a 1.8-fold increased odds of having a waist circumference >or=80 cm. These patterns persisted after further adjustment for psychotropic medication use, smoking status and energy intake. No differences in any measures of adiposity were observed among those with anxiety disorders compared to controls. There is potential for unrecognised confounding, interpretations are limited to women and a temporal relationship could not be inferred. Depression was associated with greater adiposity. The difference in body fat mass was numerically greater than differences in indirect measures of adiposity, suggesting that the latter may underestimate the extent of adiposity in this population.

  15. Differences in body composition, body proportions and timing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in body composition, proportions and timing of puberty between stunted and non-stunted South African adolescents in the North West Province, South Africa. A total of 259 black adolescents (118 boys, 141 girls), aged 13-18 years were measured. The following data were ...

  16. The development of in-vivo body composition studies at Swansea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.D.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements were made of organ cadmium contents in hypertensive and normotensive subjects and in occupationally-exposed workers, using a partial-body prompt gamma neutron activation technique based on a 252 Cf source. A feasibility study to measure beryllium in the lung by photonuclear reaction is in progress. Future plans include the measurement of silicon by neutron inelastic scattering, and the use of X-ray fluorescence analysis for the measurement of heavy metals. (author)

  17. Malnutrition and body composition in urban and rural schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study in San Rafael, Mendoza (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraza, Mariela; Cesani, María F; Navone, Graciela T; Oyhenart, Evelia E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the nutritional status and body composition of children from San Rafael, Mendoza, avoiding urban and rural categorization by generating subpopulations as a function of their socio-environmental characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3,596 schoolchildren from 4.0 to 13.9 years of age. Body weight, height, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured. Body mass index, total muscle, and fat areas of the arm were calculated. To estimate nutritional status and body composition, the NHANES III reference was used. The socio-environmental variables were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. These variables were processed by categorical principal-component analysis (catPCA). The catPCA allowed the differentiation of four groups, three with urban characteristics (high urban, medium urban, impoverished urban), and a rural group. Stunting occurred at a higher rate in the impoverished urban group, and the occurrence of underweight children was higher in the rural group. The prevalence of excess weight varied in the range of 20-26%. The latter value corresponded to children of the high urban group, who also did not show reduced muscle mass. Children from San Rafael presented differences in nutritional condition and body composition associated with pronounced socio-environmental heterogeneity. Thus, we could observe a gradient from the "high urban" group, with better social, economic, and sanitation conditions and at the same time a more obesogenic environment to the "impoverished urban" and "rural" groups, whose vulnerability reflected a higher prevalence of child undernutrition and the association with excess weight and reduced muscle mass. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:796-803, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Probiotics during weaning: a follow-up study on effects on body composition and metabolic markers at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Videhult, Frida; Öhlund, Inger; Stenlund, Hans; Hernell, Olle; West, Christina E

    2015-04-01

    An aberrant gut microbiome has been suggested to contribute to the worldwide epidemic of obesity. In animal models, the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei F19 (LF19) induced upregulation of genes involved in energy homoeostasis, reduced body fat and altered the serum (S) lipoprotein profile. In our previous report, feeding LF19 to infants during weaning impacted the global plasma metabolome. LF19 lowered palmitoleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid associated with hypertriglyceridemia and increased visceral adiposity. Therefore, we assessed if feeding LF19 from 4 to 13 months of age would have long-term effects on body composition, growth and metabolic markers. Of 179 children included in our baseline study, 120 entered the follow-up at 8-9 years of age, n = 58 in the probiotic and n = 62 in the placebo group. Body composition was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometrics of the child and accompanying parent(s) were assessed. S-lipids, insulin, glucose and transaminases were determined after overnight fasting. LF19 did not affect body mass index z-score, sagittal abdominal diameter, fat-free mass, fat mass index, truncal fat %, android or gynoid fat % and had no long-term impact on any of the assessed metabolic markers (p > 0.05). Feeding LF19 during infancy did not modulate body composition, growth or any of the assessed metabolic markers at school age. The steady increase in probiotic products targeting infants and children calls for long-term follow-up of initiated probiotic intervention studies.

  19. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Marion; Leermakers, Elisabeth Tm; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Steegers, Eric Ap; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect body composition of the offspring later in life, but evidence is still scarce. We aimed to examine whether maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with body composition of the child at age 6 y. This study was performed among 2695 Dutch mother-child pairs from a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward. Maternal diet was assessed in early pregnancy by a 293-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Vegetable, fish, and oil; nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals; and margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. We measured weight and height of the child at age 6 y at the research center. Total body fat and regional fat mass percentages of the child were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the crude models, statistically significant associations were found for higher adherence to the vegetable, fish, and oil dietary pattern and the nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals dietary pattern with lower body mass index, lower fat mass index, and lower risk of being overweight, but none of these associations remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. We found no associations between the margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary pattern and any of the outcomes. Our results suggest that the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y are to a large extent explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of mother and child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Efficacy of WBV as a modality for inducing changes in body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular strength: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapp LR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lauren R Tapp,1,3 Joseph F Signorile1,2,41Departments of Kinesiology and Sport Sciences, Coral Gables, 2Center on Aging, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 3Department of Kinesiology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Bruce W Carter Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of whole body vibration (WBV training as a modality for inducing changes in body composition, cardiovascular condition, and muscular strength in sedentary postmenopausal women. WBV training was compared with other training regimens, ie, aerobic training and circuit resistance training, commonly used to promote weight loss, cardiovascular conditioning, and muscular strength. Postmenopausal women (aged 48–60 years were randomly assigned to WBV training, circuit resistance training, or aerobic training. Participants trained three times per week for 8 weeks. The training regimens were progressive in nature, with increases in training intensity and duration occurring throughout the 8-week period. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses. A modified Bruce treadmill protocol was used to assess aerobic capacity (VO2peak and time to peak exhaustion. Upper and lower body strengths were determined by one repetition maximum (1-RM chest and leg presses, respectively. Variables were analyzed using separate 3 (exercise mode × 2 (time repeated-measures analysis of variance with effect sizes due to the small sample size. No significant main effects or interactions were seen for any body composition variable; however, moderate to large effect sizes (η2=0.243 and η2=0.257 were detected regarding interactions for percent body fat and lean body mass favoring aerobic training and circuit resistance training. For VO2peak, no significant main effects or interactions were detected (time

  1. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Impact of the age at menarche on body composition in adulthood: results from two birth cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Bubach

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that early menarche is positively associated with adiposity in adulthood. However, it is important to assess whether this association is due to early menarche or to the association of adiposity in late childhood with age at menarche. We evaluated the association between age at menarche and body composition in adolescence and adulthood, among subjects who have been prospectively followed in two Brazilian birth cohort studies. Methods In 1982 and 1993, the hospitals births in Pelotas were identified, and these subjects have been followed for several times. Information on age at menarche was obtained from the women (1982 cohort and their mothers (1993 cohort. At 30 and 18 years, the following body composition measures were evaluated: body mass index, waist circumference, fat-free mass index and fat mass index measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and thickness of the abdominal visceral fat layer measured by ultrasound. The analyses were adjusted for: birth weight, maternal pregestational weight, gestational age, family income, household score index, maternal schooling, weight-for-height z-score at 4 years (1982, and body mass index at 11 years (1993. Results At 30 and 18 years, 2045 and 2092 women were evaluated, respectively. The prevalence of early menarche (≤11 years of age was 24.7 % in the 1982 and 27.6 % in the 1993 cohort. In the 1982 cohort, early menarche was positively associated with all body composition variables compared to those with late menarche (≥14 years of age even after adjusting for confounders (fat mass index: 2.33 kg/m2, 95 % Confidence interval: 1.64; 3.02. However, in the 1993 cohort, after adjusting for body mass index at 11 years, the regression coefficient for the association with fat mass index decreased from 2.2 kg/m2 (95 % Confidence interval: 1.7; 2.6 to 0.26 (95 % Confidence interval: −0.08; 0.60. Conclusions The association between age at menarche

  3. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, Jakob; Schmidt, E B; Obel, Tina

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat......Introduction:Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures...... circumference and BIA of body composition including body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage and LBM were measured at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis and performed extensive control for confounding. Weight, BMI, classical estimates of abdominal obesity and BIA estimates...

  4. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  5. Anthropometric body fat composition reference values in Spanish adolescents. The AVENA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, L A; Mesana, M I; González-Gross, M; Gil, C M; Fleta, J; Wärnberg, J; Ruiz, J R; Sarría, A; Marcos, A; Bueno, M

    2006-02-01

    To determine reference values for body mass index (BMI), sum of six skinfolds (sigma6 skinfolds) and body fat percentage (BF%) in Spanish adolescents aged 13-18 years, included in the AVENA Study (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes: Food and Assessment of the Nutritional Status of Adolescents). Multicentre cross-sectional study. Representative sample of Spanish adolescents. The population was selected by means of a multiplestep, simple random sampling. The final number of subjects included in the AVENA Study was 2859 adolescents; 2160 adolescents had a complete set of anthropometric measurements and were then included in this study (1109 males and 1051 females). Weight, height and six skinfold thicknesses were measured. As indices of total adiposity, we calculated BMI, summation sigma6 skinfolds and BF% with the formulas described by Slaughter et al. Sigma6 skinfolds and BF% in each age group were significantly higher in females than in males. In males, age showed a significant effect for BMI, sigma6 skinfolds and BF%; however, in females, the effect was only significant for BF%. The percentile distribution was more disperse towards higher sigma6 skinfolds and BF% values in males when compared with females. The presented percentile values will help us to classify adolescents in comparison with a well-established reference population, and to estimate the proportion of adolescents with high or low adiposity amounts. The AVENA-Study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Health (FIS 00/0015), and grants from Panrico SA, Madaus SA and Procter and Gamble SA. This study was also supported by Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain), RCESP (C03/09) and Spanish Ministry of Education (AP2003-2128).

  6. Body composition estimation from selected slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total...... the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR). Results and Discussion The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single...

  7. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE COMPOSITION AND BODY COMPOSITION IN HAMMER THROWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Terzis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01. The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05. Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01. Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05. These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance

  8. Body composition, metabolism, sleep, psychological and eating patterns of overtraining syndrome: Results of the EROS study (EROS-PROFILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadegiani, Flavio A; Kater, Claudio E

    2018-01-09

    Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0.004); increased duration of work or study (p sleep, and increased cognitive activity are likely OTS triggers. OTS appears to induce dehydration, increase body fat, decrease libido, and worsen mood.

  9. Body composition, nutritional status, and endothelial function in physically active men without metabolic syndrome--a 25 year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigłowska, Małgorzata; Kostka, Tomasz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Bill-Bielecka, Mirosława; Kwaśniewska, Magdalena

    2016-04-27

    The purpose of this analysis was to investigate the relationship between body composition, metabolic parameters and endothelial function among physically active healthy middle-aged and older men. Out of 101 asymptomatic men prospectively tracked for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (mean observation period 25.1 years), 55 metabolically healthy individuals who maintained stable leisure time physical activity (LTPA) level throughout the observation and agreed to participate in the body composition assessment were recruited (mean age 60.3 ± 9.9 years). Body composition and raw bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Microvascular endothelial function was evaluated by means of the reactive hyperemia index (RHI) using Endo-PAT2000 system. Strong correlations were observed between lifetime physical activity (PA), aerobic fitness and most of analyzed body composition parameters. The strongest inverse correlation was found for fat mass (p metabolic parameters, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and uric acid were significantly associated with most body composition indicators. Regarding endothelial function, a negative correlation was found for RHI and body mass (p metabolic profile. Maintaining regular high PA level and metabolically healthy status through young and middle adulthood may have beneficial influence on body composition parameters and may prevent age-related decrease of fat-free mass and endothelial dysfunction.

  10. Disease-related malnutrition: influence on body composition and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pirlich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a frequent clincal problem with severe medical and economic impact. This work summarizes studies on body composition analysis, risk factors, prevalence and prognostic impact of malnutrition. The diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with chronic liver disease is hampered by hyperhydration and requires body composition analysis. Using four different methods for body composition analysis (total body potassium counting, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analy...

  11. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  12. Influence of extracurricular sport activities on body composition and physical fitness in boys: a 3-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, I; Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Perez-Gomez, J; Jimenez-Ramirez, J; Serrano-Sanchez, J A; Dorado, C; Calbet, J A L

    2006-07-01

    To analyse the effect of extracurricular physical activities on fat mass accumulation and physical fitness during growth in early pubertal males. Longitudinal study. A total of 42 male children (9.4+/-1.4 years, Tanner I-II and 12.7+/-1.5 years, Tanner III-IV, before and after the 3.3 years follow-up, respectively), randomly sampled from the population of Gran Canaria (Spain), 26 of them physically active (PA, at least 3 h per week during 3 years) and 16 non-physically active (non-PA). Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), anthropometrics (body circumferences and skinfolds) and physical fitness variables (dynamic and isometric force, anaerobic capacity and maximal aerobic power) were determined in all subjects. Both groups had comparable body sizes at the start and the end of the study. Body mass index increased with growth more in the PA than in the non-PA group (Pactive children (r2=0.93). In contrast, there was an inverse relationship between the total lean mass growth and the accumulation of total and regional fat mass (r=-0.37 to -0.41, all Pactivities are more protected against total and regional fat mass accumulation. They also increase their total lean and bone mass to a greater extent than children who do not participate in extracurricular sport activities. In addition, PA children maintain their physical fitness during growth, while it deteriorates in the non-PA children.

  13. Trajectories of the relationships of physical activity with body composition changes in older men: the MrOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddu, Deepika R; Cawthon, Peggy M; Parimi, Neeta; Hoffman, Andrew R; Orwoll, Eric; Miljkovic, Iva; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2017-06-05

    Excess adiposity gains and significant lean mass loss may be risk factors for chronic disease in old age. Long-term patterns of change in physical activity (PA) and their influence on body composition decline during aging has not been characterized. We evaluated the interrelationships of PA and body composition at the outset and over longitudinal follow-up to changes in older men. Self-reported PA by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), clinic body weight, and whole-body lean mass (LM) and fat mass, by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), were assessed in 5964 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years at baseline (2000-2002) and at two subsequent clinic visits up until March 2009 (an average 4.6 and 6.9 years later). Group-based trajectory modeling (GBTM) identified patterns of change in PA and body composition variables. Relationships of PA and body composition changes were then assessed. GBTM identified three discrete trajectory patterns, all with declining PA, associated primarily with initial PA levelshigh-activity (7.2% of men), moderate-activity (50.0%), and low-activity (42.8%). In separate models, GBTM identified eight discrete total weight change groups, five fat mass change groups, and six LM change groups. Joint trajectory modeling by PA and body composition group illustrated significant declines in total weight and LM, whereas fat mass levels were relatively unchanged among high-activity and low-activity-declining groups, and significantly increased in the moderate-activity-declining group. Although patterns of change in PA and body composition were identified, groups were primarily differentiated by initial PA or body composition rather than by distinct trajectories of change in these variables.

  14. Sugar-containing beverage intake in toddlers and body composition up to age 6 years: the Generation R study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leermakers, E T M; Felix, J F; Erler, N S; Ćerimagić, A; Wijtzes, A I; Hofman, A; Raat, H; Moll, H A; Rivadeneira, F; Jaddoe, V W V; Franco, O H; Kiefte-de Jong, J C

    2015-03-01

    Intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) has been associated with higher body mass index (BMI) in childhood. The potential effect of SCB intake during infancy is unclear. We examined the association of SCB intake at 13 months with BMI development until 6 years and body composition at age 6 years. This study included 2371 Dutch children from a population-based prospective cohort study. SCB intake at 13 months was assessed using a Food Frequency Questionnaire with validation against 24-h recalls and was standardized for total energy. BMI was calculated from repeated weight and height measurements, and age- and sex-specific s.d. scores were calculated. Adiposity was measured using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In girls, higher SCB intake at 13 months was significantly associated with higher BMI at ages 2, 3, 4 and 6 years (at age 6 years BMI (s.d. score) increase 0.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) +0.00; 0.23), high versus low intake). We observed a tendency towards higher android/gynoid fat ratio in girls with high intake (s.d. increase 0.14 (95% CI -0.02; 0.29), versus low intake) but not with body fat percentage. In boys, there was no association with BMI or body composition, but boys with high SCB intake at 13 months were taller at age 6 years (s.d. increase 0.14 (95% CI +0.00; 0.27), versus low intake). Higher SCB intake at 13 months was associated with higher BMI up to age 6 years in girls but not in boys. Our results imply that the unfavorable effects of SCB intake start early in life and that dietary advice regarding limiting SCB intake should already be given early in life.

  15. Assessment methods in human body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2008-09-01

    The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth.

  16. Assessment methods in human body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Recent findings Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. Summary There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth. PMID:18685451

  17. Muscle Fibre Type Composition and Body Composition in Hammer Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01). The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05). Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01). Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05). These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key points Well-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls. Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance. The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation. PMID:24149393

  18. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  19. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.

    Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and

  20. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  1. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  2. A comparative study on nutritional status and body composition of urban and rural schoolchildren from Brandsen district (Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Florencia Cesani

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina. Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA and muscular (DM, EM tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2. The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00. We conclude that the child population shows the "double burden" of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in

  3. A comparative study on nutritional status and body composition of urban and rural schoolchildren from Brandsen district (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesani, Maria Florencia; Garraza, Mariela; Bergel Sanchís, María Laura; Luis, María Antonia; Torres, María Fernanda; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze whether nutritional status and body composition varies according to the environment of residence (urban or rural) of children in the Brandsen district (Argentina). Weight, height, arm circumference and tricipital and subscapular skinfolds were performed in 1368 schoolchildren aged 3 to 14. NHANES III reference was used to estimate nutritional status -underweight, stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity- and to evaluate body composition -deficit and excess of adipose (DA, EA) and muscular (DM, EM) tissues of the arm-. Central fat distribution (CFD) was estimated using the subscapular-tricipital index. A structured questionnaire was implemented to evaluate socio-environmental characteristics. Nutritional categories based on body size and body composition were compared between urban and rural areas of residence using Chi-squared tests (χ2). The results indicated for the total sample: 1.1% underweight, 6.9% stunting, 0.4% wasting, 12.1% overweight, 9.7% obesity, 22.0% DM, 2.5% EM, 0.1% DA, 17.6% EA, and 8.5% CFD. Significant differences between urban and rural areas were found only for CFD. The socio-environmental analysis showed that while access to public services and housing quality was significantly better in the urban area, a considerable number of city households lived under deficient conditions, lacked health insurance and had low socioeconomic level. Fifty-three percent of the undernourished children had DM without urban-rural significant differences, and none of them showed DA. In the overweight plus obesity group, 62.8% presented EA, 6.4% EM, 4.7% DM, and 22.8% CFD. The highest percentages of DM and CFD were recorded in rural areas (p = 0.00). We conclude that the child population shows the "double burden" of malnutrition. The environment of residence does not promote any differentiation in the nutritional status. Nevertheless, the increment of central adiposity and, in some cases of muscle deficit in rural

  4. Effects of Indoor Rowing Exercise on the Body Composition and the Scoliosis of Visually Impaired People: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ka-Young; Choi, Eun-Hi; Lim, Jong-Youb; Cho, Ah-Ra; Lim, Young-Ho

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of rowing exercise on body composition, laboratory data, fitness and scoliosis in visually impaired people. The majority of visually impaired people do not participate in active sports due to efficiency and safety issues. Rowing is a safe whole-body exercise with aerobic and anaerobic components. Twenty subjects were recruited from among those admitted to a facility for visually impaired people (16 men and 4 women). Laboratory data, body composition, physical fitness, Cobb's angle, and fall index were checked before and after 6 weeks (5 days a week) of indoor rowing using Concept2 Model E. After the training, fat mass and total body fat percent decreased significantly. In the fitness test, back strength and trunk flexion score increased significantly. Laboratory data showed significant increases in serum protein and albumin and decreases in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. There were 9 subjects with scoliosis and after the training Cobb's angle decreased by 1.11°±1.55°, though this was not statistically significant. Visually impaired people frequently have abnormal body composition, low physical fitness, and scoliosis. A rowing exercise program can be helpful, with a positive effect on body composition and physical fitness; however, with respect to scoliosis, we need an earlier intervention program in visually impaired people.

  5. Impact of a ketogenic diet intervention during radiotherapy on body composition: II. Protocol of a randomised phase I study (KETOCOMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J; Sweeney, Reinhart A

    2016-04-01

    We have found that a ketogenic diet (KD) during the course of radiotherapy (RT) was feasible and led to a preservation or favorable changes of body composition. Based on these observations and theoretical considerations, we initiated a study to investigate the impact of a KD or a ketogenic breakfast intervention in patients undergoing RT. All patients presenting for curative RT with age between 18 and 75, body mass index between 18 and 34 kg/m 2 and a histologically confirmed cancer of the breast, colorectum or head and neck region are considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria are Karnofsky index radiotherapy fraction after an overnight fast and subsequently ingest a ketogenic breakfast consisting of (i) 50-250 ml of a medium-chain triglyceride drink (betaquick ® , vitaflo, Bad Homburg, Germany) plus (ii) 5-15 g amino acids (MAP, dr. reinwald healthcare gmbh+co kg, Schwarzenbruck, Germany). If willing to undertake a complete KD for the duration of RT, patients are entered into intervention group 2. Intervention group 2 does not have to fast prior to RT fractions but will be supplemented with MAP analogous to intervention group 1. The control group will not receive dietary advice to follow a KD or reduce carbohydrate intake. The objective is twofold: (i) to test whether the ketogenic interventions are feasibly, as measured by the number of dropouts; (ii) to see whether intervention groups 1 and 2 attain a better preservation of BIA phase angle than the control group. Primary endpoints are the feasibility of the interventions (measured through dropout rates), and changes in body weight and composition (measured through BIA). Secondary endpoints are changes in quality of life (EORTC questionnaires) and blood parameters as well as the occurrence and grade of toxicities and grade of regression after surgery in case of colorectal carcinomas. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  7. Novel Combined Training Approach Improves Sleep Quality but Does Not Change Body Composition in Healthy Elderly Women: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago Matheus da Silva Sousa; Bruno Rodrigues; Marco Carlos Uchida; Olivia de Moraes Ruberti; Paulo Adriano Schwingel; Tânia Maria Gaspar Novais; Paula de Lourdes Lauande Oliveira; Fabiano de Jesus Furtado Almeida; Janaína Oliveira Bentivi Pulcherio; Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel combined training protocol on sleep quality and body composition of healthy elderly women. The study sample consisted of 8 sedentary elderly individuals with mean (±SD) of 67 (±8) years of age, 96.0 (±7.8) mg/dL fasting blood glucose, 94.4 (±36.1) mg/dL triglycerides, 179.1 (±22.4) mg/dL total cholesterol, 57.2 (±15.7) mg/dL high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 103.1 (±25.2) mg/dL low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 125.3 (±8.4) mmHg systo...

  8. Understanding the Essential Meaning of Measured Changes in Weight and Body Composition Among Women During and After Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Groenkjaer, Mette; Falkmer, Ursula; Delmar, Charlotte

    Changes in weight and body composition among women during and after adjuvant antineoplastic treatment for breast cancer may influence long-term survival and quality of life. Research on factual weight changes is diverse and contrasting, and their influence on women's perception of body and self seems to be insufficiently explored. The aim of this study was to expand the understanding of the association between changes in weight and body composition and the women's perception of body and selves. A mixed-methods research design was used. Data consisted of weight and body composition measures from 95 women with breast cancer during 18 months past surgery. Twelve women from this cohort were interviewed individually at 12 months. Linear mixed model and logistic regression were used to estimate changes of repeated measures and odds ratio. Interviews were analyzed guided by existential phenomenology. Joint displays and integrative mixed-methods interpretation demonstrated that even small weight gains, extended waist, and weight loss were associated with fearing recurrence of breast cancer. Perceiving an ambiguous transforming body, the women moved between a unified body subject and the body as an object dissociated in "I" and "it" while fighting against or accepting the body changes. Integrating findings demonstrated that factual weight changes do not correspond with the perceived changes and may trigger existential threats. Transition to a new habitual body demand health practitioners to enter a joint narrative work to reveal how the changes impact on the women's body and self-perception independent of how they are displayed quantitatively.

  9. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon

  10. Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N.; Wielopolski, L.

    1981-01-01

    A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)

  11. Funen Anorexia Nervosa Study - a follow-up study on outcome, mortality, quality of life and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel

    2017-06-01

    association between EDI scores and BMI was observed in AN and EDNOS, despite remission status, representing an increase in symptomatology with increasing BMI. This was not present in BN. We found no association between HRQoL and BMI in any of the diagnostic groups. Study 3:  Mortality rates were calculated in a large group of ED patients (n=998) including AN, BN and EDNOS with a long follow-up time. We found a SMR of 2.9 for AN, which was considerably lower than previous published results. We compared the results to data from the same catchment area published prior to the establishment of a multidisciplinary ED center. Patients with EDs had a significantly increased risk of premature death compared to the general population; however the mortality rates had decreased since the formation of the ED unit. Study 4: The association between body composition measures and amenorrhea was studied in a cohort of adult patients with a history of AN (n=113) and predicted probabilities for the resumption of menses was determined. We found a high association between DXA scans and BMI in predicting the resumption of menses. Half of the patients were predicted to resume their menstrual status at BMI 19/fat percentage 23, however at BMI 14/fat percentage 11 still 25% of patients were predicted to resume their menses. Articles published in the Danish Medical Journal are “open access”. This means that the articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits any non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.

  12. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  13. Body composition to climate change studies - the many facets of neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra,S.

    2008-11-17

    In-vivo body composition analysis of humans and animals and in-situ analysis of soil using fast neutron inelastic scattering and thermal neutron capture induced prompt-gamma rays have been described. By measuring carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O), protein, fat and water are determined. C determination in soil has become important for understanding below ground carbon sequestration process in the light of climate change studies. Various neutron sources ranging from radio isotopic to compact 14 MeV neutron generators employing the associated particle neutron time-of-flight technique or micro-second pulsing were implemented. Gamma spectroscopy using recently developed digital multi-channel analyzers has also been described.

  14. Association between Berg Balance, Physiological Profile Assessment and Physical Activity, Physical Function and Body Composition: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, D J; Berry, H L; Waddington, G; Anson, J

    2016-01-01

    Falls are of great concern to older adults and costly to the health system. In addition the relationship between falls risk and falls risk predictor characteristics is complex. This study aimed to explore the relationship between two objective fall-risk measures tools, the Physiological Profile Assessment and the Berg Balance Scale and to determine how an individual's sex, level of physical function, health-related and body composition characteristics impact these objective falls risk measures. A cross-sectional, observational study. 245 community-dwelling older adults (M age=68.12 years, SD=6.21; 69.8% female). Participants were assessed for falls-risk (Physiological Profile Assessment and the Berg Balance Scale), physical activity, physical functional and body composition characteristics. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients were calculated to examine bivariate relationships and hierarchical multiple linear regression modelling was used to estimate the contribution of each predictor in explaining variance in falls-risk. In females, there was a weak association between the two objective falls-risk measures (r =-0.17 p falls in the previous 12 months explained 6% of variance in Physiological Profile Assessment scores, with bone density of the lumbar spine contributing a further 1%. In males and females, variance in the Berg Balance Scale showed that age (25%) and physical function (16% for females, 28% for males) contributed significantly to the explaining variance in the falls-risk measure. Sex differences are apparent and as such males and females should be assessed (and potentially treated) differently with regards to falls risk. Results indicate that both falls risk assessment tools measure aspects of balance but are not interchangeable. The Berg Balance Scale may be more discriminative in older, less functioning adults and the Physiological Profile Assessment is more useful in assessing falls risk in females.

  15. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness outcomes throughout the different training periods over the course of a soccer season in female elite young soccer players. However, changes in components of fitness were inconsistent (e.g., power, speed, strength). Thus, training volume and/or types should be carefully considered in order to develop power-, speed- or strength-related fitness measures more efficiently throughout the soccer season. PMID:29375392

  16. Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Anne B; Kupelian, Varant; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Tylavsky, Frances A; Rubin, Susan M; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: Although muscle strength and mass are highly correlated, the relationship between direct measures of low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength in association with mortality has not been examined. METHODS: Total mortality rates were examined in the Health, Aging and Body Composition

  17. Weight change and the conservation of lean mass in old age: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, A.B.; Lee, J.S.; Visser, M.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Nevitt, M.C.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight loss may contribute to the loss of lean mass with age. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the relation between weight loss or weight gain and changes in lean mass and fat mass in older adults. DESIGN: We observed changes in weight and body composition during a 4-y period in

  18. Impact of physical fitness and body composition on injury risk among active young adults: A study of Army trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce H; Hauret, Keith G; Dye, Shamola K; Hauschild, Veronique D; Rossi, Stephen P; Richardson, Melissa D; Friedl, Karl E

    2017-11-01

    To determine the combined effects of physical fitness and body composition on risk of training-related musculoskeletal injuries among Army trainees. Retrospective cohort study. Rosters of soldiers entering Army basic combat training (BCT) from 2010 to 2012 were linked with data from multiple sources for age, sex, physical fitness (heights, weights (mass), body mass index (BMI), 2 mile run times, push-ups), and medical injury diagnoses. Analyses included descriptive means and standard deviations, comparative t-tests, risks of injury, and relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Fitness and BMI were divided into quintiles (groups of 20%) and stratified for chi-square (χ 2 ) comparisons and to determine trends. Data were obtained for 143,398 men and 41,727 women. As run times became slower, injury risks increased steadily (men=9.8-24.3%, women=26.5-56.0%; χ 2 trends (pfitness levels. While the most aerobically fit Army trainees experience lower risk of training-related injury, at any given aerobic fitness level those with the lowest BMIs are at highest risk. This has implications for recruitment and retention fitness standards. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  20. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This re...... and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind........ This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...

  1. Lower serum albumin concentration and change in muscle mass: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Nevitt, M.C.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low albumin concentrations in older persons increase the risk of poor health outcomes, including functional decline. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum albumin concentration and skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia) in old age. DESIGN: Serum

  2. Snoring, daytime sleepiness, and incident cardiovascular disease in the health, aging, and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeshaw, Yohannes; Rice, Thomas B; Schwartz, Ann V; Stone, Katie L; Manini, Todd M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steven; Harris, Tamara; Pahor, Marco

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between snoring and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). This is a prospective study in which community dwelling older adults were evaluated at baseline, and followed up for an average of 9.9 years. Data on snoring, daytime sleepiness, as well as demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants was collected at baseline, and participants were followed up every six months for an average of 9.9 years. Based on snoring and sleepiness status, 4 groups of participants were created: (1) No Snoring, No Sleepiness; (2) No Snoring, Sleepiness; (3) Snoring, No Sleepiness; (4) Snoring, Sleepiness. Incident CVD was defined as a diagnosis of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or congestive heart failure that resulted in overnight hospitalization during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard was used to estimate the risk of incident cardiovascular disease during follow-up by baseline snoring and sleepiness status. A total of 2,320 participants with a mean age of 73.6 (2.9) years at baseline were included in the analysis. Fifty-two percent were women, and 58% were white. A total of 543 participants developed CVD events during the follow-up period. Participants who reported snoring associated with daytime sleepiness had significantly increased hazard ratio for CVD events (HR = 1.46 [1.03-2.08], P = 0.035) after adjusting for demographic and clinical confounding factors. The results suggest that self-reported snoring and daytime sleepiness status are associated with an increased risk of future cardiovascular disease among older adults.

  3. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (pbody fat (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  4. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Subhedar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.

  5. Physical activity in pregnancy and neonatal body composition: the Healthy Start study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Curtis S; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Reynolds, Regina M; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Glueck, Deborah H; Brinton, John T; Dabelea, Dana

    2014-08-01

    To examine associations between pregnancy physical activity and neonatal fat mass and fat-free mass, birth weight, and small for gestational age (SGA). We analyzed 826 mother-neonate pairs (term births) participating in the longitudinal Healthy Start study. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess total energy expenditure and meeting American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (College) guidelines for physical activity during early pregnancy, midpregnancy, and late pregnancy. Models were adjusted for maternal and neonatal characteristics. Neonates had mean fat mass of 292.9 g, fat-free mass of 2,849.8 g, and birth weight of 3,290.7 g. We observed 107 (12.9%) SGA and 30 (3.6%) large-for-gestational age neonates. A significant inverse linear trend between total energy expenditure during late pregnancy and neonatal fat mass (Ptrend=.04) was detected. Neonates of mothers in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of total energy expenditure during late pregnancy had 41.1 g less fat mass (249.4 compared with 290.5 g; P=.03). No significant trend was found with total energy expenditure and neonatal fat-free mass or birth weight. Early-pregnancy and midpregnancy total energy expenditure were not associated with neonatal outcomes. No significant trend was observed between late-pregnancy total energy expenditure and SGA (Ptrend=.07), but neonates of mothers in the highest compared with the lowest quartile had a 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.4-6.7) higher likelihood of SGA. Meeting the College's physical activity guidelines during pregnancy was not associated with differences in neonatal outcomes. Increasing levels of late-pregnancy total energy expenditure are associated with decreased neonatal adiposity without significantly reduced neonatal fat-free mass. II.

