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Sample records for body composition state

  1. State Requirements and Recommendations for School-Based Screenings for Body Mass Index or Body Composition, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Linchey, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction We present a comprehensive picture of state requirements and recommendations for body mass index (BMI) and body composition screening of children and explore the association between pediatric obesity prevalence and state screening policies. Methods Researchers completed telephone interviews with contacts at the departments of education for all 50 states and reviewed state content standards for physical education. Results Twenty states (40%) require BMI or body composition screeni...

  2. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either a...

  3. Non-invasive techniques for measuring body composition: state of the art and future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, in vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation has become an important tool in medical research. In particular, it provides a much needed means to make quantitative assessments of body composition of human beings in vivo. The data are useful both for basic physiological understanding and for diagnosis and management of a variety of diseases and disorders. This paper traces the development of the in vivo neutron activation technique from basic systems to the present state of the art facilities. A scan of some of the numerous clinical applications that have been made with this technique, reveals the broad potentialities of in vivo neutron activation. The paper also considers alternative routes of future development and raises some of the questions now faced in making the techniques more widely available to both medical practitioners and medical investigators. In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into the modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. 18 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Quantitative measurements of body composition: State of the art and QA processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The human body is composed of fat, water, mineral, and protein, and body composition is an important indicator of health. Most reporting of body composition in the lay press and with respect to health guidelines have used Body Mass Index (BMI), the ratio of body mass to height squared, as a simple measure of fattiness. A BMI of 25 kg/m2 is considered overweight. This measure is simple yet flawed since it doesn't take into account individuals with very high lean mass for their height and misclassifies them as obese. Other very simple techniques include skin fold analysis that assesses the thickness of subcutaneous fat at specific sites. Although practical, economical, and administratively feasible, the models are specific to body shape and may differ by ethnicity and age. Underwater weighing is also accessible to all with a water tank and a scale, and used to calculate the proportion of body weight that is fat and lean mass if the compartment densities are assumed to be constant. Anthropomorphy and underwater weighing are examples of two compartment models. However, more sophisticated models of three (DXA), four or more compartments (combinational methods) are available. In addition to fat, these models include direct measures of whole body bone mass, total body water, and water-free lean body mass and will be described in this paper. The purpose of a quality assurance program in body composition measures is to assure that the resulting data is accurate and precise while the purpose of a quality control programme is to correct the data if inaccuracies are found. Accuracy can be absolute in terms of international standards or relative to a reference population or baseline measurements. In general, absolute accuracy is beyond the scope of most research projects and clinics and not part of the QA/QC process. However an assurance programme for relative accuracy is essential and more easily obtainable. Baseline accuracy is established through comparative

  5. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  6. Effect of Breathwalk on body composition, metabolic and mood state in chronic hepatitis C patients with insulin resistance syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To identify the anthropometric, metabolic and mood state in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients from the west of Mexico and to evaluate the effect of Breathwalk (BW), a combination of walking, synchronized breathing and focussed attention, on those patients.METHODS: In an experimental study, 17 patients with serological and molecular diagnosis of HCV, not receiving pharmacological treatment, were studied. One hour sessions of BW were practiced 3 times at week for six months. Body composition was assessed by electric impedance. Biochemical profiles and insulin resistance (IR) risk was assessed by conventional methods. Mood state was evaluated with specific and open questions at the beginning and at the end of the program.RESULTS: Seventy percent of patients were overweight or obese, and 77% of the patients presented with IR at the beginning of the study. Improvements were observed at the 3rd mo, and statistically significant differences were recorded at the 6th mo using the fitness score (76 vs 83, P < 0.01), in alanine aminotransferase (ALT)(106 ± 93 U/L vs 59 ± 32 U/L, P < 0.01), total bilirubin (0.09 ± 1 mg/dL vs 0.62 ± 0.2 mg/dL, P < 0.01), ALT/AST ratio (1.04 vs 0.70, P < 0.01), triglycerides (165 ±86 mg/dL vs 124±49 mg/dL, P < 0.01) and the IR risk (4.0 vs 2.7). Most patients (88%) indicated to feel better at the end of BW (P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: Breathwalk has an important effect on body composition, lipid profile and liver enzymes. It is also easy, inexpensive and has a beneficial effect on metabolic and mood state in HCV patients.

  7. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  8. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. PMID:26971404

  9. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice.

  10. Body composition: Where and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. PMID:26564096

  11. Body composition analysis: Cellular level modeling of body component ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Wang; Heymsfield, S. B.; PI-SUNYER, F.X.; Gallagher, D.; PIERSON, R.N.

    2008-01-01

    During the past two decades, a major outgrowth of efforts by our research group at St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital is the development of body composition models that include cellular level models, models based on body component ratios, total body potassium models, multi-component models, and resting energy expenditure-body composition models. This review summarizes these models with emphasis on component ratios that we believe are fundamental to understanding human body composition during growt...

  12. Commercial state-sponsored bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Brendan M.

    1987-01-01

    The commercial state-sponsered bodies comprise an important element of economic activity in Ireland. The Exchequer makes a substantial financtial contribution to these bodies. In this article the author traces the origins and rationale of the commercial state bodies, examines their performance and discusses some major policy issues arising from their operations. non-peer-reviewed

  13. Relationship between body composition and BMI in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Toshiro; Demura, Shinichi; Fujii, Katsunori

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Obesity is a state in which body fat accumulates to an abnormal degree, and detailed information about body composition is necessary to investigate the problems of obesity in children. In the present study, we measured body composition using equipment based on the multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method to measure lean body mass and the quantity of fat. We evaluated differences in body co...

  14. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    Background: Birth weight and high weight gain the first years of life is associated with later body composition and increased risk of obesity. A detailed description of body composition at 3 years of age and factors related to the distribution of fat and fat-free mass is interesting, since body......D study was to look at which factors were related to body composition at 3 years of age with a special focus on factors related to later obesity risk. A methodological objective was to be able to predict body composition by using bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry. Secondly, an objective...... was to identify growth periods with relation to body composition at 3 years and whether the impact of growth was modified by nutrition. A third objective was to examine the relation between IGF-I levels at 9 and 36 months and body composition at 3 years. Since the IGF-I level was expected to be affected...

  15. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based....... This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...

  16. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  17. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  18. Body composition and functional limitation in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Katz Patricia P; Lathon Phenius V; Yelin Edward H; Sidney Steve; Blanc Paul D; Eisner Mark D; Tolstykh Irina; Ackerson Lynn; Iribarren Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Low body mass index has been associated with increased mortality in severe COPD. The impact of body composition earlier in the disease remains unclear. We studied the impact of body composition on the risk of functional limitation in COPD. Methods We used bioelectrical impedance to estimate body composition in a cohort of 355 younger adults with COPD who had a broad spectrum of severity. Results Among women, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a lower risk of se...

  19. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    OpenAIRE

    Moushira Erfan Zaki; Afifi, Hanan H

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). Materials and Methods: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (...

  20. Measurement of Body Composition in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Identification and treatment of obesity in children is believed to be an important factor in its control during the adult years. Laboratory and field methods for body composition measurement are described along with estimates of body fat content from anthropometric dimensions. (CJ)

  1. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira Erfan Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS. They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH. Materials and Methods: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS method. Results: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. Conclusion: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy.

  2. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Afifi, Hanan H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS) method. RESULTS: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM) from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. CONCLUSION: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy. PMID:24019614

  3. Body composition analysis in female ballet dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlović Bojan; Mijatov Saša; Srdić Biljana; Stokić Edita J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional status and body composition in female ballet dancers and a group of non-athletic female controls. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 30 female ballet dancers, aged 17.4±2.01, whereas the control group included 30 non-athletic female examinees, aged 18.00 years on average. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated in all subjects. Body composition was estimated using th...

  4. Forty mouse strain survey of body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle R Reed; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Tordoff, Michael G.

    2007-01-01

    We measured body weight and composition of ~10 male and ~10 female mice from 40 inbred strains. Body composition was assessed in ~16-wk old mice that had been individually housed and fed a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet (AIN-76A) for the previous 8 wk. Carcass lean and fat weights were assessed using a PIXIMus II DEXA and confirmed by fat extraction assay. There was a nearly continuous range of body weights, from a strain mean±SE of 11.4±0.2 g (MSM/MsJ) to 39.3±1.8 g (NON/LtJ). The percentag...

  5. [Body composition and comorbidity in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, Marc; Gilbert, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Obesity and excess in fat versus lean mass is well known to enhance the risk of mortality and morbidity. Several recent works have pointed the importance of analysing more precisely body composition for the assessment of prognosis of patients in terms of cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. The body mass index (BMI), commonly used for defining obese patients, does not give sufficient indication on the body composition and distribution of fat mass. In the elderly population, relative excess in fat mass associated with a decrease in lean mass is frequently observed. In such situations of sarcopenic obesity, the relative weight stability can be misleading. Sarcopenic obesity is an emerging public health problem in the geriatric population. It appears to be the situation with the worst prognosis for cardiovascular risk. In addition, recent works have highlighted the major impact of visceral fat, clearly linked with cardiovascular events. Body composition has also an impact on other pathologic conditions such as dementia, sleep apnoea or cancer. The links between body composition and morbidity in the elderly population are presented in this review, with emphasis on adipokines and their interactions with other organs such as the heart, liver, skeletal muscle or bones. More precise measurements of body composition, rather than BMI alone, should be developed in the elderly population. PMID:26345585

  6. Body Composition Changes Associated With Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment. Objectives To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate related to this increase. Patients and Methods Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women. Results Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05 increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI, % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly. Conclusions Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health.

  7. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  8. Body composition analysis in female ballet dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Bojan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional status and body composition in female ballet dancers and a group of non-athletic female controls. Materials and methods The study group consisted of 30 female ballet dancers, aged 17.4±2.01, whereas the control group included 30 non-athletic female examinees, aged 18.00 years on average. Height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated in all subjects. Body composition was estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method. Results Body composition analysis of ballet dancers revealed significantly lower values of body fat mass compared to the control group (18.85±4.50% vs. 23.41±4.34. Most examinees in both groups were of normal weight. 50% of ballet dancers and 23.33% of examinees in the control group were underweight, while overweight subjects were registered only in the control group. Most underweight ballet dancers had lower body fat mass, whereas majority of underweight examinees in the control group presented with normal body fat mass. Normal-weight obesity was established in 40.91% candidates in the control and 6.67% in the study group. Conclusion Ballet dancers had significantly lower values of body mass and BMI, compared to the study group. In order to prevent very serious complications caused by changes in size and proportion of some body compartments, it is necessary to carry out assessment of body composition more often in high-risk groups, such as the study group of ballet dancers.

  9. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. PMID:24735332

  10. Human body composition models and methodology: theory and experiment.

    OpenAIRE

    Z. M. Wang

    1997-01-01

    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors. Accordingly, the study of human body composition is composed of three interrelated research areas, body composition rules, body composition methodology, and body composition alterations. This thesis describes the authors recent ...

  11. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  12. Body composition and functional limitation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Patricia P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low body mass index has been associated with increased mortality in severe COPD. The impact of body composition earlier in the disease remains unclear. We studied the impact of body composition on the risk of functional limitation in COPD. Methods We used bioelectrical impedance to estimate body composition in a cohort of 355 younger adults with COPD who had a broad spectrum of severity. Results Among women, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a lower risk of self-reported functional limitation after controlling for age, height, pulmonary function impairment, race, education, and smoking history (OR 0.45 per 0.50 increment in lean-to-fat ratio; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.74. Among men, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a greater distance walked in 6 minutes (mean difference 40 meters per 0.50 ratio increment; 95% CI 9 to 71 meters. In women, the lean-to-fat ratio was associated with an even greater distance walked (mean difference 162 meters per 0.50 increment; 95% CI 97 to 228 meters. In women, higher lean-to-fat ratio was also associated with better Short Physical Performance Battery Scores. In further analysis, the accumulation of greater fat mass, and not the loss of lean mass, was most strongly associated with functional limitation among both sexes. Conclusion Body composition is an important non-pulmonary impairment that modulates the risk of functional limitation in COPD, even after taking pulmonary function into account. Body composition abnormalities may represent an important area for screening and preventive intervention in COPD.

  13. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  14. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  15. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  16. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  17. Body composition in postpubertal boy cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H; Revilla, M; Villa, L F; Gómez-Castresana, F; Alvarez del Buergo, M

    1993-09-01

    Twenty-two young male cyclists aged 15 to 19 years (mean 16.2 +/- 0.4 years) were studied in order to assess the effect of physical training on the body composition of adolescents. The subjects had been training on the road 10 hours per week for over 2 years, and were compared to 22 sedentary normal subjects of similar age range (mean 16.9 +/- 0.3 years). Food and calcium intake was similar in both groups. The total body bone mineral content and total body bone mineral density were lower in the group of cyclist adolescents (p cycling in male adolescents may be associated with a lower bone mass gain. In our opinion, the recommendable nature, quantity and quality of exercise at these ages must be better defined, through additional experimentally-designed studies, in order to prevent negative effects over bone mass gain.

  18. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  19. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  20. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Ellen Brierley

    Full Text Available The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range, with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  1. Solid state electrochemical composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2009-06-30

    Provided is a composite electrochemical device fabricated from highly electronically conductive materials such as metals, metal alloys, or electronically conductive ceramics. The electronic conductivity of the electrode substrate is maximized. The invention allows for an electrode with high electronic conductivity and sufficient catalytic activity to achieve high power density in ionic (electrochemical) devices such as fuel cells and electrolytic gas separation systems including oxygen generation system.

  2. Effects of chronic acceleration on body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of the centrifugation of adult rats showed an unexpected decrease in the mass of fat-free muscle and bone, in spite of the added load induced by centrifugation. It is suggested that the lower but constant fat-free body mass was probably regulated during centrifugation. Rats placed in weightless conditions for 18.5 days gave indirect but strong evidence that the muscle had increased in mass. Other changes in the rats placed in weightless conditions included a smaller fraction of skeletal mineral, a smaller fraction of water in the total fat-free body, and a net shift of fluid from skin to viscera. Adult rats centrifuged throughout the post-weaning growth period exhibited smaller masses of bone and central nervous system (probably attributable to slower growth of the total body), and a larger mass of skin than controls at 1 G. Efforts at simulating the effects of weightlessness or centrifugation on the body composition of rats by regimens at terrestrial gravity were inconclusive.

  3. Mould Design for Composite Body Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Maksimainen, Aki

    2012-01-01

    This Bachelor’s Thesis was done for the Metropolia University of Applied Science’s Concept City Car Project, funded and initiated by TEKES, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, in the aim of designing and producing a lightweight vehicle for urban environments using bio composites in the body of the vehicle and having an engine that uses the next generation biodiesel as its fuel. This graduate study is but one of many done for this project, one of them being the foundation...

  4. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  5. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  6. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people.

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance was tested in elderly men and women. The first two methods predicted body fat in elderly people on a group level with a mean prediction error of 5%. The impedance method predicted total body water (at 50...

  7. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance was te

  8. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  9. A pilot study of temsirolimus and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Veasey-Rodrigues, Heloisa; Parsons, Henrique A.; Janku, Filip; Naing, Aung; Wheler, Jennifer J.; Apostolia M Tsimberidou; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Body weight and composition play a role in cancer etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. Therefore, we analyzed the weight, body composition changes, and outcome in patients treated with temsirolimus, an mTor inhibitor that has weight loss as one of its side effects. Patients and methods Sixteen patients with advanced solid tumors treated with temsirolimus were studied; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography images. Sarcopenia was defined as skeletal mu...

  10. Sex-specific genetic effects influence variation in body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Zillikens, Carola; Yazdanpanah, Mojgan; Pardo Cortes, Luba; Rivadeneira Ramirez, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii; Oostra, Ben; Uitterlinden, André; Pols, Huib; Tikka-Kleemola, Päivi

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences. Methods: We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in the Erasmus Rucphen Family study, by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometry. We used variance decomposition procedures to partition variation of body composition into genetic and environ...

  11. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  12. REVIEW: Development of methods for body composition studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.

    2006-07-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.

  13. Spin State Estimation of Tumbling Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Russell, Ryan P.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2016-06-01

    It is expected that a non-trivial percentage of small bodies that future missions may visit are in non-principal axis rotation (i.e. "tumbling"). The primary contribution of this paper is the application of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) method to estimate the small body spin state, mass, and moments of inertia; the spacecraft position and velocity; and the surface landmark locations. The method uses optical landmark measurements, and an example scenario based on the Rosetta mission is used. The SLAM method proves effective, with order of magnitude decreases in the spacecraft and small body spin state errors after less than a quarter of the comet characterization phase. The SLAM method converges nicely for initial small body angular velocity errors several times larger than the true rates (effectively having no a priori knowledge of the angular velocity). Surface landmark generation and identification are not treated in this work, but significant errors in the initial body-fixed landmark positions are effectively estimated. The algorithm remains effective for a range of different truth spin states, masses, and center of mass offsets that correspond to expected tumbling small bodies throughout the solar system.

  14. Sex-specific genetic effects influence variation in body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M. Yazdanpanah (Mojgan); L.M. Pardo Cortes (Luba); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: Despite well-known sex differences in body composition it is not known whether sex-specific genetic or environmental effects contribute to these differences. Methods: We assessed body composition in 2,506 individuals, from a young Dutch genetic isolate participating in t

  15. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  16. The association of body composition parameters with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Mesut Sipahi; Halil İbrahim Serin; Mustafa Fatih Erkoç; Çiğdem Ünal Kantekin; Ergin Arslan; Hasan Börekçi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI) with the hepatosteatosis (HS) is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP) to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bi...

  17. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  18. Effect of intense military training on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Dugoni, Manfredo; Bagni, Bruno; Bagni, Ilaria; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-03-01

    Individuals in a structural physical training program can show beneficial changes in body composition, such as body fat reduction and muscle mass increase. This study measured body composition changes by using 3 different techniques-skinfold thickness (SF) measurements, air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-during 9 months of intense training in healthy young men engaged in military training. Twenty-seven young men were recruited from a special faction of the Italian Navy. The program previewed three phases: ground combat, sea combat, and amphibious combat. Body composition was estimated at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the training. After the subjects performed the ground combat phase, body composition variables significantly decreased: body weight (P BOD-POD (P = 0.90) and DXA was significantly greater than measured by SF. A significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) measured during the study. BOD-POD and SF, compared with DXA, provide valid and reliable measurement of changes in body composition in healthy young men engaged in military training. In conclusion, the findings suggest that for young men of normal weight, changes in body weight alone and in BMI are not a good measure to assess the effectiveness of intense physical training programs, because lean mass gain can masquerade fat weight loss.

  19. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapses Sue A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction of the morbidly obese. Methods The analysis was applied to 3 compartment (density and total body water measurements of body fat. The data was collected at the New York Obesity Research Center, Body Composition Unit, as part of ongoing studies. A total of 1356 subjects were included, with a BMI range of 17 to 50 for males and 17 to 65 for females. The body composition model assumes that obese subjects can be represented by the sum of a standard lean reference subject plus an extra weight that has a constant adipose, bone and muscle fraction. Results There is marked age and sex dependence in the relationship between BMI and fat fraction. There was no significant difference among Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics while Asians had significantly greater fat fraction for the same BMI. A linear relationship between BMI and fat fraction provides a good description for men but overestimates the fat fraction in morbidly obese women for whom a non-linear regression should be used. New regression relations for predicting body fat just from experimental measurements of body density are described that are more accurate then those currently used. From the fits to the experimental BMI and density data, a quantitative description of the bone, adipose and muscle body composition of lean and obese subjects is derived. Conclusion Physiologically realistic models of body composition provide both accurate regression relations and new insights about changes in body composition in

  20. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (body(ies). It follows that an impact origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system.

  1. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders. PMID:15700636

  2. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BONE STATUS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole body resistance training on bone status and body composition in young female. Twenty five moderately active females volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to whole body resistance trained (WRT (n=13; 23.1±2.0 years and control (C groups (n=12; 22.5±1.7 years. Height, body weight and body composition measurements were held. Total body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After completing the pre-test measurements, the WRT subjects were participated in 12 week whole body resistance training. At the end of the 12-week training period, paired t-test results showed that there was a significant (p.05 change in the body weight (-.21kg or BMI (.09. In the control group, significant (p.05 change in the body weight (.85kg, FFM (.12kg, and BMD (-.002 g/cm2 after 12 week period. These results showed that 12 week whole body resistance training had a optimize effect on body composition and bone status, but had no effect on body weight and body mass index in young female subjects.

  3. Compositional Homogeneity of CM Parent Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Beck, P.; Binzel, R. P.; Birlan, M.; Cloutis, E. A.; DeMeo, F. E.; Dumas, C.; Hiroi, T.

    2016-09-01

    CM chondrites are the most common type of hydrated meteorites, making up ˜1.5% of all falls. Whereas most CM chondrites experienced only low-temperature (˜0°C–120°C) aqueous alteration, the existence of a small fraction of CM chondrites that suffered both hydration and heating complicates our understanding of the early thermal evolution of the CM parent body(ies). Here, we provide new constraints on the collisional and thermal history of CM-like bodies from a comparison between newly acquired spectral measurements of main-belt Ch/Cgh-type asteroids (70 objects) and existing laboratory spectral measurements of CM chondrites. It first appears that the spectral variation observed among CM-like bodies is essentially due to variations in the average regolith grain size. Second, the spectral properties of the vast majority (unheated) of CM chondrites resemble both the surfaces and the interiors of CM-like bodies, implying a “low” temperature (origin is the likely explanation for the existence of heated CM chondrites. Finally, similarly to S-type asteroids and (2) Pallas, the surfaces of large (D > 100 km)—supposedly primordial—Ch/Cgh-type main-belt asteroids likely expose the interiors of the primordial CM parent bodies, a possible consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D solar system.

  4. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda; Franciane Rocha de Faria; Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1), eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2), eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assesse...

  5. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets.

  6. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougald Dawn M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need

  7. Human body composition models and methodology: theory and experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors. Accordingly, the study of human

  8. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  9. Sequential changes of body composition in patients with enterocutaneous fistula during the 10 days after admission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bo Wang; Jian-An Ren; Jie-Shou Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the sequential changes of body composition in the metabolic response that occurred in a group of patients with enterocutaneous fistula after admission to the hospital.METHODS: Sixty-one patients with enterocutaneous fistula admitted to our hospital had measurements of body composition by multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis after admission and 5, 10 days later. Sequential measurements of plasma constitutive proteins were also made. RESULTS: The body weight, fat-free mass, body mass index, and body cell mass were initially well below the normal range, especially the body mass index and body cell mass. And all the data gradually moved up over the 10-day study period, only a highly significant difference was found in body cell mass. Once the patients Received nutrition supplement, ECW began to return to normal range slowly as well as ICW and TBW began to rise up, and ECW/TBW significantly declined to near normal level by day 10 in either male or female patients. There was a reprioritization of plasma constitutive protein synthesis that was obligatory and independent of changes in FFM.CONCLUSION: Serial measurements can quantify the disturbance of body composition in enterocutaneous fistula patients. The early nutritional intervention rapidly ameliorates the abnormal distribution of body water while the state-of-the-art surgical management prevents the further deterioration in cellular composition.

  10. The independent association between diet quality and body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Shook, Robin P.; Hand, Gregory A; Hébert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Excess body weight is associated with an imbalance between energy expenditure and dietary intake but evidence on the association between diet quality and body composition remains equivocal. Rather than relying on differences in diet quality between overweight/obese and normal weight adults, this study examined the association between the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and body fatness on a continuous scale, independent of physical activity (PA). Further the association between component...

  11. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  12. Application of standards and models in body composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Manfred J; Braun, Wiebke; Pourhassan, Maryam; Geisler, Corinna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to extend present concepts of body composition and to integrate it into physiology. In vivo body composition analysis (BCA) has a sound theoretical and methodological basis. Present methods used for BCA are reliable and valid. Individual data on body components, organs and tissues are included into different models, e.g. a 2-, 3-, 4- or multi-component model. Today the so-called 4-compartment model as well as whole body MRI (or computed tomography) scans are considered as gold standards of BCA. In practice the use of the appropriate method depends on the question of interest and the accuracy needed to address it. Body composition data are descriptive and used for normative analyses (e.g. generating normal values, centiles and cut offs). Advanced models of BCA go beyond description and normative approaches. The concept of functional body composition (FBC) takes into account the relationships between individual body components, organs and tissues and related metabolic and physical functions. FBC can be further extended to the model of healthy body composition (HBC) based on horizontal (i.e. structural) and vertical (e.g. metabolism and its neuroendocrine control) relationships between individual components as well as between component and body functions using mathematical modelling with a hierarchical multi-level multi-scale approach at the software level. HBC integrates into whole body systems of cardiovascular, respiratory, hepatic and renal functions. To conclude BCA is a prerequisite for detailed phenotyping of individuals providing a sound basis for in depth biomedical research and clinical decision making. PMID:26541411

  13. Body composition and physical function in women with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Christie L. Ward, MS; Yoojin Suh, PhD; Abbi D. Lane, PhD; Huimin Yan, MS; Sushant M. Ranadive, PhD; Bo Fernhall, PhD; Robert W. Motl, PhD; Ellen M. Evans, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have reduced physical activity (PA) and lower-limb physical function and potentially disordered body composition compared with their peers without MS. The aim of this study was to determine whether PA and body composition were differentially associated with lower-limb physical function in persons with MS compared with controls. Females with MS and age- and body mass index-matched female controls (n = 51; average age 48.1 +/– 9.7 yr) were measured for PA wi...

  14. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    together, the data presented in this thesis suggest that provision of ad libitum school meals based on an apparently healthy diet may have potentially negative effects on children´s body composition despite overall positive effects on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. However, diet is not the only...... of this thesis was to identify factors influencing or associated with growth and body composition of 8-11 year old children. Four specific research questions were specified: 1.) Does a school meal intervention based on the New Nordic Diet (NND) influence height, body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist circumference...

  15. Dialysis vintage, body composition, and survival in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Morrell M; Mittman, Neal; Fein, Paul A; Agahiu, Samuel; Hartman, William; Chattopadhyay, Neil; Matza, Betty

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between dialysis vintage (length of time on dialysis), body composition, and survival has been reported in hemodialysis patients. In the present study, we examined the association ofdialysis vintage with body composition and survival in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. At enrollment, body composition in 65 PD patients was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients (mean age at enrollment: 54 years) were followed for up to 11 years maximum. At enrollment, the mean, median, and maximum dialysis vintages were 51, 34, and 261 months respectively. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and diabetes status, dialysis vintage was indirectly correlated (partial correlation coefficients) with body weight (r = -0.40, p = 0.001), body mass index (r = -0.40, p = 0.002), body surface area (r = -0.39, p = 0.002), body cell mass (r = -0.39, p = 0.002), total body fat weight (r = -0.30, p = 0.02), and fat percentage of body weight (r = -0.31, p = 0.018), and directly correlated with extracellular mass to body cell mass ratio (r = 0.27, p = 0.039). The observed cumulative survival was significantly higher (p = 0.007) in patients with a dialysis vintage at enrollment of 35 months or less, than in patients with dialysis vintage at enrollment of more than 35 months. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, adjusting for age, race, sex, and diabetes, dialysis vintage at enrollment remained an independent predictor of mortality (relative risk: 1.010; p = 0.002). Increase in relative risk of death with increasing dialysis vintage may be partly explained by the association of vintage with unfavorable changes in body composition and the nutrition status of patients over time.

  16. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  17. UREA SPACE AND BODY CONDITION SCORE TO PREDICT BODY COMPOSITION OF MEAT GOATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearling Boer x Spanish wethers (n=40) were used to develop and compare body composition prediction equations for mature meat goats based on urea space (US) and body condition score (BCS). Before the experiment, one-half of the animals were managed to have high BW and BCS (1-5, with 1 being extreme...

  18. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.

  19. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...

  20. Composition of Staff Review Advisory Bodies - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  1. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128

    2001-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...

  2. Research of the Relationship Between Body Composition and Physical Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dainius Taraškevičius

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with importance and adaptation options of body composition and physical fitness. Measurement methodology of body composition and physical fitness was done. Skinfold caliper and bioelectrical impedance analysis techniques was used to obtain body composition parameters. Physical fitness was measured using veloergometry, sit-ups, sit-and-reach, flamingo balance, plate tapping and back muscle dynamometer tests. After research relationship was established between: muscle mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for female, r = −0,635, p 0,05, bone mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for female, r = −0,636, p < 0,05, body fat mass and maximum oxygen uptake (for male, 0,580 r = − , 0,05 p < , body fat mass and sit-and-reach results (for male, r = − 0,601, p < 0,05, total body water and maximum oxygen uptake (for male, r = 0,537 , p < 0,05 , total body water and sit-and-reach results (for male, r = 0,559 , p < 0,05.

  3. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men’s and Women’s Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  4. Body Composition and Somatotype of the Elite of Polish Fencers

    OpenAIRE

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in épée (n=10), foil (n=10) and sabre (n=10). They were aged 23.3±2.9; their length of training was 12.6±2.5 years, with the f...

  5. Sarcopenia and the Analysis of Body Composition12

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to i...

  6. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Correia de Faria Santarém, G; de Cleva, R; Marco Aurélio Santo; Aline Biaseto Bernhard; Alexandre Vieira Gadducci; Julia Maria D'Andrea Greve; Paulo Roberto Santos Silva

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity. Objective To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD) during the six-minute walk test (6MWT) according to gender and obesity grade. Setting University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice. Methods Functional capacity was ...

  7. Effects of photoperiod on body mass, thermogenesis and body composition in Eothenomys miletus during cold exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-long Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D. During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. miletus decreased body mass. After the next 4 weeks of exposure to LD, which the average difference between body masses of LD and SD voles was 4.76 g. This 14.74% increase in body mass reflected significant increases in absolute amounts of body components, including wet carcass mass, dry carcass mass and body fat mass. After correcting body composition and organ morphology data for the differences in body mass, only livers, kidney, and small intestine were enlarged due to photoperiod treatment during cold exposure. E. miletus increased RMR and energy intake exposure to LD, but maintained a stable level to SD after 28 days. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass, body fat mass, RMR as well as energy intake. All of the results indicated that E. miletus may provide an attractive novel animal model for investigation of the regulation of body mass and energy balance at organism levels. Leptin is potentially involved in the photoperiod induced body mass regulation and thermogenesis in E. miletus during cold exposure.

  8. Host genetic variation impacts microbiome composition across human body sites

    OpenAIRE

    Blekhman, Ran; Goodrich, Julia K; Huang, Katherine; Sun, Qi; Bukowski, Robert; Bell, Jordana T.; Timothy D Spector; Keinan, Alon; Ley, Ruth E.; Gevers, Dirk; Clark, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The composition of bacteria in and on the human body varies widely across human individuals, and has been associated with multiple health conditions. While microbial communities are influenced by environmental factors, some degree of genetic influence of the host on the microbiome is also expected. This study is part of an expanding effort to comprehensively profile the interactions between human genetic variation and the composition of this microbial ecosystem on a genome- and mic...

  9. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, L; Del Gobbo, V; Bigioni, M; Premrov, M G; Cianci, R; De Lorenzo, A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify new indexes of body composition that characterize the normal weight obese (NWO) women. We measured body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) by indirect calorimetry in a cohort of seventy-five healthy Italian women, subdivided into three groups (nonobese/controls, NWO, preobese-obese women). Despite a normal body mass index (BMI), the NWO women have a higher body fat mass percentage (FAT %) (38.99 +/- 6.03) associated to a significant (p = 0.02) lower amount of lean mass of legs (12.24 +/- 1.31) and lean mass of left leg (6.07 +/- 0.64) with respect to the control group. The NWO group showed a significant (p = 0.043) lower RMR (1201.25 +/- 349.02) in comparison with nonobese and preobese-obese women. To classify NWO individuals among general population, we identified three significant body composition indexes: abdominal index, leg index and trunk index. The NWO women showed significant increased value in the three indexes (p NWO women displayed a cluster of anthropometric characteristics (body fat mass percentage, leg indexes) not different to obese women ones. An appropriate diet-therapy and physical activity may be protecting NWO individuals from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases associated to preobese-obese women. PMID:16910350

  10. The Impact of Strenuous Group Physical Activity on Mood States, Personal Views, Body Composition, and Markers of Myocardial Damage in Overweight/Obese Adults: The “Step-by-Step Italy’s Coast to Coast” Trek

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Mazzeschi; Natalia Piana; Daniela Capezzali; Antonella Mommi; Cristina Aiello; Michela Gatti; Giannermete Romani; Livia Buratta; Dalila Battistini; Giovanni Nasini; Elisa Reginato; Lorena Urbani; Chiara Pazzagli; Carla Ferri; Giuseppe Ambrosio

    2014-01-01

    It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obe...

  11. Body size and composition of National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Torine, Jon C; Silvestre, Ricardo; French, Duncan N; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a profile of body size and composition of National Football League (NFL) players prior to the start of the regular season. Fifty-three members of the Indianapolis Colts professional football team were measured for height, body mass, and percentage body fat using the BOD POD air-displacement plethysmography system during summer camp of the 2003 football season. These data were categorized by position for comparison with previous studies of NFL football players. The relationships observed were as follows (= represents nonsignificant; > represents p Linebackers > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Body Mass: Offensive Line = Defensive Line > Tight Ends = Linebackers > Running Backs = Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters > Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Percentage Body Fat: Offensive Line > Defensive Line > Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters = Linebackers = Tight Ends > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Comparisons to teams in the 1970s indicate that body mass has increased only for offensive and defensive linemen; however, height and body fat among player positions have not dramatically changed. Furthermore, the body mass index is not an accurate measure or representation of body fat or obesity in NFL players. These data provide a basic template for size profiles and differences among various positions and allow comparisons with other studies for changes in the NFL over the past 3 decades.

  12. Body composition and physical function in women with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie L. Ward, MS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS have reduced physical activity (PA and lower-limb physical function and potentially disordered body composition compared with their peers without MS. The aim of this study was to determine whether PA and body composition were differentially associated with lower-limb physical function in persons with MS compared with controls. Females with MS and age- and body mass index-matched female controls (n = 51; average age 48.1 +/– 9.7 yr were measured for PA with daily step counts, relative fat mass (%Fat, and leg lean mass (LM-LEG via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and for lower-limb physical function with objective performance tests. Persons with MS had 12.5% to 53% poorer lower-limb physical function than controls (all p < 0.05. PA, %Fat, and LM-LEG to body mass ratio (LM-LEG/BM were associated with lower-limb physical function in both persons with MS and controls (all p < 0.05. Based on median splits, higher %Fat, lower LM-LEG/BM, and MS conferred poorer lower-limb physical function (all p < 0.05. PA, %Fat, and LM-LEG/BM were associated with lower-limb physical function, suggesting that body composition, specifically reducing adiposity and increasing lean mass and/or increasing PA levels, may be a potential target for MS interventions.

  13. A STUDY ON BODY COMPOSITION, BODY COMPONENTS AND SOMATOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCCER PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Kürkçü, Recep; Hazar, Fatih; Özdağ, Selçuk

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to study to determine and comparison the body composition, body components and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players (Young Soccer Team of Sport Club of Muğla University) with other national and international soccer players. Subjects were eighteen pubescent soccer players (age, 13.22y) of a team playing in regional soccer league. Skinfolds (biceps, triceps, back, suprailiac, abdominal, leg, thigh), diameters (femur and humerus biconduler), circumferences ...

  14. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B;

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... HS patients, a population-based HS group of 430 population HS patients, and 20 780 controls. Age- and sex-adjusted analyses showed a 10.12% (P ....0001) was significantly higher in HS patients compared with controls. Additionally, age and sex-adjusted analyses showed a higher predicted estimate of BMR for the HS groups compared with controls (154.56 kcal/day (95% CI 54.96-254.16) (P = 0.0031) for the hospital-based HS group, and 82.63 kcal/day (95%CI 59...

  15. BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT WITH SEGMENTAL MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka A. Salmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment

  16. Effects of weightlessness on body composition in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Smirnova, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of weightlessness on the body composition of rats were investigated using 5 male rats exposed to 18.5 days of weightlessness on the COSMOS 1129 biosatellite and killed after reentry. The animals were immediately dissected and the three major body divisions (musculoskeletal system, skin, and pooled viscera) were analyzed for fat, water, solids, and six elements. These results were determined as percentages of the fat-free body or its components and then compared with two groups of terrestrial controls, one of which was subjected to a flight simulation in a spacecraft mock-up while the other was under standard vivarium conditions. Compared with the control groups, the flight group was found to exhibit a reduced fraction of total body water, a net shift of body water from skin to viscera, a marked diminution in the fraction of extracellular water in the fat-free body, a marked reduction in the fraction of bone mineral, no change in the quantity of stored fat or adrenal masses, and a net increase in total muscle mass as indicated by total body creatine, protein, and body cell mass.