  6. The relationship between obesity and body compositions with respect to the timing of puberty in Chongqing adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that excess adiposity during childhood may influence pubertal development. However, the extent to which body compositions vary in throughout puberty in boys and girls is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether obesity and body compositions correlate with the timing of puberty in boys and girls. Methods By random cluster sampling, our study analyzed data from 1472 students (690 girls, 782 boys aged 6–17 years from two schools in the Chongqing area. Data were collected by physical examination of weight, height, and skinfold thicknesses. Testicular volume was measured in boys and breast development in girls. By which we got the indicators of obesity, timing of puberty and body compositions. Probit regression analysis was used to group subjects into early puberty (>P25, on-time puberty (P25 ~ P75, and delayed puberty ( 0.05. Conclusions In girls, delayed puberty was negatively correlated with Obesity, percentage of body fat, fat mass and fat-free mass, and positively correlated with body density. But in boys, delayed puberty was only negatively correlated with Obesity, the relation between puberty and body compositions was not found.

  7. Impact of a ketogenic diet intervention during radiotherapy on body composition: I. Initial clinical experience with six prospectively studied patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klement, Rainer J; Sweeney, Reinhart A

    2016-03-05

    Based on promising preclinical data, ketogenic diets (KDs) have been proposed as supplementary measures for cancer patients undergoing standard-of-care therapy. However, data is still scarce on the tolerability and effects of KDs on cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Here we present six cases of patients who underwent RT and concurrently consumed a self-administered KD in our clinic within a busy community hospital setting. All patients were followed prospectively with measurements of blood parameters, quality of life and body weight and composition using bioelectrical impedance analysis. No adverse diet-related side effects occurred. Two patients had no elevated ketone body levels in serum despite self-reporting compliance to the diet. There was consensus that the KD was satiating and weight loss occurred in all patients, although this was only significant in two patients. Our data indicate that weight loss was mainly due to fat mass loss with concurrent preservation of muscle mass. Overall quality of life remained fairly stable, and all subjects reported feeling good on the diet. Tumor regression occurred as expected in five patients with early stage disease; however one subject with metastatic small cell lung cancer experienced slight progression during three cycles of combined chemotherapy + KD and progressed rapidly after ending the KD. Our data lend support to the hypothesis that KDs administered as supportive measures during standard therapy are safe and might be helpful in preservation of muscle mass. Further studies with control groups are needed to confirm these findings and address questions regarding any putative anti-tumor effects. Based on the experience with these six cases we implemented further steps to improve issues with KD compliance and initiated a clinical study that is described in a companion paper.

  8. Novel Combined Training Approach Improves Sleep Quality but Does Not Change Body Composition in Healthy Elderly Women: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Thiago Matheus da Silva; Ruberti, Olivia de Moraes; Novais, Tânia Maria Gaspar; Oliveira, Paula de Lourdes Lauande; Almeida, Fabiano de Jesus Furtado; Pulcherio, Janaína Oliveira Bentivi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel combined training protocol on sleep quality and body composition of healthy elderly women. The study sample consisted of 8 sedentary elderly individuals with mean (±SD) of 67 (±8) years of age, 96.0 (±7.8) mg/dL fasting blood glucose, 94.4 (±36.1) mg/dL triglycerides, 179.1 (±22.4) mg/dL total cholesterol, 57.2 (±15.7) mg/dL high-density lipoprotein (HDL), 103.1 (±25.2) mg/dL low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 125.3 (±8.4) mmHg systolic blood pressure, and 72.6 (±10.1) mmHg diastolic blood pressure. The training protocol consisted of resistance training exercises (approximately 18-minute duration) combined with aerobic exercises (approximately 26-minute duration), performed interspersed in the same session, for 8 weeks (3 times a week), with a 24-hour interval rest between each session. Continuous variables were expressed as the mean (±standard deviation) and the paired sample t-test compares baseline with final measurement. The results showed a significant improvement (p = 0.01) in quality of sleep (4.9 ± 1.5 versus 3.8 ± 1.8 for total PSQI index) without body significant improvements in the fat-free mass (59.9 ± 4.0 versus 60.5 ± 4.4; p = 0.20) and fat mass (40.1 ± 4.0 versus 39.5 ± 4.4; p = 0.20) in healthy elderly women. In this sense, the novel combined training proposed may be an effective alternative or adjunct to present therapies aimed at improving the sleep quality in this population. PMID:29062575

  9. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Learning the health risks can motivate losing weight. Multicentered studies can be illuminating different cultural factors about obesity. Key words: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss. Date of Acceptance: 01‑Mar‑ ...

  10. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  11. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of contemporary Danish children. We did find the “classical” height velocity peak during spring, but unlike many earlier studies this was coincident with peaks in BW, BMI and FFMI velocities. Seasonal variation in physical activity may explain seasonal variations in BW and body composition velocities. Taken......Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...

  12. The Small Bodies Thermal Mapper: An Instrument for Future Missions to Study the Compositional and Thermal Properties of Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Bowles, Neil; Calcutt, Simon; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Glotch, Timothy; Edwards, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The surface of Phobos holds many keys for understanding its formation and evolution as well as the history and dynamics of the Mars-Phobos system. Phobos has been the target for numerous flyby and sample return missions in the past (e.g. Rosetta [Pajola et al., 2012] and Phobos Grunt [Kuzmin et al., 2003]). Previous telescopic and spacecraft observations have revealed a surface that is compositionally heterogeneous [e.g. Pang et al., 1978; Pollack et al., 1978, Lunine et al., 1982; Murchie and Erard, 1996; Roush and Hogan, 2001; Rivkin et al., 2002; Giuranna et al., 2011; Fraeman et al., 2014] and with large variations in surface topography [e.g. Shi et al., 2011; 2012; Willner et al., 2014]. For any future sample return mission, remote sensing observations, in particular thermal infrared observations, will be key in characterising possible landing/sampling sites and placing returned samples into their geological context. The European Space Agency has identified Phootprint, a European sample return mission to Phobos, as a candidate mission of the Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation Programme 2 (MREP-2). Using this mission concept as a baseline, we have studied the options for a simple multichannel radiometer to provide thermal mapping and compositional remote sensing data. By mapping Phobos' diurnal thermal response, a thermal imaging instrument will provide key information on the nature of the surface and near sub-surface (the thermal inertia) and composition. These measurements will support visible imaging observations to determine landing sites that are compatible with the spacecraft's sampling mechanisms. Remotely sensed thermal maps of the surface will also prevent otherwise unpredictable thermal loads on the spacecraft due to variations in local topography and albedo. The instrument design resulting from this study, the Small Bodies Thermal Mapper (SBTM), is a compact multichannel radiometer and thermal imager. The SBTM is based on the Compact Modular

  13. A comparison between the body composition, carcass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    The body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of 61 Dormers (21 rams and 40 ewes) and 35 South ... The effects of breed, age and live weight on the carcass composition and retail cuts of meat-type lambs have been ..... Some effects of nutrition and castration on meat production from male Suffolk cross.

  14. Body Composition of Nigerian Diabetics using Bioimpedance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA) is an objective, safe, rapid and non-invasive method for assessing quantity of body fat. 136 diabetic patients registered at the diabetes clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital had their body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. There were 76 males and 60 ...

  15. The interplay between nutrition and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have important effects on body composition and therefore on therapeutic modalities and efforts. Indirectly, these factors may also influence the goals of nutritional therapy. Rapid weight loss due to the loss of body fat and skeletal muscle mass frequently accompanies short-term, self- limiting disease processes like injury and ...

  16. Insulin VNTR and IGF-1 promoter region polymorphisms are not associated with body composition in early childhood: The generation R study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.J.B.M. Maas (Janneke); D.O. Mook-Kanamori (Dennis); L. Ay (Lamise); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A. Hofman (Albert); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between insulin gene variable number of tandem repeats (INS VNTR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) gene promoter region polymorphisms with body composition in early childhood. Methods: This study was embedded

  17. The relationship between body composition and physical fitness in 14 year old adolescents residing within the Tlokwe local municipality, South Africa: The PAHL study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Neetens, R.; Moss, S.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the relationship between body composition and physical fitness in 14 year-old high school adolescents of South Africa. Baseline data from a longitudinal study on physical activity and health (PAHLS) may provide valuable information for future studies, hence to

  18. Diet affects body composition of chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, B.

    1994-01-01

    Hatchery-reared salmonids often contain proportionally greater amounts of body lipid (storage fat) and proportionally lesser amounts of body protein (muscle) and ash (bone) than do their wild counterparts of equal size. The effect of body composition on postrelease survival and subsequent return of mature adults is presently unknown. High lipid deposits may benefit the fish by providing reserve energy during adaptation to the wild, or may hinder the fish by delaying

  19. Effect of ‘Water Induced Thermogenesis’ on Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Body Composition of Overweight Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Vinu A.; Joshi, Anjali S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Drinking lots of water is commonly suggested as a part of weight loss regimens. However, only few systematic studies have addressed this notion. In this study, the effect of drinking 1500 ml of water, over and above the daily water intake on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of overweight subjects was assessed.

  20. Body Composition Assessment in the Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEMERATH, ELLEN W.; FIELDS, DAVID A.

    2017-01-01

    Body composition assessment provides a sharper picture of the human biological response to genetic and environmental influences than measures of body size and weight. Infant body composition is particularly important as a marker of fetal adaptation and developmental programming of subsequent health and disease, but until recently, the range of options for measuring infant body composition was relatively narrow. The purpose of this Toolkit: Methods in Human Biology review is to provide a comprehensive overview of methods of body composition methods currently used in infants 0 to 2 years of age, including anthropometric prediction equations, air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), isotope dilution, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Information on the reliability, validity, and accuracy of the methods is provided. Unique aspects of infant physiology and behavior create challenges for body composition assessment, but this review provides guidance on suitable testing approaches and environments that may aid researchers in this important area of investigation. PMID:24424686

  1. Body Composition Analysis in the Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David R.; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2014-01-01

    Body composition analysis has become a useful tool in both clinical and research settings. Its use in the pediatric population is complicated by the rapid periods of growth and physical development that are characteristic of infancy, childhood, and adolescence. A thorough understanding of the changing nature of body composition during this time is essential for choosing the most appropriate measurement technique for a given individual, population, or clinical question. Growing evidence suggests that tissues such as fat, muscle, and bone are intimately involved in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism. This knowledge, when coupled with advancements in imaging techniques such as MRI and PET-CT, offers the possibility of developing new models of “functional” body composition. These models may prove to be especially important when assessing malnutrition and metabolic risk in patients with chronic disease. PMID:23469390

  2. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights

  3. Impact of testosterone on body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maddalena, Chiara; Vodo, Stella; Petroni, Anna; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2012-12-01

    An excessive food supply has resulted in an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, conditions accompanied by serious health problems. Several studies have confirmed the significant inverse correlation between testosterone and obesity. Indeed after decades of intense controversy, a consensus has emerged that androgens are important regulators of fat mass and distribution in mammals and that androgen status affects cellularity in vivo. The high correlation of testosterone levels with body composition and its contribution to the balance of lipid metabolism are also suggested by the fact that testosterone lowering is associated with important clinical disorders such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In contrast, testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadic men has been shown to improve the lipid profile by lowering cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin are some of the substances related to feeding as well as androgen regulation. Thus, complex and delicate mechanisms appear to link androgens with various tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscles, coronary arteries and heart) and the subtle alteration of some of these interactions might be the cause of correlated diseases. This review underlines some aspects regarding the high correlations between testosterone physiology and body fat composition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Yasushi; Saito, Manabu; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao

    2012-05-03

    Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. We recruited patients (n = 204), aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD) years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (%) body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  5. Effects of martial arts exercise on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life in overweight/obese premenopausal women: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyu, Ming-Chien; Zhang, Yan; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Dagda, Raul Y.; Chaung, Eugene; Von Bergen, Vera; Doctolero, Susan; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2013-01-01

    Various exercise interventions have been shown to benefit weight control and general health in different populations. However, very few studies have been conducted on martial arts exercise (MAE). The objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of MAE intervention on body composition, serum biomarkers and quality of life (QOL) in overweight/obese premenopausal women. We found that subjects in the MAE group did not lose body weight, while they significantly decreased fat-free mass and muscle mass as compared to those in the control group, who demonstrated an increase in these parameters. The MAE group demonstrated an increase in serum IGF-I concentration, but no change in others. MAE may be a feasible and effective approach to improve body composition and QOL in overweight/obese premenopausal women. Our study underscores the need for further studies using larger samples to establish possible benefits of MAE in various populations. PMID:24665215

  6. Maternal active smoking and newborn body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, M P; Jiménez-Muro, A; Nerín, I; Marqueta, A; Ventura, P; Rodríguez, G

    2012-03-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in birth size but very few studies have collated changes in neonatal anthropometry. Our aims were both to assess body composition differences by anthropometry between new-borns from smoking mothers and those from non-smoking mothers, and to show whether these differences affect proportional body mass distribution. Caucasian mothers and their full term singleton new-borns (N=1216) were selected during 2009. A structured questionnaire was completed regarding obstetric and demographic data, as well as tobacco consumption. Women were categorized, according to their smoking habits, into a non-smoking group (never smoked or stopped smoking prior to pregnancy) and a smoking group (smoked throughout pregnancy). 22.1% of mothers smoked during pregnancy (median: 6 cigarettes/day, range: l-40). Smoking mothers were significantly younger than non-smoking mothers but there were no differences regarding other aspects which could affect infant weight. Infants from non-smoking mothers were heavier, longer, and body circumferences were all larger than those from smoking mothers (pfat distribution did not show statistical differences between the two groups. After gestational age, to smoke during gestation is the second main determinant of birth weight. Smoking during pregnancy involves a generalized reduction of most axiological parameters as a result of proportionate fetal growth impairment. In those infants born from mothers who smoked during gestation, neonatal lean body mass appears to be more affected than body fat, and distribution of subcutaneous fat is not different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel Combined Training Approach Improves Sleep Quality but Does Not Change Body Composition in Healthy Elderly Women: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Matheus da Silva Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a novel combined training protocol on sleep quality and body composition of healthy elderly women. The study sample consisted of 8 sedentary elderly individuals with mean (±SD of 67 (±8 years of age, 96.0 (±7.8 mg/dL fasting blood glucose, 94.4 (±36.1 mg/dL triglycerides, 179.1 (±22.4 mg/dL total cholesterol, 57.2 (±15.7 mg/dL high-density lipoprotein (HDL, 103.1 (±25.2 mg/dL low-density lipoprotein (LDL, 125.3 (±8.4 mmHg systolic blood pressure, and 72.6 (±10.1 mmHg diastolic blood pressure. The training protocol consisted of resistance training exercises (approximately 18-minute duration combined with aerobic exercises (approximately 26-minute duration, performed interspersed in the same session, for 8 weeks (3 times a week, with a 24-hour interval rest between each session. Continuous variables were expressed as the mean (±standard deviation and the paired sample t-test compares baseline with final measurement. The results showed a significant improvement (p=0.01 in quality of sleep (4.9 ± 1.5 versus 3.8 ± 1.8 for total PSQI index without body significant improvements in the fat-free mass (59.9 ± 4.0 versus 60.5 ± 4.4; p=0.20 and fat mass (40.1 ± 4.0 versus 39.5 ± 4.4; p=0.20 in healthy elderly women. In this sense, the novel combined training proposed may be an effective alternative or adjunct to present therapies aimed at improving the sleep quality in this population.

  8. Sensorimotor Peripheral Nerve Function and the Longitudinal Relationship with Endurance Walking in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S.; Newman, Anne B.; Cauley, Jane A.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Jakicic, John M.; Caserotti, Paolo; Glynn, Nancy W.; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Zivkovic, Sasa; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether lower extremity sensorimotor peripheral nerve deficits are associated with reduced walking endurance in older adults. Design Prospective cohort study with six years of follow-up. Setting Two U.S. clinical sites in (Pittsburgh, PA and Memphis, TN). Participants Community-dwelling older adults enrolled in Health, Aging and Body Composition study from the 2000/01 annual clinical examination (n=2393; age 76.5 ± 2.9 years; 48.2% male; 38.2% black) and subset with longitudinal data (n=1,178). Interventions Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Participants underwent peripheral nerve function examination in 2000/01, including peroneal motor nerve conduction amplitude and velocity, vibration perception threshold, and monofilament testing. Symptoms of lower-extremity peripheral neuropathy included numbness or tingling and sudden stabbing, burning, pain, or aches in the feet or legs. The long distance corridor walk (LDCW; 400m) was administered in 2000/01 and every two years afterwards for 6 years to assess endurance walking performance over time. Results In separate fully adjusted linear mixed models poor vibration threshold (>130 microns), 10-g and 1.4-g monofilament insensitivity were each associated with slower LDCW completion time (16.0, 14.1, and 6.7, seconds slower, respectively, P<.05 for each). Poor motor amplitude (<1mV), poor vibration perception threshold, and 10-g monofilament insensitivity were related to greater slowing/year (4.7, 4.3, and 4.3 additional seconds/year, respectively, P<.05), though poor motor amplitude was not associated with initial completion time. Conclusions Poorer sensorimotor peripheral nerve function is related to slower endurance walking and greater slowing longitudinally. Interventions to reduce the burden of sensorimotor peripheral nerve function impairments should be considered in order to help older adults to maintain walking endurance—a critical component for remaining independent in the community

  9. Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cognitive function in older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Valerie K; Houston, Denise K; Kilpatrick, Laurel; Lovato, James; Yaffe, Kristine; Cauley, Jane A; Harris, Tamara B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Sink, Kaycee M

    2014-04-01

    To examine the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and cognitive performance over time in older adults in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Prospective cohort study. Community-dwelling participants in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Well-functioning adults aged 70 to 79 at baseline with serum 25(OH)D measured at the 12-month follow-up visit and cognitive function measured at baseline and 4-year follow-up visit (N = 2,777). Vitamin D status was categorized as 25(OH)D levels of less than 20.0 ng/mL, 20.0 to 29.9 ng/mL, or 30.0 ng/mL or greater. Cognition was measured using the modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Linear regression models adjusting for multiple covariates, including age, education, sex, race, site, season, physical activity, and comorbidities, were used in the analysis. Sixty-eight percent of participants had 25(OH)D levels of less than 30.0 ng/mL. Lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with lower baseline cognitive scores on the 3MS (adjusted mean 89.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 89.4-90.4 for cognitive function and greater decline over time according to the 3MS. Intervention trials are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce cognitive decline. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Body composition and its association with physical performance, quality of life, and clinical indictors in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Daniel; Roberts-Clarke, Daniel; Jain, Nidhi; Mavros, Yorgi; Wilson, Guy C; Halaki, Mark; Burns, Joshua; Nicholson, Garth; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Fornusek, Che

    2017-11-02

    To investigate whether the amount and distribution of lean body mass and fat mass is associated with disease severity in adults with Charcot-Marie Tooth. Ten participants (age 46 ± 13 y, height 1.7 ± 0.1 m, and body mass 77 ± 17 kg) with Charcot-Marie Tooth disease were involved in this study. Participants were evaluated for quality of life, falls efficacy, balance, mobility, muscle strength, and power. Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Statistical analyses were conducted on subsets of all participants. Better static balance was associated with higher lean body mass of the lower leg (r = 0.73, p = 0.03), while superior leg press strength and power was associated with greater lean body mass of the leg and lower leg (r ≥ 0.80, p ≤ 0.01). Faster habitual walking speed and enhanced quality of life was associated with lower fat mass of several regions. Our study seems to suggest that assessing of body composition could assist with monitoring of disease progression in people with Charcot-Marie Tooth; however these findings need to be substantiated in a larger cohort. Implications for Rehabilitation Higher lean body mass and lower fat mass of the legs is associated with better physical performances in people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Lower fat mass is related to greater quality of life and reduced clinical symptoms in people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Optimising favorable body composition profiles (higher lean body mass and lower fat mass) in people with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease may be highly clinically relevant.

  11. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, G Ja; Konovalova, M V; Vashura, A Yu; Anisimova, A V; Godina, E Z; Khomyakova, I A; Nikolaev, D V; Starunova, O A; Rudnev, S G

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  12. A preliminary study: Effects of football training on glucose control, body composition, and performance in men with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. R.; Schmidt, J. F.; Thomassen, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of regular football training on glycemic control, body composition, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) were investigated in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twenty-one middle-aged men (49.8 +/- 1.7 years +/- SEM) with T2DM were divided into a football training group (FG; n=12) ......) and an inactive control group (CG; n=9) during a 24-week intervention period (IP). During a 1-h football training session, the distance covered was 4.7 +/- 0.2km, mean heart rate (HR) was 83 +/- 2% of HRmax, and blood lactate levels increased (P...

  13. Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisala, Tiina; Mutikainen, Sara; Tolvanen, Asko; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26-40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed.

  14. Dietary Intake, Body Composition, and Menstrual Cycle Changes during Competition Preparation and Recovery in a Drug-Free Figure Competitor: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Tanya M; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Davy, Brenda M

    2016-11-20

    Physique competitions are events in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance and symmetry. The purpose of this retrospective case study was to describe changes in dietary intake, body mass/composition, and the menstrual cycle during the 20-week competition preparation (PREP) and 20-week post competition recovery (REC) periods of a drug-free amateur female figure competitor (age = 26-27, BMI = 19.5 kg/m²). Dietary intake (via weighed food records) and body mass were assessed daily and averaged weekly. Body composition was estimated via Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and 7-site skinfold measurements. Energy intake, body mass and composition, and energy availability decreased during the 20-week PREP period (changes of ~298 kcals, 5.1 kg, 6.5% body fat, and 5.4 kcal/kg fat free mass, respectively) and returned to baseline values by end of the 20-week REC period. Menstrual cycle irregularity was reported within the first month of PREP and the last menstruation was reported at week 11 of PREP. Given the potentially adverse health outcomes associated with caloric restriction, future, prospective cohort studies on the physiological response to PREP and REC are warranted in drug-free, female physique competitors.

  15. Dietary Intake, Body Composition, and Menstrual Cycle Changes during Competition Preparation and Recovery in a Drug-Free Figure Competitor: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Tanya M.; Loenneke, Jeremy P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2016-01-01

    Physique competitions are events in which competitors are judged on muscular appearance and symmetry. The purpose of this retrospective case study was to describe changes in dietary intake, body mass/composition, and the menstrual cycle during the 20-week competition preparation (PREP) and 20-week post competition recovery (REC) periods of a drug-free amateur female figure competitor (age = 26–27, BMI = 19.5 kg/m2). Dietary intake (via weighed food records) and body mass were assessed daily and averaged weekly. Body composition was estimated via Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and 7-site skinfold measurements. Energy intake, body mass and composition, and energy availability decreased during the 20-week PREP period (changes of ~298 kcals, 5.1 kg, 6.5% body fat, and 5.4 kcal/kg fat free mass, respectively) and returned to baseline values by end of the 20-week REC period. Menstrual cycle irregularity was reported within the first month of PREP and the last menstruation was reported at week 11 of PREP. Given the potentially adverse health outcomes associated with caloric restriction, future, prospective cohort studies on the physiological response to PREP and REC are warranted in drug-free, female physique competitors. PMID:27879627

  16. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: a cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering ...

  17. Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Patients With Hepatic Glycogen Storage Diseases Treated With Uncooked Cornstarch—A Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna B. dos Santos MSc

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic glycogen storage diseases (GSDs are genetic diseases associated with fasting hypoglycemia. Periodic intake of uncooked cornstarch is one of the treatment strategies available for those disorders. For reasons that are still not clear, patients with hepatic GSDs may be overweight. Aims: To assess nutritional status and body composition in patients with hepatic GSDs receiving uncooked cornstarch. Methods: The sample included 25 patients with hepatic GSD (type Ia = 14; Ib = 6; III = 3; IXα = 1; IXβ = 1, with a median age of 11.0 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 9.0-17.5, matched by age and gender with 25 healthy controls (median age = 12.0 years, IQR = 10.0-17.5. Clinical, biochemical, and treatment-related variables were obtained from medical records. Nutritional status and body composition were prospectively evaluated by bioelectrical impedance. Results: Patients and controls did not differ with regard to age and gender. Height was significantly reduced in patients (median = 1.43 m, IQR = 1.25-1.54 in comparison to controls (median = 1.54 m, IQR = 1.42-1.61; P = .04. Body mass index for age z -score and fat mass percentage were higher in patients (median = 1.84, IQR = 0.55-3.06; and 27.5%, IQR = 22.6-32.0, respectively than in controls (median = 0.86, IQR = −0.55 to 1.82; P = .04 and 21.1%, IQR = 13.0-28.3; P = .01, respectively. When patients were stratified by type, those with GSD Ia had significantly higher adiposity (median fat mass = 28.7%, IQR = 25.3-32.9 than those with GSD III and GSD IXα/β (median fat mass = 20.9%, IQR = 14.9-22.6; P = .02. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients with hepatic GSD on treatment with cornstarch, especially those with GSD Ia, exhibit abnormalities in nutritional status and body composition, such as short stature and a trend toward overweight and obesity.

  18. Association of Aging-Related Endophenotypes With Mortality in 2 Cohort Studies: the Long Life Family Study and the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jatinder; Schupf, Nicole; Boudreau, Robert; Matteini, Amy M; Prasad, Tanushree; Newman, Anne B; Liu, YongMei; Christensen, Kaare; Kammerer, Candace M

    2015-12-01

    One method by which to identify fundamental biological processes that may contribute to age-related disease and disability, instead of disease-specific processes, is to construct endophenotypes comprising linear combinations of physiological measures. Applying factor analyses methods to phenotypic data (2006-2009) on 28 traits representing 5 domains (cognitive, cardiovascular, metabolic, physical, and pulmonary) from 4,472 US and Danish individuals in 574 pedigrees from the Long Life Family Study (United States and Denmark), we constructed endophenotypes and assessed their relationship with mortality. The most dominant endophenotype primarily reflected the physical activity and pulmonary domains, was heritable, was significantly associated with mortality, and attenuated the association of age with mortality by 24.1%. Using data (1997-1998) on 1,794 Health, Aging and Body Composition Study participants from Memphis, Tennessee, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, we obtained strikingly similar endophenotypes and relationships to mortality. We also reproduced the endophenotype constructs, especially the dominant physical activity and pulmonary endophenotype, within demographic subpopulations of these 2 cohorts. Thus, this endophenotype construct may represent an underlying phenotype related to aging. Additional genetic studies of this endophenotype may help identify genetic variants or networks that contribute to the aging process. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies.

  20. Hydrometry and body composition : methods development and validation in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, Ana Catarina Francisco Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Motricidade Humana na especialidade de Atividade Física e Saúde It is recognized that an accurate body composition and hydration assessment is relevant for prescribing adequate training and nutritional regimens in highly trained athletes. The present dissertation presents four research studies conducted under the scope of the body composition and hydration methodological research area. An alternative solution to evaluate the extracellular water (ECW) compartment by the dilu...

  1. Modifiable Risk Factors for Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; De Rekeneire, Nathalie; Allore, Heather; Chen, Shu; O’Leary, John R.; Bauer, Douglas C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Newman, Anne B.; Yende, Sachin; Weyant, Robert J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Quagliarello, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Background Pneumonia requiring hospitalization remains a major public health problem among community-dwelling older adults. Impaired oral hygiene is a modifiable risk factor for healthcare-associated pneumonia, but its role in community-acquired pneumonia is unclear. Objectives To identify novel modifiable risk factors, focusing on oral hygiene, for pneumonia requiring hospitalization among community-dwelling older adults. Design Prospective observational cohort study Setting Memphis, Tennessee and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Participants Of 3075 well-functioning community-dwelling adults aged 70–79 years enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study from 1997–1998, 1441 had complete data, dental exam within six months of baseline, and were eligible for this study. Measurements The primary outcome was pneumonia requiring hospitalization through 2008. Results Of 1441 participants, 193 were hospitalized for pneumonia. In a multivariable model, male gender (HR 2.07, 95%CI 1.51–2.83), white race (HR 1.44, 95%CI 1.03–2.01), history of pneumonia (HR 3.09, 95%CI 1.86–5.14), pack-years of smoking (HR 1.006, 95%CI 1.001–1.011), and percent predicted FEV1 (moderate vs. mild/normal lung function [HR 1.78, 95%CI 1.28–2.48], severe vs. mild/normal lung function [HR 2.90, 95%CI 1.51–5.57]) were non-modifiable risk factors for pneumonia. Incident mobility limitation (HR 1.77, 95%CI 1.32–2.38) and higher mean oral plaque score (HR 1.29, 95%CI 1.02–1.64) were modifiable risk factors for pneumonia. Average Attributable Fractions revealed that 11.5% of pneumonias were attributed to incident mobility limitation and 10.3% to mean oral plaque score ≥1. Conclusion Incident mobility limitation and higher mean oral plaque score were two modifiable risk factors attributable for 22% of pneumonias requiring hospitalization. These data suggest innovative opportunities for pneumonia prevention among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:23772872

  2. Modifiable risk factors for pneumonia requiring hospitalization of community-dwelling older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; De Rekeneire, Nathalie; Allore, Heather; Chen, Shu; O'Leary, John R; Bauer, Douglas C; Harris, Tamara B; Newman, Anne B; Yende, Sachin; Weyant, Robert J; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Quagliarello, Vincent

    2013-07-01

    To identify novel modifiable risk factors, focusing on oral hygiene, for pneumonia requiring hospitalization of community-dwelling older adults. Prospective observational cohort study. Memphis, Tennessee, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Of 3,075 well-functioning community-dwelling adults aged 70 to 79 enrolled in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study from 1997 to 1998, 1,441 had complete data in the data set of all variables used, a dental examination within 6 months of baseline, and were eligible for this study. The primary outcome was pneumonia requiring hospitalization through 2008. Of 1,441 participants, 193 were hospitalized for pneumonia. In a multivariable model, male sex (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.51-2.83), white race (HR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.03-2.01), history of pneumonia (HR = 3.09, 95% CI = 1.86-5.14), pack-years of smoking (HR = 1.006, 95% CI = 1.001-1.011), and percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 minute (moderate vs mild lung disease or normal lung function, HR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.28-2.48; severe lung disease vs mild lung disease or normal lung function, HR = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.51-5.57) were nonmodifiable risk factors for pneumonia. Incident mobility limitation (HR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.32-2.38) and higher mean oral plaque score (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.02-1.64) were modifiable risk factors for pneumonia. Average attributable fractions revealed that 11.5% of cases of pneumonia were attributed to incident mobility limitation and 10.3% to a mean oral plaque score of 1 or greater. Incident mobility limitation and higher mean oral plaque score were two modifiable risk factors that 22% of pneumonia requiring hospitalization could be attributed to. These data suggest innovative opportunities for pneumonia prevention among community-dwelling older adults. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  4. PHYSIQUE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF GIRLS PRACTISING CONTEMPORARY DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przednowek Karolina H.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physique and body composition are often explored in sport-related research. This is due to the fact that morphological features can be useful for determining a person’s predispositions for practising a given type of physical activity. Dance, as any other sports discipline, has an impact on the physique and motor skills of those who practise it. Most research concerning the physique and body composition of dancers conducted so far has focused on persons practising ballet or competitive ballroom dancing. Investigating these issues in contemporary dancers is a new field of study. The aim of the current study was to examine the physique and body composition of girls aged 14-17 years practising contemporary dance. Material and methods. The study involved 23 girls who trained contemporary dance twice a week for 2 hours. The participants of the study had been training since the age of six. Basic anthropometric measurements were performed. Body composition was analysed based on parameters measured using a Tanita body composition analyser. Conclusions. The analysis found that girls training contemporary dance were characterised by a leptosomatic physique. BMI values in both younger and older contemporary dancers indicated that their weight was normal. Compared to girls who did not practise any particular type of sport, contemporary dancers had a lower weight, a lower body water percentage, and a lower body fat percentage. The dancers were also characterised by a greater circumference of the waist, hips, arm, and chest compared to untrained peers.

  5. Can Basic Characteristics Estimate Body Composition in Early Infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Bracco, Beatrice; Menis, Camilla; Morniroli, Daniela; Perrone, Michela; Giannì, Maria L; Mosca, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that body composition in early life contributes to the programming of health later in life in both full-term and preterm infants. Given the important role of body composition, the increased availability of easy, noninvasive, and accurate techniques for its assessment has been recommended. The aim of the present study was to identify basic characteristics and anthropometric measurements that best correlate with body composition in infants. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessed by air-displacement plethysmography were assessed either at birth or at term-corrected age in 1239 infants (654 full-term, 585 preterm). The associations of sex, GA (gestational age), and weight with FFM (fat-free mass) and FM (fat mass) adjusted by length (g/cm) were investigated by multiple linear regression models. Bland-Altman tests were performed, and an equation for calculating FFM was determined. Preterm infants exhibited increased FM and reduced FFM compared with full-term infants (477.6 ± 204 vs 259.7 ± 147 g and 2583 ± 494 vs 2770 ± 364 g, respectively). GA, male sex, and weight were positively associated with FFM (r = 0.806, P composition represents the criterion standard. When body composition assessment is not feasible, the equation based on sex, GA, and anthropometric measurements can be useful in predicting body composition in both full-term and preterm infants.

  6. Toward body composition reference data for infants, children, and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2014-05-01

    Growth charts for weight and height have provided the basis for assessment of children's nutritional status for over half a century, with charts for body mass index (BMI) introduced in the 1990s. However, BMI does not provide information on the proportions of fat and lean mass; and within the past decade, growth charts for children's body composition have been produced by using techniques such as skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For public health research, BIA and skinfold thicknesses show negligible average bias but have wider limits of agreement than specialized techniques. For patients, DXA is the best individual method, but multicomponent models remain ideal because they address perturbations in lean mass composition. Data can be expressed in age- and sex-specific SD scores, in some cases adjusting for height. Most such reference data derive from high-income countries, but techniques such as air-displacement plethysmography allow infant body composition growth charts to be developed in low- and middle-income settings, where the data may improve understanding of the effects of low birth weight, wasting, and stunting on body composition. Recent studies suggest that between-population variability in body composition may derive in part from genetic factors, suggesting a universal human body composition reference may not be viable. Body composition growth charts may be extended into adult life to evaluate changes in fat and lean mass through the entire life course. These reference data will improve the understanding of the association between growth, body composition, health, and disease. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Physical Activity and Change in Long Distance Corridor Walk Performance in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Brach, Jennifer S.; Cauley, Jane A.; Richey, Phyllis A.; Schwartz, Ann V.; Newman, Anne B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the prospective relationship between self-reported physical activity and aerobic fitness in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study using the Long Distance Corridor Walk (LDCW). DESIGN Cohort study with 7 years follow-up. SETTING Two U.S. clinical sites. PARTICIPANTS Community dwelling older adults enrolled in Health ABC (n=3075, age 70–79, 52% women, 42% black) with no self-reported difficulty walking one-quarter mile or climbing 10 steps. MEASURES Participants were classified based on a physical activity questionnaire as being inactive (≤1,000 kcal/week exercise activity and ≤2,719 kcal/week total physical activity), lifestyle active (≤1,000 kcal/week exercise activity and >2,719 kcal/week total physical activity), or exercisers (reporting ≥ 1,000 kcal/week exercise activity). The Long Distance Corridor Walk,an endurance walking test (400m), was administered at Year 1 (baseline), 2, 4, 6, and 8 to assess aerobic fitness. RESULTS At baseline, LDCW completion times (adjusted for age and sex) were 351.8 (95% Confidence Interval= 346.9–356.8), 335.9 (95% CI= 332.7–339.1), and 307.7 (95% CI= 303.2–312.3) seconds for the inactive, lifestyle active, and exerciser groups, respectively (P<0.001). Slowing from baseline to Year 8 was 36.1 (95% CI= 28.4–43.8), 38.1 (95% CI= 33.6–42.4), and 40.8 (95% CI= 35.2–46.5) seconds for the inactive, lifestyle active, and exerciser groups, respectively and did not differ significantly between groups. In linear mixed-effects models, the rate of change in LDCW time did not differ across groups, although exercisers consistently had the fastest completion times (P<0.001 for all pair wise comparisons). CONCLUSIONS Decline in the LDCW time occurred regardless of baseline activity. However, exercisers maintained higher aerobic fitness, which may delay reaching critically low threshold of aerobic fitness where independence is impaired. PMID:26096803

  8. The association between physical function and lifestyle activity and exercise in the health, aging and body composition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brach, Jennifer S; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Newman, Anne B

    2004-04-01

    To determine whether older adults who exercise demonstrate higher levels of physical function than those who do not exercise but are physically active throughout the day. Cross-sectional examination of baseline data from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study. Health ABC field centers in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Three thousand seventy-five well-functioning black and white men and women aged 70 to 79. Physical activity and exercise were assessed using a modified leisure-time physical activity questionnaire. Participants were classified as inactive (reporting exercise activity and physical activity), lifestyle active (reporting exercise activity and >2,719 kcal/wk of total physical activity), or exerciser (reporting> or =1,000 kcal/wk of exercise activity). Physical function measures included the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE) battery, the Health ABC battery, a 400-m walk test, and isokinetic strength testing of the knee extensors. The lifestyle active and exerciser groups had similar total activity levels (men: 6,135 kcal/wk and 6,734 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.108; women: 5,695 kcal/wk and 5,854 kcal/wk, respectively; P=.335). When examining lower extremity performance in relation to physical activity, a progressive trend was evident, with the inactive individuals most likely to have impaired performance on the EPESE battery (men: 33.7%, 24.3%, and 19.1%, Pexerciser, respectively). Progressive trends of similar magnitude were present for the Health ABC battery, time to walk 400 m, and knee extensor strength. In multivariate linear regression, those in the inactive and lifestyle active groups had poorer scores on the Health ABC performance battery than individuals in the exercise group after controlling for demographic factors and prevalent disease (men: inactive beta=-0.27, Pexercisers had similar proportions of functionally limited older persons (scoring exercise on most days

  9. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study: comparison of bioelectrical impedance vs. dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdich, C; Barbe, P; Petersen, M; Grau, K; Ward, L; Macdonald, I; Sørensen, T I A; Oppert, J-M

    2011-06-01

    We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50 years, mean BMI: 33.8 kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7 kg. At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3 kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean ± 7-8.5 kg). For body-composition changes, although biases were generally non-significant, the limits of agreement were also wide (mean ± 3.7-4.6 kg). An FFM prediction equation for BIA data was developed in subjects scanned with Lunar instruments and cross-validated in an independent sample of 31 obese women undergoing similar weight loss. However, no major improvement in limits of agreement was found. During moderate diet-induced weight loss, the use of BIA leads to estimates of changes in body composition at the individual level that can differ substantially from those assessed by DXA, indicating that BIA and DXA cannot be used interchangeably. However, BIA in this context may be used for assessing changes in body composition at group level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  11. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesinski, Melanie; Prieske, Olaf; Helm, Norman; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors) significantly decreased ( d = 2.39; p endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p speed significantly declined after the first round of the season, i.e., transition period ( d = 2.83; p speed, strength). Thus, training volume and/or types should be carefully considered in order to develop power-, speed- or strength-related fitness measures more efficiently throughout the soccer season.

  12. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY COMPOSITION IN ADULT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára NAGY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.

  13. A Case-Control Study of Body Composition, Prevalence, and Curve Severity of the Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in the East Part of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Dang, Yini; Yang, Yan; Sun, Ning; Wang, Tao; Li, Huabo; Zhang, Lijie; He, Chengqi; Wong, M S

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the characteristics of prevalence and curve severity in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and the body composition alterations between the patients with AIS and healthy controls. Information on the study sample was obtained from a screening database. The AIS cohort was paired with an age- and gender-matched healthy cohort. The stratification of BMI and curve severity was conducted according to the criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Scoliosis Research Society. The prevalence and curve severity of the patients with AIS were investigated. Multigroup comparison of body composition parameters was conducted according to BMI between the patients with AIS and healthy controls. A total of 1,202 patients with AIS and an age- and gender-matched cohort were recruited from local schools. The underweight cases had the highest prevalence of AIS and significantly higher Cobb angle compared with the other three BMI subgroups. Although the patients with AIS had lower body weight, body fat mass, percentage of body fat, and fat-free mass compared with healthy controls, converse results were observed in the underweight cases after stratification according to BMI. Based on the sporadic body composition of the patients with AIS observed in the current study, it is predictable that the pathophysiological alterations may be different before and after the onset of scoliosis. Well-designed human or animal studies for underweight patients would be helpful to reveal the mechanisms of pathophysiological alterations and better predict the development of AIS. Copyright © 2017 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in body composition after spasticity treatment with intrathecal baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogberg, Olle; Samuelsson, Kersti; Ertzgaard, Per; Levi, Richard

    2017-01-19

    To assess changes in body composition, body weight and resting metabolic rate in patients who received intrathecal baclofen therapy for spasticity. Prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, with a pre/post design. Twelve patients with spasticity, fulfilling study criteria, and due for pump implantation for intrathecal baclofen therapy, completed the study. Data were obtained before, 6 months and 12 months after commencement of intrathecal baclofen therapy as regards body composition (by skinfold calliper), body weight, and resting metabolic rate (by resting oxygen consumption). Spasticity was assessed according to the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS). A reduction in spasticity according to MAS occurred. Mean fat body mass increased and mean lean body mass decreased. Mean body weight showed a non-significant increase and resting metabolic rate a non-significant decrease. This explorative study indicates that unfavourable changes in body composition might occur after intrathecal baclofen therapy. Since obesity and increased fat body mass contribute to an increased cardiovascular risk, these findings may indicate a need for initiation of countermeasures, e.g. increased physical activity and/or dietary measures, in conjunction with intrathecal baclofen therapy. Further studies, including larger study samples and control groups, are needed to corroborate these findings.

  15. Adipocytokine and ghrelin levels in relation to body composition in rhythmic gymnasts entering into puberty: a 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Võsoberg, Kristel; Tillmann, Vallo; Tamm, Anna Liisa; Jürimäe, Toivo; Saar, Meeli; Maasalu, Katre; Neissaar, Inga; Lätt, Evelin; Jürimäe, Jaak

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe longitudinal changes in body composition, leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin over a 36-month period in prepubertal rhythmic gymnasts (RG) and their age-matched untrained controls (UC) entering into puberty. Thirty-five RG (8.0 ± 0.6 yrs) and 33 UC (8.2 ± 0.6 yrs) were followed at 12-month intervals for the next 3 years. Height, weight, pubertal stage, body composition, leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin were measured at each time points. The pubertal development over the next 36 months was slower in the RG compared with UC. Leptin was increased in UC and remained unchanged in RG over 3-year study period (3.7 ± 3.6 vs. 0.2 ± 1.1 ng/ml; p < .05). In RG, baseline leptin was negatively correlated with the change in body fat percentage over a 36-month period (r = -0.34; p < .05). The change in adiponectin over the study period was negatively correlated with the change in BMI (r = -0.43; p < .05). RG had relative leptin deficiency per body fat mass. In conclusion, relatively high leptin concentration at the beginning of puberty may predict those girls who do not increase their body fat percentage through coming years and therefore may have increased risk for delayed puberty.

  16. The relation between calcium intake and body composition in a Dutch population: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, N.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Saris, W.H.; van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary calcium intake is related to body mass index and the sum of four skinfolds among subjects in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (the Netherlands), the authors followed a cohort of men and women from age 13 years in 1977 to age 36 years in 2000.

  17. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in patients with head and neck cancer: An observational study leading to a new predictive equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Micheline Tereza Pires; Singer, Pierre; Ozorio, Gislaine Aparecida; Rosa, Vitor Modesto; Alves, Maria Manuela Ferreira; Mendoza López, Rossana Verónica; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2018-02-05

    Patients with head and neck cancer have changes in body composition and resting energy expenditure (REE) related to significant inflammatory processes. We investigated REE and body composition in a population of patients with head and neck cancer, comparing the measured REE with predicted energy expenditure and deriving an equation of anthropometric values and body composition. This retrospective, observational, descriptive study of a single center included patients with head and neck cancer. We evaluated nutritional status by body mass index (BMI) and Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), body composition by electric bioimpedance, and REE by indirect calorimetry (IC). We included 140 patients, most of whom were men (80.7%), 60 y or older (58.6%), and had advanced disease (77.9%). Most were malnourished by BMI standards (77.9%) and severely malnourished according to the PG-SGA (49.3%), with a fat-free mass below the ideal values (82.9%) associated with sarcopenia (92.1%). Hypermetabolism was 57%. When comparing REE with the Harris-Benedict formula, we found the agreement limits from -546 613 to 240 708, the mean difference was -152 953 (95% confidence interval [CI], -185 844 to -120 062) and Pitman's variance test was r = -0.294 (P = 0.001). When we included the activity factor and the thermogenesis factor in REE and compared with Harris-Benedict, we found the agreement limits from -764.423 to 337.087, a mean difference of -213.668 (95% CI -259.684 to -167.652), and the Pitman's variance text at r = -0.292 (P = 0.001). Predictive equations, generally recommended by guidelines, are imprecise when compared with IC measures. Therefore, we suggest a new predictive equation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Analysis of body composition in patients with Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ting; Li, Lingling; Wu, Qinyan; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; He, Qing

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the differences in body composition between Crohn's disease(CD) patients and healthy subjects as well as the characteristics of human body composition in various types of CD. A total of 57 CD patients were prospectively selected from the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University as the study group, while 51 healthy subjects as the control group. Protein content, mineral content, fat content, lean body mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the two groups were measured by body composition analyzer. Characteristics of CD at different location and different disease activity index were investigated as well. Intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, weight, protein content, fat content, lean body mass, muscle weight, body fat ratio, waist hip ratio, body weight ratio, arm muscle circumference, arm circumference, quality of cells, BMI and basal metabolic rate in CD patients were significantly lower than those in control group(all Pbody mass in ileocolic CD patients were lower than those with small bowel and colonic CD(all Pbody mass in patients with high disease activity index were lower than those in patients with low and medium index, but higher basal metablic rate was found in the former group(all Pbody composition in patients with CD are different from healthy people. Disease location and disease activity index have an impact on protein content, fat content, and lean body mass.

  19. Body composition in the Study of Women Entering and in Endocrine Transition (SWEET): A perspective of African women who have a high prevalence of obesity and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaff, Nicole G; Norris, Shane A; Snyman, Tracy; Toman, Marketa; Crowther, Nigel J

    2015-09-01

    Little data are available for sub-Saharan African women on changes in body composition in menopause transition (MT). The study aimed to determine whether there are differences in body adiposity, lean muscle mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) across MT groups in urban African women, who have a high prevalence of obesity and HIV infection, and if this is related to an altered hormonal milieu. Participants were 702 black urban women. Menopause stage was defined using STRAW+10 criteria. Levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), testosterone (T) and sex hormone blinding globulin (SHBG) were measured. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and ultrasound scans. Whole body lean mass (p=0.002) and BMD (pART) correlated negatively with total fat mass (β=-2.92, p=0.008) and total bone mineral content (BMC; β=-78.8, p=0.003). The MT in this population is characterized by lower whole body lean mass and BMD in post- compared to premenopausal subjects but there are minimal differences in fat mass. Lower lean mass and BMD were associated with higher FSH and lower E2 serum levels, respectively. Use of ART was associated with lower fat mass and BMC. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  1. Is the body composition equal or more important in physical fitness variables than other features like age or sex within physical education classes? A theoretical-practice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-López Emilio J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to quantify the influence of body composition on the strength and cardiovascular endurance in adolescents. 858 Spanish adolescents participated in this pilot study. BMI values, standing jump test and Course Navette test were analyzed. The degree of influence of BMI was calculated by effect size. In the standing jump test, only between 18- 25% of boys and between 17-36% of overweight girls got a distance equal or greater than those with normalweight. In Course Navette, only between 9%-19% of the boys and 23%-35% of overweight girls got equal or greater scores than those with normalweight. It is concluded that only a small percentage of adolescent overweight reach outcomes in strength and cardiovascular endurance equal or greater than the normalweight students. These results suggest that it would be necessary to include the body composition variable within the scales of scholar physical fitness test in young people.

  2. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  3. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Subhedar; R. K. Sinha; Saumi Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was cond...

  4. Nutritional status and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis: A cross sectional study in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Ilaria; Pomati, Simone; Maggiore, Laura; Forcella, Marica; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Grande, Giulia; Muzio, Fulvio; Mariani, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of nutritional status and body composition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). A cross-sectional study was performed in a University-Hospital setting, recruiting 59 patients with AD, 34 subjects with MCI and 58 elderly healthy controls (HC). Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometric parameters (body mass index; calf, upper arm and waist circumferences), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and body composition by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA). Variables were analyzed by analysis of variance and subjects were grouped by cognitive status and gender. Sociodemographic variables did not differ among the three groups (AD, MCI and HC), except for females' age, which was therefore used as covariate in a general linear multivariate model. MNA score was significantly lower in AD patients than in HC; MCI subjects achieved intermediate scores. AD patients (both sexes) had significantly (p<0.05) higher height-normalized impedance values and lower phase angles (body cell mass) compared with HC; a higher ratio of impedance to height was found in men with MCI with respect to HC. With BIVA method, MCI subjects showed a significant displacement on the RXc graph on the right side indicating lower soft tissues (Hotelling's T2 test: men = 10.6; women = 7.9;p < 0,05) just like AD patients (Hotelling's T2 test: men = 18.2; women = 16.9; p<0,001). Bioelectrical parameters significantly differ from MCI and AD to HC; MCI showed an intermediate pattern between AD and HC. Longitudinal studies are required to investigate if BIVA could reflect early AD-changes in body composition in subjects with MCI.

  5. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

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    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  6. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (pbody fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental interactions in the etiology of weight gain and the obesity epidemic. PMID:25067962

  7. The Effect of Dietary Glycemic Properties on Markers of Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and Body Composition in Postmenopausal American Women: An Ancillary Study from a Multicenter Protein Supplementation Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Stojkovic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Controversy exists as to whether high glycemic index/glycemic load (GI/GL diets increase the risk of chronic inflammation, which has been postulated as a pathogenic intermediary between such diets and age-related alterations in body composition and insulin resistance. We conducted an ancillary study to a randomized, double-blind trial comparing the effects of a whey protein supplement (PRO, n = 38 and a maltodextrin supplement (CHO, n = 46 on bone density to evaluate the impact of a calibrated increase in GI/GL on inflammation, insulin resistance, and body composition in a healthy aging population. Markers of inflammation, HOMA, body composition, and GI/GL (estimated from 3-day food records were assessed at baseline and 18 months. By 18 months, the GL in the CHO group increased by 34%, 88.4 ± 5.2 → 118.5 ± 4.9 and did not change in the PRO group, 86.5 ± 4.1 → 82.0 ± 3.6 (p < 0.0001. Despite this change there were no differences in serum CRP, IL-6, or HOMA at 18 months between the two groups, nor were there significant associations between GL and inflammatory markers. However, trunk lean mass (p = 0.0375 and total lean mass (p = 0.038 were higher in the PRO group compared to the CHO group at 18 months There were also significant associations for GL and change in total fat mass (r = 0.3, p = 0.01, change in BMI (r = 0.3, p = 0.005, and change in the lean-to-fat mass ratio (r = −0.3, p = 0.002. Our data suggest that as dietary GL increases within the moderate range, there is no detectable change in markers of inflammation or insulin resistance, despite which there is a negative effect on body composition.

  8. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  9. Body composition as an indicator of the nutritional status in children with newly diagnosed ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease – a prospective study

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    Paweł Więch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The prevalence of nutritional status disorders in children with ulcerative colitis (UC is much lower than in the case of Crohn’s disease (CD. The largest variability in the components of body composition occurs at the time of a new diagnosis and in periods of disease exacerbation. Aim: Assessment of body composition in children with UC and CD. Material and methods: The preliminary study included 59 children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (34 children with UC vs. 25 children with CD aged 4–18 years. The final analysis included 26 newly diagnosed children (16 children with UC vs. 10 children with CD. The evaluation of body composition was conducted by means of BIA-101 bioimpedance analyser. Results : Decreased values of lean mass were found in children with newly diagnosed IBD (UC: 41.13 kg vs. control group: 42.06 kg; CD: 35.50 kg vs. control group: 45.50 kg. After a year interval, an increase in fat (UC 1: 7.67 kg vs. UC 2: 10.33 kg; CD 1: 7.36 kg vs. CD 2: 9.47 kg as well as lean body mass (UC 1: 35.22 kg vs. UC 2: 39.00 kg; CD 1: 35.99 kg vs. CD 2: 42.41 kg was found in children. Conclusions : Children with newly diagnosed IBD were highly vulnerable to nutritional status disturbances. The increase in fat and lean body mass in an annual interval may be due to the treatment regime and control of the children.

  10. Effects of Soccer Training on Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness during a Soccer Season in Female Elite Young Athletes: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Lesinski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types, anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass, body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass, and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ≤ d ≤ 18.15; p < 0.05, while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ≤ d ≤ 11.18; p < 0.05. Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ≤ d ≤ 3.39; p < 0.01. In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ≤ d ≤ 3.95; p < 0.05. In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01 over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ≤ d ≤ 4.01; p < 0.05. Moreover, change

  11. Characteristics of Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage and Other Body Composition for Koreans from KNHANES IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sangmo; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung Kil; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Eun Young; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Young Taek; Wilson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height2; kg/m2) of Korean men did not correlate with age (P = 0.452), but those of Korean women (P 9 kg/m2) in men and 2.7% (FMI > 13 kg/m2) in women. It is concluded that the muscle mass decreases and obesity increases with aging in Korean men, whereas both fat mass and obesity increase with aging in Korean women. PMID:22147997

  12. A multinational study to develop universal standardization of whole-body bone density and composition using GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic DXA systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Fan, Bo; Lu, Ying; Wu, Xiao P; Wacker, Wynn K; Ergun, David L; Levine, Michael A

    2012-10-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is used to assess bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition, but measurements vary among instruments from different manufacturers. We sought to develop cross-calibration equations for whole-body bone density and composition derived using GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic DXA systems. This multinational study recruited 199 adult and pediatric participants from a site in the US (n = 40, ages 6 through 16 years) and one in China (n = 159, ages 5 through 81 years). The mean age of the participants was 44.2 years. Each participant was scanned on both GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic Discovery or Delphi DXA systems on the same day (US) or within 1 week (China) and all scans were centrally analyzed by a single technologist using GE Healthcare Lunar Encore version 14.0 and Hologic Apex version 3.0. Paired t-tests were used to test the results differences between the systems. Multiple regression and Deming regressions were used to derive the cross-conversion equations between the GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic whole-body scans. Bone and soft tissue measures were highly correlated between the GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic and systems, with r ranging from 0.96 percent fat [PFAT] to 0.98 (BMC). Significant differences were found between the two systems, with average absolute differences for PFAT, BMC, and BMD of 1.4%, 176.8 g and 0.013 g/cm(2) , respectively. After cross-calibration, no significant differences remained between GE Healthcare Lunar measured results and the results converted from Hologic. The equations we derived reduce differences between BMD and body composition as determined by GE Healthcare Lunar and Hologic systems and will facilitate combining study results in clinical or epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  14. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan

    2011-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a reference method for assessing body composition but is seldom `accessible in veterinary settings. Computed tomography (CT) can provide similar body composition estimates and we propose that it can be used in body composition studies in animals. We...

  15. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy and body composition and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children: the Mysore Parthenon Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Veena, Sargoor R; Winder, Nicola R; Hill, Jacqueline C; Noonan, Kate; Boucher, Barbara J; Karat, Samuel C; Fall, Caroline H D

    2011-03-01

    Metabolic consequences of vitamin D deficiency have become a recent research focus. Maternal vitamin D status is thought to influence musculoskeletal health in children, but its relation with offspring metabolic risk is not known. We aimed to examine the association between maternal vitamin D status and anthropometric variables, body composition, and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations were measured at 28-32 wk gestation in 568 women who delivered at Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Anthropometric variables, glucose and insulin concentrations, blood pressure, and fasting lipid concentrations were measured in the offspring at 5 and 9.5 y of age. Muscle-grip strength was measured by using a hand-held dynamometer at age 9.5 y. Arm-muscle area was calculated as a measure of muscle mass. Fasting insulin resistance was calculated by using the homeostasis model assessment equation. Sixty-seven percent of women had vitamin D deficiency [serum 25(OH)D concentration <50 nmol/L]. At ages 5 and 9.5 y, children born to vitamin D-deficient mothers had smaller arm-muscle area in comparison with children born to mothers without deficiency (P < 0.05). There was no difference in grip strength between offspring of women with and without vitamin D deficiency. At 9.5 y, children of vitamin D-deficient mothers had higher fasting insulin resistance than did children of nondeficient women (P = 0.04). There were no associations between maternal vitamin D status and other offspring risk factors at either age. Intrauterine exposure to low 25(OH)D concentrations is associated with less muscle mass and higher insulin resistance in children.

  16. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  17. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  18. Effect of Red Orange Juice Consumption on Body Composition and Nutritional Status in Overweight/Obese Female: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzini, E; Venneria, E; Ciarapica, D; Foddai, M S; Intorre, F; Zaccaria, M; Maiani, F; Palomba, L; Barnaba, L; Tubili, C; Maiani, G; Polito, A

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to determine whether a commercial orange juice rich in anthocyanins could have an effect on body weight and on clinical parameters related to obesity including antioxidant status, lipid profile, and metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. 11 women with an average BMI of 34.4 ± 4.8 kg/m 2 were enrolled in a pilot study. Over a period of 12 weeks they received 500 mL daily dose into two doses (250 mL) of commercial red orange juice (COJ). The biochemical parameters were measured at baseline and at the end of the study (12 weeks). One month later upon free diet, a follow-up was performed measuring the same variables. The daily consumption of 500 mL of COJ had no significant effects on body weight, while there was a decrease in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. The grade of obesity implies different changes in inflammation biomarkers. In obese women, our data do not seem to support evidence that commercial red orange juice consumption acts as functional food preventing obesity and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and/or inflammatory status.

  19. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Seino

    Full Text Available To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women. Body weight, fat mass (FM, percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea. The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI, FM index (FMI, FFM index (FFMI, and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI.Simple means (standard deviation of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9 kg/m(2, 24.9 (6.3%, 5.96 (2.09 kg/m(2, 17.4 (1.5 kg/m(2, and 7.29 (0.76 kg/m(2, respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3 kg/m(2, 31.7 (7.1%, 7.40 (2.61 kg/m(2, 15.3 (1.2 kg/m(2, and 5.86 (0.67 kg/m(2, respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends, but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends, but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends.The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body composition

  20. Reference Values and Age Differences in Body Composition of Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis of Four Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Satoshi; Shinkai, Shoji; Iijima, Katsuya; Obuchi, Shuichi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Hideyo; Kawai, Hisashi; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2015-01-01

    To determine age- and sex-specific body composition reference values and investigate age differences in these parameters for community-dwelling older Japanese men and women, using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. We conducted a pooled analysis of data collected in four cohort studies between 2008 and 2012: Kusatsu Longitudinal Study, Hatoyama Cohort Study, Itabashi Cohort Study, and Kashiwa Cohort Study. The pooled analysis included cross-sectional data from 4478 nondisabled, community-dwelling adults aged 65-94 years (2145 men, 2333 women; mean age: 72.9 years in men and 72.6 years in women). Body weight, fat mass (FM), percentage FM, fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular lean soft tissue mass were measured using the InBody 720 and 430 (Biospace Co. Ltd, Seoul, Korea). The values were then normalized by height in meters squared to determine body mass index (BMI), FM index (FMI), FFM index (FFMI), and skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). Simple means (standard deviation) of BMI, percentage FM, FMI, FFMI, and SMI were 23.4 (2.9) kg/m(2), 24.9 (6.3)%, 5.96 (2.09) kg/m(2), 17.4 (1.5) kg/m(2), and 7.29 (0.76) kg/m(2), respectively, in men and 22.7 (3.3) kg/m(2), 31.7 (7.1)%, 7.40 (2.61) kg/m(2), 15.3 (1.2) kg/m(2), and 5.86 (0.67) kg/m(2), respectively, in women. We then calculated quartiles and quintiles for these indices after stratifying for sex and 5-year age group. FFMI and SMI decreased significantly with age in both sexes (P < 0.001 for trends), but FFMI remained constant among the women with only a 1% decrease up to age 84 years. Percentage FM increased significantly, with age (P < 0.001 in men and P = 0.045 in women for trends), but FMI was unchanged in both sexes (P = 0.147 in men and P = 0.176 in women for trends). The present data should be useful in the clinical evaluation of body composition of older Japanese and for international comparisons. The small age-related decrease in FFMI may be a noteworthy characteristic of body

  1. Hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation with maternal body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosus, Aydin; Eser, Ayla; Kosus, Nermin; Usluogullari, Betul; Hizli, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if maternal body fat composition and body mass index were associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 30) without nausea and vomiting (control group) and women with HG (n = 54; study group), all with singleton pregnancy at 6-14 weeks gestational age, were included. Body mass index was measured before and during pregnancy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous fat thickness were measured during pregnancy. Comparison of the groups revealed that VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index but not subcutaneous fat thickness were significantly higher in the HG group versus controls. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index predicted 83.8% and 67.1% of HG cases, respectively. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index were correlated with the development of hyperemesis gravidrum and hence could be considered as predictive markers for HG.

  2. Body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among Olympic and Ironman distance triathletes residing in the Western Cape. Methods. A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study design was conducted in Western Cape Province. Twenty-six triathletes registered ...

  3. Association between blood pressure, measures of body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease develop early in life and track into adulthood. This study investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and measures of body composition in adolescents. The study participants were 307 adolescents. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters: ...

  4. Fitness and body composition profiling of elite junior South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.

  5. Mothers' intake of sugar-containing beverages during pregnancy and body composition of their children during childhood: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Vincent; Erler, Nicole S; Tielemans, Myrte J; Braun, Kim Ve; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Franco, Oscar H; Voortman, Trudy

    2017-04-01

    Background: High intake of sugar-containing beverages (SCBs) has been linked to increased risk of obesity. However, associations of SCB intake during pregnancy with child body composition have been unclear. Objectives: We explored whether SCB intake during pregnancy was associated with children's body mass index (BMI) and detailed measures of body composition. In addition, we examined different types of SCBs (i.e., fruit juice, soda, and concentrate). Design: We included 3312 mother-child pairs of the Generation R Study, a prospective cohort from fetal life onward in the Netherlands. Energy-adjusted SCB intake was assessed in the first trimester with a food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric data of the children were collected repeatedly ≤6 y of age, and BMI was calculated. At 6 y of age, we further measured fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. All outcomes were sex- and age-standardized. Associations of SCB intake with children's BMI trajectories and body composition were analyzed with multivariable linear mixed and regression models. Results: Results from linear mixed models showed that, after adjustment for confounders including the SCB intake of the child itself, mothers' total SCB intake was positively associated with children's BMI ≤6 y of age [per serving per day: 0.04 SD score (SDS); 95% CI: 0.00, 0.07 SDS]. In addition, intakes of total SCBs and fruit juice, but not of soda or concentrate, were associated with a higher FMI [total SCBs: 0.05 SDS (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08 SDS); fruit juice: 0.04 SDS (95% CI: 0.01, 0.06 SDS)] of the 6-y-old children. These associations remained significant ( P intake during pregnancy is positively associated with children's BMI during early childhood and particularly with higher fat mass. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. The Sex and Race Specific Relationship between Anthropometry and Body Fat Composition Determined from Computed Tomography: Evidence from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongraw-Chaffin, Morgana; Golden, Sherita Hill; Allison, Matthew A; Ding, Jingzhong; Ouyang, Pamela; Schreiner, Pamela J; Szklo, Moyses; Woodward, Mark; Young, Jeffery Hunter; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of anthropometric measurements with computed tomography (CT) body fat composition, and even fewer determined if these relationships differ by sex and race. CT scans from 1,851 participants in the population based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis were assessed for visceral and subcutaneous fat areas by semi-automated segmentation of body compartments. Regression models were used to investigate relationships for anthropometry with visceral and subcutaneous fat separately by sex and race/ethnicity. Participants were 50% female, 41% Caucasian, 13% Asian, 21% African American, and 25% Hispanic. For visceral fat, the positive relationship with weight (p = 0.028), waist circumference (panthropometry and underlying adiposity differs by sex and race/ethnicity. When anthropometry is used as a proxy for visceral fat in research, sex-specific models should be used.

  7. Emotional Support, Depressive Symptoms, and Age-Related Alterations in Male Body Composition: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Men's Health 40+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andreas; Philipp, Michel; Lozza, Niclà; Ehlert, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    More depressive symptoms and low emotional support have been related to worse body composition. Body composition significantly deteriorates in aging men. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether high emotional support and low depressive symptoms are associated with better body composition and a decelerated age-related deterioration of body composition in aging men. A cross-sectional analysis including 269 self-reporting healthy men aged between 40 and 75 years living in the German-speaking part of Switzerland was conducted. Participants completed questionnaires on emotional support and depressive symptoms. The depression screening instrument was used to form a group with low ( N = 225) and moderate ( N = 44) depressive symptoms. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured, and cell proportion (CP), fat mass (FM), and water balance (WB) were obtained using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Age-related associations emerged for WHR, CP, FM, and WB, but not for BMI. Emotional support was negatively associated with BMI, WHR, and WB, and only trend-wise with CP and FM. Group comparisons revealed that more depressive symptoms were associated with lower levels of CP and higher levels of WB. Both emotional support and depressive symptoms were significant moderators of the association between age and specific measures of body composition such as CP, FM, and WB. However, after correction for multiple testing for moderation analyses only the moderation effects of depressive symptoms on the association between age and WB and CP remained significant. Low depressive symptoms were associated with a better body composition as well as a decelerated decline in body composition and the role of emotional support acting as a buffer against age-related deterioration of body composition merits further investigation.