  17. Two-body wave functions and compositeness from scattering amplitudes. I. General properties with schematic models

    CERN Document Server

    Sekihara, Takayasu

    2016-01-01

    For a general two-body bound state in quantum mechanics, both in the stable and decaying cases, we establish a way to extract its two-body wave function in momentum space from the scattering amplitude of the constituent two particles. For this purpose, we first show that the two-body wave function of the bound state corresponds to the residue of the off-shell scattering amplitude at the bound state pole. Then, we examine our scheme to extract the two-body wave function from the scattering amplitude in several schematic models. As a result, the two-body wave functions from the Lippmann--Schwinger equation coincides with that from the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for an energy-independent interaction. Of special interest is that the two-body wave function from the scattering amplitude is automatically scaled; the norm of the two-body wave function, to which we refer as the compositeness, is unity for an energy-independent interaction, while the compositeness deviates from unity for an energy-dependent interaction, ...

  18. EFFECTS OF PHOTOPERIOD ON BODY MASS, THERMOGENESIS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN EOTHENOMYS MILETUS DURING COLD EXPOSURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-long Zhu; Shengchang Yang; Jin-hong Cai; Lihua Meng; Zheng-kun Wang

    2012-01-01

    Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C) in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D) to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D). During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. mil...

  19. Compositions of Oceans on Icy Solar System Bodies (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotov, M. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Interior oceans may exist on at least several solar system bodies: Europa, Enceladus, Ganymede, Titan and Triton. Compositions of the oceans could reflect bulk chemistries on the bodies, degree and timing of differendentition, current temperature and pressure conditions, and chemical exchanges between icy shells, liquid layers, and suboceanic solids (rocks, sediments, ices and clathrates). Observational signs are sparse and modeling is the major approach to evaluate oceanic compositions. On Europa, a presence of S(VI) species and CO2 at endogenic surface features [1] suggests sulfates and C species (organic and/or inorganic) in the ocean. The detection of NaCl and Na2CO3/NaHCO3-bearing grains emitted from Enceladus [2] implies the dominance of Na, Cl and carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the past and/or present alkaline fluids in the interior. These observations are consistent with independent models for water-rock interaction [3]. Evaluated low contents of other elements (Mg, Fe, Ca, K, S, P, etc.) in initial oceanic waters [3] are accounted for by low solubilities of minerals deposited from water solutions (serpentine, saponite, magnetite, carbonates, sulfides and phosphates). Oceanic redox states are affected by the composition of accreted ices and rocks, hydrogen production through oxidation of solids (mainly Fe-Ni metal) by water and an efficiency of H2 escape. Formation of a sulfate-bearing ocean (as on Europa) through oxidation of sulfides could have been driven by radiolytically-formed oxidants (H2O2, O2), high-temperature (>500 K) hydrothermal activity and H2 escape. Formation of sulfate facilitates leaching of Mg from minerals leading to the Mg-SO4-Na-Cl ocean. Although some of these factors could have played roles on the Galilean satellites, formation of sulfate-bearing oceans beyond Jupiter is unlikely. Accretion of cometary-type ices on moons allows an existence of water-methanol-ammonia liquids at ~153 K, although ammonia could have been sequestered in

  20. The association of body composition parameters with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.

  1. Sarcopenia and body composition in diabetic Charcot osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA) requires restricted walking and offloading for several months, which lead to fat re-distribution and increased sarcopenia. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To investigate whether subjects with COA have an altered body composition compared to controls. METHODS....../total body fat distribution ratios. RESULTS: Sarcopenia frequency was higher in the total population with diabetes overall (9-40%), compared to normal materials. Using two different models for correlating appendicular lean mass to sarcopenia, there were no differences in sarcopenia-rates between the groups...

  2. A model for estimating body shape biological age based on clinical parameters associated with body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae CY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chul-Young Bae,1 Young Gon Kang,2 Young-Sung Suh,3 Jee Hye Han,4 Sung-Soo Kim,5 Kyung Won Shim61MediAge Research Center, Seoul, Korea; 2Chaum Power Aging Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seoul, Korea; 3Health Promotion Center, Keimyung University Dongsam Medical Center, Daegu, Korea; 4Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea; 6Department of Family Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, KoreaBackground: To date, no studies have attempted to estimate body shape biological age using clinical parameters associated with body composition for the purposes of examining a person's body shape based on their age.Objective: We examined the relations between clinical parameters associated with body composition and chronological age, and proposed a model for estimating the body shape biological age.Methods: The study was conducted in 243,778 subjects aged between 20 and 90 years who received a general medical checkup at health promotion centers at university and community hospitals in Korea from 2004 to 2011.Results: In men, the clinical parameters with the highest correlation to age included the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.786, P < 0.001, hip circumference (r = −0.448, P < 0.001, and height (r = −0.377, P < 0.001. In women, the clinical parameters with the highest correlation to age include the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.859, P < 0.001, waist circumference (r = 0.580, P < 0.001, and hip circumference (r = 0.520, P < 0.001. To estimate the optimal body shape biological age based on clinical parameters associated with body composition, we performed a multiple regression analysis. In a model estimating the body shape biological age, the coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.71 in men and 0.76 in women.Conclusion: Our model for estimating body shape biological age

  3. Workstation Related Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Indian Women of Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e.g. the obesity epidemic, and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. Aim and Objectives: This study analyzed the variation in anthropometric dimensions and body composition parameters of working women employees of different geographical zones. Material and Methods: The study was undertaken on nine hundred forty (940 women employees of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO working in seventeen different laboratories and belonged to different states of India. The age range of studied women was between 20-60 years. Fourteen body dimensions namely stature, popliteal height, knee height, buttock to popliteal length, hip breadth, waist breadth, shoulder breadth, forearm length, arm length, eye height (sitting, sitting shoulder height, hand length, hand breadth and elbow width were measured in cm using Martin anthropometers and Martin's sliding caliper. Body composition parameters like weight, percentage body fat, fat mass and fat free mass were recorded. Results: All anthropometric parameters were found significantly different (p<0.001. Body composition variables of women were also found significantly different in all three zones but fat free mass was not significantly different. Conclusion:It can be concluded that diet, environmental conditions and living style of different regions can influence the anthropometry and body composition of the individuals, however the influence of ethnic, genetic and hereditary factor are not controlled in this study.

  4. Composition of quantum states and dynamical subadditivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roga, Wojciech [Instytut Fizyki im. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, PL-30-059 Cracow (Poland); Fannes, Mark [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Zyczkowski, Karol [Instytut Fizyki im. Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, PL-30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2008-01-25

    We introduce a composition of quantum states of a bipartite system which is based on the reshuffling of density matrices. This non-Abelian product is associative and stems from the composition of quantum maps acting on a simple quantum system. It induces a semi-group in the subset of states with maximally mixed partial traces. Subadditivity of the von Neumann entropy with respect to this product is proved. It is equivalent to subadditivity of the entropy of bistochastic maps with respect to their composition, where the entropy of a map is the entropy of the corresponding state under the Jamiolkowski isomorphism. Strong dynamical subadditivity of a concatenation of three bistochastic maps is established. Analogous bounds for the entropy of a composition are derived for general stochastic maps. In the classical case they lead to new bounds for the entropy of a product of two stochastic matrices.

  5. Connection Between Body Composition and Milk Production of Lacaune Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Ms. Kupai

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Five, non-related, female and male progeny groups of rams were qualified in their body composition and milk production characteristics. Body composition characteristics (fat tissue, muscle tissue and water dense substances were examined on 38 rams-to-be in 38-48 live weight with CT. Milk production data were collected from the half-sisters (n=106. According to our judgement the influence of rams can be proven statistically in both production characteristics. As we have found close (in order: r = -0,786 and r = 0,721; P<0,05 connection between daily milk production and the areas of muscle tissue and water dense substances of the carcass measured by CT, we suggest taking the correlation between them into consideration in the selection of milk production. To get a precise prediction equation, further examinations are needed.

  6. Composition and function of P bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.

  7. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  8. Cost and weight effective composite design of automotive body structures

    OpenAIRE

    Mårtensson, Per

    2014-01-01

    The automotive industry stands in front of a great challenge, to decrease its impact on the environment. One important part in succeeding with this is to decrease the structural weight of the body structure and by that the fuel consumption or the required battery power. Carbon fibre composites are by many seen as the only real option when traditional engineering materials are running out of potential for further weight reduction. However, the automotive industry lacks experience working with ...

  9. Body composition : methods of measurement, normative values and clinical use

    OpenAIRE

    Genton Graf, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of body composition is an important part of nutritional assessment. The low FFM associated with malnutrition has been associated with numerous infectious and noninfectious complications, increasing length of stay, morbidity and mortality. DXA and TBK are reference method for determination of FFM and BCM, but, as these methods are expensive and require extensive technique of the operator, we have focused especially on BIA, an easy, quick, safe and reliable bedside method to measure...

  10. Noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions influence body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afa K Palu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Unites States has reached unprecedented levels, and so has the need for effective exercise and nutritional programs for prevention of unhealthy weight gain or safe weight loss. Aims: The present study was conducted in overweight men and women to assess the impact of noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions on body composition. Materials and Methods: Twenty two participants (16 women and 6 men, ages 18-65, were enrolled in a 12-week, open-label trial of a weight-loss program involving noni-based dietary supplements, gender-specific daily calorie restriction, and exercise interventions. Weight, percent body fat, and body mass index were measured before and after the trial. Results: All participants experienced weight loss. The average decrease in fat mass was highly significant (P < 0.0001, as were decreases in percent body fat and body mass index. Individual weight and fat mass losses were 17.55 ± 9.73 and 21.78 ± 8.34 lbs., respectively, and individual percent body fat and body mass index decreases were 8.91 ± 3.58 % and 2.6 ± 1.32, respectively. Conclusion: The nutritional and exercise interventions significantly influenced body composition among participants.

  11. Effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rong; Lin Shou-qing; Lin Xia; Chen Yan; Yang Qiu-hong; Zhou Yong; Zhang Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women.Methods:We measured body composition with dual-energy X-ray (GE Lunar Prodigy) in 316 healthy Beijing females aged 20 to 74 years (5-7 women per age).Parameters provided by the software were as following:total body bone mineral content (BMC),lean mass (LM),fat mass and fat mass percentage (FM%).Local regions measured included arm,leg,trunk,android region and gynoid region.Body mass index (BMI),fat mass index (FMI),free fat mass index (FFMI) and A/G were calculated.Volunteers were assigned to 6 groups according to age by every ten years a group.Results..BMC peaked during the 4th decade,LM peaked during the 5th decade,with a decline of 18.1% and 5.2% respectively at age 74 years.Total body fat mass and FM% showed a general increase with aging throughout the studied age range.Total body fat mass increased from (16±5) kg at age 20-29 years to (24±6)kg at age 70-74years,while FM% increased from 31.3% to 39.5%.All local region FM% increased with aging at different extents.Android region FM% showed the largest raise extent (32.2%).BMI increased gradually from 21.1 kg/m2 at age 20-29 years to 26.1 kg/m2 at age 70-74 years.FMI changed more obviously than FFMI.A/G increased from 0.85 at age 20-29 years to 1.02 at age 70-74 years.Different menstrual status in women of 40-59 years had obvious effect on A/G and BMC (P<0.05),while it had no significant effect on BMI,body weight and waist circumference (P>0.05).Conclusion:Aging has a great effect on body composition distribution in healthy Beijing women.

  12. Body composition and nutritional profile of male adolescent tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwiak, Claudia R; Amancio, Olga M S; Vitalle, Maria S S; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Szejnfeld, Vera L

    2008-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the body composition and dietary intake of 44 adolescent tennis players. After being divided into two groups (age 10-13 years and age 14-18), the players had their weight, height, and sexual maturation assessed. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Food intake was obtained from a non-consecutive 4-day food record. The data were analysed using the Virtual Nutri v.1.0 software and compared with the present recommendations for adolescent athletes or dietary reference intakes. Body mass index and body fat for tennis practice were adequate for 89% and 71% of the tennis players respectively, regardless of age group. A calorie deficit greater than 10% of energy expenditure was observed in 32% of the sample. Fifty percent of the athletes consumed carbohydrates in accordance with recommended values. Protein and lipid intakes were above recommended values, while fibre, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and folic acid intakes were below recommendation for 98%, 80%, 100%, 100%, and 98% of the tennis players respectively. The observed nutritional deficiencies represent an additional barrier for adolescents engaged in competitive sports to achieve an optimum nutrition to maintain growth, health, and performance.

  13. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%)

  14. A prospective Swedish study on body size, body composition, diabetes, and prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, P; Bjartell, A; Gullberg, B.; Olsson, H; Wirfält, E

    2009-01-01

    Obesity may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa). According to one hypothesis, obesity could lower the risk of non-aggressive tumours, while simultaneously increasing the risk of aggressive cancer. Furthermore, central adiposity may be independently associated with PCa risk; it is also associated with diabetes, which itself may influence risk of PCa. We studied the associations between height, body composition, and fat distribution, diabetes prevalence and risk of total,...

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Helena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years, whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720 and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min. The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  16. Body composition and physiological characteristics of law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, D L; Jones, G; Hawkins, J; Dudka, L

    1987-12-01

    The physical work capacity, body composition, and physiological characteristics of 12 law enforcement officers (9 males, 3 females) were measured. Subjects included a representative sample from the occupational categories of detective, staff, investigative and patrol officer. Mean maximal oxygen uptake of the men was 42.1 +/- 8.9 ml.kg-1min-1 with mean values of 41.5 +/- 8.7 ml.kg-1min-1 for the women. Measurement of body composition indicated an average of 24.4 +/- 7.1% body fat for the men and 30.9 +/- 1.2% for the women. Muscular power, strength, and endurance as measured by isolated limb flexion-extension movement and fitness test performance was considered average with no excessive bilateral differences. The results of this study were compared with other investigations of law enforcement officers of similar age groups. The officers displayed average or above health and physical fitness scores for their age classification and were able to complete all police task-oriented tests.

  17. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    was the fU-OHpr/creat ratio, which increased from 12.0 to 20.1 in the OLS group but only from 10.9 to 1 3.2 in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: One year's treatment with OLS induces a lipid malabsorption which enhances a dietary weight loss without any significant deleterious effects on body composition. OLS......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the pancreas lipase inhibitor orlistat (OLS) on calcium metabolism, bone turnover, bone mass, bone density and body composition when given for obesity as adjuvant to an energy- and fat-restricted diet. DESIGN: Randomized controlled double-blinded trial...... of treatment with OLS 120 mg three times daily or placebo for 1 y. SUBJECTS: Thirty obese subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.9+/-3.7 kg/m(2) and a mean age of 41+/-11 y. Sixteen patients were assigned to OLS and 14 to placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...

  18. Comparison of two software versions for assessment of body-composition analysis by DXA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, B; Wang, J; Weyer, C;

    2001-01-01

    To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA.......To compare two software versions provided by Lunar CO: for assessment of body composition analysis by DXA....

  19. Effects of betaine on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the effects of long term betaine supplementation on body composition, performance, and homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) in experienced strength trained men. Methods Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 ± 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 ± 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = 11; 2.5 g/day), and completed a 6 week periodized training program consisting of 3 two-week micro-cycles. Bench press and back squat training volumes were recorded and changes in training volume were assessed at each micro-cycle. Fasting urine was collected at baseline (BL), weeks 2, 4 and 6, and assayed for HCTL. Subjects were tested prior to and following 6 weeks of treatment. Arm and thigh cross sectional area (CSA) was estimated via girth and skin fold measurements. Body density was estimated via skin fold calipers and used to estimate BF%, fat mass (FM), and lean body mass (LBM). Performance was assessed via vertical jump (VJ), bench press 1 RM (BP), and back squat 1 RM (BS). Results Arm CSA increased significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences existed between group and time for changes in thigh CSA. Back squat training volume increased significantly (p < .05) for both groups throughout training. Bench press training volume was significantly (p < .05) improved for BET compared to PL at microcycles one and three. Body composition (BF%, FM, LBM) improved significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. No differences were found in performance variables (BP, BS, VJ) between groups, except there was a trend (p = .07) for increased VJ power in BET versus PL. A significant interaction (p < .05) existed for HCTL, with increases from BL to week 2 in PL, but not BET. Additionally, HCTL remained elevated at week 4 in PL, but not BET. Conclusion Six-weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size, bench press

  20. Body Composition (Sarcopenia) in Obese Patients: Implications for Care in the Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Dympna; DeLegge, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The study of body composition is a rapidly evolving science. In today’s environment, there is a great deal of interest in assessing body composition, especially in the obese subject, as a guide to clinical and nutrition interventions. There are some strikingly different compartments of body composition between the obese and the lean patient. We do have the ability to measure body composition accurately, although these techniques can be labor intensive and expensive. The recognition of patient...

  1. Anthropometric and body composition changes during expeditions at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccagni, Luciana; Barbieri, Davide; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate separately in the two sexes the physical adaptations associated to exposure to high altitude in a sample of 18 nonacclimatized Caucasian subjects (10 males and 8 females, 22-59 years) who participated to scientific expeditions to Himalaya up to the Pyramid Laboratory (5050 m, Nepal) or Everest North Base Camp (5300 m, Tibet). Anthropometric traits (body height and weight, eight girths and six skinfolds) were collected according to standard procedures, before departure at sea level, during ascent (at altitude > 4000 m above sea level), and after return to low altitude. Body composition was assessed by means of the skinfold method. Both sexes lost on average 4.0% of initial body mass, corresponding to 7.6% of fat mass and 3.5% of fat free mass in males, and to 5.0% of fat mass and 3.6% of fat free mass in females. Average fat mass loss was greater in males than in females. Initial fat mass percentage was positively correlated to fat mass loss and negatively to FFM loss in males only, thus at HA leanest subjects lost more FFM and less FM than the fattest ones. Adaptations were faster in males than in females. In conclusion, the present research describes significant adaptations to high altitude, in terms of body weight reduction, regardless of the amount of performed physical activity. PMID:24665979

  2. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  3. Obesity, body composition and metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Nilas, Lisbeth; Nørgaard, Kirsten;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity on glucose and lipid metabolism and beta-cell function in women with PCOS. METHODS: In 35 women with PCOS (17 lean, lean PCOS and 18 obese, obese PCOS) and 25 control women (9 lean, lean controls and 16 obese...... was used for the assessment of glucose and lipid oxidation. Body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry scan. RESULTS: When adjusted for obesity, PCOS was associated with higher 2-h glucose levels (P ...-stimulated glucose oxidation (GOX 2) (P PCOS had lower ISI (P PCOS, ISI...

  4. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  5. A feasibility study of altered spatial distribution of losses induced by eddy currents in body composition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sepponen Raimo E; Blomqvist Kim H

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Tomographic imaging has revealed that the body mass index does not give a reliable state of overall fitness. However, high measurement costs make the tomographic imaging unsuitable for large scale studies or repeated individual use. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a new electromagnetic method and its feasibility for assessing body composition. The method is called body electrical loss analysis (BELA). Methods The BELA method uses a high-Q parallel reson...

  6. Coboson many-body approach to the $N$-exciton ground-state energy

    OpenAIRE

    Shiau, Shiue-yuan; Chang, Yia-Chung; Combescot, Monique

    2015-01-01

    We derive the ground-state energy of $N$ composite bosons made of fermion pairs using the recently developed composite boson many-body formalism. We concentrate on the $N$-pair energy linear in density. We show that the scattering relevant for scattering length contains not only direct and exchange interaction scatterings but also the dimensionless "Pauli scattering" for fermion exchange in the absence of fermion-fermion interaction. Numerical resolution of the resulting "ladder" integral equ...

  7. Body composition and diet of Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the studies on body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore, and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups.Body composition : Body fat percentage was measured using a four-compartment model described by Baumgartner. When the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage was studied, it was discovered that Singaporeans have higher percentage of body fat compared to Caucasians wi...

  8. Evaluation of body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue, and serum omentin-1 levels in overt hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Ethem Turgay; Akturk, Mujde; Altinova, Alev E; Tavil, Yusuf; Ozkan, Cigdem; Yayla, Cagri; Altay, Mustafa; Demirtas, Canan; Cakir, Nuri

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate body composition changes, epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT), serum omentin-1 levels, and the relationship among them along with some atherosclerosis markers in overt hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight newly diagnosed overt hypothyroid patients were evaluated before and after 6 months of thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) and compared to the healthy subjects in this prospective longitudinal study. Body compositions were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and EATT was measured by echocardiography. Carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT), flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), thyroid hormone levels, lipid parameters, high sensitive c-reactive protein, homocysteine, and omentin-1 levels were measured in all subjects. Body weight and lean body mass were higher in patients with hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state after THRT (p = 0.012, 0.034, respectively). EATT was higher in patients with hypothyroidism than the control group (p hypothyroid state, omentin-1 levels were lower than controls (p = 0.037) but increased in 6 months with THRT (p = 0.001). The c-IMT was higher, and FMD was lower in hypothyroidism compared to euthyroid state and control group (p hypothyroidism. The increased amount of EATT and decreased omentin-1 levels can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in addition to other factors in hypothyroidism.

  9. Nutritional assessment by isotope dilution analysis of body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three components of body mass, body cell mass (BCM), extracellular fluid (ECF), and fat + extracellular solids (ECS: bone, tendon, etc) can be quantified using established isotope dilution techniques. With these techniques, total body water (TBW) and ECF are measured using 3H2O and 82Bromine, respectively, as tracers. BCM is calculated from intracellular fluid (ICF) where ICF . TBW - ECF. Fat + ECS is estimated as: body weight - (BCM + ECF). TBW and ECF can be determined by either of two calculation methods, one requiring several timed plasma samples (extrapolation method) and one requiring a single plasma sample and a 4-h urine collection (urine-corrected method). The comparability of the two calculation methods was evaluated in 20 studies in 12 bone marrow transplant recipients. We found that for determination of TBW and ECF there was a very strong linear relationship (r2 greater than 0.98) between the calculation methods. Further comparisons (by t test, 2-sided) indicated that for the determination of ECF, the methods were not significantly (p greater than 0.90) different; however, TBW determined by the urine-corrected method was slightly (0.1 to 6%), but significantly (p less than 0.01) greater than that determined by the extrapolation method. Therefore, relative to the extrapolation method, the urine-corrected method ''over-estimates'' BCM and ''under-estimates'' fat + ECS since determination of these compartment sizes depends on measurement of TBW. We currently use serial isotope dilution studies to monitor the body composition changes of patients receiving therapeutic nutritional support

  10. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  11. Body composition and somatotype of the elite of Polish fencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in epée (n = 10), foil (n = 10) and sabre (n = 10). They were aged 23.3 +/- 2.9; their length of training was 12.6 +/- 2.5 years, with the frequency of training 15.9 +/- 3.1 hours per week. In each weapon style there were champions and vice-champions of Poland from the year 2004. Twelve of them were classified among the first fifty contestants according to the D'Escrime International Federation (FIE) ranking. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate somatotypes by means of Heath-Carter method and to estimate the percentage of body fat and composition. Sabre fencers (weight = 84.4 kg, somatotype = 3.4-5.4-1.8) were heavier than both epée fencers (77.9 kg, 3.6-4.9-2.5) and foil fencers (74.9 kg, 2.9-4.2-2.8). Sabre specialists had higher mesomorphy than foil fencers (ANOVA and Bonferroni's multi comparison test). Sabre fencers were characterized by higher fat free mass and a higher BMI and fat free mass index than fencers of the other two weapons. Discriminant analysis result was significant (p < 0.01) with a relative percentage with a 72.4 and a canonical correlation coefficient 0.692, and Wilks' lambda = 0.385. Amongst the 30 observations used to fit the model, 22 (73.3%) were correctly classified. Against the background of non-training men, fencers were distinguished by a higher body weight (79.0 vs. 72.1 kg, t = 3.97, p < 0.001) and a higher height-weight ratio (43.21 vs. 42.46, t = 2.24, p < 0.05). Fencers' somatotypes differed from the somatotypes of the untrained (3.3-4.8-2.3 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were characterized by their higher mesomorphy (t = 2.10, p < 0

  12. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  13. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  14. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Correia de Faria Santarém

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity.To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD during the six-minute walk test (6MWT according to gender and obesity grade.University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice.Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (% by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients.The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002 than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m. The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014 than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m. There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM, FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL, trunk (FFM_TR and lower limbs (FFM_LL. Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL.Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.

  15. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation. PMID:24936888

  16. Relationship between body composition and blood pressure in Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sendi, Aneesa M; Shetty, Prakash; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Myatt, Mark

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure (BP) in Bahraini adolescents. A sample of 504 Bahraini schoolchildren aged 12-17 years (249 boys and 255 girls) was selected using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure. BP measurements were performed on the students. Anthropometric data including weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and triceps, subscapular and medial calf skinfold thicknesses were also collected. BMI, percentage body fat, waist:hip (WHR), and subscapular:triceps skinfold ratio were calculated. Mean systolic BP and mean diastolic BP were higher in males than in females. Weight and height in boys and weight only in girls were significantly associated with systolic BP independent of age or percentage fat. Nearly 14 % of the adolescents were classified as having high BP. BMI and percentage body fat were significantly and positively associated with the risk of having high BP in the boys and girls. Adolescents with high WHR or WC, as indicators for central obesity, tended to have higher BP values. The results from the present study indicate that obesity influences the BP of Bahraini adolescents and that simple anthropometric measurements such as WHR and WC are useful in identifying children at risk of developing high BP. These findings together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood underline the importance of establishing intervention programmes in order to prevent the development of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  17. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  18. Body composition and pulmonary function in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eSheikh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower body mass index (BMI is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF. Hypothesis: Lean body mass (LBM is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is.Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z were generated for CF and controls. 1 Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and 2 age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: 208 PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (pConclusions: In PI-CF youth, deficits in LBM were apparent. At lower BMI percentiles, BMI may not accurately depict LBM in PI-CF. In under-nourished PI-CF youth this preservation of FM in preference to LBM is relevant since LBMI-Z, but not FMI-Z, is positively associated with FEV1%-predicted. LBMI is more strongly associated with lung function compared to BMI, especially in the undernourished child and adolescent with PI-CF.

  19. A STUDY ON BODY COMPOSITION, BODY COMPONENTS AND SOMATOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep KÜRKÇÜ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study to determine and comparison the body composition, body components and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players (Young Soccer Team of Sport Club of Muğla University with other national and international soccer players. Subjects were eighteen pubescent soccer players (age, 13.22y of a team playing in regional soccer league. Skinfolds (biceps, triceps, back, suprailiac, abdominal, leg, thigh, diameters (femur and humerus biconduler, circumferences (biceps, thigh of the body and body fat parameters were measured. Somatotype characteristics were calculated and evaluated by Heat-Carter formula. Subjects’ measurements were as; height 158.44±10.42cm, body weight 47.65±8.38kg, skinfolds; biceps 5.75±1.54mm, triceps 10.61±2.93mm, back 7.30±1.59mm, suprailiac 7.00±2.04mm, abdominal 9.91±3.98mm, leg 13.52±4.76mm; diameters; femur biconduler 11.03±0.74cm; humerus biconduler 7.30±0.59cm; circumferences, biceps 22.76±3.11cm, thigh 32.84±3.33cm and body fat percentage 5.41±1.37 %, somatotype characteristics; Endomorph; 4.59±2.08, Mezomorph; 6.94±3.10, and Ecthomorph; 3.55±1.34. In related sports, physical fitness parameters including physical and anthropometric characteristics of athletes are very important in talent identification. Therefore, results of the present study could provide important data on selection of talented players in soccer and to the other related researches.

  20. The Impact of Strenuous Group Physical Activity on Mood States, Personal Views, Body Composition, and Markers of Myocardial Damage in Overweight/Obese Adults: The “Step-by-Step Italy’s Coast to Coast” Trek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mazzeschi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is clinically relevant to understand whether it is safe to recommend to trained overweight/obese people long-distance treks and whether these experiences could have a negative psychological impact or become even dangerous exposing the trekkers to the risk of clinically silent myocardial damage. To answer these questions we have performed a quantitative/qualitative study comparing the changes in mood profiles, personal views, body composition, and plasma troponin levels of 40 overweight/obese subjects with those of 36 healthy normal weight subjects after the participation in a trek of 388 km from the Adriatic to the Tyrrhenian seas trek: the “Step by step…Italy’s coast to coast”. The results of this study demonstrate that long-distance treks are a safe activity for trained overweight/obese people which should be recommended because they improve mood, health status, and the relationship of participants with themselves and with the regular practice of exercise with effects similar to those obtained by healthy normal weight subjects.

  1. Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Saba; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Kelly, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lower body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypothesis: lean body mass (LBM) is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is. Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF) youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z) were generated for CF and controls. (1) Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and (2) age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: Two hundred eight PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (p < 0.0001) in PI-CF. In females, LBMI-Z and BMI-Z were positively associated with FEV1%-predicted; this relationship did not persist for FMI-Z after adjustment for LBMI-Z. In males, only LBMI-Z and BMI-Z were associated with FEV1%-predicted. Conclusion: In PI-CF youth, deficits in LBM were apparent. At lower BMI percentiles, BMI may not accurately depict LBM in PI-CF. In under-nourished PI-CF youth, this preservation of FM in preference to LBM is relevant since LBMI-Z, but not FMI-Z, is positively associated with FEV1%-predicted. Lean body mass index is more strongly associated with lung function compared to BMI, especially in the under-nourished child and adolescent with PI-CF. PMID:24783186

  2. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Sheean, Patricia M.; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971–2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography (CAT)...

  3. Inclusion bodies, bacterial cells and compositions containing them and uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Veciana Miró, Jaume; Ratera Bastardas, Inmaculada; Díez Gil, César; Villaverde Corrales, Antonio Pedro; Vázquez Gómez, Esther; García Fruitós, Elena

    2008-01-01

    [EN] The present invention relates to an isolated inclusion body comprising a polypeptide, characterised in that such inclusion body is in particulate formo The present invention also refers to a bacterial cell comprising said inclusion body. The present invention additionally refers to a composition comprising said inclusion body and a eukaryotic cell. The present invention moreover refers to a composition comprising said inclusion body and animal or plant tissue. The present invent...

  4. Gamma-ray backscatter for body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, H M; Shakeshaft, J T; Lillicrap, S C

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using backscatter information to assess regional body composition at selected sites. Two measurement techniques are examined: the measurement of the ratio of coherent to Compton scatter, and the measurement of the Compton scatter profile. Two possible applications are considered: the measurement of trabecular bone mineral density, and the measurement of the average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume. The results presented indicate that the analysis of coherent and Compton backscattered gamma-ray spectra from an 241Am source has the potential for measuring both trabecular bone mineral density and average fat/muscle ratio in a tissue volume, with a low absorbed dose to the subject. PMID:9569541

  5. Processing emotional body expressions: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, Violeta; Iancu, Sorina

    2016-10-01

    Processing emotional body expressions has become recently an important topic in affective and social neuroscience along with the investigation of facial expressions. The objective of the study is to review the literature on emotional body expressions in order to discuss the current state of knowledge on this topic and identify directions for future research. The following electronic databases were searched: PsychINFO, Ebsco, ERIC, ProQuest, Sagepub, and SCOPUS using terms such as "body," "bodily expression," "body perception," "emotions," "posture," "body recognition" and combinations of them. The synthesis revealed several research questions that were addressed in neuroimaging, electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Among them, one important question targeted the neural mechanisms of emotional processing of body expressions to specific subsections regarding the time course for the integration of emotional signals from face and body, as well as the role of context in the perception of emotional signals. Processing bodily expression of emotion is similar to processing facial expressions, and the holistic processing is extended to the whole person. The current state-of-the-art in processing emotional body expressions may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of social behavior. At the end of the review, suggestions for future research directions are presented. PMID:26513592

  6. Processing emotional body expressions: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enea, Violeta; Iancu, Sorina

    2016-10-01

    Processing emotional body expressions has become recently an important topic in affective and social neuroscience along with the investigation of facial expressions. The objective of the study is to review the literature on emotional body expressions in order to discuss the current state of knowledge on this topic and identify directions for future research. The following electronic databases were searched: PsychINFO, Ebsco, ERIC, ProQuest, Sagepub, and SCOPUS using terms such as "body," "bodily expression," "body perception," "emotions," "posture," "body recognition" and combinations of them. The synthesis revealed several research questions that were addressed in neuroimaging, electrophysiological and behavioral studies. Among them, one important question targeted the neural mechanisms of emotional processing of body expressions to specific subsections regarding the time course for the integration of emotional signals from face and body, as well as the role of context in the perception of emotional signals. Processing bodily expression of emotion is similar to processing facial expressions, and the holistic processing is extended to the whole person. The current state-of-the-art in processing emotional body expressions may lead to a better understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of social behavior. At the end of the review, suggestions for future research directions are presented.

  7. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  8. Differential effects of two fermentable carbohydrates on central appetite regulation and body composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Arora

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is rising at an alarming rate globally. Different fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to reduce obesity. The aim of the present study was to investigate if two different fermentable carbohydrates (inulin and β-glucan exert similar effects on body composition and central appetite regulation in high fat fed mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty six C57BL/6 male mice were randomized and maintained for 8 weeks on a high fat diet containing 0% (w/w fermentable carbohydrate, 10% (w/w inulin or 10% (w/w β-glucan individually. Fecal and cecal microbial changes were measured using fluorescent in situ hybridization, fecal metabolic profiling was obtained by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1H NMR, colonic short chain fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography, body composition and hypothalamic neuronal activation were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI, respectively, PYY (peptide YY concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, adipocyte cell size and number were also measured. Both inulin and β-glucan fed groups revealed significantly lower cumulative body weight gain compared with high fat controls. Energy intake was significantly lower in β-glucan than inulin fed mice, with the latter having the greatest effect on total adipose tissue content. Both groups also showed an increase in the numbers of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus-Enterococcus in cecal contents as well as feces. β-Glucan appeared to have marked effects on suppressing MEMRI associated neuronal signals in the arcuate nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, periventricular nucleus and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius, suggesting a satiated state. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although both fermentable carbohydrates are protective against increased body weight gain, the lower body fat content induced by inulin may be metabolically advantageous. β-Glucan appears to suppress

  9. Body composition and diet of Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the studies on body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore, and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups.Body composition : Body fat percentage was measured using a four-compartment model described by B

  10. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  11. Análisis del estado nutricional y composición corporal de una población de escolares de Granada Analysis of the nutritional state and body composition of school children in Granada (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. González Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar el estado nutricional de la población de escolares estudiada. En segundo lugar, analizar el patrón de distribución de la grasa subcutánea entre dicha población. La muestra estaba constituida por 977 escolares de Granada capital y provincia (524 chicas y 452 chicos, todos ellos con edades comprendidas entre los 9 y los 17 años. Para el estudio del estado nutricional y distribución del componente graso subcutáneo se realizó una evaluación antropométrica completa incluyendo una valoración del peso, estatura, índice de masa corporal, pliegues cutáneos y perímetros corporales. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la existencia de una prevalencia de sobrepeso del 23,01% en chicas frente a un 20,81% en chicos. Asimismo, se encontró una prevalencia de obesidad del 12,70% entre las chicas frente a un 4,98% en chicos. El análisis del patrón de distribución de la grasa subcutánea evidenció una distribución del componente graso de predominio eminentemente central. La existencia de una prevalencia importante de sobrepeso y obesidad unida al desarrollo de un patrón de distribución graso de predominio central, ponen de manifiesto el potencial riesgo cardiovascular al que se encuentran expuestos dichos alumnos.The objective of this study was to first determine the nutritional state of a sample population of school children, and then analyze the distribution pattern of their subcutaneous fat layer. The sample was composed of 977 school children from the city and province of Granada (Spain. All of the children (524 girls and 452 boys were 9-17 years of age. To study their nutritional state and the distribution of the subcutaneous fat layer, they were given a complete anthropometric evaluation, which included measuring their weight, height, body mass index, skin folds, and body perimeters. The results obtained showed a 23.01% prevalence of overweight in the female subjects and 20.81% in the male

  12. Bone mineral density and body composition of collegiate modern dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Karlie J; Rozenek, Ralph; Clippinger, Karen; Gunter, Kathy; Russo, Albert C; Sklar, Susan E

    2011-03-01

    This study investigates body composition (BC), bone mineral density (BMD), eating behaviors, and menstrual dysfunction in collegiate modern dancers. Thirty-one female collegiate modern dance majors (D), 18 to 25 years of age, and 30 age-matched controls (C) participated in the study. BC and BMD were measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Upper and lower body strength was assessed by chest and leg press one-repetition maximum tests. Participants completed three-day food records, and the diet was analyzed using nutritional software. Menstrual dysfunction (MD) and history of eating disorder (ED) data were collected via questionnaires. BC and BMD variables were analyzed using MANCOVA and frequency of ED and MD by Chi-Square analysis. BMD was greater in D than C at the spine (1.302 ± 0.135 g/cm(2) vs. 1.245 ± 0.098 g/cm(2)), and both the right hip (1.163 ± 0.111 g/cm(2) vs. 1.099 ± 0.106 g/cm(2)) and left hip (1.160 ± 0.114 g/cm(2) vs. 1.101 ± 0.104 g/cm(2); p ≤ 0.05). Total body fat percentage was lower in D than C (25.9 ± 4.2% vs. 32.0 ± 5.9%; p ≤ 0.05), and percent of fat distributed in the android region was also lower in D than C (28.0 ± 6.2% vs. 37.6 ± 8.6%; p ≤ 0.05). With regard to diet composition, only percent fat intake was lower in D than C (27.54 ± 6.8% vs. 31.5 ± 7.4%, p ≤ 0.05). A greater incidence of ED was reported by D than C (12.9% vs. 0%; p ≤ 0.05), as well as a greater incidence of secondary amenorrhea (41.9% vs 13.3%; p ≤ 0.05). No differences were found for incidence of primary amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, or use of birth control. Strength values were higher in D than C for both chest press (30.1 ± 0.9 kg vs. 28.4 ± 1.0 kg; p ≤ 0.05) and leg press (170.7 ± 4.2 kg vs.163.1 ± 3.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05). It is concluded that the dancers in our study had a healthy body weight, yet reported a higher incidence of eating disorders and menstrual dysfunction, than non-dancers. These dancers' higher BMD may be

  13. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  14. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  15. Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Youth Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of fast-food restaurant advertising on television on the body composition of adolescents as measured by percentage body fat (PBF) and to assess the sensitivity of these effects to using conventional measures of youth obesity based on body-mass index (BMI). We merge measures of body composition from bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with individual level data from th...