  8. Food insecurity partially mediates associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults in india: Results from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, Joshua M; McClure, Heather H; Snodgrass, J Josh; Liebert, Melissa A; Charlton, Karen E; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Naidoo, Nirmala; Kowal, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Our objective was to test whether food insecurity mediates cross-sectional associations between social disadvantage and body composition among older adults (aged 50+) in India (n = 6556). Adjusting for key sociodemographic and dietary variables, we examined whether markers of social disadvantage (lower educational attainment, lower household wealth, belonging to a disadvantaged caste/tribe, and belonging to a minority religion) were associated with food insecurity. We then examined whether food insecurity, in turn, was associated with anthropometric measures of body composition, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC). We also tested whether food insecurity mediated the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition. In adjusted models, lower household wealth [lowest quintile (Q5) vs highest quintile (Q1): odds ratio (OR) = 13.57, P insecurity. Those who were severely food insecure had greater odds of being underweight (OR = 1.36, P insecurity explained 4.7%-29.7% of the relationship between social disadvantage and body composition, depending on the variables considered. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that food insecurity is a mechanism linking social disadvantage and body composition among older adults in India. These analyses contribute to a better understanding of processes leading to variation in body composition, which may help enhance the design of interventions aimed at improving population nutritional status. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characterization of body composition and definition of sarcopenia in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis: A computed tomography based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jaya; Shasthry, Varsha; Kaal, Chetan Ramesh; Anand, Lovkesh; Bhardwaj, Ankit; Pandit, Vanshja; Arora, Ankur; Rajesh, Sasidharan; Pamecha, Viniyendra; Jain, Vikas; Kumar, Guresh; Loria, Anthony; Puri, Puneet; Joshi, Yogendra Kumar; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Alterations in body composition (BC) as loss of fat and muscle mass (sarcopenia) are associated with poor outcome in alcoholic cirrhosis (ALC). Prevalence of sarcopenia depends upon the method of assessment. Computed Tomography (CT) is a gold standard tool for assessing BC. To characterize BC and define sarcopenia in ALC patients using CT. Single slice CT images at L3 vertebrae of healthy controls (HC) - organ transplant donors and ALC patients were analysed to give cross-sectional area of five skeletal muscles normalized for height -skeletal muscle index (SMI; cm 2 /m 2 ), area of subcutaneous (SAT;cm 2 ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT;cm 2 ). Cut-offs for defining sarcopenia was established at 2SD below the mean of HC. HC were compared with Child A-compensated (C) and Child B+C-decompensated (DC) patients. Cut-offs of SMI derived from HC (n = 275; M: 50%; age 32.2 ± 9.8 years; BMI 24.2 ± 3.2 Kg/m 2 ) were 36.54 in males and 30.21 in females. Sarcopenia was found in 12.8% of ALC patients [n = 148; C (31.8%): DC (68.2%); M: 100%; age 46.6 ± 9.7 years; BMI 24.5 ± 4.4]. Compared to HC, compensated patients had higher adiposity and comparable muscularity; decompensated patients had significantly lower muscle and also fat mass compared to both HC and compensated patients. HC vs C vs DC: SAT (140 ± 82 vs 177.3 ± 11 vs 112 ± 8.2); VAT (96.5 ± 6.5 vs 154.9 ± 8.7 vs 87.5 ± 6.5) and SMI (52.1 ± 0.9 vs 49.6 ± 1.2 vs 46 ± 0.9). Compensated ALC have increased adiposity and relatively preserved muscularity but decompensation leads to loss of both muscle and fat mass. Prevalence of sarcopenia, based on derived ethnic cut-offs was 12.8%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologanu, Daniela; Ionita, Diana; Gartonea, Teodora; Stanescu, Cristina; Bogdan, Miron Alexandru

    2014-03-01

    Body composition assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important, as weight loss and muscular wasting are responsible for low exercise capacity in these patients, and low body mass index (BMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) are important prognostic factors. Our study aims were: (a) to describe body composition in COPD patients referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation center in Bucharest; (b) to examine the relationships between body composition and disease severity (bronchial obstruction, exercise capacity, quality of life); (c) to test if segmental wasting of lower limbs muscle mass (measured by segmental body composition analysis) correlates with decreased exercise capacity. We studied 36 consecutive COPD patients referred to our clinic for pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients performed pulmonary function tests, six minutes walking test (6MWT), and health status was evaluated with COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Body composition measurements were performed by direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). This study offers the first data on body composition of Romanian COPD patientsThe prevalence of nutritional depletion (defined by low BMI and/or low FFMI) among our COPD patients was 22.2%. Mean FFMI was significantly lower in normal or underweight patients versus overweight or obese patients. Patients with low FFMI had lower exercise capacity at the 6MWT and higher CAT scores than patients with normal FFMI.Depending on the BMI and FFMI values the patients were divided in four categories: normal, semistarvation, sarcopenia and cachexia. The group of patients with sarcopenia (low FFMI and normal BMI) had the lowest mean MIP (Maximal Inspiratory Pressure), the lowest mean 6MWD (six minutes walking distance) and the higher CAT mean scores among all groups. Exercise capacity was significantly lower in muscular depleted patients (with low skeletal muscle mass index - SSMI). MIP correlated significantly with FFMI and SMMI. No

  11. Youth and young adult physical activity and body composition of young adult women: findings from the dietary intervention study in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Melissa G; Hovinga, Mary; Shepherd, John A; Egleston, Brian; Gabriel, Kelley; Van Horn, Linda; Robson, Alan; Snetselaar, Linda; Stevens, Victor K; Jung, Seungyoun; Dorgan, Joanne

    2015-02-01

    This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

  12. Body composition, bone turnover, and bone mass in trans men during testosterone treatment: 1-year follow-up data from a prospective case-controlled study (ENIGI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, E; Wierckx, K; Taes, Y; Schreiner, T; Vandewalle, S; Toye, K; Lapauw, B; Kaufman, J-M; T'Sjoen, G

    2015-02-01

    To assess the evolution of body composition and bone metabolism in trans men during the first year of cross-sex hormonal therapy. In a prospective controlled study, we included 23 trans men (female-to-male trans persons) and 23 age-matched control women. In both groups, we examined grip strength (hand dynamometer), biochemical markers of bone turnover (C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX) and procollagen 1 aminoterminal propeptide (P1NP)), total body fat and lean mass, and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and fat and muscle area at the forearm and calf, bone geometry, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), before treatment and after 1 year of treatment with undecanoate (1000 mg i.m./12 weeks). Before hormonal treatment, trans men had similar bone and body composition compared with control women. Testosterone treatment induced in trans men a gain in muscle mass (+10.4%) and strength and loss of fat mass (-9.7%) (all Ptrans men (P=0.036 and P=0.001 respectively). None of these changes were observed in the control group. Short-term testosterone treatment in trans men increased muscle mass and bone turnover. The latter may rather reflect an anabolic effect of testosterone treatment rather than bone loss. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. The Effect of a Short-Term High-Intensity Circuit Training Program on Work Capacity, Body Composition, and Blood Profiles in Sedentary Obese Men: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B. Miller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine how a high-intensity circuit-training (HICT program affects key physiological health markers in sedentary obese men. Eight obese (body fat percentage >26% males completed a four-week HICT program, consisting of three 30-minute exercise sessions per week, for a total of 6 hours of exercise. Participants’ heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, rating of perceived exertion, total work (TW, and time to completion were measured each exercise session, body composition was measured before and after HICT, and fasting blood samples were measured before throughout, and after HICT program. Blood sample measurements included total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, and insulin. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and one-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Statistical significance was set to P<0.05. Data analyses revealed significant (P<0.05 improvements in resting HR (16% decrease, systolic BP (5.5% decrease, TW (50.7%, fat tissue percentage (3.6%, lean muscle tissue percentage (2%, cholesterol (13%, triacylglycerol (37%, and insulin (18% levels from before to after HICT program. Overall, sedentary obese males experienced a significant improvement in biochemical, physical, and body composition characteristics from a HICT program that was only 6 hours of the total exercise.

  14. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men’s and Women’s Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  15. Body composition changes with time in pediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przkora, Rene; Barrow, Robert E; Jeschke, Marc G; Suman, Oscar E; Celis, Mario; Sanford, Arthur P; Chinkes, David L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2006-05-01

    Major trauma and burns are associated with whole body catabolism which can persist for 1 or more years after injury. This study investigates body composition in massively burned children for up to 2 years. Twenty-five pediatric patients with greater than 40% total body surface area burns were studied. At discharge, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after burn height, weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, cortisol, parathyroid hormone, and thyroid hormones were measured. Tukey's test was used for analysis. Significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Lean body mass, fat mass, bone mineral content, height, and weight increased significantly during the second year after burn. Percent predicted REE decreased significantly, whereas IGFBP-3 and parathyroid hormone levels increased significantly over time. Insulin and T3 uptake were significantly higher at discharge. Body composition of severely burned children significantly improved in the second year compared with the first year after injury. This demonstrates a need for long-term rehabilitation in these burn patients.

  16. A randomised placebo-exercise controlled trial of Kung Fu training for improvements in body composition in overweight/obese adolescents: the "Martial Fitness" study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, M Fiatarone

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu, KF) might be effective for improving body composition, as well as being an appealing form of physical activity for inexperienced, sedentary, overweight/obese adolescents. Twenty subjects (age: 13.3 ± 1.8 y; BMI percentile: 98.6(86.5 - 99.8); 60% girls) were randomly-assigned to the supervised KF or placebo (Tai Chi, TC) control group 3 d.wk(-1) for 6 months. We assessed body composition, including total and regional fat and lean mass, total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), percent lean and fat mass, body mass index and waist circumference, at baseline and after 6 months of training using anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Habitual physical activity and dietary intake were recorded as covariates via self-report at each time-point. As expected due to natural growth, significant increases in height, weight, total and lumbar BMD, and lean mass were seen in the cohort over time, with a trend for increased whole body fat mass, with no difference between groups. By contrast, percent fat and android fat mass via DXA did not increase in either group over time. The absence of a similar expected increase in central adiposity over 6 months could indicate a positive effect of participation in both programs on the metabolically critical abdominal adiposity in this cohort. Further research in this area is warranted to determine ways to increase uptake and compliance, and to see if longer-term martial arts training not only maintains, but improves abdominal fat mass and related metabolic health indices in overweight/ obese adolescents. Key pointsParticipation in our martial arts trial attenuated the increases in body fat mass expected due to growth in our overweight/obese adolescent group.All subjects allocated to the Kung Fu intervention were satisfied with their Kung Fu training, in contrast to our placebo-exercise (Tai Chi) subjects, suggesting that this form of

  17. Body composition assessment in Taiwanese individuals with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2011-07-01

    To measure the changes in the total and regional body fat mass, and assess the clinical usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) in detecting overweight subjects with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Prospective, cross-sectional study. General community. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n=17; age range, 42-57y; mean, 47y; 12 men, 5 women) and able-bodied people (n=17) matched by sex, age, body weight, and body height participated in the study. Not applicable. Total and regional body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Clinical characteristics such as blood pressure, serum biochemical studies, and habitual behaviors (daily cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise regimen) of all participants were evaluated. Compared with able-bodied controls, subjects with poliomyelitis had a 50% greater total body fat mass, significant increases in the regional fat mass in every part of the body, and had the greatest increase of fat mass in the thorax. Nearly all the subjects (94%) with poliomyelitis were obese according to standards of body composition. However, one third of them had a BMI value of less than 25.0kg/m(2). People with poliomyelitis have a higher prevalence of obesity and a significant increase in total and regional fat mass. Current BMI underestimates the total body fat mass percentage compared with the control; therefore, a population-specific BMI should be used to address the prevalence of obesity in postpolio survivors. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of body composition on the prevalence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of body composition on the prevalence of postural deformities among Black South African children aged 11 to 13 years in selected schools in the Potchefstroom area in the North West Province. The sample (n = 168) consisted of 47 eleven year olds, 58 twelve year olds and ...

  19. Changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...

  20. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  1. Physical activity, body composition and physical fitness status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the physical activity (PA), body composition and physical fitness status of 1361 (boys: n=678; girls: n= 683) primary school children aged 9-12 years in Mpumalanga (MP) and Limpopo (LP) provinces of South Africa. Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were taken using the ...

  2. The association between leptin, body composition and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the association between leptin, body composition and physical fitness in black adolescents from two selected schools in Ikageng, in the North West Province of South Africa. Baseline measurements were obtained from 124 boys and 148 girls between the ages of 13 and 20 years, which participated in ...

  3. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat...

  4. Body composition and somatotype of male Zimbabwean league ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a profile of the body composition and somatotype characteristics of male Zimbabwean league basketball players, which information is lacking. Twenty six players aged 22.0±5.3 years were purposively sampled from the top teams of the Bulawayo Basketball Association. Anthropometric variables were ...

  5. Variability explained by strength, body composition and gait impairment in activity and participation measures for children with cerebral palsy: a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeffinger, Donna; Gorton, George; Hassani, Sahar; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; Johnson, Barbara; Whitmer, Megan; Romness, Mark; Kryscio, Dick; Tylkowski, Chester; Bagley, Anita

    2014-10-01

    To determine the amount of variability in scores on activity and participation measures used to assess ambulatory individuals with cerebral palsy explained by strength, body composition, gait impairment and participant characteristics. Multicentre prospective cross-sectional study. Seven paediatric-orthopaedic specialty hospitals. Three hundred and seventy-seven ambulatory individuals (241 males, 136 females) with cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I-III (I = 148, II = 153, III = 76), ages 8-18 years (mean 12 years 9 months, SD 2 years 8 months). Participants completed assessments of GMFCS level, patient history, lower extremity muscle strength, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66), Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI), instrumented gait analysis, 1 minute walk test, Timed Up-and-Go and body composition. Multiple linear regression and bootstrap analyses were performed for each outcome measure, stratified by GMFCS level. The amount of variability in outcome measures explained by participant characteristics, strength, and gait impairment ranged from 11% to 50%. Gait impairment was the most common predictor variable and frequently explained the greatest variance across all outcome measures and GMFCS levels. As gait impairment increased, scores on outcome measures decreased. Strength findings were inconsistent and not a primary factor. Body composition contributed minimally (cerebral palsy type, gestational age and age at walking onset), were significant predictor variables in several models. Variability in outcome measure scores is multifaceted and only partially explained by strength and gait impairment illustrating the challenges of attempting to explain variation within this heterogeneous population. Clinicians treating individuals with cerebral palsy should consider this when developing treatment paradigms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The relationship between body composition and physical fitness in 14 year old adolescents residing within the Tlokwe local municipality, South Africa: The PAHL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monyeki Makama

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the relationship between body composition and physical fitness in 14 year-old high school adolescents of South Africa. Baseline data from a longitudinal study on physical activity and health (PAHLS may provide valuable information for future studies, hence to inform public health policy makers. The objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of underweight, normal weight and overweight among adolescents aged 14 years in the Tlokwe Local Municipality of the North West Province of South Africa, and to assess the association between physical fitness and body composition separately for boys and girls, adjusted for race and locality. Methods Body weight, height and triceps, and subscapular skinfolds of 256 adolescents (100 boys and 156 girls aged 14 years were measured, and percentage body fat and body mass index (BMI were calculated. BMI was used to determine underweight, normal weight and overweight based on the standard criterion. Physical fitness was assessed by standing broad jump, bent arm hang and sit-ups according to the EUROFIT fitness standard procedures. Multinomial logistic regression analyses stratified for gender and adjusted for race (black or white, and the locality (urban or township of the schools were used to analyze the data. Results In the total group 35.9% were underweight and 13.7% overweight. Boys were more underweight (44% than girls (30.7%. The prevalence of overweight was 8% in boys and 17.3% in girls. BMI was strongly (p = 0.01 related with percentage body fat. Strong and significant positive associations between physical fitness and BMI for the underweight girls with high physical fitness scores (OR, 10.69 [95%CI: 2.81-40.73], and overweight girls with high physical fitness scores (OR, 0.11 [95%CI: 0.03-0.50] were found. Non-significant weaker positive relationship between physical fitness and BMI for the underweight boys with high physical fitness scores

  7. Effect of aerobic training and resistance training on circulating irisin level and their association with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-J; Lee, H-J; So, B; Son, J S; Yoon, D; Song, W

    2016-06-20

    The novel myokine irisin has been reported as a therapeutic target for metabolic disease. The objective of this study is to reveal the effects of aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) on circulating irisin levels and their associations with change of body composition in overweight/obese adults. Twenty eight overweight/obese adults (BMI>23 kg/m(2)) were included in this study and compared before and after 8 weeks of exercise program (60 min/day, 5 times in a week). The subjects, in both aerobic and resistance training, showed significant improvement in anthropometric parameters and exercise capacities including maximal oxygen uptake and muscle strength. Interestingly, the circulating irisin was significantly increased in resistance training group (p=0.002) but not in aerobic training (p=0.426) compared to control group. In addition, we found the positive correlation between change of the circulating irisin and muscle mass (r=0.432, p=0.022) and the negative correlation between change of the circulating irisin and fat mass (r=-0.407, p=0.031). In the present pilot study, we found that circulating irisin level was increased by 8 weeks of resistance training in overweight/obese adults, suggesting that resistance training could be the efficient exercise type in overweight/obese considering positive change of body composition concomitant with increase of irisin levels.

  8. The Three-Month Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Body Composition, Blood Parameters, and Performance Metrics in CrossFit Trainees: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley C. Kephart

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adopting low carbohydrate, ketogenic diets remains a controversial issue for individuals who resistance train given that this form of dieting has been speculated to reduce skeletal muscle glycogen levels and stifle muscle anabolism. We sought to characterize the effects of a 12-week ketogenic diet (KD on body composition, metabolic, and performance parameters in participants who trained recreationally at a local CrossFit facility. Twelve participants (nine males and three females, 31 ± 2 years of age, 80.3 ± 5.1 kg body mass, 22.9 ± 2.3% body fat, 1.37 back squat: body mass ratio were divided into a control group (CTL; n = 5 and a KD group (n = 7. KD participants were given dietary guidelines to follow over 12 weeks while CTL participants were instructed to continue their normal diet throughout the study, and all participants continued their CrossFit training routine for 12 weeks. Pre, 2.5-week, and 12-week anaerobic performance tests were conducted, and pre- and 12-week tests were performed for body composition using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and ultrasound, resting energy expenditure (REE, blood-serum health markers, and aerobic capacity. Additionally, blood beta hydroxybutyrate (BHB levels were measured weekly. Blood BHB levels were 2.8- to 9.5-fold higher in KD versus CTL throughout confirming a state of nutritional ketosis. DXA fat mass decreased by 12.4% in KD (p = 0.053. DXA total lean body mass changes were not different between groups, although DXA dual-leg lean mass decreased in the KD group by 1.4% (p = 0.068, and vastus lateralis thickness values decreased in the KD group by ~8% (p = 0.065. Changes in fasting glucose, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were similar between groups, although LDL cholesterol increased ~35% in KD (p = 0.048. Between-group changes in REE, one-repetition maximum (1-RM back squat, 400 m run times, and VO2peak were similar between groups. While our n-sizes were limited, these preliminary data suggest

  9. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate.......70-105.56) (P basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...... a dysfunctional metabolism contributing to the high-fat-body composition....

  10. Effects of bariatric surgery on the body composition of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Wally Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.

  11. Personality and Reduced Incidence of Walking Limitation in Late Life: Findings From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.; Faulkner, Kimberly; Rosano, Caterina; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between openness to experience and conscientiousness and incident reported walking limitation. Method. The study population consisted of 786 men and women aged 71–81 years (M = 75 years, SD = 2.7) participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition—Cognitive Vitality Substudy. Results. Nearly 20% of participants (155/786) developed walking limitation during 6 years of follow-up. High openness was associated with a reduced risk of walking limitation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69–0.98), independent of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and conscientiousness. This association was not mediated by lifestyle factors and was not substantially modified by other risk factors for functional disability. Conscientiousness was not associated with risk of walking limitation (HR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77–1.07). Discussion. Findings suggest that personality dimensions, specifically higher openness to experience, may contribute to functional resilience in late life. PMID:22437204

  12. A family-centered lifestyle intervention to improve body composition and bone mass in overweight and obese children 6 through 8 years: a randomized controlled trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamara R; Hazell, Tom J; Vanstone, Catherine A; Plourde, Hugues; Rodd, Celia J; Weiler, Hope A

    2013-04-25

    Childhood obesity gives rise to health complications including impaired musculoskeletal development that associates with increased risk of fractures. Prevention and treatment programs should focus on nutrition education, increasing physical activity (PA), reducing sedentary behaviours, and should monitor bone mass as a component of body composition. To ensure lifestyle changes are sustained in the home environment, programs need to be family-centered. To date, no study has reported on a family-centered lifestyle intervention for obese children that aims to not only ameliorate adiposity, but also support increases in bone and lean muscle mass. Furthermore, it is unknown if programs of such nature can also favorably change eating and activity behaviors. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of a 1 y family-centered lifestyle intervention, focused on both nutrient dense foods including increased intakes of milk and alternatives, plus total and weight-bearing PA, on body composition and bone mass in overweight or obese children. The study design is a randomized controlled trial for overweight or obese children (6-8 y). Participants are randomized to control, standard treatment (StTx) or modified treatment (ModTx). This study is family-centred and includes individualized counselling sessions on nutrition, PA and sedentary behaviors occurring 4 weeks after baseline for 5 months, then at the end of month 8. The control group receives counselling at the end of the study. All groups are measured at baseline and every 3 months for the primary outcome of changes in body mass index Z-scores. At each visit blood is drawn and children complete a researcher-administered behavior questionnaire and muscle function testing. Changes from baseline to 12 months in body fat (% and mass), waist circumference, lean body mass, bone (mineral content, mineral density, size and volumetric density), dietary intake, self-reported PA and sedentary behaviour are examined. This family

  13. Dietary strategies and body composition in elite weightlifting: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little literature that showed the nutritional bases to optimize weightlifting performance. The objective was to perform a systematic review of the body composition and nutritional composition of diets in elite weightlifting athletes. Material and Methods: Articles published in Pubmed, Web of Science and Sport Discuss were reviewed following PRISMA Statement. The process for selecting studies was performed duplicated by two researchers in two stages (screening and application of eligibility criteria. A qualitative synthesis of the main characteristics and findings was made. The quality of studies was assessed. Results: Of the 610 articles found, 8 met the inclusion criteria, which were the studies performed in elite or high-level menopausal women, and information on dietary habits and/or body composition. Body composition identified that the percentage of fat mass was around 15%. A caloric intake of 4080.65±1602.69kcal, a protein intake of 17.29±3.2% of total daily energy (TDE, 42.48±5.6% TDE of carbohydrates and a 36.1±9.75% TDE of fats. A suboptimal dietary profile is suggested, showing an excess in fat intake, which could explain the excess body fat observed in some. Athletes’ protein intake and carbohydrates were within the recommended ranges except for 2 studies. Conclusions: An incorrect diet on the part of the elite weightlifting athletes was observed, which could condition their body composition negatively. The need for advice and intervention by a dietitian-nutritionist professionals was observed.

  14. Anthropometry and body composition of south Indian babies at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, S; Dwarkanath, P; Thomas, T; Vaz, M; Mhaskar, A; Mhaskar, R; Thomas, A; Bhat, S; Kurpad, Av

    2006-10-01

    To assess the consequences on body composition of increasing birth weight in Indian babies in relation to reported values in Western babies, and to assess the relationship between maternal and neonatal anthropometry and body composition. Prospective observational study. Bangalore City, India. A total of 712 women were recruited at 12.5+/-3.1 weeks of gestation (mean+/-standard deviation, SD) and followed up until delivery; 14.5% were lost to follow-up. Maternal body weight, height, mid upper-arm circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured at recruitment. Weight and body composition of the baby (skinfold thicknesses, mid upper-arm circumference, derived arm fat index and arm muscle index; AFI and AMI, respectively) were measured at birth in hospital. The mean+/-SD birth weight of all newborns was 2.80+/-0.44 kg. Birth weight was significantly related to the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness of the baby. In a small number of babies with large birth weight for gestational age, there was a relatively higher normalised AFI relative to AMI than for babies with lower or appropriate birth weight for gestational age. Maternal height and fat-free mass were significantly associated with the baby's length at birth. Skinfold thicknesses in Indian babies were similar to those reported in a Western population with comparable birth weights, and the relationship of AFI to birth weight appeared to be steeper in Indian babies. Thus, measures to increase birth weight in Indian babies should take into account possible adverse consequences on body composition. There were no significant relationships between maternal anthropometry and body composition at birth on multivariate analysis, except for sum of the baby's skinfold thicknesses and maternal fat-free mass (P<0.02).

  15. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total body water, visceral fat accumulation, body mass index, resting metabolic rate, fat‑free mass, bone mass, and muscle mass were significantly higher in obese when compared to those with nonobese (P < 0.001). Thirteen ... Keywords: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss ...

  16. Applied Sports Nutrition Support, Dietary Intake and Body Composition Changes of a Female Athlete Completing 26 Marathons in 26 Days: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J. McManus, Kelly A. Murray, David A. Parry

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study is to describe the nutrition practices of a female recreational runner (VO2max 48.9 ml·kg-1·min-1 who completed 26 marathons (42.195 km in 26 consecutive days. Information relating to the nutritional intake of female runners during multi-day endurance events is extremely limited, yet the number of people participating year-on-year continues to increase. This case study reports the nutrition intervention, dietary intake, body composition changes and performance in the lead-up and during the 26 days. Prior to undertaking the 26 marathon challenge, three consultations were held between the athlete and a sports nutrition advisor; planning and tailoring the general diet and race-specific strategies to the endurance challenge. During the marathons, the mean energy and fluid intake was 1039.7 ± 207.9 kcal (607.1 – 1453.2 and 2.39 ± 0.35 L (1.98 – 3.19. Mean hourly carbohydrate intake was 38.9 g·hr-1. 11 days following the completion of the 26 marathons, body mass had reduced by 4.6 kg and lean body mass increasing by 0.53 kg when compared with 20 days prior. This case study highlights the importance of providing general and event-specific nutrition education when training for such an event. This is particularly prudent for multi-day endurance running events.

  17. BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT WITH SEGMENTAL MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka A. Salmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment

  18. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets.

  19. Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults : the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Anne B; Haggerty, Catherine L; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steve; Nevitt, Michael; Miles, Toni P; Visser, Marjolein

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether lower lean mass and higher fat mass have independent effects on the loss of strength and muscle quality in older adults and might explain part of the effect of age. DESIGN: Single-episode, cross-sectional analyses of a cohort of subjects in the Health, Aging and Body

  20. Two-year longitudinal health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality: The PAHL Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriola, Oluwatoyi O; Monyeki, Makama A; Toriola, Abel L

    2015-10-30

    To evaluate a two-year longitudinal development of health-related fitness, anthropometry and body composition status amongst adolescents in Tlokwe Municipality, Potchefstroom, South Africa. A total of 283 high-school learners (111 boys and 172 girls) of ages 14 and 15 years who were part of the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHLS) participated in the study. For the purpose of the present study, data collected for 2011 and 2012 for anthropometric, body composition and health-related physical fitness were used. Body mass index (BMI) classification of boys and girls for 2011 and 2012 showed that 24.3% of them were underweight compared with 21% in 2012. In 2011, 50% of boys and girls had normal bodyweight compared with 52% in 2012, whilst 25.5% of the total group of participants were overweight compared with 27% in 2012. Both boys and girls showed significant increases of 5.9% in body fat (BF) and 3.2 kg in body weight over two years' measurements, respectively. Regarding health-related fitness (i.e BAH), boys showed an increase of 14.8 seconds whilst girls gained 9.6 seconds. Significant decreases were found for sit-ups in both boys and girls. A significant VO2max increase of 2.9 mL/kg/min. was found in boys over the time period. A non-significant decrease of -0.5 mL/kg/min. was observed in girls. Regression coefficients showed that changes in BMI were inversely associated with those in health-related physical fitness. The changes in percentage BF were negatively associated with standing broad jump (SBJ), bent arm hang (BAH) and VO2 max in both boys and girls. A low significant positive association was found between changes in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and SBJ in both genders, whilst inverse low associations were found between WHtR and BAH in girls and for VO2max in both genders. Changes in BMI, %BF and WHtR were negatively associated with strength and running performances in the participating children. The relative increase in overweight

  1. Body Composition and Mortality Predictors in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Cristina; Valente, Ana; Oliveira, Telma; Garagarza, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate how different compartments of body composition can affect survival in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Multicenter longitudinal observational study of a cohort of patients in HD with 12 months of follow-up. Patients from 34 Nephrocare dialysis units in Portugal were included. A total of 697 patients on maintenance HD during 4 hours 3 days per week were enrolled. Dry weight, presence of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), lean tissue index (LTI), fat tissue index (FTI), body cell mass index (BCMI), albumin and hydration status were recorded at baseline. In all patients, the assessment of body composition was carried out using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM; Fresenius Medical Care a Deutschland GmbH, Germany). Survival during a 12-month period of follow-up. Patient's mean (±standard deviation) age was 65.4 ± 14.3 years, and median (interquartile range) HD vintage was 41 (19-81) months. Patients who died during the study period, had higher age (P < .001), lower dry weight (P = .001), BMI (P < .001), albumin (P < .001), LTI (P = .015), and also lower BCMI (P = .046). Patients with diabetes (P = .045), BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) (P < .001), albumin < 4.0 g/dL (P < .001), relative overhydration ≥ 15% (P = .001), low FTI (P = .019), and also those in the lowest tertile of BCMI (P = .022) displayed a significantly worse survival. In the Cox regression analysis, the overall mortality of patient was related to low FTI, relative overhydration, BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2), BCMI ≤ 5.2 kg/m(2), and albumin < 4.0 g/dL. Several body composition parameters demonstrated to have an important role in predicting 1-year mortality in HD patients. Albumin, FTI, and BMI were useful predictors of mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Body size and body composition effects on heat loss from the hands during severe cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie; Macintosh, Alison; Stock, Jay

    2018-02-11

    This study investigated the influence of body size and composition on maintaining hand temperature during severe cold exposure. The hand's high surface area-to-volume ratio predisposes the hand to heat loss, increasing the risk of cold injury and even hypothermia, which are major selective pressures in cold environments. While vasoregulation may reduce heat loss from the hand, the effect of body form, tissue thermogenesis, and body insulation on heat loss is unknown. Thermal imaging was used to determine heat loss during a 3-min ice-water hand immersion test carried out on 114 volunteers (female = 63, male = 51). Established anthropometric measures were used to quantify body size, and bioelectrical impedance analysis determined skeletal muscle and fat mass. Skeletal muscle mass relative to body mass was a highly significant predictor of heat loss, while body mass, fat mass, and stature were not. Body composition and body size had little to no significant influence during rewarming after immersion. The thermogenic properties of muscle mass support maintenance of hand temperature during severe cold exposure. The findings here suggest that muscular individuals are less susceptible to heat loss and cold injury, and may be better at manual tasks in cold conditions than nonmuscular individuals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Is Meeting the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for Protein Related to Body Composition among Older Adults?: Results from the Cardiovascular Health of Seniors and Built Environment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, J M; Deierlein, A L; Morland, K B; Granieri, E C; Spark, A

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest protein intake may be associated with lower body weight, but protein has also been associated with preservation of lean body mass. Understanding the role of protein in maintaining health for older adults is important for disease prevention among this population. Cross-sectional study of the relationship of dietary protein on body composition. New York City community centers. 1,011 Black, White, and Latino urban men and women 60-99 years of age. Protein intake was assessed using two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls, and body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) of fat mass (kg) (FM), fat free mass (kg) (FFM), and impedance resistance (Ohms). Indices of FM and FFM were calculated by dividing BIA measurements by height squared (m2), and percent FFM was calculated by dividing FFM by the sum of FM and FFM. Log linear models adjusting for age (continuous), race/ethnicity, education, physical activity (dichotomized at the median), hypertension, diabetes, and total calories (continuous). Just 33% of women and 50% of men reported meeting the RDA for protein. Both fat free mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI) were negatively associated with meeting the RDA for protein (Women: FFMI -1.78 95%CI [-2.24, -1.33], FMI -4.12 95% CI [-4.82, -3.42]; Men: FFMI -1.62 95% CI [-2.32, -0.93] FMI -1.80 95% CI [-2.70, -0.89]). After accounting for confounders, women and men consuming at least 0.8 g/kg/day had a 6.2% (95% CI: 5.0%, 7.4%) and a 3.2% (95% CI 1.1%, 5.3%) higher percent fat free mass, respectively. FFM, FFMI, FM, and FMI were inversely related to meeting the RDA for protein. Meeting the RDA for protein of at least 0.8g/kg/day was associated with a higher percentage of fat free mass among older adults. These results suggest meeting the protein recommendations of at least 0.8 g/kg/day may help to promote lower overall body mass, primarily through loss of fat mass rather than lean mass.

  4. Functional correlates of detailed body composition in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred James

    2018-01-01

    Methods of body composition analysis are now widely used to characterize health status, i.e., nutritional status, metabolic rates, and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the functional correlates of individual body components have not been systematically analyzed. In this study, we have used a two-compartment model, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Detailed body composition was measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging in a healthy population of 40 Caucasians, aged 65-81 yr (20 men; body mass index range: 18.6-37.2 kg/m 2 ). Physical, metabolic, as well as endocrine functions included pulmonary function, handgrip strength, gait speed, sit-to-stand test, physical activity, blood pressure, body temperature, resting energy expenditure (REE), liver and kidney functions (glomerular filtration rate), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)], plasma lipids, plasma leptin, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, insulin-like growth factor I levels, thyroid status, vitamins, and inflammation. Individual body compartments were intercorrelated, e.g., skeletal muscle mass (SM) correlated with visceral adipose tissue ( r = 0.53) and kidneys ( r = 0.62). For the functional correlates, SM ( r = 0.58) and liver volume ( r = 0.63) were associated with REE, SM correlated with handgrip strength ( r = 0.57), and kidneys with glomerular filtration rate ( r = 0.57). While visceral adipose tissue correlated with HOMA ( r = 0.59), subcutaneous adipose tissue was related to plasma leptin levels ( r = 0.84). The subcutaneous adipose tissue-to-leptin relationship was moderated by inflammation increasing the explained variance of leptin levels by 4.0%. In linear regression analysis, detailed body composition explained variances in REE (75.0%), HOMA (41.0%), and leptin (78.0%) compared with a body mass index-based model (REE 16.0%, HOMA 31.0%, leptin 45.0%). In addition, detailed body composition explained 39

  5. Study of growth in rural school children from Buenos Aires, Argentina using upper arm muscle area by height and other anthropometric dimensions of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, A; Guimarey, L; Frisancho, A R

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective was to compare growth and body composition in an infantile rural population by means of the upper arm muscle area by height and other antropometric measurements. Research was carried out by way of a cross sectional study, including 80% (321 6-13 year olds) of the schoolchildren living in General Lavalle, a rural community of about 3000 inhabitants. The methods and procedures included the evaluation of mother's educational levels and anthropometric measurements. Height (H), weight, mid upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold (TS) were measured. The body mass index (BMI), the upper arm muscle area (UAMA), the upper arm fat area (UAFA) and the upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) were calculated. Variables were grouped by gender and age and transformed into z-scores, using the US anthropometric standards as reference. The results showed that: (1) the mother educational status was, in relation to z-scores, as in an urban population, and (2) the z-scores for BMI, UAFA and TS were above the reference, while the ones for H, UAMA and UAMAH were below the reference. The differences between z-scores in relation to mother's educational levels were statistically significant (p children of General Lavalle tend to be fatty and overweight, while their muscle mass and H are proportionally low, but with values within the reference. Thus, low muscle mass and H are, in general terms, indicative of low protein reserves, the systematically low-anthropometry found for UAMAH suggests that this index should be used in conjunction with other indexes (e.g. BMI, UAFA) to obtain a more complete assessment of body composition and nutritional status.

  6. Effectiveness of a Medifast meal replacement program on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults: a multicenter systematic retrospective chart review study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Christopher D; Kiel, Jessica R; Mitola, Andrea H; Langford, Janice S; Davis, Kevin N; Arterburn, Linda M

    2015-08-06

    Recent medical guidelines emphasize the importance of actively treating overweight and obesity with diet and lifestyle intervention to achieve ≥ 5% weight loss in a 6-month period. Commercial programs offer one approach provided there is evidence of their efficacy and safety. This study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Medifast® 4 & 2 & 1 Plan™ on weight loss, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults. A systematic retrospective chart review of 310 overweight and obese clients following the Medifast 4 & 2 & 1 Plan at one of 21 Medifast Weight Control Centers® was conducted. Data were recorded electronically and key data points were independently verified. The primary endpoint was change from baseline body weight at 12 weeks. Within group paired t-tests were used to examine changes from baseline in a completers population. Differences between gender and age subgroups were examined using bivariate t-tests and mixed model regression analyses. For the primary endpoint at 12 weeks, body weight among completers (n = 185) was reduced by a mean of 10.9 ± 5.6 kg (-10.1%, p meal plan was well tolerated, and program adherence was >85%. The 4 & 2 & 1 Plan used at Medifast Weight Control Centers was effective for weight loss, preservation of lean mass and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. The plan was generally well tolerated in a broad population of overweight and obese adults. #NCT02150837.

  7. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  8. Weight Gain in Breast Cancer Patients on Chemotheraphy: Exploring Hormonal Body Composition and Behavioral Mechanisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumar, Nagi

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to prospectively and systematically observe the relative contribution of each viable mechanism such as nutritional intake, activity levels, body composition, hormonal...

  9. The association of body composition parameters with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.

  10. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P Weights varied by year (P weights increased (P weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  11. Relationship between sex, body composition, gait speed and body satisfaction in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, P A; García-Pinillos, F; Huertas Herrador, J A; Cózar Barba, M; Muñoz Jiménez, M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyzebody satisfaction in non-institutionalized old people and its association with sex, body mass index (BMI) and gait speed. Hundred six people have participated, 38 men (age=74.60 ±6.67 years old) and 68 women (age=72.76 ±4.68 years old). The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) has been used together with body composition and a gait speed test. Prevalence of body dissatisfaction in old people is about 5.6 %. Women have higher body fat percentage and less muscle mass. Significant differences were not found (p≥0.05) in the BSQ relating with sex. Obese old people with less gait speed showed higher score in BSQ. The Total BSQ is positively correlated with BMI (r=0.487, pgait speed (r=-0.215 pgait speed and negatively with BMI. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between physical activity and body composition of high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Tlucáková, L.; Ruzbarská, B.; Cech, P.; Kacúr, P.; Zvonar, M.; Gimunová, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of physical activity on the body composition of adolescents. The study sample consisted of 735 students (299 boys: mean age 17.20 years; 436 girls: mean age 17.16 years). Physical activity levels were determined using the long version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Questionnaires were administered online within teaching using INDARES system. Body composition was measured using body composition analyzer I...

  13. Bio-impedance body composition comparisons between athletes and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarion, A; Ribbe, E; Rebeyrol, J; Moreno, M-V; Rousseaux-Rousseaux-Blanchi, M-P; Dechavanne, C

    2013-01-01

    Body composition is a useful means for athletes' body composition assessment, relying on reference population data. This study aims at comparing body composition multifrequency impedance data of athletes and healthy adult populations. Differences were found in tissular, hydration and metabolic indices. They were significant, in the expected direction, but quite weak and additional data from reference technologies would set if specific equations are needed. The current ones are nevertheless suitable for reliable follow-up studies.

  14. Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african sharptooth catfish ( Clarias gariepinus , Burchell 1822) fingerlings fed locally formulated and commercial pelleted diets in tarpaulin tanks.

  15. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  16. Maternal and Fetal Determinants of Neonatal Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breij, Laura M; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Briceno, Daniela; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-01-01

    Body composition in early life influences the development of obesity during childhood and beyond. It is, therefore, important to adequately determine neonatal body composition. Fetal growth and maternal factors might influence neonatal fat mass percentage (FM%), independent of birth weight. In 194 healthy neonates, we investigated neonatal body composition, measured by air-displacement plethysmography (PEAPOD), and its associations with estimated fetal weight (EFW), neonatal anthropometric data, maternal preconceptional body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. There was a large variation in neonatal FM%, even in case of a similar birth weight, corrected for gender and gestational age. Neonatal FM% was associated with EFW at 30 and 36 weeks of gestation and with catch-up in weight between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation, but not with EFW at 20 weeks (p Neonatal FM% was also associated with preconceptional BMI of the mother (p maternal weight gain. Our study shows that term neonates have a large variation in FM%. Neonatal FM% is associated with EFW at 30 and 36 weeks, catch-up in weight between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation and preconceptional BMI of the mother. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Determination and regulation of body composition in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonksen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a 'hyperandrogenism' rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport. This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not have scientific backing and the Court of Arbitration for Sport subsequently rescinded the rule following an appeal from an Indian athlete barred from the Commonwealth Games. This review covers the scientific knowledge about the development and regulation of body composition in humans but also considers the lessons learnt from evolution and breeding in animals. The importance of heredity has been documented in family and twin studies. The roles of growth hormone and sex steroids are reviewed. The Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is considered as a model of the role of testosterone in development of body composition and also as evidence of the importance of other factors carried on the Y-chromosome that are of prime importance but have been systematically ignored. Finally the key factors determining body composition are considered and placed in a suggested order of importance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  19. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  20. Phenotype, Body Composition, and Prediction Equations (Indian Fatty Liver Index) for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Non-Diabetic Asian Indians: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Surya Prakash; Misra, Anoop; Nigam, Priyanka; Guleria, Randeep; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have attempted comparison of detailed body composition phenotype of Asian Indians with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) vs. those without, in a case controlled manner. We also aim to analyse prediction equations for NAFLD for non-diabetic Asian Indians, and compare performance of these with published prediction equations researched from other populations. In this case-control study, 162 cases and 173 age-and sex-matched controls were recruited. Clinical, anthropometric, metabolic, and body composition profiles, and liver ultrasound were done. Fasting insulin levels, value of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were evaluated. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to arrive at prediction equations for fatty liver [Indian fatty liver index (IFLI)]. As compared to those without fatty liver, those with fatty liver exhibited the following; Excess dorsocervical fat ('Buffalo hump'), skin tags, xanthelasma, 'double chin', arcus; excess total, abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity, and high blood pressure, blood glucose, measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values), lipids and hs-CRP levels. Two prediction equations were developed; Clinical [Indian Fatty Liver Index-Clinical; IFLI-C]: 1(double chin) +15.5 (systolic blood pressure) +13.8 (buffalo hump); and IFLI-Clinical and Biochemical (CB): serum triglycerides+12 (insulin)+1(systolic blood pressure) +18 (buffalo hump). On ROC Curve analysis, IFLI performed better than all published prediction equations, except one. Non-diabetic Asian Indians with NAFLD researched by us were overweight/obese, had excess abdominal and subcutaneous fat, multiple other phenotypic markers, had higher insulin resistance, glycemia, dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation than those without. Prediction score developed by us for NAFLD; IFLI-C and IFLI-CB, should be useful for clinicians

  1. Phenotype, Body Composition, and Prediction Equations (Indian Fatty Liver Index for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Non-Diabetic Asian Indians: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Bhatt

    Full Text Available In this study, we have attempted comparison of detailed body composition phenotype of Asian Indians with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD vs. those without, in a case controlled manner. We also aim to analyse prediction equations for NAFLD for non-diabetic Asian Indians, and compare performance of these with published prediction equations researched from other populations.In this case-control study, 162 cases and 173 age-and sex-matched controls were recruited. Clinical, anthropometric, metabolic, and body composition profiles, and liver ultrasound were done. Fasting insulin levels, value of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP levels were evaluated. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were used to arrive at prediction equations for fatty liver [Indian fatty liver index (IFLI].As compared to those without fatty liver, those with fatty liver exhibited the following; Excess dorsocervical fat ('Buffalo hump', skin tags, xanthelasma, 'double chin', arcus; excess total, abdominal and subcutaneous adiposity, and high blood pressure, blood glucose, measures of insulin resistance (fasting insulin and HOMA-IR values, lipids and hs-CRP levels. Two prediction equations were developed; Clinical [Indian Fatty Liver Index-Clinical; IFLI-C]: 1(double chin +15.5 (systolic blood pressure +13.8 (buffalo hump; and IFLI-Clinical and Biochemical (CB: serum triglycerides+12 (insulin+1(systolic blood pressure +18 (buffalo hump. On ROC Curve analysis, IFLI performed better than all published prediction equations, except one.Non-diabetic Asian Indians with NAFLD researched by us were overweight/obese, had excess abdominal and subcutaneous fat, multiple other phenotypic markers, had higher insulin resistance, glycemia, dyslipidemia and subclinical inflammation than those without. Prediction score developed by us for NAFLD; IFLI-C and IFLI-CB, should be useful for

  2. Associations between family eating behaviours and body composition measures in peri-adolescents: results from a community-based study of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajna, Samantha; Leblanc, Paul J; Faught, Brent E; Merchant, Anwar T; Cairney, John; Hay, John; Liu, Jian

    2014-01-10

    To identify key eating behaviours in children and their parents and to determine the associations between these behaviours and measures of body composition in children. Data were collected on a sample of 431 peri-adolescent children (12.4±0.3 years) and their parents from the Niagara Region. Body composition was assessed by trained research assistants. Eating behaviours were assessed using a revised version of the Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire. Principal component analyses were used to identify key eating behaviours among children, mothers and fathers. Linear regression models were used to assess their associations with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio, waist-to-hip ratio, waist girth, and hip girth measures in children. Emotional/uncontrolled eating and eating by the television in children and their mothers were positively associated with measures of body composition in children. Other eating behaviours that were associated with larger measures of body composition in children included low frequency of eating meals with parents, frequent sweet beverage consumption and snacking and eating "on-the-go" in children, eating "on-the-go" in mothers, and emotional eating and eating by the television/late at night in fathers. The eating behaviours of children and mothers, and to a lesser degree fathers, are important predictors of children's body composition. Public health interventions designed to help mothers and children reduce the frequency of emotional/uncontrolled eating and eating by the television may be effective means of facilitating positive weight outcomes in children.

  3. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P overweight men.

  4. Geographical variation in health-related physical fitness and body composition among Chilean 8th graders: a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Michael D; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (pfitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention.

  5. Long-term effect of exercise on bone mineral density and body composition in post-menopausal ex-elite athletes: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, A; Celi, M; Volpe, S L; Sorge, R; Tarantino, U

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the long-term effect of exercise on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and body composition (BC) in post-menopausal women who were elite athletes during their youth compared with sedentary controls. It is a retrospective study and carried out in an outpatient clinic. A total of 48 post-menopausal women (54-73 years of age) were enrolled. Ex-elite athletes with long-term (>20 years) histories of significant training and performance were divided into two groups: weight-bearing sports (runners, n=12) and non-weight-bearing sports (swimmers, n=12). The athletes were age matched with sedentary controls (n=24). BMD, BMC and BC were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Healthcare and sport activity histories were evaluated using a questionnaire. No significant differences were found with regard to body weight, height, body mass index and hours of activity between the two groups of athletes. There were no significant differences in activity levels between athletes and controls at the time of this study. BMD and BMC were not significantly different between athletes; they were significantly higher in athletes than in controls (Pex-athletes did not significantly differ in BC, left and right lean arm mass and arm BMD were significantly higher in swimmers than in runners (P<0.0001). The high level of physical activity observed in female athletes is associated with improved muscle mass, BMD and BMC, and physical activity during youth seems to have a beneficial effect on bone mass and helps to prevent bone loss due to aging.

  6. Prediction of whole-body and segmental body composition by bioelectrical impedance in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Amanda; Omaña, Wilberto; Flores, Lílliam; Coves, María José; Bellido, Diego; Perea, Verónica; Vidal, Josep

    2012-04-01

    Validated equations for body composition analysis using bioelectrical impedance (BIA) in morbidly obese (MO) subjects are scarce. Thus, our aim was todevelop new equations from physical and BIA parameters to estimate whole-body and segmental body composition inMO subjects, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study on 159 Caucasian MO subjects (female 78%, age 43.5 ± 11.8 years, BMI 45.6 ± 4.9 kg/m2) divided in two groups was conducted: model building cohort (n = 110) and model validation cohort (n 0 49). Stepwise regression analysis was used to develop specific fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) equations. Gender, body weight, and height2/impedance accounted, respectively, for 89.4% (p impedance, and waist and hip circumferences (respectively, R2 adjusted: 0.657, 0.776, and 0.770; p < 0.001). The new equations derived from physical and BIA parameters provide accurate estimates of body composition in MO subjects.

  7. Change in functional status and body composition in institutionalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Novo, André; Preto, Leonel; Santos, Ana; Mendes, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    The decrease on muscular strength, flexibility and balance are widely recognized as the main causes of disability in older people. A better knowledge of these variables can help to plan programs for active aging.Objective – To assess physical functioning, body composition and fear of falling and analyze these dimensions on the aging process. Methods – This is a longitudinal descriptive-correlational study. The sample comprise 51 institutionalized elderly followed for two years. The data colle...

  8. Early Hormonal Treatment Affects Body Composition and Body Shape in Young Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Maartje; de Mutsert, Renée; Wiepjes, Chantal M; Twisk, Jos W R; den Heijer, Martin; Rotteveel, Joost; Klink, Daniël T

    2018-02-01

    Transgender adolescents aspiring to have the body characteristics of the affirmed sex can receive hormonal treatment. However, it is unknown how body shape and composition develop during treatment and whether transgender persons obtain the desired body phenotype. To examine the change in body shape and composition from the start of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) until 22 years of age and to compare these measurements at 22 years with those of age-matched peers. 71 transwomen (birth-assigned boys) and 121 transmen (birth-assigned girls) who started treatment from 1998 through 2014 were included in this retrospective study. GnRHa treatment was started and cross-sex hormonal treatment was added at 16 years of age. Anthropometric and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry data were retrieved from medical records. Linear mixed model regression was performed to examine changes over time. SD scores (SDS) were calculated to compare body shape and composition with those of age-matched peers. Change in waist-hip ratio (WHR), total body fat (TBF), and total lean body mass (LBM) during hormonal treatment. SDS of measures of body shape and composition compared with age-matched peers at 22 years of age. In transwomen, TBF increased (+10%, 95% CI = 7-11) while total LBM (-10%, 95% CI = -11 to -7) and WHR (-0.04, 95% CI = -0.05 to -0.02) decreased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.3 (95% CI = 0.0-0.5) for WHR, and 0.0 (95% CI = -0.2 to 0.3) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -1.0 (95% CI = -1.3 to -0.7) for WHR, and +2.2 (95% CI = 2.2-2.4) for TBF. In transmen, TBF decreased (-3%, 95% CI = -4 to -1), while LBM (+3%, 95% CI = 1-4) and WHR (+0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) increased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.6 (95% CI = 0.4-0.8) for WHR, and -1.1 (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.9) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -0.5 (95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3) for WHR, and +1.8 (95% CI = 1.6-1.9) for TBF. Knowing body

  9. Circulating leptin and body composition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, S; Karadag, F; Karul, A B; Gurgey, O; Gurel, S; Guney, E; Cildag, O

    2005-10-01

    Nutritional depletion and weight loss are two features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with COPD is a common clinical observation. Mechanisms of weight loss are still unclear in COPD. Excessive energy expenditure partly due to increased work of breathing was shown, but other mechanisms have been searched for. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays an important role in energy homeostasis and regulates body weight through control of appetite and energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating leptin levels and measures of body composition in COPD patients. Thirty male COPD outpatients (mean age 66.3 +/- 8.4) and 20 controls (mean age 65.9 +/- 10.8) were included in the study. After standard spirometry and body composition measurements, serum leptin concentration was measured by ELISA assay. COPD patients were grouped according to BMI. Mean BMI was 19.01 +/- 2.26 kg/m2 in group 1 (COPD patients with low BMI), 26.85 +/- 4.51 in group 2 COPD (COPD patients with normal/high BMI) and 27.64 +/- 2.75 kg/m2 in healthy controls (group 3). Mean serum leptin concentration was 1.41 +/- 1.86 ng/ml in group 1, 2.60 +/- 1.38 ng/ml in group 2 and 2.82 +/- 1.46 ng/ml in group 3 (p = 0.002). Leptin correlated to not only BMI but also body weight, waist circumference, triceps and biceps skinfold thickness and body fat percent (p leptin in COPD. Instead, leptin remains regulated in COPD and further decreased in patients with low BMI, probably as a compensatory mechanism to preserve body fat content, which should be evaluated in further studies.

  10. Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kg·y(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kg·y(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cm·y(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kg·y(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kg·y(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011.

  11. Ethnic differences in neonatal body composition in a multi-ethnic population and the impact of parental factors: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sletner, Line; Nakstad, Britt; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Vangen, Siri; Vårdal, Mari H; Holme, Ingar M; Birkeland, Kåre I; Jenum, Anne Karen

    2013-01-01

    Neonates from low and middle income countries (LAMIC) tend to have lower birth weight compared with Western European (WE) neonates. Parental height, BMI and maternal parity, age and educational level often differ according to ethnic background, and are associated with offspring birth weight. Less is known about how these factors affect ethnic differences in neonatal body composition. To explore differences in neonatal body composition in a multi-ethnic population, and the impact of key parental factors on these differences. A population-based cohort study of pregnant mothers, fathers and their offspring, living in Oslo, Norway. Gender- and gestational-specific z-scores were calculated for several anthropometric measurements, with the neonates of WE ethnic origin as reference. Mean z-scores for neonates with LAMIC origin, and their parents, are presented as outcome variables. 537 singleton, term neonates and their parents were included. All anthropometric measurements were smaller in neonates with LAMIC origin. Abdominal circumference and ponderal index differed the most from WE (mean z-score: -0.57 (95% CI:-0.69 to -0.44) and -0.54 (-0.66 to -0.44), and remained so after adjusting for parental size. Head circumference and skin folds differed less, and length the least (-0.21 (-0.35 to -0.07)). These measures became comparable to WEs when adjusted for parental factors. LAMIC origin neonates were relatively "thin-fat", as indicated by reduced AC and ponderal index and relatively preserved length and skin folds, compared with neonates with WE origin. This phenotype may predispose to type 2 diabetes.

  12. Ethnic differences in neonatal body composition in a multi-ethnic population and the impact of parental factors: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Sletner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonates from low and middle income countries (LAMIC tend to have lower birth weight compared with Western European (WE neonates. Parental height, BMI and maternal parity, age and educational level often differ according to ethnic background, and are associated with offspring birth weight. Less is known about how these factors affect ethnic differences in neonatal body composition. OBJECTIVES: To explore differences in neonatal body composition in a multi-ethnic population, and the impact of key parental factors on these differences. METHODS: A population-based cohort study of pregnant mothers, fathers and their offspring, living in Oslo, Norway. Gender- and gestational-specific z-scores were calculated for several anthropometric measurements, with the neonates of WE ethnic origin as reference. Mean z-scores for neonates with LAMIC origin, and their parents, are presented as outcome variables. RESULTS: 537 singleton, term neonates and their parents were included. All anthropometric measurements were smaller in neonates with LAMIC origin. Abdominal circumference and ponderal index differed the most from WE (mean z-score: -0.57 (95% CI:-0.69 to -0.44 and -0.54 (-0.66 to -0.44, and remained so after adjusting for parental size. Head circumference and skin folds differed less, and length the least (-0.21 (-0.35 to -0.07. These measures became comparable to WEs when adjusted for parental factors. CONCLUSIONS: LAMIC origin neonates were relatively "thin-fat", as indicated by reduced AC and ponderal index and relatively preserved length and skin folds, compared with neonates with WE origin. This phenotype may predispose to type 2 diabetes.

  13. Hormone therapy is associated with better body composition and adipokine/glucose profiles: a study with monozygotic co-twin control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtiainen, Maarit; Alen, Markku; Pöllänen, Eija; Pulkkinen, Suvi; Ronkainen, Paula H A; Kujala, Urho M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sipilä, Sarianna; Kovanen, Vuokko

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of preventing the metabolic health consequences of postmenopausal hypogonadism with the use of long-term hormone therapy (HT). We used a monozygotic co-twin control design including 10 twin pairs (aged 56-62 y) discordant for HT (duration of HT, 2-10 y). In addition, 14 premenopausal women (aged 29-35 y) who did not use HT were studied to evaluate the differences in metabolic health between the premenopausal and postmenopausal states. Body composition was determined, and waist-to-hip ratio was used as an estimate for fat distribution. Serum sex steroids, sex hormone-binding globulin, and serum lipid and glucose profiles were analyzed. The serum levels of adiponectin, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and leptin, as well as their local transcript levels in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and leukocytes, were measured. Long-term HT was associated with a healthier amount and distribution of body fat. No difference was seen in serum lipid concentrations between HT users and their nonusing identical twin sisters, but fasting serum glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels were 5% and 3% lower in HT users than in nonusers, respectively. Among the adipokines analyzed, the most notable finding was a 15% lower level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in HT users, particularly with respect to its suggested mediator role between obesity and insulin resistance. Long-term HT is associated with healthier amount and distribution of body fat and better adipocytokine profile, with concomitant signs of improved insulin sensitivity.

  14. Composition and function of P bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.

  15. Association between inflammatory components and physical function in the health, aging, and body composition study: a principal component analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hsu, F.C.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Liu, Y.-J.; Kanaya, A.; Newman, A.B.; Perry, S.E.; Visser, M.; Pahor, M.; Harris, T.B.; Nicklas, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background. In older adults, studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between physical function and individual inflammatory biomarkers. Given that the inflammatory response is a complex system, a combination of biomarkers may increase the strength and consistency of these associations. This study

  16. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  17. Nutrient Requirements, Body Composition, and Health of Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    .... As pan of the Defense Women's Health Research Program, a new report from the Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women of the Institute of the Institute of Medicine examines issues of body composition, fitness, and appearance standards and their impact on the health, nutritional status, and performance of active-duty women.

  18. Change in body composition following a 15-week, heart rate monitored aerobic exercise program: The TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The joint goals of the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study are to introduce sedentary college-age individuals to regular exercise and identify genetic factors that influence physiologic response to aerobic exercise training. The purpose of the study was to examine ...

  19. Body Composition Changes in Severely Burned Children During ICU Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Malagaris, Ioannis; Rivas, Eric; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Voigt, Charles D; Blears, Elizabeth; Mlcak, Ron P; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Suman, Oscar E

    2017-12-01

    Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. Retrospective chart review. Children's burn hospital. Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015. All patients underwent a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry within 2 weeks after injury and 2 weeks before discharge to determine body composition changes. No subject underwent anabolic intervention. We analyzed changes of bone mineral content, bone mineral density, total fat mass, total mass, and total lean mass of the entire body and specifically analyzed the changes between the upper and lower limbs. In the 24 patients, age was 10 ± 5 years, total body surface area burned was 59% ± 17%, time between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometries was 34 ± 21 days, and length of stay was 39 ± 24 days. We found a significant (p < 0.001) average loss of 3% of lean mass in the whole body; this loss was significantly greater (p < 0.001) in the upper extremities (17%) than in the lower extremities (7%). We also observed a remodeling of the fat compartments, with a significant whole-body increase in fat mass (p < 0.001) that was greater in the truncal region (p < 0.0001) and in the lower limbs (p < 0.05). ICU hospitalization is associated with greater lean mass loss in the upper limbs of burned children. Mobilization programs should include early mobilization of upper limbs to restore upper extremity function.

  20. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients

  2. Evaluation of an in vivo prompt gamma neutron activation facility for body composition studies in critically ill intensive care patients: results on 41 normals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddoe, A.H.; Streat, S.J.; Hill, G.L.

    1984-03-01

    A programme of metabolic and nutritional research is being undertaken in critically ill patients requiring intensive care. Central to this research is the measurement of the three nutritionally important compartments of body composition, protein, fat, and water by a combination of tritium dilution and prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA). In this paper a calibration technique is presented that enables absolute estimates of total body nitrogen (TBN) to be made using prompt gamma IVNAA in critically ill patients with gross abnormalities in body composition, especially in their state of hydration. This technique, which is independent of skinfold anthropometry and does not make a priori assumptions about the ratios of major body compartments, has been applied to 41 normal volunteers and the derived values for nitrogen compared with values obtained by applying three currently used calibration methods to the same experimental data. The empirical equations relate TBN in normal people to age, height, weight and sex. The mean ratios of experimental to predicted TBN (with SEMs) are 1.013 +/- 0.017 and 1.002 +/- 0.014, respectively. Mean values of the ratio of TBN to fat-free mass (0.0340 +/- 0.0004) and of total body water to fat-free mass (0.716 +/- 0.002) agree closely with values reported elsewhere for normals by a variety of techniques including chemical analysis. Finally, TBN results based on the four different calibration methods are presented for five surgical patients, demonstrating the importance of the calibration method on estimates of TBN in patients with abnormal body composition. It is concluded that this technique will provide accurate estimates of the total body content of protein, water, and fat in intensive care patients.

  3. The association between vitamin K status and knee osteoarthritis features in older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Vitamin K-dependent proteins, including the mineralization inhibitor matrix-gla protein (MGP), are found in joint tissues including cartilage and bone. Previous studies suggest low vitamin K status is associated with higher osteoarthritis (OA) prevalence and incidence. Objective: To cla...

  4. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Park, Seok Won; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Nevitt, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking. METHODS: Three-year changes in muscle mass and strength were

  5. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, page, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of reference for planning health related program for MF personnel to prevent non-communicable disease among firefighters population.

  6. Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.

  7. Changes in testosterone related to body composition in late midlife: Findings from the 1946 British birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bann, D.; Wu, F. C.; Keevil, B.; Lashen, H.; Adams, J.; Hardy, R.; Muniz, G.; Kuh, D.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Ong, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Randomized trials in men with testosterone deficiency have provided evidence of short?term effects of testosterone therapy on muscle and fat mass but it is unclear whether this persists over a longer period or how testosterone affects women. We examined whether the midlife decline in testosterone relates to fat and lean mass in both sexes. Methods Data were collected from 440 men and 560 women participating in the 1946 British birth cohort study with testosterone measured at 53 and/...

  8. Improvement of fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in overweight children in a school-based exercise program: a randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Aaron L; Clark, R Randall; Peterson, Susan E; Nemeth, Blaise A; Sullivan, Jude; Allen, David B

    2005-10-01

    Obesity and poor physical fitness constitute a health problem affecting an increasing number of children. Causes include a pervasive "toxic" environment that facilitates increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity. An effective strategy for prevention and treatment of childhood obesity likely includes a collaborative effort in the school setting. To determine whether a school-based fitness program can improve body composition, cardiovascular fitness level, and insulin sensitivity in overweight children. Fifty overweight middle school children with a body mass index (BMI) above the 95th percentile for age were randomized to lifestyle-focused, fitness-oriented gym classes (treatment group) or standard gym classes (control group) for 9 months. Children underwent evaluation of fasting insulin and glucose levels, body composition by means of dual energy absorptiometry, and maximum oxygen consumption (V0(2)max) treadmill testing at baseline (before the school year) and at end of the school year. Rural middle school and an academic children's hospital. Baseline test results for cardiovascular fitness, body composition, and fasting insulin and glucose levels. At baseline, there were no differences between groups before intervention (values for age, 12 +/- 0.5 years [all results, mean +/- SD]; BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters], 31.0 +/- 3.7; percentage of body fat, 36.5% +/- 4.6%; lean body mass, 41.4 +/- 8.6 kg; and V0(2)max, 31.5 +/- 5.1 mL/kg per minute). Compared with the control group, the treatment group demonstrated a significantly greater loss of body fat (loss, -4.1% +/- 3.4% vs -1.9% +/- 2.3%; P = .04), greater increase in cardiovascular fitness (V0(2)max, 2.7 +/- 2.6 vs 0.4 +/- 3.3 mL/kg per minute; Pfitness-oriented gym classes showed greater loss of body fat, increase in cardiovascular fitness, and improvement in fasting insulin levels than control subjects. The modification to the school physical

  9. Ketogenic diet benefits body composition and well-being but not performance in a pilot case study of New Zealand endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Caryn; Wood, Matthew; Williden, Mikki; Chatterton, Simon; Maunder, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate, high-fat and ketogenic diets are increasingly adopted by athletes for body composition and sports performance enhancements. However, as yet, there is no consensus on their efficacy in improving performance. There is also no comprehensive literature on athletes' experiences while undertaking this diet. The purpose of this pilot work was two-fold: i. to examine the effects of a non-calorie controlled ketogenic diet on body composition and performance outcomes of endurance athletes, and ii. to evaluate the athletes' experiences of the ketogenic diet during the 10-week intervention. Using a case study design, five New Zealand endurance athletes (4 females, 1 male) underwent a 10-week ketogenic dietary intervention. Body composition (sum of 8 skinfolds), performance indicators (time to exhaustion, VO 2 max, peak power and ventilatory threshold), and gas exchange thresholds were measured at baseline and at 10 weeks. Mean change scores were calculated, and analysed using t-tests; Cohen's effect sizes and 90% confidence limits were applied to quantify change. Individual interviews conducted at 5 weeks and a focus group at 10 weeks assessed athletes' ketogenic diet experiences. Data was transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. All athletes increased their ability to utilise fat as a fuel source, including at higher exercise intensities. Mean body weight was reduced by 4 kg ± SD 3.1 ( p  = 0.046; effect size (ES):0.62), and sum of 8 skinfolds by 25.9 mm ± SD 6.9; ES: 1.27; p  = 0.001). Mean time to exhaustion dropped by ~2 min (±SD 0.7; p  = 0.004; ES: 0.53). Other performance outcomes showed mean reductions, with some increases or unchanged results in two individuals (VO2 Max: -1.69 ml.kg.min ± SD 3.4 ( p  = 0.63); peak power: -18 W ± SD 16.4 ( p  = 0.07), and VT2: -6 W ± SD 44.5 ( p  = 0.77). Athletes reported experiencing reduced energy levels initially, followed by a return of high levels thereafter

  10. BODY COMPOSITION IN HEMODIALYSIS AND PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Ho Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance analysis is a reliable technique for determining post dialysis target weight. Using this technique, we can understand body fluid status easier and conveniently. Moreover this technique can be used for check nutrition status and nutritional status of dialysis patients. We compared the body fluid status and nutrition status between hemodialysis (HD patients and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients by BCM (Body composition monitor technique. We studied 48 (30 males and 18 females PD patients, 21 (10 males and 11 females HD patients. Body composition monitoring (BCM, Fesenitus Medical Care, Germany was used as a tool for the analysis of bioimpedance. Extracellular water, Total body water, Intracellular water, Overhydration, E/I, Lean tissue mass, Fat Tissue mass was measured and those results were compared between two groups. HD patients were more hydrated than PD patients (61.9% vs. 35.4% and nutritional status such as LTI was poorer than peritoneal dialysis patients (11.7±1.7 vs. 15.3±2.6. Although total body water is more abundant in peritoneal patients (29.4±5.5L vs. 35.9±6.2L, Extracellular water and intracellular water ratio was relatively higher in Hemodialysis patients (E/I 0.98±0.13 vs. 0.87±0.12. The nutrition status was better in PD patients by comparing the percent of lean tissue mass (LTM% between two groups (LTM% 52.1±10.6% vs. 66.8±11.3. In conclusions, Hemodialysis patients were more hydrated with poorer nutrition status than peritoneal dialysis patients, but, due to the significant difference of age between two groups, further study should be required.