  16. Relationship between muscle strength and anthropometric, body composition parameters in Japanese adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Tomohiro Hirao; Noriko Sakano; Izumi Tabata; Motohiko Miyachi; Nobuyuki Miyatake; Takeyuki Numata

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the link between muscle strength and anthropometric, body composition parameters in Japanese adolescents. Forty eight men and 189 women, aged 15 - 19 years, were enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation study. Anthropometric and body composition parameters i.e. height, body weight, abdominal circumference, hip circumference and body fat percentage were measured. Muscle strength i.e. grip strength and leg strength were also evaluated. In men, grip strength was positively ...

  17. Effects of Smoking Cessation on Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Mark D.; Kenny, Anne M.; Oncken, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking cessation is associated with weight gain, but the effects of smoking cessation on measures of body composition (BC) have not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of 16 months of cigarette abstinence on areas of BC measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods One hundred fifty-two postmenopausal women participated in a smoking cessation study using the nicotine patch. Secondary analyses were conducted on data from 119 subjects (age 56 ± 7 years, range 41–78 years) who had had DXA scans at baseline and 16 months later. Participants were classified either as quitters (self-reported cigarette abstinence confirmed with exhaled carbon monoxide [co] ≤8 ppm at 3 and 16 months after quit date) or as continued smokers. BC was assessed using a General Electric Lunar DXA IQ machine. Four areas of BC (kg) were measured: whole body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, and functional skeletal muscle mass in arms and legs (ASM/ht2). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) assessed changes in BC in quitters vs. continued smokers between baseline and 16 months of follow-up. Increases in BC measures were evaluated as a function of increased calorie intake or change in physical activity, using linear regression. Results Quitters significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001), fat mass (p < 0.001), muscle mass (p = 0.04), and functional muscle mass (p = 0.004) over time, when baseline BC measures and other confounding factors were controlled. Regression analysis indicated change in BC could not be accounted for by calorie intake or physical activity. Conclusions Smoking cessation may be associated with increased fat and muscle mass in postmenopausal women. The novel finding of an increase in functional muscle mass suggests that smoking cessation could increase functional capacity. Further studies need to replicate these findings and examine mechanisms of these effects. PMID

  18. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  19. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  20. Meteoritic Amino Acids: Diversity in Compositions Reflects Parent Body Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, Jamie E; Aponte, José C; Blackmond, Donna G; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Glavin, Daniel P

    2016-06-22

    The analysis of amino acids in meteorites dates back over 50 years; however, it is only in recent years that research has expanded beyond investigations of a narrow set of meteorite groups (exemplified by the Murchison meteorite) into meteorites of other types and classes. These new studies have shown a wide diversity in the abundance and distribution of amino acids across carbonaceous chondrite groups, highlighting the role of parent body processes and composition in the creation, preservation, or alteration of amino acids. Although most chiral amino acids are racemic in meteorites, the enantiomeric distribution of some amino acids, particularly of the nonprotein amino acid isovaline, has also been shown to vary both within certain meteorites and across carbonaceous meteorite groups. Large l-enantiomeric excesses of some extraterrestrial protein amino acids (up to ∼60%) have also been observed in rare cases and point to nonbiological enantiomeric enrichment processes prior to the emergence of life. In this Outlook, we review these recent meteoritic analyses, focusing on variations in abundance, structural distributions, and enantiomeric distributions of amino acids and discussing possible explanations for these observations and the potential for future work. PMID:27413780

  1. Regional body composition in college-aged Caucasians from anthropometric measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidson Robert T

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitating fat and lean tissue in isolated body regions may be helpful or required in obesity and health-outcomes research. However, current methods of regional body composition measurement require specialized, expensive equipment such as that used in computed tomography or dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Simple body size or circumference measurement relationships to body composition have been developed but are limited to whole-body applications. We investigated relationships between body size measurements and regional body composition. Methods Using DEXA technology we determined the fat and lean tissue composition for six regions of the body in predominantly Caucasian, college-aged men (n = 32 and women (n = 67. Circumference measurements as well as body weight and height were taken for each individual. Equations relating body measurements to a respective regional fat and lean mass were developed using multiple regression analysis. Results Multiple regression R2 values ranged from 0.4451 to 0.8953 and 0.1697 to 0.7039 for regional fat and lean mass relationships to body measurements, respectively. Conclusion The equations developed in this study offer a simple way of estimating regional body composition in a college-aged adult population. The parameters used in the equations are common body measurements that can be obtained with the use of a measuring tape and weight scale.

  2. Changes in body composition of cancer patients following combined nutritional support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of combined nutritional support (parenteral, enteral, and oral) were measured in cancer patients unable to maintain normal alimentation.Changes in body composition were quantified by measurement of total body levels of nitrogen, potassium, water, and fat. The protein-calorie intake of the patients was also evaluated by dietary survey (4-day recall). Standard anthropometric and biochemical measurements for nutritional assessment were obtained for comparison. The dietary evaluation indicated that the dietary supplementation for all patients was more than adequate to meet their energy requirements. Determination of body composition indicated that change in body weight was equal to the sum of the changes in body protein, total body water, and total body fat. Information on the nature of the tissue gained was obtained by comparison of body composition data with the ratio of protein:water:lean body mass for normal tissue. The mean gain of protein in the cancer patients was quite small (0.3-0.6 kg). The main change in body weight appeared to be the result of gains in body water and body fat. The total body nitrogen to potassium ratio served to define the extent of tissue anabolism following hyperalimentation. The ratio dropped in the cancer patients following hyperalimentation toward the value of the control subjects on ad libitum diets. Total body nitrogen was determined by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis, total body potassium by whole-body counting

  3. Molecular transport in the language of many-body states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galperin, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Recent advancements in experimental techniques at nanoscale caused a surge in research of transport through molecular junctions. Nonlinearity of current-voltage characteristic at resonance makes this regime particularly important for potential molecular based memory, switchers and logic devices. One of important differences of molecular junctions (compared e.g. to semiconductor QDs) is sensitivity of electronic and vibrational structure of the junction to oxidation/reduction of the molecule. This implies necessity of treating the transport at resonance in the language of molecular states rather than single particle orbitals. The latter are the choice of majority of available ab initio approaches. We consider two possible schemes capable of incorporating isolated molecule (many-body) states as a basis for transport calculations. The schemes utilize Hubbard operators for description of single electron transitions between many-body states and go beyond previously proposed scattering theory and standard quantum master equation approaches.

  4. Perturbative 2-body parent Hamiltonians for projected entangled pair states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct parent Hamiltonians involving only local 2-body interactions for a broad class of projected entangled pair states (PEPS). Making use of perturbation gadget techniques, we define a perturbative Hamiltonian acting on the virtual PEPS space with a finite order low energy effective Hamiltonian that is a gapped, frustration-free parent Hamiltonian for an encoded version of a desired PEPS. For topologically ordered PEPS, the ground space of the low energy effective Hamiltonian is shown to be in the same phase as the desired state to all orders of perturbation theory. An encoded parent Hamiltonian for the double semion string net ground state is explicitly constructed as a concrete example. (paper)

  5. Challenges for models with composite states

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, James M; Moore, Guy D

    2016-01-01

    Composite states of electrically charged and QCD-colored hyperquarks (HQs) in a confining SU(N_HC) hypercolor gauge sector are a plausible extension of the standard model at the TeV scale, and have been widely considered as an explanation for the tentative LHC diphoton excess. Additional new physics is required to avoid a stable charged hyperbaryon in such theories. We classify renormalizable models allowing the decay of this unwanted relic directly into standard model states, showing that they are significantly restricted if the new scalar states needed for UV completion are at the TeV scale. Alternatively, if hyperbaryon number is conserved, the charged relic can decay into a neutral hyperbaryon. Such theories are strongly constrained by direct detection, if the neutral constituent hyperquark carries color or weak isospin, and by LHC searches for leptoquarks if it is a color singlet. We show that the neutral hyperbaryon can have the observed relic abundance if the confinement scale and the hyperquark mass a...

  6. Challenges for models with composite states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, James M.; Huang, Weicong; Moore, Guy D.

    2016-09-01

    Composite states of electrically charged and QCD-colored hyperquarks (HQs) in a confining SU (NHC) hypercolor gauge sector are a plausible extension of the standard model at the TeV scale and have been widely considered as an explanation for the tentative LHC diphoton excess. Additional new physics is required to avoid a stable charged hyperbaryon in such theories. We classify renormalizable models allowing the decay of this unwanted relic directly into standard model states, showing that they are significantly restricted if the new scalar states needed for UV completion are at the TeV scale. Alternatively, if hyperbaryon number is conserved, the charged relic can decay into a neutral hyperbaryon. Such theories are strongly constrained by direct detection, if the neutral constituent hyperquark carries color or weak isospin, and by LHC searches for leptoquarks if it is a color singlet. We show that the neutral hyperbaryon can have the observed relic abundance if the confinement scale and the hyperquark mass are above TeV scale, even in the absence of any hyperbaryon asymmetry.

  7. Anthropometry and body composition in soccer and volleyball players in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2007-06-01

    50 sedentary males and 128 sports persons (volleyball=82, soccer=46) of 20-24 years were selected from West Bengal, India, to evaluate and compare their anthropometry and body composition. Skinfolds, girth measurements, body fat percentage (%fat), and endomorphy were significantly higher among sedentary individuals, but lean body mass (LBM) and mesomorphy were significantly (pSoccer and volleyball players were found to be ectomorphic mesomorph, whereas sedentary subjects were endomorphic mesomorph. The soccer and volleyball players had higher %fat with lower body height and body mass than their overseas counterparts. %fat exhibited a significant correlation with body mass index (BMI) and thus prediction equations for %fat from BMI were computed in each group. The present data will serve as a reference standard for the anthropometry and body composition of Indian soccer and volleyball players and the prediction norms for %fat will help to provide a first-hand impression of body composition in the studied population. PMID:17704629

  8. Relativistic two-body bound states in scalar QFT: variational basis-state approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emami-Razavi, Mohsen [Centre for Research in Earth and Space Science, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Darewych, Jurij W [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    We use the Hamiltonian formalism of quantum field theory and the variational basis-state method to derive relativistic coupled-state wave equations for scalar particles interacting via a massive or massless mediating scalar field (the scalar Yukawa model). A variational trial state comprised of two and four Fock-space states is used to derive coupled wave equations for a relativistic two (and four) body system. Approximate, variational two-body ground-state solutions of the relativistic equations are obtained for various strengths of coupling, for both massive and massless mediating fields. The results show that the inclusion of virtual pairs has a large effect on the two-body binding energy at strong coupling. A comparison of the two-body binding energies with other calculations is presented.

  9. Body composition changes in monkeys during long-term exposure to high acceleration fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Smith, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Adult male pig-tailed monkeys, weighing 10-14 kg, were subjected to continuous centrifuging stress for 7 months in acceleration fields up to 2.5 g. In vivo analytical techniques were used to evaluate parameters of body composition, body-fluid distribution, and hematology. Statistically significant losses in total body mass, lean body mass, total body water, extracellular water content and interstitial water content proportional to the level of high g were demonstrated.

  10. Evaluation of body composition and nitrogen content of renal patients on chronic dialysis as determined by total body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body protein (nitrogen), body cell mass (potassium), fat, and water were measured in 15 renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). Total body nitrogen was measured by means of prompt γ neutron activation analysis; total body water was determined with tritium labeled water; total body potassium was measured by whole body counting. The extracellular water was determined by a technique utilizing the measurement of total body chloride and plasma chloride. When compared with corresponding values of a control group of the same age, sex, and height, the protein content, body cell mass, and total body fat of the MHD patients were within the normal range. The only significant change was an increase in the extracellular water/body cell mass ratio in the male MHD patients compared to the control. The lack of significant difference of the nitrogen values of the MHD patients compared to matched controls suggests that dialysis minimizes any residual effects of uremic toxicity or protein-calorie malnutrition. These findings further suggest that there is a need to reevaluate the traditional anthropometric and biochemical standards of nutritional status for MHD patients. It was concluded that it is particularly important to measure protein stores of MHD patients with low protein intake to ascertain nutritional status. Finally, in vivo measurement of total body nitrogen and potassium for determination of body composition provides a simple, direct, and accurate assessment of the nutritional status of MHD patients

  11. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Background Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. Design A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMIProduct use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day). Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels. PMID:26829186

  12. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  13. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C;

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low-in...

  14. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  15. Body composition changes in females treated for breast cancer: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheean, Patricia M; Hoskins, Kent; Stolley, Melinda

    2012-10-01

    Body composition changes cannot be precisely captured using body weight or body mass index measures. Therefore, the primary purpose of this review was to characterize the patterns of body composition change in females treated for breast cancer including only studies that utilize imaging technologies to quantify adipose tissue and lean body mass (LBM). We reviewed PubMed for studies published between 1971 and 2012 involving females diagnosed with breast cancer where computed axial tomography , dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or magnetic resonance imaging were employed for body composition assessment. Of the initial 440 studies, 106 papers were evaluated and 36 papers met all eligibility criteria (15 observational and 21 intervention trials). Results of these studies revealed that body weight did not consistently increase. Importantly, studies also showed that body weight did not accurately depict changes in lean or adipose tissues. Further findings included that sarcopenic obesity as a consequence of breast cancer treatment was not definitive, as menopausal status may be a substantial moderator of body composition. Overall, the behavioral interventions did not exhibit consistent or profound effects on body composition outcomes; approximately half showed favorable influence on adiposity while the effects on LBM were not apparent. The use of tamoxifen had a clear negative impact on body composition. The majority of studies were conducted in predominantly white survivors, highlighting the need for trials in minority populations. Collectively, these studies were limited by age, race, and/or menopause status matched control groups, overall size, and statistical power. Very few studies simultaneously collected diet and exercise data-two potential factors that impact body composition. Future breast cancer trials should prioritize precise body composition methodologies to elucidate how these changes impact recurrence, prognosis, and mortality, and to provide clinicians

  16. Understanding the dynamics of fractional edge states with composite fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chklovskii, Dmitri B.; Halperin, Bertrand I.

    1996-01-01

    Fractional edge states can be viewed as integer edge states of composite fermions. We exploit this to discuss the conductance of the fractional quantized Hall states and the velocity of edge magnetoplasmons.

  17. Association of body surface area and body composition with heart structural characteristics of female swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    SHEIKHSARAF, BAHAREH; ALLAH, NIKBAKHT HOJAT; ALI, AZARBAYJANI MOHAMMAD

    2010-01-01

    In healthy nonathletic populations, some left ventricle (LV) parameters such as LV mass (LVM) and LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD) can be predicted by some of body size parameters such as body surface area (BSA), fat-free mass (FFM), and height (H). These body size parameters use to remove covariate influence of body size from cardiac dimension variables and allow comparisons to be made between individuals and groups of different body size. Endurance exercise has been associated with change...

  18. Body composition in normal subjects: relation to lipid and glucose variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe sex- and age-dependent values of total and regional body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in normal subjects, and furthermore to relate body composition measurements to blood lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A cross...... subjects. In 87 of the subjects fasting blood glucose, S-insulin and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: The study population was for each sex divided into five decades for which results on body composition and blood lipids are presented. Body weight increased 2 kg per age decade, representing......-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 173 (84 male and 89 female) healthy subjects, BMI Body composition parameters including data on total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lean body soft tissue mass (LTM), total and regional fat mass (FM) were estimated in all...

  19. Volume Control by Using the Body Composition Monitor in a Puerperal Patient on Hemodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Wookyung; Choi, Shung Han; Sung, Jiyoon; Jung, Eul Sik; Shin, Dong Su; Jung, Ji Yong; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Hyun Hee; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Sejoong

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the volume status in hemodialysis patients is important as it can affect mortality. However, no studies have been conducted regarding volume management in cases where a sudden change of body fluid occurs, such as during puerperium in hemodialysis patients. This report presents a case in which the patient was monitored for her body composition and her volume status was controlled using a body composition monitor (BCM) during the puerperal period. This case suggests that...

  20. Relationship between peak oxygen uptake and regional body composition in Japanese subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kanae Oda; Nobuyuki Miyatake; Noriko Sakano; Takeshi Saito; Motohiko Miyachi; Izumi Tabata; Takeyuki Numata

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the link between peak oxygen uptake and regional body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in Japanese subjects. Methods: A total of 93 men (42.2 ± 12.3 years old) and 106 women (43.5 ± 12.3 years old) were enrolled in this cross-sectional investigation study. Peak oxygen uptake was measured by the breath-by-breath method. Regional body composition i.e., body fat mass, lean body mass, and body fat percentage was evaluated using DEXA. In addition, m...

  1. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  2. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess body composition in rural Gambian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Hawkesworth, S.; Wright, A.; Fulford, A.J.C.; Jarjou, L.M.A.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To validate the Tanita BC-418MA Segmental Body Composition Analyser and four-site skinfold measurements for the prediction of total body water (TBW), percentage fat-free mass (% FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in a population of rural Gambian children. Subjects/Methods: One hundred and

  3. Changes in body composition in broilers by a sulfur amino acid deficiency during growth

    OpenAIRE

    Conde Aguilera, Jose Alberto; Cobo Ortega, Carlos; Tesseraud, Sophie; LESSIRE, Michel; Mercier, Yves; Van Milgen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In the factorial approach, amino acid (AA) requirements are determined using the AA composition of retained protein, which is assumed to be constant. However, this hypothesis may not be valid because the AA composition of body protein can be affected by the diet. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes in chemical body composition of broilers receiving diets either deficient (TSAA–) or sufficient (TSAA+) in TSAA. Diet TSAA+ was formulated according to the Ross recommendation. ...

  4. Two-body bound states & the Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichowsky, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kennedy, M. [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States). Physics Dept.; Strickland, M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-01-18

    The Bethe-Salpeter formalism is used to study two-body bound states within a scalar theory: two scalar fields interacting via the exchange of a third massless scalar field. The Schwinger-Dyson equation is derived using functional and diagrammatic techniques, and the Bethe-Salpeter equation is obtained in an analogous way, showing it to be a two-particle generalization of the Schwinger-Dyson equation. The authors also present a numerical method for solving the Bethe-Salpeter equation without three-dimensional reduction. The ground and first excited state masses and wavefunctions are computed within the ladder approximation and space-like form factors are calculated.

  5. Quantum State Engineering with Circuit Electromechanical Three-Body Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Mehdi; Pernpeintner, Matthias; Gross, Rudolf; Huebl, Hans; Hartmann, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a hybrid system with quantum mechanical three-body interactions between photons, phonons, and qubit excitations. These interactions take place in a circuit quantum electrodynamical architecture with a superconducting microwave resonator coupled to a transmon qubit whose shunt capacitance is free to mechanically oscillate. We show that this system design features a three-mode polariton-mechanical mode and a nonlinear transmon-mechanical mode interaction in the strong coupling regime. Together with the strong resonator-transmon interaction, these properties provide intriguing opportunities for manipulations of this hybrid quantum system. We show, in particular, the feasibility of cooling the mechanical motion down to its ground state and preparing various nonclassical states including mechanical Fock and cat states and hybrid tripartite entangled states.

  6. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase.

  7. Early weaning impairs body composition in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta

  8. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  9. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  10. Analysis of the body composition of Paralympic athletes: Comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valdir De Aquino; Alves, Eduardo Da Silva; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Silva, Andressa Da; Winckler, Ciro; Vital, Roberto; De Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Tufik, Sergio; De Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-11-01

    Body composition is a physiological variable associated with physical activity and, in some cases, is related to athletic performance. Our objectives were to describe the body composition of participants in three distinct Paralympic sports and to compare the values of body density and estimated body fat obtained from the Paralympic athletes on the National Team by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and by the anthropometric method (skinfolds (SFs)). The sample consisted of 70 volunteers of both genders. The body composition of the volunteers was evaluated using the ADP in a Bod Pod(®) and seven SFs. There were no significant differences between the values obtained by ADP and SF for body fat percentage (p = .58) and body density (p = .49). Analysis by Bland-Altman plots showed mean differences of 0.56 ± 4.94 (-9.12-10.23) and -0.0017 ± 0.0113 (-0.024-0.020) for body fat percentage and body density, respectively. In conclusion, body composition analyses of Paralympic athletes by the ADP and SF methods show similar results, and ADP should be used as the first option when available. When the use of ADP is not possible, estimating body density and fat percentage by SF is a viable alternative for Paralympic athletes when future comparisons will use the same analysis method.

  11. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan;

    2011-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a reference method for assessing body composition but is seldom `accessible in veterinary settings. Computed tomography (CT) can provide similar body composition estimates and we propose that it can be used in body composition studies in animals. We...... compared CT and DEXA data from 73 healthy adult neutered domestic cats. Three approaches for measuring adipose tissue percentage from full-body CT scans were explored. By examining the frequency distribution of voxels by Hounsfield unit (HU) value, it is possible to calculate a fat index (Fat...... and in one of the methods, the difference between the values from the two modalities was proportional to their mean. By using CT, it is possible to obtain body composition estimates that are in close agreement with those available using DEXA. While the significance of individual Fat% measurements obtained...

  12. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura; Zofia Ignasiak; Teresa Sławińska; Jerzy Piechura; Tomasz Ignasiak

    2014-01-01

    objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29) and women (87). The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body...

  13. Menarche and Fatness: Reexamination of the Critical Body Composition Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    1978-01-01

    Examines the credibility of the theory that, menarche and fecundity require a certain level of fat in the body. Concludes that the evidence does not totally support this hypothesis and that further investigation is warranted. (GA)

  14. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Arne; Baeksgaard, L; Hilsted, J

    1997-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis but is influenced by beam hardening and other error sources in the extremes of measurement. To compensate for beam hardening, the Norland XR-36 introduces a dynamically changing samarium filtration system...... filtration) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis. It has a potential for gaining status as a reference method in the future and may presently be used as a supplement to the traditional methods for body composition analysis....

  15. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both lo...

  16. Solid-state gyrotron body power supply, test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santinelli, M. [Association Euratom-ENEA, ENEA CR Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy)], E-mail: santinelli@frascati.enea.it; Claesen, R.; Coletti, A. [Association Euratom-ENEA, ENEA CR Frascati, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Bonicelli, T.; Mondino, P.L. [EFDA, EFDA CSU Garching, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pretelli, M.; Rinaldi, L.; Sita, L.; Taddia, G. [OCEM SpA, Via 2 Agosto 1980 no. 11, 40016 San Giorgio di Piano (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    A 170 GHz, 2 MW, steady-state gyrotron is being developed in collaboration between European research associations and industries to be used for the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) system of ITER, the gyrotron is presently in the prototype state. EFDA entrusted ENEA with the design of a new power supply for the gyrotron's body; in which, the traditional power vacuum tubes are replaced with solid-state components (IGBT); furthermore ENEA had the task of developing the new body power supply (BPS), following the initial conceptual design. The BPS is formed by 50 identical bidirectional (in current) modules, connected in series; the BPS's control system regulates the output voltage by changing the modulation index. OCEM Spa, under ENEA's supervision, has manufactured the BPS. Tests, done at the start of this year, showed the substantial agreement between the initial technical specifications and the values achieved. Particularly the ramp-up/down-emergency time (50-10 {mu}s), the accuracy ({+-}0.5%), the sine wave modulation (45-20 kV at 5 kHz) and the maximum phase shift (<10 deg.) have been tested. In the article, the new stair-way modulation (SWM) scheme will be sketched and the test results will be described in detail.

  17. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  18. Three-body bound states in finite volume with EFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three particles with large scattering length display a universal spectrum of three-body bound states called ''Efimov trimers''. We calculate the modification of the Efimov trimers of three identical bosons in a finite cubic box and compute the dependence of their energies on the box size using effective field theory. The renormalization of the effective field theory in the finite volume is explicitly verified. We investigate the effects of partial wave mixing and study the behavior of shallow trimers near the dimer energy. Finally, we present first results for the triton in a finite volume.

  19. Experience in the use of body composition studies in gastroenterology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of total body nitrogen (TBN) as an index of total protein in the body has been performed in a number of different studies. The in vivo technique is based on the detection and counting of the characteristic nitrogen gamma rays emitted after neutron capture. The accuracy of the method was estimated as better than 10%, reproducibility was 5.5%. The effective dose equivalent for nitrogen measurement is 50 mrem. TBN was initially measured in 121 volunteers and found to correlate best with the mean of height and arm span (HAS), a better estimate of skeletal size than height alone. This was then used to normalize TBN for body size with the derivation of a Nitrogen Index (NI), with a normal range of 0.8 - 1.2. A select group of 38 malnourished patients were treated with total parenteral nutrition for periods of 3 to 33 months. This resulted in a weight gain of 10% and a significant increase of 32% in TBN. In contrast, increases in lean body mass, measured anthropometrically and total body potassium (TBK) were only increased 9%, the later two reflecting total and intracellular water respectively, but not protein content

  20. Changes in body composition during refeeding of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, N; Corey, M; Rossi, M F; Goldberg, E; Pencharz, P

    1988-11-01

    Changes in body composition were studied in 13 girls with anorexia nervosa before and during 2 months of refeeding. Fat body mass and fat-free body mass were derived from skin-fold measurements. Total body potassium was measured by whole body counter, and intracellular water was calculated from it. Extracellular water was measured as the bromide space after oral bromide administration. A gradual increase was noted in weight, fat body mass, fat-free body mass, and total body potassium during refeeding. Extracellular water was expanded on admission and increased in all patients in the first weeks of treatment; later it fell to normal. Most of the changes in fat-free body mass over the first weeks of refeeding could be accounted for by an expansion in extracellular water. Particular care must therefore be taken with fluid balance during the first few weeks of refeeding. PMID:3183854

  1. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  2. Critical quasienergy states in driven many-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastidas Valencia, Victor Manuel; Engelhardt, Georg; Perez-Fernandez, Pedro; Vogl, Malte; Brandes, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    A quantum phase transition (QPT) is characterized by non-analyticities of ground-state properties at the critical points. Recently it has been shown that quantum criticality emerges also in excited states of the system, which is referred to as an excited-state quantum phase transition (ESQPT). This kind of quantum criticality is intimately related to a level clustering at critical energies, which results in a logarithmic singularity in the density of states. Most of the previous studies on quantum criticality in excited states have been focused on time independent systems. Here we study spectral singularities that appear in periodically-driven many-body systems and show how the external control allows one to engineer geometrical features of the quasienergy landscape. In particular, we study singularities in the quasienergy spectrum of a fully-connected network consisting of two-level systems with time-dependent interactions. We discuss the characteristic signatures of these singularities in observables like the magnetization, which should be measurable with current technology. The authors gratefully acknowledge financial support by the DFG via grants BRA 1528/7, BRA 1528/8, SFB 910 (V.M.B., T.B.), the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion (Grants No. FIS2011-28738-C02-01) and Junta de Andalucia (Grants No. FQM160).

  3. Body composition, fitness score and arterial stiffness assesment in a chronic hemodialysis population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Mihăescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is highly prevalent in this type of patients. The aim of our study was to analyse the relationship between body composition, blood chemistries and arterial stiffness in a poorly fit population of chronic hemodialysed patients. Patients and methods involved measuring body composition and fitness score by multifrequence bioimpedance with the body composition analyzer InBody720 and arterial stiffness by the measurement of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (PWVao and Aortic Augmentation Index (Aix using an oscillometric method on 65 HD patients; measurements were made before a midweek dialysis session. Results: PWVao correlated significantly with weight (p=0.01, r2=1.14, body fat mass (p=0.007, r2=0.14, abdominal circumference (p=0.01, r2=0.12 and with fitness score (p=0.01, r2=0.11. Aix correlated with weight (p<0.05, r2=0.25, intracellular, extracellular- and total body water (p<0.05, r2=0.24 with body protein, soft lean mass, minerals, fat free mass and skeletal muscle mass (p<0.05, r2= 0.3 and with serum calcium (p=0.005, r2=0.2. Conclusions: Arterial stiffness is a common feature of the hemodialysed patients, significantly related to the blood calcium, fitness score and the body composition, especially fat body mass.

  4. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Chung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed. Results : A total of 19 (19.4% patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P&lt;0.001 and r=0.44, P&lt;0.00, respectively. Sixty-one (62.2% patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03. The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=- 0.26, P=0.03. Conclusion : Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood.

  5. Fitness knowledge, cardiorespiratory endurance and body composition of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Skip M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if high school physical education seniors’ health-related fitness knowledge is related to their aerobic capacity and body composition.

  6. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition

  7. Body Composition Monitor Assessing Malnutrition in the Hemodialysis Population Independently Predicts Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Kissova, Viera; Majernikova, Maria; Straussova, Zuzana; Boldizsar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition is a known predictor of mortality in the general and hemodialysis populations. However, diagnosing malnutrition in dialysis patients remains problematic. Body composition monitoring (BCM) is currently used mainly for assessing overhydratation in hemodialysis patients, but it

  8. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  9. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  10. Relationship between daily dietary fructose intake, body composition and biochemical parameters patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabriye Arslan

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to develop more specific suggestions regarding fructose intake and to better understand the relationship between fructose intakes, body composition and biochemical parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults. PMID:27048946

  12. Visceral Adipocyte Hypertrophy is Associated With Dyslipidemia Independent of Body Composition and Fat Distribution in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Veilleux, Alain; Caron-Jobin, Maude; Noël, Suzanne; Laberge, Philippe Y.; Tchernof, André

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed whether subcutaneous and omental adipocyte hypertrophy are related to metabolic alterations independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mean adipocyte diameter of paired subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue samples was obtained in lean to obese women. Linear regression models predicting adipocyte size in both adipose tissue depots were computed using body composition and fat distribution measures (n = 150). In a given dep...

  13. EFFECTS OF STRENGTH TRAINING ON PHYSICAL FUNCTION: INFLUENCE OF POWER, STRENGTH, AND BODY COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Erik D.; Srivatsan, Sindhu R.; Agrawal, Siddhartha; Menon, Kalapurakkal S.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Wang, Min Q.; Hurley, Ben F.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the effects of strength training (ST) on physical function and (b) the influence of strength, power, muscle volume (MV), and body composition on physical function. Healthy, inactive adults (n = 50) aged 65 years and older underwent strength, power, total body composition (% fat and fat free mass [FFM]), and physical function testing before and after 22 weeks of ST. Physical function testing consisted of tasks designed to mimic common physical act...

  14. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measure...

  15. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  16. Body Composition and Circulating High-Molecular-Weight Adiponectin and IGF-I in Infants Born Small for Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Zegher, Francis de; Sebastiani, Giorgia; Diaz, Marta; Sánchez-Infantes, David; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal growth restraint, if followed by postnatal overweight, confers risk for adult disease including diabetes. The mechanisms whereby neonatal nutrition may modulate such risk are poorly understood. We studied the effects of nutrition (breast-feeding [BRF] vs. formula-feeding [FOF]) on weight partitioning and endocrine state (as judged by high-molecular-weight [HMW] adiponectin and IGF-I) of infants born small for gestational age (SGA). Body composition (by absorptiometry), HMW adiponecti...

  17. Body composition determination by measurement of total body activation products in expired air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vivo neutron activation followed by whole body counting has become a routine method for measuring the major elements in the body, such as total body calcium. More recently a careful analysis of radioactive components in expired air after neutron activation has shown some of these components are directly related to the body content of major elements. The gaseous activation products are produced both by direct fast neutron reactions and by secondary proton reactions. The protons are produced by hydrogen atom recoil after neutron interaction with the large quantity of hydrogen in the body. The specific longer-lived radionuclides which are easily measured in expired air are 37Ar, 41Ar, 11C, and 13N. The 37Ar is expired as noble gas and is produced by the reaction 40Ca(n, α)37Ar. The accurate determination of total body calcium in animals has been demonstrated using 37Ar measurements and the determination in humans appears very feasible. The 11C, expired as 11CO and 11CO2, is produced by 14N(p, α)11C and it appears that total body nitrogen can be determined from the 11C measurements All activation products which form gases in the body after neutron irradiation are potentially useful in determining the body content of the parent element. Several radioactive gases have been recently identified in the expired air of animals or humans after low level neutron irradiation. These include 37Ar, 41Ar, 11CO, 11CO2, 13N2, 13NO or 13N2O. Other radioactive gases which can probably be measured at very low levels are 11CH3

  18. Validation of body composition models for high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, H N; Smith, J F; Mansfield, E R; Conerly, M D; Bishop, P A

    1986-04-01

    This study investigates the utility of two equations for predicting minimum wrestling weight and three equations for predicting body density for the population of high school wrestlers. A sample of 54 wrestlers was assessed for body density by underwater weighing, residual volume by helium dilution, and selected anthropometric measures. The differences between observed and predicted responses were analyzed for the five models. Four statistical tests were used to validate the equations, including tests for the mean of differences, proportion of positive differences, equality of standard errors from regression, and equivalence of regression coefficients between original and second sample data. The Michael and Katch equation and two Forsyth and Sinning equations (FS1 and FS21) for body density did not predict as well as expected. The Michael and Katch equation tends to overpredict body density while FS1 underpredicts. The FS2 equation, consisting of a constant adjustment to FS1, predicts well near the mean but not at the ends of the sample range. The two Tcheng and Tipton equations produce estimates which slightly but consistently overpredict minimum wrestling weight, the long form equation by 2.5 pounds and the short form by 3.8 pounds. As a result the proportion of positive differences is less than would be expected. But based on the tests for the standard errors and regression coefficients, the evidence does not uniformly reject these two equations.

  19. Recruitment Processes and the Composition of State Boards of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    The process of selecting State school board members has been of continuing concern for scholars of State educational administration. A widely accepted hypothesis asserts that the composition of State boards of education is a function of the selection process. Evidence collected in a national survey of State board members challenges this…

  20. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body weight......, body fat distribution, and body composition in a random group of adult Danes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsample of men and women from the Danish arm of the Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The subsample comprised 185 men and 191 women...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...

  1. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malousaris, Grigoris G; Bergeles, Nikolaos K; Barzouka, Karolina G; Bayios, Ioannis A; Nassis, George P; Koskolou, Maria D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. For this purpose, body weight and height, breadths and girths as well as skinfold thickness at various body sites were assessed in 163 elite female volleyball players (age: 23.8+/-4.7 years, years of playing: 11.5+/-4.2, hours of training per week: 11.9+/-2.9, means+/-S.D.). Seventy-nine of these players were from the A1 division and the rest from the A2 division of the Greek National League. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences in these characteristics between competition level and playing position. Body height ranged from 161cm to 194cm, and the mean value (177.1+/-6.5cm) was not inferior to that of international players of similar calibre. Adiposity of these players (sum of 5 skinfolds: 51.8+/-10.2mm, percent body fat: 23.4+/-2.8) was higher than that reported in other studies in which, however, different methodology was used. Volleyball athletes of this study were mainly balanced endomorphs (3.4-2.7-2.9). The A1 division players were taller and slightly leaner with greater fat-free mass than their A2 counterparts. Significant differences were found among athletes of different playing positions which are interpreted by their varying roles and physical demands during a volleyball game. The volleyball players who play as opposites were the only subgroup of players differing between divisions; the A2 opposites had more body fat than A1 opposites. These data could be added in the international literature related to the anthropometric characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. PMID:17697797

  2. Expenditure Composition in Indian State Governments

    OpenAIRE

    M. Seenuvasan

    2005-01-01

    The study of Expenditure Composition on scientific basis helps us to understand the relative importance, quality, effects and nature of various kinds of expenditure. The study of expenditure composition at the disaggregative level would be of useful to policy makers to examine and evaluate the effects and efficiency of allocation of fiscal resources on desirable directions. Prof Shiras said that the test of public expenditure is not the aggregate expenditure, but it is the pattern of expendit...