  11. Associations between body composition and lifestyle factors with bone mineral density according to time since menopause in women from Southern Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaís R; Franz, Roberta; Maturana, Maria A; Spritzer, Poli M

    2015-11-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body composition, dietary pattern and habitual physical activity are associated with BMD according to time since menopause in women from Southern Brazil with no clinical evidence of disease. 99 participants were enrolled and anthropometry, body composition and BMD by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, rest metabolic rate by indirect calorimetry, dietary pattern by semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire and habitual physical activity by pedometer were performed. Mean age was 55.2 ± 4.9 years and mean time since menopause was 6.8 ± 1.0 years. Weight, BMI, lean and fat mass and RMR were higher in women with less than 5 years since menopause with normal versus low bone mass. No differences were found in the studied variables between participants with normal or low bone mass and more than 5 years of menopause. Women with > 5 years since menopause had higher prevalence of osteoporosis, as well as lower BMD in all sites when compared to those with less time since menopause. Calories, carbohydrate, protein, fat and micronutrients intake were similar between groups. When the sample was adjusted for time since menopause, the odds ratio (OR) for low bone mass was 5.21 (95% CI 1.57-17.25, P = 0.004) for BMI <25 kg/m(2), for lean mass <37.5 Kg an OR of 4.4 (95% CI 1.64-11.80, P = 0.004, for fat mass <26.0 Kg an OR of 3.39 (95% CI 1.29-8.85, P = 0.010) and for the intake of vitamin A < 700 mcg/day an OR of 3.00 (95% CI 1.13-7.94, P = 0.012). Low meat and eggs intake or low protein intake did not influence the odds ratio for low bone mass. In this cross-sectional study with postmenopausal women with no clinical evidence of disease, time since menopause, low lean and fat mass were associated with low bone mass. Calories and macronutrients intake as well as habitual physical activity did not interfere with BMD, but participants were mostly sedentary. Further studies are needed in order to

  12. Dosage of estradiol, bone and body composition in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is seen in Turner syndrome (TS) with an increased risk of fractures, and body composition is characterized by increased body fat and decreased lean body mass. To evaluate the effect of two different doses of oral 17ß-estradiol in young TS women on bone...

  13. Changes in testosterone related to body composition in late midlife: Findings from the 1946 British birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, David; Wu, Frederick C W; Keevil, Brian; Lashen, Hany; Adams, Judith; Hardy, Rebecca; Muniz, Graciela; Kuh, Diana; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ong, Ken K

    2015-07-01

    Randomized trials in men with testosterone deficiency have provided evidence of short-term effects of testosterone therapy on muscle and fat mass but it is unclear whether this persists over a longer period or how testosterone affects women. We examined whether the midlife decline in testosterone relates to fat and lean mass in both sexes. Data were collected from 440 men and 560 women participating in the 1946 British birth cohort study with testosterone measured at 53 and/or 60-64 years. Fat and appendicular lean mass were measured at 60-64 years using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Mean free testosterone concentrations were lower at 60-64 than 53 years, by 26% in both sexes. At both ages testosterone was negatively associated with fat mass in men and positively associated in women. A larger decline in free testosterone was associated with higher fat mass in men but with lower fat mass among women. In contrast, declines in testosterone were not associated with lean mass in either sex. Our findings suggest sex-divergent relationships between testosterone and fat mass and their distribution but do not support the hypothesis that midlife declines in testosterone lead to lower lean mass. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Changes in testosterone related to body composition in late midlife: Findings from the 1946 British birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Frederick C. W.; Keevil, Brian; Lashen, Hany; Adams, Judith; Hardy, Rebecca; Muniz, Graciela; Kuh, Diana; Ben‐Shlomo, Yoav; Ong, Ken K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Randomized trials in men with testosterone deficiency have provided evidence of short‐term effects of testosterone therapy on muscle and fat mass but it is unclear whether this persists over a longer period or how testosterone affects women. We examined whether the midlife decline in testosterone relates to fat and lean mass in both sexes. Methods Data were collected from 440 men and 560 women participating in the 1946 British birth cohort study with testosterone measured at 53 and/or 60‐64 years. Fat and appendicular lean mass were measured at 60‐64 years using dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry. Results Mean free testosterone concentrations were lower at 60‐64 than 53 years, by 26% in both sexes. At both ages testosterone was negatively associated with fat mass in men and positively associated in women. A larger decline in free testosterone was associated with higher fat mass in men but with lower fat mass among women. In contrast, declines in testosterone were not associated with lean mass in either sex. Conclusions Our findings suggest sex‐divergent relationships between testosterone and fat mass and their distribution but do not support the hypothesis that midlife declines in testosterone lead to lower lean mass. PMID:26053924

  15. Cross-talk between the heart and adipose tissue in cachectic heart failure patients with respect to alterations in body composition: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline; Schou, Morten; Keller, Niels; Zerahn, Bo; Frystyk, Jan; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Faber, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac cachexia (CC) is associated with changes in body composition. Lipolysis and increased energy expenditure caused by A- and B natriuretic peptides (NPs) have been suggested to play a role in CC. We tested the hypothesis that neurohormones and adipokines are associated with body composition in CC and that a progressive loss of fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) takes place. Body composition with regard to FFM, FM, and body fat distribution was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 19 non-diabetic patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and CC and 38 controls (non-cachectic CHF and individuals with prior myocardial infarction-both n = 19) who were followed for 12 months. Biomarkers of neurohormonal stimulation, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction were measured. N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP), midregional proANP (MR-proANP), and total adiponectin were elevated in CHF (p<0.001) and correlated inversely to BMI and FM. An inverse correlation was observed between pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM) and FFM. During follow up body weight was unaltered in all groups even though FM increased by 1.35 kg (p<0.05) and FFM decreased by 0.5 kg (p<0.05) in CC patients. The latter correlated inversely to baseline NT-proBNP, MR-proANP, and MR-proADM (p<0.05). No correlation to changes in FM was found. FM was associated with plasma NPs and total adiponectin at baseline; whereas changes in FM and FFM did not correlate to changes in NPs or adiponectin during follow up. Prospectively, FFM decreased but FM increased, despite stable body weight in CC. © 2013.

  16. Geographical variation in health-related physical fitness and body composition among Chilean 8th graders: a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Garber

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference (WC in Chilean 8th graders. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. RESULTS: Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05. Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention.

  17. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (pfitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  18. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  19. Maternal body composition, smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Ase; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Vangen, Siri; Gunnes, Nina; Samuelsen, Sven O; Magnus, Per

    2010-08-01

    To study associations between maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI), smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis). The sample consisted of 33,467 primiparous women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008). Data on hyperemesis, BMI, education, maternal age, eating disorders, maternal and paternal smoking habits were obtained from questionnaires. All associations were studied by logistic regression. Altogether, 353 (1.1%) women had hyperemesis. Among non-smokers, both underweight and obese women were more likely to develop hyperemesis than normal-weighted women: odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-3.88 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00-2.20, respectively. No associations were found among smokers. Women who smoked daily (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60) or occasionally (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93) had lower risk of hyperemesis than non-smokers. No effect of partner's smoking habits was observed. Both underweight and obesity were associated with hyperemesis, but only among non-smokers. Maternal prepregnant smoking reduced the risk of hyperemesis, whereas partner's smoking habits had no effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Body composition changes in pregnancy: measurement, predictors and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, EM; Gallagher, D

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754

  1. The influence of anthropometry and body composition on children's bone health: the childhood health, activity and motor performance school (the CHAMPS) study, Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Malene; Holst, René; Schou, Anders J; Klakk, Heidi; Husby, Steffen; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Overweight, physical inactivity and sedentary behaviour have become increasing problems during the past decade. Increased sedentary behaviour may change the body composition (BC) by increasing the fat mass relative to the lean mass (LM). These changes may influence bone health to describe how anthropometry and BC predict the development of the bone accruement. The longitudinal study is a part of The CHAMPS study-DK. Children were DXA scanned at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. BC (LM, BF %) and BMC, BMD and BA were measured. The relationship between bone traits, anthropometry and BC was analysed by multilevel regression analyses. Of the invited children, 742/800 (93%) accepted to participate. Of these, 682/742 (92%) participated at follow-up. Mean (range) of age at baseline was 9.5 years (7.7-12.1). Height, BMI, LM and BF % predicted bone mineral accrual and bone size positively and independently. Height and BMI are both positive predictors of bone accruement. LM is a more precise predictor of bone traits than BF % in both genders. The effects of height and BMI and LM on bone accruement are nearly identical in the two genders, while changes in BF % have different but positive effects on bone accretion in both boys and girls.

  2. Association of Plasma SDF-1 with Bone Mineral Density, Body Composition, and Hip Fractures in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Laura D; Bůžková, Petra; Fink, Howard A; Robbins, John A; Bethel, Monique; Hamrick, Mark W; Hill, William D

    2017-06-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in circulating inflammatory factors. One, the cytokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1 or CXCL12), is critical to stem cell mobilization, migration, and homing as well as to bone marrow stem cell (BMSC), osteoblast, and osteoclast function. SDF-1 has pleiotropic roles in bone formation and BMSC differentiation into osteoblasts/osteocytes, and in osteoprogenitor cell survival. The objective of this study was to examine the association of plasma SDF-1 in participants in the cardiovascular health study (CHS) with bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, and incident hip fractures. In 1536 CHS participants, SDF-1 plasma levels were significantly associated with increasing age (p SDF-1 levels were associated with lower total hip BMD (p = 0.02). However, there was no significant association of SDF-1 with hip fractures (p = 0.53). In summary, circulating plasma levels of SDF-1 are associated with increasing age and independently associated with lower total hip BMD in both men and women. These findings suggest that SDF-1 levels are linked to bone homeostasis.

  3. Body proportions, body composition and pubertal development of children in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, R; Bencke, J; Matthiesen, G; Petersen, J H; Müller, J

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was primarily to investigate anthropometric variables, body composition and pubertal development in children aged 9-13 participating in competitive sports. Secondly, the influence of age, sport, training hours and pubertal development/maternal menarcheal age on body composition and pubertal development was explored. A total of 183 (96 girls, 87 boys) children performing swimming (Sw), tennis (Te), European team handball (TH), and gymnastics (Gy) took part in the study. Anthropometric measurements and pubertal development were determined. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding hours of training per week and maternal menarcheal age. Significant differences in stature (z-scores) were found in both boys (Sw=0.06; Te=0.04; TH=0.05; Gy=-0.66, Psports. A regression analysis revealed that in girls, age and maternal menarcheal age were significantly associated with pubertal development (Psport was associated with the sum of skinfolds (Psports but are more evident in females. Most importantly, we did not find any effect of training on body composition or pubertal development, confirming previous data that children in competitive sports are selected due to constitutional factors.

  4. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition in Adolescents with Childhood-Onset Growth Hormone Deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Annemieke M.; van der Sluis, Inge M.; Krenning, Eric P.; Keizer-Schrama, Sabine M. P. F. de Muinck

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition of patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) treated with GH during the transition period. Methods: BMD and body composition, measured by dual-energy X-ray

  5. Body composition of Slovak midlife women with cardiovascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdová Darina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse differences in body composition of women with and without cardiovascular complications. Bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioimpedance monofrequency analyser (BIA 101 and tissue electric properties were analysed by bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA. The clinical sample (with CVD consisted of 254 women ranging in age between 39 and 65 years. The sample of women without CVD consisted of 318 women in the same age range and was created from database of our previous studies. Statistical analysis adjusted for age showed significant differences in body composition characteristics of the studied samples. The results of vector analysis showed significantly different tissue electric properties of women in studied groups, what was confirmed by the Hotelling T2- test (p=0.0000. More women with CVD attained risky mean values of obesity indices of BMI and WHR than their “healthy” counterparts. Among women with CVD 80.2% had higher value of the BMI index than optimal one (>24.9 kg/m2 and 74.4% of women had higher value of the WHR index than optimal (>0.80. From the BIA parameters strong correlation coefficient was found between BMI and FM in both groups (r=0.962 for women with CVD; r=0.968 for relatively healthy women. Our data confirmed that cardiovascular disease complications are strongly linked in body composition changes. The cross-sectional nature of our study makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding causal pathways, though variables of obesity are in line with unhealthy conditions.

  6. Normalisation of body composition parameters for nutritional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Normalisation of body composition parameters to an index of body size facilitates comparison of a subject’s measurements with those of a population. There is an obvious focus on indexes of obesity, but first it is informative to consider Fat Free Mass (FFM) in the context of common anthropometric measures of body size namely, height and weight. The contention is that FFM is a more physiological measure of body size than body mass. Many studies have shown that FFM relates to height ^p. Although there is debate over the appropriate exponent especially in early life, it appears to lie between 2 and 3. If 2, then FFM Index (FFMI; kg/m2) and Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/m2) can be summed to give BMI. If 3 were used as exponent, then FFMI (kg/m3) plus FMI (kg/m3) gives the Ponderal Index (PI; weight/height3). In 2013, Burton argued that that a cubic exponent is appropriate for normalisation as it is a dimensionless quotient. In 2012, Wang and co-workers repeated earlier observations showing a strong linear relationship between FFM and height3. The importance of the latter study comes from the fact that a 4 compartment body composition model was used, which is recognised as the most accurate means of describing FFM. Once the basis of a FFMI has been defined it can be used to compare measurements with those of a population, either directly, as a ratio to a norm or as a Z-score. FFMI charts could be developed for use in child growth. Other related indexes can be determined for use in specific circumstances such as: body cell mass index (growth and wasting); skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) or appendicular SMMI (growth and sarcopenia); bone mineral mass index (osteoporosis); extracellular fluid index (hydration). Finally, it is logical that the same system is used to define an adiposity index, so Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/height3) can be used as it is consistent with FFMI (kg/height3) and PI. It should also be noted that the index FM/FFM, describes an individual

  7. Changes in Body Composition According to Age and Sex among Young Non-Diabetic Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul Ki; Kwon, Yu Hyun; Cho, Jung Hwan; Lee, Da Young; Park, Se Eun; Oh, Hyung Geun; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Won Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Rhee, Eun Jung

    2017-12-01

    Age-related decreases in lean mass represent a serious health problem. We aimed to analyze the risks of rapid decreases in lean mass by age and sex in relatively young Korean adults during a 4-year follow-up study. A total of 65,856 non-diabetic participants (59.5% men, mean age 39.1 years) in a health screening program were subjected to bioimpedance body composition analyses and metabolic parameter analyses at baseline and after 4 years. The participants were sub-divided according to age, and additionally to six groups by age and the degree of body weight change over the 4-year period. The actual changes in body weight, lean mass, and fat mass and the percent changes over the 4-year period were assessed. The percent change in lean mass decreased and the percent change of fat mass increased with increasing age in every age and sex group. However, the annual percent decrease in lean mass and percent increase in fat mass were significantly higher among women than among men (-0.26% vs. -0.15% and 0.34% vs. 0.42%, respectively; P<0.01). Participants who were older than 50 years and had a weight loss <-5% during the 4 years had significantly greater decreases in lean mass and smaller decreases in fat mass, compared to those who were younger than 50 years. An odds ratio analysis to determine the lowest quartile of the percent change in lean mass according to age group revealed that participants older than 60 years had a significantly increased risk of a rapid decrease in the lean mass percentage (2.081; 95% confidence interval, 1.678 to 2.581). Even in this relatively young study population, the lean mass decreased significantly with age, and the risk of a rapid decrease in lean mass was higher among women than among men. Furthermore, the elderly exhibited a significantly more rapid decrease in lean mass, compared with younger participants. Copyright © 2017 Korean Endocrine Society

  8. Prospective associations of maternal betaine status with offspring weight and body composition at birth: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lee, Linde; Tint, Mya Thway; Aris, Izzuddin M; Quah, Phaik Ling; Fortier, Marielle V; Lee, Yung Seng; Yap, Fabian Kp; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-11-01

    Betaine supplementation results in lower body weight and fat mass and higher lean mass in animals and adult humans. However, the relation between maternal betaine status and offspring birth weight and body composition is less known. The aim was to examine the association between maternal betaine status and neonatal birth size and adiposity in an Asian mother-offspring cohort. We included 955 pregnant women whose plasma betaine concentrations were measured at 26-28 wk of gestation. Neonatal anthropometric values were measured at birth, and abdominal adipose tissue compartments were assessed by MRI in a subset of infants (n = 307) in the first 14 d after birth. Multivariate general linear models were used to adjust for gestational age; fetal sex; and maternal age, height, education, ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, and plasma folate, vitamin B-12, and choline concentrations. The mean ± SD plasma concentration of betaine was 13.2 ± 2.7 μmol/L (range: 5.3-25.0 μmol/L). After adjustment for covariates, higher maternal plasma betaine was associated with lower birth weight (β: -57.6 g; 95% CI: -109.9, -5.3 g), shorter birth length (β: -0.29 cm per 5-μmol/L increment; 95% CI: -0.55, -0.03 cm), smaller head circumference (-0.20 cm; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.02 cm), smaller midupper arm circumference (-0.16 cm; 95% CI: -0.30, -0.03 cm), lower volumes of abdominal superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (-4.53 mL; 95% CI: -8.70, -0.36 mL), and a higher risk of small-for-gestational-age birth (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.35). Higher maternal betaine status was generally associated with smaller infant birth size and less abdominal fat mass. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings and to understand their biological mechanisms. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Changes in Body Composition According to Age and Sex among Young Non-Diabetic Korean Adults: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ki Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAge-related decreases in lean mass represent a serious health problem. We aimed to analyze the risks of rapid decreases in lean mass by age and sex in relatively young Korean adults during a 4-year follow-up study.MethodsA total of 65,856 non-diabetic participants (59.5% men, mean age 39.1 years in a health screening program were subjected to bioimpedance body composition analyses and metabolic parameter analyses at baseline and after 4 years. The participants were sub-divided according to age, and additionally to six groups by age and the degree of body weight change over the 4-year period. The actual changes in body weight, lean mass, and fat mass and the percent changes over the 4-year period were assessed.ResultsThe percent change in lean mass decreased and the percent change of fat mass increased with increasing age in every age and sex group. However, the annual percent decrease in lean mass and percent increase in fat mass were significantly higher among women than among men (−0.26% vs. −0.15% and 0.34% vs. 0.42%, respectively; P<0.01. Participants who were older than 50 years and had a weight loss <−5% during the 4 years had significantly greater decreases in lean mass and smaller decreases in fat mass, compared to those who were younger than 50 years. An odds ratio analysis to determine the lowest quartile of the percent change in lean mass according to age group revealed that participants older than 60 years had a significantly increased risk of a rapid decrease in the lean mass percentage (2.081; 95% confidence interval, 1.678 to 2.581.ConclusionEven in this relatively young study population, the lean mass decreased significantly with age, and the risk of a rapid decrease in lean mass was higher among women than among men. Furthermore, the elderly exhibited a significantly more rapid decrease in lean mass, compared with younger participants.

  10. A new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia to improve body composition and hemoglobin and hematocrit levels: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Martínez Guardado, Ismael; Marcos-Serrano, Marta; Timon, Rafael; Olcina, Guillermo

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study had the aim to determine the effects of a new dose of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia in active adults. Twenty-four university student volunteers were randomly assigned to three groups: hypoxia group, normoxia group or control group. The eight training sessions consisted of 2 sets of 5 repeated sprints of 10 seconds with a recovery of 20 seconds between sprints and a recovery period of 10 minutes between sets. Body composition was measured following standard procedures. A blood sample was taken for an immediate hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration assessment. An all-out 3-ute test was performed to evaluate ventilation parameters and power. HCT and Hb were significantly higher for the hypoxia group in Post- and Det- (P=0.01; P=0.03). Fat mass percentage was significantly lower for the hypoxia group in both assessments (P=0.05; P=0.05). The hypoxia group underwent a significant increase in mean power after the recovery period. A new dose of 8 sessions of maximal-intensity interval training in hypoxia is enough to decrease the percentage of fat mass and to improve HCT and Hb parameters and mean muscle power in healthy and active adults.

  11. Body composition and cardiac dimensions in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; D'alessandro, C; Piazza, M; Tocchini, L; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A; Cupisti, F; Santoro, G

    2015-09-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts are often believed to be a population at risk of malnutrition because of their tendency to keep a low weight and a lean appearance for better athletic performance, and because they start intensive training at a very young age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in adolescent elite gymnasts the effects of physical activity on body composition and cardiac morphology and function. Sixteen national level rhythmic gymnasts and 16 control adolescent female underwent anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance and echocardiography to assess body composition and cardiac morphology and function. As compared to controls, gymnasts had lower body mass index (16.9±1.1 vs. 18.7±1.0, Pgymnasts, together with a higher percentage of fat-free mass. Echocardiographic findings indicate that elite rhythmic gymnastics present left ventricular remodeling as training-induced cardiac adaptation. Intensive training, dietary attitude and evident leanness of rhythmic gymnasts are not associated with cardiac abnormalities, as it is the case of pathological leanness.

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Helena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years, whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720 and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min. The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-09-29

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  14. Body composition in normal subjects: relation to lipid and glucose variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe sex- and age-dependent values of total and regional body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in normal subjects, and furthermore to relate body composition measurements to blood lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A cross......-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 173 (84 male and 89 female) healthy subjects, BMI Body composition parameters including data on total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lean body soft tissue mass (LTM), total and regional fat mass (FM) were estimated in all...... subjects. In 87 of the subjects fasting blood glucose, S-insulin and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: The study population was for each sex divided into five decades for which results on body composition and blood lipids are presented. Body weight increased 2 kg per age decade, representing...

  15. Physical activity, body composition and bone density in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Fogelholm, M; Ottenheijm, R; Westerterp, K R

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) in female ballet dancers. Training history, Ca intake, body composition, total body BMD (TBMD) and site-specific BMD, and bone mineral content were described in twenty-four female ballet dancers (mean age 22.6 (SD 4.5) years). Training history was determined by questionnaires, Ca intake by 7 d dietary record, BMD and bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), total body water by 2H dilution, extracellular water by bromide dilution, body fat by underwater weighing (UWW; two-component model), DXA, and the four-component (4C) model. Dancers had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI 18.9 (SD 1.0) kg/m2) than controls (21.3 (SD 1.9) kg/m2), with significantly lower percentage body fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) v. 24.4 (SD 5.1)) but comparable fat-free mass. Mean TBMD (1.147 (SD 0.069) g/cm2) was significantly higher (6%) compared with that of a reference population. These high values could be attributed to the high BMD of legs and pelvis, the weight-bearing sites of the dancer's body. No relationship was found between age, start of ballet classes, period (years) of dancing, Ca intake, and BMD (total and site-specific). However, TBMD was positively related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to daily period (h) of training. Depending on the method used the percentage body fat ranged from 16.4 (by DXA) to 18.3 by the 4C model. These differences were significantly related to the TBMD. Percentage body fat by the different methods was not significantly different, except for DXA and 4C model. The present study showed that, despite the factors that have a negative effect on BMD, such as low body mass and late menarche, BMD in female ballet dancers was relatively high. These high values were probably caused by

  16. Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A. van Baak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.

  17. The evaluation of color and color difference according to the layering placement of Incisal shade composites on the body composites of the indirect resin restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface color of indirect resin restoration according to the layering placement of different shade of incisal composite. Materials and Methods In this study, CIE L*a*b* value of 16 Body composite of Tescera ATL (Bisco, Schaumburg IL,USA was measured by spectrophotometer (NF999, Nippon Denshuku, Japan, and compared to CIE L*a*b* value of Vitapan shade guide. Nine shade Incisal composite of Tescera ATL were build-up to 1 mm thickness on Body composites inlay block, and CIE L*a*b* value was measured. Incisal composite was ground to 0.5 mm thickness and CIE L*a*b* value was re-measured. Color difference between Body composite and Incisal composites layered on Body composite was calculated as a function of thickness. Results Color difference between corresponding shade of Tescera Body composite and Vitapan shade guide was from 6.88 to 12.80. L* and b*value was decreased as layering thickness of Incisal composite on Body composite was increased. But, a* value did not show specific change tendency. Conclusions Surface color difference between Body composites and Incisal composites layered on Body composite was increased as the layering thickness of Incisal composite increased (p < 0.05.

  18. [Body composition assessment by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Juan Carlos; Restrepo, María Teresa; Estrada, Alejandro

    2007-06-01

    Anthropometry and electric impedance methods are widely used for body composition assessment. However the evidence is unclear whether the results obtained from the two methods can be compared. Two methods are compared for assessment of body composition; anthropometry and electric impedance. Body composition was measured in 70 women; aged 22 to 56 and 53 men; aged 24 to 54, using anthropometry (Durning/Womersley and Jackson/Pollock skinfolds equations) and electric impedance (foot to foot electric impedance) to obtain percentage body fat. The mean percentage body fat was significant higher with Durning/Womersley (25.2%) than Jackson/Pollock (20.1%) and electric impedance (19.3%) for men (pimpedance (27.6%) for women (p0.77) however, the concordance between methods to classify obesity subjects was low (Kbioelectrical impedance method. A significant difference was found between methods applied in men and women, and therefore these methods are not comparable.

  19. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    .Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationbetween GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes inbody weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a randomgroup of adult Danes.Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsampleof men and women from the Danish arm...

  20. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  1. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  2. Carbon stable isotope composition of charophyte organic matter in a small and shallow Spanish water body as a baseline for future trophic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Rodrigo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative descriptions of foodweb structure based on isotope niche space require knowledge of producers’ isotopic signatures. In freshwater ecosystems charophytes are one of the main components of submerged vegetation and the feeding base for many herbivorous consumers, but knowledge about their organic carbon isotopic signatures is sparse. In this study, the δ13C organic values (and organic %C and %N of the four species of submerged macrophytes (three charophytes - Chara hispida, Nitella hyalina and Tolypella glomerata - and one angiosperm, Myriophyllum spicatum growing in a newly created shallow pond were measured monthly over a period of one year, to discern if i all charophyte species susceptible to being food for consumers and growing in the same waterbody have the same C isotopic composition; ii the δ13C values of a charophyte species change on a seasonal and spatial scale; iii the different parts (apical nodes, internodes, rhizoids, reproductive organs, oospores of a charophyte species have the same isotopic composition. The δ13C, %C and %N values of organic matter in the sediments where the plants were rooted were also measured as well as several limnological variables. The δ13C values for the angiosperm (-13.7±0.7‰ indicated 13C-enrichment, whereas the N. hyalina δ13C values were the most negative (-22.4±0.7‰. The mean δ13C value for C. hispida was -19.0±1.0‰ and -20.7±0.8‰ for T. glomerata. C. hispida δ13C values had a significant seasonal variation with 13C-poor values in the cold season, and slight spatial differences. Statistically significant differences were found between charophyte rhizoids (13C-enriched and the other parts of the thalli. The δ13C values in the sediments varied throughout time (-13‰ to -26‰. The C content was lower in the charophytes than in the angiosperm and there were no large differences among the charophytes. Charophyte fructifications were enriched in organic C compared to the

  3. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Tatiane; Costa, Manoel; Oliveira, Saulo; Júnior, Marcos Barbosa; Ritti-Dias, Raphael; Santos, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9–17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1–5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear...

  4. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monyeki, M.A.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Monyeki, K.D.; Toriola, A.L.; Pienaar, A.E.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary

  5. Body composition validation technique using anthropometrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal bodyweights of the participantsweremeasured inlying positionsusing anadaptation of theGuthri Smith apparatus frame towhich a firmstretcher and two spring balances were attached on a horizontal level position. The heights of the subjects were also taken on supine lying on a firm plinth. The body weight and ...

  6. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  7. Investigating within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's physical activity, dietary intake, and body composition: Protocol for the MATCH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunton, Genevieve F; Liao, Yue; Dzubur, Eldin; Leventhal, Adam M; Huh, Jimi; Gruenewald, Tara; Margolin, Gayla; Koprowski, Carol; Tate, Eleanor; Intille, Stephen

    2015-07-01

    Parental stress is an understudied factor that may compromise parenting practices related to children's dietary intake, physical activity, and obesity. However, studies examining these associations have been subject to methodological limitations, including cross-sectional designs, retrospective measures, a lack of stress biomarkers, and the tendency to overlook momentary etiologic processes occurring within each day. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the MATCH (Mothers And Their Children's Health) study, a longitudinal investigation using novel real-time data capture strategies to examine within-day associations of maternal stress with children's physical activity and dietary intake, and how these effects contribute to children's obesity risk. In the MATCH study, 200 mothers and their 8 to 12 year-old children are participating in 6 semi-annual assessment waves across 3 years. At each wave, measures for mother-child dyads include: (a) real-time Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) of self-reported daily psychosocial stressors (e.g., work at a job, family demands), feeling stressed, perceived stress, parenting practices, dietary intake, and physical activity with time and location stamps; (b) diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, accelerometer-monitored physical activity, and 24-hour dietary recalls; (c) retrospective questionnaires of sociodemographic, cultural, family, and neighborhood covariates; and (d) height, weight, and waist circumference. Putative within-day and longitudinal effects of maternal stress on children's dietary intake, physical activity, and body composition will be tested through multilevel modeling and latent growth curve models, respectively. The results will inform interventions that help mothers reduce the negative effects of stress on weight-related parenting practices and children's obesity risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Body composition estimation using skinfolds in children with and without health conditions affecting growth and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Danielle; Weber, David; Leonard, Mary B.; Magge, Sheela N.; Kelly, Andrea; Stallings, Virginia A.; Pipan, Mary; Stettler, Nicolas; Zemel, Babette S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Body composition prediction equations using skinfolds are useful alternatives to advanced techniques, but their utility across diverse pediatric populations is unknown. Aim To evaluate published and new prediction equations across diverse samples of children with health conditions affecting growth and body composition. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures were obtained in children with Down syndrome (n=59), Crohn disease (n=128), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (n=67), and a healthy reference group (n=835). Published body composition equations were evaluated. New equations were developed for ages 3 to 21y using the healthy reference sample and validated in other groups and national survey data. Results Fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) from published equations were highly correlated with DXA-derived measures (r=0.71 to 0.98), but with poor agreement (mean difference: 2.4kg, −1.9kg, and 6.3% for FM, FFM and %BF). New equations produced similar correlations (r=0.85 to 1.0) with improved agreement for the reference group (0.2kg, 0.4kg, and 0.0% for FM, FFM and %BF, respectively), and in sub-groups. Conclusions New body composition prediction equations show excellent agreement with DXA, and improve body composition estimation in healthy children and those with selected conditions affecting growth. PMID:27121656

  9. Seasonal Changes in Whole Body and Regional Body Composition Profiles of Elite Collegiate Ice-Hockey Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Neal W; Reid, Ryan E R; Andersen, Ross E

    2016-03-01

    The monitoring of a collegiate hockey player's body composition can reflect fitness characteristics and may help players, coaches, or strength and conditioning specialists optimize physiologic gains during an off-season, whereas simultaneously preventing performance decrements in-season. The purpose of the study was to investigate changes in whole-body and regional-body composition of fat and lean tissue. The body composition profiles of 19 elite Canadian collegiate hockey players were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Players completed end-of-season, preseason, and midseason assessments with questionnaires relating to their off-season and in-season training. Statistically significant changes in body composition profiles were observed between the different time points because players showed various tissue gains and losses depending on the region assessed. Overall, players gained (1.38 kg, p ≤ 0.01) and lost (0.79 kg, p ≤ 0.01) fat tissue during the off-season and in-season, respectively. Players also showed a significant gain of leg lean tissue (0.29 kg, p = 0.02) and loss of arm tissue mass (-0.25 kg, p = 0.02) during the first-half of the competitive season. Several correlations emerged that may provide insight into potential trends that could be more pronounced during longer and more demanding schedules. Collegiate hockey players show changes in body composition during the off-season and in-season. The understanding of body composition profiles, body composition fluctuations, and potential variables that may influence the composition of collegiate hockey players can help coaches and athletic programs tailor their team's training, nutrition, lifestyle, and informative resources to further support their athletes.

  10. Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).

  11. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  12. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer--the relationship between body composition and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E

    2013-10-01

    Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  13. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  14. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  15. Body Mass Index and Body Composition with Deuterium in Costa Rican Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana-Guzmán, E.; Salas-Chaves, M. D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Body Mass Index (BMI) has been adopted as international measure for measuring adiposity in children with the disadvantage that it varies with age, sex and sexual maturation with no differentiation between fat mass and mass free of grease. The analysis of body composition allow to know if the overweight is due to fatty tissue being the deuterium isotope dilution a validated reference method using Infrared Spectrometry Transformed of Fourier (FTIR). We studied a total 118 boys and girls from 6 to 9 years old getting the values of z score of BMI for age and percentage of fat mass by FTIR. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that Costa Rica does not escape to the global problem of childhood obesity founding by BMI 18.6% of overweight and 10% of obesity and by body composition 9% of overweight and 57% of obesity. Isotopic deuterium dilution method demonstrated in this study to be more suitable for the analysis of obesity and overweight in children since BMI presented false positive and false negative results giving less accurate information of adiposity of the subject. (author)

  16. Changes in body composition in women using long-acting reversible contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Dos Santos, Priscilla de Nazaré; Madden, Tessa; Omvig, Karen; Peipert, Jeffrey F

    2017-04-01

    Users of hormonal long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) report weight gain as a side effect, but few studies have assessed body composition change among LARC users. We evaluated weight and body composition of healthy women using the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), copper intrauterine device (copper IUD) or etonogestrel implant (ENG implant). We hypothesized that weight gain and body composition over 12 months would not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. We performed a prospective cohort study of a subgroup of women enrolled in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project who initiated the LNG-IUS, copper IUD or ENG implant. Inclusion criteria included lack of metabolic and eating disorders or change in body weight of more than 5% in the 6 months before enrollment. We measured changes in weight and body composition (body fat percentage, total body fat mass, total lean mass and total body mass) in women who continued their method for 12 months. We analyzed data from 149 participants: 85 LNG-IUS users, 31 copper IUD users and 33 ENG implant users. The mean age was 25.9 years, 56.4% were White, 82.5% had some college education and 67.6% were nulliparous. Although lean body mass increased over 12 months in LNG-IUS and copper IUD users but not in ENG implant users, changes in body weight and body composition did not differ between the groups. In the adjusted model, Black race was associated with change in total body mass (p<.05). Among those who continued the method for 12 months, changes in body weight and composition did not differ between copper IUD, LNG-IUS and ENG implant users. Changes in body weight and composition over 12 months did not differ between copper IUD users and LNG-IUS and ENG implant users among those with 12 months of continuous use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Female marine recruit training: mood, body composition, and biochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Kellogg, Mark D; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2008-11-01

    The US Marine Corps (USMC) is an elite military organization. Marine recruit training (RT) is a physically and psychologically intense 13-wk-long course designed to transform civilians into Marines through shared hardship and arduous training. Our laboratory conducted a study of female recruits in USMC RT that assessed the nature and the extent of cognitive, nutritional, and physical changes that occur during this unique period of structured mental and physical training. During RT, mood state was assessed every 4 wk with a standardized questionnaire, the POMS. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry every 4 wk, and blood samples were collected for assessing metabolic status at the start and at the completion of training. At the beginning of RT, approximately 1 wk after arrival at the training facility, levels of several negative mood states assessed by the POMS, depression, anxiety, fatigue, anger, and confusion, were considerably higher than POMS norms for age-matched, female college students. However, over the course of RT, these mood states gradually declined until, by the completion of training, they were substantially lower than college norms. Body composition changed dramatically, with muscle mass increasing by 2.5 +/- 0.2 kg on average and fat declining by 4.7 +/- 0.4 kg. There were also significant changes in several biochemical parameters associated with nutritional and physical status, particularly LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and cortisol. Other factors, such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and glucose, were more stable. Over the course of USMC RT, mood and body composition improved substantially and dramatically, an indication of the effectiveness of USMC RT for altering the physical and the cognitive status of trainees.

  18. Effect of high-dose growth hormone and glutamine on body composition, urine creatinine excretion, fatty acid absorption, and essential fatty acids status in short bowel patients - A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P.B.; Szkudlarek, J.; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2001-01-01

    Background: Positive effects of high dose growth hormone and glutamine (GH+GLN) on body composition in short bowel patients have been described. Lack of effects on intestinal absorption found in some studies has been ascribed to concomitant essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency. This study...... above 0.2, indicative of EFA deficiency. Air developed peripheral oedema. Conclusions: Combined high dose growth hormone and glutamine administered far 4 weeks, did not improve absorption of fatty acids or EFA status in short bowel patients. No changes in BW or composition were seen when comparing...... describes changes in body weight (BW) and composition, 24-h urine creatinine excretion, intestinal fatty acid absorption (total, saturated, unsaturated and EFA), and EFA status in relation to treatment with GH+GLN in s short bowel patients. Methods: A double-blind, crossover study between placebo and growth...

  19. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the ability of DXA to measure total body composition before and after weight loss and the composition of the lost body mass. DESIGN: Cross sectional and follow-up study of body composition before and after a weight loss of 10.6 +/- 6.8 kg. SUBJECTS: 31 obese subjects...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  20. Effect of sixteen weeks of combined exercise on body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , including 40min of resistance exercise, 40min of aerobic exercise and10min warm-up and cool-down. The CG did not participate in any exercise or physical activity. Body composition variables (weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, percent ...

  1. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vlychou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p<0.01 in both groups, whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p=0.02. Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  2. Nutritional status, body composition, and quality of life in community-dwelling sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic older adults: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlaan, Sjors; Aspray, Terry J; Bauer, Juergen M; Cederholm, Tommy; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Hill, Tom R; McPhee, Jamie S; Piasecki, Mathew; Seal, Chris; Sieber, Cornel C; Ter Borg, Sovianne; Wijers, Sander L; Brandt, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in muscle mass, strength, and function, is a main cause of reduced mobility, increased falls, fractures and nursing home admissions. Cross-sectional and prospective studies indicate that sarcopenia may be influenced in part by reversible factors like nutritional intake. The aim of this study was to compare functional and nutritional status, body composition, and quality of life of older adults between age and sex-matched older adults with and without sarcopenia. In a multi-centre setting, non-sarcopenic older adults (n = 66, mean ± SD: 71 ± 4 y), i.e. Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB): 11-12 and normal skeletal muscle mass index, were recruited to match 1:1 by age and sex to previously recruited adults with sarcopenia: SPPB 4-9 and low skeletal muscle mass index. Health-related quality of life, self-reported physical activity levels and dietary intakes were measured using the EQ-5D scale and index, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), and 3-day prospective diet records, respectively. Concentrations of 25-OH-vitamin D, α-tocopherol (adjusted for cholesterol), folate, and vitamin B-12 were assessed in serum samples. In addition to the defined components of sarcopenia, i.e. muscle mass, strength and function, reported physical activity levels and health-related quality of life were lower in the sarcopenic adults (p geriatric syndrome sarcopenia and indicates potential target areas for nutritional interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  4. Cross-Sectional Associations of Objectively-Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Mid-Childhood: The PANIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Paul J; Westgate, Kate; Väistö, Juuso; Wijndaele, Katrien; Atkin, Andrew J; Haapala, Eero A; Lintu, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-04-01

    The minimum intensity of physical activity (PA) that is associated with favourable body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) remains unknown. To investigate cross-sectional associations of PA and sedentary time (ST) with body composition and CRF in mid-childhood. PA, ST, body composition and CRF were measured in a population-based sample of 410 children (aged 7.6 ± 0.4 years). Combined heart-rate and movement sensing provided estimates of PA energy expenditure (PAEE, kJ/kg/day) and time (min/day) at multiple fine-grained metabolic equivalent (MET) levels, which were also collapsed to ST and light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA) and vigorous PA (VPA). Fat mass index (FMI, kg/m 2 ), trunk fat mass index (TFMI, kg/m 2 ) and fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg/m 2.5 ) were derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maximal workload from a cycle ergometer test provided a measure of CRF (W/kg FFM). Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were used to investigate associations. The cumulative time above 2 METs (221 J/min/kg) was inversely associated with FMI and TFMI in both sexes (p time spent above 3 METs was positively associated with CRF (p ≤ 0.002); CRF increased and adiposity decreased dose-dependently with increasing MET levels. ST was positively associated with FMI and TFMI (p childhood, whereas PA of 3 METs is required to benefit CRF. VPA was most beneficial for fitness and fatness, from a time-for-time perspective, but displacing any lower-for-higher intensity may be an important first-order public health strategy. Clinical trial registry number (website): NCT01803776 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01803776 ).

  5. Sex steroids and body composition in men with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifke, E; Friemert, M; Heilmann, M; Puvogel, N; Smaczny, C; von zur Muhlen, A; Brabant, G

    2003-05-01

    Delayed sexual maturation and low body weight is common in cystic fibrosis (CF). Concomitant data on sex hormones and concomitant body composition are lacking in men with CF. Cross-sectional study. Serum levels of testosterone, 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and LH were measured by RIA and total and regional lean body mass (LBM), fat body mass (FBM), bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in men with CF (n=40; age 24.7+/-5.4 years) and age-matched healthy controls (n=28; age 25.7+/-3.7). Only men without acute disease exacerbation or systemic glucocorticoid treatment were included. Mean levels of hormonal serum parameters differed significantly between healthy controls (testosterone=20.2+/-5.5 nmol/l; E(2)=95.0+/-20.2 pmol/l; 25(OH)D=62.8+/-28.3 nmol/l) and patients (testosterone=15.9+/-4.1 nmol/l; E(2)=60.7+/-19.4 pmol/l; 25(OH)D=39.5+/-17.8 nmol/l; Ptestosterone levels 2 s.d. below the mean of normal. Men with CF showed a relative shift from FBM to LBM and a different body fat distribution compared with healthy controls (PTestosterone was not correlated with weight, total or regional LBM or FBM, but significantly with BMD (r=0.32; Ptestosterone and body components on E(2), a testosterone-independent effect was found for FBM. CF patients with stable disease have moderately reduced serum testosterone levels. This might already imply detrimental effects on bone. The change in LBM of patients appears to have no direct association with sex hormone levels while low FBM might cause reduced net conversion of serum testosterone to E(2) with possible effects on FBM distribution.

  6. Body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, G E; Brooks, A G; Withers, R T; Dollman, J; Leaney, F; Chatterton, B E

    2001-04-01

    To determine anthropometric and body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition. There was an attempt to match subjects in the control and experimental groups for height and percentage body fat (%BF) for the initial test of this longitudinal study. Five competitive bodybuilders (-X +/- s.d.: 35.3 +/- 5.7 y; 167.3 +/- 3.7 cm; 66.38 +/- 6.30 kg; 18.3 +/- 3.5 %BF) and five athletic females (-X +/- s.d.: 30.9 +/- 13.0 y; 166.9 +/- 3.9 cm; 55.94 +/- 3.59 kg; 19.1 +/- 3.3 %BF) were recruited from advertisements in a bodybuilding newsletter and placed on sports centre noticeboards. The following measurements were conducted 12 weeks, 6 weeks and 3-5 d before the bodybuilders' competitions: anthropometric profile, body density by underwater weighing, total body water via deuterium dilution and bone mineral mass from a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. A combination of the last three measurements enabled the %BF to the determined by a four compartment model. A significant (P bodybuilders as they prepared for competition was primarily due to a reduction in fat mass (FM; -4.42 kg; 76.2%) as opposed to fat-free mass (FFM; -1.38 kg; 23.8%). The decreases in body mass and FM over the final 6 weeks were greater than those over the first 6 weeks. Their %BF decreased (P bodybuilders were accompanied by a significant decline (P bodybuilders presented with low %BFs at the start of the experiment, they still significantly decreased their body mass during the 12 week preparation for competition and most of this loss was due to a reduction in FM as opposed to FFM.

  7. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  8. Muscle strength and body composition in severe obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vieira Gadducci

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. METHODS: Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males. Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49.9 kg/m2 (the A group, and 45 patients had a body mass index between 50 and 59.9 kg/m2 (the B group. RESULTS: Absolute extension and flexion torques had weak associations with fat-free mass but a moderate association with absolute extension torque and fat-free mass of the lower limbs. There were no significant differences between the A and B groups with respect to absolute extension and flexion torques. For the A group, absolute extension and flexion torques were moderately associated with fat-free mass and with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. For the B group, there were only moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that both groups exhibited similar absolute torque values. There were weak to moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques and fat-free mass but a moderate association with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Individuals with severe obesity should strive for greater absolute torques, fat-free mass and especially fat-free mass of the lower limbs to prevent functional limitations and physical incapacity.

  9. Muscle strength and body composition in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; de Cleva, Roberto; de Faria Santarém, Gabriela Correia; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréa; Santo, Marco Aurélio

    2017-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males). Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49.9 kg/m2 (the A group), and 45 patients had a body mass index between 50 and 59.9 kg/m2 (the B group). Absolute extension and flexion torques had weak associations with fat-free mass but a moderate association with absolute extension torque and fat-free mass of the lower limbs. There were no significant differences between the A and B groups with respect to absolute extension and flexion torques. For the A group, absolute extension and flexion torques were moderately associated with fat-free mass and with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. For the B group, there were only moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Our findings demonstrate that both groups exhibited similar absolute torque values. There were weak to moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques and fat-free mass but a moderate association with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Individuals with severe obesity should strive for greater absolute torques, fat-free mass and especially fat-free mass of the lower limbs to prevent functional limitations and physical incapacity.

  10. Effect of maternal metabolism on fetal growth and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, P M; Thomas, A J; Huston, L P; Fung, C M

    1998-08-01

    were no significant correlations between maternal weight gain and birth weight, irrespective of pregravid weight for height. The assessment of fetal/neonatal body composition may improve our understanding of the effect of differential factors on fetal growth. Factors associated with accretion of fetal adipose tissue in late gestation are less well understood in comparison with birth weight and fat-free mass. Additional studies of maternal glucose and lipid metabolism are needed to better evaluate fetal growth.

  11. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  12. Usefulness of a Body Composition Analyzer, InBody 2.0, in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiko Okamoto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate whether InBody 2.0 might be useful in measuring the dry weight of chronic hemodialysis (HD patients. Thirty-five HD patients (22 males and 13 females; mean age 62.6 ± 14.0 years; mean HD duration 101.0 ± 118.06 months were examined. Multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis was used to estimate the ratio of extracellular water (ECW to total body water (TBW. The body resistance was measured at frequencies ranging from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The impedance index was determined at a low frequency (5 kHz and correlated closely with ECW, using sodium bromide dilution as standard comparison. The levels of serum albumin, prealbumin, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, transferrin, and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP were measured by routine methods in our hospital. The ECW/TBW ratio was significantly associated with the levels of hANP (p < 0.05. However, no associations between the levels of serum albumin, TC, TG, or transferrin and the ECW/TBW were observed. It appears that the body composition analyzer, InBody 2.0, may be useful for estimating the dry weight in chronic HD patients.

  13. Changes in body weight, body composition, and eating attitudes in high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Lenka Humenikova; Betts, Nancy Mulhollen; Payton, Mark Edward

    2009-08-01

    Many wrestlers engage in chronic dieting and rapid "weight cutting" throughout the year to compete in a category below their natural weight. Such weight-management practices have a negative influence on their health and nutritional status, so the National Wrestling Coaches Association implemented a new weight-management program for high school wrestlers in 2006. The purpose of this study was to determine whether seasonal changes in weight, body fat, and eating attitudes occur among high school wrestlers after the implementation of the new weight-management rule. Fifteen high school wrestlers participated in the study. Their weight, body composition, and eating attitudes were measured preseason, in-season, and off-season. Body fat was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Attitudes toward dieting, food, and body weight were assessed using the Eating Attitude Test (EAT). No significant changes in body fat were detected from preseason to off-season. Weight increased from preseason to in-season (p < .05) and off-season (p < .05). Although the EAT score did not change significantly from preseason to off-season, 60% reported "thinking about burning up calories when exercising" during preseason, and only 40% felt that way during the season (p < .05) and 47% during, off-season (p < .05). The wrestlers experienced a significant weight gain from preseason to off-season with no significant changes in body fat. Their eating attitudes did not change significantly from preseason to off-season in this study, but further research using a large sample of high school wrestlers is warranted to confirm these findings.

  14. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  15. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  16. Body composition during fetal development and infancy through the age of 5 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro-Ramos, T; Paley, C; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Gallagher, D

    2015-01-01

    Fetal body composition is an important determinant of body composition at birth, and it is likely to be an important determinant at later stages in life. The purpose of this work is to provide a comprehensive overview by presenting data from previously published studies that report on body composition during fetal development in newborns and the infant/child through 5 years of age. Understanding the changes in body composition that occur both in utero and during infancy and childhood, and how they may be related, may help inform evidence-based practice during pregnancy and childhood. We describe body composition measurement techniques from the in utero period to 5 years of age, and identify gaps in knowledge to direct future research efforts. Available literature on chemical and cadaver analyses of fetal studies during gestation is presented to show the timing and accretion rates of adipose and lean tissues. Quantitative and qualitative aspects of fetal lean and fat mass accretion could be especially useful in the clinical setting for diagnostic purposes. The practicality of different pediatric body composition measurement methods in the clinical setting is discussed by presenting the assumptions and limitations associated with each method that may assist the clinician in characterizing the health and nutritional status of the fetus, infant and child. It is our hope that this review will help guide future research efforts directed at increasing the understanding of how body composition in early development may be associated with chronic diseases in later life. PMID:26242725

  17. Body-composition changes in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE)-2 study: A 2-y randomized controlled trial of calorie restriction in nonobese humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition. We evaluated the effect of a 2-year CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body...

  18. The effects of Cross-fit, Pilates and Zumba exercise on body composition and body image of women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülsüm BAŞTUĞ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate body composition and body image of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises. Material and Methods: This study was carried out to investigate body composition and body areas satisfaction of women doing CrossFit, Pilates and Zumba exercises, 80 women voluntarily being in an average age of 42.74±8.47 voluntarily participated in the research. The women were grouped into two such as experimental (n=45 and control (n=35. The women in experimental group were applied 30-70min mixed exercises (CrossFit, Plates, Zumba for 4 days in a week throughout 12 weeks to have target heart rate of 50-60%. Results: A significant difference was found between body weight and BMI pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied mixed exercise program (CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba. There was a decrease in both body weight and average means of BMI of women. A significant difference was found between body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women who were applied CrossFit, Pilates, Zumba exercise program. While pre-test value of body areas satisfaction of women who were applied mixed exercise program was determined as 31.68±6.11, its post-test value was 35.68±5.02. It is remarkable that while body weight and BMI of women doing exercises decreased, their body areas satisfaction values increased. It was indicated that the body areas satisfaction of women having weight loss increased. A significant difference was not found between body weight, BMI and body areas satisfaction pre-test and post-test values of women in control group. Conclusion: It was concluded that there were positive effects on body weight, BMI and body image.

  19. Seasonal Changes in Soccer Players' Body Composition and Dietary Intake Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Brooke L; Kingsley, Michael; Leveritt, Michael D; Belski, Regina

    2017-12-01

    Devlin, BL, Kingsley, M, Leveritt, MD, and Belski, R. Seasonal changes in soccer players' body composition and dietary intake practices. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3319-3326, 2017-The aims of this study were 2-fold: to determine seasonal changes in dietary intake and body composition in elite soccer players and to evaluate the influence of self-determined individual body composition goals on dietary intake and body composition. This longitudinal, observational study assessed body composition (total mass, fat-free soft tissue mass, and fat mass) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and dietary intake (energy and macronutrients) via multiple-pass 24-hour recalls, at 4 time points over a competitive season in elite soccer players from one professional club in the Australian A-League competition. Self-reported body composition goals were also recorded. Eighteen elite male soccer players took part (25 ± 5 years, 180.5 ± 7.4 cm, 75.6 ± 6.5 kg). Majority (≥67%) reported the goal to maintain weight. Fat-free soft tissue mass increased from the start of preseason (55,278 ± 5,475 g) to the start of competitive season (56,784 ± 5,168 g; p body composition goals did not strongly influence dietary intake practices or changes in body composition. This study has demonstrated that body composition changes over the course of a soccer season are subtle in elite soccer players despite relatively low self-reported intake of energy and carbohydrate.

  20. New body composition reference charts for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Ellen W; Johnson, William; Davern, Bridget A; Anderson, Christina G; Shenberger, Jeffrey S; Misra, Sonya; Ramel, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that nutritional management of the preterm infant should aim to achieve body composition that replicates the in utero fetus, but intrauterine body composition reference charts for preterm infants are lacking. Our objective was to create body composition reference curves for preterm infants that approximate the body composition of the in utero fetus from 30 to 36 wk of gestation. A total of 223 ethnically diverse infants born at 30 + 0 to 36 + 6 wk of gestation were enrolled. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were specified so that the sample would represent healthy appropriately growing fetuses (e.g., singleton, birth weight appropriate for their gestational age, and medically stable). Cross-sectional reference values were generated for fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and percentage body fat (PBF) by gestational age (GA), with the use of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and the lambda-mu-sigma method for percentile estimation. GA-specific percentile values and a percentile and z score calculator for FFM, FM, and PBF are presented. These values aligned closely with ADP centile values published for term infants from 36 to 38 wk of gestation. The medians were also similar to the mean values for the reference fetus derived from chemical analysis previously. To our knowledge, these are the first body composition reference charts for total FM and FFM at birth in preterm infants to assist in following AAP guidelines. Future work will test the clinical utility of body composition monitoring for improving nutritional management in this population. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02855814. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Body composition assessment in athletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazić, Sanja; Lazović, Biljana; Delić, Marina; Lazić, Jelena Suzić; Aćimović, Tijana; Brkić, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Body composition represents an unbreakable unity of the human body basic structure elements and involves a relative representation of the various constituent elements of the human total body weight. It is well known that body composition changes under the influence of continuous physical activity, and, therefore, it is one of the major components of fitness, and general health of the athletes. Therefore, this topic has become a major field of interest for many exercise and sport scientists as well as clinicians who specialize not only in different training methods but also in the prevention of and rehabilitation from major injuries. To date, having considered issues of accuracy, repeatability and utility, there is no universally applicable criterion or 'gold standard' methodology for body composition assessment in athletes. The main objective of this review was to give a short overview of methods for body composition analysis in athletes and to show and compare the latest data on their usefulness and reliability in order to find the best solution for practical everyday work.

  2. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  3. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation.

  4. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...... period in 8-11-year-olds? 4.) Are there seasonal variations in changes in height, body weight (BW), BMI, FMI and FFMI of 8-11-year-olds? In the school year 2011-2012 we carried out a large randomized, controlled cross-over study among third and fourth graders in 9 Danish schools. Children were provided...... school meals based on a NND for three months and for another three months they ate packed lunch brought from home (control). At baseline, between the two dietary periods, and after the last dietary period children went through a number of investigations. In paper I we showed that ad libitum school meals...

  5. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128

    2001-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...

  6. Composition of Staff Review Advisory Bodies - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  7. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...

  8. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... equations can be used to estimate the body composition with a fair level of accuracy. ... were assessed in order to establish the safety level of the ... So, bio- chemical evaluation is necessary to ensure the nutritional value as well as eating quality fish (Azam et al., 2004). However, the value of these body ...

  9. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  10. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  11. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  12. Measuring body composition in overweight individuals by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownbill, Rhonda A; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2005-01-01

    Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is widely used for body composition measurements in normal-weight and overweight/obese individuals. The limitations of bone densitometers have been frequently addressed. However, the possible errors in assessing body composition in overweight individuals due to incorrect positioning or limitations of DXA to accurately assess both bone mineral density and body composition in obese individuals have not received much attention and are the focus of this report. We discuss proper ways of measuring overweight individuals and point to some studies where that might not have been the case. It appears that currently, the most prudent approach to assess body composition of large individuals who cannot fit under the scanning area would be to estimate regional fat, namely the regions of thigh and/or abdomen. Additionally, using two-half body scans, although time consuming, may provide a relatively accurate measurement of total body fat, however, more studies using this technique are needed to validate it. Researchers using bone densitometers for body composition measurements need to have an understanding of its limitations in overweight individuals and address them appropriately when interpreting their results. Studies on accuracy and precision in measurements of both bone and soft tissue composition in overweight individuals using available densitometers are needed

  13. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and age-related differences of body composition in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Bruna; Laccetti, Roberta; Gerardi, Clara; Trio, Rossella; Perrino, Nunzia Ruggiero; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Siani, Alfonso; Farinaro, Eduardo; Colantuoni, Antonio

    2007-03-01

    Significant changes in body composition that have important health related effects may occur in the elderly. In this study, we evaluated the bioelectrical characteristics in a large group of apparently healthy Caucasian men in the age range 50-80 years, as a function of age and body mass index. We studied 315 men with ages ranging from 50 to 80 years. They were divided into three groups according to body mass index (kg/m(2)): 18.5-24.9 normoweight (NW); 25.0-29.9 overweight (OW); > or =30 obese (OB), and they were classified in nine age subgroups: 50-59 (young-old, YO); 60-69 (old, O); 70-80 (oldest, OS). Fat-free mass, fat mass and body cell mass were investigated using conventional bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body composition was also assessed by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis and the RXc graph method. Body cell mass decreased significantly with age particularly in subgroups of the OW and OB groups (pbioelectrical impedance analysis indicating decreased soft tissue mass (fat-free mass and body cell mass), particularly in OW and OB-OS healthy men. We suggest 70 years of age as a cut-off for significant quantitative and qualitative (tissue electrical properties) body composition modifications. This bioelectrical impedance vector analysis pattern associated with ageing and across the different body mass index categories, may be useful for clinical purposes and can be used in geriatric routine to accurately assess the body composition modifications occurring in the elderly.

  14. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  15. The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

  16. Body Composition Trajectories From Infancy to Preschool in Children Born Premature Versus Full-term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Johannah M; Zhang, Lei; Gray, Heather L; Weir, Katherine; Demerath, Ellen W; Ramel, Sara E

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to longitudinally characterize infancy to preschool body composition trajectories and the association of early fat and fat-free mass gains with preschool age body composition in children born premature versus full-term. A cohort of appropriate-for-gestational age preterm (n = 20) and term (n = 51) infants were followed at 3 visits: "neonatal" visit 1 at 2 weeks of age for term and near term corrected age for preterm; "infancy" visit 2 at 3 to 4 months (preterm corrected age); "preschool" visit 3 at 4 years. Body composition via air displacement plethysmography and anthropometrics were measured at all visits. Tracking of infancy weight and body composition with preschool measurements was tested using Pearson partial correlation coefficients. Associations between serial body composition measurements were assessed using multiple linear regression. Early differences in body composition between premature (mean gestational age 31.9 weeks, mean birth weight 1843 g) and full-term (mean gestational age 39.8 weeks) infants were not present at preschool age. Visit 1 body composition was not correlated with preschool measurements in the preterm infants. Visit 2 measurements were correlated with preschool measures. Fat-free mass accretion from visit 1 to visit 2 was positively associated with preschool lean mass (β = 0.038, P = 0.049) in preterm children, whereas fat accretion was not associated with preschool body composition. Children born prematurely and full-term have similar body composition at preschool age. For preterms infancy fat-free mass gains, and not adiposity gains, are positively associated with preschool fat-free mass; this may be associated with lower risk of later obesity and adverse metabolic outcomes.

  17. Body composition and sexual maturation in premenarcheal athletes and nonathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, S A; Liu, N Y; Wells, C L

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare premenarcheal athletes (A) and nonathletes (NA) in terms of body composition and sexual maturation and to discern the relationship between these variables. Percent body fat (%BF) was determined by the three-component system of Siri utilizing body density from hydrostatic weighing and total body water measured by deuterium oxide dilution. Sexual maturation was self-assessed using the system described by Marshall and Tanner. ANOVAs and polynomial regression analysis revealed that both the A (N = 73) and NA (N = 53) showed similar values and linear increases (P less than 0.001) in height (HT), weight (WT), breast (B) and pubic hair (PH) development from 7 to 15 yr but not in %BF (XA = 15.7 +/- 4.6; XNA = 20.5 +/- 6.4 (P less than 0.001]. The NA exhibited a quadratic curve (P less than 0.01) in %BF over age, while the A showed a negative linear relationship (P less than 0.001) with age. Scheffe post hoc tests revealed significant differences (P less than 0.03, A less than NA) at 11 and 12-15 yr. When %BF was compared to maturation, the A were found to have less fat (P less than 0.01) at stages 1 and 4 of PH and at stages 2, 3, and 4 of B. There were no significant differences between A and NA in the age at which B2, 3, or 4 or PH2, 3, or 4 occurred. Both groups exhibited similar and significant correlations between age, HT, WT, B, and PH development but not %BF.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Measuring Body Composition in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Faith Casey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research shows obesity to be more prevalent amongst individuals with intellectual disability (ID making correct measurement of body composition crucial. This study reviewed the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing body composition in individuals with ID. Methods. Authors conducted electronic searches through PubMed (1990 to present and PsycINFO (1990 to present and assessed relevant articles independently based on scoping review guidelines. Reviewers included primary research related to the validity and reliability of body composition measures on individuals with ID. Results. Searches identified six articles assessing body composition methods used on individuals with ID including body mass index (BMI, skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, waist circumference, tibia length, and anthropometric girth measurements. BMI and waist circumference appear suitable measures but skinfold thickness measurements may not be advisable due to participants' noncompliance resulting in a lack of precision and inaccurate results. Conclusions. The current literature contains too few well-conducted studies to determine the precision and validity of body composition measures on individuals with ID. There may be a need to devise further regression equations that apply to individuals with specific types of ID in order to increase the reliability and validity of body composition measurements.

  19. Which is the best cutoff of body mass index to identify obesity in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis? A study using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Maria Fernanda B Resende; Pinto, Maria Raquel da Costa; Raid, Renata G Santos Couto; Andrade, Marcus Vinícius Melo de; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria

    Standard anthropometric measures used to diagnose obesity in the general population may not have the same performance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. To determine cutoff points for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) for detecting obesity in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing these standard anthropometric measures to a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based obesity criterion. Adult female patients with more than six months of diagnosis of RA underwent clinical evaluation, with anthropometric measures and body composition with DXA. Eighty two patients were included, mean age 55±10.7 years. The diagnosis of obesity in the sample was about 31.7% by BMI, 86.6% by WC and 59.8% by DXA. Considering DXA as golden standard, cutoff points were identified for anthropometric measures to better approximate DXA estimates of percent body fat: for BMI value≥25kg/m 2 was the best for definition of obesity in female patients with RA, with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 60%. For WC, with 80% of sensitivity and 35% of specificity, the best value to detect obesity was 86cm. A large percentage of patients were obese. The traditional cutoff points used for obesity were not suitable for our sample. For this female population with established RA, BMI cutoff point of 25kg/m 2 and WC cutoff point of 86cm were the most appropriate to detect obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Relations of meeting national public health recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with strength, body composition, and obesity: the Women's Injury Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Jackson, Allen W; Morrow, James R

    2011-10-01

    We examined the relations of meeting or not meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendations for muscular strengthening activities with percentage of body fat, body mass index (BMI; defined as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters, squared), muscular strength, and obesity classification in women. We analyzed data on 918 women aged 20 to 83 years in the Women's Injury Study from 2007 to 2009. A baseline orthopedic examination included measurement of height, body weight, skinfolds, and muscle strength. Women who met muscle strengthening activity recommendations had significantly lower BMI and percentage of body fat and higher muscle strength. Women not meeting those recommendations were more likely to be obese (BMI ≥ 30) compared with women who met the recommendations after we adjusted for age, race, and aerobic physical activity (odds ratio = 2.28; 95% confidence interval = 1.61, 3.23). There was a small but significant positive association between meeting muscle strengthening activity recommendations and muscular strength, a moderate inverse association with body fat percentage, and a strong inverse association with obesity classification, providing preliminary support for the muscle strengthening activity recommendation for women.

  1. Quercetin with vitamin C and niacin does not affect body mass or composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knab, Amy M; Shanely, R Andrew; Jin, Fuxia; Austin, Melanie D; Sha, Wei; Nieman, David C

    2011-06-01

    In vitro and animal data suggest that quercetin affects adipogenesis and basal metabolism; however, whether this metabolic effect translates to reductions in body mass or improvement in body composition in humans is unknown. This study investigated 12-week supplementation of 2 different doses of quercetin, combined with vitamin C and niacin, on body mass and composition in a large, heterogeneous group of adults (n = 941; 60% female, 40% male; 18-85 years of age; 45% normal body mass index, 30% overweight, 25% obese). Subjects were randomized into 3 groups, with supplements administered in double-blind fashion: Q500 = 500 mg quercetin·day(-1), Q1000 = 1000 mg quercetin·day(-1), and placebo. Quercetin supplements were consumed twice daily over a 12-week period, and pre- and poststudy body mass and composition measurements were taken in an overnight fasted state. A general linear model was used to predict change in body mass and composition across groups with adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors. Plasma quercetin increased in a dose-responsive manner in both Q500 and Q1000 groups relative to placebo. After adjustment for confounders, no significant differences in body mass (males interaction p value = 0.721, females p = 0.366) or body composition (males p = 0.650, females p = 0.639) were found between Q500 or Q1000 groups compared with placebo. No group differences in body mass or body composition were found in a subgroup of overweight and obese subjects. High-dose quercetin supplementation (500 and 1000 mg·day(-1)) for 12 weeks in a large, heterogeneous group of adults did not affect body mass or composition.

  2. Plasma Amino Acids During 8 Weeks of Overfeeding: Relation to Diet Body Composition and Fat Cell Size in the PROOF Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, George A; Redman, Leanne M; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Sutton, Elizabeth F; Smith, Steven R

    2018-02-01

    Different amounts of dietary protein during overfeeding produced similar fat gain but different amounts of gain in fat-free body mass. Protein and energy intake may have differential effects on amino acids during overfeeding. Twenty-three healthy adult men and women were overfed by 40% for 8 weeks with 5%, 15%, or 25% protein diets. Plasma amino acids were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry at baseline and week 8. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, fat cell size (FCS) from subcutaneous fat biopsies, and insulin resistance by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The following three amino acid patterns were seen: increasing concentration of five essential and three nonessential amino acids with increasing protein intake, higher levels of six nonessential amino acids with the low-protein diet, and a pattern that was flat or "V" shaped. Dietary fat and protein were both correlated with changes in valine, leucine/isoleucine/norleucine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine, but energy intake was not. The change in fat mass and weight was related to the change in several amino acids. Baseline FCS and the interaction between glucose disposal and FCS were associated with changes in several amino acids during overfeeding. Overfeeding dietary protein affects the levels of both essential and nonessential amino acids. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  3. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight and obesity has been linked to an impaired pulmonary function. The incidence of overweight has grown to more than 1 billion people globally, possibly explaining the increased prevalence of asthma which has increased by ~47% in the last decade. As such, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of ...