  3. Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit

  4. Few-body calculations of η-nuclear quasibound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Barnea

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on precise hyperspherical-basis calculations of ηNN and ηNNN quasibound states, using energy dependent ηN interaction potentials derived from coupled-channel models of the S11 N⁎(1535 nucleon resonance. The ηN attraction generated in these models is too weak to generate a two-body bound state. No ηNN bound-state solution was found in our calculations in models where ReaηN≲1 fm, with aηN the ηN scattering length, covering thereby the majority of N⁎(1535 resonance models. A near-threshold ηNNN bound-state solution, with η separation energy of less than 1 MeV and width of about 15 MeV, was obtained in the 2005 Green–Wycech model where Re aηN≈1 fm. The role of handling self consistently the subthreshold ηN interaction is carefully studied.

  5. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  6. The Pituitary Gland and Age-Dependent Regulation of Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Andre P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Runge, Evelien; Trainer, Peter J.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of obesity is increased in hypopituitarism. In the general population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increase with advancing age. It remains uncertain whether age-related changes in pituitary function contribute to the changes in body composition associated wi

  7. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  8. A Longitudinal Comparison of Body Composition Changes in Adolescent Girls Receiving Hormonal Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea E. Bonny; Secic, Michelle; Cromer, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine body composition changes in adolescent girls initiating depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), oral contraceptives, or no hormonal contraceptive method. At 6 months, DMPA resulted in significant increases in adiposity with concomitant decreases in lean body mass. Supplemental estrogen may lessen these DMPA effects.

  9. Body composition and flight ranges of Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) from New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis; Holberton, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Body composition analysis was performed on 37 Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) that had been illegally shot during migratory fueling in northern New Zealand in March 1992. Adults (n = 35) were heavy (442-721 g), with fat loads of 30-45% of body mass. Two first-year males had only 5.4% an

  10. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  11. Impact of body composition changes on risk of all-cause mortality in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, Christophe E; Herrmann, François R; Spoerri, Adrian;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) changes and mortality in persons ≥65 years. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years with at least two body composition measurements (BCM) between 1990 and 2011 were included. We...

  12. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  13. The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

  14. No association between body composition and cognition in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: A brief report

    OpenAIRE

    Brian M. Sandroff, MS; Elizabeth A. Hubbard, MS; Lara A. Pilutti, PhD; Robert W. Motl, PhD

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that body fat is inversely associated with cognitive functioning in adults from the general population, and this has been associated with systemic inflammation. The association between body fat and cognition might further be augmented in the presence of an immune-mediated, inflammatory disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS). This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between objective measures of body composition and cognitive function in 60 persons with MS. P...

  15. Relationship Between Body Mass Index at Age 3 Years and Body Composition at Age 11 Years Among Japanese Children: The Shizuoka Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2012-01-01

    Background A few studies reported an association between body weight during early childhood and body composition in later life, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); however, none of those studies investigated an East Asian population. In a Japanese population, we examined the association between body weight at age 3 years and body composition at age 11 years, as measured using DXA. Methods The source population was 726 fifth-grade school children enrolled at 3 public schools...

  16. Effect of filler type on 3-body abrasion of dental composite

    OpenAIRE

    Yasini E.; Ataei M; Amini M

    2005-01-01

    Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6) and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interv...

  17. Seasonal variations in growth and body composition of 8-11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Ritz, Christian; Larnkjær, Anni;

    2016-01-01

    -olds. METHODS: 760 children from the OPUS School Meal Study provided >2200 measurements on height, body weight and composition between September-June. Average velocities were calculated using change-score analyses based on three-month intervals. As a complementary analysis, point velocities derived from...... suggest seasonality in growth and body composition of Danish children. We recovered the well-known height velocity peak during spring time, but unlike earlier studies we found coincident peaks in body weight, BMI, and FFMI velocities.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.206....

  18. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  19. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz; Juan Mielgo-Ayuso; Aritz Urdampilleta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years) and 7 girls (15±1.83 years)....

  20. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, 3H2O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition

  1. Analysis of the relationships between edentulism, periodontal health, body composition, and bone mineral density in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasiak Z

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Zofia Ignasiak,1 Malgorzata Radwan-Oczko,2 Krystyna Rozek-Piechura,3 Marta Cholewa,4 Anna Skrzek,5 Tomasz Ignasiak,6 Teresa Slawinska1 1Department of Biostructure, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 2Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland; 3Department of Physiotherapy and Occupation Therapy in Internal Diseases, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 4DENTARAMA Dentistry Center, Walbrzych, Poland; 5Department of Physiotherapy and Ocupation Therapy in Motor-System Dysfunction, University School of Physical Education, Wroclaw, Poland; 6Karkonosze State Higher School in Jelenia Gora, Jelenia Gora, Poland Objective: The relationship between bone mineral density (BMD and tooth loss in conjunction with periodontal disease is not clear. The suggested effects include alteration in bone remodeling rates as well as the multifaceted etiology of edentulism. There is also a question if other body-related variables besides BMD, such as body composition, may be associated with tooth number and general periodontal health. The aim of this study was to evaluate if tooth number and marginal periodontal status are associated with body composition and BMD in a sample of elderly women. Materials and methods: The study involved 91 postmenopausal women. Data included basic anthropometric characteristics, body composition via bioelectrical impedance analysis, and BMD analysis at the distal end of the radial bone of the nondominant arm via peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A dental examination was performed to assess tooth number, periodontal pocket depth (PD, and gingival bleeding. Results: In nonosteoporotic women, a significant positive correlation was found between BMD and lean body mass, total body water, and muscle mass. The indicators of bone metabolism correlated negatively with PD. Such relationships did not appear in osteoporotic women. In both groups, basic anthropometric

  2. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men. PMID:27051246

  3. Reliability in estimates of body composition of birds: oxygen-18 versus deuterium dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Astolfo J; Caloin, Michel; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Le Maho, Yvon

    2006-01-01

    Body composition in birds was evaluated indirectly by 18O and 2H dilution. Body composition was determined by whole-body chemical analysis of eight adult roosters (Gallus gallus). In vivo measurements of total body water (TBW) were carried out using doubly labeled water (2H2 18O). Estimated dilution spaces using both the plateau and intercept approaches were compared with the results obtained by carcass lyophilization. Both 18O and 2H slightly overestimated TBW compared with the results obtained by lyophilization, by 2.2%+/-1.9% and 5.7%+/-0.2%, respectively; both differences were statistically significant (P0.05), except for body fat in the Pace and Rathbun approach (Table 3). Although estimation of TBW and body composition by isotope dilution is time consuming and expensive, deuterium offers a reliable and low-cost alternative compared with 18O. The advantage of in vivo estimation of TBW with isotopic dilution in combination with the regression approach is that it permits repeated measurements of body composition on the same birds under laboratory and free-living conditions. PMID:16380942

  4. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H;

    1999-01-01

    parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X...... for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...... being highly selected as to confounding factors. The increased blood pressure in the hypertension prone subjects could not be attributed to differences in body composition, exercise capacity or dietary habits....

  5. [Energy balance, body composition and the female athlete triad syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yitzhak; Weinstein, Ayelet

    2012-02-01

    With the rising participation of women in sports events, the prevalence of eating disorders and the female athlete triad (FTS), a syndrome of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, have also increased in recent years. FTS is often seen in sports that emphasize thinness (e.g. gymnastics, figure skating and dancing) and also in endurance events. Elements of the FTS are pathophysiologically linked, leading to several disease risks and even to mortality. In spite of the considerable knowledge about sports nutrition, there is no consensus as to the correct nutrition regime for the female athlete. There is consensus that minimizing fluctuations in 'target-body-weight' is an indication of a long-term energy balance. Female athletes (e.g. in endurance events and gymnastics) are less likely to achieve the recommended carbohydrates (CHO) and fat consumption due to chronic or episodic constraints of total energy intake while struggling to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. It is recommended that dietary CHO and fat content be increased to preserve fat-free mass thus enhancing health and performance. Energy balance should also be maintained during recesses. Furthermore, within-day episodes of energy deficits/surplus (measured by the frequency and/or magnitude of the episodes) should be monitored and treated closest to the time of the incidents. PMID:22741211

  6. Association of body composition with sarcopenic obesity in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva AO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Oliveira Silva,1,2 Margô Gomes Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Marina Morato Stival,3 Ricardo Moreno Lima,3 Jéssica Cardoso de Souza,1 James Wilfred Navalta,4 Jonato Prestes11Catholic University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 2Center University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 3University of Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil; 4University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USAAbstract: The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity and its association with obesity and sarcopenia in elderly Brazilian women. Two hundred and seventy-two sedentary women with a mean age of 66.75 ± 5.38 years were recruited for participation in this study. Obesity was determined by both body mass index and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA evaluations. Sarcopenic obesity diagnosis was established from the ratio between fat-free mass and body surface area as obtained by DXA. There was no association of obesity with sarcopenic obesity (P = 0.424. In contrast, sarcopenia was significantly related to sarcopenic obesity (P < 0.001, although most of the elderly women with sarcopenia (n = 171 did not exhibit sarcopenic obesity. These results highlight the importance of diagnosing sarcopenic obesity as elderly women exhibiting sarcopenia could be either eutrophic or obese.Keywords: sarcopenic obesity, aging, obesity, sarcopenia, health

  7. Perfil nutricional dos indígenas Xukuru-Kariri, Minas Gerais, de acordo com diferentes indicadores antropométricos e de composição corporal Nutritional profile of the Xukuru-Kariri indigenous people in the state of Minas Gerais in accordance with different anthropometric and body composition indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara dos Santos Simões

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo foi avaliar o perfil nutricional dos indígenas Xukuru-Kariri entre 7 anos e 78 anos aldeados em Minas Gerais de acordo com os diferentes indicadores antropométricos e de composição corporal . As medidas aferidas foram: peso, estatura, circunferência da cintura (CC e percentual de gordura corporal (%GC. Foram calculadas a sensibilidade e a especificidade para os índices antropométricos com intervalo de confiança de 95% e o valor preditivo positivo (VPP e negativo (VPN. A população foi constituída por 58 indivíduos, sendo 56,9% (n = 33 do sexo masculino e 43,1% (n = 25 do sexo feminino. A especificidade foi superior à sensibilidade em relação a todos os índices. Observou-se que 29% dos indivíduos foram classificados com excesso de adiposidade corporal quando avaliados pelo IMC e pela bioimpedância mão a mão e 50% dos indivíduos apresentaram alta adiposidade corporal em relação ao IMC e a CC. É necessário que sejam realizados estudos com diferentes etnias a fim de se construir indicadores nutricionais específicos para orientação de serviços de saúde indígenas.The scope of this study was to evaluate the nutritional profile of indigenous Xukuru-Kariri villagers in the state of Minas Gerais between seven and seventy-eight years of age in accordance with the different anthropometric and body composition indicator. The measurements were: weight, height, waist circumference (WC and body fat percentage (BF%. The sensitivity and specificity of anthropometric indices were calculated with a confidence interval of 95% and positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV. A total of 58 individuals was evaluated, of which 56.9% (n =33 were male and 43.1% (n =25 were female. Specificity was greater than sensitivity in all indices. It was seen that 29% of individuals were classified as having excess body fat as assessed by BMI and hand-to-hand bioimpedance and 50% of subjects had high body

  8. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A diet with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) may promote overconsumption of energy and increase the risk of weight gain.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes in body...... weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a random group of adult Danes. Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsample of men and women from the Danish arm of the Monitoring Trendsand Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The ubsample comprised 185 men and 191 women...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. Results: Positive associations between GI and changes in bodyweight (¿BW), percentage body fat (%BF...

  9. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  10. Validation of a new air displacement plethysmograph for the determination of infant body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For both clinical and research purposes, it is of great importance to be able to assess infant body composition. However, a safe, simple, non-invasive, and accurate method of estimating infant body composition is not currently available. The 'PEA POD', a new air displacement plethysmograph specially designed to measure the body volume of infants, has been developed by the same research team that developed the BOD POD, which measures body volume in adults. Body density can be calculated from the measurement of body volume and body mass. From body density, the body fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) compartments can be estimated. The purpose of this research study is to validate the accuracy of FM and FFM measurements in infants based on the PEA POD, as compared to the results obtained with estimating FM and FFM from measurement of total body water (TBW). TBW will be calculated using the back extrapolation method with an 18O tracer. Twenty-five healthy, term infants between two weeks and two months of age and 25 healthy low birth weight infants will be measured by both methods and the results compared. If the PEA POD produces results not significantly different from those based on TBW, it will provide further evidence of this device's potential usefulness in both clinical and research applications. (author)

  11. No association between body composition and cognition in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: A brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Pilutti, Lara A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that body fat is inversely associated with cognitive functioning in adults from the general population, and this has been associated with systemic inflammation. The association between body fat and cognition might further be augmented in the presence of an immune-mediated, inflammatory disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS). This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between objective measures of body composition and cognitive function in 60 persons with MS. Participants underwent a neurological examination for generating Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, followed by the Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis neuropsychological battery for measurement of cognitive processing speed, verbal learning and memory, and visual learning and memory. Whole-body fat mass, percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Whole-body fat mass and percent body fat were not associated with any cognitive outcome (all p > 0.41). However, lean body mass was associated with cognitive processing speed (p 0.13). Body composition might not represent a target of interventions for improving cognitive processing speed or learning and memory in MS. PMID:26230584

  12. No association between body composition and cognition in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: A brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Sandroff, MS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that body fat is inversely associated with cognitive functioning in adults from the general population, and this has been associated with systemic inflammation. The association between body fat and cognition might further be augmented in the presence of an immune-mediated, inflammatory disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS. This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between objective measures of body composition and cognitive function in 60 persons with MS. Participants underwent a neurological examination for generating Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, followed by the Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis neuropsychological battery for measurement of cognitive processing speed, verbal learning and memory, and visual learning and memory. Whole-body fat mass, percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Whole-body fat mass and percent body fat were not associated with any cognitive outcome (all p > 0.41. However, lean body mass was associated with cognitive processing speed (p 0.13. Body composition might not represent a target of interventions for improving cognitive processing speed or learning and memory in MS.

  13. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS...... with a granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed......-polyacrylamidegel electrophoresis. Sections through pellets of isolated protein bodies from both the mutant and the wild type revealed protein body structures corresponding with those observed in sections through the intact starchy endosperms. The majority of the wild-type protein bodies was homogeneous spheres accompanied...

  14. A Compositional Sweep-Line State Space Exploration Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Michael; Mailund, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    State space exploration is a main approach to verification of finite-state systems. The sweep-line method exploits a certain kind of progress present in many systems to reduce peak memory usage during state space exploration. We present a new sweep-line algorithm for a compositional setting where...

  15. Whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral density and body composition using a flat panel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) systems are used for the determination of bone mineral density (BMD) but also for body composition estimates (lean mass and fat mass). The calculation is based on the difference in attenuation of body tissues for a low-energy of about 50 KeV and a high-energy of about 80-100 KeV. The measurement of dual-energy projections allows first to compute to the body composition in the non-bone area, and then to extrapolate the fat / lean ratio of soft tissue into the bone area in order to compute the BMD. Since detectors have limited area, a whole body examination requires a scan of the patient and a reconstruction process in order to build up a large field image from smaller radiographs. This reconstruction process must keep the quantitative value of the radiographs, and avoid any distortion which could be a consequence of the conic acquisition geometry. The cone angle is low (6 at maximum) and the large overlap between radiographs helps to reconstruct an image equivalent with a parallel-beam geometry. Scatter is corrected from the radiographs before reconstruction, as described in a previous paper ('Dual-energy X-rays absorptiometry using a 2D digital radiography detector. Application to bone densitometry', SPIE Medical Imaging 2001, Medical Physics). We have developed an original reconstruction method dedicated to whole-body examinations which will be described. Thanks to the quasi-radiologic quality of the detector, reconstructed images are of very good quality and this makes the measurement of BMD and fat / lean masses easier. (author)

  16. Functional body composition and related aspects in research on obesity and cachexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, M J; Baracos, V; Bosy-Westphal, A;

    2014-01-01

    tissue mass are fixed. Thus an understanding of body weight regulation involves an examination of the relationships between organs and tissues rather than individual organ and tissue masses only. The between organ/tissue mass relationships are associated with and explained by crosstalks between organs......The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of 'functional body composition' integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo...... functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and function in the context of metabolic adaptations to weight change and disease. During weight gain and loss, there are associated changes in individual body components while the relationships between organ and...

  17. Association between dietary protein and change in body composition among children (EYHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Heitmann, Berit L; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G;

    2009-01-01

    of protein, arginine, lysine and subsequent 6-year change in body composition among 8-10-year-old children. METHODS: Data of 364 children were collected from Odense, Denmark, during 1997-1998 and 6-year later as part of the European Youth Heart Study. Body mass index among children was subdivided by fat free......BACKGROUND & AIMS: Growth hormone (GH) affects body composition by a relatively reduced fat mass and increased fat free mass. The intake of protein as well as the specific amino acids arginine and lysine potently stimulate GH secretion. This study investigated associations between intakes...... with a body mass index in the 5th quintile, protein intake was associated with DeltaFFMI (p=0.04), and more specific when LYS intake was high, ARG intake was associated with DeltaFFMI (p=0.04). CONCLUSION: Among girls high protein intakes may decrease body fat gain and increase fat free mass gain, depending...

  18. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  19. The influence of body composition on quality of life of patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Porciúncula Frenzel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unwanted changes in body composition, as well as their impact on these people's quality of life, have been little investigated in patients with breast cancer. Objetive: To assess the role of body composition on quality of life and the impact of chemotherapy on both, in women with breast cancer. Methods: It was assessed prospectively women with breast cancer in a cohort of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Body composition was estimated through bioelectrical impedance. The quality of life was evaluated using the World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire. Results: This study assessed 70 women, 77 and 73% of those were initially overweight and had excess of body fat, respectively. There was a significant increase in fat-free mass (p > 0.001, body mass index (p = 0.03 and weight (p = 0.02 while quality of life stayed the same during the study. Moreover, women with excess of body fat showed a significantly lower initial general health score, compared to those with normal body fat (p = 0.02. Conclusions: Chemotherapy proved to be a potential inducer in the weight gain in this population. We highlight the importance of further investigation about the impact of body fat accumulation on those women's quality of life.

  20. Associations between childhood body size, composition, blood pressure and adult cardiac structure: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy T Sabo

    Full Text Available To determine whether childhood body size, composition and blood pressure are associated with adult cardiac structure by estimating childhood "age of divergence."385 female and 312 male participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study had echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness. Also available were anthropometric measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat free mass, total body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, taken in both childhood and adulthood. The age of divergence is estimated as the lowest age at which childhood measurements are significantly different between patients with low and high measurements of adult cardiac structure.Childhood body mass index is significantly associated with adult left ventricular mass (indexed by height in men and women (ages of divergence: 7.5 years and 11.5 years, respectively, and with adult interventricular septal thickness in boys (age of divergence: 9 years. Childhood waist circumference indexed by height is associated with left ventricular mass (indexed by height in boys (age of divergence: 8 years. Cardiac structure was in general not associated with childhood body composition and blood pressure.Though results are affected by adult body size, composition and blood pressure, some aspects of adult cardiac structure may have their genesis in childhood body size.

  1. Childhood cognitive ability and body composition in adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpulainen, S M; Heinonen, K; Salonen, M K; Andersson, S; Wolke, D; Kajantie, E; Eriksson, J G; Raikkonen, K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood cognitive ability has been identified as a novel risk factor for adulthood overweight and obesity as assessed by adult body mass index (BMI). BMI does not, however, distinguish fat-free and metabolically harmful fat tissue. Hence, we examined the associations between childhood cognitive abilities and body fat percentage (BF%) in young adulthood. Methods: Participants of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study (n=816) underwent tests of general reasoning, visuomotor integration, verbal competence and language comprehension (M=100; s.d.=15) at the age of 56 months. At the age of 25 years, they underwent a clinical examination, including measurements of BF% by the InBody 3.0 eight-polar tactile electrode system, weight and height from which BMI (kg m−2) was calculated and waist circumference (cm). Results: After adjustments for sex, age and BMI-for-age s.d. score at 56 months, lower general reasoning and visuomotor integration in childhood predicted higher BMI (kg m−2) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.32, 95% confidence interval −0.60,−0.05; −0.45, −0.75,−0.14, respectively) and waist circumference (cm) increase per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.84, −1.56,−0.11; −1.07,−1.88,−0.26, respectively) in adulthood. In addition, lower visuomotor integration predicted higher BF% per s.d. unit decrease in cognitive ability (−0.62,−1.14,−0.09). Associations between general reasoning and BMI/waist were attenuated when adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption, intake of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in adulthood, and all associations, except for visuomotor integration and BMI, were attenuated when adjusted for parental and/or own attained education and/or birth weight. Conclusions: Of the measured childhood cognitive abilities, only lower visuomotor integration was associated with BF% in adulthood. This challenges the view that cognitive ability, at least when measured in

  2. Introduction to body composition assessment using the deuterium dilution technique with analysis of saliva samples by fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years, the IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of stable isotope techniques to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. The objective is to support national and regional nutrition projects through both the IAEA's technical cooperation programme and its coordinated research projects. In particular, during the last few years, the increased access to analyses of deuterium enrichment by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry has increased the application of this technique in Africa, Asia and Latin America. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical, hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where the analysis of deuterium enrichment in saliva samples will be made by FTIR. It is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical application of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in an IAEA publication entitled Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques (IAEA Human Health Series No. 3)

  3. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    Background In 2011 the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that more than 40 million children under the age of five were overweight and ten per cent of the world’s school aged children are estimated to carry excess body fat. Childhood obesity is associated with a number of immediate...... and youth and plays an important role in the prevention of overweight and obesity and related morbidities. Schools are recognized as potentially effective settings for public health initiatives, as they access a large population of children and youth across a variety of ethnic and socioeconomic groups...... Health, Activity and Motor Performance School study (CHAMPS study-DK) is the scientific research part of the Svendborg Project evaluating the initiative. Purpose and objectives of the thesis The overall aim of this thesis is to evaluate the effect of four extra PE lessons in primary school (pre-school...

  4. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  5. Validity of dual X-ray absorptiometry scanning for determination of body composition in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, T; Gotfredsen, A;

    1995-01-01

    Data on body composition in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are scarce. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning has proved useful for this purpose in other groups of patients. We tested the validity of the DXA scanner for the determination of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat...... mass in IDDM patients and control subjects, as compared to other reference methods, i.e. total body potassium by 40K whole body counting (TBK), total body water by tritiated water (TBW), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 24-h urinary creatinine excretion (Ucrea). A total of 13 healthy controls...

  6. MUSCLE STRENGTH IN RELATION TO BODY COMPOSITION IN THE TURKISH MALE NATIONAL JUDO TEAM

    OpenAIRE

    BAYDİL BILGEHAN; ÖCAL DEFNE; MELEKOĞLU TUBA; SÖNMEZ, M.

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThe Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the strength differences in weight categories. For this purpose we have investigated the relationship between body fats and strength of The Turkish National Male Judo Team. The Methods: Thirty-nine members of The Turkish Male National Judo Team [n=39, age 19.34 ± 2.71 yr, body mass 81.63 ± 21.67 kg, height 175.26 ± 8.67 cm] were participated as subjects. For body composition profiles, body mass, standing height, lower extremity...

  7. Dynamics of the component of body composition in athletes playing sports with damage to the medial meniscus of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh'd Khalil Moh'd Abdel Kader

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The question of the influence of the developed program of physical rehabilitation with the use of modern means and methods of recovery on the performance component of body composition in athletes playing sports after arthroscopic stapling the medial meniscus was considered. The analysis and synthesis of scientific and methodological data on the determination of body composition analysis techniques using bioelectrical resistance was shown. Found that long-term immobilization that accompanies the process of rehabilitation, reduced physical activity, vascular and other changes lead to muscle atrophy, restriction of mobility in the knee joint, trophic changes of the injured limb. The use of the physical rehabilitation programs allowed to state its high efficiency.

  8. Composition at Washington State University: Building a Multimodal Bricolage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Patricia; Hunter, Leeann Downing; Macklin, Tialitha Michelle; Edwards, Elizabeth Sue

    2016-01-01

    Multimodal pedagogy is increasingly accepted among composition scholars. However, putting such pedagogy into practice presents significant challenges. In this profile of Washington State University's first-year composition program, we suggest a multi-vocal and multi-theoretical approach to addressing the challenges of multimodal pedagogy. Patricia…

  9. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. PMID:26250623

  10. Glucose Homeostasis Variables in Pregnancy versus Maternal and Infant Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Henriksson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine factors influence infant size and body composition but the mechanisms involved are to a large extent unknown. We studied relationships between the body composition of pregnant women and variables related to their glucose homeostasis, i.e., glucose, HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c and IGFBP-1 (insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, and related these variables to the body composition of their infants. Body composition of 209 women in gestational week 32 and of their healthy, singleton and full-term one-week-old infants was measured using air displacement plethysmography. Glucose homeostasis variables were assessed in gestational week 32. HOMA-IR was positively related to fat mass index and fat mass (r2 = 0.32, p < 0.001 of the women. Maternal glucose and HOMA-IR values were positively (p ≤ 0.006 associated, while IGFBP-1was negatively (p = 0.001 associated, with infant fat mass. HOMA-IR was positively associated with fat mass of daughters (p < 0.001, but not of sons (p = 0.65 (Sex-interaction: p = 0.042. In conclusion, glucose homeostasis variables of pregnant women are related to their own body composition and to that of their infants. The results suggest that a previously identified relationship between fat mass of mothers and daughters is mediated by maternal insulin resistance.

  11. Assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance analysis and anthropometrics in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko;

    2015-01-01

    We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out......, and inter-relationships of anthropometric and other measures of body composition were defined. Moreover, the relations of different reference criteria for excess body fat were evaluated....

  12. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  13. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine body composition changes in HIV-associated wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Stephan; Fischer, Harald; Rieger, Armin; Frühauf, Lukas; Staszewski, Schlomo; Althoff, Peter-Henning; Helm, Eilke Brigitte

    2005-04-01

    AIDS wasting syndrome results in loss of lean body mass and body cell mass. This 12-week, open-label study used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition changes in 24 patients with AIDS wasting syndrome receiving recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH). The primary endpoint was percentage monthly change in body weight before/after r-hGH. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), isometric strength and CD4+ count. Twenty patients completed the study: r-hGH resulted in mean weight gains (+2.7%, P = 0.146), and significant increases in mean body cell mass (+8.0%, P = 0.0211), lean body mass (+4.8%, P = 0.0373) and water (+5.5%, P r-hGH was generally well tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were fever (7.3%) and diarrhoea (6.3%). Thus, bioelectrical impedance analysis can detect improved body cell mass independent of changes in body weight resulting from r-hGH treatment in patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.

  14. Comparison of Adipose Distribution Indices with Gold Standard Body Composition Assessments in the EMPA-REG H2H SU Trial: A Body Composition Sub-Study

    OpenAIRE

    Neeland, Ian J.; McGuire, Darren K.; Eliasson, Björn; Ridderstråle, Martin; Zeller, Cordula; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.; Johansen, Odd Erik

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excess adiposity contributes to cardiometabolic disease. Although adipose depots can be measured using imaging, implementation remains limited in practice. Data comparing surrogate indices of total and visceral adiposity with gold standard measurements in the context of a clinical trial population are lacking. We explored the relationships between adipose distribution indices and imaging assessments of body composition using baseline data from the EMPA-REG H2H SU™ trial. Methods ...

  15. Use of a novel pediatric body composition technique for assessing body fatness and its changes during the first 6 month of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of infant growth and nutritional status is enhanced by accurate measurement of body composition and its changes over time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of an air-displacement plethysmograph, the PEA POD (Registered Trademark) Infant Body Composition System (Lif...

  16. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness. PMID:23439334

  17. Anthropometry and body composition of school children in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted because of the lack of a comprehensive nationwide assessment of data on the anthropometric status and related health problems in Bahraini school children aged 6 to 18 years. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on the anthropometric status of school children enrolled in the primary, intermediate and secondary government schools in all populated regions of Bahrain. The sample size included 2594 students (1326 girls and 1268 boys) representing 2.5% of the total student population. For sample selection, a multi-stage sampling design was chosen that combined multi-cluster and simple random sampling methods. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness at two sites (triceps and subscapular). Anthropometric indices derived were body mass index (BMI) and arm muscle area. The WHO reference standards (2007) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2 data were used for comparison. Compared to WHO reference standards, the median height of Bahraini children and adolescents in the age range of 6 to 18 years was close to the 25th percentile or lower, while the median BMI during adolescent years was comparable in boys, but higher than WHO standards in girls, reaching the 75th percentile. The cutoff values of BMI for overweight/obesity status (85th and 95th percentile) were higher by 3-6 kg/m2 compared to WHO standards. While skin fold thicknesses were also higher in Bahraini adolescents compared to their American counterparts (NHANES 2), arm muscularity was substantially lower. Current study findings for BMI as well as skin fold thicknesses suggest an increased trend toward adiposity among Bahraini adolescents, especially in girls, which puts this age group at a high risk of adult obesity and its consequences. A need for urgent intervention program is emphasized. (author)

  18. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  19. Comparison of body composition, heart rate variability, aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Erşan; Aras, Dicle

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to compare the body composition, heart rate variability, and aerobic and anaerobic performance between competitive cyclists and triathletes. [Subjects] Six cyclists and eight triathletes with experience in competitions voluntarily participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects' body composition was measured with an anthropometric tape and skinfold caliper. Maximal oxygen consumption and maximum heart rate were determined using the incremental treadmill test. Heart rate variability was measured by 7 min electrocardiographic recording. The Wingate test was conducted to determine anaerobic physical performance. [Results] There were significant differences in minimum power and relative minimum power between the triathletes and cyclists. Anthropometric characteristics and heart rate variability responses were similar among the triathletes and cyclists. However, triathletes had higher maximal oxygen consumption and lower resting heart rates. This study demonstrated that athletes in both sports have similar body composition and aerobic performance characteristics. PMID:27190476

  20. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at Pgroups and the control group. Further studies of different professional dance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed. PMID:26730387

  1. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Xu, Qiang; Yang, Hongsheng

    2011-03-01

    Seasonal Variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons ( PEPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6) and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations ( P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly. The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein, MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  2. Twin study of genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, K; Visscher, P M; Erbas, B;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the genetic and environmental influences on adult body size, shape, and composition in women and men, and to assess the impact of age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 325 female and 299 male like-sex healthy twin pairs, on average 38 y old (18-67 y......), we determined zygosity by DNA similarity, and performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition. The contribution to the total phenotypic variance of genetic, common environment, and individual environment was estimated in multivariate analysis using the FISHER program....... Further, these variance components were analysed as linear functions of age. RESULTS: In both women and men genetic contributions were significant for all phenotypes. Heritability for body mass index was 0.58 and 0.63; for body fat%, 0.59 and 0.63; for total skinfolds, 0.61 and 0.65; for extremity...

  3. A new air displacement plethysmograph for the determination of Japanese body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, N; Nonaka, K; Fujii, M

    1999-11-01

    A new device based on the plethysmographic measurement of body volume, named the BOD POD Body Composition System, was developed for the purpose of estimating body composition. The performance, reliability, validity, and clinical application of this system were evaluated in Japanese subjects. The coefficient variation (CV:%) in same-day tests was 2.48, in three separate-day tests it was 2.27, and for independent operators it was 4.53, respectively. There was a clear correlation between the results from BOD POD and those from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (r = 0.910, p BOD POD. The findings indicate that the BOD POD is a highly reliable and valid method for determining body fat percentage. This new method has several advantages, e.g. it is quick, simple to operate and may accommodate wide populations.

  4. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  5. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique A Parsons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown. METHODS: We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT images. A body mass index (BMI≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria. RESULTS: Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%; 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%, including 79% of patients with a BMI<25 kg/m² and 34% of those with BMI≥25 kg/m². Sarcopenic patients were older and less frequently African-American. Symptom burden did not differ among patients classified according to BMI and presence of sarcopenia. Median (95% confidence interval survival (days varied according to body composition: 215 (71-358 (BMI<25 kg/m²; sarcopenic, 271 (99-443 (BMI<25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic, 484 (286-681 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; sarcopenic; 501 d (309-693 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic. Higher muscle index and gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  6. A study of apatite formation on natural nano-hydroxyapatite/ chitosan composite in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-bin FAN; Xiao-ying L(U)

    2008-01-01

    This study is focused on the ability of apatite formation on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan (CH) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro. At first, natural nano-HA was prepared according to a wet-bailing method and the composite was prepared by combining the natural nano-hydroxyapatite and chit-osan, and then in vitro biomineralization test of natural nano-HA/CH composite was carried out in standard SBF. Subsequently, the quantity of the weight of the particles formed on the composite surface in SBF was measured by analytical balance, and the morphology change on the surface of the composite was observed by a scanning elec-tron microscope (SEM). Lastly, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was used to investigate the chemical components of the particles formed on the nat-ural nano-HA/CH composite surface in SBF. The result of quantity assessment shows that the weight of the com-posite increased with the increase of soaking time. The SEM image shows that the particles were gradually formed on natural nano-HA/CH composite surface, and the FTIR spectrum of the particles on composite surface confirms that these particles were carbonate apatite. This study indicates that the nano-HA/CH composite has a good ability for apatite formation in SBF, which predicts the bone-inducing ability of natural nano-HA/CH com-posite in vivo.

  7. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  8. Introduction to Body Composition Assessment Using the Deuterium Dilution Technique with Analysis of Urine Samples by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has fostered the more widespread use of a stable isotope technique to assess body composition in different population groups to address priority areas in public health nutrition in Member States. It has done this by supporting national and regional nutrition projects through its technical cooperation programme and coordinated research projects over many years. This publication was developed by an international group of experts to provide practical hands-on guidance in the use of this technique in settings where analysis of stable isotope ratios in biological samples is to be made by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The publication is targeted at new users of this technique, for example nutritionists, analytical chemists and other professionals. More detailed information on the theoretical background and the practical applications of state of the art methodologies to monitor changes in body composition can be found in IAEA Human Health Series No. 3, Assessment of Body Composition and Total Energy Expenditure in Humans by Stable Isotope Techniques

  9. Reliability and Validity of Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density Measurements by DXA

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Melissa Kareen

    2002-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been well established in both clinical and research settings for measurement of bone mineral density (BMD), and is becoming more widely utilized for assessment of body composition. Reliability and validity are essential factors in both applications of this technique; however, neither have been confirmed for the QDR-4500A DXA at Virginia Tech. Therefore, measurements of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (TPF) and total for...

  10. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco AL; De Stefani E; Deneo-Pellegrini H

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC) in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s) coefficients were taken as estimates of rel...

  11. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS: SOMATOTYPE AND BODY COMPOSITION VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Yener BEKTAŞ; Başak Koca Özer; Timur Gültekin; Mehmet Sağır; Galip Akın

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the somatotype and body composition characteristics of female basketball players and to demonstrate the changes between different category levels. For this purpose 37 female basketball players were subjected from Et-Balik Sports Club representing 4 different categories. 11 anthropometric measurements; body weight, height, humerus and femur bicondylar breadth, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and thigh skinfold thickness, biceps and thigh circumference data ...

  12. EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow) at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05) differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein retention (NPR), apparent net energy retention (...

  13. Effects of β-Alanine on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outlaw, Jordan J; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Buckley, Amanda L; Urbina, Stacie L; Hayward, Sara; Wingfield, Hailee L; Campbell, Bill; Foster, Cliffa; Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D

    2016-09-01

    Outlaw, JJ, Smith-Ryan, AE, Buckley, AL, Urbina, SL, Hayward, S, Wingfield, HL, Campbell, B, Foster, C, Taylor, LW, and Wilborn, CD. Effects of β-alanine on body composition and performance measures in collegiate women. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2627-2637, 2016-The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of β-alanine (BA) supplementation and resistance training on body composition and performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 16 untrained collegiate females (mean ± SD: 21.0 ± 2.2 years; 64.8 ± 8.5 kg; 164.5 ± 7.0 cm; 30.1 ± 5.1 percent body fat [%BF]) completed 8 weeks of resistance training while consuming either 3.4 g BA or placebo (PL; 5 g maltodextrin) before training sessions. Training consisted of 4 days per week upper- and lower-body exercises. Lean body mass (LBM), fat mass (FM), and %BF were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), aerobic time to exhaustion, Wingate peak power, bench press and leg press 1RM (BPmax; LPmax), and repetitions at 65% (BPreps; LPreps), vertical jump (VJ), and standing broad jump were assessed using standard National Strength and Conditioning Association guidelines. All measurements were taken at baseline (T1), 4 weeks (T2), and 8 weeks (T3). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine significance. Body composition (LBM, FM, and %BF) improved over time (p supplementation may be effective for improving lower-body muscular endurance. β-alanine had no additive effects on body composition or maximal strength in collegiate women. PMID:25486294

  14. Comparison of body composition among rural preschool children of Purulia, West Bengal, using two different equations

    OpenAIRE

    Subal Das; Kaushik Bose

    2012-01-01

    Body composition is an important factor in identifying populations at risk of metabolic disease including type-2 diabetes in South Asian children. Many equations for calculating body-fat percentage (BF %) from anthropometric methods have been developed among South-Asian children. The objective of this study was to compare the BF % derived from two different methods obtained from skinfold equations in Santal tribal and Bauri caste preschool children. In Purulia, 1012 (480 girls, 532 boys) rura...

  15. Body composition data from the rat subjects of Cosmos 1129 experiment K-316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Smith, A. H.; Pitts, G. C.; Ushakov, A. S.; Smirnova, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of 18.5 days of weightlessness on the body composition of young, growing, male laboratory rats were examined. Three groups of 5 rats each were examined. It is indicated that exposure of young, growing, male rats to 18.5 days of weightlessness produces: (1) no effect on the quantity of fat stored by the body; (2) a slight reduction in the quantity of fat free tissue laid down by the body; (3) a small reduction in the fraction of water contained by the fat free body mass; (4) a similar reduction in the fraction of water contained by the fat free skin and fat free carcass; (5) a shift in relative distribution of the total body water from skin to viscera; (6) a diminution in the fraction of extracellular water contained by the fat free body; (7) no effect on the fraction of total skeletal musculature contained by the fat free body, as indicated by body creatine content; (8) a sizeable reduction in the fraction of bone mineral contained by the fat free body, as calculated from body calcium content. The nature of the physiological changes induced by unloading from Earth gravity in the mammalian organism are illustrated.

  16. Body composition changes in men and women after 2-3 weeks of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Price, D. C.; Newsom, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    Several parameters of body composition were measured in eight men before and after 14 days of continuous recumbency, and in eight women before and after 17 days of recumbency. The parameters measured included body weight, body water, body potassium, plasma volume, and plasma protein concentrations. From these, values were derived for body fat content, lean body mass, body mass, and circulating plasma proteins. In general, the men and women responded similarly to continuous recumbency. Characteristically, there was significant reduction of plasma volume and body potassium in both groups. The women showed a significant reduction in circulating plasma protein, entirely in the albumin fraction; a similar change was observed in the men. The women, but not the men, showed a significant increase in circulating fibrinogen. Both men and women lost body cell mass, while body fat content remained the same or tended to increase slightly. It is expected that similar changes would occur in weightlessness. It is further concluded that women should tolerate the weightlessness of space flight physiologically as well as men.

  17. Body Composition QTLs Identified in Intercross Populations Are Reproducible in Consomic Mouse Strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailu Lin

    Full Text Available Genetic variation contributes to individual differences in obesity, but defining the exact relationships between naturally occurring genotypes and their effects on fatness remains elusive. As a step toward positional cloning of previously identified body composition quantitative trait loci (QTLs from F2 crosses of mice from the C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J inbred strains, we sought to recapture them on a homogenous genetic background of consomic (chromosome substitution strains. Male and female mice from reciprocal consomic strains originating from the C57BL/6ByJ and 129P3/J strains were bred and measured for body weight, length, and adiposity. Chromosomes 2, 7, and 9 were selected for substitution because previous F2 intercross studies revealed body composition QTLs on these chromosomes. We considered a QTL confirmed if one or both sexes of one or both reciprocal consomic strains differed significantly from the host strain in the expected direction after correction for multiple testing. Using these criteria, we confirmed two of two QTLs for body weight (Bwq5-6, three of three QTLs for body length (Bdln3-5, and three of three QTLs for adiposity (Adip20, Adip26 and Adip27. Overall, this study shows that despite the biological complexity of body size and composition, most QTLs for these traits are preserved when transferred to consomic strains; in addition, studying reciprocal consomic strains of both sexes is useful in assessing the robustness of a particular QTL.

  18. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kantyka Joanna; Herman Damian; Roczniok Robert; Kuba Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg) that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165...

  19. Probable Rotation States of Rocket Bodies in Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojakangas, G.; Anz-Meador, P.; Cowardin, H.

    2012-09-01

    In order for Active Debris Removal to be accomplished, it is critically important to understand the probable rotation states of orbiting, spent rocket bodies (RBs). However, rotational dynamics is non-intuitive and misconceptions are common. Determinations of rotation and precession rates from light curves have been published that are inconsistent with the theory presented here. In a state of free precession, the total angular momentum of the object is constant, while kinetic energy decreases due to internal friction, approaching rotation about the axis of maximum inertia. For solid internal friction the timescale is hundreds to thousands of years for quality factors of ~100 and assuming metallic rigidities, but for friction in partially-filled liquid fuel tanks we predict that the preferred rotational state is approached rapidly, within days to months. However, history has shown that theoretical predictions of the timescale have been notoriously inaccurate. In free precession, the 3-1-3 Euler angle rates dphi/dt (precession rate of long axis about fixed angular momentum with cone angle theta) and dpsi/dt (roll rate around long axis) have comparable magnitudes until very close to theta=pi/2, so that otherwise the true rotation period is not simply twice the primary light curve period. Furthermore dtheta/dt, nonzero due to friction, becomes asymptotically smaller as theta=pi/2 is approached, so that theta can linger within several degrees of flat spin for a relatively long time. Such a condition is likely common, and cannot be distinguished from the wobble of a cylinder with a skewed inertia tensor unless the RB has non-axisymmetric reflectivity characteristics. For an RB of known dimensions, a given value of theta fixes the relative values of dpsi/dt and dphi/dt. In forced precession, the angular momentum precesses about a symmetry axis defined by the relevant torque. However, in LEO, only gravity gradient and magnetic eddy current torques are dominant, and these

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  1. Abstraction and Learning for Infinite-State Compositional Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Giannakopoulou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite many advances that enable the application of model checking techniques to the verification of large systems, the state-explosion problem remains the main challenge for scalability. Compositional verification addresses this challenge by decomposing the verification of a large system into the verification of its components. Recent techniques use learning-based approaches to automate compositional verification based on the assume-guarantee style reasoning. However, these techniques are only applicable to finite-state systems. In this work, we propose a new framework that interleaves abstraction and learning to perform automated compositional verification of infinite-state systems. We also discuss the role of learning and abstraction in the related context of interface generation for infinite-state components.

  2. BODY STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF CANOEISTS AND KAYAKERS: ANALYSIS OF JUNIOR AND TEENAGE POLISH NATIONAL CANOEING TEAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-Derengowska, M; Hagner, W; Zubrzycki, IZ; Krakowiak, H; Słomko, W; Dzierżanowski, M; Rakowski, A; Wiącek-Zubrzycka, M

    2014-01-01

    The somatic build, biological age, general state of health, mental predisposition and physical fitness are the criteria for selection of individuals in competitive sport. The present study aims to analys the differences in body structure and composition of canoeists and kayakers and derive conclusions regarding the criteria for selection of individuals incompetitive sport. The research was conducted on a group of 32 men aged between 17 and 22: 16 kayakers and 16 Canadian canoeists of the junior and teenage Polish national canoeing team. Body composition was examined by means of bioelectrical segmental impedance. Body build type was determined using the anthropometric Heath-Carter method. Statistical analysis was performed using the Welch t-test. The examination of morphological features reveals significant differences in the studied parameters between the canoeists and kayakers. There are also significant differences between competitors of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games and the studied group. We found that competitive kayakers should be taller than canoeists. The lower part of the body in kayakers is more developed than in canoeists and canoeists are more dehydrated than kayakers. PMID:25609891

  3. Influence of maturation on anthropometry and body composition in Japanese junior high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunaga, Yuko; Takai, Yohei; Yoshimoto, Takaya; Fujita, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine maturity-related differences in anthropometry and body composition in Japanese youth within a single year. Methods Two hundred and ten Japanese youth aged from 13 to 13.99 years participated in this study. Their maturity status was assessed using a self-assessment of stage of pubic hair development. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate percent body fat and lean body mass (LBM). Muscle thickness of the anterior thigh, posteri...

  4. Body composition analyses by air displacement plethysmography in adults ranging from normal weight to extremely obese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Anthony, Steven J.; Thornton, John C.; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI≥40.0kg/m2), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Design and Methods Fat free mass (FFM,kg), fat mass (FM,kg) and body fat (BF,%) were analyzed with both technologies. Results All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r≥0.95,Pobese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (Pobese. PMID:24170704

  5. Body composition analyses by air displacement plethysmography in adults ranging from normal weight to extremely obese

    OpenAIRE

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Anthony, Steven J.; Thornton, John C; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI≥40.0kg/m2), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Design and Methods Fat free mass (FFM,kg), fat mass (FM,kg) and body fat (BF,%) were analyzed with both technologies. Results All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r≥0.95,P

  6. Imaging body composition in cancer patients: visceral obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity may impact on clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Yip, Connie; Dinkel, Charlotte; Mahajan, Abhishek; Siddique, Musib; Cook, Gary J.R.; Goh, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the influence of body composition on oncological patient outcomes. Visceral obesity, sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have been identified as adverse factors in cancer patients. Imaging quantification of body composition such as lean muscle mass and fat distribution is a potentially valuable tool. This review describes the following imaging techniques that may be used to assess body composition: dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry ...

  7. Nature of changes in body composition indices in students during physical training using a set of athleticism.

    OpenAIRE

    Chernozub A.A.

    2011-01-01

    During investigations it was established that there are important changes in body composition parameters university students, who in the classroom with the general physical culture introduced by the training facilities with athleticism. The level indicators of body composition and dynamics are fully dependent on the employment structure, volume and intensity of physical exertion their focus. It is established that achieving the optimal performance of body composition may occur even with minim...

  8. Effects of a single session of physical exercise on body state image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Carraro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that athletes and physically active persons are generally more satisfied with their bodies than sedentary people, physical activity seems to exert both negative and positive influences on body image. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single session of exercise in state body image modification. In particular, we observed if a single session of sport or fitness activity could have a positive influence on state body image, considered as an episodic, evaluative and affective perception of the own physical appearance. Results showed an increase of the mean state body image rate (assessed with the Body Image States Scales, BISS after a one-hour session of sport or fitness activities in a sample of 295 individuals. Intensity and fun seemed to be key-factors in state body image enhancement. These findings could have significant implications in the treatment of BI disturbances and in their prevention.

  9. Body composition in neonates: relationship between measured and derived anthropometry with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Winston W K; Walters, Jocelyn C; Hockman, Elaine M

    2004-11-01

    This study examined the relationship between measured and derived anthropometric measurements with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured lean and fat mass at 3.0 +/- 2.8 (SD) days in 120 neonates with birth weights appropriate (AGA; n=74), large (LGA; n=30); or small (SGA, n=16) for gestational age. Anthropometric measurements, including total body weight and length, and regional measurements, including circumferences of head, chest, abdomen, midarm, and midthigh and dynamic skinfold thickness (15 and 60 s) at tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, and midthigh, were performed. Derived anthropometry included muscle and fat areas, and ratios were calculated from direct measurements. The skinfold thickness measurements between 15 and 60 s were highly correlated (r=0.973-0.996, p circumferences of trunk and extremities, the four skinfolds, and the ratios of weight to length and its higher powers. Weight and length accounted for >97% of the variance of lean mass in AGA and SGA infants and 46% of the variance in LGA infants and for 80, 82, and 84% of the variance of fat mass in SGA, AGA, and LGA infants, respectively, whereas midarm:head circumference ratio and arm muscle and fat areas are the most important derived anthropometry in the prediction for body composition. They independently accounted for up to 16.5 and 10.2%, respectively, of the variance in body composition depending on the state of in utero growth. Thus, total body weight and length and some selected regional and derived anthropometry accounted for the vast majority of the variance of body composition. PMID:15371563

  10. Effects of a single session of physical exercise on body state image

    OpenAIRE

    Attilio Carraro; Alessandra Nart; Stefano Scarpa

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that athletes and physically active persons are generally more satisfied with their bodies than sedentary people, physical activity seems to exert both negative and positive influences on body image. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a single session of exercise in state body image modification. In particular, we observed if a single session of sport or fitness activity could have a positive influence on state body image, considered as an episodic, evalua...

  11. Effect of filler type on 3-body abrasion of dental composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasini E.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The relatively poor wear resistance of dental composite in stress bearing posterior situations has restricted wider clinical application of this restorative material. Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the three body abrasive wear of a dental composite based on a new filler (leucite: KAl Si2O6 and to compare it with the wear resistance of a composite based on commonly used Aluminium – Barium Silicate filler. Materials and Methods: This research was an interventional study done in Iran polymer institute. Five specimens were considered in each group. All ceramic IPS Empress® (Ivoclar- Vivadent ingots based on leucite crystals were ball milled, passed through an 800 sieve and used as filler. Experimental composites were prepared by mixing the silane- treated fillers with monomers (BisGMA and TEGDMA. Camphorquinone and amine were used as photoinitiator system. Degree of conversion of the light-cured and post-cured composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The prepared pastes were inserted into plexy-glass mold and light cured (700 mw/cm2, 40 s. Then for maximum degree of conversion specimens were post- cured (120ºC, 5 hours. Three body abrasion wear testing was performed using a wear machine with 50 rpm rotational movement. In this machine, pumice (150 meshes was used as the third body. Weight loss of specimens in each group was measured by balance after each 50 hours. After wear testing SEM examination was made specimens in each group. The data were analyzed and compared using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (P<0.05. Tetric Ceram was tested as commercial composite. Results: There were significantly differences between three body abrasive wear of composites. The ranking from lowest to highest was as follows: leucite composite (19% < Tetric Ceram (22% < glass composite (28%. leucite composite showed the highest wear resistance value, propably due to the crystalliniy and hardness of filler. Conclusion

  12. A Comparison of Methods for the Estimation of Body Composition in Highly Trained Wheelchair Games Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V; Keil, M; Brooke-Wavell, K; de Groot, S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the agreement in body composition measurements of wheelchair athletes using skinfolds, bio-impedance analysis (BIA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) relative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A secondary objective was to develop new skinfold

  13. Bone mineral density and body composition in Noonan's syndrome: effects of growth hormone treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, C.; Span, J.P.T.; Rijn, R.R. van; Gomes-Jardin, E.; Kuijk, C. van; Otten, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    We assessed bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in children with Noonan's syndrome (NS) before and during growth hormone (GH) treatment. Sixteen children (12 boys, 4 girls) with NS aged 5.8-14.2 (mean 10.0) years were studied for 2 years. Anthropometry, BMD measurements by radiographic a

  14. Changes in body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Calverley, Peter M A; Casaburi, Richard;

    2013-01-01

    The follow-up of the ECLIPSE study, a prospective longitudinal study to identify and define parameters that predict disease progression over 3 years in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), allows the examination of the effect of body composition changes on COPD-related outcomes....

  15. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for 13 weeks

  16. An Evaluation of Gestational Exposure to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA): Effects on Body Composition and Physiological Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to environmental pollutants can be a factor for induction of metabolic disorders. This study examined if exposure to PFOA during development could alter body composition and other physiological outcomes. Study 1: Pregnant CD-1 mice were gavaged with PFOA at 0,0.001,0.01,...

  17. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  18. Analysis of body composition and nutritional status in Brazilian phenylketonuria patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Nalin, Tatiele; Castro, Kamila; van Rijn, Margreet; Derks, Terry G.J.; Perry, Ingrid D.S.; Mainieri, Alberto Scofano; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phenylketonuria (PKU) is characterized by phenylalanine (Phe) accumulation to toxic levels due to the low activity of phenylalanine-hydroxylase. PKU patients must follow a Phe-restricted diet, which may put them in risk of nutritional disturbances. Therefore, we aimed to characterize body composition parameters and nutritional status in Brazilian PKU patients also considering their metabolic control. Methods Twenty-seven treated PKU patients older than 5 years, and 27 age- and gender-matched controls, were analyzed for anthropometric features and body composition by bioelectrical impedance (BIA). Patients' metabolic control was assessed by historical Phe levels. Results There was no effect of PKU type, time of diagnosis, or metabolic control for any analyzed parameter. About 75% of patients and controls were eutrophic, according to their BMI values. There were no difference between groups regarding body composition and other BIA-derived parameters. Conclusions Brazilian PKU patients do not show differences in body composition and nutritional status in comparison with controls, regardless metabolic control. Although similar to controls, PKU patients may be in risk of disturbed nutritional and metabolic markers as seen for the general population. PMID:27014574

  19. Impact of body composition on pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin in children: A Glaser Pediatric Research Network study

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the relationship between doxorubicin pharmacokinetics and body composition in children with cancer. Children between 1 and 21 years of age, receiving doxorubicin as an infusion of any duration <24 h on either a 1-day or 2-day schedule, were eligible if they had no significant abnormality ...

  20. Resting metabolic rate in Italians : relation with body composition and anthropometric parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzo, de A.; Andreoli, A.; Bertoli, S.; Testolin, G.; Oriani, G.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain values for resting metabolic rate in Italians in relation to parameters of body composition, and to compare them to predicted values using the FAO/WHO/UNU equation. We performed a cross-sectional observational study of 131 healthy subjects (46 males and 85

  1. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The three types of obesity management protocols showed significant improvement in body composition (decrease in fat% and increases in FFM and TBW and visceral fat by US. However, nutritional intervention showed highly significant improvement in the skin fold thickness at triceps and biceps sites and peripheral adiposity index.  Acupuncture intervention showed highly significant improvement in fasting blood glucose (decreased and lipid profile (decreased triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL, and increased HDL. Laser intervention showed highly significant improvement in all the skin fold thickness and some parameters of lipid profile (decreased total cholesterol and LDL. CONCLUSIONS: The three obesity management protocols have significant effect on body composition, but acupuncture has the best effect in improving the lipid profile and fasting blood sugar. In addition, Laser intervention was recommended to improve skin fold thickness and subcutaneous fat.

  2. Body composition in children based on anthropometric data - A presentation of normal values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerver, WJM; deBruin, R

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass is used in paediatrics to estimate a child's nutritional status. To obtain the fat content or protein content sophisticated techniques exist. These techniques are often difficult to apply in daily practice. An anthropometric approac

  3. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie V. Kizirian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96 and late (n = 88 pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI and fat-free mass index (FFMI. In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037. In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010 and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034. Higher fat intake (%E and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy. Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity.

  4. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, Nathalie V.; Markovic, Tania P.; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P.; Louie, Jimmy C. Y.; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P.; Brand-Miller, Jennie C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  5. PAKs supplement improves immune status and body composition but not muscle strength in resistance trained individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzy Paulo C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mixed formula supplements are very popular among recreational and professional weightlifters. They are usually known as PAKs and they are supposed to have a synergistic effect of their different nutrients. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chronic (4 weeks PAKS supplementation in combination with strength training on body composition, immune status and performance measures in recreationally trained individuals with or without PAKs supplementation. Methods: Twelve male subjects (Placebo n = 6 and PAKs supplement n = 6 were recruited for this study. The body composition, one maximum strength repetition tests and immune status were assessed before and after 4 week supplementation. Our data showed that, 4 week PAK supplementation associated with strength exercise not was effective in change strength than compared with placebo group. However, we observed that, PAK supplement was able to improve immune status and reduced body composition when compared with placebo group. These results indicate that, a mixed formula supplement is able to improve immune status and body composition but not maximum strength in recreational strength trained subjects in a 4 weeks period.

  6. Pharmacogenetic risk factors for altered bone mineral density and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. te Winkel (Mariël Lizet); R.D. van Beek (Robert Diederik); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. Pieters (Rob); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground This study investigates pharmacogenetic risk factors for bone mineral (apparent) density (BM(A)D) and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia Design and Methods We determined the influence of SNPs in 4 genes (vitamin-D receptor (VDR: BsmI/ApaI/TaqI and Cdx-2

  7. Early dietary treated patients with phenylketonuria can achieve normal growth and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, Julio C.; van Spronsen, FrancJan; Almeida, Manuela F.; Ramos, Elisabete; Guimardes, Joao T.; Borges, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the past, overtreatment may have resulted in growth impairment in patients with phenylketonuria. Objective: The paper aims to investigate height and body composition in early treated patients with phenylketonuria who were diagnosed between 1981 and 2008. Design: A cross-sectional stud

  8. Macronutrient Balance and Dietary Glycemic Index in Pregnancy Predict Neonatal Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizirian, Nathalie V; Markovic, Tania P; Muirhead, Roslyn; Brodie, Shannon; Garnett, Sarah P; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Petocz, Peter; Ross, Glynis P; Brand-Miller, Jennie C

    2016-01-01

    The influence of maternal macronutrient balance and dietary glycemic index (GI) on neonatal body composition has received little study. We hypothesized that the overall quantity and quality of macronutrients, particularly carbohydrate, in the maternal diet could have trimester-specific effects on neonatal growth and body composition in women at risk of gestational diabetes. Maternal diet was assessed using 3-day food records in mid (n = 96) and late (n = 88) pregnancy as part of the GI Baby 3 study. Neonatal body composition was assessed by air-displacement plethysmography within 48 h of birth, adjusted for length, and expressed as fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). In mid pregnancy, higher maternal intake of carbohydrate energy was negatively correlated with infant FFMI (p = 0.037). In late pregnancy, higher dietary GI was associated with lower FFMI (p = 0.010) and higher carbohydrate energy predicted lower FMI (p = 0.034). Higher fat intake (%E) and saturated fat, but not protein, also predicted neonatal body composition (higher FFMI in mid pregnancy and higher FMI in late pregnancy). Depending on pregnancy stage, a high carbohydrate-low fat diet, particularly from high glycemic sources, may reduce neonatal indices of both lean mass and adiposity. PMID:27164136

  9. Effect of 4 weeks of Pilates on the body composition of young girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jago, R; Jonker, ML; Missaghian, M; Baranowski, T

    2006-01-01

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after school programs in Houston Texas in Spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were ran

  10. EFFECT OF 4 WEEKS OF PILATES ON THE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG GIRLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after-school programs in Houston, Texas, in spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were r...

  11. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Soares; Ivan Silveira de Avelar; Sara Rosa de Sousa Andrade; Marcus Fraga Vieira; Maria Sebastiana Silva

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p

  12. Quantitative CT: Associations between Emphysema, Airway Wall Thickness and Body Composition in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Grydeland, Thomas B; Pillai, Sreekumar G;

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD...

  13. The Relationship between Student Body Racial Composition and the Normative Environment toward Diversity at Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2013-01-01

    While there has been increased scholarship in recent years on diversity in higher education, most of this research has failed to include 2-year institutions in its analyses. This study examined whether the racial composition of the community college student body is correlated with an institution's normative climate toward three diversity…

  14. Walking Activity, Body Composition and Blood Pressure in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanish, Heidi I.; Draheim, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Individuals with intellectual disabilities engage in limited physical activity which places their health at risk. This study examined the walking activity, body composition and blood pressure of adults with intellectual disabilities. Methods: A group of male and female adults (n = 103) wore a pedometer for 7 days and were categorized…

  15. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  16. Feasibility and Reliability of Body Composition Measurements in Adults with Severe Intellectual and Sensory Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is lacking. Objective: The purpose of this…

  17. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  18. PHYSIOTHERAPEUTIC STUDY ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND LUNG FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit kaur

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Influence of body composition on lung functions is of enormous clinical importance. Impaired lung functions particularly low forced vital capacity (FVC, low forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 and FVC & FEV1 ratio are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and it is also well recognized that severe clinical obesity is associated with impairment of lung function. The aim of our study is to observe the correlation between pulmonary function and body composition parameters on individuals with different body mass index. Methods: 150 subjects consist of 75 males and 75 females in the age group of 40 to 60 years, were classified into normal weight, overweight and obese grade 1 groups according to the WHO guidelines. The body composition measured by using the Bioelectric Impedance based Tanita BC-418 and pulmonary functions assessed by using computerized Jaeger Master scope. Results: Results of statistical analysis showed that the fat free mass of normal male was identified as the strongly significant predictor of variation in pulmonary function parameters such as FVC (p0.05. The BMI (p0.05 by BMI FFM and TF% of obese grade 1 male. Conclusion: A significant positive correlation was observed between fat free mass and FCV and FEV1. Body fat percentage and trunk fat percentage had a stronger correlation than BMI.

  19. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  20. Impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of the body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrino Edilson Serpeloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the studies of body composition, it has been observed that several factors can interfere with the estimates of relative body fat using the skinfold thicknesses method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of body composition by skinfold thicknesses measurements. Two hundred and fifty nine male subjects (23.3 ± 2.9 years took part of the study. Nine skinfold thicknesses were measured (abdominal, subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, biceps, midaxillary, chest, medial calf, and thigh using the Lange (USA and the Cescorf (Brazil calipers with accuracy of 1.0 and 0.1 mm, respectively. Significant differences were found in the comparison between the two calipers on all the investigated skinfold thicknesses (1.8 to 31.0% with highest values obtained by the Lange caliper (p < 0.01. When these values were applied to four different predictive equations, developed by different researchers, the body fat estimate was significantly modified (p < 0.01, resulting in differences of 5.2 to 6.9%. Results indicate that the use of different skinfold calipers may maximize the errors of estimation produced by different predictive equations used for the analysis of body composition.

  1. In Vivo Determination of Body Composition in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) by Quantitative Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, L Adele; Dennis, Lacey N; Barry, R Jeff; Powell, Mickie L; Watts, Stephen A; Smith, Daniel L

    2016-06-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model research organism continues to expand its relevance and role in multiple research disciplines, with recent work directed toward models of metabolism, nutrition, and energetics. Multiple technologies exist to assess body composition in animal research models at various levels of detail (tissues/organs, body regions, and whole organism). The development and/or validation of body composition assessment tools can open new areas of research questions for a given organism. Using fish from a comparative nutrition study, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) assessment of whole body fat and fat-free mass (FFM) in live fish was performed. QMR measures from two cohorts (n = 26 and n = 27) were compared with chemical carcass analysis (CCA) of FM and FFM. QMR was significantly correlated with chemical carcass values (fat, p FFM (-0.024 g; p FFM (p = 0.753). These results support the utilization of QMR-a nonlethal nondestructive method-for cross-sectional or longitudinal body composition assessment outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:26974510

  2. Effects of resistance training on binge eating, body composition and blood variables in type II diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisés Simão Santa Rosa de Sousa

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on binge eating, body composition and blood variables and their correlations in 34 sedentary adults with type II diabetes. The participants aged 58.94 ± 10.66, had body weight of 71.62 ± 11.85 and BMI of 29.64 ± 4.27. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum leptin, glucose, insulin, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride. The binge eating was assessed by the binge eating scale and the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. The training included three weekly sessions for 12 weeks, with three sets from 12 to 15 repetitions for the main muscle groups, and interval from 1 to 2 minutes between the sets. A significant decrease was found for the binge eating, body weight, BMI, fat percentage, and fat weight. As for the blood variables, there was a significant reduction in leptin; non-significant reductions in glucose, total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides; as well a significant increase in HDL and non-significant increase in insulin. In conclusion the 12 weeks of RT proved to be enough to decrease the binge eating, to positively adjust the body composition and to modify the blood profile, demonstrating an association at a lower or higher level between these variables.

  3. Body composition during weight loss in obese patients estimated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and by total body potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Andersen, T;

    1996-01-01

    for FFM were strong (r = 0.92 and 0.93). Bland and Altman plots showed limits of agreement of +/-9 kg before and after weight loss; DXA underestimated FFM in women and overestimated FFM in men. DXA accounted for 80% of the lost body weight. The composition of the lost body mass did not differ from...... that estimated by TBK (7.6% FFM and 92.4% FM by TBK; 11% FFM and 89% FM by DXA). CONCLUSION: DXA estimates accurately the body composition and the composition of weight loss in groups of obese subjects. However, the scan table may be too small for patients weighing more than 95 kg....

  4. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  5. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment. PMID:27390396

  6. Anthropometrics and body composition by dual energy X-ray in children of obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvig, Mette; Vinter, Christina A; Jørgensen, Jan S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In obese women, 1) to assess whether lower gestational weight gain (GWG) during pregnancy in the lifestyle intervention group of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) resulted in differences in offspring anthropometrics and body composition, and 2) to compare offspring outcomes...... to a reference group of children born to women with a normal Body Mass Index (BMI). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The LiPO (Lifestyle in Pregnancy and Offspring) study was an offspring follow-up of a RCT with 360 obese pregnant women with a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy including dietary advice......-score (intervention group 0.06 [-0.17; 0.29] vs. controls -0.18 [-0.43; 0.05]), in the percentage of overweight or obese children (10.9% vs. 6.7%), in other anthropometrics, or in body composition values by DEXA. Outcomes between children from the RCT and the reference group children were not significantly different...

  7. Infant BMI peak, breastfeeding, and body composition at age 3 y

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Ritz, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the increasing focus on obesity, growth patterns in infancy and early childhood have gained much attention. Although the adiposity rebound has been in focus because of a shown association with adult obesity, not much has been published about the infant peak in body mass index (BMI......). OBJECTIVE: This study links age and BMI at infant peak to duration of breastfeeding and body composition at 3 y of age. DESIGN: Frequent weight and height measurements for 311 Danish children in the SKOT (Complementary and Young Child Feeding - Impact on Short and Long Term Development and Health; in Danish...... questionnaires. Assessment of body composition at age 3 y was made based on bioelectrical impedance, weight, and height. RESULTS: A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with an earlier peak in infant BMI (P = 0.0003) and a lower prepeak velocity (P

  8. Statistical and Multidimensional Body Composition Parameter Analysis in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Magdalena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the problem of assessing selected body compo- sition parameters after completion of antitumor therapy and comparing them with the same parameters of healthy children. A high percentage of overweight and obesity, as well as abnormal fat distribution in convalescents with cancer shows a significant adverse effect of therapy on body composition and suggests the need for early intervention in terms of diet and exercise, which would help patients to quickly achieve the proper parameters of body composition. Two main problems will be mentioned during the presented data analysis. Firstly, in each group there was a small number of observations. Because of this, the real differences between examined subgroups may have been omitted. Secondarily, many variables are correlated and are not normally distributed. Therefore, be- side the standard statistical tests to compare two groups, principal component analysis was applied to reduce the dimensions of the attribute space and to attempt to classify two groups of patients.

  9. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  10. Daily marathon running for a week-the biochemical and body compositional effects of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Kristian; Solomon, Thomas; Laye, Matthew J;

    2013-01-01

    effects were observed. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance decreased markedly, and an improved lipid profile was found. A decrease in fat mass and increase in lean body mass was observed, resulting in no overall weight changes. In summary, the race did not cause any major adverse......Karstoft, K, Solomon, TP, Laye, MJ, and Pedersen, BK. Daily marathon running for a week-The biochemical and body compositional effects of participation. J Strength Cond Res 27(11): 2927-2933, 2013-Although long-distance running, such as ultramarathons and multistage races, is increasingly popular......, it maybe potentially harmful to health, despite sparse evidence. We studied 8 experienced recreational runners participating in a multiple-marathon running event in which 7 marathons were completed on consecutive days. Fasting blood chemistry and body composition were assessed before and 20-24 hours after...

  11. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantyka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165.00 ± 3.91 cm, weight 70.01 ± 11.36 kg not involved in any kind of targeted exercise. The aqua aerobics classes were tailored to suit the age and abilities of the participants, with workout intensity controlled and maintained at approximately 128-137 bpm. Results. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found for body weight, total body water, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. A significant increase in post-intervention hemoglobin and erythrocyte counts was observed in the experimental group. Conclusions. Future studies should determine the intensity of physical activity with the most beneficial effect on blood variables in middle-aged and older individuals.

  12. Body composition and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in captive baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.): sexual dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Paul B; Rodriguez, Perla J; Voruganti, V Saroja; Mattern, Vicki; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Rice, Karen; Raabe, Timothy; Comuzzie, Anthony G

    2014-01-01

    Baboons (Papio hamadryas sp.) exhibit significant sexual dimorphism in body size. Sexual dimorphism is also exhibited in a number of circulating factors associated with risk of cardiometabolic disease. We investigated whether sexual dimorphism in body size and composition underlie these differences. We examined data from 28 male and 24 female outdoor group-housed young adult baboons enrolled in a longitudinal observational study of cardiometabolic disease risk factors. Animals were sedated with ketamine HCl (10 mg/kg) before undergoing venous blood draws, basic body measurements, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition scans. Percentage glycated hemoglobin A1c (%HbA1c ) was measured in whole blood. Serum samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride concentrations. Males were heavier and had greater body length and lean tissue mass than females. Females had a greater body fat percentage relative to males (10.8 ± 6.4 vs. 6.9 ± 4.0, P = 0.01). Although C-peptide, fasting glucose, and %HbA1c did not differ between the sexes, females had greater fasting insulin and triglyceride compared to their male counterparts. Insulin and percentage body fat were significantly correlated in males (r = 0.61, P = 0.001) and to a lesser extent in females (r = 0.43, P = 0.04). Overall, relations between adiposity and fasting insulin and fasting triglyceride were stronger in males. After accounting for differences in percentage body fat, fasting insulin and triglyceride were no longer statistically different between males and females. Despite stronger correlations between relative adiposity and insulin and triglyceride in males, the higher fasting insulin and triglyceride of female baboons may be underlain by their greater relative body fat masses.

  13. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-04-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  14. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2 Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software, and total body water (isotope dilution were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3 Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05 different from reference estimates. Body fat (%, assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL; (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  15. EFFECT OF 8 WEEKS OF AEROBIC ON BODY COMPOSITION AND BLOOD PRESSURE IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Gholamrezai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Nowadays increasing blood pressure is the most important risk factor of coronary, cerebral and renal vessel diseases. Epidemiological studies indicate that Physical inactivity adversely affects the blood pressure in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of aerobic on body composition and blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Methods: 20 healthy postmenopausal women with similar age and weight were randomly devided in intervention and control groups. Subjects completed an informed consent form and health history questionnaire. The intervention group was trained in an aerobic exercise program for 8 weeks (3 sessions weekly. Weight, body fat percentage (BF%, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, Lean body mass and blood pressure (BP were measured in the beginning and the end of the study for all of the subjects. Data were analyzed by the Paired t-test and independent t- test. Results: The results showed that BF% , WHR, BMI decreased and Lean body mass increased significantly in training group after 8 weeks training (P0.05. Conclusions: It seems that a period of aerobic training for 8 weeks can be effective as a non-pharmacological treatment strategy for improvement some physical fitness and body composition indexes, blood pressure in postmenopausal women.

  16. Effects of intermittent fasting on body composition and clinical health markers in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Grant M; La Bounty, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Intermittent fasting is a broad term that encompasses a variety of programs that manipulate the timing of eating occasions by utilizing short-term fasts in order to improve body composition and overall health. This review examines studies conducted on intermittent fasting programs to determine if they are effective at improving body composition and clinical health markers associated with disease. Intermittent fasting protocols can be grouped into alternate-day fasting, whole-day fasting, and time-restricted feeding. Alternate-day fasting trials of 3 to 12 weeks in duration appear to be effective at reducing body weight (≈3%-7%), body fat (≈3-5.5 kg), total cholesterol (≈10%-21%), and triglycerides (≈14%-42%) in normal-weight, overweight, and obese humans. Whole-day fasting trials lasting 12 to 24 weeks also reduce body weight (≈3%-9%) and body fat, and favorably improve blood lipids (≈5%-20% reduction in total cholesterol and ≈17%-50% reduction in triglycerides). Research on time-restricted feeding is limited, and clear conclusions cannot be made at present. Future studies should examine long-term effects of intermittent fasting and the potential synergistic effects of combining intermittent fasting with exercise. PMID:26374764

  17. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by 2H or 3H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both 2HHO and 3HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with 3H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals

  18. Prediction of physical and chemical body compositions of purebred and crossbred Nellore cattle using the composition of a rib section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, M I; Tedeschi, L O; Valadares Filho, S C; Chizzotti, M L

    2012-04-01

    The goal of this research was to develop empirical equations to predict chemical and physical compositions of the carcass and the body using the composition of the 9th- to 11th-rib section (rib(9-11)) and other measurements. A database (n = 246) from 6 studies was developed and comprised 37 bulls (BU), 115 steers (STR), and 94 heifers (HF), of which 132 were Nellore (NEL), 76 were NEL × Angus crossbreds (NA), and 38 were NEL × Simmental crossbreds (NS). The right half carcass and the rib(9-11) from the left half carcass were analyzed for ether extract (EE), CP, and water. The remaining components were chemically analyzed to determine the composition of the body. A stepwise procedure was used to determine the variable inclusion in the regression models. The variables included were EE in the rib(9-11) (EER; %), CP in the rib(9-11) (CPR; %), water in the rib(9-11) (WR; %), visceral fat (VF; %; KPH and mesenteric fats), organs plus viscera (OV; %), carcass dressing percentage (CD; %), cold carcass weight (kg), and empty BW (EBW; kg). No sex or breed effects were found on EE and CP compositions of the carcass (C(EE) and C(CP), respectively; %); the equations were as follows: C(EE) = 4.31 + 0.31 × EER + 1.37 × VF [n = 241; R(2) = 0.83; mean square error (MSE) = 4.53] and C(CP) = 17.92 + 0.60 × CPR - 0.17 × CD (n = 238; R(2) = 0.50; MSE = 1.58). Breed affected water content in the carcass (C(W), %); the equations were as follows: C(W) = 48.74 + 0.28 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NEL; C(W) = 46.69 + 0.32 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NA; and C(W) = 38.06 + 0.48 × WR - 0.017 × EBW for NS (n = 243; R(2) = 0.67; MSE = 5.17). A sex effect was found on body chemical EE composition (BW(EE)); the equations were as follows: BW(EE) = 2.75 + 0.33 × EER + 1.80 × VF for BU; BW(EE) = 1.84 + 0.33 × EER + 1.91 × VF for STR; and BW(EE) = 4.77 + 0.33 × EER + 1.28 × VF for HF (n = 243; R(2) = 0.89; MSE = 3.88). No sex or breed effects were found on CP composition in the body (BW

  19. Forensic body fluid identification: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Harbison, SallyAnn

    2016-01-01

    SA Harbison, RI Fleming Forensic Biology, Institute of Environmental Science and Research Ltd, Mt Albert Science Centre, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Body fluid identification is a key component in the forensic scientists' tool box and has been carried out both at the crime scene and in the laboratory for many years. Historically, methods relied on (bio) chemical-based tests, many of which lacked specificity. In this review, current technologies for identifying body fluids are des...

  20. Body-composition assessment via air-displacement plethysmography in adults and children: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Goran, Michael I; McCrory, Megan A

    2002-03-01

    Laboratory-based body-composition techniques include hydrostatic weighing (HW), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), measurement of total body water (TBW) by isotope dilution, measurement of total body potassium, and multicompartment models. Although these reference methods are used routinely, each has inherent practical limitations. Whole-body air-displacement plethysmography is a new practical alternative to these more traditional body-composition methods. We reviewed the principal findings from studies published between December 1995 and August 2001 that compared the BOD POD method (Life Measurement, Inc, Concord, CA) with reference methods and summarized factors contributing to the different study findings. The average of the study means indicates that the BOD POD and HW agree within 1% body fat (BF) for adults and children, whereas the BOD POD and DXA agree within 1% BF for adults and 2% BF for children. Few studies have compared the BOD POD with multicompartment models; those that have suggest a similar average underestimation of approximate 2-3% BF by both the BOD POD and HW. Individual variations between 2-compartment models compared with DXA and 4 -compartment models are partly attributable to deviations from the assumed chemical composition of the body. Wide variations among study means, -4.0% to 1.9% BF for BOD POD - HW and -3.0% to 1.7% BF for BOD POD - DXA, are likely due in part to differences in laboratory equipment, study design, and subject characteristics and in some cases to failure to follow the manufacturer's recommended protocol. Wide intersubject variations between methods are partly attributed to technical precision and biological error but to a large extent remain unexplained. On the basis of this review, future research goals are suggested.

  1. A four-state memory cell based on magnetoelectric composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zhan; WANG CuiPing; LIU XinJun; NAN OeWen

    2008-01-01

    A four-state memory can store four states in each memory cell. We designed a four-state memory cell using Co/PZT magnetoelectric composite and observed a broad magnetoelectric hysteretic output loop on applying magnetic field. Based on magnetoelectric hysteresis, we developed a read method by ap-plying a bias magnetic field on the memory cell. Results gave clearly four-state signals of 15.8, -4.4, 5.5 and -11.3 μV, which demonstrated the feasibility of our design.

  2. Neonatal anthropometrics and body composition in obese children investigated by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Thagaard, Ida Näslund;

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Epidemiological and animal studies have suggested an effect of the intrauterine milieu upon the development of childhood obesity. This study investigates the relationship between body composition measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry expressed as body fat percent, body fat mass...... index (BFMI), and fat free mass index (FFMI) in obese children and the preceding in utero conditions expressed by birth weight, birth length, and birth weight for gestational age. The study cohort consisted of 776 obese Danish children (median age 11.6 years, range 3.6-17.9) with a mean Body Mass Index...... obesity treatment to be significantly correlated with both birth weight and birth weight for gestational age. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a prenatal influence upon childhood obesity. Although there are currently no sufficient data to suggest any recommendations to pregnant women, it is possible...

  3. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  4. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  5. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS: SOMATOTYPE AND BODY COMPOSITION VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yener BEKTAŞ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyse the somatotype and body composition characteristics of female basketball players and to demonstrate the changes between different category levels. For this purpose 37 female basketball players were subjected from Et-Balik Sports Club representing 4 different categories. 11 anthropometric measurements; body weight, height, humerus and femur bicondylar breadth, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and thigh skinfold thickness, biceps and thigh circumference data were collected according to the International Biological Programme (IBP and International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. The mean age of the subjects were 13.84 + 4.34 (year where weight 55.4 + 15.7 (kg and height 162.2 + 11.6 (cm. Study results showed gradual increase tendency in body fat pattern through categories. Subsequently body somatotypes were differed between categories as well. As a general tendency the somatotype characteristics of the subjects were found to be endomorphic mesomorph.

  6. Body composition and morphological assessment of nutritional status in adults: a review of anthropometric variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, A M; Smith, S

    2016-02-01

    Evaluation of body composition is an important part of assessing nutritional status and provides prognostically useful data and an opportunity to monitor the effects of nutrition-related disease progression and nutritional intervention. The aim of this narrative review is to critically evaluate body composition methodology in adults, focusing on anthropometric variables. The variables considered include height, weight, body mass index and alternative indices, trunk measurements (waist and hip circumferences and sagittal abdominal diameter) and limb measurements (mid-upper arm and calf circumferences) and skinfold thickness. The importance of adhering to a defined measurement protocol, checking measurement error and the need to interpret measurements using appropriate population-specific cut-off values to identify health risks were highlighted. Selecting the optimum method for assessing body composition using anthropometry depends on the purpose (i.e. evaluating obesity or undernutrition) and requires practitioners to have a good understanding of both practical and theoretical limitations and to be able to interpret the results wisely.

  7. Alterations in body composition and spasticity following subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation training in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Crowe, MB, BCh, BAO

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this prospective cohort study was to investigate alterations in body composition variables and spasticity following subtetanic neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES training in an adult population with spinal cord injury (SCI. Fourteen sedentary adults with SCI (thoracic [T]4–T11; American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A/B; time since injury: 10.17 +/– 11.17 yr were recruited from the National SCI database. Four adhesive electrodes (175 cm2 each were placed bilaterally on the proximal and distal quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups and subtetanic contractions were elicited using a handheld NMES device. Lean body mass (LBM and other body composition variables were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spasticity was measured using the Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spastic Reflexes (SCATs and visual analog scales. Verbal and written feedback was obtained to subjectively evaluate spasticity. LBM and spasticity measurements were taken before and after an 8 wk NMES training program in order to assess change. A statistically significant increase in lower-limb LBM, i.e., muscle tissue (p > 0.001, and a reduction in SCATs (p < 0.001 score, indicating reduced spasticity, was observed. Subjective responses were positive. Improvements in body composition and SCATs scores indicate that subtetanic NMES training elicits favorable responses and may have important clinical implications for an SCI population.

  8. Body composition in aquatic organisms — A global data bank of relationships between mass, elemental composition and energy content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Thomas; Müller-Wiegmann, Corinna; Zittier, Zora M. C.; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a global data bank on body composition of aquatic organisms that is available at http://www.thomas-brey.de/science/virtualhandbook. It covers ratios between body mass (wet, dry, ash free dry mass), body composition (protein, lipid, carbohydrate), macro-elements (C, N, P) and energy content (J). Sofar, data for 3158 different taxa (animals, plants, bacteria) were collected from 725 different sources. The principal purpose of the data bank is mining for conversion factors, as necessary in ecological studies that require a common energetic currency. The data bank can be used to explore general ecological principles, too: among all animals, carnivorous swimmers have the highest energy density, presumably an across-taxon selection for propulsion power and handling force. Plants and animals do not only differ in their C/N and C/P ratios, but these ratios change with temperature in opposite directions. In plants, C/N and C/P increase with temperature, most likely a response to the higher levels of N and P in polar waters. In animals C/N and C/P decrease with temperature, an indicator for selection towards lower activity and larger lipid stores in polar animals.

  9. Disentangling the associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition using the four‐component model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva‐Eternod, Carlos; Cortina‐Borja, Mario; Williams, Jane; Fewtrell, Mary; Wells, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives This study sets out to investigate the intergenerational associations between the body mass index (BMI) of parents and the body composition of their offspring. Methods The cross‐sectional data were analyzed for 511 parent–offspring trios from London and south‐east England. The offspring were aged 5–21 years. Parental BMI was obtained by recall and offspring fat mass and lean mass were obtained using the four‐component model. Multivariable regression analysis, with multiple imputation for missing paternal values was used. Sensitivity analyses for levels of non‐paternity were conducted. Results A positive association was seen between parental BMI and offspring BMI, fat mass index (FMI), and lean mass index (LMI). The mother's BMI was positively associated with the BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores of both daughters and sons and of a similar magnitude for both sexes. The father's BMI showed similar associations to the mother's BMI, with his son's BMI, FMI, and LMI z‐scores, but no association with his daughter. Sensitivity tests for non‐paternity showed that maternal coefficients remained greater than paternal coefficients throughout but there was no statistical difference at greater levels of non‐paternity. Conclusions We found variable associations between parental BMI and offspring body composition. Associations were generally stronger for maternal than paternal BMI, and paternal associations appeared to differ between sons and daughters. In this cohort, the mother's BMI was statistically significantly associated with her child's body composition but the father's BMI was only associated with the body composition of his sons. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:524–533, 2016. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26848813

  10. Association of vegan diet with RMR, body composition and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Nadimi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is increasing evidence to suggest that a vegetarian diet low in fat and high in complex carbohydrates offers the potential for decreasing the risk of chronic disease. However, there is little information about the effect of vegetarian diets on resting metabolic rate (RMR. The objective of this study was to determine the association of vegan diet with RMR and body composition and oxidative stress. Material and methodology. This research is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study in which two groups of vegetarians and non vegetarians were compared. RMR was determined by indirect calorimetry, the amount of body fat mass (FM, the percentage of free fat mass (FFM, the markers of oxidative stress (MAD, poteins (PCO and total anti-oxidatant capacity were measured in 20 vegetarians and 20 non-vegetarians. The two groups were matched with regard to body mass index, sex and menstrual cycle. Energy and macronutrient intakes were determined using a 3-day food record and body composition was determined by bioelectric impedance. Results. VEG reported a lower relative intake of protein (40.45 ±19.41 g, 56.96 ±11.94 g, p = 0.04, whereas no differences were observed in daily energy, carbohydrate or fat intakes and body composition. NVEG exhibited a higher absolute RMR (1354.7 ±192.6, 1569.10 ±348.24 Kcal/24 h, p = 0.02. PCO plasma density was seen signifi cantly higher among non-vegetarians (1.09 ±3.6, 0.81 ±0.42, p = 0.02. No signifi cant differences were seen in plasma density of TAC between two groups and MAD was higher amoung vegetarians. Conclusion. These results suggest that the lower RMR observed in VEG is partially mediated by differences in dietary macronutrient composition.

  11. Spherically symmetric steady states of elastic bodies in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Andréasson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    We study the properties of static spherically symmetric elastic bodies in general relativity using both analytical and numerical tools. The materials considered belong to the class of John elastic materials and reduce to perfect fluids when the rigidity parameter is set to zero. We find numerical support that such elastic bodies exist with different possible shapes (balls, single shells and multiple shells) and that their gravitational redshift can be very large ($z\\approx 2.8$) without violating the dominant energy condition. Moreover we show that the elastic body has finite radius even in the case when the constitutive equation of the elastic material is a perturbation of a polytropic fluid without finite radius, thereby concluding that such fluids are structurally unstable within the larger class of elastic matter models under study.

  12. A State of the Art Review- Methods to Evaluate Electrical Performance of Composite Cross-arms and Composite-based Pylons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da;

    2016-01-01

    performance need to be studied. This paper sums up experience and key advances on testing methods to evaluate electrical performance of composite cross-arms and composite-based pylons. Based on state of the art review, several feasible testing methods that can be used to verify the feasibility of the novel......A novel uni-body composite pylon has been proposed for 400 kV transmission lines with advantages of compacted size, friendly looking and cost competitiveness. As its configuration is quite different from the traditional lattice pylon, its electrical performance needs in-depth investigation...

  13. The application of digital imaging techniques in the in vivo estimation of the body composition of pigs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, C.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vangen, O.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kanis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetry and comparative slaughter measurement are techniques widely used to measure chemical body composition of pigs, while dissection is the standard method to determine physical (tissue) composition of the body. The disadvantage of calorimetry is the small number of observations possible, whi

  14. The insulin like growth factor system in cirrhosis. Relation to changes in body composition following adrenoreceptor blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld, Karen; Hobolth, Lise; Juul, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Circulating levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 are low in cirrhosis and are related to liver dysfunction. Metabolic disturbances include malnutrition with altered body composition and osteopenia. Since the effects of IGF-I may be associated to changes in body composition and bone mineral...

  15. Role of physical activity and sleep duration in growth and body composition of preschool-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of physical activity patterns and sleep duration on growth and body composition of preschool-aged children remains unresolved. Aims were (1) to delineate cross-sectional associations among physical activity components, sleep, total energy expenditure (TEE), and body size and composition; ...

  16. A New Multiphase Equation of State for Composition B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coe, Joshua Damon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Margevicius, Madeline Alma [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division

    2016-07-25

    We describe the construction of a complete equation of state for the high explosive Composition B in its unreacted (inert) form, as well as chemical equilibrium calculations of its detonation products. The multiphase reactant EOS is of SESAME type, and was calibrated to ambient thermal and mechanical data, the shock initiation experiments of Dattelbaum, et al., and the melt line of trinitrotoluene (TNT).

  17. Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, William H; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Spiering, Barry A

    2012-05-01

    Effects of weightlifting vs. kettlebell training on vertical jump, strength, and body composition. J Strength Cond Res 26(5): 1199-1202, 2012-The present study compared the effects of 6 weeks of weightlifting plus traditional heavy resistance training exercises vs. kettlebell training on strength, power, and anthropometric measures. Thirty healthy men were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (a) weightlifting (n = 13; mean ± SD: age, 22.92 ± 1.98 years; body mass, 80.57 ± 12.99 kg; height, 174.56 ± 5.80 cm) or (b) kettlebell (n = 17; mean ± SD: age, 22.76 ± 1.86 years; body mass, 78.99 ± 10.68 kg; height, 176.79 ± 5.08 cm) and trained 2 times a week for 6 weeks. A linear periodization model was used for training; at weeks 1-3 volume was 3 × 6 (kettlebell swings or high pull), 4 × 4 (accelerated swings or power clean), and 4 × 6 (goblet squats or back squats), respectively, and the volume increased during weeks 4-6 to 4 × 6, 6 × 4, and 4 × 6, respectively. Participants were assessed for height (in centimeters), body mass (in kilograms), and body composition (skinfolds). Strength was assessed by the back squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM), whereas power was assessed by the vertical jump and power clean 1RM. The results of this study indicated that short-term weightlifting and kettlebell training were effective in increasing strength and power. However, the gain in strength using weightlifting movements was greater than that during kettlebell training. Neither method of training led to significant changes in any of the anthropometric measures. In conclusion, 6 weeks of weightlifting induced significantly greater improvements in strength compared with kettlebell training. No between-group differences existed for the vertical jump or body composition. PMID:22344061

  18. Body composition of lactating and dry Holstein cows estimated by deuterium dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.A.; Ehle, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    In three experiments patterns of water turnover and body composition estimated by deuterium oxide were studied in Holstein cows. In the first experiment, four lactating cows were infused with deuterium oxide, and blood samples were taken during 4-d collection. Milking was stopped; cows were reinfused with deuterium oxide and resampled. Slopes of deuterium oxide dilution curves indicated lactating cows turned water over more rapidly than nonlactating cows. In the second experiment with the same four cows, during 4-d collection, deuterium oxide concentrations in milk, urine, and feces showed dilution patterns similar to deuterium oxide in blood. Sampling milk may be an alternative to sampling blood. In the third experiment, 36 Holstein cows were fed 55, 65, or 75% alfalfa, smooth bromegrass, or equal parts of each forage as total mixed rations; remaining portions of rations were a grain mixture. Body composition was estimated at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mo postpartum. Empty body water, protein, mineral, fat, and fat percentage decreased from prepartum to postpartum. First calf heifers contained less empty body water, protein, and mineral than older cows. Cows fed diets with 55% forage had more body fat than those fed diets with 75% forage. Cows fed alfalfa-based diets had more gastrointestinal fill regardless of grain than cows fed diets that contained alfalfa and smooth bromegrass. Gastrointestinal fill of cows increased from prepartum to 5 mo postpartum.

  19. Association Between Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Men on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Sandra M S de A; Wahrlich, Vivian; Mafra, Denise

    2015-10-01

    Studies have revealed complex interactions between bone and fat, however there are few studies about this crosstalk in patients with chronic kidney disease. This study investigated possible relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition in patients who underwent hemodialysis. Twenty patients were enrolled in a cross-sectional study (47.0 [42.3-56.8] years, body mass index 26.0 ± 4.2 kg/m, dialysis vintage of 48.5 [26.7-95.7] months). Body composition and BMD were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Leptin and parathormone levels were analyzed using Multiplex kits (R&D System Inc). Low bone mass in the femoral neck was reported in 54.8% of patients. Total BMD and total T-score were positively correlated with lean mass (r = 0.46, P = 0.04; r = 0.47, P = 0.04, respectively), but not with leptin or body fat mass. In conclusion, lean body mass is probably important to maintain bone health in male patients who underwent hemodialysis. PMID:26418381

  20. Body Composition Indices and Predicted Cardiovascular Disease Risk Profile among Urban Dwellers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Tin Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to compare various body composition indices and their association with a predicted cardiovascular disease (CVD risk profile in an urban population in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in 2012. Households were selected using a simple random-sampling method, and adult members were invited for medical screening. The Framingham Risk Scoring algorithm was used to predict CVD risk, which was then analyzed in association with body composition measurements, including waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, waist-height ratio, body fat percentage, and body mass index. Results. Altogether, 882 individuals were included in our analyses. Indices that included waist-related measurements had the strongest association with CVD risk in both genders. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic variables, waist-related measurements retained the strongest correlations with predicted CVD risk in males. However, body mass index, waist-height ratio, and waist circumference had the strongest correlation with CVD risk in females. Conclusions. The waist-related indicators of abdominal obesity are important components of CVD risk profiles. As waist-related parameters can quickly and easily be measured, they should be routinely obtained in primary care settings and population health screens in order to assess future CVD risk profiles and design appropriate interventions.

  1. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  2. Lifetime overweight and obesity and body composition in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callo, Gabriela; Gigante, Denise Pretucci; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity at different moments in the life cycle and body composition in early adulthood. Data were used from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, which has followed live born children of families residing in the urban area of Pelotas at different ages. At 30 years of age, 3,701 cohort members were interviewed and body composition was assessed using Bod Pod, 2,219 cohort members had at least one weight and height measurement taken in the three periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), 24% never presented overweight, and 68.6% were never classified as obese. Elevated body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat at 30 years of age were associated with individuals classified as overweight in all three periods or in adolescence and adulthood, while those with overweight/obesity only in childhood or adolescence showed mean BMI and percent body fat similar to those who had never presented overweight/obesity. The results indicate the benefit of early interruption of overweight/obesity.

  3. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  4. Study of body composition in small animals by a multifrequency impedancemeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribbe, E.; Khider, N.; Moreno, M. V.

    2010-04-01

    Bioimpedance is essentially used today to study the body composition in the human body but not really in small animals. The aim of this paper is to develop a model for body composition in rats to help pharmaceutical labs assessing effects of medicine on rats. We propose a non invasive, rapid and scientific method. With a multifrequency impedancemeter, Z-Métrix® (BioparHom© Company France), resistances and reactances are measured at 55 frequencies for a population of 40 rats (males and females). With our model, derived from Cole-Cole model, resistances of extracellular (Re) and total body (Rinf) compartment are extrapolated. Three methods were applied: posterior to posterior leg, anterior to posterior leg on the left and on the right side. Measurements by CT imaging were performed on the anesthetized population to determine Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC), as our reference measurements. With electrical data, age, sex and weight, equations are created to calculate FM, LBM and BMC with the three methods. Graphs of correlation, between tissue masses calculated by bioimpedance and obtained with scanner, indicate that measurements with posterior to posterior leg are better. Moreover, there is no significantly difference between tissue masses measured by bioimpedance and with the scanner.

  5. Effect of using composites on the dynamic response of multi-body systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabana, A. A.

    1986-08-01

    A finite element scheme is presented for studying the dynamic response of multi-body systems with components manufactured from orthotropic materials. The formulation presented is exemplified by using fiber-reinforced cornposite laminates. The multi-body system considered in this investigation consists of interconnected rigid and flexible components, each undergoing large angular rotations. The configuration of the elastic components is identified by using two sets of generalized co-ordinates, reference and elastic co-ordinates. Reference co-ordinates describe the location and orientation of a selected body reference while elastic co-ordinates describe the deformation with respect to the body reference. Component modes of elastic components in the system are used to reduce the number of generalized co-ordinates. The system differential equations of motion and the algebraic constraint equations describing mechanical joints in the system are written in terms of mixed sets of reference and modal co-ordinates. Two numerical examples, for a slider crank mechanism and a Peaucellier mechanism, are presented in order to demonstrate the effect of the use of the composites on the dynamic response of multi-body systems. Numerical results showed that the use of composites represents an effective passive control strategy.

  6. Validation of live animal ultrasonic measurements of body composition in market lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenheiser, J C; Greiner, S P; Lewis, R M; Notter, D R

    2010-09-01

    Market lambs from the state fair of Virginia (n = 172) were ultrasonically evaluated by 4 scan technicians and 3 image interpreters to determine accuracy of ultrasonic estimates of loin muscle area (ULMA), backfat thickness (UBF), and body wall thickness (UBW). Lambs were initially scanned at the preferred magnification setting of each technician; 2 chose 1.5x and 2 chose 2.0x. Lambs were then scanned a second time for ULMA and UBF with machine magnification settings changed from 1.5 to 2.0x, or vice versa, midway through the second scan. Lambs were then slaughtered, and analogous measurements [carcass loin muscle area, carcass backfat thickness, and carcass body wall thickness (CBW)] were recorded on chilled carcasses. Pooled, residual correlation coefficients within technicians and interpreters between ultrasonic measurements from the first scan and carcass measurements were 0.66 for loin muscle area, 0.78 for backfat thickness, and 0.73 for body wall thickness, but were reduced to 0.43, 0.69, and 0.50, respectively, by inclusion of linear effects of carcass weight in the model. Mean bias for technicians and interpreters ranged from -1.30 to -2.66 cm(2) for loin muscle area, -0.12 to -0.17 cm for backfat thickness, and 0.14 to -0.03 cm for body wall thickness; prediction errors ranged from 1.86 to 2.22 cm(2), 0.12 to 0.14 cm, and 0.35 to 0.38 cm, respectively. Pooled correlations between repeated measures were 0.67 for ULMA, 0.79 for UBF, and 0.68 for UBW at the same magnification and 0.73 for ULMA and 0.76 for UBF across different magnification settings. Mean differences between repeated measures were more variable among technicians and interpreters than statistics comparing ultrasound to carcass measures. Standard errors of repeatability ranged from 1.61 to 2.45 cm(2) for ULMA, 0.07 to 0.11 cm for UBF, and 0.36 to 0.42 cm for UBW. The effect of changing magnification setting on technician and interpreter repeatability was small for UBF and ULMA. The accuracy of

  7. Body composition changes after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in patients with cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan; Montomoli; Peter; Holland-Fischer; Giampaolo; Bianchi; Henning; GrФnbk; Hendrik; Vilstrup; Giulio; Marchesini; Marco; Zoli

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of transjugular intra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) on malnutrition in portal hypertensive cirrhotic patients.METHODS: Twenty-one patients with liver cirrhosis and clinical indications for TIPS insertion were investigated before and 1, 4, 12, 52 wk after TIPS. For each patient we assayed body composition parameters [dry lean mass, fat mass, total body water (TBW)], routine liver and kidney function tests, and free fatty acids (FFA). Glucose and insulin were measured for t...

  8. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Zihlman, AL; Bolter, DR

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonob...

  9. The tracking of active travel and its relationship with body composition in UK adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Falconer, Catherine L; Leary, Sam D; Page, Angie S; Cooper, Ashley R.

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundTo examine the tracking of active travel through adolescence, and its association with body mass index (BMI) and fat mass at age 17 in a UK cohort.MethodsWe analysed data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The analyses include all participants with self-reported travel mode to school at ages 12, 14 and 16 years, and measured height, weight and body composition at age 17 (n=2,026). Tracking coefficients were calculated for individual travel b...

  10. Effects of resistance training on binge eating, body composition and blood variables in type II diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Moisés Simão Santa Rosa de Sousa; Victor Manuel Machado dos Reis; Jefferson da Silva Novaes; Josenaldo Mendes de Sousa; Divaldo Martins de Souza

    2014-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36n1.18048 This study examined the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT) on binge eating, body composition and blood variables and their correlations in 34 sedentary adults with type II diabetes. The participants aged 58.94 ± 10.66, had body weight of 71.62 ± 11.85 and BMI of 29.64 ± 4.27. Blood samples were collected for analysis of serum leptin, glucose, insulin, LDL, HDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride. The binge eating was asses...

  11. Effect of clothing type on body composition in adults across a wide range of body mass index (BMI) using air displacement plethysmography (ADP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ADP, using Bod Pod, is a popular method to assess body composition. For valid results, however, the manufacturer warrants tight-fitting clothing (swimsuit or spandex), which may be uncomfortable or impractical for overweight (O) and obese (OB) persons or those with negative body image. This study c...

  12. Relationships Among Student-body Composition, School Process, and Mathematics Achievement in Argentina’s High Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Alberto Cervini Iturre

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of the relationships between the student-body composition of the school, some characteristics of the scholastic process—culture and school climate—according to learners’ perceptions, and the mathematics achievement of students in the last year of high school in Argentina. The data used came from the 1998 National Census of High School Completion, carried out by the nation’s Ministry of Culture and Education. The file contains data for 135,000 students of 2,708 schools in 25 states. Multilevel linear modeling with three levels (student, school and state was applied. A strong relationship was detected between mathematics achievement and the variables student-body composition and school process. When both variables acted together, the effect of other variables experienced a pronounced descent. Although reduced, the variables of the process influenced the student’s achievement. There was identified for future works a reference model which would evaluate other institutional learning factors.

  13. Analysis of Body Composition and Food Habits of Spanish Celiac Women

    OpenAIRE

    Itziar Churruca; Jonatan Miranda; Arrate Lasa; María Bustamante; Idoia Larretxi; Edurne Simon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was both to analyze composition of Spanish celiac women and to study the food habits and gluten-free diet of these celiac patients, in order to determine whether they achieve a balanced and healthy diet as well as to highlight nutritional qualitative and/or quantitative differences. 54 adult celiac women (34 +/- 13 years) took part in the six-month study. Height, weight and body composition were measured. An analysis of energy consumption and of the macronutrie...

  14. Fabrication of Titanium/Fluorapatite Composites and In Vitro Behavior in Simulated Body Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hezhou Ye; Xing Yang Liu; Hanping Hong

    2013-01-01

    Titanium/fluorapatite (Ti/FA) composites with various FA additions were fabricated by powder metallurgy.The decomposition of FA during sintering was accelerated by the presence of Ti.The main reaction products of FA and Ti were identified as CaO,Ti phosphides,and CaTiO3.The addition of FA significantly inhibited the densification of Ti.The in vitro bioactivity of the composites was evaluated in a simulated body fluid (SBF).After immersion into the SBF,all the Ti/FA composites induced nucleation and growth of bone-like carbonated apatite on the surface.Co-precipitation of CaCO3 and Mg(OH)2 was also detected on the surface of the composite with high FA addition at an early stage of immersion.Furthermore,the release of fluorine ions from the composite was confirmed,which could promote bone regeneration and retard the formation of caries in the biological environment.The in vitro behavior was attributed to multiple factors,including the surface conditions and the constituents of the composite.The results demonstrated that the Ti/FA composites were bioactive in nature even with a low FA addition and they could introduce the benefit of fluorine ions in the service.

  15. Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations in Presence of Dissipative Bodies: Dynamical Approach for Non-Equilibrium and Squeezed States

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Adrian E Rubio

    2016-01-01

    This work contributes to the study of non-equilibrium aspects of the Casimir forces with the introduction of squeezed states in the calculations. Throughout this article two main results can be found, being both strongly correlated. Primarily, the more formal result involves the development of a first-principles canonical quantization formalism to study the vacuum in presence different dissipative bodies in completely general scenarios. We considered a one-dimensional quantum scalar field interacting with the volume elements' degrees of freedom of the material bodies, which are modeled as composite systems consisting in a harmonic oscillators interacting with an environment. Solving the full dynamics of the composite system through its Heisenberg equations, we studied each contribution to the field operator by employing general properties of the Green function. We deduced the long-time limit of the field operator. In agreement with previous works, we showed that the expectation values of the components of the...

  16. Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation of Acupoints Changes Body Composition and Heart Rate Variability in Postmenopausal Women with Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Li-Wei Chien; Miao-Hsiang Lin; Hsueh-Yu Chung; Chi-Feng Liu

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulations (TEAS) on body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) in postmenopausal women with obesity. In this prospective study, 49 postmenopausal women were recruited in Taiwan. Body composition was used as a screening test for obesity (percentage body fat > 30%, waist circumference > 80 cm). The experimental group (n = 24) received TEAS treatment 30 min twice per week for 12 weeks at the Zusanli (ST 36) and...

  17. Body composition phenotypes in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis: a comparative study of caucasian female patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, MJ; Vinagre, F; Silva, J.; Gil, V; J. Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The amount and distribution of fat and lean mass have important implications for health and systemic inflammation may represent a risk for altered body composition. The aim of this study was to analyse whether changes in body composition are similarly associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), two inflammatory conditions of different pathogenesis. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) w...

  18. Effect of diet composition and lysine supply on growth and body composition in juvenile turbot (Psetta maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeckel, Saskia; Dietz, Carsten; Schulz, Carsten; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding level and dietary lysine concentration on growth, protein and lysine retention, and body composition in juvenile turbot. Maintenance requirement for lysine and the efficiency of lysine utilisation were determined as well. Two experimental diets were formulated based on fishmeal or wheat gluten as main protein sources, containing 6.4 g (Diet A, control) and 4.5 g lysine per 100 g CP (Diet B), respectively. Diets were fed once daily at six feeding levels (per day 0.3%, 0.6%, 0.9%, 1.2%, and 1.5% of body weight [BW] and ad libitum) to a total of 432 fish of 48 g initial BW. No differences in the growth parameters were observed between diets at the same feeding level, except a lower feed to gain ratio (p level at Diet B. Whole-body composition was not affected by diet, whereas muscle protein concentration was significantly lower for fish fed Diet B. Amino acid concentration in whole-body protein was affected by dietary treatment and fish fed Diet B showed lower concentrations of all essential amino acids. In fish muscle protein, lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, and valine concentrations were significantly lower in Diet B. Efficiency of lysine utilisation for growth (klys) was determined by linear regression analysis and amounted for 0.69 for Diet B. The maintenance lysine requirement defined at zero lysine retention was 6.5 mg · kg(-0.8) · d(-1). Lysine intakes at zero protein retention were 13.0 mg and 12.9 mg · kg(-0.8) · d(-1) for Diet A and B, respectively. Growth and nutrient retention were similar for both diets and, therefore, a lysine deficiency in Diet B did not occur. In conclusion, a proportion of 330 g wheat gluten per kg feed did not influence growth performance and maintenance requirement for lysine in juvenile turbot. However, the effect of diet composition on the amino acid profile of body protein might be relevant for the derivation of the amino acid requirement

  19. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  20. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy......, the level of asthma control, fitness and the time spent in vigorous activity correlated positively (P frequency of obesity than their healthy peers. Uncontrolled asthma is associated with a reduced...

  1. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  2. Body composition and bone mineral density measurements by using a multi-energy method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a major technique to evaluate bone mineral density, thus allowing diagnosis of bone decalcification ( osteoporosis). Recently, this method has proved useful to quantify body composition (fat ratio). However, these measurements suffer from artefacts which can lead to diagnosis errors in a number of cases. This work has aimed to improve both the reproducibility and the accuracy of bone mineral density and body composition measurements. To this avail, the acquisition conditions were optimised in order to ameliorate the results reproducibility and we have proposed a new method to correct inaccuracies in the determination of bone mineral density. Experimental validations yield encouraging results on both synthetic phantoms and biological samples. (author)

  3. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  4. Peculiarities of physical fitness and body composition of students engaged and not engaged in sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuoziene I.J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of students’ physical fitness and body composition were identified through an international research project including Lithuania, Poland and Belorussia. The article deals with the data of research carried out in Lithuania. The study included 207 students (aged 19.7 +- 1.3. It was established that students engaged in sports demonstrated higher results in speed and agility tests compared to their counterparts not engaged in sports (p<0.05. Results of resistance and flexibility tests did not differ statistically significantly between male students engaged and not engaged in sports, but there were statistically significant differences in their endurance test results (p<0.05. Female students engaged in sports showed significantly higher results (p<0.05–0.001 in all physical fitness tests except for the handgrip dynamometry. Body composition characteristics did not significantly differ for students engaged and not engaged in sports.

  5. Proximate body composition and energy content of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) in relation to the condition factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costopoulos, C. G.; Fonds, M.

    Length, wet weight, dry weight, and the content of lipid, ash and protein of young plaice were determined. The energy content of the fish was estimated by multiplying lipid and protein content by the commonly used calorific equivalents. The data were sorted from low to high condition factor of the fish and grouped according to condition factor (K = 100·W·L -3) into 8 condition groups. Mean values of percentage body composition and energy content were calculated for each condition group. Equations giving the best fit between condition factor and the parameters of body composition and energy content are presented. From the decrease in condition factor in fasting fish the relative losses of lipid and protein energy are calculated. The accuracy of equations for the calculation of energy content of plaice from condition factor is discussed.

  6. Prevalence of cachexia in chronic heart failure and characteristics of body composition and metabolic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Schou, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    characterize a CHF population with and without cachexia with respect to body composition and related biomarkers. From 2008 to 2011, we screened 238 optimally treated, non-diabetic CHF patients for cardiac cachexia, defined as unintentional non-oedematous weight loss of >5 % over ≥6 months. CHF patients (LVEF...... 45 % (n = 19). The groups were matched for age, sex, and kidney function. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of cachexia was 10.5 %. Abdominal fat ± SD (%) was reduced in cachectic CHF: 27.4 ± 10.0 versus 37.5 ± 10.6 % (CHF, no cachexia) and 40...

  7. Nutritional status, body composition and diet in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Elkan, Ann-Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease with higher mortality rate than in the general population, which is largely attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Another consequence of the inflammatory process is change in body composition with decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass. This condition has been named rheumatoid cachexia and is difficult to detect in clinical practice, as it is associated with little or no weight loss and with a maintained...

  8. Association of vegan diet with RMR, body composition and oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hoda Nadimi; Abbas Yousefi nejad; Abolghasem Djazayery; Mostafa Hosseini; Saeed Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Background. There is increasing evidence to suggest that a vegetarian diet low in fat and high in complex carbohydrates offers the potential for decreasing the risk of chronic disease. However, there is little information about the effect of vegetarian diets on resting metabolic rate (RMR). The objective of this study was to determine the association of vegan diet with RMR and body composition and oxidative stress. Material and methodology. This research is a cross-sectional descriptive analy...

  9. Differential effects of raloxifene and estrogen on body composition in growth hormone-replaced hypopituitary women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Birzniece, Vita

    2012-03-01

    GH deficiency causes reduction in muscle and bone mass and an increase in fat mass (FM), the changes reversed by GH replacement. The beneficial effects of GH on fat oxidation and protein anabolism are attenuated more markedly by raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, compared with 17β-estradiol. Whether this translates to a long-term detrimental effect on body composition is unknown.

  10. Multi-Functional Composite Design Concepts for Rail Vehicle Car Bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Wennberg, David

    2013-01-01

    Structures and material combinations, tailored for multiple purposes, are within the reach of vehicle manufacturers. Besides reducing the environmental impact of the transportation sector these multi-functional structures can reduce costs, such as development, manufacturing and maintenance, and at the same time offer improved comfort to the passengers. This thesis sets out to develop multi-functional design algorithms and evaluate concepts for future composite high speed train car bodies with...

  11. Glass-ceramic frits for porcelain stoneware bodies: effects on sintering, phase composition and technological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Zanelli, Chiara; Baldi, Giovanni; Dondi, Michele; Ercolani, Giampaolo; Guarini, Guia; Raimondo, Maria Rosa

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, the effects of glass-ceramic frits (10wt%) added to a porcelain stoneware body in replacement of non-plastic raw materials, were evaluated simulating the tile-making process. Each glass-ceramic frit plays its own peculiar effect on the compositional properties and only some precursors behave as real glass ceramic materials. The positive influence of glass-ceramic precursors in promoting the sintering stands out when temperature onset densification and sintering rate are c...

  12. The changing understanding of ageing. Part 2: Body composition, metabolism and cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis F. Lawler

    2011-01-01

    This second of three discussions about ageing biology and diseases continues at the level of the organism, examining the relationship among body composition, late life and diseases. One view of significant age-related mass loss in humans suggests that anabolic failure is associated with various precipitating factors that may share anorexia in common. Lean mass decline with even partial anorexia should alert clinicians to monitor patients for emergence of otherwise subclinical disease. Weight ...

  13. Chemical composition and radical scavenging activity of melanin from Auricularia auricula fruiting bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zou; Yue Zhao; Wenzhong Hu

    2015-01-01

    Melanin extracted from Auricularia auricula fruiting bodies (AAFB) was examined by element analyzer, amino acid analyzer, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Elemental composition analysis revealed that main component of AAFB melanin was pheomelanin. Amino acid analysis showed that 16 amino acids were found in AAFB melanin and total amino acid content was 321. 63 mg/g. There were 13 detectable metal elements in AAFB melanin, which was rich in Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn. In additi...

  14. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49/epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after three years' service, and found to be performing satisfactorily. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft, including sandwich and solid laminate wing-body panels, and 150 C service aft engine fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  15. Body composition, dietary patterns, cardiovascular disease and mortality in older age

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and poor quality diet are major interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, which are well established in middle-aged populations. However, there is controversy on the effects of obesity on CVD and mortality in the elderly. Since body composition changes with age (visceral fat increases and muscle mass decreases) it may be important to also account for muscle mass in the elderly. However, few studies have examined the combined effects of adiposity and sar...

  16. Body composition and deposition efficiency of protein and energy in grazing young bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Eriton Egidio Lisboa Valente; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Marcos Inácio Marcondes; Isabela Fernanda Teixeira Dias

    2014-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with different protein: carbohydrate ratios on body composition, carcass characteristics and protein and energy deposition efficiency of young were assessed. Twenty-four Nellorecalves (132.5 ± 5.5 kgand 90-150 days of age) were kept on pasture for a 430 day experimental period. The treatments were: Control = mineral mixture only; HPHC = high-protein and high-carbohydrate supplement; HPLC = high-protein and low-carbohydrate supplement; LPHC = low-protein and high...

  17. Maternal exercise before and during pregnancy does not impact offspring exercise or body composition in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Scott A.; Hua, Kunjie; Wallace, Jennifer N.; Wells, Sarah E.; Nehrenberg, Derrick L.; Pomp, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background The genome, the environment, and their interactions simultaneously regulate complex traits such as body composition and voluntary exercise levels. One such environmental influence is the maternal milieu (i.e., in utero environment or maternal care). Variability in the maternal environment may directly impact the mother, and simultaneously has the potential to influence the physiology and/or behavior of offspring in utero, post birth, and into adulthood. Here, we utilized a murine m...

  18. Changes in Body Composition in Anorexia Nervosa: Predictors of Recovery and Treatment Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Zaida Agüera; Xandra Romero; Jon Arcelus; Isabel Sánchez; Nadine Riesco; Susana Jiménez-Murcia; Jana González-Gómez; Roser Granero; Nuria Custal; Monica Montserrat-Gil de Bernabé; Salomé Tárrega; Baños, Rosa. M; Cristina Botella; Rafael de la Torre; Fernández-García, José C.

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of body composition (BC) parameters is considered to be one of the most important goals in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). However, little is known about differences between AN diagnostic subtypes [restricting (AN-R) and binge/purging (AN-BP)] and weekly changes in BC during refeeding treatment. Therefore, the main objectives of our study were twofold: 1) to assess the changes in BC throughout nutritional treatment in an AN sample and 2) to analyze predic...

  19. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Gil Gómez; Pablo Juan Verdoy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommend...

  20. Peculiarities of physical fitness and body composition of students engaged and not engaged in sports

    OpenAIRE

    Zuoziene I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Peculiarities of students’ physical fitness and body composition were identified through an international research project including Lithuania, Poland and Belorussia. The article deals with the data of research carried out in Lithuania. The study included 207 students (aged 19.7 ± 1.3). It was established that students engaged in sports demonstrated higher results in speed and agility tests compared to their counterparts not engaged in sports (p<0.05). Results of resistance and flexibility...

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acid content of mother's milk is associated with childhood body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise; Lauritzen, Lotte; Brasholt, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids has changed, and the prevalence of adiposity has increased over the past 30 y. A decrease of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in breast milk has been suggested to be a contributing factor. The objective of this study was to investigate...... the relationship between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content and n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio in breast milk, body composition, and timing of adiposity rebound in children....

  2. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jacqueline C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (body mass index (BMI and height as predictors of newborn body composition. Methods Weight, height, head and mid-arm circumferences, skinfold thicknesses and external pelvic diameters were measured at 30 ± 2 weeks gestation in 571 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Paternal height and weight were also measured. At birth, detailed neonatal anthropometry was performed. Unrotated and varimax rotated PCA was applied to the maternal and neonatal measurements. Results Rotated PCA reduced maternal measurements to 4 independent components (fat, pelvis, height and muscle and neonatal measurements to 3 components (trunk+head, fat, and leg length. An SD increase in maternal fat was associated with a 0.16 SD increase (β in neonatal fat (p Conclusion Principal components analysis is a useful method to describe neonatal body composition and its determinants. Newborn adiposity is related to maternal nutritional status and parity, while newborn length is genetically determined. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms linking maternal pelvic size to fetal growth and the determinants and implications of the components (trunk v leg length of fetal skeletal growth.

  3. The relationships between body composition and cardiovascular risk factors in young Australian men

    OpenAIRE

    Selma C Liberato; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina; Hills, Andrew P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading cause of global mortality. Despite clear evidence of the coexistence of several risk factors in young people as children and an understanding of the importance of the health behaviors in controlling CV disease, there are limited data on the relationships between risk factors and CV disease in young people. Therefore further study is required. Objective This study aimed to investigate associations among body composition, health behaviors an...

  4. Body Composition in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes : Aspects of Glycaemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Särnblad, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Excessive weight gain has frequently been reported in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, especially in girls. In general, puberty is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity that is further diminished by overweight. The causes and consequences of excessive weight gain in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. The studies described in this thesis addressed body composition in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and the relationships between physical activity, energy intake a...

  5. Body composition and depressive/anxiety symptoms in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, Erika P; Madeira, Eduardo; Mafort, Thiago T; Madeira, Miguel; Moreira, Rodrigo O; Mendonça, Laura MC; Godoy-Matos, Amélio F; Lopes, Agnaldo J.; Farias, Maria Lucia F

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies point to a correlation between obesity and the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adults, but there are still some controversial points about this association. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and the severity of anxiety/depressive symptoms in overweight and obese individuals with Metabolic Syndrome (MS). Methods Fifty patients, 18–50 years old, overweight or obese and with the diagnosis of MS...

  6. Effects of Age, Walking Speed, and Body Composition on Pedometer Accuracy in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. Scott; Schofield, Grant; Duncan, Elizabeth K.; Hinckson, Erica A.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of age group, walking speed, and body composition on the accuracy of pedometer-determined step counts in children. Eighty-five participants (43 boys, 42 girls), ages 5-7 and 9-11 years, walked on a treadmill for two-minute bouts at speeds of 42, 66, and 90 m[middle dot]min[superscript -1]…

  7. The impact of exercise on body composition and nutritional intake in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Roberta K; Sanders, Mark G

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of heart failure patients and the potential synergistic effects between nutritional intake and exercise. This small, randomized trial examined the effects of a 3-month exercise program on body composition and nutritional intake in 31 men (17 exercisers; 14 controls), aged 30-76 years (mean, 56 years) with stable class II-III heart failure. Baseline and 3-month evaluations included body mass index, body fat mass by triceps skinfold thickness, dietary intake by food frequency questionnaire, and the 6-minute walk test. Exercise consisted of walking 3 d/wk and resistance exercises 2 d/wk for 40-60 minutes. Dietary recommendations were consistent with the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology heart failure guidelines. Exercisers decreased body weight (p=0.001), body mass index (p=0.0001), and triceps skinfold thickness (p=0.03) and improved 6-minute walk test (p=0.01) compared with controls. Exercisers also demonstrated trends toward decreased total caloric and cholesterol intake and a three-fold higher carbohydrate, fiber, and beta carotene intake vs. controls. In this study population, protein, fiber, and magnesium intake were below recommended daily allowance. After exercise, body mass index was reduced, accompanied by dietary modifications including greater intake of foods with higher moisture content. Further study is needed to investigate the interaction among diet, exercise, and weight.

  8. Assessment of the Body Composition and Parameters of the Cardiovascular Risk in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Jednacz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate cardiovascular risk parameters, body mass index (BMI centiles for sex and age, and body fat percentage using the electric bioimpedance method in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA. 30 children with JIA participated in the study. A control group included 20 children. Patients were well matched for the age and sex. The body mass and body fat percentage were determined using the segmental body composition analyser; the BMI centiles were determined. All patients had the following parameters determined: lipid profile, hsCRP, homocysteine, and IL-6. The intima media thickness (IMT was measured. Patients with JIA had significantly lower body weight, BMI, and the BMI centile compared to the control group. The IL-6 levels were significantly higher in patients with JIA compared to the control group. There were no differences between two groups with regard to the lipid profile, % content of the fat tissue, homocysteine levels, hsCRP, and IMT. Further studies are necessary to search for reasons for lower BMI and BMI centile in children with JIA and to attempt to answer the question of whether lower BMI increases the cardiovascular risk in these patients, similarly as in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.

  9. Effect of Protein Intake on Strength, Body Composition and Endocrine Changes in Strength/Power Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Jie

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Comparison of protein intakes on strength, body composition and hormonal changes were examined in 23 experienced collegiate strength/power athletes participating in a 12-week resistance training program. Subjects were stratified into three groups depending upon their daily consumption of protein; below recommended levels (BL; 1.0 – 1.4 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 8, recommended levels (RL; 1.6 – 1.8 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 7 and above recommended levels (AL; > 2.0 g·kg-1·day-1; n = 8. Subjects were assessed for strength [one-repetition maximum (1-RM bench press and squat] and body composition. Resting blood samples were analyzed for total testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor. No differences were seen in energy intake (3,171 ± 577 kcal between the groups, and the energy intake for all groups were also below the recommended levels for strength/power athletes. No significant changes were seen in body mass, lean body mass or fat mass in any group. Significant improvements in 1-RM bench press and 1-RM squat were seen in all three groups, however no differences between the groups were observed. Subjects in AL experienced a 22% and 42% greater change in Δ 1-RM squat and Δ 1-RM bench press than subjects in RL, however these differences were not significant. No significant changes were seen in any of the resting hormonal concentrations. The results of this study do not provide support for protein intakes greater than recommended levels in collegiate strength/power athletes for body composition improvements, or alterations in resting hormonal concentrations.

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid mitigates testosterone-related changes in body composition in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Susan Q; DeGuire, Jason R; Lavery, Paula; Mak, Ivy L; Weiler, Hope A; Santosa, Sylvia

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) may be effective in preventing the changes in total and regional body composition and increases in interleukin (IL) 6 that occur as a result of hypogonadism. Male guinea pigs (n = 40, 70- to 72-week retired breeders) were block randomized by weight into 4 groups: (1) sham surgery (SHAM)/control (CTRL) diet, (2) SHAM/conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) diet (1%), (3) orchidectomy (ORX)/CTRL diet, and (4) ORX/CLA diet. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans were performed at baseline and week 16 to assess body composition. Serum IL-6 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay. Fatty acids (FAs) from visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed using gas chromatography. In ORX/CTRL guinea pigs, percent total body fat increased by 6.1%, and percent lean mass decreased by 6.7% over the 16-week treatment period, whereas no changes were observed for either parameter in ORX/CLA guinea pigs. Guinea pigs fed the CLA diet gained less percent total, upper, and lower body fat than those fed the CTRL diet regardless of surgical treatment. Regional adipose tissue FA composition was reflective of dietary FAs. Serum IL-6 concentrations were not different among groups. In this study, we observed that, in male guinea pigs, hypogonadism resulted in increased fat mass and decreased lean mass. In addition, CLA was effective in reducing gains in body fat and maintaining lean mass in both hypogonadal and intact guinea pigs. PMID:27101759

  11. Body composition measures of obese adolescents by the deuterium oxide dilution method and by bioelectrical impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Resende

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to describe and compare the body composition variables determined by bioelectrical impedance (BIA and the deuterium dilution method (DDM, to identify possible correlations and agreement between the two methods, and to construct a linear regression model including anthropometric measures. Obese adolescents were evaluated by anthropometric measures, and body composition was assessed by BIA and DDM. Forty obese adolescents were included in the study. Comparison of the mean values for the following variables: fat body mass (FM; kg, fat-free mass (FFM; kg, and total body water (TBW; % determined by DDM and by BIA revealed significant differences. BIA overestimated FFM and TBW and underestimated FM. When compared with data provided by DDM, the BIA data presented a significant correlation with FFM (r = 0.89; P < 0.001, FM (r = 0.93; P < 0.001 and TBW (r = 0.62; P < 0.001. The Bland-Altman plot showed no agreement for FFM, FM or TBW between data provided by BIA and DDM. The linear regression models proposed in our study with respect to FFM, FM, and TBW were well adjusted. FFM obtained by DDM = 0.842 x FFM obtained by BIA. FM obtained by DDM = 0.855 x FM obtained by BIA + 0.152 x weight (kg. TBW obtained by DDM = 0.813 x TBW obtained by BIA. The body composition results of obese adolescents determined by DDM can be predicted by using the measures provided by BIA through a regression equation.

  12. Seasonal biochemical changes in composition of body wall tissues of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Fei; XU Qiang; YANG Hongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variation in proximate, amino acid and fatty acid composition of the body wall of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was evaluated. The proximate composition, except for ash content, changed significantly among seasons (P<0.05). Alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and asparagic acid were the most abundant amino acids. Total amino acid and essential amino acid contents both varied clearly with seasons (P<0.05). 16:0 and 16:1n7 were the primary saturated fatty acid (SFA)and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) respectively for all months. EPA (20:5n-3), AA (20:4n-6)and DHA (22:6n-3) were the major polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The proportions of SFA and PUFA yielded significant seasonal variations (P<0.001), but MUFA did not changed significantly.The results indicated that the biochemical compositions of the body wall in A. japonicus were significantly influenced by seasons and that the body wall tissue is an excellent source of protein,MUFA and n-3 PUFA for humans.

  13. Preliminary bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caicedo-Eraso, J. C.; González-Correa, C. H.; González-Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    A previous study showed that reported BIA equations for body composition are not suitable for Colombian population. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a preliminary BIA equation for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia, using hydrodensitometry as reference method. A sample of 30 young females was evaluated. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined to minimize the variability of BIA. Height, weight, BIA, residual lung volume (RV) and underwater weight (UWW) were measured. A preliminary BIA equation was developed (r2 = 0.72, SEE = 2.48 kg) by stepwise multiple regression with fat-free mass (FFM) as dependent variable and weight, height and impedance measurements as independent variables. The quality of regression was evaluated and a cross-validation against 50% of sample confirmed that results obtained with the preliminary BIA equation is interchangeable with results obtained with hydrodensitometry (r2 = 0.84, SEE = 2.62 kg). The preliminary BIA equation can be used for body composition assessment in young females from Colombia until a definitive equation is developed. The next step will be increasing the sample, including a second reference method, as deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), and using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA). It would also be desirable to develop equations for males and other ethnic groups in Colombia.

  14. Effects of metal implants on whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral content and body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangregorio, L.M. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Kinesiology, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Webber, C.E. [Hamilton Health Sciences, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: webber@hhsc.ca

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of metal implants on measurements of bone mineral content and body composition by x-ray-based dual-photon absorptiometry. Four whole-body dual-photon absorptiometry scans were performed on 13 participants with metal rods either present or absent during the scans. The influence of the amount of metal (50 g, 100 g and 150 g), the proximity of the metal rod to the x-ray source and the reproducibility of any metal-induced effects were evaluated by altering the position or the size of the metal rod used, or both. The presence of metal rods weighing 100 g or 150 g significantly increased reported total body mass and bone mineral content (p < 0.034). Soft-tissue mass was increased when the scan included the 100-g rod (p < 0.003). The proximity of the metal to the x-ray source did not have a significant influence on the body composition changes induced by the metal. The effects of the metal rods on body composition variables were reproducible. The presence of metal rods inflated body composition variables measured by dual-photon absorptiometry; however, the effects are reproducible during repeat scans of an individual patient. Metal had the largest impact on whole-body bone mineral content, causing errors of 1.5%-3%. (author)

  15. Relation between body composition and biochemical markers of bone turnover among early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D;

    2000-01-01

    We studied the associations between body composition and biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption among 1600 postmenopausal women, ages 45-59. Multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the independent associations of fat mass, muscle strength (quadriceps strength), height......, the mean levels of osteocalcin decreased by 3% and 13%, respectively; NTX decreased by 5 and 21%. Fat mass and whole-body BMC were also significantly associated with decreases in the average of osteocalcin and NTX Z-scores. By contrast, the mean levels of serum osteocalcin increased by 2 and 11......%, respectively, per IQR increase in muscle strength and height; NTX increased by 4 (not significant) and 14%, respectively. Both muscle strength and height were significantly associated with increases in the average Z-scores. These exploratory analyses suggest that fat mass and whole-body BMC were associated...

  16. Myosin heavy chain composition of single fibres from m. biceps brachii of male body builders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, H; Zhou, M.-Y.; Richter, Erik

    1990-01-01

    expression of MHC isoforms within histochemical type II fibres of human skeletal muscle with body building. Furthermore, in human skeletal muscle differences in expression of MHC isoforms may not always be reflected in the traditional histochemical classification of types I, IIa, IIb and IIc fibres.......The myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of single fibres from m. biceps brachii of young sedentary men (28 +/- 0.4 years, mean +/- SE, n = 4) and male body builders (25 +/- 2.0 years, n = 4) was analysed with a sensitive one-dimensional electrophoretic technique. Compared with sedentary men, the...... body builders had a higher proportion of fibres containing only MHC type IIa (36 +/- 4 vs 12 +/- 2%; P less than 0.05), but a lower proportion of fibres with a coexistence of MHC types IIa and IIb (16 +/- 3 vs 34 +/- 2%; P less than 0.05) and nearly no fibres containing only MHC type IIb (1 +/- 1 vs 12...

  17. Body composition and energy intake: do overweight women overeat and underreport?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissner, L; Habicht, J P; Strupp, B J; Levitsky, D A; Haas, J D; Roe, D A

    1989-02-01

    The relationship between energy consumption and body composition was evaluated in 63 women by use of energy-intake values that were precisely measured in a metabolic unit and corrected for deviations from energy balance. Energy requirement for the maintenance of body weight was not significantly correlated with adiposity expressed as percent body fat. However, energy requirement was positively associated with lean mass (p less than 0.0001) whereas fat mass added no predictive value to the same multivariate regression equation. Self-reported energy intake (before the experiments) was not correlated with lean mass and was underestimated by lean subjects at least as much as by obese subjects. Discrepant findings in the literature concerning relationships between obesity and energy intake may be explained by reporting error and by the relative lean mass of obese vs nonobese women but not by systematic underreporting unique to obese subjects.

  18. The Role of Dairy Products in Healthy Weight and Body Composition in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Lisa A; Cifelli, Christopher J; Miller, Gregory D

    2011-02-01

    Overweight and obesity are major public health concerns with approximately 32% and 17% of U.S. children aged 2 - 19 being classified as overweight or obese, respectively. While the cause of overweight and obesity is multi-factorial, changes in eating habits and physical activity patterns have been proposed as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic. For example, the displacement of nutrient rich foods and beverages with non-nutrient dense items may be influencing childhood obesity. Many children do not consume the recommended servings of the Food Groups to Encourage, i.e. low-fat and fat-free dairy foods, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains identified by the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans which results in low intakes of calcium, potassium, fiber, magnesium, and vitamin E. While attention has focused primarily on reducing energy intake and/or increasing energy expenditure for weight maintenance, a promising beneficial role for dairy products in weight management has emerged. Most research has focused on adults, but there is evidence in children and adolescents indicating either a beneficial or neutral effect of dairy food consumption on body weight or body composition. The current review provides and assessment of the scientific evidence on the effects of dairy food consumption on body weight and body composition in children and adolescents.

  19. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position. PMID:23879184

  20. The effect of psoriasis treatment on body composition, components of metabolic syndrome and psoriatic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Tamer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory immun mediated skin disorder with unknown etiology. The chronic inflammation in psoriasis have role in the development of metabolic and vascular disorders related with associating comorbidities. Recent studies have suggested a strong association exists between metabolic syndrome, obesity and complexity of the association between psoriasis, body mass index (BMI and psoriasis tratment. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effect of psoriasis treatment with methotrexate, cyclosporine and biological agents on body composition, comorbidities and associated laboratory findings. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine patients treated with methotrexate, cyclosporin and biological agents were included in our study. Demographic characteristics, body composition analysis, psoriasis related comorbidities and laboratory examinations were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of systemic treatment. Results: Comorbidities and metabolic syndrome tended to be more frequent in the anti tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α treated group. Increase in body fat and weight detected in patiens receiving biologic drug therapy. Conclusion: The results of our study showed that severe psoriasis patients with longer disease duration were more likely to have metabolic syndrome because of severe and long term inflammation in pathogenesis of comorbidities.

  1. Maternal leptin and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin is produced mainly by adipocytes. Levels are increased in women with obesity and during pregnancy. Increased levels are also associated with pregnancy complications such as, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We studied what component of body composition correlated best with maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy and, whether maternal leptin correlated better with visceral fat rather than fat distributed elsewhere. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Women were recruited in the first trimester. Maternal adiposity was measured using body mass index and advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maternal leptin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects studied, the mean leptin concentration was 37.7 ng\\/ml (range: 2.1-132.8). Leptin levels did not correlate with gestational age in the first trimester, maternal age, parity or birth weight. Serum leptin correlated positively with maternal weight and body mass index, and with the different parameters of body composition. On multiple regression analysis, serum leptin correlated with visceral fat but not fat distributed elsewhere. CONCLUSIONS: Visceral fat is the main determinant of circulating maternal leptin in the first trimester of pregnancy. This raises the possibility that maternal leptin in early pregnancy may be a marker for the development of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus.

  2. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables.

  3. Body composition analysis in older adults with dementia. Anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camina Martín, M A; de Mateo Silleras, B; Redondo del Río, M P

    2014-11-01

    In clinical practice, geriatric nutritional assessment usually includes nutritional screening, a simple anthropometric assessment, measurement of various biochemical parameters, such as serum albumin, and sometimes (not always) body composition analysis (BCA). However, there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed malnutrition in patients with dementia. Several factors contribute to this situation; probably, the most notable is the methodology used to assess body composition (BC). In this regard, for BCA, techniques are needed that are noninvasive, affordable, safe, simple and that require the minimum possible collaboration by the elderly patient. Consequently, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as indicators of overall and central adiposity, respectively; however, there is no consensus on the cutoffs for the elderly, and changes in BC (especially muscle-mass depletion) are masked by normal values of BMI and WC. Bioimpedance analysis is a simple, cost-effective and precise method for BCA, provided that cross-validated equations are used. Its main disadvantage is that it is highly sensitive to changes in body water (overhydration or dehydration), leading to substantial errors in BC estimates. However, using Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis errors are minimized, as there is no need for the subject to be normally hydrated and it does not require the use of predictive models. PMID:25117995

  4. Gender Differences in the Association between Sleep Duration and Body Composition: The Cardia Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre St-Onge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration has been inversely associated with body mass index (BMI. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat in Black and White individuals from the CARDIA study. Box-Tidwell regression models were adjusted for age and race (Model 1, additional lifestyle and demographic variables (Model 2, and physical activity (Model 3. There were significant interactions between sleep and gender for the main outcome variables. In men, there was a trend for an inverse relationship between reported sleep duration and BMI in Model 2  (β=−0.20,P=.053 but not model 3  (β=−0.139,P=.191. In women, inverse relationships were observed between sleep duration and BMI (β=−0.294,P=.005 and waist circumference (β=−0.442,P=.059, in Model 2. These associations became nonsignificant in model 3 (BMI: β=−0.172,P=.084; waist circumference: β=−0.161,P=.474. Our results are consistent with previous findings that sleep is associated with BMI and other body composition variables. However, the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and body composition may be stronger in women than in men.

  5. In vivo neutron activation analysis: body composition studies in health and disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo analysis of body elements by neutron activation is an important tool in medical research. It has provided a direct quantitative measure of body composition of human beings in vivo. Basic physiological differences related to age, sex, race, and body size have been assessed by this noninvasive technique. The diagnosis and management of patients with various metabolic disorders and diseases has also been demonstrated. Two major facilities at Brookhaven are being utilized exclusively for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, chlorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, and potassium. These elements serve as the basis for a four compartment model of body composition: protein, water, mineral ash, and fat. Variations in these compartments are demonstrated in clinical research programs investigating obesity, anorexia, cancer, renal failure, osteoporosis, and normal aging. IVNAA continues to provide a unique approach to the evaluation of clinical diagnosis, efficacy of therapeutic regimens, and monitoring of the aging process. Classical balance studies usually require the patient to be admitted to a hospital for extended periods of confinement. IVNAA, however, allows for clinical management of the patient on an out-patient basis, an important aspect for treatment of chronic diseases. 25 references, 3 figures, 5 tables

  6. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille;

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...... distribution correlated with age (r = 0.12-0.21, P < 0.05-P < 0.001), but not with years since menopause (YSM). Lean tissue mass, on the other hand, decreased with YSM (r = -0.17, P < 0.001) but was not related significantly to age. Total body bone mineral density decreased with both YSM (r = -0.30, P < 0.......001) and age (r = -0.21, P < 0.001). Our study suggests that postmenopausal changes in body fat and fat distribution are more dependent on age than on menopause, but we cannot exclude a separate effect of the menopause. Changes in fat-free mass, including a postmenopausal decline in both soft lean tissue...

  7. The correlates of body composition with heart rate recovery after step test: an exploratory study of Malaysian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redzal Abu Hanifah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adults, heart rate recovery is a predictor of mortality, while in adolescents it is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body composition measures and heart rate recovery (HRR after step test in Malaysian secondary school students. METHODS: In the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team (MyHEART study, 1071 healthy secondary school students, aged 13 years old, participated in the step test. Parameters for body composition measures were body mass index z-score, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist height ratio. The step test was conducted by using a modified Harvard step test. Heart rate recovery of 1 minute (HRR1min and heart rate recovery of 2 minutes (HRR2min were calculated by the difference between the peak pulse rate during exercise and the resting pulse rate at 1 and 2 minutes, respectively. Analysis was done separately based on gender. Pearson correlation analysis was used to determine the association between the HRR parameters with body composition measures, while multiple regression analysis was used to determine which body composition measures was the strongest predictor for HRR. RESULTS: For both gender groups, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR1min. In girls, all body composition measures were inversely correlated with HRR2min, while in boys all body composition measures, except BMI z-score, were associated with HRR2min. In multiple regression, only waist circumference was inversely associated with HRR2min (p=0.024 in boys, while in girls it was body fat percentage for HRR2min (p=0.008. CONCLUSION: There was an inverse association between body composition measurements and HRR among apparently healthy adolescents. Therefore, it is important to identify cardio-metabolic risk factors in adolescent as an early prevention of consequent adulthood morbidity. This reiterates the importance of

  8. Composite body movements modulate numerical cognition: evidence from the motion-numerical compatibility effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Ge, Hui; Andoni, Deljfina; Ding, Xianfeng; Fan, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011) and Fischer (2012), suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher et al. (2008) found that participants' behavior in a random number generation task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e., a motion-numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion-numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g., arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.'s (2008) finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out.

  9. Composite body movements modulate numerical cognition: Evidence from the motion–numerical compatibility effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong eCheng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent hierarchical model of numerical processing, initiated by Fischer and Brugger (2011 and Fisher (2012, suggested that situated factors, such as different body postures and body movements, can influence the magnitude representation and bias numerical processing. Indeed, Loetscher and colleagues (2008 found that participants’ behavior in a random number generation (RNG task was biased by head rotations. More small numbers were reported after leftward than rightward head turns, i.e. a motion–numerical compatibility effect. Here, by carrying out two experiments, we explored whether similar motion–numerical compatibility effects exist for movements of other important body components, e.g. arms, and for composite body movements as well, which are basis for complex human activities in many ecologically meaningful situations. In Experiment 1, a motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed for lateral rotations of two body components, i.e., the head and arms. Relatively large numbers were reported after making rightward compared to leftward movements for both lateral head and arm turns. The motion-numerical compatibility effect was observed again in Experiment 2 when participants were asked to perform composite body movements of congruent movement directions, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm left turns. However, it disappeared when the movement directions were incongruent, e.g., simultaneous head left turns and arm right turns. Taken together, our results extended Loetscher et al.'s (2008 finding by demonstrating that their effect is effector-general and exists for arm movements. Moreover, our study reveals for the first time that the impact of spatial information on numerical processing induced by each of the two sensorimotor-based situated factors, e.g., a lateral head turn and a lateral arm turn, can cancel each other out.

  10. Analysis of the body composition of the abdominal region by means of C.T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C.T. photographic figures of the horizontal cross sectional planes at the five levels in the abdominal region (Xiphoid level-E6, Upper abdomen level-E7, Umbilicus level-E8, Lower abdomen level-E10, Public symphisis level-E12) were analyzed. The subcutaneous fatty layer, the muscular layer, the bony layer and the body cavity were recognized on the figure and measured, then the body composition at each planes and factors affecting to it were investigated. Subjects included 10 adult males and 16 adult females. They were divided into following three groups on the basis of the Rohrer index: A-type (129 and below), C-type (from 130 to 149) and D-type (150 and above). Among the differences of the body composition in each plane caused by the sex and somatotype, the most dominant component constituting the total cross sectional area was observed and the following results were obtained : 1. At the E6 and E7 planes : the dominant component was the body cavity redardless of the sexual and type defferences. 2. At the E8 and E10 planes : the dominant component was, in males, the muscular layer in A-type, the body cavity in C-type and the fatty layer in D-type, whereas, in females, the body cavity in A and C-type, and the fatty layer in D-type. 3. At the E12 planes : the dominant component was, in males, the muscular layer in A and C-type, and the fatty layer in D-type, whereas, in females, the muscular layer in A-type and the fatty layer in C and D-type. (author)

  11. Body composition in air and road inductees at high altitude during the initial days of acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, U. S.; Selvamurthy, W.

    This study assesses body composition changes and their time course during the initial days of acclimatization to high altitude (HA). Comparisons were made between gradual and acute induction to HA using 60 male lowlander volunteers (24-28 years of age) divided into two equal groups for inducting them to HA. Thirty subjects were air-lifted from sea level (SL) to 3500 m HA in 1 h. These subjects were air inductees (AI). The other 30 subjects were transported in 4 days by road to the same location at 3500 m. These were road inductees (RI). After remaining for 15 days at 3500 m both groups were inducted to 4200 m by road. All the subjects could not reach the various altitudes at the same time due to logistical problems. Ultimately, data for each altitude (SL, 3500 m and 4200 m) were available for only 26 RI subjects and 10 AI subjects. Skinfold thickness (SKF) measurements for the subscapular, thigh, triceps, biceps, juxtanipple, umbilicus, suprailiac and calf regions were taken in order to calculate fat percentages. Measurements were taken at SL and on days 1 and 9 at both 3500 m and 4200 m. On day 1 at 3500 m, RI showed a significant fall in body weight (BW) with respect to SL but AI maintained it. On subsequent days at HA both groups showed a significant fall in BW and lean body mass but not in percentage fat. SKF in the biceps and triceps regions decreased significantly but in the umbilicus and suprailiac regions it significantly increased at HA in both groups. Body composition, along with other parameters, is discussed determining the acclimatization schedule for sojourners at HA. Possibly, translocation of body fat takes place from the periphery to deep body fat depots in the core/main trunk due to the cold at HA.

  12. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well...... understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  13. Normalization of the covariant three-body bound state vertex function

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Savkli, C; Van Orden, J W; Gross, Franz; Savkli, Cetin

    1997-01-01

    The normalization condition for the relativistic three nucleon Bethe-Salpeter and Gross bound state vertex functions is derived, for the first time, directly from the three body wave equations. It is also shown that the relativistic normalization condition for the two body Gross bound state vertex function is identical to the requirement that the bound state charge be conserved, proving that charge is automatically conserved by this equation.

  14. Preparation of many-body states for quantum simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas J.; Kassal, Ivan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2009-05-01

    While quantum computers are capable of simulating many quantum systems efficiently, the simulation algorithms must begin with the preparation of an appropriate initial state. We present a method for generating physically relevant quantum states on a lattice in real space. In particular, the present algorithm is able to prepare general pure and mixed many-particle states of any number of particles. It relies on a procedure for converting from a second-quantized state to its first-quantized counterpart. The algorithm is efficient in that it operates in time that is polynomial in all the essential descriptors of the system, the number of particles, the resolution of the lattice, and the inverse of the maximum final error. This scaling holds under the assumption that the wave function to be prepared is bounded or its indefinite integral is known and that the Fock operator of the system is efficiently simulatable.

  15. Scaling and universality in two dimensions: three-body bound states with short-ranged interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellotti, F F; Frederico, T [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, DCTA, 12.228-900 Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Yamashita, M T [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, CP 70532-2, CEP 01156-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fedorov, D V; Jensen, A S; Zinner, N T, E-mail: zinner@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy-Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, bygn. 1520, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark)

    2011-10-28

    The momentum space zero-range model is used to investigate universal properties of three interacting particles confined to two dimensions. The pertinent equations are first formulated for a system of two identical and one distinct particle and the two different two-body subsystems are characterized by two-body energies and masses. The three-body energy in units of one of the two-body energies is a universal function of the other two-body energy and the mass ratio. We derive convenient analytical formulae for calculations of the three-body energy as a function of these two independent parameters and exhibit the results as universal curves. In particular, we show that the three-body system can have any number of stable bound states. When the mass ratio of the distinct to identical particles is greater than 0.22, we find that at most two stable bound states exist, while for two heavy and one light mass an increasing number of bound states is possible. The specific number of stable bound states depends on the ratio of two-body bound state energies and on the mass ratio, and we map out an energy-mass phase diagram of the number of stable bound states. Realizable systems of both fermions and bosons are discussed in this framework.

  16. A State of the Art Review- Methods to Evaluate Electrical Performance of Composite Cross-arms and Composite-based Pylons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da;

    2016-01-01

    A novel uni-body composite pylon has been proposed for 400 kV transmission lines with advantages of compacted size, friendly looking and cost competitiveness. As its configuration is quite different from the traditional lattice pylon, its electrical performance needs in-depth investigation...... and evaluation, for which electrical testing methods are essential. However, as research on composite-based pylons is still in initial stage, leaving international standards and theoretical analysis on this topic very limited, effective testing methods to evaluate the fully composite pylon’s electrical...... performance need to be studied. This paper sums up experience and key advances on testing methods to evaluate electrical performance of composite cross-arms and composite-based pylons. Based on state of the art review, several feasible testing methods that can be used to verify the feasibility of the novel...

  17. A feasibility study of altered spatial distribution of losses induced by eddy currents in body composition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepponen Raimo E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomographic imaging has revealed that the body mass index does not give a reliable state of overall fitness. However, high measurement costs make the tomographic imaging unsuitable for large scale studies or repeated individual use. This paper reports an experimental investigation of a new electromagnetic method and its feasibility for assessing body composition. The method is called body electrical loss analysis (BELA. Methods The BELA method uses a high-Q parallel resonant circuit to produce a time-varying magnetic field. The Q of the resonator changes when the sample is placed in its coil. This is caused by induced eddy currents in the sample. The new idea in the BELA method is the altered spatial distribution of the electrical losses generated by these currents. The distribution of losses is varied using different excitation frequencies. The feasibility of the method was tested using simplified phantoms. Two of these phantoms were rough estimations of human torso. One had fat in the middle of its volume and saline solution in the outer shell volume. The other had reversed conductivity distributions. The phantoms were placed in the resonator and the change in the losses was measured. Five different excitation frequencies from 100 kHz to 200 kHz were used. Results The rate of loss as a function of frequency was observed to be approximately three times larger for a phantom with fat in the middle of its volume than for one with fat in its outer shell volume. Conclusions At higher frequencies the major signal contribution can be shifted toward outer shell volume. This enables probing the conductivity distribution of the subject by weighting outer structural components. The authors expect that the loss changing rate over frequency can be a potential index for body composition analysis.

  18. Runtime Monitoring Composite Web Services Through Stateful Aspect Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Huang; Guo-Quan Wu; Jun Wei

    2009-01-01

    The execution of composite Web services with WS-BPEL relies on externally autonomous Web services. This implies the need to constantly monitor the running behavior of the involved parties. Moreover, monitoring the execution of composite Web services for particular patterns is critical to enhance the reliability of the processes. In this paper,we propose an aspect-oriented framework as a solution to provide monitoring and recovery support for composite Web services. In particular, this framework includes 1) a stateful aspect based template, where history-based pointcut specifies patterns of interest cannot be violated within a range, while advice specifies the associated recovery action; 2) a tool support for runtime monitoring and recovery based on aspect-oriented execution environment. Our experiments indicate that the proposed monitoring approach incurs minimal overhead and is efficient.

  19. Blood rheology and body composition as determinants of exercise performance in female rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Jean-Frédéric; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Cassan, Delphine; Raynaud de Mauverger, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Athletes involved in rugby are characterized by a very specific pattern of body composition with an unusually important muscle mass. In a preceding study about rugbymen we evidenced that they exhibit a correlation between red blood cell aggregability and the amount of body fat although it remains within a normal range, and that red cell rigidity was correlated to isometric adductor strength. We had the opportunity of studying the relationships among exercise performance, body composition and hemorheology in 19 female rugby players (age 19-26, mean: 24.47 ± 0.67 yr) practising 4 - 10 hr/wk (mean 7.15 ± 0.3) since 1-12 yr (mean 4,05 ± 0,694). VO2max was not related by its own to blood rheology, either hematocrit (r = -0.0717 p = 0.7706) or plasma viscosity (r = 0.0144; p = 0.9533), but other markers of performance exhivited a correlation with red cell rheology. Relationships between fitness and body composition were evidenced. Isometric handgrip strength was negatively correlated to red blood cell aggregability (Myrenne M, r = -0.57839; p = 0.00948 M1 r = -0.58910; p = 0.00795). Adductor isometric strength was negatively correlated to red blood cell aggregability Myrenne M (r = -0.5033; p = 0.0280) but not to M1 (r = -0.4227; p = 0.0714). Fat mass is a major determinant of the maximal oxygen consumption VO2max either measured by a field test (r = -0.766; p = 0.00013) or exercise test (r = -0.575; p = 0.00994) and was also negatively correlated to both handgrip (r = -0.4918; p = 0.0325) and RBC aggregability M (r = -0.57839; p = 0.00948 and M1 r = -0.5891; p = 0.00795). Independently of fat mass, FFM appears to be a determinant of blood viscosity (r = 0.4622; p = 0.0463) due to its correlation with RBC rigidity (r = 0.4781; p = 0.0384). Thus, trained young women exercising 4-10 hr/wk and thus exhibiting a low percentage of body fat exhibit clear relationships between body composition and hemorheology, but fat mass being low, the parameter correlated with blood

  20. Somatotype, body composition and proportionality in polish top greco-roman wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Zarów, Ryszard T

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the paper was to determine body composition and somatotype of male Greco-Roman wrestlers grouped by different weight categories and level of competition. Twenty three contestants (aged 24.9±5.5 years, training experience 13.7±5.8 years) were examined during their competitive period. They were divided into heavier (n=12) and lighter weight categories (n=11).Twelve of them took part in Olympic Qualification Tournaments, whereas six others participated in the Olympic Games in Athens. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate Heath-Carter somatotypes and additional skinfolds to estimate the percentage of body fat and body composition. Heavier wrestlers (weight=92.4 kg) exhibited more endomorphy and mesomorphy than lighter wrestlers (weight=70.1 kg). Heavier wrestlers were characterized by higher BMI, fat mass, fat percentage and fat free mass index than wrestlers in lighter weight categories. Sports level was evaluated with discriminant analysis which revealed significant results (p<0.01) with canonical correlation coefficient of 0.754, and Wilks' λ=0.431. Discriminant function=0.593774*TrainingExperience-0.300177*EN+0.627894*ME-0.242241*EC - 0.636081*Pelvis/Shoulder Ratio. Among the 23 observations used to fit the model, 19 (82.6%) were correctly classified. When compared with untrained subjects, wrestlers exhibited higher body mass (81.8 vs. 72.1 kg, t=3.15, p<0.01) and lower height-weight ratio (40.50 vs. 43.21, t=13.5, p<0.001). Wrestlers' somatotypes differed from those of untrained subjects (2.0-6.6-1.2 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were also characterized by lower adiposity (12.1 vs. 15.7%, t=7.84, p<0.001). In conclusion, body build and composition in wrestlers depend on their weight category. In heavier categories, characteristic type is endomorph-mesomorph, whereas lighter weight categories are dominated by balanced mesomorph. A considerable difference in endomorphy and indices of body composition can also be

  1. The Cross-Sectional Association of Energy Intake and Dietary Energy Density with Body Composition of Children in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined whether dietary energy intake (EI and dietary energy density (ED were cross-sectionally associated with body composition of children living in Southwest China. Design and Methods: Multivariate regression analyses were performed on three day, 24 h dietary recall data and information on potential confounders from 1207 participants aged 8–14 years. EI was calculated from all foods and drinks and ED was classified into five categories. Body mass index (BMI z-scores, percentage of body fat (%BF, fat mass index (FMI, fat-free mass index (FFMI and ratio of waist to hip circumference (WHR were used to describe body composition. Results: Boys with higher total EI had higher BMI z-scores, %BF, and FMI than boys with lower total EI both before and after measurements were adjusted for confounders (age, fiber intake, physical activity, the timing of adding complementary foods, paternal education level and maternal BMI (p ≤ 0.04. However, EI was not associated with body composition in girls. Dietary ED, in any category, was not associated with body composition in either gender. Conclusions: Dietary ED was not associated with body composition of children in Southwest China, while dietary EI in boys, not girls, was positively associated with body composition. Reducing dietary energy intake may help to prevent obesity and related diseases in later life among boys living in Southwest China.

  2. Regulatory oversight in the United States of vascularized composite allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Alexandra K

    2016-06-01

    Vascularized composite allograft (VCA) transplantation is a medically acceptable treatment for the reconstruction of major tissue loss. The advent of VCA transplantation has spurred regulatory and policy development in the United States to address the multiple clinical, ethical and legal issues that must be considered for the practice of VCA donation and transplantation to develop within the existing framework of public trust and transparency vital to the success of donation and transplantation. PMID:26284312

  3. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and Goldstone theorem for composite states revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Fariborz, Amir H

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the well-known phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking for a linear sigma model for scalar and pseudoscalar mesons based on the meson composite structure and the normalization of the quantum states. To test our formulation and validate our approach we give another proof of the Goldstone theorem and derive the corresponding mass eigenstates of the theory. We briefly describe the possible wave function of a meson that leads to the adequate mass eigenstates.

  5. Aerobic fitness does not modify the effect of FTO variation on body composition traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Huuskonen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Poor physical fitness and obesity are risk factors for all cause morbidity and mortality. We aimed to clarify whether common genetic variants of key energy intake determinants in leptin (LEP, leptin receptor (LEPR, and fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO are associated with aerobic and neuromuscular performance, and whether aerobic fitness can alter the effect of these genotypes on body composition. METHODS: 846 healthy Finnish males of Caucasian origin were genotyped for FTO (rs8050136, LEP (rs7799039 and LEPR (rs8179183 and rs1137101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, and studied for associations with maximal oxygen consumption, body fat percent, serum leptin levels, waist circumference and maximal force of leg extensor muscles. RESULTS: Genotype AA of the FTO SNP rs8050136 associated with higher BMI and greater waist circumference compared to the genotype CC. In general linear model, no significant interaction for FTO genotype-relative VO(2max (mL·kg(-1·min(-1 or FTO genotype-absolute VO(2max (L·min(-1 on BMI or waist circumference was found. Main effects of aerobic performance on body composition traits were significant (p<0.001. Logistic regression modelling found no significant interaction between aerobic fitness and FTO genotype. LEP SNP rs7799039, LEPR SNPs rs8179183 and rs1137101 did not associate with any of the measured variables, and no significant interactions of LEP or LEPR genotype with aerobic fitness were observed. In addition, none of the studied SNPs associated with aerobic or neuromuscular performance. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic fitness may not modify the effect of FTO variation on body composition traits. However, relative aerobic capacity associates with lower BMI and waist circumference regardless of the FTO genotype. FTO, LEP and LEPR genotypes unlikely associate with physical performance.

  6. $D^*$ $\\Xi N$ bound state in strange three-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garcilazo, H

    2016-01-01

    The recent update of the strangeness $-2$ ESC08c Nijmegen potential incorporating the NAGARA and KISO events predicts a $\\Xi N$ bound state, $D^*$, in the $^3S_1 (I=1)$ channel. We study if the existence of this two-body bound state could give rise to stable three-body systems. For this purpose we solve the bound state problem of three-body systems where the $\\Xi N$ state is merged with $N$'s, $\\Lambda$'s, $\\Sigma's$ or $\\Xi$'s, making use of the most recent updates of the two-body ESC08c Nijmegen potentials. We found that there appear stable states in the $\\Xi NN$ and $\\Xi \\Xi N$ systems, the $\\Xi \\Lambda N$ and $\\Xi \\Sigma N$ systems being unbound.

  7. The effect of swimming training on body composition and motoric features in adult sedentary young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Aykut Aysan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate theeffect of 8 week of swimming training program on motoricfeatures, resting heart rate, blood pressure, andbody composition in young sedentary men.Materials and methods: Forty volunteers aged between20 and 29 years participated in the research. The participants’body weight, percentage of body fat, body massindex, flexibility, push-up, shuttle, horizontal-verticaljump and 20-meter sprint were measured and comparedbefore and after the 8 weeks of swimming training program.Results: At the end of the study, study groups’ measurementswere compared. Significant decreases wereobserved on parameters of percentage of body fat and20 m sprint run between pre-post test (p0.05. Significant increaseswere observed on parameters of push-up, verticaljump (p0.05.Conclusion: Eight weeks swimming training seems toreduce percentage of body fat. It has been observed that8 weeks swimming training increased values of push-up,shuttle and vertical jump. On the other hand, no changewas observed in values of flexibility and horizontal jump.J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 69-73

  8. DIFFERENTIATION OF BODY COMPOSITION OF PLAYERS OF THE POLISH NATIONAL BASEBALL TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagiełło Marina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to identify the differentiation of body composition among players of Polish national baseball team in comparison to persons of the same population not professionally engaged in sport. The study involved Polish baseball representatives (n=20. Competitors’ age was 18-28 years, body mass from 67.7 kg to 114 kg (85±10.3 kg, and body height 173-196 cm (185.1±4.8. The training experience was 7-14 years and it was highly differentiated. The stoutness factor is the dominant factor among "infielders" and "pitchers", and among "outfielders" - the length one. The proportions of the features within the factors show that players are characterized by a strongly muscled forearm and a shank and by a clear predominance of the elbow width with a disproportionately - to the overall size of the factor - small knee and shoulder width. In the length factor an even contribution of the upper and lower extremity length with lower sitting body height can be noted. Depending on the position on the field there is a differentiation of the internal proportions of the body.

  9. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four "virtual family" members for thermoregulatory modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P.; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N.; Potter, Adam W.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  10. Status of police officers with regard to selected cardio-respiratory and body compositional fitness variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamford, B A; Weltman, A; Moffatt, R J; Fulco, C

    1978-01-01

    Physical performance and body composition characteristics of members (n = 75) and recruits (n = 61) of the Louisville Police Department (total n = 136) were assessed. Members were randomly selected males and ranged in age from 20 to 55 years and were ranked from the newest inductee through and including the Chief of Police. Members between the ages of 20 and 29 years assigned to active duty possessed average cardio-respiratory fitness (Vo2max). With age, cardio-respiratory fitness decreased and body weight and body fatness progressively increased. Male and female recruits entering basic training also demonstrated average cardio-respiratory fitness. Significant (P less than .05) increases for males and females in Vo2max and decreases in body fatness (males) were found following 4 months of physically rigorous recruit training. Fifteen of the male recruits who completed training were retested following 1 year of active duty. During active duty, physical activity involvement was limited to job requirements with no additional physical training imposed. Cardio-respiratory fitness and body fatness reverted to pre-training levels. It was concluded that the physical demands associated with police work are too low to permit maintenance of physical fitness.

  11. N-body bound state relativistic wave equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manifestly covariant formalism with constraints is used for the construction of relativistic wave equations to describe the dynamics of N interacting spin 0 and/or spin 1/2 particles. The total and relative time evolutions of the system are completely determined by means of kinematic type wave equations. The internal dynamics of the system is 3N-1 dimensional, besides the contribution of the spin degrees of freedom. It is governed by a single dynamical wave equation, that determines the eigenvalue of the total mass squared of the system. The interaction is introduced in a closed form by means of two-body potentials. The system satisfies an approximate form of separability

  12. Nature of changes in body composition indices in students during physical training using a set of athleticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernozub A.A.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During investigations it was established that there are important changes in body composition parameters university students, who in the classroom with the general physical culture introduced by the training facilities with athleticism. The level indicators of body composition and dynamics are fully dependent on the employment structure, volume and intensity of physical exertion their focus. It is established that achieving the optimal performance of body composition may occur even with minimal training work. Planning sessions with physical cultures s light variation of volume and intensity of stress, achieves the required level of adaptation processes.

  13. The longitudinal BMI pattern and body composition of patients with anorexia nervosa who require urgent hospitalization: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawai Keisuke

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of serious physical complications in anorexia nervosa (AN patients is important. The purpose of this study is to clarify which physical and social factors are related to the necessity for urgent hospitalization of anorexia nervosa (AN patients in a long-term starvation state. We hypothesized that the change of longitudinal BMI, body composition and social background would be useful as an index of the necessity for urgent hospitalization. Methods AN patients were classified into; urgent hospitalization, due to disturbance of consciousness or difficulty walking(n = 17; planned admission (n = 96; and outpatient treatment only groups (n = 136. The longitudinal BMI pattern and the clinical features of these groups were examined. In the hospitalization groups, comparison was done of body composition variation and the social background, including the educational level and advice from family members. Results After adjusting for age and duration of illness, the BMI of the urgent hospitalization group was lower than that of the other groups at one year before hospitalization (P Conclusions The longitudinal pattern of BMI and FFM may be useful for understanding the severity in AN from the viewpoint of failure of the homeostasis system.

  14. The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribb, Paul J; Williams, Andrew D; Carey, Michael F; Hayes, Alan

    2006-10-01

    Different dietary proteins affect whole body protein anabolism and accretion and therefore, have the potential to influence results obtained from resistance training. This study examined the effects of supplementation with two proteins, hydrolyzed whey isolate (WI) and casein (C), on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine levels during a 10 wk, supervised resistance training program. In a double-blind protocol, 13 male, recreational bodybuilders supplemented their normal diet with either WI or C (1.5 gm/kg body wt/d) for the duration of the program. Strength was assessed by 1-RM in three exercises (barbell bench press, squat, and cable pull-down). Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Plasma glutamine levels were determined by the enzymatic method with spectrophotometric detection. All assessments occurred in the week before and the week following 10 wk of training. Plasma glutamine levels did not change in either supplement group following the intervention. The WI group achieved a significantly greater gain (P < 0.01) in lean mass than the C group (5.0 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.4 kg for WI and C, respectively) and a significant (P < 0.05) change in fat mass (-1.5 +/- 0.5 kg) compared to the C group (+0.2 +/- 0.3 kg). The WI group also achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group in each assessment of strength. When the strength changes were expressed relative to body weight, the WI group still achieved significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in strength compared to the C group. PMID:17240782

  15. Biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators as predictors of hepatic steatosis in obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Oliva Gobato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of hepatic steatosis and to assess the performance of biochemical, anthropometric and body composition indicators for hepatic steatosis in obese teenagers.METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 79 adolecents aged from ten to 18 years old. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound in case of moderate or intense hepatorenal contrast and/or a difference in the histogram ≥7 on the right kidney cortex. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR index for values >3.16. Anthropometric and body composition indicators consisted of body mass index, body fat percentage, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat. Fasting glycemia and insulin, lipid profile and hepatic enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and alkaline phosphatase, were also evaluated. In order to assess the performance of these indicators in the diagnosis of hepatic steatosis in teenagers, a ROC curve analysis was applied.RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis was found in 20% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29%. Gamma-glutamyltransferase and HOMA-IR were good indicators for predicting hepatic steatosis, with a cutoff of 1.06 times above the reference value for gamma-glutamyltransferase and 3.28 times for the HOMA-IR. The anthropometric indicators, the body fat percentage, the lipid profile, the glycemia and the aspartate aminotransferase did not present significant associations.CONCLUSIONS: Patients with high gamma-glutamyltransferase level and/or HOMA-IR should be submitted to abdominal ultrasound examination due to the increased chance of having hepatic steatosis.

  16. Many-body Systems Interacting via a Two-body Random Ensemble; 1, Angular Momentum distribution in the ground states

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Y M; Yoshinaga, N

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the angular momentum distribution in the ground states of many-body systems interacting via a two-body random ensemble. Beginning with a few simple examples, a simple approach to predict P(I)'s, angular momenta I ground state (g.s.) probabilities, of a few solvable cases, such as fermions in a small single-j shell and d boson systems, is given. This method is generalized to predict P(I)'s of more complicated cases, such as even or odd number of fermions in a large single-j shell or a many-j shell, d-boson, sd-boson or sdg-boson systems, etc. By this method we are able to tell which interactions are essential to produce a sizable P(I) in a many-body system. The g.s. probability of maximum angular momentum $I_{max}$ is discussed. An argument on the microscopic foundation of our approach, and certain matrix elements which are useful to understand the observed regularities, are also given or addressed in detail. The low seniority chain of 0 g.s. by using the same set of two-body interact...

  17. Study on raw material origin of celadon porcelain bodies from Zhanggongxiang kiln and Qingliangsi kiln by chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure seven major chemical composition of celadon porcelain body from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng and Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou. The contents of major chemical composition in each sample were selected to make scattering analysis. Their classes and raw material sources were determined. The conclusion is that the raw material origin of Ru porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln in Baofeng is different from that from Zhanggongxiang kiln in Ruzhou, but they are closely related. Both the Ruguan porcelain bodies and MinRu porcelain bodies from Qingliangsi kiln during the Song Dynasty are basically from the same provenance. (authors)

  18. Changes in body composition in apparently healthy urban Indian women up to 3 years postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha A Kajale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dietary and life style practices differ in postpartum (PP and nonpregnant Indian women. Effect of these practices on postpartum weight retention (PPWR and development of cardio-metabolic risk (CMR has been scarcely studied in urban women. Aims of this study were to (i compare anthropometry, biochemical parameters and body composition up to 3 years PP (ii effect of PPWR, dietary fat intake and physical activity on CMR factors. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional, 300-fullterm, apparently healthy primi-parous women (28.6 ± 3.4 years randomly selected. 128 women within 7-day of delivery (Group-A, 88 with 1-2 years (Group-B and 84 with 3-4-year-old-children (Group-C were studied. Anthropometry, sociodemographic status, physical activity, diet, clinical examination, biochemical tests, body composition, at total body (TB, by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE-Lunar DPX were collected. Results: Women at 3-year PP showed higher weight retention (6.5[10] kg than at 1-year (3.0[7] kg (median [IQR]. Android fat % (central obesity increased (P 0.1. Conclusion: Postdelivery, low physical activity and higher PPWR may increase CMR in Indian women.

  19. Metabolic and body composition changes in first year following traumatic amputation

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    Carly S. Eckard, MS, RD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Body composition and metabolism may change considerably after traumatic amputation because of muscle atrophy and an increase in adiposity. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in weight, body composition, and metabolic rate during the first year following traumatic amputation in military servicemembers. Servicemembers without amputation were included for comparison. Participants were measured within the first 12 wk after amputation (baseline and at 6, 9, and 12 mo after amputation. Muscle mass, fat mass, weight, and metabolic rate were measured at each time point. There was a significant increase in weight and body mass index in the unilateral group between baseline and all follow-up visits (p < 0.01. Over the 12 mo period, total fat mass and trunk fat mass increased in both unilateral and bilateral groups; however, these changes were not statistically significant over time. Muscle mass increased in both the unilateral and bilateral groups despite percent of lean mass decreasing. No changes in resting metabolism or walking energy expenditure were observed in any group. The results of this study conclude that weight significantly increased because of an increase in both fat mass and muscle mass in the first year following unilateral and bilateral amputation.

  20. Effects of meal frequency on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan Albert; Krieger, James W

    2015-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that eating small, frequent meals enhances fat loss and helps to achieve better weight maintenance. Several observational studies lend support to this hypothesis, with an inverse relationship noted between the frequency of eating and adiposity. The purpose of this narrative review is to present and discuss a meta-analysis with regression that evaluated experimental research on meal frequency with respect to changes in fat mass and lean mass. A total of 15 studies were identified that investigated meal frequency in accordance with the criteria outlined. Feeding frequency was positively associated with reductions in fat mass and body fat percentage as well as an increase in fat-free mass. However, sensitivity analysis of the data showed that the positive findings were the product of a single study, casting doubt as to whether more frequent meals confer beneficial effects on body composition. In conclusion, although the initial results of this meta-analysis suggest a potential benefit of increased feeding frequencies for enhancing body composition, these findings need to be interpreted with circumspection.

  1. Active video games: the mediating effect of aerobic fitness on body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased understanding of why and how physical activity impacts on health outcomes is needed to increase the effectiveness of physical activity interventions. A recent randomized controlled trial of an active video game (PlayStation EyeToy™ intervention showed a statistically significant treatment effect on the primary outcome, change from baseline in body mass index (BMI, which favored the intervention group at 24 weeks. In this short paper we evaluate the mediating effects of the secondary outcomes. Objective To identify mediators of the effect of an active video games intervention on body composition. Methods Data from a two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial of an active video game intervention (n = 322 were analyzed. The primary outcome was change from baseline in BMI. A priori secondary outcomes were considered as potential mediators of the intervention on BMI, including aerobic fitness (VO2Max, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and food snacking at 24 weeks. Results Only aerobic fitness at 24 weeks met the conditions for mediation, and was a significant mediator of BMI. Conclusion Playing active video games can have a positive effect on body composition in overweight or obese children and this effect is most likely mediated through improved aerobic fitness. Future trials should examine other potential mediators related to this type of intervention. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Website: http://www.anzctr.org.au Study ID number: ACTRN12607000632493

  2. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  3. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ. PMID:27055817

  4. Salivary latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to lipids, blood pressure, and body composition in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ellen W; Place, Rebecca; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Visich, Paul; Hoffman, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-09-01

    Adversity experienced early in life has the potential to influence physical health later in life. The stress-health relation may be partially explained by stress-related effects on cardiovascular risk factors. This study explored links between individual differences in trait-like variation in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with cardiovascular risk factors in children. 474 children (M age=9.22years; 54% female; 83% Caucasian) were included in this study, in which cardiovascular risk was assessed using the following indices - triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (Glu); resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat. Saliva samples were measured 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days (later assayed for cortisol). A latent trait cortisol (LTC) factor explained 43% of the variance in cortisol levels within and across days. Confirmatory factor analysis identified three cardiovascular risk factors: lipids (i.e., TG and HDL-C), blood pressure (i.e., systolic and diastolic), and body composition (i.e., BMI, Waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat). Lower salivary LTC was associated with higher lipids, higher blood pressure, and higher body composition. The findings further support the internal and external validity of the LTC construct, and may also advance our understanding of the link between interindividual differences in HPA axis activity and cardiovascular risk in middle childhood. PMID:27262343

  5. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  6. Stable isotopes for body composition and breast milk intake assessments: IAEA initiatives in Ghana and Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body composition can be measured by various techniques. However, The only way in which lean body mass and fat body mass can be measured accurately in free-living human subjects is to use a kinetic method with water labelled with 2H and or 18O. Known as the 'stable isotope dilution method' this procedure is now accepted worldwide. In addition, This technique has been validated to assess infant milk intake. Indeed, the dose-to-mother isotope dilution method measures breast milk output and mother's body composition with minimum interference on the lactation process.The IAEA Technical Cooperation projects in Senegal and Ghana were aimed at estimating breast milk output and mother's body composition by deuterium dilution methods among lactating mothers, who were the beneficiaries of the National Supplementary Feeding Programme. A dose of deuterium oxide was orally administrated to the mothers and saliva samples were collected from both the babies and the mothers before and after the administration of the dose. Enrichment of the saliva samples was measured by a fast, easy and less expensive method, which uses a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR). In Senegal, the study has been conducted on 206 women paired with their children and 1876 saliva samples have been analysed in duplicate. In Ghana, 150 paired women with their children have been selected for the study and 2100 saliva samples have been analysed. Following results were obtained after a 3 months supplementary feeding: There is a significant increase in mother's lean body mass (41.35Kg ± 5.00) vs (34.63Kg ± 6.09) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Ghana. And, (40Kg±4) vs (37Kg±4) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Senegal; Breast Milk volume increased significantly in Ghana's study (1050 ml ±280) vs (850 ml± 150). However, in Senegal, the intervention did not significantly improved the milk output (992 ml±186) vs (943 ml ±207); The nutrition

  7. IAEA initiatives in body composition and breast milk determination: Examples from Ghana and Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Body composition can be measured by various techniques. However, The only way in which lean body mass and fat body mass can be measured accurately in free-living human subjects is to use a kinetic method with water labeled with 2H and or 18O. Known as the 'stable isotope dilution method' this procedure is now accepted worldwide. In addition, This technique has been validated to assess infant milk intake. Indeed, the dose-to-mother isotope dilution method measures breast milk output and mother's body composition with minimum interference on the lactation process.The IAEA Technical Cooperation projects in Senegal and Ghana were aimed to estimate breast milk output and mother's body composition by deuterium dilution methods among lactating mothers beneficiary of the National Supplementary Feeding Programme. A dose of deuterium oxide was orally administrated to the mothers and saliva samples were collected from both the babies and the mothers before and after the administration of the dose. Enrichment of the saliva samples was measured by a fast, easy and less expensive method, which use a Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR).In Senegal, the study has been conducted on 206 women paired with their children and 1876 saliva samples have been analysed in duplicate. In Ghana, 150 paired-women with their children have been selected for the study and 2100 saliva samples have been analysed. The results that came out from the both studies have shown that after three months of the supplementary feeding programme: 1. There is a significant increase in mother's lean body mass (41.35Kg ± 5.00) vs (34.63Kg ± 6.09) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Ghana. And, (40Kg ± 4) vs (37Kg ± 4) respectively in supplemented and non-supplemented mothers in Senegal. 2. Breast Milk volume increases significantly in Ghana's study (1050ml ± 280) vs (850ml ± 150). In However, in Senegal, milk output was not significantly improved by the

  8. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M, 72 female (F; BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB. LM and fat mass (FM were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %, as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %, with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p  Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss and maintenance. Men lost percent total body fat and trunk fat more effectively than women. No interactive effects of protein intake and gender are evident.

  9. EFFECT OF DIETARY LIPID SOURCE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanat Ali, Sulieman M. AI-Ogaily, Nasser A. AI-Asgah1l and Sakhawat Ali2

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fed isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets containing different types of lipids (corn oil, olive oil, cod liver oil and beef tallow at 14% level for a period of 65 days. Significant (P< 0.05 differences were observed in the body weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR, condition factor, feed conversion ratio (FCR, protein efficiency ratio (PER, net protein retention (NPR, apparent net energy retention (ANER and hepatosomatic index (HSI values. The diet containing a mixture of all the 4 dietary lipids in equal proportions (3.5g of each lipid per 100g of diet produced the best results (SGR, I. 73%; condition factor, 2.95; FCR, 1.27; PER, 2.06; NPR, 29.30% and ANER, 20.21% whereas the diet containing beef tallow showed the poorest performance (SGR, 1.50%; condition factor, 2.76; FCR, 1.53; PER, 1.73; NPR, 26.26% and ANER, 18.53%. The growth performance of fish fed on diet containing beef tallow was however, significantly (P< 0.05 better than that of lipid free diet. The diets containing corn oil, olive oil, and cod liver oil did not show any significant difference in the growth performance of fish. The hepatosomatic index (HSI value increased in fish fed diets containing lipids (maximum 1.55% in case of corn oil as compared to those fed lipid free diet ( 1.31 %. No significant differences were observed in the feed consumption of fish fed different diets. The type of dietary lipid significantly affected the body composition of fish. The data on the body composition of fish is very much correlated with the growth performance data. The fish fed on diets containing lipids showed higher body fat and crude protein but lower moisture and gross energy contents as compared to those fed lipid free diet. The fish fed on diet containing beef tallow however showed similar body protein and ash contents as those fed lipid free diet. The results of the present study suggest that

  10. State Office for Nuclear Safety - New Regulatory Body in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Act on Nuclear Safety was adopted by the Croatian Parliament on 15 October 2003, and it is published in the Official Gazette No. 173/03. This Act regulates safety and protective measures for using nuclear materials and specified equipment and performing nuclear activities, and establishes the State Office for Nuclear Safety. Provisions of this Act apply on nuclear activities, nuclear materials and specified equipment. Also, by accession to international conventions and agreements, Croatia took the responsibility of implementing the provisions of those international treaties. In the process of European and international integrations, Croatia has to make harmonization with European and international standards also in the field of nuclear safety. The State Office for Nuclear Safety as an independent regulatory authority started its work on 1st June 2005 by taking over responsibility for activities relating to nuclear safety and cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency from the Ministry of the Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship. In this paper responsibilities, organization and projects of the State Office for Nuclear Safety will be presented, with the accent on development of regulations and international cooperation. (author)

  11. Influence of Appearance-Related TV Commercials on Body Image State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Ruhl, Ilka; Vocks, Silja

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of media exposure on body image state in eating-disordered (ED) patients. The attitudinal and perceptual components of body image are assessed, as well as any associations with dysfunctional cognitions and behavioral consequences. Twenty-five ED patients and 25 non-ED controls (ND) viewed commercials either…

  12. Sufficient conditions for the existence of a bound state in the N-body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simple sufficient conditions for the existence of a bound state in the system of N particles interacting via a purely attractive two-body potential are provided. This method is based on a variational approach. (Author)

  13. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2000 COMPOSITION OF THE JOINT TRAINING BOARD (JTB) - 2000/2001

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows:Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC)D. Treille / EP (Convener)C. Benvenuti / ESTD. O. Williams /ITTechnical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) C. Hauviller / EPL. Leistam / ESTS. Jarp / IT [Chairman]F. Pedersen / PSR. Lauckner / SLC. Roche / ETTLong-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 &5a)Tiziano Camporesi / EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard / EP\t[Alternate]Jacques Gruber / PSPeter Sievers / LHCThomas Pettersson / ESTMichel Mayoud / ESTSue Foffano / ASThierry Lagrange / SPLWerner Zapf / HR (Secretary) LTCB 2(Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c)Véronique Paris / SL [Convener]Fabien Pérriolat / PS\t [Alternate]Mats Wilhelmsson / STVéronique Fassnacht / TISLucie Linssen / EPMichel Mayoud / ESTPatrick Geeraert / FIJohn Cuthbert / HRSeamus Hegarty / HR (Secretary) Composition of the Joint Training Board (JT...

  14. Feasibility of MR-Based Body Composition Analysis in Large Scale Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Janne; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Romu, Thobias; Collins, Rory; Garratt, Steve; Bell, Jimmy D.; Borga, Magnus; Thomas, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects. Materials and Methods 3,000 participants in the in-depth phenotyping arm of the UK Biobank imaging study underwent a comprehensive MR examination. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with the dual-echo Dixon Vibe protocol, covering neck to knees. Subjects were scanned with six slabs in supine position, without localizer. Automated body composition analysis was performed using the AMRA Profiler™ system, to segment and quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT) and thigh muscles. Technical quality assurance was performed and a standard set of acceptance/rejection criteria was established. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all volume measurements and quality assurance metrics. Results Of the 3,000 subjects, 2,995 (99.83%) were analysable for body fat, 2,828 (94.27%) were analysable when body fat and one thigh was included, and 2,775 (92.50%) were fully analysable for body fat and both thigh muscles. Reasons for not being able to analyse datasets were mainly due to missing slabs in the acquisition, or patient positioned so that large parts of the volume was outside of the field-of-view. Discussion and Conclusions In conclusion, this study showed that the rapid UK Biobank MR-protocol was well tolerated by most subjects and sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource. PMID:27662190

  15. Intermittent fasting during winter and spring affects body composition and reproduction of a migratory duck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, P.S.; Jorde, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    We compared food intake, body mass and body composition of male and female black ducks (Anas rubripes) during winter (January-March). Birds were fed the same complete diet ad libitum on consecutive days each week without fasting (control; nine male; nine female) or with either short fasts (2 day.week-1; nine male; nine female), or long fasts (4 day.week-1; eleven male; twelve female). We continued treatments through spring (March-May) to measure the effect of intermittent fasts on body mass and egg production. Daily food intake of fasted birds was up to four times that of unfasted birds. Weekly food intake of males was similar among treatments (364 g.kg-1.week-1) but fasted females consumed more than unfasted females in January (363 g.kg-1.week-1 vs. 225 g.kg-1.week-1). Although both sexes lost 10-14% body mass, fasted females lost less mass and lipid than unfasted females during winter. Total body nitrogen was conserved over winter in both sexes even though the heart and spleen lost mass while the reproductive tract and liver gained mass. Intermittent fasting increased liver, intestinal tissue and digesta mass of females but not of males. Fasting delayed egg production in spring but did not affect size, fertility or hatching of the clutch. Females on long fasts were still heavier than controls after laying eggs. Thus black ducks combine flexibility of food intake with plasticity of digestive tract, liver and adipose tissue when food supply is interrupted during winter. Females modulate body mass for survival and defer reproduction when food supply is interrupted in spring.

  16. Effect of ginger and cinnamon intake on oxidative stress and exercise performance and body composition in Iranian female athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Shokri Mashhadi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Six weeks administration of ginger and cinnamon in athlete women did not show any significant change in MDA level, body composition, and exercise performance as compared with the placebo group.

  17. Effect of genetic strain and gender on age-related changes in body composition of the laboratory rat.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Body composition data for common laboratory strains of rat as a function of age. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Gordon , C., K. Jarema ,...

  18. Underwritten States: Marine Insurance and the Making of Bodies Politic in America, 1622-1815

    OpenAIRE

    Farber, Hannah Atlee

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation argues that the United States owed much of its early success, as well as certain aspects of its identity, to the marine insurance companies that began to form in American port cities after the ratification of the Constitution. When the American states chartered insurance companies as "corporations and bodies politic," they granted these companies new legal privileges. Insurance companies, however, were built around older bodies of organized capital and commercial information...

  19. Impact of milk consumption and resistance training on body composition of female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josse, Andrea R; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-01-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) preceding the provision of high-quality dairy protein supports muscle anabolism. Milk contains bioactive components, including two high-quality protein fractions, calcium and vitamin D, each of which has been shown modulate body composition (increasing lean mass and decreasing fat mass) under energy balance and hypoenergetic conditions. These dairy nutrients are also essential for skeletal health. Acutely, no study of RE and milk/whey consumption has been undertaken exclusively in female athletes, let alone women, nevertheless, studies with both men and women show increased lean mass accretion following milk/whey compared to soy/placebo. Currently, no longer-term RE studies with milk supplementation have been done in female athletes. However, trials in young recreationally active women demonstrated augmented increases in lean mass and decreases in fat mass with RE and milk or whey protein consumption. The amount of protein consumed post-exercise is also important; two trials using yogurt (5 g protein/6 oz) failed to demonstrate a positive change in body composition compared to placebo. For bone health, RE plus dairy improved bone mineral density at clinically important sites and reduced bone resorption. With energy restriction, in one study, higher dairy plus higher protein resulted in greater fat loss, lean mass gain and improved bone health in overweight women. In another study, milk and calcium supplementation showed no greater benefit. Neither trial exclusively utilized RE. Overall, RE and milk/dairy consumption positively impact body composition in women by promoting losses in fat, gains or maintenance of lean mass and preservation of bone. Future studies in female athletes and under energy restriction with RE alone are warranted. PMID:23075559

  20. Effects of Combined Exercise Training on Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ho Ha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS is emerging as a serious public health problem in Korea. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 12 weeks of combined exercise training on body composition and MS factors in obese Korean female college students.Methods: Subjects were randomly assigned to exercise (n = 7 and control (n = 9 groups. The exercise group trained for 80 min/day, for 3 day/week for 12 weeks. Each exercise session comprised 3 phases: warm-up for 10 min, main exercise for 60 min (consisting of aerobic exercise for 30 min and resistance exercise for 30 min, and cool down for 10 min.Results: The exercise intensity for aerobic exercise was 60-80% of the heart rate reserve (HRR for 30 min, while the resistance exercises were 10-15 repetitions maximum (RM for 30 min. Two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. There were no interaction effects (time × group on the MS-related factors of blood lipid composition such as triglycerides (TGs, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, glucose, total cholesterol (TC, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL. However, interaction effects were observed (time × group on percent body fat (P = 0.006, waist circumference (WC; P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure (SBP; P = 0.010, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P = 0.007.Conclusions: A 12-week supervised combined exercise program could effectively reduce percent body fat, WC, SBP, and DBP. However, it was not effective on MS-related factors of blood lipid composition such as TG, HDL, glucose, TC, and LDL in a sample population of obese Korean female college students.