  4. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  5. Deuterium oxide dilution kinetics to predict body composition in dairy goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.L.; Taylor, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Body composition and D2O dilution kinetics were studied in 15 female goats ranging from 38.0 to 70.1 kg live weight. Infrared spectrophotometric analyses of blood samples drawn during the 4 d following D2O injections were used to estimate D2O space. All does were slaughtered without shrinking and analyzed for dry matter, fat, nitrogen, and ash content. Estimates of D2O space from the late slope of the dilution curve, together with live weight, were used to predict body composition. Conclusions were 1) deuterium oxide space with live body weight accounts for about 90% of the variation in dairy goat empty body fat, empty body nitrogen, and empty body dry matter; 2) less than half the variation in empty body ash is related to live weight and D2O space; and 3) D2O space estimates would be biased by accelerations in water turnover

  6. Body composition and bone mineral status in patients with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kun; Liu, Li; He, Yao-Juan; Li, Duan; Yuan, Lian-Xiong; Lash, Gendie E; Li, Li

    2016-11-30

    Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture rate. However, the developmental trajectory of bone density or body composition in patients with TS is still unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that different karyotypes and/or age contributes to abnormal body composition and decreased bone mineral status parameters in patients with TS. This study included 24 girls with TS, in which 13 girls exhibited X0 karyotype and 11 had mosaicism. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) assessed the bone mineral status of the calcaneus, including bone mineral density (BMD), amplitude-dependent speed of sound (AD-SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and InBody 770 assessed body composition. Pearson's test was performed to correlate measured parameters with patient age. The body composition and bone mineral status parameters were not significantly influenced by patient karyotype. There was a correlation between patient age and AD-SOS (r = -0.61, P = 0.002) and BUA (r = 0.50, P = 0.013) but not BMD (r = -0.19, P = 0.379). In conclusion, there was no effect of karyotype on body composition or body mineral status. Bone mineral status, as evidenced by changes in AD-SOS and BUA, alters with age regardless of karyotype. The developmental trajectory demonstrated in the current study warrants further validation in a longitudinal study.

  7. Toward Body Composition Reference Data for Infants, Children, and Adolescents123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Growth charts for weight and height have provided the basis for assessment of children’s nutritional status for over half a century, with charts for body mass index (BMI) introduced in the 1990s. However, BMI does not provide information on the proportions of fat and lean mass; and within the past decade, growth charts for children’s body composition have been produced by using techniques such as skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For public health research, BIA and skinfold thicknesses show negligible average bias but have wider limits of agreement than specialized techniques. For patients, DXA is the best individual method, but multicomponent models remain ideal because they address perturbations in lean mass composition. Data can be expressed in age- and sex-specific SD scores, in some cases adjusting for height. Most such reference data derive from high-income countries, but techniques such as air-displacement plethysmography allow infant body composition growth charts to be developed in low- and middle-income settings, where the data may improve understanding of the effects of low birth weight, wasting, and stunting on body composition. Recent studies suggest that between-population variability in body composition may derive in part from genetic factors, suggesting a universal human body composition reference may not be viable. Body composition growth charts may be extended into adult life to evaluate changes in fat and lean mass through the entire life course. These reference data will improve the understanding of the association between growth, body composition, health, and disease. PMID:24829484

  8. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro(®), obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m(2) ≤ BMIBody composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  9. Sarcopenia and body composition in diabetic Charcot osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA) requires restricted walking and offloading for several months, which lead to fat re-distribution and increased sarcopenia. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To investigate whether subjects with COA have an altered body composition compared to controls. METHOD...

  10. Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African endurance athletes. ... behaviour. This places them at a high risk of developing two components of the female athlete triad namely funct ional hypotha lamic amenorrhea and low energy-availability with or without an eating disorder.

  11. Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) fed on diets with both cotton and sunflower seed cakes. ... The formulations with 10%CSC25%SFSC and 20%CSC15%SFSC could be used for making Nile tilapia diets. Keywords: Plant protein, intestine histology, ...

  12. Body composition of normal and malnourished rural South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition was evaluated using anthropometric variables (weight, height, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, biceps skinfolds). The anthropometric variables were measured according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Children were categorized by the age groups as ...

  13. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  14. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan. Accepted 27 May, 2011 ... Key words: Proximate composition, body size, condition factor, predictive equation, catfish, Mystus bleekeri. .... a multiple regression model having the general form: Y = a + b1 W + b2 X.

  15. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  16. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  17. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  18. [Body composition investigation of 2321 Shenzhen government and enterprise staffs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Jichang; Sun, Shiqiang; Xu, Jiazhang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Huang, Changhua; He, Shan; Liu, Can; Xu, Jian; Gong, Chunmei

    2016-01-01

    To understand the laws of human body composition change and the status of the overweight and obesity of government and enterprise staffs. In July 2013 - January 2014, 2321 adults more than 20-year-old healthy check-up crowd with complete human body composition and height as well as weight data in a medical center in Shenzhen were collected by convenience sampling method. The overweight rates of male and female were 46.41% and 18.94% respectively (standardized overweight rates were 44.02% and 14.51%, respectively), and the difference between them was statisically significant (Χ2 = 201.01, P = 0. 000). The obesity rates of male and female were 12.13% and 3.57%, respectively (standardized overweight rates were 11.11% (see symbol) 2.63%, respectively), and the difference between them was statisically significant (X2 = 48.45, P = 0.000). The parameters of bone mineral quality, visceral fat area, body fat, body fat percentage, abdominal obesity, body moisture and free fat weight increased with body weight, and there were statistical significance among normal weight, overweight and obesity groups (P = 0.000). Bone mineral quality was highest at the age of 30 to 40 for men and women, and there was the statistical significance. There was statistical significance in visceral fat area between different ages in the same gender. Body fat percentage (34.24 + 5.39)% of all ages 50 to 59 years old and body moisture (28.53 + 3.77)% of age 40 - 49 group were highest in women. Male body fat percentage (27.08 + 5.01)% at the age of 60-age group was the highest. Male and female visceral fat area increasesd with age, but there was no statistical difference between men and women at the same age. The human body composition had not a statistically significant difference among normal weight and overweight groups, but a significant difference between normal weight and obesity groups (P = 0.000). Overweight and obesity rates in Shenzhen government and enterprise staffs increase with age

  19. Body composition of physically active women aged over 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Antonio Herrera Mogollón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of analyzing the body composition of physical active seniors: 116 women enrolled on the Program of Integrated Care for the older Adult in the Municipality of Chacao, Venezuela, were studied. Anthropometric variables were measured. Comparisons between variables revealed no statistical differences, with the exception of suprailiac skinfolds (p <0,05. Results indicated that most of the mean values were lower in the oldest group, with the exception of height, which was greater. The waist/hip ratio remained constant. More than 50% of women exhibited good nutritional status with appropriate body mass index. Cases of energy malnutrition were observed (defi ciencies and excesses, with overweight prevailing at around 20%. Waist circumference and the waist/hip ratio indicated that around 55% of the sample exhibited a high risk of developing chronic non-infectious illnesses. Comparisons with other population samples indicated greater similarity with those in their environment (Venezuelan and Mexican samples and with Italian and Australian women, and distant from the American pattern, with minor values of the variables compared.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n=377 adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37% in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54–1.90 (P<0.0001 overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39–1.94, Chinese, 1.39 (1.06–1.83, African, 1.67 (1.37–2.02, and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65. Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91–2.87 for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46–2.20 for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC remained associated with CVD events (HR=1.21, 95%CI 1.12–1.32 overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR

  1. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1.24, 95%CI 1.12-1.39) and African Americans (HR = 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.32). Finally, when using a binary definition of MetS-PC (cut point 0.505) designed to match the NCEP definition in terms of prevalence in the Health ABC cohort (35

  2. A review of body composition and pharmacokinetics in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jessica J; Sawyer, Michael B

    2017-09-01

    Body surface area dosing of chemotherapeutic agents is based on limited scientific data, and often results in unpredictable plasma drug levels. Cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) imaging provides an accurate measurement of lean mass. This review summarizes emerging roles of lean mass in predicting pharmacokinetics and drug toxicities in cancer patients. Areas covered: A concise review of body composition measurement with CT cross-sectional imaging and its relationship to drug pharmacokinetics and toxicities. A comprehensive review of the predictive value of low lean mass (sarcopenia) in dose-limiting toxicities is also included. Expert commentary: Drug dosing in medical oncology faces many challenges, including heterogeneous body composition profiles. The emerging role of sarcopenia in predicting lean mass may provide the tool needed to more accurately dose patients and prevent dose-limiting toxicities.

  3. Low cardiometabolic risk in Parkinson's disease is independent of nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Cassani, Erica; Barichella, Michela; Spadafranca, Angela; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2012-10-01

    To investigate if the reduced cardiometabolic risk in Parkinson's disease (PD) is independent of nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution. We designed a case-control study comparing 80 non underweight PD patients with 80 controls matched for sex, age and body mass index (BMI). Nutritional assessment included: anthropometry (BMI and waist circumference [WC]), body composition estimated by impedance and biochemistry (fasting glucose, serum lipids and transaminases). The presence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were noted. Compared to controls and independently of gender, PD patients showed lower percentage of body fat (P nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Body composition changes over 9 years in healthy elderly subjects and impact of physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Laurence; Karsegard, Véronique L; Chevalley, Thierry; Kossovsky, Michel P; Darmon, Patrice; Pichard, Claude

    2011-08-01

    Age-related changes of body composition affect health status. This study aims at clarifying body composition changes in healthy elderly subjects, and evaluating the impact of physical activity on these changes. In 1999, 213 subjects ≥ 65 years recruited through advertisements underwent assessment of health state, energy expenditure by physical activity, body composition by bioimpedance analysis and body cell mass by total body potassium. In 2008, 112 of them repeated these assessments with additional determination of Barthel index, Mini Mental State Examination and Geriatric Depression Score. Lean tissues decreased in both genders (p physical activity limited lean tissue loss in men but not in women. Loss of lean tissues occurs exponentially with aging. Further research should confirm these changes in subjects over 80 years. Increasing physical activity limits fat-free mass loss in men but not women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  6. Age-related changes in body composition of bovine growth hormone transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Amanda J; Chung, Min-Yu; List, Edward O; Walker, Jennifer; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2009-03-01

    GH has a significant impact on body composition due to distinct anabolic and catabolic effects on lean and fat mass, respectively. Several studies have assessed body composition in mice expressing a GH transgene. Whereas all studies report enhanced growth of transgenic mice as compared with littermate controls, there are inconsistencies in terms of the relative proportion of lean mass to fat mass in these animals. The purpose of this study was to characterize the accumulation of adipose and lean mass with age and according to gender in a bovine (b) GH transgenic mouse line. Weight and body composition measurements were assessed in male and female bGH mice with corresponding littermate controls in the C57BL/6J genetic background. Body composition measurements began at 6 wk and continued through 1 yr of age. At the conclusion of the study, tissue weights were determined and triglyceride content was quantified in liver and kidney. Although body weights for bGH mice were significantly greater than their corresponding littermate controls at all time points, body composition measurements revealed an unexpected transition midway through analyses. That is, younger bGH mice had relatively more fat mass than nontransgenic littermates, whereas bGH mice became significantly leaner than controls by 4 months in males and 6 months in females. These results reveal the importance in timing and gender when conducting studies related to body composition or lean and fat tissue in GH transgenic mice or in other genetically manipulated mouse strains in which body composition may be impacted.

  7. A bedside measure of body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all. Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4% in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7% in the placebo group (P = 0.10. Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05. Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats.

  9. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens J; Cronin, Anna M; Nielsen, Dorte H; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Bjornvad, Charlotte R

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all). Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4%) in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats.

  10. A Placebo-Controlled Study on the Effects of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Mimetic, Exenatide, on Insulin Secretion, Body Composition and Adipokines in Obese, Client-Owned Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelmkjaer, Kirsten M.; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J.; Holst, Jens J.; Cronin, Anna M.; Nielsen, Dorte H.; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Bjornvad, Charlotte R.

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetics increase insulin secretion and reduces body weight in humans. In lean, healthy cats, short-term treatment has produced similar results, whereas the effect in obese cats or with extended duration of treatment is unknown. Here, prolonged (12 weeks) treatment with the Glucagon-like Peptide-1 mimetic, exenatide, was evaluated in 12 obese, but otherwise healthy, client-owned cats. Cats were randomized to exenatide (1.0 μg/kg) or placebo treatment twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was changes in insulin concentration; the secondary endpoints were glucose homeostasis, body weight, body composition as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and overall safety. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (1 g/kg body weight) was conducted at week 0 and week 12. Exenatide did not change the insulin concentration, plasma glucose concentration or glucose tolerance (P>0.05 for all). Exenatide tended to reduce body weight on continued normal feeding. Median relative weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.1% (range 1.7 to 8.4%) in the exenatide group versus 3.2% (range -5.3 to 5.7%) in the placebo group (P = 0.10). Body composition and adipokine levels were unaffected by exenatide (P>0.05). Twelve weeks of exenatide was well-tolerated, with only two cases of mild, self-limiting gastrointestinal signs and a single case of mild hypoglycemia. The long-term insulinotropic effect of exenatide appeared less pronounced in obese cats compared to previous short-term studies in lean cats. Further investigations are required to fully elucidate the effect on insulin secretion, glucose tolerance and body weight in obese cats. PMID:27136422

  11. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsarella GR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass

  12. Comparison of body composition, exercise and nutritional profiles of female and male body builders at competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, W M; Heyward, V H; Lyons, T M

    1989-03-01

    Limited research information is available on the training programs and dietary practices of competitive male and female body builders. Information on body composition, training programs, and nutritional profiles of eleven competitive male and female body builders were obtained 48 hours prior to competition. Body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing. Skinfold data were obtained to assess the distribution of subcutaneous fat. Questionnaires concerning training programs and a three day food intake record were collected. The female body builders achieved a degree of leanness similar to the males. The relative training volumes for the women were greater than those of the men for all body regions. Gender differences were found in regional deposition of subcutaneous fat between males and females, with the males showing a more uniform distribution of subcutaneous fat. The nutritional profiles of male and female body builders were similar. The pre-competitive diets were low in kilocalories, and the relative energy intakes for men and women were 28.6 kcal/kg and 29.2 kcal/kg respectively. Both men and women consumed low fat and high protein foods. All of the vitamin/mineral intakes of the body builders exceeded the RDA's with the exceptions of calcium for men and women and iron for women only.

  13. Effects of a 10-Day Intensive Health Promotion Program Combining Diet and Physical Activity on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Factors of Young Adults: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Jae Koo; Yeun, Young Ran

    2017-04-11

    BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. The health promotion program consisted of unlimited amounts of vegetarian food; aerobic, flexibility, and strength exercises (3 hours/day); lectures on health (3 hours/day); massage practice (2 hours/day); and healthy cooking practice (1 hour/day). The effects of the intervention were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The intensive 10-day health promotion program significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At the same time, participants demonstrated increased back muscle, leg muscle, and grip strength; waist and shoulder flexibility; balance; and cardiorespiratory endurance. CONCLUSIONS The intensive 10-day health promotion program is a viable intervention for improving body composition, physical fitness, glycemic control, and blood lipid levels in young adults.

  14. Differences in body composition and physical function related to pure sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity: A study of community-dwelling older adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kera, Takeshi; Kawai, Hisashi; Hirano, Hirohiko; Kojima, Motonaga; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Ihara, Kazushige; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    We compared skeletal muscle mass and physical function between older adults with sarcopenia and those with sarcopenic obesity. Body composition and physical and cognitive function were measured for 1283 community-dwelling older adults. Participants responded to questionnaires about pain and exercise. The pure sarcopenia group (PS) included individuals with sarcopenia only. The sarcopenic obesity group (SO) included individuals with both sarcopenia and obesity. Groups were compared after adjusting for sex, age and height through propensity score matching. The PS and SO included 129 and 105 individuals, respectively. Comorbidities were more frequent in the SO (P gonalgia (P = 0.013). After adjusting for covariates, comorbidities, upper limb muscle mass, lower limb muscle mass to upper limb muscle mass ratio, lower limb muscle mass to weight ratio, gait time, Timed Up and Go test, time standing on one foot, and gonalgia differed significantly between the PS and SO. Sarcopenic obesity decreases the ratio of lower limb muscle mass to weight by increasing weight. It affects physical function in older Japanese adults with low weight. Decreased relative lower limb muscle mass is an important function-limiting factor in sarcopenic obesity. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2602-2609. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. BODY COMPOSITE ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL STRUCTURE, CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS USING BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER „TANITA“ TBF-300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the research based on the sample of 56 children with special needs, age 12 to 15, we conducted composite morphological analysis, apropos body composite physical structure analysis using BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER TANITA TBF- 300. Likewise, with Cluster analysis, actually method of conformational criteria (K-Means Cluster Analysis, using values BMI we made the assessment of physical status and fattening up. The gained results present justification, in another words, product of sensory - motor disorder in this population which is manifested with reduced kinesiology activity because of limited various motor task performance. This and similar kind of condition inevitably leads to disorder in structural analysis of physical structure, therefore to fattening up disorder

  16. Educational Web site. Radioisotopic methods of determining body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R.J.; Ellis, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    A Web site intended to inform the general public about existing nuclear technologies based on the measurement of radioisotopes in the human body has been designed. The presentation is focused on the concept of radioisotope measurements for determination of body composition (bone, muscle, water, fat), and the risks, benefits, and clinical applications of these techniques. Procedures covered are 40 K whole body counting, delayed-gamma neutron activation, prompt-gamma neutron activation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The information presented is tailored for the nonscientific public, in order to promote familiarity with and understanding of the basic concepts of radioisotope measurements in the human body. Further development of the site will include greater scientific detail, suitable for student instruction or for continuing education requirements of various certification programs. (author)

  17. Infant feeding and growth trajectory patterns in childhood and body composition in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H; Mearin, M Luisa; Grote, Veit; Mori, Trevor A; Szajewska, Hania; Shamir, Raanan; Koletzko, Sibylle; Weber, Martina; Beilin, Lawrence J; Huang, Rae-Chi; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-08-01

    Background: Growth patterns of breastfed and formula-fed infants may differ, with formula-fed infants growing more rapidly than breastfed infants into childhood and adulthood. Objective: Our objectives were to identify growth patterns and investigate early nutritional programming potential on growth patterns at 6 y and on body composition at 20 y. Design: The West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and 3 European cohort studies (European Childhood Obesity Trial, Norwegian Human Milk Study, and Prevention of Coeliac Disease) that collaborate in the European Union-funded Early Nutrition project combined, harmonized, and pooled data on full breastfeeding, anthropometry, and body composition. Latent growth mixture modeling was applied to identify growth patterns among the 6708 individual growth trajectories. The association of full breastfeeding for body composition at 20 y among the identified trajectory classes were tested by analysis of variance. Results: Three body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) trajectory patterns were identified and labeled as follows-class 1: persistent, accelerating, rapid growth (5%); class 2: early, nonpersistent, rapid growth (40%); and class 3: normative growth (55%). A shorter duration of full breastfeeding for body composition at 20 y ( P body composition in young adulthood. Rapid-growth patterns in early childhood could be a mediating link between infant feeding and long-term obesity risk. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Study on the performance of ceramic composite projectile penetrating into ceramic composite target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-cheng Yi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the performance of ceramic composite projectile penetrating into ceramic composite target, the contrast test and numerical simulations of the penetration of standard projectile and the ceramic composite projectile into a ceramic composite target were conducted. The results show that the penetration performance of ceramic composite projectile is obvious superior to that of standard projectile for ceramic composite target. The ceramic nose of ceramic composite projectile fully destroys the ceramic panels anterior to its following armor-piercing projectile body, thus maintaining the penetration ability of the following armor-piercing projectile body.

  19. Long term survey of body composition in hemodialysis patients using the Body Composition Monitor® (BCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Trolonge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2 years all 265 incident patients in self-dialysis units were included in a prospective study. Every 6-months, clinical and biological nutritional evaluation was associated to a BCM measure. 205 pts have a complete set of data at start (age 60±16 years, BMI 25±5 kg/m2, albumin 37±4 g/L, prealbumin 0.32±0.1 g/L, CRP median 5 mg/L, 135 pts at 6 mo and 56 pts at 2 years. Measures were performed before HD session to ensure stability and reproducibility of body fluid compartments by the same examiner. Lean and fat masses (lean tissue index: LTI, fat tissue index: FTI were normalized by square body height and compared with a reference range derived from 2000 healthy controls, according to gender and age. 28% of pts had values of LTI below the 10th percentile. A linear correlation exists (p<0.001 between pre-dialysis creatinine level and LTI. Albumin or prealbumin were not predictive of sarcopenia. Prescribed post dialysis BW was underestimated in 25% of pts and 16% remain overhydrated. In stable patients repeated measures analysis reveal no significant variation of LTI even in case of reevaluation of BW and gain of BW is associated with fat mass increase. BCM is a simple tool in clinical practice to evaluate body composition and hydratation status and help to guide nutritional support.

  20. Tracking of Body Composition in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for

  1. Metabolic and body composition changes in first year following traumatic amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Carly S; Pruziner, Alison L; Sanchez, Allison D; Andrews, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Body composition and metabolism may change considerably after traumatic amputation because of muscle atrophy and an increase in adiposity. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in weight, body composition, and metabolic rate during the first year following traumatic amputation in military servicemembers. Servicemembers without amputation were included for comparison. Participants were measured within the first 12 wk after amputation (baseline) and at 6, 9, and 12 mo after amputation. Muscle mass, fat mass, weight, and metabolic rate were measured at each time point. There was a significant increase in weight and body mass index in the unilateral group between baseline and all follow-up visits (p amputation.

  2. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: Does resistance training help?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Morandé Lavín, Gonzalo; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n¼18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout...

  3. Postoperative Changes in Body Composition After Pancreaticoduodenectomy Using Multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikamori, Manabu; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Asaoka, Tadafumi; Maeda, Sakae; Hama, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Hirao, Motohiro; Ikeda, Masataka; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Nakamori, Shoji

    2016-03-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important clinical determinants of outcome after surgery. The aim of this study was to compare changes in the body composition of patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), distal gastrectomy (DG), or total gastrectomy (TG). The parameters of body composition were measured using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis with an inBody 720 (Biospace Inc. Tokyo. Japan) in 60 patients who had undergone PD (n = 18), DG (n = 30), or TG (n = 12). None of the patients had recurrence or were treated with chemotherapy. Changes between the preoperative data and results and those obtained 12 months after surgery were evaluated. Twelve months after surgery, the body weight change in the PD group was significantly lower than in the TG and DG groups (-1.2 ± 3.8 vs -7.4 ± 4.4 and -4.0 ± 3.2 kg, respectively; p < 0.01 vs TG, p < 0.05 vs DG). The body weight change correlated with the fat mass change in all groups. The type and extent of surgery has a different effect on long-term body weight and body composition. Bioelectric impedance analysis can be used to assess body composition and may be useful for nutritional assessment in patients who have undergone these surgeries.

  4. Bone mineral density and body composition before and during treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in children with central precocious and early puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Boot (Annemieke); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); E.P. Krenning (Eric); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractMajor changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition occur during puberty. In the present longitudinal study, we evaluated BMD and calculated volumetric BMD [bone mineral apparent density (BMAD)], bone metabolism, and body composition of children

  5. Body composition changes in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Aging or disease process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Wen; Lin, Chieh-Mo; Li, Hung-Chou; Hsiao, Pei-Lin; Chung, An-Chi; Hsieh, Chu-Jung; Wu, Pi-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly affects middle-age and elderly adults. It is unclear if the presence of muscle wasting and fat accumulation in patients with COPD is age or disease-related. This study investigated the effect of age and COPD disease severity on body composition with the aim of identifying a biomarker(s) for COPD. Healthy subjects and patients with COPD of different severity were recruited. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze total and segmental body composition. Subjects included in the analysis were classified into four groups: healthy young (aged 20-45 years) (n = 35), healthy old (aged ≥ 60 years) (n = 37), moderate COPD (n = 40), and severe COPD (n = 14). In healthy old adults, leg and limb lean masses were lower by 10.6% and 8.5%, respectively, compared with healthy young adults (P changes in total and segmental body composition with aging and COPD severity. It found that aging and COPD altered the body composition differently, and the effect was most pronounced in leg lean mass. Remarkably, differences in appendicular lean masses were seen in mild COPD although no changes in body weight or BMI were apparent compared with healthy young adults. In contrast, fat depot changes were only observed in severe COPD. Aging and COPD processes are multifactorial and additional longitudinal studies are required to explore both the quantitative and qualitative changes in body composition with aging and disease process.

  6. Sarcopenia and the Analysis of Body Composition12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the “quality of lean” criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472

  7. A method for estimating fetal weight based on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chen; Jie, Yu; Xiu-E, Gao; Gui-Chuan, Fan; Wen-Long, Zhang

    2018-04-02

    Fetal weight is an important factor to determine the delivery mode of pregnant women. The change of fetal weight is significant, according to regular health monitoring of pregnant women. Conventional methods of fetal weight estimation, namely those based on B-ultrasound, are very complicated and the costs are high. In this paper, we propose a new method based on body composition. An abdominal four-segment impedance model is first established upon pregnant women, as well as the method of calculation. A body composition based method is then given to estimate the fetal weight, with the solution given explicitly. Analyses of clinical data reveal the smallness of the error between the estimated value and the actual value. The error between B-ultrasound and the present method is less than 15%.

  8. Contribution of stable isotope to better understand breastfed infant nutritional status in burkina Faso: Longitudinal study with body composition measurement at one year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulibaly, Nadine; Zeba, Augustin; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Somda, Serge Manituo

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background and objectives: Exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by the introduction of appropriate complementary foods and continued breastfeeding, as recommended by the World Health Organization, are cornerstones in infant nutrition. In Burkina Faso, only limited information is available on the quantities of human milk consumed and the time of introduction of other foods into infants’ diets and the effect of feeding practice on the infant’s growth. In this work we analyzed infant’s nutritional status according to their feeding practice. Methods: We used the deuterium oxide (DO) dose-to-the mother technique to measure the human milk intake (HM) as well as the non-milk water intake (non-HM) by the babies at 3, 6, 9 and 12 mo. We also evaluated the infant body composition at 12 mo by giving a dose of DO to the babies in order to determine the fat-free mass (FFM) and the fat mass (FM). Saliva samples were collected from the babies and their mother and the DO enrichment in saliva was analyzed by FTIR. At each period, the anthropometric measurements were done to assess the infant nutritional status at 3,6, 9 and 12 mo according to the WHO standards. Results: The HM was maximum at 3 mo with a mean of 968.1 ml (95%CI = 847.2 ml-1089.1 ml), decreased at 6 mo to 918.4 ml (95%CI = 815.9 ml-1020.8 ml) that didn’t change until 12 mo. The non-HM that was 54.6 ml (95%CI = -12.6 ml-121.7 ml) increased significantly (p = 0.001) to 175.2 ml (95%CI = 100.2 ml-250.4 ml) at 6 mo. Exclusive breastfeeding was 32% at 3 mo and reduced to 16% at 6 mo. Breastfeeding was predominant after 6 mo and the contribution of HM in infant feeding was 80% at 9 mo and 69% at 12 mo. The anthropometric measurement showed that wasting was 1.5% at 3 mo but increase significantly (p = 0.04) to 8.7% at 6 mo. The DO dose to mother confirmed that all of the malnourished infants were not exclusive breastfed. At 9 mo the WHZ<-2 was reduced to 6.8%, but 4.5% of the children were

  9. Assessment of gender differences in body composition and physical fitness scoring in Saudi adults by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dokhi, Laila; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a global problem that is reaching epidemic proportions. Body composition is an important parameter for humans because previous studies indicate high values of body fat as a predictor of mortality. The aim of the study was to assess gender differences in body composition and physical fitness in Saudi adult population. This epidemiological cross-sectional study included 411 healthy adult Saudi subjects aged 18-72 years (mean +/- SD, 36.91 +/- 15.22). All participants underwent body composition analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, with a commercially available body analyzer (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). Measurements included body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, target weight, fat control, muscle control and fitness scoring based on target values. The mean BMI of the whole study population was 27.22 +/- 5.65 (median = 26.80, range = 15.6-55.4). The mean fitness score was 69.3 +/- 8.48 (median = 71.0, range = 29-99). Significant gender differences were observed in BMI, fitness score, percent body fat, and other parameters of body composition. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity, percent body fat (%BF) and poor fitness is high in Saudi population with significant gender differences. In this regard, public awareness programs including exercise and diet teaching are required at large scale to cope up with the growing burden of obesity.

  10. Physical activity is a confounding factor of the relation between eating frequency and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Karine; Strychar, Irene; Cyr, Marie-Josée; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Doucet, Eric

    2008-11-01

    It has been shown that eating frequency (EF) is related to body composition in women, but the results are inconclusive. These inconsistent findings could be due to the influence of additional factors such as physical activity. We aimed to investigate the relation between EF and body composition in premenopausal women and to explore the effect of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and physical fitness on that association. Eighty-five premenopausal women [x +/- SD age: 49.9 +/- 2.0 y; body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.2 +/- 2.2] were studied at the onset of a prospective observational study. Seven-day food diaries were used to measure energy intake and EF. Body composition (measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), physical fitness (measured by the peak oxygen consumption), and PAEE (measured by using an accelerometer) were also measured. Mean EF was 4.6 +/- 0.9 eating occasions/d. A significant positive correlation was found between EF and energy intake (r = 0.31, P body mass index (r = -0.25, P percentage body fat (r = -0.26, P fat mass (r = -0.27, P consumption. The relation between EF and body composition could be mediated by PAEE and physical fitness.

  11. Effects of Meridian Acupressure Massage on Body Composition, Edema, Stress, and Fatigue in Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Geum-Sook; Choi, In-Ryoung; Kang, Hee-Young; Choi, Eun-Young

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of meridian acupressure massage on body composition, edema, stress, and fatigue in postpartum women. A quasi-experimental design with a nonequivalent control group was utilized. The Postpartum Care Center of Women's Hospital in Gwangju City, Republic of Korea. The study group consisted of 39 postpartum women, 19 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group, recruited from the postpartum care center of Women's Hospital in Gwangju city, South Korea. The experimental group was provided with meridian acupressure massage for 90 min daily over 5 days as an experimental therapy. Body composition (body weight, BMI, total body water, ECW ratio, LBM, and body fat) Edema (subjective edema, average girth of the upper limbs, and average girth of the lower limbs), Stress (psychological stress and physical stress), and Fatigue. The experimental group demonstrated a significantly larger decrease compared with the control group in measures of body composition, edema, total subjective stress, psychological stress, and subjective fatigue. Meridian acupressure massage can hasten the return to original body composition after childbirth.

  12. Comparison of body composition in persons with epilepsy on conventional & new antiepileptic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Sudhir Chandra; Tripathi, Manjari; Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as valproic acid (VPA) are known to affect body weight, and lipid profile. However, evidences regarding effects of AEDs on the body composition are deficient. This cross-sectional study compared the body composition and lipid profile among patients with epilepsy on newer and conventional AEDs. The patients with epilepsy (n=109) on treatment with conventional and newer AEDs (levetiracetam, lamotrigine and clobazam) for > 6 months were enrolled. Of these, 70 were on monotherapy: levetiracetam (n=12), VPA (n=16), carbamazepine (n=20) and phenytoin (n=22) and the remaining on polytherapy. Their body composition [body fat mass, lean dry mass (LDM), total body water (TBW), intracellular water (ICW), extracellular water (ECW) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) was estimated and biochemical parameters were assessed. Levetiracetam group had no significant difference with VPA, carbamazepine, phenytoin and control groups, except low LDM (17.8±2.4) than VPA groups (20.2±2.7, pcomposition parameters except for higher LDM (as % of BW) in conventional AEDs only treated group than control (pcomposition with valproic acid in contrast to other AEDs like levetiracetam, carbamazepine and phenytoin could affect treatment response in epilepsy especially in subjects with already altered body composition status like obese and thin frail patients, which needs to be established by prospective studies (CTRI/2013/05/003701).

  13. Seasonal variations in growth and body composition of 8-11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earlier studies on seasonality in growth reported the largest height gains during spring and largest body weight gains during autumn. We examined seasonality in height, body weight, BMI, fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) among contemporary Danish 8-11-year-olds. METH...... suggest seasonality in growth and body composition of Danish children. We recovered the well-known height velocity peak during spring time, but unlike earlier studies we found coincident peaks in body weight, BMI, and FFMI velocities.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.206....

  14. General many-body formalism for composite quantum particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, M; Betbeder-Matibet, O

    2010-05-21

    This Letter provides a formalism capable of exactly treating Pauli blocking between n-fermion particles. This formalism is based on an operator algebra made of commutators and anticommutators which contrasts with the usual scalar formalism of Green functions developed half a century ago for elementary quantum particles. We also provide the diagrams which visualize the very specific many-body physics induced by fermion exchanges between composite quantum particles.

  15. Body Composition Assessment in Axial CT Images Using FEM-Based Automatic Segmentation of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popuri, Karteek; Cobzas, Dana; Esfandiari, Nina; Baracos, Vickie; Jägersand, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The proportions of muscle and fat tissues in the human body, referred to as body composition is a vital measurement for cancer patients. Body composition has been recently linked to patient survival and the onset/recurrence of several types of cancers in numerous cancer research studies. This paper introduces a fully automatic framework for the segmentation of muscle and fat tissues from CT images to estimate body composition. We developed a novel finite element method (FEM) deformable model that incorporates a priori shape information via a statistical deformation model (SDM) within the template-based segmentation framework. The proposed method was validated on 1000 abdominal and 530 thoracic CT images and we obtained very good segmentation results with Jaccard scores in excess of 90% for both the muscle and fat regions.

  16. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna