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  1. Muscle Fibre Type Composition and Body Composition in Hammer Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01). The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05). Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01). Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05). These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key points Well-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls. Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance. The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation. PMID:24149393

  2. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE COMPOSITION AND BODY COMPOSITION IN HAMMER THROWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Terzis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01. The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05. Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01. Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05. These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance

  3. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  4. Testosterone and growth hormone improve body composition and muscle performance in older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Impairments in the pituitary-gonadal axis with aging are associated with loss of muscle mass and function and accumulation of upper body fat. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that physiological supplementation with testosterone and GH together improves body composition and muscle perfor...

  5. Urinary Incontinence in Older Women: The Role of Body Composition and Muscle Strength: From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suskind, Anne M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Subak, Leslee L.; Reinders, I.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steve; Cauley, Jane A.; Harris, Tamara B; Huang, Alison J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate prospective relationships between body composition and muscle strength with predominantly stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) in older women. DESIGN: Prospective community-dwelling observational cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body

  6. Muscle strength and body composition in severe obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Vieira Gadducci

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. METHODS: Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males. Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49.9 kg/m2 (the A group, and 45 patients had a body mass index between 50 and 59.9 kg/m2 (the B group. RESULTS: Absolute extension and flexion torques had weak associations with fat-free mass but a moderate association with absolute extension torque and fat-free mass of the lower limbs. There were no significant differences between the A and B groups with respect to absolute extension and flexion torques. For the A group, absolute extension and flexion torques were moderately associated with fat-free mass and with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. For the B group, there were only moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that both groups exhibited similar absolute torque values. There were weak to moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques and fat-free mass but a moderate association with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Individuals with severe obesity should strive for greater absolute torques, fat-free mass and especially fat-free mass of the lower limbs to prevent functional limitations and physical incapacity.

  7. Muscle strength and body composition in severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadducci, Alexandre Vieira; de Cleva, Roberto; de Faria Santarém, Gabriela Correia; Silva, Paulo Roberto Santos; Greve, Julia Maria D'Andréa; Santo, Marco Aurélio

    2017-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate associations between maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs and body composition for subjects with severe obesity. Body composition was evaluated by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and maximum voluntary contraction torques of the lower limbs were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled (100 females and 32 males). Eighty-seven patients had a body mass index between 40 and 49.9 kg/m2 (the A group), and 45 patients had a body mass index between 50 and 59.9 kg/m2 (the B group). Absolute extension and flexion torques had weak associations with fat-free mass but a moderate association with absolute extension torque and fat-free mass of the lower limbs. There were no significant differences between the A and B groups with respect to absolute extension and flexion torques. For the A group, absolute extension and flexion torques were moderately associated with fat-free mass and with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. For the B group, there were only moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Our findings demonstrate that both groups exhibited similar absolute torque values. There were weak to moderate associations between absolute extension and flexion torques and fat-free mass but a moderate association with fat-free mass of the lower limbs. Individuals with severe obesity should strive for greater absolute torques, fat-free mass and especially fat-free mass of the lower limbs to prevent functional limitations and physical incapacity.

  8. Body Composition Assessment in Axial CT Images Using FEM-Based Automatic Segmentation of Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popuri, Karteek; Cobzas, Dana; Esfandiari, Nina; Baracos, Vickie; Jägersand, Martin

    2016-02-01

    The proportions of muscle and fat tissues in the human body, referred to as body composition is a vital measurement for cancer patients. Body composition has been recently linked to patient survival and the onset/recurrence of several types of cancers in numerous cancer research studies. This paper introduces a fully automatic framework for the segmentation of muscle and fat tissues from CT images to estimate body composition. We developed a novel finite element method (FEM) deformable model that incorporates a priori shape information via a statistical deformation model (SDM) within the template-based segmentation framework. The proposed method was validated on 1000 abdominal and 530 thoracic CT images and we obtained very good segmentation results with Jaccard scores in excess of 90% for both the muscle and fat regions.

  9. Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy composition of diet affects muscle fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout (Oncorhnychus mykiss) The cost and scarcity of key ingredients for aquaculture feed formulation call for a wise use of resources, especially dietary proteins and energy. For years t...

  10. Association between fitness and changes in body composition and muscle strength.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Visser, M.; Simonsick, E.M.; Yu, B.; Allison, D.B.; Newman, A.B.; van Eijk, J.T.; Schwartz, A.V.; Satterfield, S.; Harris, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the association between physical fitness, assessed according to ability and time to complete a 400-m walk, on changes in body composition and muscle strength over a 7-year period. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Memphis, Tennessee, and Pittsburgh,

  11. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: Does resistance training help?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández del Valle, María; Larumbe Zabala, Eneko; Morandé Lavín, Gonzalo; Pérez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n¼18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout...

  12. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: does resistance training help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-del-Valle, Maria; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Morande-Lavin, Gonzalo; Perez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n = 18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout the study (p = 0.011). Significant skeletal muscle mass (SMM) gains were found in the intervention group (p = 0.045, d = 0.6) that correlated to the change in BMI (r = 0.51, p  0.60) with change in BMI in both the groups. Significant relative strength increases (p Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type (AN-R) AN-R is a psychiatric disorder that has a major impact on muscle mass content and function. However, little or no attention has been paid to muscle recovery. High intensity resistance training is safe for AN-R after hospitalization and enhances the force generating capacity as well as muscle mass gains. Skeletal muscle mass content and muscular function improvements are partially maintained for a short period of time when the exercise program ceases.

  13. Body Composition and Muscle Characteristics of Division I Track and Field Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katie R.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Trexler, Eric T.; Roelofs, Erica J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate event-specific body composition and muscle characteristics of track and field athletes, and to assess body composition changes after one year. Sixty collegiate track and field athletes (Mean ± SD; Age = 19.2 ± 1.4 yrs, Height = 174.6 ± 9.0 cm, Weight = 71.5 ± 12.5 kg) were stratified into six event groups. Total and regional body composition measurements were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. A panoramic scan of the vastus lateralis was taken with B-mode ultrasound to determine muscle cross sectional area (mCSA) and echo intensity (EI). Body composition measurements were repeated a year later in a subset of returning athletes (n=33). Throwers had significantly more absolute fat mass (FM; 21.6 ± 11.0 kg), total body mass (89.7 ± 17.4 kg), percent fat (23.6 ± 7.8) and trunk fat (9.4 ± 5.8 kg) than all other event groups (p0.05), but relative to body mass had relatively less LM (0.72 ± 0.08 kg; ptrack and field athletes may be able to minimize losses in LM and gains in FM between seasons. PMID:27100166

  14. Manipulation of Muscle Creatine and Glycogen Changes Dual X-ray Absorptiometry Estimates of Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Julia L; Ross, Megan L; Tomcik, Kristyen A; Jeacocke, Nikki A; Hopkins, Will G; Burke, Louise M

    2017-05-01

    Standardizing a dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) protocol is thought to provide a reliable measurement of body composition. We investigated the effects of manipulating muscle glycogen and creatine content independently and additively on DXA estimates of lean mass. Eighteen well-trained male cyclists undertook a parallel group application of creatine loading (n = 9) (20 g·d for 5 d loading; 3 g·d maintenance) or placebo (n = 9) with crossover application of glycogen loading (12 v 6 g·kg BM per day for 48 h) as part of a larger study involving a glycogen-depleting exercise protocol. Body composition, total body water, muscle glycogen and creatine content were assessed via DXA, bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and standard biopsy techniques. Changes in the mean were assessed using the following effect-size scale: >0.2 small, >0.6, moderate, >1.2 large and compared with the threshold for the smallest worthwhile effect of the treatment. Glycogen loading, both with and without creatine loading, resulted in substantial increases in estimates of lean body mass (mean ± SD; 3.0% ± 0.7% and 2.0% ± 0.9%) and leg lean mass (3.1% ± 1.8% and 2.6% ± 1.0%) respectively. A substantial decrease in leg lean mass was observed after the glycogen depleting condition (-1.4% ± 1.6%). Total body water showed substantial increases after glycogen loading (2.3% ± 2.3%), creatine loading (1.4% ± 1.9%) and the combined treatment (2.3% ± 1.1%). Changes in muscle metabolites and water content alter DXA estimates of lean mass during periods in which minimal change in muscle protein mass is likely. This information needs to be considered in interpreting the results of DXA-derived estimates of body composition in athletes.

  15. QTL for microstructural and biophysical muscle properties and body composition in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murani Eduard

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportion of muscle fibre types and their size affect muscularity as well as functional properties of the musculature and meat quality. We aimed to identify QTL for microstructural muscle properties including muscle fibre size, their numbers and fibre type proportions as well as biophysical parameters of meat quality and traits related to body composition, i.e. pH, conductivity, area of M. longissimus dorsi and lean meat content. A QTL scan was conducted in a porcine experimental population that is based on Duroc and Berlin Miniature Pig. Results Least square regression interval mapping revealed five significant and 42 suggestive QTL for traits related to muscle fibre composition under the line-cross model as well as eight significant and 40 suggestive QTL under the half-sib model. For traits related to body composition and biophysical parameters of meat quality five and twelve significant plus nine and 22 suggestive QTL were found under the line-cross and half-sib model, respectively. Regions with either significant QTL for muscle fibre traits or significant QTL for meat quality and muscularity or both were detected on SSC1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 13, 14, 15, and 16. QTL for microstructural properties explained a larger proportion of variance than did QTL for meat quality and body composition. Conclusion Microstructural properties of pig muscle and meat quality are governed by genetic variation at many loci distributed throughout the genome. QTL analysis under both, the line-cross and half-sib model, allows detecting QTL in case of fixation or segregation of the QTL alleles among the founder populations and thus provide comprehensive insight into the genetic variation of the traits under investigation. Genomic regions affecting complex traits of muscularity and meat quality as well as microstructural properties might point to QTL that in first instance affect muscle fibre traits and by this in second instance meat quality

  16. Strength, but not muscle mass, is associated with mortality in the health, aging and body composition study cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Anne B; Kupelian, Varant; Visser, Marjolein; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Tylavsky, Frances A; Rubin, Susan M; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: Although muscle strength and mass are highly correlated, the relationship between direct measures of low muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength in association with mortality has not been examined. METHODS: Total mortality rates were examined in the Health, Aging and Body Composition

  17. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  18. Estimation of 1RM for knee extension based on the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.

  19. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Agnes Nadelmann; Ovesen, L.; Schroll, M.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure body composition and analyse the relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability in healthy, old subjects, and to relate the results to an optimal BMI level for the elderly. SETTING: Subjects aged 80 years living at home from the 1914-population...... proposed guidelines for the elderly of an optimal BMI interval of 24-29 kg/m2. We found relations between body composition, muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability....... in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self...

  20. The effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Vicent; Carneiro, José; Moreno, Fátima; Fulquet, Miquel; Garriga, Salud; Pou, Mónica; Duarte, Verónica; Saurina, Anna; Tapia, Irati; Ramírez de Arellano, Manel

    Haemodialysis (HD) patients are characterised by significant muscle loss. Recently, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has emerged as a new therapeutic alternative to improve these patients' physical condition. To date, no studies on the effects of NMES on body composition in HD patients have been published. To analyse the effect of NMES on muscle strength, functional capacity and body composition in our HD patients. A 12-week, single-centre, prospective study. The patients were assigned to an electrical stimulation (ES) or control (CO) group. The ES group was subjected to intradialytic electrical stimulation of the quadriceps (Compex® Theta 500i), while the CO group received standard HD care. We analysed the following: 1) nutritional parameters; 2) muscle composition of the quadriceps; 3) maximum quadriceps extension strength (mes) and hand-grip (HG); 4) «sit to stand to sit» (STS10) and «six-minute walking test» (6MWT); 5) body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis). Of 20 patients, 55% were men. Mean age 67.7 years, 30.3 months in HD. Main aetiology: DM (35%). In the ES group were 13 patients, and 7 in the CO group. At the end of the study, an improvement was only observed in the ES group ( * P<.05): MES * (11.7±7.1 vs. 13.4±7.4kg), STS10 (39.3±15.5 vs. 35.8±13.7s) and 6MWT * (9.9%, 293.2 vs. 325.2m). Furthermore, increased quadriceps muscle area (QMA * : 128.6±30.2 vs. 144.6±22.4cm 2 ) and lowered quadriceps fat area (QFA * : 76.5±26.9 vs. 62.1±20.1cm 2 ) were observed. No relevant changes in body composition, nutritional parameters and dialysis adequacy were found. 1) NMES improved muscle strength, functional capacity and quadriceps muscle composition in our patients. 2) Based on the results obtained, NMES could be a new therapeutic alternative to prevent muscle atrophy and progressive physical deterioration. 3) However, future studies are necessary to establish the potential beneficial effects of NMES in HD patients. Copyright

  1. Effect of protein source on resistive-training-induced changes in body composition and muscle size in older men123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, Mark D; Wells, Amanda M; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2008-01-01

    Background Aging is associated with reductions in muscle mass and strength, but nutrition and exercise interventions can delay this progression and enhance the quality of life. Objective We examined whether the predominant source of protein consumed by older men influenced measures of muscle size and strength, body composition, resting energy expenditure, and skeletal muscle creatine concentrations in response to 12 wk of resistive training. Design After consuming a lactoovovegetarian (LOV) diet for 2 wk, 21 men aged 65 ± 5 y were randomly assigned to either consume a beef-containing (BC) diet (n = 10) or to continue the LOV diet (n = 11) throughout resistive training. The BC diet included 0.6 g protein · kg−1 · d−1 from beef and the LOV diet included 0.6 g protein · kg−1 · d−1 from textured vegetable protein (soy) sources. The remaining protein in the diets came from self-selected LOV sources. Results The mean total protein intake for both groups ranged from 1.03 to 1.17 g · kg−1 · d−1 during the intervention. Men in both groups had improvements (14–38%) in maximal dynamic strength of all the muscle groups trained with no significant difference between groups. With resistive training, cross-sectional muscle area of the vastus lateralis increased in both groups (4.2 ± 3.0% and 6.0 ± 2.6% for the LOV and BC groups, respectively) with no significant difference between groups. Body composition, resting energy expenditure, and concentrations of muscle creatine, phosphocreatine, and total creatine did not differ significantly between groups or change over time. Conclusions These data suggest that increases in muscle strength and size were not influenced by the predominant source of protein consumed by older men with adequate total protein intake. PMID:12197993

  2. Effects of Different Types of Exercise on Body Composition, Muscle Strength, and IGF-1 in the Elderly with Sarcopenic Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Ting; Chung, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Jen; Ho, Sung-Yen; Wu, Huey-June

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the influence of resistance training (RT), aerobic training (AT), or combination training (CT) interventions on the body composition, muscle strength performance, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) of patients with sarcopenic obesity. Randomized controlled trial. Community center and research center. Sixty men and women aged 65-75 with sarcopenic obesity. Participants were randomly assigned to RT, AT, CT, and control (CON) groups. After training twice a week for 8 weeks, the participants in each group ceased training for 4 weeks before being examined for the retention effects of the training interventions. The body composition, grip strength, maximum back extensor strength, maximum knee extensor muscle strength, and blood IGF-1 concentration were measured. The skeletal muscle mass (SMM), body fat mass, appendicular SMM/weight %, and visceral fat area (VFA) of the RT, AT, and CT groups were significantly superior to those of the CON group at both week 8 and week 12. Regarding muscle strength performance, the RT group exhibited greater grip strength at weeks 8 and 12 as well as higher knee extensor performance at week 8 than that of the other groups. At week 8, the serum IGF-1 concentration of the RT group was higher than the CON group, whereas the CT group was superior to the AT and CON groups. Older adults with sarcopenic obesity who engaged in the RT, AT, and CT interventions demonstrated increased muscle mass and reduced total fat mass and VFA compared with those without training. The muscle strength performance and serum IGF-1 level in trained groups, especially in the RT group, were superior to the control group. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Meal Distribution of Dietary Protein and Leucine Influences Long-Term Muscle Mass and Body Composition in Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Layne E; Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J; Layman, Donald K

    2017-02-01

    Protein quantity and quality at a meal affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS); however, long-term effects of protein distribution at individual meals on adult muscle mass remain unknown. We used a precise feeding protocol in adult rats to determine if optimizing postmeal MPS response by modifying the meal distribution of protein, and the amino acid leucine (Leu), would affect muscle mass. Two studies were conducted with the use of male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300 g) trained to consume 3 meals/d, then assigned to diet treatments with identical macronutrient contents (16% of energy from protein, 54% from carbohydrates, and 30% from fat) but differing in protein quality or meal distribution. Study 1 provided 16% protein at each meal with the use of whey, egg white, soy, or wheat gluten, with Leu concentrations of 10.9%, 8.8%, 7.7%, and 6.8% (wt:wt), respectively. Study 2 used whey protein with 16% protein at each meal [balanced distribution (BD)] or meals with 8%, 8%, and 27% protein [unbalanced distribution (UD)]. MPS and translation factors 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein p70S6 (S6K) were determined before and after breakfast meals at 2 and 11 wk. Muscle weights and body composition were measured at 11 wk. In study 1, the breakfast meal increased MPS and S6K in whey and egg treatments but not in wheat or soy treatments. Gastrocnemius weight was greater in the whey group (2.20 ± 0.03 g) than the soy group (1.95 ± 0.04 g) (P 20% more body fat than the soy, egg, or whey groups (P protein and Leu influences MPS and long-term changes in adult muscle mass. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Postmenopausal HRT and tibolone in relation to muscle strength and body composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, D. E.; Samson, M. M.; Kezic, S.; Verhaar, H. J. J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass with age, has a great impact on physical function, and especially in postmenopausal women, who experience a greater decline in muscle strength than do men of similar age. Conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may diminish this loss of muscle

  5. Altered skeletal muscle fiber composition and size precede whole-body insulin resistance in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Madsbad, Sten

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW), a surrogate marker of an adverse fetal milieu, is linked to muscle insulin resistance, impaired insulin-stimulated glycolysis, and future risk of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle mass, fiber composition, and capillary density are important determinants of muscle f...... was not significantly different between groups. CONCLUSION: Alterations in fiber composition and size may contribute to development of type 2 diabetes in individuals with LBW....

  6. The Role of Muscle Mass, Muscle Quality, and Body Composition in Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome and Functional Decline in Older Adults: Topical Collection on Nutrition, Obesity, and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert T.); S.D. Anton (Stephen D.); M. Aubertin-Leheudre (Mylene)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Age-related body composition changes include both loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and increase in fat mass, which jointly contribute to a decline in metabolic functions. Muscle quality is positively related to functional capacity and a lower risk for the development of the

  7. BODY COMPOSITION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A knowledge of the exact chemical composition of .he live animal at any given stage would therefore not only permit a more precise evaluation of feeds, but it could conceivably be applied in the genetic improvement of livestock and would undoubtedly be a use- ful diagnostic tool of metabolic and physiological dis- orders.

  8. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Melcher, Pia Grethe Sandfeld

    2017-01-01

    the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12...... functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used......Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined...

  9. Body composition of 80-years old men and women and its relation to muscle strength, physical activity and functional ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pederse, agnes N; Ovesen, Lars; Schroll, M

    2002-01-01

    in Glostrup, Denmark. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: 121 men and 113 women had their height and weight measured. Body fat mass and fat-free mass were assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Muscle strength was measured as handgrip, elbow flexion, knee extension, body flexion and body extension. Physical activity was self...

  10. Effect of whey protein isolate on strength, body composition and muscle hypertrophy during resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Alan; Cribb, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    Sarcopenia (skeletal muscle wasting with aging) is thought to underlie a number of serious age-related health issues. While it may be seen as inevitable, decreasing this gradual loss of muscle is vital for healthy aging. Thus, it is imperative to investigate exercise and nutrition-based strategies designed to build a reservoir of muscle mass as early as possible. Elderly individuals are still able to respond to both resistance training and the anabolic signals provided by protein ingestion, provided specific amino acids, such as leucine, are present. Whey proteins are a rich source of these essential amino acids and rapidly elevate plasma amino acids, thus providing the foundations for preservation of muscle mass. Several studies involving supplementation with whey protein have been shown to be effective in augmenting the effects of resistance exercise, particularly when supplementation occurs in the hours surrounding the exercise training. While further work is required, particularly in elderly people, simple dietary and exercise strategies that may improve the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass will likely result in a decrease in the overall burden of a number of diseases and improve the quality of life as we age.

  11. Lower serum albumin concentration and change in muscle mass: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Newman, A.B.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Nevitt, M.C.; Harris, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low albumin concentrations in older persons increase the risk of poor health outcomes, including functional decline. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the association between serum albumin concentration and skeletal muscle loss (sarcopenia) in old age. DESIGN: Serum

  12. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2013-01-01

    Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO 2max increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.

  13. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Mike; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2016-03-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS), myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11)] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10)] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p 0.05). Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05). In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation. Key pointsIn response to 56 days of heavy resistance training and HC or HPC supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting serum IGF-1 GH, or HGF.The supplementation of HPC had no preferential effect on augmenting increases in total muscle protein content or the myogenic markers, total DNA and muscle cMet content.In response to 56 days of a daily supplemental dose of 94 g of protein and 196 g of carbohydrate, the HPC group was no more effective than 312 g of carbohydrate in the HC group in increasing muscle strength and mass due to its ability to elevate serum anabolic hormones and growth factors and markers of myogenic activation of satellite cells.

  14. Daily Overfeeding from Protein and/or Carbohydrate Supplementation for Eight Weeks in Conjunction with Resistance Training Does not Improve Body Composition and Muscle Strength or Increase Markers Indicative of Muscle Protein Synthesis and Myogenesis in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spillane, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and daily overfeeding with carbohydrate and/or protein on blood and skeletal muscle markers of protein synthesis (MPS, myogenesis, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty one resistance-trained males were randomly assigned to either a protein + carbohydrate [HPC (n = 11] or a carbohydrate [HC (n = 10] supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after eight weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05. Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training, but not supplementation (p 0.05. Muscle total DNA, total protein, and c-Met were not significantly affected (p > 0.05. In conjunction with resistance training, the peri-exercise and daily overfeeding of protein and/or carbohydrate did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS and myogenic activation.

  15. Measures of bioavailable serum testosterone and estradiol and their relationships with muscle strength, bone density, and body composition in elderly men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. van den Beld (Annewieke); F.H. de Jong (Frank); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); H.A.P. Pols (Huib); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the present cross-sectional study of 403 independently living elderly men, we tested the hypothesis that the decreases in bone mass, body composition, and muscle strength with age are related to the fall in circulating endogenous testosterone (T) and

  16. Heavy Resistance Training and Peri-Exercise Ingestion of a Multi-Ingredient Ergogenic Nutritional Supplement in Males: Effects on Body Composition, Muscle Performance and Markers of Muscle Protein Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Spillane, Neil Schwarz, Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ergogenic multi-ingredient nutritional supplement ingestion on blood and skeletal markers of muscle protein synthesis (MPS, body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty-four college-age males were randomly assigned to either a multi-ingredient SizeOn Maximum Performance (SIZE or protein/carbohydrate/creatine (PCC comparator supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05. Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were not differentially affected (p > 0.05. However, fat-free mass was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p = 0.037. Lower-body muscle strength (p = 0.029 and endurance (p = 0.027 were significantly increased with resistance training, but not supplementation (p > 0.05. Serum insulin, IGF-1, GH, and cortisol were not differentially affected (p > 0.05. Muscle creatine content was significantly increased in both groups from supplementation (p = 0.044. Total muscle protein (p = 0.038, MHC 1 (p = 0.041, MHC 2A, (p = 0.029, total IRS- (p = 0.041, and total Akt (p = 0.011 were increased from resistance training, but not supplementation. In response to heavy resistance training when compared to PCC, the peri-exercise ingestion of SIZE did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS.

  17. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass......Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...

  18. Heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ingestion of a multi-ingredient ergogenic nutritional supplement in males: effects on body composition, muscle performance and markers of muscle protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2014-12-01

    This study determined the effects of heavy resistance training and peri-exercise ergogenic multi-ingredient nutritional supplement ingestion on blood and skeletal markers of muscle protein synthesis (MPS), body composition, and muscle performance. Twenty-four college-age males were randomly assigned to either a multi-ingredient SizeOn Maximum Performance (SIZE) or protein/carbohydrate/creatine (PCC) comparator supplement group in a double-blind fashion. Body composition and muscle performance were assessed, and venous blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before and after 6 weeks of resistance training and supplementation. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Total body mass, body water, and fat mass were not differentially affected (p > 0.05). However, fat-free mass was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p = 0.037). Lower-body muscle strength (p = 0.029) and endurance (p = 0.027) were significantly increased with resistance training, but not supplementation (p > 0.05). Serum insulin, IGF-1, GH, and cortisol were not differentially affected (p > 0.05). Muscle creatine content was significantly increased in both groups from supplementation (p = 0.044). Total muscle protein (p = 0.038), MHC 1 (p = 0.041), MHC 2A, (p = 0.029), total IRS- (p = 0.041), and total Akt (p = 0.011) were increased from resistance training, but not supplementation. In response to heavy resistance training when compared to PCC, the peri-exercise ingestion of SIZE did not preferentially improve body composition, muscle performance, and markers indicative of MPS. Key pointsIn response to 42 days of heavy resistance training and either SizeOn Maximum Performance or protein/carbohydrate/creatine supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of SizeOn Maximum Performance had no preferential effect on augmenting

  19. Sex-specific relationships of physical activity, body composition, and muscle quality with lower-extremity physical function in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to determine the sex-specific relationships of physical activity, body composition, and muscle quality with lower-extremity physical function in older men and women. Seventy-nine community-dwelling men (n = 39; mean [SD] age, 76.1 [6.2] y; mean [SD] body mass index, 27.3 [3.8] kg/m(2)) and women (n = 40; mean [SD] age, 75.8 [5.5] y; mean [SD] body mass index, 27.0 [3.8] kg/m(2)) were assessed for physical activity via questionnaire, body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning, leg extension power using the Nottingham power rig, and muscle quality (W/kg; the ratio of leg extension power [W] to lower-body mineral-free lean mass [kg]). A composite measure of physical function was obtained by summing Z scores from the 6-minute walk, 8-ft up-and-go test, and 30-second chair-stand test. As expected, men had significantly greater levels of physical activity, lower adiposity, greater lean mass, higher leg extension power, and greater muscle quality compared with women (all P quality and physical activity were the strongest predictors of lower-extremity physical function in men and independently explained 42% and 29% of the variance, respectively. In women, muscle quality (16%) and percent body fat (12%) were independent predictors after adjustment for covariates. Muscle quality is the strongest predictor of lower-extremity physical function in men and women, but sex impacts the importance of physical activity and adiposity. These findings suggest that older men and women may benefit from different intervention strategies for preventing physical disability and also highlight the importance of weight management for older women to preserve physical function.

  20. Effect of floorball training on blood lipids, body composition, muscle strength, and functional capacity of elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorup, J; Pedersen, M T; Melcher, P S; Dreier, R; Bangsbo, J

    2017-11-01

    Floorball training consists of intense repeated exercise and may offer a motivating and social stimulating team activity in elderly individuals. However, the effect of floorball training in elderly adults on physiological adaptations important for health is not known. Thus, this study examined the effect of floorball training on blood lipids, muscle strength, body composition, and functional capacity of men aged 65-76 years. Thirty-nine recreational active men were randomized into a floorball group (FG; n = 22) or petanque group (PG; n = 17), in which training was performed 1 h twice a week for 12 weeks. In FG and PG, average heart rate (HR) during training was 80% and 57%, respectively, of maximal HR. In FG, plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were 11% and 8% lower (P functional capacity tests were better (P training period. No changes were observed in PG. In conclusion, 12 weeks of floorball training resulted in a number of favorable effects important for health and functional capacity, suggesting that floorball training can be used as a health-promoting activity in elderly men. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The effects of 8 weeks of heavy resistance training and branched-chain amino acid supplementation on body composition and muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillane, Mike; Emerson, Christamarie; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2012-10-01

    This study determined the effects of 8 weeks of heavy resistance training combined with branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on body composition and muscle performance. Resistance training was performed by 19 non-resistance-trained males (three sets of 8-10 repetitions) four times/week, for 8 weeks, while also ingesting 9 g/day of BCAA or 9 g/day of placebo (PLAC) on the exercise days only (one-half of total dose 30 min before and after exercise). Data were analyzed with separate 2 × 2 analysis of variance (ANOVA) (p training (p = 0.593) and also, there were no significant changes in total body water (p = 0.517). In addition, no training- or supplement-induced (p = 0.783) changes occurred with fat mass or fat-free mass (p = 0.907). Upper-body (p = 0.047) and lower-body strength (p = 0.044) and upper- (p = 0.001) and lower-body muscle endurance (p = 0.013) increased with training; however, these increases were not different between the groups (p > 0.05). When combined with heavy resistance training for 8 weeks, supplementation with 9 g/day of BCAA 30 min before and after exercise had no preferential effects on body composition and muscle performance.

  2. Strength and muscle quality in a well-functioning cohort of older adults : the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, Anne B; Haggerty, Catherine L; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steve; Nevitt, Michael; Miles, Toni P; Visser, Marjolein

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether lower lean mass and higher fat mass have independent effects on the loss of strength and muscle quality in older adults and might explain part of the effect of age. DESIGN: Single-episode, cross-sectional analyses of a cohort of subjects in the Health, Aging and Body

  3. Growth hormone signaling in muscle and adipose tissue of obese human subjects: associations with measures of body composition and interaction with resveratrol treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Berthil F; Poulsen, Morten M; Escande, Carlos; Pedersen, Steen B; Møller, Niels; Chini, Eduardo N; Jessen, Niels; Jørgensen, Jens O L

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is reduced in obesity, despite normal serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) levels, but the association between obesity and the GH signaling is unknown. Furthermore, SIRT1, an nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase, reduces hepatic IGF-1 production in mice via blunting of GH-induced STAT5 signaling. To study GH signaling in muscle and fat in obese subjects and the interaction with concomitant administration of the putative SIRT1 activator resveratrol, and to assess the effects of inhibiting or knocking down SIRT1 on GH regulated genes in vitro. Twenty-four obese males were examined in a randomized, double blinded, parallel-group study with resveratrol or placebo treatment for 5 weeks followed by a GH bolus. Muscle and fat biopsies were collected before and after GH. Body composition was assessed by DEXA and MRI. (1) Effect of body composition and age on GH-stimulated STAT5b phosphorylation and IGF-1, SOCS2, and CISH mRNA in muscle and fat. (2) The impact of resveratrol treatment on GH activity. (3) Impact of inhibiting or knocking down SIRT1 on effects of GH in vitro. Significant GH-induced STAT5b phosphorylation in muscle and fat in obese subjects was recorded together with increased CISH and SOCS2 mRNA. GH-induced STAT5b phosphorylation in muscle correlated positively with age [r = 0.53, p body composition. Resveratrol administration had no impact on body composition, serum IGF-1, or GH signaling in vivo, and SIRT1 knock down or inhibition did not affect GH signaling in vitro. (1) GH induced STAT5b phosphorylation is detectable in muscle and fat in adult males with simple obesity, but is not determined by body composition. (2) Resveratrol supplementation does not impact circulating IGF-1 levels or GH signaling in human muscle and fat. (3) Our data speak against a major impact of SIRT1on GH action in human subjects.

  4. Impact of ghrelin on body composition and muscle function in a long-term rodent model of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Neil E; Murphy, Kevin G; Saeed, Saima; Phadke, Rahul; Chambers, Darren; Wilson, Duncan R; Brett, Stephen J; Singer, Mervyn

    2017-01-01

    Patients with multiple injuries or sepsis requiring intensive care treatment invariably develop a catabolic state with resultant loss of lean body mass, for which there are currently no effective treatments. Recovery can take months and mortality is high. We hypothesise that treatment with the orexigenic and anti-inflammatory gastric hormone, ghrelin may attenuate the loss of body mass following critical illness and improve recovery. Male Wistar rats received an intraperitoneal injection of the fungal cell wall derivative zymosan to induce a prolonged peritonitis and consequent critical illness. Commencing at 48h after zymosan, animals were randomised to receive a continuous infusion of ghrelin or vehicle control using a pre-implanted subcutaneous osmotic mini-pump, and continued for 10 days. Zymosan peritonitis induced significant weight loss and reduced food intake with a nadir at Day 2 and gradual recovery thereafter. Supra-physiologic plasma ghrelin levels were achieved in the treated animals. Ghrelin-treated rats ate more food and gained more body mass than controls. Ghrelin increased adiposity and promoted carbohydrate over fat metabolism, but did not alter total body protein, muscle strength nor muscle morphology. Muscle mass and strength remained significantly reduced in all zymosan-treated animals, even at ten days post-insult. Continuous infusion of ghrelin increased body mass and food intake, but did not increase muscle mass nor improve muscle function, in a long-term critical illness recovery model. Further studies with pulsatile ghrelin delivery or additional anabolic stimuli may further clarify the utility of ghrelin in survivors of critical illness.

  5. The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training on body composition and muscle function in +65-year-old healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen

    2016-01-01

    expression decreased by 38% (pprotein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men....... compared to before the intervention period, and unchanged in RG and CG. In RG, upper body lean mass was 3 and 2% higher (p....8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (p

  6. The effects of exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and the inflammatory profile of older adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Keliane; Forti, Louis N; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review reports the most recent literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. All articles were assessed for methodological quality and where possible effect size was calculated. Thirty-four articles were included - four involving frail, 24 healthy and five older adults with a specific disease. One reported on both frail and nonfrail patients. Several types of exercise were used: resistance training, aerobic training, combined resistance training and aerobic training and others. In frail older persons, moderate-to-large beneficial exercise effects were noted on inflammation, muscle strength and physical functioning. In healthy older persons, effects of resistance training (most frequently investigated) on inflammation or muscle strength can be influenced by the exercise modalities (intensity and rest interval between sets). Muscle strength seemed the most frequently used outcome measure, with moderate-to-large effects obtained regardless the exercise intervention studied. Similar effects were found in patients with specific diseases. Exercise has moderate-to-large effects on muscle strength, body composition, physical functioning and inflammation in older adults. Future studies should focus on the influence of specific exercise modalities and target the frail population more.

  7. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals become increasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body composition and argue that differences in feeding mechanisms and predator avoidance strategies favor either......I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...... a watery or a condensed body form, and that in the intermediate taxa the moderately elevated water content is related to buoyancy control and ambush feeding...

  8. Comparisons of low-intensity versus moderate-intensity combined aerobic and resistance training on body composition, muscle strength, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiotsu, Yoko; Yanagita, Masahiko

    2018-02-05

    This study aimed to examine the effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training into the same session on body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength in healthy older women. Furthermore, this study compared the effects of different (low- vs moderate-) intensity combined training. A total of 60 healthy older women (age 61-81 y) were randomly assigned to five groups that performed aerobic exercise before low-intensity resistance training (AR-L, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-L, n = 12), performed aerobic exercise before moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-M, n = 12) or after resistance training (RA-M, n = 12), or nonintervention control conditions (CON, n = 12). Body composition, functional performance, and muscle strength were evaluated before and after the 10-week training. No effects of exercise order of combined aerobic and low- or moderate-intensity resistance training (AR-L vs RA-L, AR-M vs RA-M) were observed in body composition, functional performance, or muscle strength, whereas the effects of training intensity of combined training (AR-L vs AR-M, RA-L vs RA-M) were observed on functional performance. All combined trainings significantly increased muscle strength and gait ability (P Functional reach test significantly increased in the AR-M and RA-M groups (P training increases muscle strength and improves gait ability, regardless of the exercise order. Also, greater improvement in dynamic balance capacity, a risk factor associated with falling, is observed in moderate-intensity combined training.

  9. Body composition, muscle strength and quality of active elderly women according to the distance covered in the 6-minute walk test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla H. C. Vilaca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Changes arising from the aging process, particularly changes in body composition, contribute to the functional decline of the elderly. OBJECTIVE: To compare the body composition and muscle strength, mobility and quality in active elderly women according to the distance walked during the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. METHOD: The study included 77 active elderly women aged 65 to 80 years, who were divided into tertiles (A, B and C according to the distance covered in the 6MWT. We performed anthropometric and clinical evaluations. Body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Handgrip strength (HGS was measured with a portable dynamometer (Saehan, and knee extension strength (KES was measured with the one repetition maximum test (1-RM. Functional mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go (TUG test, and body balance was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Muscle quality was defined by the ratio between muscle strength (kgf and muscle mass (kg. RESULTS: The group that walked the shortest distance in the 6MWT had a higher BMI (A=30.8±7.0, B=27.2±4.2 and C=25.9±3.5 kg/m2, greater amount of fat mass (A=31.3±10.7, B=25.9±6.7 and C=23.81±6.46 kg lower HGS (A=21.8±5.1, B=22.1±3.5 and C=25.5±5.1 kgf, lower knee extension strength (A=30.6±10.9, B=40.4±12.5 and C=47.2±10.1 kgf, lower arm muscle quality (A=10.1±3.7, B=11.6±2 and C=12.7±2.2 kg and lower leg muscle quality (A=1.78±1, B=2.84±0.98 and C=3.31±0.77 kg. There was no significant difference between muscle mass (p=0.25 and lean mass (p=0.26. CONCLUSION: Body fat has a negative influence on functional performance, even among active elderly women.

  10. Effects of Dietary Garlic Extracts on Whole Body Amino Acid and Fatty Acid Composition, Muscle Free Amino Acid Profiles and Blood Plasma Changes in Juvenile Sterlet Sturgeon,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoon Lee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies were carried out to investigate the supplemental effects of dietary garlic extracts (GE on whole body amino acids, whole body and muscle free amino acids, fatty acid composition and blood plasma changes in 6 month old juvenile sterlet sturgeon (Acipenser ruthenus. In the first experiment, fish with an average body weight of 59.6 g were randomly allotted to each of 10 tanks (two groups of five replicates, 20 fish/tank and fed diets with (0.5% or without (control GE respectively, at the level of 2% of fish body weight per day for 5 wks. Whole body amino acid composition between the GE and control groups were not different (p>0.05. Among free amino acids in muscle, L-glutamic acid, L-alanine, L-valine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine were significantly (p0.05 were noticed at 12 h (74.6 vs 73.0. Plasma insulin concentrations (μIU/ml between the two groups were significantly (p<0.05 different at 1 (10.56 vs 5.06 and 24 h (32.56 vs 2.96 after feeding. The present results suggested that dietary garlic extracts could increase dietary glucose utilization through the insulin secretion, which result in improved fish body quality and feed utilization by juvenile sterlet sturgeon.

  11. Resistance training may concomitantly benefit body composition, blood pressure and muscle MMP-2 activity on the left ventricle of high-fat fed diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Richard Diego; Durigan, Rita de Cássia Marqueti; de Souza Lino, Anderson Diogo; de Souza Campos, Markus Vinicius; Souza, Maria das Graças; Selistre-de-Araújo, Heloisa Silvestre; Bouskela, Eliete; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistance training (RT) on body composition, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), and activity of muscle MMP-2 in the left ventricle of high-fat fed rats. We have evaluated 32 male Wistar rats divided into four experimental groups (n=8/each) according to diet and exercise status: sedentary (SED; standard diet), sedentary obese (SED-OB; diet: 30% of fat), RT (RT; standard diet) and RT obese (RT-OB; diet: 30% of fat). After weaning (day 21), animals were subjected to the experimental diet according to their groups during 24 weeks. A 12-week strength-training period was used, during which the rats climbed a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails. Sessions were performed three times/week (Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays), with 4-9 climbs/session and 8-12 dynamic movements/climb. RT induced higher muscle MMP-2 activity in the left ventricle in RT and RT-OB groups. Moreover, this study demonstrated that RT promoted lower body and fat masses, fat percentage, systolic and diastolic BPs and higher fat free mass in both trained groups. RT increased muscle MMP-2 activity in the left ventricle, induced positive changes on body composition and lowered BPs in high-fat diet fed rats, suggesting that it may be a useful tool to prevent alterations induced by high-fat diet consumption. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Study of growth in rural school children from Buenos Aires, Argentina using upper arm muscle area by height and other anthropometric dimensions of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzan, A; Guimarey, L; Frisancho, A R

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective was to compare growth and body composition in an infantile rural population by means of the upper arm muscle area by height and other antropometric measurements. Research was carried out by way of a cross sectional study, including 80% (321 6-13 year olds) of the schoolchildren living in General Lavalle, a rural community of about 3000 inhabitants. The methods and procedures included the evaluation of mother's educational levels and anthropometric measurements. Height (H), weight, mid upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold (TS) were measured. The body mass index (BMI), the upper arm muscle area (UAMA), the upper arm fat area (UAFA) and the upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) were calculated. Variables were grouped by gender and age and transformed into z-scores, using the US anthropometric standards as reference. The results showed that: (1) the mother educational status was, in relation to z-scores, as in an urban population, and (2) the z-scores for BMI, UAFA and TS were above the reference, while the ones for H, UAMA and UAMAH were below the reference. The differences between z-scores in relation to mother's educational levels were statistically significant (p children of General Lavalle tend to be fatty and overweight, while their muscle mass and H are proportionally low, but with values within the reference. Thus, low muscle mass and H are, in general terms, indicative of low protein reserves, the systematically low-anthropometry found for UAMAH suggests that this index should be used in conjunction with other indexes (e.g. BMI, UAFA) to obtain a more complete assessment of body composition and nutritional status.

  13. The Effects of 52 Weeks of Soccer or Resistance Training on Body Composition and Muscle Function in +65-Year-Old Healthy Males – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The effects of 52 weeks of soccer or resistance training were investigated in untrained elderly men. The subjects aged 68.1±2.1 yrs were randomised into a soccer (SG; n = 9), a resistance (RG; n = 9) and a control group (CG; n = 8). The subjects in SG and RG, respectively, trained 1.7±0.3 and 1.8±0.3 times weekly on average during the intervention period. Muscle function and body composition were determined before and after 16 and 52 weeks of the intervention period. In SG, BMI was reduced by 1.5% and 3.0% (psoccer training reduces BMI and improves anti-oxidative capacity, while long-term resistance training impacts muscle protein enzyme expression and increases lean body mass in elderly men. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01530035 PMID:26886262

  14. Are unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy distinguished by differences in anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength in elite female basketball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaida, J E; Cook, J L; Bass, S L; Austen, S; Kiss, Z S

    2004-10-01

    Overuse injury to the patellar tendon (patellar tendinopathy) is a major reason for interrupted training and competition for elite athletes. In both sexes, the prevalence of unilateral and bilateral tendinopathy has been shown to differ. It has been proposed that bilateral pathology may have a different aetiology from unilateral pathology. Investigation of risk factors that may be unique to unilateral and bilateral patellar tendinopathy in female athletes may reveal insights into the aetiology of this condition. To examine whether anthropometry, body composition, or muscle strength distinguished elite female basketball players with unilateral or bilateral patellar tendinopathy. Body composition, anthropometry, and muscle strength were compared in elite female basketball players with unilateral (n = 8), bilateral (n = 7), or no (n = 24) patellar tendinopathy. Body composition was analysed using a dual energy x ray absorptiometer. Anthropometric measures were assessed using standard techniques. Knee extensor strength was measured at 180 degrees /s using an isokinetic dynamometer. z scores were calculated for the unilateral and bilateral groups (using the no tendinopathy group as controls). z scores were tested against zero. The tibia length to stature ratio was approximately 1.3 (1.3) SDs above zero in both the affected and non-affected legs in the unilateral group (ppatellar tendinopathy has identifiable risk factors whereas bilateral patellar tendinopathy may not. This suggests that the aetiology of these conditions may be different. However, interpretation must respect the limitation of small subject numbers.

  15. Effects of regular exercise and nutritional guidance on body composition, blood pressure, muscle strength and health-related quality of life in community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uritani, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Asano, Yasuyo; Yoshizaki, Kyoko; Nishida, Yukiko; Shima, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of 6-month regular exercise and nutritional guidance for body composition, blood pressure, muscle strength and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in community-dwelling Japanese women aged 40-74 years. Participants were divided into an intervention group (n = 48) comprising women registered for health guidance and a control group without intervention (n = 66). The intervention group received 6-month exercise and nutritional guidance to modify lifestyle. Before and after the intervention period, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure, muscle strength and HRQOL using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2 (SF-36) questionnaire were measured. At baseline, no significant differences were found between intervention and control groups. Waist circumference decreased significantly in the intervention group (from 82.4 to 79.9 cm) compared to the control group (from 80.5 to 79.7 cm). BMI and body fat percentage also decreased significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group. General health perception, vitality and social functioning in the SF-36 showed significantly greater improvements in the intervention group than in the control group. Six-month regular exercise and nutritional guidance had beneficial effects on body composition and health-related quality of life especially for mental components of SF-36. Based on these findings, our intervention was expected to provide benefits to mental components of HRQOL and facilitate sustained participation and motivation in modify lifestyles. As a result, beneficial effects on body composition might also be sustained. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Collagen peptide supplementation in combination with resistance training improves body composition and increases muscle strength in elderly sarcopenic men: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdzieblik, Denise; Oesser, Steffen; Baumstark, Manfred W; Gollhofer, Albert; König, Daniel

    2015-10-28

    Protein supplementation in combination with resistance training may increase muscle mass and muscle strength in elderly subjects. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of post-exercise protein supplementation with collagen peptides v. placebo on muscle mass and muscle function following resistance training in elderly subjects with sarcopenia. A total of fifty-three male subjects (72·2 (sd 4·68) years) with sarcopenia (class I or II) completed this randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. All the participants underwent a 12-week guided resistance training programme (three sessions per week) and were supplemented with either collagen peptides (treatment group (TG)) (15 g/d) or silica as placebo (placebo group (PG)). Fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM) and bone mass (BM) were measured before and after the intervention using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic quadriceps strength (IQS) of the right leg was determined and sensory motor control (SMC) was investigated by a standardised one-leg stabilisation test. Following the training programme, all the subjects showed significantly higher (Ptraining further improved body composition by increasing FFM, muscle strength and the loss in FM.

  17. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  19. Short bowel patients treated for two years with glucagon-like Peptide 2: effects on intestinal morphology and absorption, renal function, bone and body composition, and muscle function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P B; Lund, P; Gottschalck, I B

    2009-01-01

    demonstrated in energy intake or absorption, and GLP-2 did not significantly affect mucosal morphology, body composition, bone mineral density or muscle function. CONCLUSIONS: GLP-2 treatment reduces fecal weight by approximately 1000 g/d and enables SBS patients to maintain their intestinal fluid......BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In a short-term study, Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been shown to improve intestinal absorption in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients. This study describes longitudinal changes in relation to GLP-2 treatment for two years. METHODS: GLP-2, 400 micrograms, s.c.,TID, were...... and bone mineral density (by DEXA), biochemical markers of bone turnover (by s-CTX and osteocalcin, PTH and vitamin D), and muscle function (NMR, lungfunction, exercise test) were measured. RESULTS: GLP-2 compliance was >93%. Three of eleven patients did not complete the study. In the remaining 8 patients...

  20. Immune Priming, Fat Reserves, Muscle Mass and Body Weight of the House Cricket is Affected by Diet Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Nava-Sánchez, A; González-Tokman, D M; Munguía-Steyer, R; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E

    2016-08-01

    Some insect species are capable of producing an enhanced immune response after a first pathogenic encounter, a process called immune priming. However, whether and how such ability is driven by particular diet components (protein/carbohydrate) have not been explored. Such questions are sound given that, in general, immune response is dietary dependent. We have used adults of the house cricket Acheta domesticus L. (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) and exposed them to the bacteria Serratia marcescens. We first addressed whether survival rate after priming and nonpriming treatments is dietary dependent based on access/no access to proteins and carbohydrates. Second, we investigated how these dietary components affected fat reserves, muscle mass, and body weight, three key traits in insect fitness. Thus, we exposed adult house crickets to either a protein or a carbohydrate diet and measured the three traits. After being provided with protein, primed animals survived longer compared to the other diet treatments. Interestingly, this effect was also sex dependent with primed males having a higher survival than primed females when protein was supplemented. For the second experiment, protein-fed animals had more fat, muscle mass, and body weight than carbohydrate-fed animals. Although we are not aware of the immune component underlying immune priming, our results suggest that its energetic demand for its functioning and/or consequent survival requires a higher demand of protein with respect to carbohydrate. Thus, protein shortage can impair key survival-related traits related to immune and energetic condition. Further studies varying nutrient ratios should verify our results.

  1. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition. PMID:29312007

  2. Current body composition measurement techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Thaisa; Gallagher, Dympna

    2017-10-01

    The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots. Available techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need for methods that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. Based on the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians, and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning prior to conception, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods with application beginning during gestation, that is, fetal development.

  3. Impact of vitamin D supplementation during a resistance training intervention on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Andres E; Flynn, Michael G; Pinkston, Catherine; Markofski, Melissa M; Jiang, Yan; Donkin, Shawn S; Teegarden, Dorothy

    2013-06-01

    The impact of vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training on body composition, muscle function, and glucose tolerance was investigated. Twenty-three overweight and obese (age: 26.1±4.7 y; BMI: 31.3±3.2 kg/m(2); 25-hydroxyvitamin D: 19.3±7.2 ng/mL) adults were recruited for participation in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomly divided into vitamin D (VitD, 4000 IU/d; 5 females, 5 males) and placebo (PL; 7 females, 6 males) groups. Both groups completed 12 weeks of resistance training. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, body composition, and glucose tolerance were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Muscle function (strength and power) was assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. During the intervention, 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased and parathyroid hormone decreased in the VitD group (Pchange in 25-hydroxyvitamin D with the change in waist-to-hip ratio (R(2)=0.205, P=0.02). No other improvements were observed with supplementation. Vitamin D supplementation in overweight and obese adults during resistance training induced an early improvement in peak power, and elevated vitamin D status was associated with reduced waist-to-hip ratio. NCT01199926. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Glycolytic fast-twitch muscle fiber restoration counters adverse age-related changes in body composition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaki, Yuichi; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Bernardo, Barbara L; Lebrasseur, Nathan K; Walsh, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    Aging is associated with the development of insulin resistance, increased adiposity, and accumulation of ectopic lipid deposits in tissues and organs. Starting in mid-life there is a progressive decline in lean muscle mass associated with the preferential loss of glycolytic, fast-twitch myofibers. However, it is not known to what extent muscle loss and metabolic dysfunction are causally related or whether they are independent epiphenomena of the aging process. Here, we utilized a skeletal-muscle-specific, conditional transgenic mouse expressing a constitutively active form of Akt1 to examine the consequences of glycolytic, fast-twitch muscle growth in young vs. middle-aged animals fed standard low-fat chow diets. Activation of the Akt1 transgene led to selective skeletal muscle hypertrophy, reversing the loss of lean muscle mass observed upon aging. The Akt1-mediated increase in muscle mass led to reductions in fat mass and hepatic steatosis in older animals, and corrected age-associated impairments in glucose metabolism. These results indicate that the loss of lean muscle mass is a significant contributor to the development of age-related metabolic dysfunction and that interventions that preserve or restore fast/glycolytic muscle may delay the onset of metabolic disease. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The interplay between nutrition and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have important effects on body composition and therefore on therapeutic modalities and efforts. Indirectly, these factors may also influence the goals of nutritional therapy. Rapid weight loss due to the loss of body fat and skeletal muscle mass frequently accompanies short-term, self- limiting disease processes like injury and ...

  6. Resistance training improves body composition and increases matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in biceps and gastrocnemius muscles of diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Markus Vinicius Campos; Leite, Richard Diego; Souza Lino, Anderson Diogo de; Marqueti, Rita de Cássia; Bernardes, Celene Fernandes; Araújo, Heloisa Sobreiro Selistre de; Bouskela, Eliete; Bouskella, Eliete; Shiguemoto, Gilberto Eiji; Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the influence of resistance training on body composition and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in skeletal muscles of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four experimental groups (n = 8/each) according to diet and exercise status: Control (standard diet), Obese Control (high-fat diet), Resistance Training (standard diet) and Obese Resistance Training (high-fat diet) groups. Animals were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks to promote excessive weight gain. Resistance Training groups performed 12 weeks of training periods after this period in a vertical ladder three times/week. Fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity in biceps and gastrocnemius muscles was analyzed using zymography. Resistance training significantly reduced body and fat masses and fat percentages in both trained groups (pmuscles of both trained groups (pmuscle matrix metalloproteinase 2 activity promoted by excessive weight gain were positively modified by resistance training.

  7. The loss of skeletal muscle strength, mass, and quality in older adults : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodpaster, Bret H; Park, Seok Won; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Steven B; Nevitt, Michael; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Tylavsky, Frances A; Visser, Marjolein; Newman, Anne B

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The loss of muscle mass is considered to be a major determinant of strength loss in aging. However, large-scale longitudinal studies examining the association between the loss of mass and strength in older adults are lacking. METHODS: Three-year changes in muscle mass and strength were

  8. Circuit resistance training in women with normal weight obesity syndrome: body composition, cardiometabolic and echocardiographic parameters, and cardiovascular and skeletal muscle fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fabiano C; Bertucci, Danilo R; Barbosa, Marina R; Nunes, João E; Botero, João P; Rodrigues, Maria F; Shiguemoto, Gilberto E; Santoro, Valdir; Verzola, Ana C; Nonaka, Rodrigo O; Verzola, Roberto M; Baldissera, Vilmar; Perez, Sérgio E

    2017-01-01

    Normal weight obesity (NWO) syndrome has been characterized in subjects with normal Body Mass Index (BMI) and high body fat mass percentage (BF%>30 for women) being a risk factor for cardiometabolic dysregulation and cardiovascular mortality. This study evaluated whether circuit resistance training (CRT) improves body composition, heart size and function, cardiometabolic parameters, and cardiorespiratory, cardiovascular and skeletal muscle fitness in women with NWO. Data are means (95% Confidence Interval). Twenty-three women participated: 10 NWO-CRT (baseline: BMI=22.4 [21.4-23.3] kg/m2; BF%=44.5 [41.0-48.0]%) performed CRT; and 13 untrained NWO-control (baseline: BMI=21.7 [20.8-22.7] kg/m2; BF%=37.8 [34.6-41.1]%). At baseline and after 10 weeks were performed/measured dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, echocardiography, blood tests, arterial pressure, exercise testing, and total-overload-by-training-session (TOL). At baseline, the NWO-CRT exhibited larger BF (27.28 [23.9-30.6] kg) than NWO-control (22.41 [19.5-25.3] kg) (P=0.0227). After training, NWO-CRT: reduced 8 kg of BF (P=0.000002); became BF% lower than NWO-control (33.1 [30.1-36.0] body surface area ratio (84.29 [78.98-89.6] to 90.29 [81.45-99.12] g/m2, P=0.0215). CRT reduced BF% and generated cardiometabolic, cardiac, skeletal muscle and cardiovascular benefits, being a useful strategy to combat the normal weight obesity syndrome in women.

  9. Muscle wasting in male TNF-α blocker naïve ankylosing spondylitis patients: a comparison of gender differences in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez Vodnizza, Sebastián; Visman, Ingrid M; van Denderen, Christiaan; Lems, Willem F; Jaime, Francisca; Nurmohamed, Michael T; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E

    2017-09-01

    To assess gender differences in body composition (BC) in a cohort of AS patients naïve to TNF-α blockers. Patients included fulfilled the Modified New York criteria for AS. Demographic information and disease activity measures (ASDAS and BASDAI) were reported. BC was measured by whole body DXA. Body fat percentage (BF%), fat mass index (FMI), fat free mass index (FFMI) and android/gynoid fat ratio were reported and compared between men and women and with the reference population (percentiles). Seventy consecutive patients were included; 60% were men. Demographic variables were similar, except for dyslipidaemia (57.1% of men; 14.3% of women). Women had significantly more fat (BF%, FMI), and less muscle (FFMI) than men, but below the median of the reference population. Male AS patients had a markedly low FFMI (31.7th percentile) compared with the reference population. In the whole group, after multivariate analysis, an ASDAS CRP >3.5 was related to lower fat free mass content. In men, a significant relationship between having a high disease activity (ASDAS, BASDAI) and lower BF% or FMI percentile was found, but in women it was the opposite. Muscle wasting, measured as low FFMI compared with the reference population, was found in male TNF-α blocker naïve AS patients, especially in those with active disease. Women had higher volumes of body fat than men, but near the median of the reference population. The relationships between fat content and disease activity support the complex association between adipose tissue and inflammation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  11. Validity of anthropometric measurements to assess body composition, including muscle mass, in 3-year-old children from the SKOT cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition...... to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass......, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess...

  12. Diet affects body composition of chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lellis, B.

    1994-01-01

    Hatchery-reared salmonids often contain proportionally greater amounts of body lipid (storage fat) and proportionally lesser amounts of body protein (muscle) and ash (bone) than do their wild counterparts of equal size. The effect of body composition on postrelease survival and subsequent return of mature adults is presently unknown. High lipid deposits may benefit the fish by providing reserve energy during adaptation to the wild, or may hinder the fish by delaying

  13. Leg muscle mass and composition in relation to lower extremity performance in men and women aged 70 to 79 : the health, aging and body composition study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Marjolein; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Nevitt, Michael; Stamm, Elizabeth; Harris, Tamara B

    OBJECTIVES: The loss of muscle mass with aging, or sarcopenia, is hypothesized to be associated with the deterioration of physical function. Our aim was to determine whether low leg muscle mass and greater fat infiltration in the muscle were associated with poor lower extremity performance (LEP).

  14. A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagim Andrew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. Methods In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2 ± 2 years, 181 ± 7 cm, 82.1 ± 12 kg, and 14.7 ± 5% body fat were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany at normal loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days and maintenance (5 g/d for 21-days doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA at manufacturer’s recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5 g/d for 28-days; or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days and maintenance (5 g/d doses of CrM (KA-H. Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Results Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4 ± 20.7 and 11.9 ± 24.0 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.03 after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L −7.9 ± 22.3, 4.7 ± 27.0; KA-H 1.0 ± 12.8, 9.1

  15. A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagim, Andrew R; Oliver, Jonathan M; Sanchez, Adam; Galvan, Elfego; Fluckey, James; Riechman, Steven; Greenwood, Michael; Kelly, Katherine; Meininger, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Christopher; Kreider, Richard B

    2012-09-13

    Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA) that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2 ± 2 years, 181 ± 7 cm, 82.1 ± 12 kg, and 14.7 ± 5% body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany) at normal loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5 g/d for 21-days) doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) at manufacturer's recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5 g/d for 28-days); or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5 g/d) doses of CrM (KA-H). Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC) tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4 ± 20.7 and 11.9 ± 24.0 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.03) after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L -7.9 ± 22.3, 4.7 ± 27.0; KA-H 1.0 ± 12.8, 9.1 ± 23.2; CrM 11.3 ± 23.9, 22.3 ± 21

  16. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total body water, visceral fat accumulation, body mass index, resting metabolic rate, fat‑free mass, bone mass, and muscle mass were significantly higher in obese when compared to those with nonobese (P < 0.001). Thirteen ... Keywords: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss ...

  17. The effect of five weeks of Tribulus terrestris supplementation on muscle strength and body composition during preseason training in elite rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Shane; Riches, Christopher J; Jennings, Carl; Weatherby, Robert P; Meir, Rudi A; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya M

    2007-05-01

    Tribulus terrestris is an herbal nutritional supplement that is promoted to produce large gains in strength and lean muscle mass in 5-28 days (15, 18). Although some manufacturers claim T. terrestris will not lead to a positive drug test, others have suggested that T. terrestris may increase the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, which may place athletes at risk of a positive drug test. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of T. terrestris on strength, fat free mass, and the urinary T/E ratio during 5 weeks of preseason training in elite rugby league players. Twenty-two Australian elite male rugby league players (mean +/- SD; age = 19.8 +/- 2.9 years; weight = 88.0 +/- 9.5 kg) were match-paired and randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to either a T. terrestris (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) group. All subjects performed structured heavy resistance training as part of the club's preseason preparations. A T. terrestris extract (450 mg.d(-1)) or placebo capsules were consumed once daily for 5 weeks. Muscular strength, body composition, and the urinary T/E ratio were monitored prior to and after supplementation. After 5 weeks of training, strength and fat free mass increased significantly without any between-group differences. No between-group differences were noted in the urinary T/E ratio. It was concluded that T. terrestris did not produce the large gains in strength or lean muscle mass that many manufacturers claim can be experienced within 5-28 days. Furthermore, T. terrestris did not alter the urinary T/E ratio and would not place an athlete at risk of testing positive based on the World Anti-Doping Agency's urinary T/E ratio limit of 4:1.

  18. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men's and Women's Bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Stephen, Ian D

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men's bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women.

  19. A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM) has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA) that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. Methods In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2 ± 2 years, 181 ± 7 cm, 82.1 ± 12 kg, and 14.7 ± 5% body fat) were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany) at normal loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5 g/d for 21-days) doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA) at manufacturer’s recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5 g/d for 28-days); or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days) and maintenance (5 g/d) doses of CrM (KA-H). Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC) tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Results Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4 ± 20.7 and 11.9 ± 24.0 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.03) after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L −7.9 ± 22.3, 4.7 ± 27.0; KA-H 1.0 ± 12.8, 9.1 ± 23.2; Cr

  20. Body Composition Analysis in the Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David R.; Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2014-01-01

    Body composition analysis has become a useful tool in both clinical and research settings. Its use in the pediatric population is complicated by the rapid periods of growth and physical development that are characteristic of infancy, childhood, and adolescence. A thorough understanding of the changing nature of body composition during this time is essential for choosing the most appropriate measurement technique for a given individual, population, or clinical question. Growing evidence suggests that tissues such as fat, muscle, and bone are intimately involved in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism. This knowledge, when coupled with advancements in imaging techniques such as MRI and PET-CT, offers the possibility of developing new models of “functional” body composition. These models may prove to be especially important when assessing malnutrition and metabolic risk in patients with chronic disease. PMID:23469390

  1. The role of energy composition of diet affects muscle programming and fiber recruitment, body composition, and growth trajectory in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing production feed efficiency in aquaculture requires not only knowing the available energy for certain dietary components but understanding how they are interactively processed. For most aquaculture production muscle growth is of high priority. Nutrigenomics is a promising discipline to aug...

  2. Composition of Muscle Fiber Types in Rat Rotator Cuff Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yongjun; Pan, Feng; Mi, Jingyi

    2016-10-01

    The rat is a suitable model to study human rotator cuff pathology owing to the similarities in morphological anatomy structure. However, few studies have reported the composition muscle fiber types of rotator cuff muscles in the rat. In this study, the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms were stained by immunofluorescence to show the muscle fiber types composition and distribution in rotator cuff muscles of the rat. It was found that rotator cuff muscles in the rat were of mixed fiber type composition. The majority of rotator cuff fibers labeled positively for MyHCII. Moreover, the rat rotator cuff muscles contained hybrid fibers. So, compared with human rotator cuff muscles composed partly of slow-twitch fibers, the majority of fast-twitch fibers in rat rotator cuff muscles should be considered when the rat model study focus on the pathological process of rotator cuff muscles after injury. Gaining greater insight into muscle fiber types in rotator cuff muscles of the rat may contribute to elucidate the mechanism of pathological change in rotator cuff muscles-related diseases. Anat Rec, 299:1397-1401, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryn S. Willoughby

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p 0.05. In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p 0.05. All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05 or supplementation (p > 0.05. The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle.

  5. Assessment methods of body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment has an important role in many fields of medicine, in evaluation of health status of the individual, as well as in sports sciences as a part of physiological profile of athletes. There are several methods for body composition assessment, which provide indirect data on the body structure. For instance in anthropometry, simple techniques such as skinfold measurements provide simply, quick and nonexpensive assessment of body fat mass. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is described as a method with rising validity, especially for measurement in regional body composition. The value of BIA in routine clinical terms is still limited, while DXA has potential of becoming new golden standard for body composition assessment. More sophisiticated methods such is MRI have advantage over other techniques for estimation of regional body composition, since it provides the only accurate and viable approach for the estimation of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. This method is limited to experimental studies on smaller group of individuals, since it is expensive and not available to routine assessment. Combination of more methods may be the best approach for obtaining accurate results and informations about health status of individual.

  6. CHANGES IN MAXIMAL STRENGTH AND BODY COMPOSITION AFTER DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CREATINE, L-CARNITINE AND HMB

    OpenAIRE

    M Kruszewski

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bodybuilding training combined with administration of L-carnitine, weightlifting training combined with administration of creatine, and isometric training combined with administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on maximal strength and body composition of athletes. The studies were conducted on groups of beginners practising bodybuilding training (n=63) and isometric training (n=69) as well as on a group of advanced powerlifter...

  7. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Norio; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Fujii, Akira; Sato, Yasushi; Saito, Manabu; Matsuzaka, Masashi; Takahashi, Ippei; Kaneko, Sunao

    2012-05-03

    Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. We recruited patients (n = 204), aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD) years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (%) body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  8. Assessment methods in human body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2008-09-01

    The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth.

  9. Assessment methods in human body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Yeong; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review The present study reviews the most recently developed and commonly used methods for the determination of human body composition in vivo with relevance for nutritional assessment. Recent findings Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected with the most commonly used methods being bioelectrical impedance analysis, dilution techniques, air displacement plethysmography, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and MRI or magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Recent developments include three-dimensional photonic scanning and quantitative magnetic resonance. Collectively, these techniques allow for the measurement of fat, fat-free mass, bone mineral content, total body water, extracellular water, total adipose tissue and its subdepots (visceral, subcutaneous, and intermuscular), skeletal muscle, select organs, and ectopic fat depots. Summary There is an ongoing need to perfect methods that provide information beyond mass and structure (static measures) to kinetic measures that yield information on metabolic and biological functions. On the basis of the wide range of measurable properties, analytical methods and known body composition models, clinicians and scientists can quantify a number of body components and with longitudinal assessment, can track changes in health and disease with implications for understanding efficacy of nutritional and clinical interventions, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment in clinical settings. With the greater need to understand precursors of health risk beginning in childhood, a gap exists in appropriate in-vivo measurement methods beginning at birth. PMID:18685451

  10. Heavy Resistance Training and Supplementation With the Alleged Testosterone Booster Nmda has No Effect on Body Composition, Muscle Performance, and Serum Hormones Associated With the Hypothalamo-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in Resistance-Trained Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Darryn S; Spillane, Mike; Schwarz, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the alleged testosterone-boosting supplement, NMDA, were determined on body composition, muscle strength, serum cortisol, prolactin, and hormones associated with the hypothalamo-pituitary- gonadal (HPG) axis. Twenty resistance-trained males engaged in 28 days of resistance training 4 times/wk while orally ingesting daily either 1.78 g of placebo (PLAC) or NMDA. Data were analyzed with separate 2 x 2 ANOVA (p training and supplementation. No changes were noted for total body water and fat mass in response to resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). In regard to total body mass and fat-free mass, however, each was significantly increased in both groups in response to resistance training (p 0.05). In both groups, lower-body muscle strength was significantly increased in response to resistance training (p 0.05). All serum hormones (total and free testosterone, LH, GnRH, estradiol, cortisol, prolactin) were unaffected by resistance training (p > 0.05) or supplementation (p > 0.05). The gonadal hormones and cortisol and prolactin were unaffected by 28 days of NMDA supplementation and not associated with the observed increases in muscle strength and mass. At the dose provided, NMDA had no effect on HPG axis activity or ergogenic effects in skeletal muscle. Key PointsIn response to 28 days of heavy resistance training and NMDA supplementation, similar increases in muscle mass and strength in both groups occurred; however, the increases were not different between supplement groups.The supplementation of NMDA had no preferential effect on augmenting testosterone or decreasing estrogen, cortisol, and prolactin.While resistance training was effective in increasing muscle mass and strength, it was not preferentially due to NMDA supplementation.At the dose provided, NMDA supplementation for 28 days combined with resistance training does not increases muscle mass and strength due to its

  11. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  12. Body composition: Where and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2016-08-01

    The in vivo evaluation of body composition is essential in many clinical investigations, in order to accurately describe and monitor the nutritional status of a range of medical conditions and physiological processes, including sick and malnourished patients, pregnant women, breastfeeding women and the elderly, as well as in patients with cancer, osteoporosis and many other diseases. This research area is also important to the field of human nutrition and exercise physiology. Several research investigations have indicated the importance of measuring fat deposition in different body compartments, in order to gain a fuller understanding of the genetic factors that contribute to obesity, obesity-related disorders, such as dyslipidemia, and thereby to a fuller understanding of obesity associated cardio-metabolic disorders, with relevance to the relationship between body composition and energy expenditure. The spatial and temporal dimension, where and when, may influence the physiological relevance and the pathological implications of the fat composition of different body compartments, and, as such, is a new element to be considered when assessing body composition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage and Other Body Composition for Koreans from KNHANES IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sangmo; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung Kil; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Eun Young; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Young Taek; Wilson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height2; kg/m2) of Korean men did not correlate with age (P = 0.452), but those of Korean women (P 9 kg/m2) in men and 2.7% (FMI > 13 kg/m2) in women. It is concluded that the muscle mass decreases and obesity increases with aging in Korean men, whereas both fat mass and obesity increase with aging in Korean women. PMID:22147997

  14. Genetic parameters of white striping in relation to body weight, carcass composition, and meat quality traits in two broiler lines divergently selected for the ultimate pH of the pectoralis major muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnahhas, Nabeel; Berri, Cécile; Chabault, Marie; Chartrin, Pascal; Boulay, Maryse; Bourin, Marie Christine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

    2016-04-19

    White striping (WS) is an emerging quality defect with adverse consequences for the sensorial, technological, and nutritional qualities of breast meat in broiler chickens. The genetic determinism of this defect is little understood and thus the aim of the study presented here was to estimate the genetic parameters of WS in relation to other traits of economic importance such as body weight, carcass composition, and technological meat quality in an experimental population consisting of two divergent lines selected for high (pHu + line) or low (pHu- line) ultimate pH (pHu) of the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle. The incidence of WS in the whole population was 50.7%, with 36.7% of broilers being moderately and 14% being severely affected. A higher incidence of moderate (p meat yield (0.68 ± 0.06), but not with the percentage of leg or abdominal fat. Increased body weight and breast muscle yield were significantly associated with increased incidence and severity of WS regardless of the line. Significant rg were observed between WS and several meat quality traits, including breast (0.21 ± 0.08) and thigh (0.31 ± 0.10) pHu, and breast cooking loss (0.30 ± 0.15). WS was also strongly genetically correlated with the intramuscular fat content of the pectoralis major muscle (0.64 ± 0.09), but not with the lipid oxidation index of this muscle. This study highlighted the role of genetics as a major determinant of WS. The estimated genetic correlations showed that WS was more highly related to muscle development than to the overall growth of the body. The positive genetic association reported in this study between WS and muscle pHu indicated a possible relationship between the ability of muscle to store energy as a carbohydrate and its likelihood of developing WS. Finally, the strong genetic determinism of WS suggested that selection can be an efficient means of reducing the incidence of WS and of limiting its undesirable consequences on meat quality in broiler chickens.

  15. Effects of Whey, Soy or Leucine Supplementation with 12 Weeks of Resistance Training on Strength, Body Composition, and Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue Histological Attributes in College-Aged Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Brooks Mobley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the effects of L-leucine (LEU or different protein supplements standardized to LEU (~3.0 g/serving on changes in body composition, strength, and histological attributes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventy-five untrained, college-aged males (mean ± standard error of the mean (SE; age = 21 ± 1 years, body mass = 79.2 ± 0.3 kg were randomly assigned to an isocaloric, lipid-, and organoleptically-matched maltodextrin placebo (PLA, n = 15, LEU (n = 14, whey protein concentrate (WPC, n = 17, whey protein hydrolysate (WPH, n = 14, or soy protein concentrate (SPC, n = 15 group. Participants performed whole-body resistance training three days per week for 12 weeks while consuming supplements twice daily. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous (SQ fat biopsies were obtained at baseline (T1 and ~72 h following the last day of training (T39. Tissue samples were analyzed for changes in type I and II fiber cross sectional area (CSA, non-fiber specific satellite cell count, and SQ adipocyte CSA. On average, all supplement groups including PLA exhibited similar training volumes and experienced statistically similar increases in total body skeletal muscle mass determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry (+2.2 kg; time p = 0.024 and type I and II fiber CSA increases (+394 μm2 and +927 μm2; time p < 0.001 and 0.024, respectively. Notably, all groups reported increasing Calorie intakes ~600–800 kcal/day from T1 to T39 (time p < 0.001, and all groups consumed at least 1.1 g/kg/day of protein at T1 and 1.3 g/kg/day at T39. There was a training, but no supplementation, effect regarding the reduction in SQ adipocyte CSA (−210 μm2; time p = 0.001. Interestingly, satellite cell counts within the WPC (p < 0.05 and WPH (p < 0.05 groups were greater at T39 relative to T1. In summary, LEU or protein supplementation (standardized to LEU content does not provide added benefit in increasing whole-body skeletal muscle mass or strength above PLA

  16. CHANGES IN MAXIMAL STRENGTH AND BODY COMPOSITION AFTER DIFFERENT METHODS OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND SUPPLEMENTATION WITH CREATINE, L-CARNITINE AND HMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kruszewski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bodybuilding training combined with administration of L-carnitine, weightlifting training combined with administration of creatine, and isometric training combined with administration of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB on maximal strength and body composition of athletes. The studies were conducted on groups of beginners practising bodybuilding training (n=63 and isometric training (n=69 as well as on a group of advanced powerlifters (n=50 practising weightlifting training. The obtained results indicate that the most desirable and beneficial supportive effect in strength sports was exhibited by HMB. No significant differences in body composition of subjects practising bodybuilding training were detected between those who were given L-carnitine and those who received placebo, an observation confirming controversies over the capacity of the former to reduce fat content. However, significant differences in maximal strength were demonstrated between the examined groups of athletes. Significant differences in the examined parameters were also detected within the group of advanced powerlifters practising weightlifting between those who were supplemented with creatine and those who were given placebo. Thus, the use of creatine in the development of physical capacity in advanced athletes may be advisable.

  17. The Body and the Beautiful: Health, Attractiveness and Body Composition in Men’s and Women’s Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Mary-Ellen; Brooks, Kevin R.; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant evolutionary theory of physical attraction posits that attractiveness reflects physiological health, and attraction is a mechanism for identifying a healthy mate. Previous studies have found that perceptions of the healthiest body mass index (weight scaled for height; BMI) for women are close to healthy BMI guidelines, while the most attractive BMI is significantly lower, possibly pointing to an influence of sociocultural factors in determining attractive BMI. However, less is known about ideal body size for men. Further, research has not addressed the role of body fat and muscle, which have distinct relationships with health and are conflated in BMI, in determining perceived health and attractiveness. Here, we hypothesised that, if attractiveness reflects physiological health, the most attractive and healthy appearing body composition should be in line with physiologically healthy body composition. Thirty female and 33 male observers were instructed to manipulate 15 female and 15 male body images in terms of their fat and muscle to optimise perceived health and, separately, attractiveness. Observers were unaware that they were manipulating the muscle and fat content of bodies. The most attractive apparent fat mass for female bodies was significantly lower than the healthiest appearing fat mass (and was lower than the physiologically healthy range), with no significant difference for muscle mass. The optimal fat and muscle mass for men’s bodies was in line with the healthy range. Male observers preferred a significantly lower overall male body mass than did female observers. While the body fat and muscle associated with healthy and attractive appearance is broadly in line with physiologically healthy values, deviations from this pattern suggest that future research should examine a possible role for internalization of body ideals in influencing perceptions of attractive body composition, particularly in women. PMID:27257677

  18. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  19. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Exercise affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  1. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  2. [Analysis of body composition in patients with Crohn's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ting; Li, Lingling; Wu, Qinyan; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Pinjin; He, Qing

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the differences in body composition between Crohn's disease(CD) patients and healthy subjects as well as the characteristics of human body composition in various types of CD. A total of 57 CD patients were prospectively selected from the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University as the study group, while 51 healthy subjects as the control group. Protein content, mineral content, fat content, lean body mass, waist circumference, and hip circumference in the two groups were measured by body composition analyzer. Characteristics of CD at different location and different disease activity index were investigated as well. Intracellular fluid, extracellular fluid, weight, protein content, fat content, lean body mass, muscle weight, body fat ratio, waist hip ratio, body weight ratio, arm muscle circumference, arm circumference, quality of cells, BMI and basal metabolic rate in CD patients were significantly lower than those in control group(all Pbody mass in ileocolic CD patients were lower than those with small bowel and colonic CD(all Pbody mass in patients with high disease activity index were lower than those in patients with low and medium index, but higher basal metablic rate was found in the former group(all Pbody composition in patients with CD are different from healthy people. Disease location and disease activity index have an impact on protein content, fat content, and lean body mass.

  3. Impact of testosterone on body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maddalena, Chiara; Vodo, Stella; Petroni, Anna; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2012-12-01

    An excessive food supply has resulted in an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, conditions accompanied by serious health problems. Several studies have confirmed the significant inverse correlation between testosterone and obesity. Indeed after decades of intense controversy, a consensus has emerged that androgens are important regulators of fat mass and distribution in mammals and that androgen status affects cellularity in vivo. The high correlation of testosterone levels with body composition and its contribution to the balance of lipid metabolism are also suggested by the fact that testosterone lowering is associated with important clinical disorders such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In contrast, testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadic men has been shown to improve the lipid profile by lowering cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin are some of the substances related to feeding as well as androgen regulation. Thus, complex and delicate mechanisms appear to link androgens with various tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscles, coronary arteries and heart) and the subtle alteration of some of these interactions might be the cause of correlated diseases. This review underlines some aspects regarding the high correlations between testosterone physiology and body fat composition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-02-01

    Feb 1, 2016 ... a positive correlation between muscle strength and body mass index percentile while muscle endur- ance time had a negative correlation with it. Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle ... lar force in a specific movement pattern at definite velocity.

  5. Human Body Composition and Immunity: Visceral Adipose Tissue Produces IL-15 and Muscle Strength Inversely Correlates with NK Cell Function in Elderly Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Al-Attar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα. Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline. NK cells circulate through adipose tissue, where they may be exposed to local IL-15. The objectives of this work were to determine (1 if human muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT are sources of IL-15 and IL-15 Rα, and (2 whether any of these tissues correlate with NK cell activity in elderly humans. We first investigated IL-15 and IL-15Rα RNA expression in paired muscle and SAT biopsies from healthy human subjects. Both tissues expressed these transcripts, but IL-15Rα RNA levels were higher in SAT than in skeletal muscle. We also investigated tissue obtained from surgeries and found that SAT and VAT expressed equivalent amounts of IL-15 and IL-15Rα RNA, respectively. Furthermore, stromal vascular fraction cells expressed more IL-15 RNA than did adipocytes. To test if these findings related to circulating IL-15 protein and NK cell function, we tested 50 healthy adults aged > 70 years old. Plasma IL-15 levels significantly correlated with abdominal VAT mass in the entire cohort and in non-obese subjects. However, plasma IL-15 levels did not correlate with skeletal muscle cross-sectional area and correlated inversely with muscle strength. Plasma IL-15 did correlate with NK cell cytotoxic granule exocytosis and with CCL4 (MIP-1β production in response to NKp46-crosslinking. Additionally, NK cell responses to K562 leukemia cells correlated inversely with muscle strength. With

  6. Human Body Composition and Immunity: Visceral Adipose Tissue Produces IL-15 and Muscle Strength Inversely Correlates with NK Cell Function in Elderly Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Ahmad; Presnell, Steven R; Clasey, Jody L; Long, Douglas E; Walton, R Grace; Sexton, Morgan; Starr, Marlene E; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A; Lutz, Charles T

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion control infections and cancers, but these crucial activities decline with age. NK cell development, homeostasis, and function require IL-15 and its chaperone, IL-15 receptor alpha (IL-15Rα). Macrophages and dendritic cells (DC) are major sources of these proteins. We had previously postulated that additional IL-15 and IL-15Rα is made by skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. These sources may be important in aging, when IL-15-producing immune cells decline. NK cells circulate through adipose tissue, where they may be exposed to local IL-15. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) if human muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are sources of IL-15 and IL-15 Rα, and (2) whether any of these tissues correlate with NK cell activity in elderly humans. We first investigated IL-15 and IL-15Rα RNA expression in paired muscle and SAT biopsies from healthy human subjects. Both tissues expressed these transcripts, but IL-15Rα RNA levels were higher in SAT than in skeletal muscle. We also investigated tissue obtained from surgeries and found that SAT and VAT expressed equivalent amounts of IL-15 and IL-15Rα RNA, respectively. Furthermore, stromal vascular fraction cells expressed more IL-15 RNA than did adipocytes. To test if these findings related to circulating IL-15 protein and NK cell function, we tested 50 healthy adults aged > 70 years old. Plasma IL-15 levels significantly correlated with abdominal VAT mass in the entire cohort and in non-obese subjects. However, plasma IL-15 levels did not correlate with skeletal muscle cross-sectional area and correlated inversely with muscle strength. Plasma IL-15 did correlate with NK cell cytotoxic granule exocytosis and with CCL4 (MIP-1β) production in response to NKp46-crosslinking. Additionally, NK cell responses to K562 leukemia cells correlated inversely with muscle strength. With aging, immune

  7. Body size and body composition effects on heat loss from the hands during severe cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Stephanie; Macintosh, Alison; Stock, Jay

    2018-02-11

    This study investigated the influence of body size and composition on maintaining hand temperature during severe cold exposure. The hand's high surface area-to-volume ratio predisposes the hand to heat loss, increasing the risk of cold injury and even hypothermia, which are major selective pressures in cold environments. While vasoregulation may reduce heat loss from the hand, the effect of body form, tissue thermogenesis, and body insulation on heat loss is unknown. Thermal imaging was used to determine heat loss during a 3-min ice-water hand immersion test carried out on 114 volunteers (female = 63, male = 51). Established anthropometric measures were used to quantify body size, and bioelectrical impedance analysis determined skeletal muscle and fat mass. Skeletal muscle mass relative to body mass was a highly significant predictor of heat loss, while body mass, fat mass, and stature were not. Body composition and body size had little to no significant influence during rewarming after immersion. The thermogenic properties of muscle mass support maintenance of hand temperature during severe cold exposure. The findings here suggest that muscular individuals are less susceptible to heat loss and cold injury, and may be better at manual tasks in cold conditions than nonmuscular individuals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Association between Human Body Composition and Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salekzamani, Yagoub; Shirmohammadi, Adileh; Rahbar, Mohammad; Shakouri, Seyed-Kazem; Nayebi, Farough

    2011-01-01

    Obesity in humans might increase the risk of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition of males and their periodontal status. AS total of 150 males (aged 30-60) were selected: 31 were periodontally healthy, 45 had gingivitis, 39 had initial periodontitis, and 35 suffered from established periodontitis. BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference), and body composition parameters (consisting of body water, body fat, and skeletal muscle and bone mass) were measured. After adjusting for age, history of diabetes, smoking, physical activity status, and socioeconomic status, statistically significant correlations were found between periodontitis and BMI, WC, and body composition. There was only a statistically significant difference between the periodontal health and established periodontitis; that is, periodontal disease in mild forms (gingivitis) and initial periodontitis do not influence these variables (BMI, WC, and body composition parameters) and only the severe form of the disease influences the variables. These data suggest that there is a considerable association between severe forms of periodontal disease in males and their body composition, but this preliminary finding needs to be confirmed in more extensive studies.

  9. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. PMID:25878072

  10. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  11. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  12. Nutritional assessment with body composition measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution provides an accurate and precise measure of both the nutritional state and the response to nutritional support. A multiple isotope dilution technique has been developed that permits measurement of the three major components of body composition: body fat, extracellular mass (ECM), and body cell mass (BCM). Normal body composition was defined by data obtained in 25 healthy volunteers. Malnutrition is characterized by a loss of BCM and an expansion of the ECM, and as a result the lean body mass is not significantly different from normal. The loss of body weight with malnutrition therefore often reflects the loss of body fat. The utility of body composition measurements was demonstrated by determining the effect of total parenteral nutrition on body composition to determine the relationship between caloric intake and the change in the BCM. A statistically significant relationship was developed which demonstrated that a caloric intake in the range of 30-40 cal/kg/day is required for maintenance. To restore a depleted or malnourished BCM requires a caloric intake in excess of that required for maintenance. The measurement of body composition by multiple isotope dilution is complex and time consuming, and requires specialized laboratory facilities and specially trained personnel. As a result, these measurements are not suited for routine patient management, but should rather be reserved for research purposes

  13. Recreational football for disease prevention and treatment in untrained men: a narrative review examining cardiovascular health, lipid profile, body composition, muscle strength and functional capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Hansen, Peter Riis; Dvorak, Jiri; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, researchers have studied the effects of recreational football training as a health-promoting activity for participants across the lifespan. This has important public health implications as over 400 million people play football annually. Results from the first randomised controlled trial, published in the BJSM in January 2009, showed that football increased maximal oxygen uptake and muscle and bone mass, and lowered fat percentage and blood pressure, in untrained men, and since then more than 70 articles about football for health have been published, including publications in two supplements of the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports in 2010 and 2014, prior to the FIFA World Cup tournaments in South Africa and Brazil. While studies of football training effects have also been performed in women and children, this article reviews the current evidence linking recreational football training with favourable effects in the prevention and treatment of disease in adult men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Muscle fiber population and biochemical properties of whole body muscles in Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Minako; Minami, Yoshio; Sayama, Yukiko; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Hiraga, Atsushi; Miyata, Hirofumi

    2009-10-01

    We examine the muscle fiber population and metabolic properties of skeletal muscles from the whole body in Thoroughbred horses. Postmortem samples were taken from 46 sites in six Thoroughbred horses aged between 3 and 6 years. Fiber type population was determined on muscle fibers stained with monoclonal antibody to each myosin heavy chain isoform and metabolic enzyme activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Histochemical analysis demonstrated that most of the muscles had a high percentage of Type IIa fibers. In terms of the muscle characteristic in several parts of the horse body, the forelimb muscles had a higher percentage of Type IIa fiber and a significantly lower percentage of Type IIx fiber than the hindlimb muscles. The muscle fiber type populations in the thoracic and trunk portion were similar to those in the hindlimb portion. Biochemical analysis indicated high succinate dehydrogenase activity in respiratory-related muscle and high phosphofructokinase activity in hindlimbs. We suggested that the higher percentage of Type IIa fibers in Thoroughbred racehorses is attributed to training effects. To consider further the physiological significance of each part of the body, data for the recruitment pattern of each muscle fiber type during exercise are needed. The muscle fiber properties in this study combined with the recruitment data would provide fundamental information for physiological and pathological studies in Thoroughbred horses.

  15. Diet composition and body composition in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, L M; Davies, P S

    2000-07-01

    In studies of adult humans and in animal models, dietary intakes of the macronutrients, particularly fat, are related to body composition; however, data on children are more scarce. We sought to determine whether diet composition is related to percentage body fat in children aged 1.5-4.5 y. In 77 preschool children, a 4-d weighed-food record was used to determine intakes of total energy and energy from each macronutrient. An oxygen-18 dilution method was used to calculate percentage body fat. Habitual physical activity level was determined by calculating the ratio of total energy expenditure (from stable isotope analyses) to predicted basal metabolic rate. Dietary intake and body-composition data were analyzed to evaluate whether diet composition was related to body fat. Further analyses incorporating physical activity level were performed. Percentage body fat was not significantly correlated with dietary intake variables (total energy or percentage of energy from fat, carbohydrate, or protein) and did not differ significantly among 3 increasing levels of each dietary intake variable by analysis of variance. In multiple regression analysis, physical activity level was related to body fat whereas diet composition was not. We found no relations between dietary intakes of total energy, fat, carbohydrate, or protein and percentage body fat in children. The relation between fat intake and body fat may develop over time and may not be evident in preschool children. Energy expenditure, in particular physical activity level, may have a greater influence on body composition in early childhood.

  16. EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY COMPOSITION IN ADULT WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára NAGY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data published by the World Health Organization (WHO and the International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO suggests that the number of obese people in Europe has tripled in the last 20 years and resulted in a prevalence of 130 million obese and 400 million people overweight (Sassi et al., 2009.Body composition is the relative percentage of fat and fat-free mass (bones, muscles, organs, water, blood of total body weight. After Wilmore, Buskirk, DiGirolamo and Lohman (1986 the optimal level for health of body fat is 16-25% (18-30% for women.The objective of our study was to assess body composition of adult women, identifying the effect of intervention program on body fat and lean mass, and uncover cases of obesity and overweight.The study involved 95 adult women from Fit4U Fitness Center in Oradea. Period of the study: February 2015 -June 2016. Anthropometric measurements were made: height, weight, circumference, subcutaneous folds. It was calculated the body mass index (BMI, body composition and optimal body weight (estimation based on the five skinfolds measures. The physical activity program consisted of Step -aerobics, Pilates and strength training in the gym, 3 times a week for 60-90 minutes, for 12 months.Results:mean body mass, BMI, BF%, real BF decreased significantly. Mean body fat percentage from 25,63% (± 6,53 decreased to 22,95% (± 5,56. In the studied group overweight and obesity is more frequent in the age group between 35-44 years, but it can be seen the prevalence in all age groups.Conclusions:the physical activity program had a beneficial effect on body composition -by reducing body fat.We found cases of overweight and obesity (21% of the study group.

  17. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    Background: Birth weight and high weight gain the first years of life is associated with later body composition and increased risk of obesity. A detailed description of body composition at 3 years of age and factors related to the distribution of fat and fat-free mass is interesting, since body...... with later increased adiposity risk. Growth in early childhood is highly related to the levels of insulin-like growth factor-I. Objectives: Data used in this thesis is from the prospective cohort study SKOT which includes 330 children examined at 9, 18 and 36 months of age. The main objective with this Ph......D study was to look at which factors were related to body composition at 3 years of age with a special focus on factors related to later obesity risk. A methodological objective was to be able to predict body composition by using bioelectrical impedance and anthropometry. Secondly, an objective...

  18. Reducing body fat with altitude hypoxia training in swimmers: role of blood perfusion to skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Michael; Liao, Chin-An; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Wen-Chih; Hou, Chien-Wen; Yu, Szu-Hsien; Harris, M Brennan; Hsu, Tung-Shiung; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-02-28

    Swimmers tend to have greater body fat than athletes from other sports. The purpose of the study was to examine changes in body composition after altitude hypoxia exposure and the role of blood distribution to the skeletal muscle in swimmers. With a constant training volume of 12.3 km/day, young male swimmers (N = 10, 14.8 ± 0.5 years) moved from sea-level to a higher altitude of 2,300 meters. Body composition was measured before and after translocation to altitude using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) along with 8 control male subjects who resided at sea level for the same period of time. To determine the effects of hypoxia on muscle blood perfusion, total hemoglobin concentration (THC) was traced by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the triceps and quadriceps muscles under glucose-ingested and insulin-secreted conditions during hypoxia exposure (16% O2) after training. While no change in body composition was found in the control group, subjects who trained at altitude had unequivocally decreased fat mass (-1.7 ± 0.3 kg, -11.4%) with increased lean mass (+0.8 ± 0.2 kg, +1.5%). Arterial oxygen saturation significantly decreased with increased plasma lactate during hypoxia recovery mimicking 2,300 meters at altitude (~93% versus ~97%). Intriguingly, hypoxia resulted in elevated muscle THC, and sympathetic nervous activities occurred in parallel with greater-percent oxygen saturation in both muscle groups. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that increased blood distribution to the skeletal muscle under postprandial condition may contribute to the reciprocally increased muscle mass and decreased body mass after a 3-week altitude exposure in swimmers.

  19. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  20. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This re...... and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind........ This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace...

  1. Postoperative changes in body composition after gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyama, Teruo; Mizutani, Takashi; Okuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Itsuro; Tokunaga, Akira; Tajiri, Takashi; Barbul, Adrian

    2005-03-01

    Nutritional status is one of the most important clinical determinants of outcome after gastrectomy. The aim of this study was to compare changes in the body composition of patients undergoing laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG), distal gastrectomy (DG), or total gastrectomy (TG). Total body protein and fat mass were measured by performing a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis using an inBody II machine (Biospace, Tokyo, Japan) in 108 patients (72 men, 36 women) who had undergone LAG (n=24), DG (n=39), or TG (n=45). Changes between the preoperative data and results obtained on postoperative day 14 and 6 months after surgery were then evaluated. The mean preoperative body weight of the subjects was 57.6+/-10.7 kg, the mean body mass index was 22.5+/-3.4 kg/m(2), and the mean fat % was 24%+/-7%. In the immediate postoperative period (14 days), the body weight loss in the LAG group was significantly lower than in the DG and TG groups (2.5+/-0.9 kg vs. 3.5+/-1.8 kg and 4.0+/-1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.0001). The body composition studies demonstrated a loss of total body protein rather than fat mass. Six months after surgery, body weight was not significantly different from preoperative values in the LAG and DG groups (-1.2+/-3.8 kg and -1.8+/-4.7 kg, respectively), but had decreased by 8.9+/-4.9 kg in the TG group (P=0.0003). A body composition analysis revealed a loss of fat mass in the DG and TG groups. The patients who underwent gastrectomy lost body protein mass during the early postoperative period. The type and extent of surgery has an effect on long-term body mass and composition. Bioelectric impedance analysis can be used to assess body composition and may be useful for nutritional assessment in patients who have undergone gastrectomy.

  2. Body composition in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gologanu, Daniela; Ionita, Diana; Gartonea, Teodora; Stanescu, Cristina; Bogdan, Miron Alexandru

    2014-03-01

    Body composition assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important, as weight loss and muscular wasting are responsible for low exercise capacity in these patients, and low body mass index (BMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI) are important prognostic factors. Our study aims were: (a) to describe body composition in COPD patients referred to a pulmonary rehabilitation center in Bucharest; (b) to examine the relationships between body composition and disease severity (bronchial obstruction, exercise capacity, quality of life); (c) to test if segmental wasting of lower limbs muscle mass (measured by segmental body composition analysis) correlates with decreased exercise capacity. We studied 36 consecutive COPD patients referred to our clinic for pulmonary rehabilitation. Patients performed pulmonary function tests, six minutes walking test (6MWT), and health status was evaluated with COPD Assessment Test (CAT). Body composition measurements were performed by direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). This study offers the first data on body composition of Romanian COPD patientsThe prevalence of nutritional depletion (defined by low BMI and/or low FFMI) among our COPD patients was 22.2%. Mean FFMI was significantly lower in normal or underweight patients versus overweight or obese patients. Patients with low FFMI had lower exercise capacity at the 6MWT and higher CAT scores than patients with normal FFMI.Depending on the BMI and FFMI values the patients were divided in four categories: normal, semistarvation, sarcopenia and cachexia. The group of patients with sarcopenia (low FFMI and normal BMI) had the lowest mean MIP (Maximal Inspiratory Pressure), the lowest mean 6MWD (six minutes walking distance) and the higher CAT mean scores among all groups. Exercise capacity was significantly lower in muscular depleted patients (with low skeletal muscle mass index - SSMI). MIP correlated significantly with FFMI and SMMI. No

  3. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance. ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... They were divided into three groups according to their body mass index percentile where group (a) is equal to or more than 5% percentile yet less than 85% percentile, group (b) is equal to ...

  4. A comparison between the body composition, carcass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    The body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of 61 Dormers (21 rams and 40 ewes) and 35 South ... The effects of breed, age and live weight on the carcass composition and retail cuts of meat-type lambs have been ..... Some effects of nutrition and castration on meat production from male Suffolk cross.

  5. Body Composition of Nigerian Diabetics using Bioimpedance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioimpedance Analysis (BIA) is an objective, safe, rapid and non-invasive method for assessing quantity of body fat. 136 diabetic patients registered at the diabetes clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital had their body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. There were 76 males and 60 ...

  6. Body Composition Assessment in the Infant

    Science.gov (United States)

    DEMERATH, ELLEN W.; FIELDS, DAVID A.

    2017-01-01

    Body composition assessment provides a sharper picture of the human biological response to genetic and environmental influences than measures of body size and weight. Infant body composition is particularly important as a marker of fetal adaptation and developmental programming of subsequent health and disease, but until recently, the range of options for measuring infant body composition was relatively narrow. The purpose of this Toolkit: Methods in Human Biology review is to provide a comprehensive overview of methods of body composition methods currently used in infants 0 to 2 years of age, including anthropometric prediction equations, air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), isotope dilution, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Information on the reliability, validity, and accuracy of the methods is provided. Unique aspects of infant physiology and behavior create challenges for body composition assessment, but this review provides guidance on suitable testing approaches and environments that may aid researchers in this important area of investigation. PMID:24424686

  7. Educational Web site. Radioisotopic methods of determining body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shypailo, R.J.; Ellis, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    A Web site intended to inform the general public about existing nuclear technologies based on the measurement of radioisotopes in the human body has been designed. The presentation is focused on the concept of radioisotope measurements for determination of body composition (bone, muscle, water, fat), and the risks, benefits, and clinical applications of these techniques. Procedures covered are 40 K whole body counting, delayed-gamma neutron activation, prompt-gamma neutron activation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The information presented is tailored for the nonscientific public, in order to promote familiarity with and understanding of the basic concepts of radioisotope measurements in the human body. Further development of the site will include greater scientific detail, suitable for student instruction or for continuing education requirements of various certification programs. (author)

  8. Relationship between sex, body composition, gait speed and body satisfaction in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, P A; García-Pinillos, F; Huertas Herrador, J A; Cózar Barba, M; Muñoz Jiménez, M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyzebody satisfaction in non-institutionalized old people and its association with sex, body mass index (BMI) and gait speed. Hundred six people have participated, 38 men (age=74.60 ±6.67 years old) and 68 women (age=72.76 ±4.68 years old). The Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) has been used together with body composition and a gait speed test. Prevalence of body dissatisfaction in old people is about 5.6 %. Women have higher body fat percentage and less muscle mass. Significant differences were not found (p≥0.05) in the BSQ relating with sex. Obese old people with less gait speed showed higher score in BSQ. The Total BSQ is positively correlated with BMI (r=0.487, pgait speed (r=-0.215 pgait speed and negatively with BMI. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Parental determinants of neonatal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, N C; Poole, J R; Javaid, M K; Dennison, E M; Robinson, S; Inskip, H M; Godfrey, K M; Cooper, C; Sayer, A Aihie

    2007-02-01

    The prevalence of both childhood and adult obesity is rising in the developed world, and there is increasing interest in its underlying causes. A number of studies suggest a positive relationship between birth weight and childhood body mass index, but less is known about specific prenatal environmental influences on more direct measures of obesity. We used data from the Southampton Women's Survey to investigate parental influences on neonatal body composition ascertained by dual x-ray absorptiometry. Participating mothers were characterized in detail (anthropometry, lifestyle, diet) before and during pregnancy; information was also obtained on their partners. The offspring underwent assessment of fat and lean body mass by dual x-ray absorptiometry within 2 wk of birth. Linear regression methods were used to explore the parental determinants of neonatal body composition. Complete data were available for 448 mother-offspring pairs. Taller women and those with higher parity had offspring with increased birth weight, fat, and lean mass (P body fat at birth (all P Maternal size, parity, smoking history, walking speed, and fat stores are independent determinants of neonatal body composition. If these influences are shown to have persisting effects on body composition through to adulthood, they point to novel public health interventions early in life to prevent later obesity.

  10. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Shanei, Ahmad; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Khoshhali, Mehri; Asgari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body composition prediction equations by various anthropometric measures instead of a whole body DXA scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 143 adult patients underwent DXA evaluation of the whole body. The anthropometric indices were also measured. Datasets were split randomly into two parts. Multiple regression analysis with a backward stepwise elimination procedure was used as the derivation set and then the estimates were compared with the actual measurements from the whole-body scans for a validation set. The SPSS version 20 for Windows software was used in multiple regression and data analysis. Results: Using multiple linear regression analyses, the best equation for predicting the whole-body fat mass (R2 = 0.808) included the body mass index (BMI) and gender; the best equation for predicting whole-body lean mass (R2 = 0.780) included BMI, WC, gender, and age; and the best equation for predicting trunk fat mass (R2 = 0.759) included BMI, WC, and gender. Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets. PMID:25709999

  11. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Tatiane; Costa, Manoel; Oliveira, Saulo; Júnior, Marcos Barbosa; Ritti-Dias, Raphael; Santos, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9–17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition) and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test) were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1–5) were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear...

  12. Longitudinal study of body composition in spinal cord injury patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roop Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone mass loss and muscle atrophy are the frequent complications occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI. The potential risks involved with these changes in the body composition have implications for the health of the SCI individual. Thus, there is a need to quantitate and monitor body composition changes accurately in an individual with SCI. Very few longitudinal studies have been reported in the literature to assess body composition and most include relatively small number of patients. The present prospective study aimed to evaluate the body composition changes longitudinally by DEXA in patients with acute SCI. Materials and Methods: Ninety five patients with acute SCI with neurological deficits were evaluated for bone mineral content (BMC, body composition [lean body mass (LBM and fat mass] by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry during the first year of SCI. Results: There was a significant decrease in BMC ( P < 0.05 and LBM ( P < 0.05 and increase in total body fat mass (TBFM and percentage fat at infra-lesional sites. The average decrease was 14.5% in BMC in lower extremities, 20.5% loss of LBM in legs and 15.1% loss of LBM in trunk, and increase of 0.2% in fat mass in legs and 17.3% increased fat in the lower limbs at 1 year. The tetraplegic patients had significant decrease in arm BMC ( P < 0.001, arm LBM ( P < 0.01 and fat percentage ( P < 0.01 compared to paraplegics. Patients with complete motor injury had higher values of TBFM and fat percentage, but comparable values of BMC and LBM to patients with incomplete motor injury. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that there is a marked decrease in BMC and LBM with increase in adiposity during the first year of SCI. Although these changes depend on the level and initial severity of lesions, they are also influenced by the neurological recovery after SCI.

  13. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  14. Differences in body composition, body proportions and timing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to assess differences in body composition, proportions and timing of puberty between stunted and non-stunted South African adolescents in the North West Province, South Africa. A total of 259 black adolescents (118 boys, 141 girls), aged 13-18 years were measured. The following data were ...

  15. Effects of whole-body vibration after eccentric exercise on muscle soreness and muscle strength recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timon, Rafael; Tejero, Javier; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Crespo, Carmen; Olcina, Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not a single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise can reduce muscle soreness and enhance muscle recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty untrained participants were randomly assigned to two groups: a vibration group (n=10) and control group (n=10). Participants performed eccentric quadriceps training of 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 120% 1RM, with 4 min rest between sets. After that, the vibration group received 3 sets of 1 min whole body vibration (12 Hz, 4 mm) with 30 s of passive recovery between sets. Serum creatine kinase, blood urea nitrogen, muscle soreness (visual analog scale) and muscle strength (peak isometric torque) were assessed. [Results] Creatine kinase was lower in the vibration group than in the control group at 24 h (200.2 ± 8.2 vs. 300.5 ± 26.1 U/L) and at 48 h (175.2 ± 12.5 vs. 285.2 ± 19.7 U/L) post-exercise. Muscle soreness decreased in vibration group compared to control group at 48 h post-exercise (34.1 ± 11.4 vs. 65.2 ± 13.2 mm). [Conclusion] Single whole-body vibration treatment after eccentric exercise reduced delayed onset muscle soreness but it did not affect muscle strength recovery.

  16. Sarcopenia and the Analysis of Body Composition12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Sandra M. L.; Kehayias, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of lean mass is a primary body composition change associated with aging. Because many factors contribute to lean mass reduction, the problem has been given various names depending on the proposed cause, such as “age-related sarcopenia,” “dynapenia,” “myopenia,” “sarcopenic obesity,” or simply “sarcopenia.” There is currently no consensus on how to best diagnose the reduction of lean mass and its consequences on health. We propose that simple body composition methods can be used to indirectly evaluate sarcopenia, provided that those techniques are validated against the “quality of lean” criterion that associates muscle mass and metabolic function with the components of fat-free mass. Promising field methods include the use of stable isotopes for the evaluation of water compartments and new approaches to bioelectrical impedance analysis, which is also associated with the monitoring of water homeostasis. PMID:24829472

  17. Nutrition, endocrinology, and body composition during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Gretebeck, R. J.; Smith, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight induces endocrine changes that perturb metabolism. This altered metabolism affects both the astronauts' body composition and the nutritional requirements necessary to maintain their health. During the last 25 years, a combination of studies conducted on Skylab (the first U.S. space laboratory), U.S. Shuttle flights, and Soviet and Russian flights provides a range of data from which general conclusions about energy and protein requirements can be drawn. We have reviewed the endocrine data from those studies and related it to changes in body composition. From these data it appears that protein and energy intake of astronauts are similar to those on Earth. However, a combination of measures, including exercise, appropriate diet, and, potentially, drugs, is required to provide the muscle health needed for long duration space flight.

  18. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-03-01

    Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based. This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Metabolic and body composition changes in first year following traumatic amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckard, Carly S; Pruziner, Alison L; Sanchez, Allison D; Andrews, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Body composition and metabolism may change considerably after traumatic amputation because of muscle atrophy and an increase in adiposity. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in weight, body composition, and metabolic rate during the first year following traumatic amputation in military servicemembers. Servicemembers without amputation were included for comparison. Participants were measured within the first 12 wk after amputation (baseline) and at 6, 9, and 12 mo after amputation. Muscle mass, fat mass, weight, and metabolic rate were measured at each time point. There was a significant increase in weight and body mass index in the unilateral group between baseline and all follow-up visits (p amputation.

  20. Anthropometry and body composition of south Indian babies at birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, S; Dwarkanath, P; Thomas, T; Vaz, M; Mhaskar, A; Mhaskar, R; Thomas, A; Bhat, S; Kurpad, Av

    2006-10-01

    To assess the consequences on body composition of increasing birth weight in Indian babies in relation to reported values in Western babies, and to assess the relationship between maternal and neonatal anthropometry and body composition. Prospective observational study. Bangalore City, India. A total of 712 women were recruited at 12.5+/-3.1 weeks of gestation (mean+/-standard deviation, SD) and followed up until delivery; 14.5% were lost to follow-up. Maternal body weight, height, mid upper-arm circumference and skinfold thicknesses were measured at recruitment. Weight and body composition of the baby (skinfold thicknesses, mid upper-arm circumference, derived arm fat index and arm muscle index; AFI and AMI, respectively) were measured at birth in hospital. The mean+/-SD birth weight of all newborns was 2.80+/-0.44 kg. Birth weight was significantly related to the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness of the baby. In a small number of babies with large birth weight for gestational age, there was a relatively higher normalised AFI relative to AMI than for babies with lower or appropriate birth weight for gestational age. Maternal height and fat-free mass were significantly associated with the baby's length at birth. Skinfold thicknesses in Indian babies were similar to those reported in a Western population with comparable birth weights, and the relationship of AFI to birth weight appeared to be steeper in Indian babies. Thus, measures to increase birth weight in Indian babies should take into account possible adverse consequences on body composition. There were no significant relationships between maternal anthropometry and body composition at birth on multivariate analysis, except for sum of the baby's skinfold thicknesses and maternal fat-free mass (P<0.02).

  1. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, self-reported physical function, functional capacity, and isolated muscle function were investigated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients. METHODS: The 36-item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey and 2-min walk test (2MWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and 30-s...... chair stand performance were evaluated. In addition, patients were tested for knee extensor muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer) and leg extension power (Nottingham power rig). RESULTS: TUG performance was the strongest predictor of self-reported physical function (r(2) = 0.56, P ... to sensitively predict self-perceived physical function in sIBM patients. Notably, between-limb asymmetry in lower limb muscle strength had a substantial negative impact on motor tasks involving gait function. Muscle Nerve, 2017....

  2. The effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle activation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... The effect of whole body vibration exercise (WBV) on muscle activation has recently been a topic for discussion amongst some researchers. ... Participants then performed two different exercises: standing calf raises and prone bridging, without and with WBV.

  3. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  4. Association between body composition and stair negotiation ability among individuals >55 years of age: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dip RM

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Renata Maciulis Dip, Marcos AS Cabrera, Sabrina Ferrari Prato Department of Public Health, Postgraduate Program in Public Health, State University of Londrina (UEL, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil Background: Loss of muscle strength exerts a considerable impact on the quality of life and mortality of older adults. The present household survey study measured body composition and muscle strength with the aim of analyzing the roles of low lean mass, low muscle strength and obesity in stair negotiation ability and the effect of comorbidities on the relationship between body composition and functional capacity.Methods: Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis and muscle strength was assessed with a hand grip dynamometer. The study population comprised individuals >55 years of age from a medium-sized Brazilian municipality. The sample included 451 participants.Results: A total of 368 subjects were interviewed; their ages varied from 56 to 91 years. Among males, low muscle strength was associated with stair negotiation difficulty independent of muscle mass, age and obesity but muscle mass was not. However, when we analyzed comorbidities and body composition jointly, chronic lower limb pain and obesity were independently associated with stair negotiation difficulty but body composition and age were not. Among women, after comorbidities were included into the model, low muscle strength and obesity remained associated with stair negotiation difficulty as chronic lower limb pain and depression. The relationship between muscle function and comorbidities is discussed in this article. Keywords: sarcopenia, obesity, depression, older people

  5. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  6. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition

  7. Body composition estimation from selected slices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacoste Jeanson, Alizé; Dupej, Ján; Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total...... the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR). Results and Discussion The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single...

  8. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  9. Effect of mat pilates exercise on postural alignment and body composition of middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Oh, Hyun Ok; Han, Hui Seung; Jin, Kwang Youn; Roh, Hyo Lyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study attempted to examine whether Pilates is an effective exercise for improving the postural alignment and health of middle-aged women. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study were 36 middle-aged women (20 in the experimental group, 16 in the control group). The experimental group participated in Pilates exercise sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. Body alignment and composition measurements before and after applying the Pilates exercise program were performed with a body composition analyzer and a three-dimensional scanner. [Results] Postural alignment in the sagittal and horizontal planes was enhanced in the Pilates exercise group. Trunk alignment showed correlations with body fat and muscle mass. [Conclusion] The Pilates exercises are performed symmetrically and strengthen the deep muscles. Moreover, the results showed that muscle mass was correlated with trunk postural alignment and that the proper amount of muscle is critical in maintaining trunk postural alignment.

  10. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  11. Action potentials drive body wall muscle contractions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shangbang; Zhen, Mei

    2011-01-01

    The sinusoidal locomotion exhibited by Caenorhabditis elegans predicts a tight regulation of contractions and relaxations of its body wall muscles. Vertebrate skeletal muscle contractions are driven by voltage-gated sodium channel–dependent action potentials. How coordinated motor outputs are regulated in C. elegans, which does not have voltage-gated sodium channels, remains unknown. Here, we show that C. elegans body wall muscles fire all-or-none, calcium-dependent action potentials that are driven by the L-type voltage-gated calcium and Kv1 voltage-dependent potassium channels. We further demonstrate that the excitatory and inhibitory motoneuron activities regulate the frequency of action potentials to coordinate muscle contraction and relaxation, respectively. This study provides direct evidence for the dual-modulatory model of the C. elegans motor circuit; moreover, it reveals a mode of motor control in which muscle cells integrate graded inputs of the nervous system and respond with all-or-none electrical signals. PMID:21248227

  12. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falsarella, Gláucia Regina; Gasparotto, Lívia Pimenta Renó; Barcelos, Caroline Coutinho; Coimbra, Ibsen Bellini; Moretto, Maria Clara; Pascoa, Mauro Alexandre; Ferreira, Talita C B Rezende; Coimbra, Arlete Maria Valente

    2015-01-01

    Body composition (BC) in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly. To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people. A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males) aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI), muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (%) data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05. The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001), and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001). Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038) and fat % (P=0.002). The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022). The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001), bone mass (P=0.009), fat mass (P=0.018), and BMI (P=0.003). There was a negative association between fatigue and bone mass (P=0.008). Frailty in the elderly was characterized by a BC profile/phenotype with lower muscle mass and lower bone mass and with a higher fat %. The BMI was not effective in evaluating the relationship between BC and frailty. The importance of evaluating the fat % was verified when considering the tissue distribution in the elderly BC.

  13. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  14. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P muscle triacylglycerol fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P diet plays......Training improves insulin sensitivity, which in turn may affect performance by modulation of fuel availability. Insulin action, in turn, has been linked to specific patterns of muscle structural lipids in skeletal muscle. This study investigated whether regular exercise training exerts an effect...... on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk...

  15. Functional correlates of detailed body composition in healthy elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred James

    2018-01-01

    Methods of body composition analysis are now widely used to characterize health status, i.e., nutritional status, metabolic rates, and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, the functional correlates of individual body components have not been systematically analyzed. In this study, we have used a two-compartment model, which was assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Detailed body composition was measured by whole body magnetic resonance imaging in a healthy population of 40 Caucasians, aged 65-81 yr (20 men; body mass index range: 18.6-37.2 kg/m 2 ). Physical, metabolic, as well as endocrine functions included pulmonary function, handgrip strength, gait speed, sit-to-stand test, physical activity, blood pressure, body temperature, resting energy expenditure (REE), liver and kidney functions (glomerular filtration rate), insulin sensitivity [homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)], plasma lipids, plasma leptin, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, insulin-like growth factor I levels, thyroid status, vitamins, and inflammation. Individual body compartments were intercorrelated, e.g., skeletal muscle mass (SM) correlated with visceral adipose tissue ( r = 0.53) and kidneys ( r = 0.62). For the functional correlates, SM ( r = 0.58) and liver volume ( r = 0.63) were associated with REE, SM correlated with handgrip strength ( r = 0.57), and kidneys with glomerular filtration rate ( r = 0.57). While visceral adipose tissue correlated with HOMA ( r = 0.59), subcutaneous adipose tissue was related to plasma leptin levels ( r = 0.84). The subcutaneous adipose tissue-to-leptin relationship was moderated by inflammation increasing the explained variance of leptin levels by 4.0%. In linear regression analysis, detailed body composition explained variances in REE (75.0%), HOMA (41.0%), and leptin (78.0%) compared with a body mass index-based model (REE 16.0%, HOMA 31.0%, leptin 45.0%). In addition, detailed body composition explained 39

  16. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  17. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  18. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.; Bolter, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4–5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition. PMID:26034269

  19. Metabolic Aspects of Caloric Restriction (500 Calories): Body Composition Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    adjusted to Increased caloric intake. Allen and Musgrave (20) felt that decreases in body fat and water in a two-component system were adequate for...about 73% of body muscle weight). Body water - The total amount of water in the body, 72% of the lean body mass. Creatinine - Urinary excretory product

  20. Association between Body Composition and Motor Performance in Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja H. Kakebeeke

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Being overweight makes physical movement more difficult. Our aim was to investigate the association between body composition and motor performance in preschool children. Methods: A total of 476 predominantly normal-weight preschool children (age 3.9 ± 0.7 years; m/f: 251/225; BMI 16.0 ± 1.4 kg/m2 participated in the Swiss Preschoolers' Health Study (SPLASHY. Body composition assessments included skinfold thickness, waist circumference (WC, and BMI. The Zurich Neuromotor Assessment (ZNA was used to assess gross and fine motor tasks. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, sociocultural characteristics, and physical activity (assessed with accelerometers, skinfold thickness and WC were both inversely correlated with jumping sideward (gross motor task β-coefficient -1.92, p = 0.027; and -3.34, p = 0.014, respectively, while BMI was positively correlated with running performance (gross motor task β-coefficient 9.12, p = 0.001. No significant associations were found between body composition measures and fine motor tasks. Conclusion: The inverse associations between skinfold thickness or WC and jumping sideward indicates that children with high fat mass may be less proficient in certain gross motor tasks. The positive association between BMI and running suggests that BMI might be an indicator of fat-free (i.e., muscle mass in predominately normal-weight preschool children.

  1. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsarella GR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass

  2. Muscle sonography in six patients with hereditary inclusion body myopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Ronald S. [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Division of Ultrasound and Body Imaging, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Garolfalo, Giovanna [Ospedale Residenza Sanitaria Riabilitativa, Fermo, AP (Italy); Paget, Stephen; Kagen, Lawrence [Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Rheumatology Division, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2008-01-15

    To evaluate the morphological changes of muscle with sonography in six patients affected by hereditary inclusion body myopathy (HIBM). We studied a group of six Persian Jews diagnosed with HIBM. All were homozygous for the GNE mutation M712T. Ultrasonographic examinations of the quadriceps femoris and hamstring muscle groups were performed. A follow-up ultrasound examination was performed, after an interval of 3 years, in four of these patients. Muscles were assessed subjectively as to echogenicity, determined by gray-scale assessment, and loss of normal muscle morphology. Power Doppler sonography (PDS) was used to assess vascularity. A sonographic finding of central atrophy and peripheral sparing resulting in a target-like appearance was noted in the hamstring compartment of all six patients. The quadriceps compartment also showed involvement of the rectus femoris of all patients, which, in some cases, was the only muscle involved in the quadriceps. Vascularity was markedly reduced in the affected areas, with blood flow demonstrated in the peripherally spared areas. The severity of atrophy increased with disease duration. In this case series, we describe a new sonographic finding as well as document progression of HIBM disease, which has generally been described as quadriceps sparing. The myopathic target lesion, as well as isolated rectus femoris atrophy, may provide a useful adjunct to disease diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Body-building without power training: endogenously regulated pectoral muscle hypertrophy in confined shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz; Piersma; Dekinga

    1999-10-01

    Shorebirds such as red knots Calidris canutus routinely make migratory flights of 3000 km or more. Previous studies on this species, based on compositional analyses, suggest extensive pectoral muscle hypertrophy in addition to fat storage before take-off. Such hypertrophy could be due to power training and/or be effected by an endogenous circannual rhythm. Red knots of two subspecies with contrasting migration patterns were placed in a climate-controlled aviary (12 h:12 h L:D photoperiod) where exercise was limited. Using ultrasonography, we measured pectoral muscle size as the birds stored fat in preparation for migration. At capture, there were no differences in body mass and pectoral muscle mass between the two subspecies. As they prepared for southward and northward migration, respectively, the tropically wintering subspecies (C. c. canutus) gained 31 g and the temperate wintering subspecies (C. c. islandica) gained 41 g. During this time, pectoral mass increased by 43-44 % of initial mass, representing 39 % (C. c. canutus) and 29 % (C. c. islandica) of the increase in body mass. The gizzard showed atrophy in conjunction with a diet change from molluscs to food pellets. Although we cannot exclude the possibility that the birds' limited movement may still be a prerequisite for pectoral muscle hypertrophy, extensive power training is certainly not a requirement. Muscle hypertrophy in the absence of photoperiod cues suggests the involvement of an endogenous circannual process.

  4. Body Composition Changes in Severely Burned Children During ICU Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Malagaris, Ioannis; Rivas, Eric; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Voigt, Charles D; Blears, Elizabeth; Mlcak, Ron P; Herndon, David N; Finnerty, Celeste C; Suman, Oscar E

    2017-12-01

    Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. Retrospective chart review. Children's burn hospital. Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015. All patients underwent a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry within 2 weeks after injury and 2 weeks before discharge to determine body composition changes. No subject underwent anabolic intervention. We analyzed changes of bone mineral content, bone mineral density, total fat mass, total mass, and total lean mass of the entire body and specifically analyzed the changes between the upper and lower limbs. In the 24 patients, age was 10 ± 5 years, total body surface area burned was 59% ± 17%, time between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometries was 34 ± 21 days, and length of stay was 39 ± 24 days. We found a significant (p < 0.001) average loss of 3% of lean mass in the whole body; this loss was significantly greater (p < 0.001) in the upper extremities (17%) than in the lower extremities (7%). We also observed a remodeling of the fat compartments, with a significant whole-body increase in fat mass (p < 0.001) that was greater in the truncal region (p < 0.0001) and in the lower limbs (p < 0.05). ICU hospitalization is associated with greater lean mass loss in the upper limbs of burned children. Mobilization programs should include early mobilization of upper limbs to restore upper extremity function.

  5. Whole-body fat oxidation determined by graded exercise and indirect calorimetry: a role for muscle oxidative capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, P; Saltin, B; Helge, J W

    2006-01-01

    During whole-body exercise, peak fat oxidation occurs at a moderate intensity. This study investigated whole-body peak fat oxidation in untrained and trained subjects, and the presence of a relation between skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and whole-body peak fat oxidation. Healthy male...... subjects were recruited and categorized into an untrained (N=8, VO(2max) 3.5+/-0.1 L/min) and a trained (N=8, VO(2max) 4.6+/-0.2 L/min) group. Subjects performed a graded exercise test commencing at 60 W for 8 min followed by 35 W increments every 3 min. On a separate day, muscle biopsies were obtained...... oxidation was determined. The body composition was determined by DEXA. Whole-body peak fat oxidation (250+/-25 and 462+/-33 mg/min) was higher (Ptrained compared with untrained subjects, respectively. Muscle...

  6. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and...

  7. Meal Frequency and Nutrient Distribution: What is Ideal for Body Composition?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan P Lowery

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effects of meal frequency on protein synthesis, muscle mass and fat mass. Current research appears to indicate that manipulating meal frequency increases net protein balance and body composition when each meal provides an adequate supply of the amino acid leucine to optimize skeletal muscle anabolism. In contrast, research demonstrating no benefits to increased meal frequency generally employed small, inadequate boluses of protein per meal. The purpose of this paper ...

  8. The Effect of a Muscle Weight-Bearing and Aerobic Exercise Program on the Body Composition, Muscular Strength, Biochemical Markers, and Bone Mass of Obese Patients Who Have Undergone Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha-Versiani, Luciana; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Ribeiro-Samora, Giane Amorim; Ramos, Adauto Versiani; de Sander Diniz, Maria Fatima H; De Marco, Luiz Armando; Soares, Maria Marta Sarquis

    2017-08-01

    The effect of an exercise program on the body composition, muscular strength (MS), biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) of individuals undergoing gastric bypass is unclear. We assessed lean mass (LM), MS, bone remodeling markers, and BMD before and after supervised weight-bearing and aerobic exercise training in obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). This study included 37 obese patients (81.1% women, mean age 38.2 years, mean body mass index 42.4 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 ). Whole body densitometry was used to evaluate pre- and postoperative BMD, total body fat, and LM. Serum calcium, parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and bone remodeling markers were measured. MS was determined through the concentric 10 repetition maximum test. Postoperatively, participants were divided into two groups: the training group, who followed an exercise program (TG, n = 18), and the control group, who did not (CG, n = 19). After 1 year, the TG showed a lower decrease in total BMD and at the lumbar spine and right hip compared with the CG (p exercise program attenuated lumbar spine and right hip BMD loss and improved LM in the arms and overall MS but did not affect bone remodeling.

  9. Importance of Lean Muscle Maintenance to Improve Insulin Resistance by Body Weight Reduction in Female Patients with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaeko Fukushima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIt has recently been suggested that skeletal muscle has an important role in insulin resistance in obesity, in addition to exercise tolerance and the fat index. The aim of this study was to identify body composition factors that contribute to improvement of insulin resistance in female patients with obesity who reduce body weight.MethodsWe studied 92 female obese patients (age 40.9±10.4 years, body mass index 33.2±4.6 kg/m2 who reduced body weight by ≥5% after an intervention program including diet, exercise therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Before and after the intervention, body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to examine changes in skeletal muscle mass. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was measured as an index of insulin resistance. Cardiopulmonary exercise was also performed by all patients.ResultsThere were significant improvements in body weight (–10.3%±4.5%, exercise tolerance (anaerobic threshold oxygen uptake 9.1%±18.4%, peak oxygen uptake 11.0%±14.2%, and HOMA-IR (–20.2%±38.3%. Regarding body composition, there were significant decreases in total body fat (–19.3%±9.6%, total fat-free mass (–2.7%±4.3%, and % body fat (–10.1%±7.5%, whereas % skeletal muscle significantly increased (8.9%±7.2%. In stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with change in HOMA-IR as the dependent variable, the change in % skeletal muscle was identified as an independent predictor (β=–0.280, R2=0.068, P<0.01.ConclusionImprovement of insulin resistance in female obese patients requires maintenance of skeletal muscle mass.

  10. Creatine monohydrate supplementation does not increase muscle strength, lean body mass, or muscle phosphocreatine in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark; Mahoney, Douglas; Thompson, Terry; Naylor, Heather; Doherty, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate (CrM) supplementation may increase strength in some types of muscular dystrophy. A recent study in myotonic muscular dystrophy type 1 (DM1) did not find a significant treatment effect, but measurements of muscle phosphocreatine (PCr) were not performed. We completed a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial using 34 genetically confirmed adult DM1 patients without significant cognitive impairment. Participants received CrM (5 g, approximately 0.074 g/kg daily) and a placebo for each 4-month phase with a 6-week wash-out. Spirometry, manual muscle testing, quantitative isometric strength testing of handgrip, foot dorsiflexion, and knee extension, handgrip and foot dorsiflexion endurance, functional tasks, activity of daily living scales, body composition (total, bone, and fat-free mass), serum creatine kinase activity, serum creatinine concentration and clearance, and liver function tests were completed before and after each intervention, and muscle PCr/beta-adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratios of the forearm flexor muscles were completed at the end of each phase. CrM supplementation did not increase any of the outcome measurements except for plasma creatinine concentration (but not creatinine clearance). Thus, CrM supplementation at 5 g daily does not have any effects on muscle strength, body composition, or activities of daily living in patients with DM1, perhaps because of a failure of the supplementation to increase muscle PCr/beta-ATP content.

  11. Clinical Assessment of Sarcopenia and Changes in Body Composition During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Omori, Takeshi; Yanagimoto, Yoshitomo; Ohue, Masayuki; Yasui, Masayoshi; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Tomokuni, Akira; Akita, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yano, Masahiko

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in body composition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and investigate whether chemotherapy-related toxicities affect body composition in patients with esophageal cancer. In ninety-four patients who underwent NAC for esophageal cancer, body composition was assessed before and after NAC. Associations between the incidence of toxicities and change in body composition during NAC were investigated. Forty-four (46.8%) and 50 (53.2%) out of 94 patients were defined as having sarcopenia before and after NAC, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any toxicity pre-treatment between patients with sarcopenia and those without sarcopenia. No significant reduction in skeletal muscle mass or fat mass was observed in the patients during NAC (p=0.501 and p=0.072). However, patients who experienced grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia during NAC showed a significantly larger decrease in change of skeletal muscle mass compared to patients who did not experience those toxicities (p=0.013 and 0.036, respectively). The incidence of serious adverse events such as febrile neutropenia and grade 4 neutropenia is associated with a significant reduction of skeletal muscle mass during NAC. We should make an effort to reduce the incidence of adverse events in order to maintain an appropriate body composition during NAC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer--the relationship between body composition and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E

    2013-10-01

    Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  13. Characterization of college football athletes and basketball: Anthropometry and Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gil Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and Objectives. Anthropometric study of university population, comprising men and women college athletes participating in the Championships of Spain's 2008 College basketball and football. The aim of this study is to describe the body composition of male and female college athletes in football and basketball specialtiesMethods. This is a cross-sectional study with direct anthropometric measurements. These have been obtained by following the rules and techniques recommended by the International Group of Cineantropometry.Results. The college athletes generally have a higher percentage of muscle weight and fat mass and bone weight lower percentage of male college athletes. The male basketball players have a higher percentage of fat mass and bone weight and lower percentage of muscle weight in football players.  mong women, we found that basketball players have a higher percentage of bone weight and lower percentage of fat mass and muscle mass than soccer players.Conclusions. The competitive level of body composition changes substantially, primarily among females. It is important to have data on body composition at the college level.Keywords: Body Composition, Fat Mass, Muscle Mass, Weight Bone, Anthropometry.

  14. Exercise program affects body composition but not weight in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, M.J.; Schuit, A.J.; Peeters, P.H.; Monninkhof, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month moderate-to-vigorous exercise program combining aerobic and muscle strength training on body composition among sedentary, postmenopausal women. METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted. A total of 189 sedentary

  15. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  16. Maternal active smoking and newborn body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, M P; Jiménez-Muro, A; Nerín, I; Marqueta, A; Ventura, P; Rodríguez, G

    2012-03-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in birth size but very few studies have collated changes in neonatal anthropometry. Our aims were both to assess body composition differences by anthropometry between new-borns from smoking mothers and those from non-smoking mothers, and to show whether these differences affect proportional body mass distribution. Caucasian mothers and their full term singleton new-borns (N=1216) were selected during 2009. A structured questionnaire was completed regarding obstetric and demographic data, as well as tobacco consumption. Women were categorized, according to their smoking habits, into a non-smoking group (never smoked or stopped smoking prior to pregnancy) and a smoking group (smoked throughout pregnancy). 22.1% of mothers smoked during pregnancy (median: 6 cigarettes/day, range: l-40). Smoking mothers were significantly younger than non-smoking mothers but there were no differences regarding other aspects which could affect infant weight. Infants from non-smoking mothers were heavier, longer, and body circumferences were all larger than those from smoking mothers (pfat distribution did not show statistical differences between the two groups. After gestational age, to smoke during gestation is the second main determinant of birth weight. Smoking during pregnancy involves a generalized reduction of most axiological parameters as a result of proportionate fetal growth impairment. In those infants born from mothers who smoked during gestation, neonatal lean body mass appears to be more affected than body fat, and distribution of subcutaneous fat is not different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  18. Skeletal muscle O-GlcNAc transferase is important for muscle energy homeostasis and whole-body insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Hao; Munk, Alexander; Nielsen, Thomas Svava

    2018-01-01

    of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins in obese, type 2 diabetic people compared with well-matched obese and lean controls. Muscle-specific OGT knockout mice were lean, and whole body energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity were increased in these mice, consistent with enhanced glucose uptake and elevated...... mediates transcriptional repression of Il15 by O-GlcNAcylating Enhancer of Zeste Homolog 2 (EZH2). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated muscle O-GlcNAc levels paralleled insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in humans. Moreover, OGT-mediated signaling is necessary for proper skeletal muscle metabolism and whole-body......-GlcNAcylation, in skeletal muscle. METHODS: We assessed O-GlcNAcylation levels in skeletal muscle from obese, type 2 diabetic people, and we characterized muscle-specific OGT knockout (mKO) mice in metabolic cages and measured energy expenditure and substrate utilization pattern using indirect calorimetry. Whole body...

  19. Female marine recruit training: mood, body composition, and biochemical changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R; Kellogg, Mark D; Bathalon, Gaston P

    2008-11-01

    The US Marine Corps (USMC) is an elite military organization. Marine recruit training (RT) is a physically and psychologically intense 13-wk-long course designed to transform civilians into Marines through shared hardship and arduous training. Our laboratory conducted a study of female recruits in USMC RT that assessed the nature and the extent of cognitive, nutritional, and physical changes that occur during this unique period of structured mental and physical training. During RT, mood state was assessed every 4 wk with a standardized questionnaire, the POMS. Body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry every 4 wk, and blood samples were collected for assessing metabolic status at the start and at the completion of training. At the beginning of RT, approximately 1 wk after arrival at the training facility, levels of several negative mood states assessed by the POMS, depression, anxiety, fatigue, anger, and confusion, were considerably higher than POMS norms for age-matched, female college students. However, over the course of RT, these mood states gradually declined until, by the completion of training, they were substantially lower than college norms. Body composition changed dramatically, with muscle mass increasing by 2.5 +/- 0.2 kg on average and fat declining by 4.7 +/- 0.4 kg. There were also significant changes in several biochemical parameters associated with nutritional and physical status, particularly LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and cortisol. Other factors, such as total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and glucose, were more stable. Over the course of USMC RT, mood and body composition improved substantially and dramatically, an indication of the effectiveness of USMC RT for altering the physical and the cognitive status of trainees.

  20. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, G Ja; Konovalova, M V; Vashura, A Yu; Anisimova, A V; Godina, E Z; Khomyakova, I A; Nikolaev, D V; Starunova, O A; Rudnev, S G

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  1. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate.......70-105.56) (P basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...... a dysfunctional metabolism contributing to the high-fat-body composition....

  2. Disease-related malnutrition: influence on body composition and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Pirlich, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a frequent clincal problem with severe medical and economic impact. This work summarizes studies on body composition analysis, risk factors, prevalence and prognostic impact of malnutrition. The diagnosis of malnutrition in patients with chronic liver disease is hampered by hyperhydration and requires body composition analysis. Using four different methods for body composition analysis (total body potassium counting, anthropometry, bioelectrical impedance analy...

  3. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  4. Not just quantity: gluteus maximus muscle characteristics in able-bodied and SCI individuals--implications for tissue viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary A; Bogie, Kath M

    2013-08-01

    Some individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) remain pressure ulcer (PU) free whilst others experience a recurring cycle of tissue breakdown. Detailed analysis of gluteal muscle characteristics may provide insights to local tissue viability variability. The study hypothesis was that SCI individuals have altered muscle composition compared to able-bodied (AB). Ten AB and ten SCI received a supine pelvic CT scan, with contrast. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and overall muscle volume were derived using image analysis. Gluteal muscle tissue type was classified at the S2/S3 sacral vertebrae midpoint, the superior greater trochanters margin (GT) and the inferior ischial tuberosities margin (IT) using the linear transformation Hounsfield Unit scale. SCI gluteal CSA was less than for AB throughout the muscle, with the greatest relative atrophy at the IT (48%). Average AB gluteal volume was nearly double SCI. Eight SCI had over 20% infiltrative adipose tissue, three with over 50%. SCI gluteal CSA and intramuscular fat infiltration were significantly negatively correlated (p < 0.05). SCI IT axial slices showed less lean muscle and higher intramuscular fat infiltration than more proximally (p < 0.05). SCI gluteal muscle characteristics were indicative of impaired tissue viability. SCI disuse muscle atrophy was anticipated; the analytic approach further indicated that intramuscular atrophy was not uniform. SCI muscle composition showed increased proportions of both low density muscle and adipose tissue. CT scan with contrast is effective for gluteal muscle characterization. This assessment technique may contribute to determination of personalized risk for PU development and other secondary complications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Normalisation of body composition parameters for nutritional assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Normalisation of body composition parameters to an index of body size facilitates comparison of a subject’s measurements with those of a population. There is an obvious focus on indexes of obesity, but first it is informative to consider Fat Free Mass (FFM) in the context of common anthropometric measures of body size namely, height and weight. The contention is that FFM is a more physiological measure of body size than body mass. Many studies have shown that FFM relates to height ^p. Although there is debate over the appropriate exponent especially in early life, it appears to lie between 2 and 3. If 2, then FFM Index (FFMI; kg/m2) and Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/m2) can be summed to give BMI. If 3 were used as exponent, then FFMI (kg/m3) plus FMI (kg/m3) gives the Ponderal Index (PI; weight/height3). In 2013, Burton argued that that a cubic exponent is appropriate for normalisation as it is a dimensionless quotient. In 2012, Wang and co-workers repeated earlier observations showing a strong linear relationship between FFM and height3. The importance of the latter study comes from the fact that a 4 compartment body composition model was used, which is recognised as the most accurate means of describing FFM. Once the basis of a FFMI has been defined it can be used to compare measurements with those of a population, either directly, as a ratio to a norm or as a Z-score. FFMI charts could be developed for use in child growth. Other related indexes can be determined for use in specific circumstances such as: body cell mass index (growth and wasting); skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) or appendicular SMMI (growth and sarcopenia); bone mineral mass index (osteoporosis); extracellular fluid index (hydration). Finally, it is logical that the same system is used to define an adiposity index, so Fat Mass Index (FMI; kg/height3) can be used as it is consistent with FFMI (kg/height3) and PI. It should also be noted that the index FM/FFM, describes an individual

  6. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.

    Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and

  7. Efficacy of tibolone and raloxifene for the maintenance of skeletal muscle strength, bone mineral density, balance, body composition, cognitive function, mood/depression, anxiety and quality of life/well-being in late postmenopausal women ≥ 70 years: Study design of a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled, single-center trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grobbee Diederick E

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postmenopausal women are prone to develop functional disabilities as a result of reduction in muscle strength and muscle mass caused by diminished levels of female sex hormones. While hormone replacement therapy may counteract these changes, conventional hormone replacement therapy is associated with potential harmful effects, such as an increased risk of breast cancer, and its prescription is not recommended. For this reason newer alternative drugs, such as tibolone, a synthetic steroid with estrogenic, progestogenic and androgenic activity, and raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, may be more appropriate. This trial investigates the effect of tibolone and raloxifene on muscle strength. Methods We recruited 318 elderly women in our single-center randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized to tibolone 1.25 mg (Org OD 14, Organon NV, the Netherlands plus placebo, raloxifene 60 mg (Evista®, Eli Lilly, United States plus placebo or two placebo tablets daily for 24 months. The primary aim is to determine if there is a difference between tibolone and placebo or if there is a difference between raloxifene and placebo. Primary endpoints are muscle strength and bone mineral density. The secondary endpoints are postural balance, body composition, cognitive function, anxiety, mood and quality of life. The secondary aim is to determine if there is a difference between tibolone and raloxifene. The measure of effect is the change from the baseline visit to the visits after 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, and 24 months. A follow-up measurement is planned at 30 months to determine whether any effects are sustained after cessation of the study. By December 2007 the blind will be broken and the data analyzed. Trial registration number NTR: 1232

  8. Imaging methods for analyzing body composition in human obesity and cardiometabolic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabolt, Lynn A; Welch, E Brian; Silver, Heidi J

    2015-09-01

    Advances in the technological qualities of imaging modalities for assessing human body composition have been stimulated by accumulating evidence that individual components of body composition have significant influences on chronic disease onset, disease progression, treatment response, and health outcomes. Importantly, imaging modalities have provided a systematic method for differentiating phenotypes of body composition that diverge from what is considered normal, that is, having low bone mass (osteopenia/osteoporosis), low muscle mass (sarcopenia), high fat mass (obesity), or high fat with low muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity). Moreover, advances over the past three decades in the sensitivity and quality of imaging not just to discern the amount and distribution of adipose and lean tissue but also to differentiate layers or depots within tissues and cells is enhancing our understanding of distinct mechanistic, metabolic, and functional roles of body composition within human phenotypes. In this review, we focus on advances in imaging technologies that show great promise for future investigation of human body composition and how they are being used to address the pandemic of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Training affects muscle phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Wu, B J; Willer, Mette

    2001-01-01

    on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in humans. Seven male subjects performed endurance training of the knee extensors of one leg for 4 wk. The other leg served as a control. Before, after 4 days, and after 4 wk, muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis. After 4 wk......, the phospholipid fatty acid contents of oleic acid 18:1(n-9) and docosahexaenoic acid 22:6(n-3) were significantly higher in the trained (10.9 +/- 0.5% and 3.2 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) than the untrained leg (8.8 +/- 0.5% and 2.6 +/- 0.4%, P fatty acids...... was significantly lower in the trained (11.1 +/- 0.9) than the untrained leg (13.1 +/- 1.2, P fatty acid composition. Citrate synthase activity was increased by 17% in the trained compared with the untrained leg (P

  10. Secular changes in body size and body composition in schoolchildren from La Plata City (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarey, Luis Manuel; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Torres, María Fernanda; Cesani, María Florencia; Luis, María Antonia; Quintero, Fabián Aníbal; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the secular changes in body size and composition of two cohorts of children from La Plata City, Argentina, with a 35-year follow-up. subjects and methods: Cohort 1 (C1) was measured in 1969-1970 and included 1772 children (889 boys, 883 girls), and Cohort 2 (C2), measured in 2004-2005, included 1059 children (542 boys, 517 girls). Both cohorts were obtained from matching geographical areas and comprised children from 4 to 12 years. Body weight (W); Height (H); Upper arm circumference (UAC); Tricipital (TS) and Subscapular skinfolds (SS) were measured, and Body Mass Index (BMI) and muscle (UMA) and fat (AFA) brachial areas were calculated. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was estimated by IOTF. To compare C1-C2 we used a generalized linear model with log-transformed variables, and chi square test. There were significant and positive differences between C2-C1 in W, UAC, SS, TS, and AFA. In contrast, H was not significantly different and UMA was significantly different but with negative values. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.5% and 3.8% in C1, and 17.0% and 6.8% in C2. Differences between cohorts were significant for obesity. The shifts observed for soft tissues--positive trend for fat and negative for muscle area--occurring without changes in height lead us to suppose that in these three decades, La Plata's population has experienced deterioration in living conditions and important changes in their lifestyle, such as an increased consumption of energy-dense foods and sedentary habits.

  11. Feasibility of MR-Based Body Composition Analysis in Large Scale Population Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne West

    Full Text Available Quantitative and accurate measurements of fat and muscle in the body are important for prevention and diagnosis of diseases related to obesity and muscle degeneration. Manually segmenting muscle and fat compartments in MR body-images is laborious and time-consuming, hindering implementation in large cohorts. In the present study, the feasibility and success-rate of a Dixon-based MR scan followed by an intensity-normalised, non-rigid, multi-atlas based segmentation was investigated in a cohort of 3,000 subjects.3,000 participants in the in-depth phenotyping arm of the UK Biobank imaging study underwent a comprehensive MR examination. All subjects were scanned using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with the dual-echo Dixon Vibe protocol, covering neck to knees. Subjects were scanned with six slabs in supine position, without localizer. Automated body composition analysis was performed using the AMRA Profiler™ system, to segment and quantify visceral adipose tissue (VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT and thigh muscles. Technical quality assurance was performed and a standard set of acceptance/rejection criteria was established. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all volume measurements and quality assurance metrics.Of the 3,000 subjects, 2,995 (99.83% were analysable for body fat, 2,828 (94.27% were analysable when body fat and one thigh was included, and 2,775 (92.50% were fully analysable for body fat and both thigh muscles. Reasons for not being able to analyse datasets were mainly due to missing slabs in the acquisition, or patient positioned so that large parts of the volume was outside of the field-of-view.In conclusion, this study showed that the rapid UK Biobank MR-protocol was well tolerated by most subjects and sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource.

  12. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Tatiane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9-17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1-5 were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear regression. The propulsive force of the arm was correlated with body height (r = 0.34; p =0.013, arm span (r = 0.29; p =0.042, sitting height (r = 0.36; p =0.009, % body fat (r = 0.33; p =0.016, lean body mass (r = 0.34; p =0.015 and arm muscle area (r = 0.31; p =0.026. Using multiple linear regression models, the percent body fat and height were identified as significant predictors of the propulsive force of the arm after controlling for the maturation stage. This model explained 22% (R2 = 0.22 of associations. In conclusion, the propulsive force of swimmers was related to body height and percent body fat

  13. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Arne; Baeksgaard, L; Hilsted, J

    1997-01-01

    , which depends on the current-absorber thickness. With this system we found a good agreement (r = 0.99) between reference and measured amounts of tissue or fat percentages in a plastic phantom and in smaller (approximately 0.5-4 kg) and larger (approximately 5-20 kg) piles of tissue (ox muscle and lard...... filtration) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis. It has a potential for gaining status as a reference method in the future and may presently be used as a supplement to the traditional methods for body composition analysis....

  14. In vivo determination of body composition of rats using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H; Vasselli, J; Wu, E; Gallagher, D

    2000-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has potential as an instrument to measure body composition because it can discriminate various soft tissues in vivo. These soft tissues include adipose tissue, muscle, organs, and brain. We report on preliminary studies using a 4.2-tesla MRI for measuring body composition in the mouse and rat. We employed image segmentation methods that include an image correction method, a necessary requirement when the images are taken in the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency (RF) coil response. The software for 3-D data segmentation, quantification, correction, image manipulation, and visualization has been developed as a research tool. This method currently is being validated.

  15. Effects of 28 days of resistance exercise while consuming commercially available pre- and post-workout supplements, NO-Shotgun® and NO-Synthesize® on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of protein synthesis, and clinical safety markers in males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spillane Mike

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The effects of 28 days of heavy resistance training while ingesting the pre- and post-workout supplements, NO-Shotgun® and NO-Synthesize® were determined on body composition, muscle strength and mass, markers of protein synthesis, and clinical safety markers. Methods Nineteen non-resistance-trained males participated in a resistance training program 4 times/week for 28 days while either ingesting 27 g/day of carbohydrate (CARB or NO-Shotgun® 30 min pre-exercise and 27 g/day of carbohydrate or NO- Synthesize® 30 min post-exercise (NOSS. Data were analyzed with separate 2 × 2 ANOVA (p Results Total body mass was increased in both groups (p = 0.001, but not different between groups. Fat mass was unchanged with CARB, but NOSS decreased fat mass (p = 0.026. Both groups increased fat-free mass (p = 0.001; however, the increases were greater with NOSS (p = 0.023. NOSS underwent greater increases in upper-body (p = 0.023 and lower-body (p = 0.035 strength than CARB. Myofibrillar protein significantly increased in both groups (p = 0.041, with NOSS being greater than CARB (p = 0.049. All of the MHC isoforms were significantly increased in both groups; however, NOSS was greater than CARB for MHC 1 (p = 0.013 and MHC 2A (p = 0.046. All of the myogenic regulatory factors were significantly increased in both groups; however, NOSS was greater than CARB for Myo-D (p = 0.038 and MRF-4 (p = 0.001. For the whole blood and serum clinical chemistry markers, all variables remained within normal clinical ranges. Conclusions Heavy resistance training for 28 days, with NO-Shotgun® and NO-Synthesize® ingested before and after exercise, respectively, significantly improved body composition and increased muscle mass and performance without abnormally impacting any of the clinical chemistry markers.

  16. Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost-effectiveness, feed utilization and body composition of african sharptooth catfish ( Clarias gariepinus , Burchell 1822) fingerlings fed locally formulated and commercial pelleted diets in tarpaulin tanks.

  17. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  18. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  19. BODY COMPOSITION AND MORTALITY IN PREVALENT HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS: HEMO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Filipowicz, Rebecca; Greene, Tom H.; Wei, Guo; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Both higher body size (as indicated by body mass index- BMI) and higher muscle mass (as indicated by serum creatinine- (SCr)) are associated with better survival in HD patients (pts) but the relative importance of muscle vs. body size is not established. In the current study, the associations of SCr, BMI and the ratio of Scr to BMI with time to death were examined in Cox proportional hazards models using HEMO study data. Details of HEMO Study have been published elsewhere. In the current stud...

  20. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou): effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Duclos, Elisa; Michelotti, Angela; Bizzaro, Gioia; Negro, Massimo; Soisson, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs) have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro(®), obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m(2) ≤ BMIBody composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips) and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  1. Baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity after carotid body tumor resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Henri J. L. M.; Karemaker, John M.; Wieling, Wouter; Marres, Henri A. M.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.

    2003-01-01

    Bilateral carotid body tumor resection causes a permanent attenuation of vagal baroreflex sensitivity. We retrospectively examined the effects of bilateral carotid body tumor resection on the baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve traffic. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity was recorded in 5

  2. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan AS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice S Ryan, Aruna Selina Harduarsingh-Permaul Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Baltimore Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, and Research and Development Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods: The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX plus WL (AEX+WL, on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (to measure trunk fat and lean mass and computed tomography (CT (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years. Results: The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05. Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max (P<0.05. Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001. The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001. The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 and by 12% after WL (P<0.001. When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01, by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01, by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001, and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05. The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions: A lifestyle

  3. Body weight, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese Zucker rats fed soybean oil or butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Valérie; Roseau, Suzanne; Fromentin, Gilles; Nicolaidis, Stylianos; Tomé, Daniel; Even, Patrick C

    2002-01-01

    Dietary fat composition is thought to affect body weight regulation independent of the amount of fat ingested. We analyzed the feeding behavior, body weight gain, body composition, and energy metabolism in lean and obese rats fed a diet in which fat was in the form of either butter or soybean oil. Ten lean (Fa/?) and 10 obese (fa/fa) adult Zucker rats were divided into 4 groups according to a 2 x 2 experimental design. They were fed a normally balanced diet over 11 wk in which 30% of energy was either soybean oil or butter. Food intake, body weight gain, and body composition were measured. Indirect calorimetry was used to study energy metabolism at rest and in relation to feeding and activity. Food intake increased similarly in lean and obese rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain increased in obese rats and decreased in lean rats after butter feeding. Body weight gain in obese rats was due mainly to an increase in the weight of lean tissues besides muscle, whereas adiposity and distribution of fat between the various pads did not change. Resting metabolic rates and postprandial lipid oxidation increased in butter-fed obese rats. Lipid oxidation during exercise was not significantly different between obese and lean rats. Fat oxidation increased in butter-fed lean rats during treadmill running at moderate intensity. In obese rats, basal metabolism and postprandial lipid oxidation increased during butter feeding, which appeared to prevent fat accumulation in the long term. In lean rats, butter feeding favored lipid utilization by working muscles, an observation that deserves further investigation in terms of endurance and performance.

  4. An interrelation of physical working capacity and body component composition indicators of amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Result: in amateur athletes, the relative VO2max and power ratings are positively correlated with the relative body water content and have a negative relationship with age, body weight, body mass index, fat content. Oxygen pulse with a high degree of probability positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, metabolic rate, fat-free mass, water content and predictable muscle mass in all body segments. Conclusion: Conducted studies indicate a sufficient level of aerobic capacity, overall performance, the efficiency of the cardiac cycle, the functioning of the О2-transport system and skeletal muscles ability to absorb oxygen from the amateur athletes, and excess fat tissue negatively affects physical performance, overall endurance and achieving high sports results in sports on the endurance.

  5. Effect of dietary lipid levels on body compositions, digestive ability and antioxidant parameters of common carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinhui; Fan, Ze; Chen, Chunxiu; Li, Jinghui; Cheng, Zhenyan; Li, Yang; Qiao, Xiuting

    2017-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary lipid level on body composition, and digestive ability of common carp with initial average weight (36.12 ± 1.18)g. Five experimental diets with increasing lipid levels of 2.1%, 4.0%, 5.8%, 7.6%, 9.4% were fed to triplicate groups of fish for 9 weeks. The results showed that lipid content of whole body and muscle increased in parallel with the increase of dietary lipid levels. Protein content of muscle decreased with the increase of dietary lipid levels, and the lowest muscle protein content was observed in fish fed 9.4% lipid diet. Lipaseactivity was significantly affected by dietary lipid levels in hepatopancreas andintestine (P level group was significantly higher than others inhepatopancreas (P 0.05). The results suggested that the most excellentdigestive ability and antioxidant parameters were obtained at 7.6% lipid level group.

  6. Body composition by computed tomography as a predictor of toxicity in patients with renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cushen, Samantha J

    2014-04-21

    Sunitinib is a standard first-line option for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Body composition is a prognostic factor in cancer patients and patients with loss of skeletal muscle mass and fat-free mass (FFM) are prone to dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during targeted drug therapy. We investigated whether body composition by computed tomography predicted DLT from sunitinib in mRCC.

  7. The Body Action Coding System I : Muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis In 't Veld, E.M.J.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.; de Gelder, B.

    2014-01-01

    Body postures provide clear signals about emotional expressions, but so far it is not clear what muscle patterns are associated with specific emotions. This study lays the groundwork for a Body Action Coding System by investigating what combinations of muscles are used for emotional bodily

  8. Effects of a Deca Iron Triathlon on body composition: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Knechtle, P; Schück, R; Andonie, J L; Kohler, G

    2008-04-01

    We investigated energy balance and change of body composition in one athlete in a multistage triathlon, the World Challenge Deca Iron Triathlon 2006, where athletes had to perform one Ironman triathlon of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42.195 km running per day for ten consecutive days. In one well-experienced male ultra-endurance triathlete, we measured body mass, skinfold thicknesses and perimeters of extremities, in order to calculate skeletal muscle mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat. Energy intake was measured by analysis of nutrition, and energy expenditure was calculated using a portable heart rate monitor. This was performed to quantify energy deficit. In addition, bio-impedance measurements were performed to determine fluid metabolism. The athlete finished the race in 128 hours, 22 minutes and 42 seconds in 3rd position. Body mass decreased by 1 kilogram, skeletal muscle mass decreased by 0.9 kilograms and calculated fat mass decreased by 0.8 kilograms. Total body water increased by 2.8 liters. Total energy expenditure for the Deca Iron was 89,112 kilocalories and a total energy deficit of 11,480 kilocalories resulted. We presume that energy deficit was covered by consumption of adipose subcutaneous tissue as well as skeletal muscle mass; the degradation of muscle mass seems to lead to hypoproteinemic edemas.

  9. Changes in physical fitness and body composition according to the physical activities of Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minsoo; Kim, Ji-Youn

    2017-10-01

    This study comparatively analyzed obesity, lean balance, and physical fitness related to growth and development in female middle school students to investigate the importance of regular physical activity on body composition and physical fitness in adolescence. The subjects were 31 elementary school students in grades 5-6 in Seoul, consisting of 16 students in the regularly active group and 15 students in the inactive group. Body composition and physical fitness factors were measured. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and fat-free mass were measured using Inbody 3.0. Physical fitness factors such as muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (situps), flexibility (body flexion), agility (side stepping), and lean balance (balancing with eyes closed), were measured as described herein. The results of comparing the two groups' obesity-related body composition, the weight ( P <0.001), body fat mass ( P <0.001), BMI ( P <0.002), and % body fat ( P <0.033) were significantly higher in the inactive group compared to the physically active group. Comparison of lean balance was there was a significant difference in muscle mass between the left and right Arm ( P <0.001), left and right leg ( P <0.002) in the inactive group. comparing physical fitness between groups was trunk flexion ( P <0.001) and side stepping ( P <0.001) were higher in the physically active than the inactive group. This study found significant differences in weight, body fat, BMI, flexibility, and side stepping between the physically active and inactive groups, which may negatively affect health indicators related to adolescents' growth, development, and obesity. Therefore, attempts to promote physical activity in growing adolescents are crucial.

  10. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke J. Connolly

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Short duration soccer training for 16 weeks appears to be sufficient to induce favourable changes in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women.

  11. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  12. Nutrient Requirements, Body Composition, and Health of Military Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    .... As pan of the Defense Women's Health Research Program, a new report from the Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women of the Institute of the Institute of Medicine examines issues of body composition, fitness, and appearance standards and their impact on the health, nutritional status, and performance of active-duty women.

  13. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  14. Whole-body vibration augments resistance training effects on body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Cecilie; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Michael G; Bemben, Debra A

    2009-05-20

    Age-related changes in body composition are well-documented with a decrease in lean body mass and a redistribution of body fat generally observed. Resistance training alone has been shown to have positive effects on body composition, however, these benefits may be enhanced by the addition of a vibration stimulus. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 8 months of resistance training with and without whole-body vibration (WBV) on body composition in sedentary postmenopausal women. Fifty-five women were assigned to resistance only (RG, n=22), vibration plus resistance (VR, n=21) or non-exercising control (CG, n=12) groups. Resistance training (3 sets 10 repetitions 80% strength) was performed using isotonic weight training equipment and whole-body vibration was done with the use of the power plate (Northbrooke, IL) vibration platform for three times per week for 8 months. Total and regional body composition was assessed from the total body DXA scans at baseline (pre) and after 8 months (post) of training. In the VR group, total % body fat decreased from pre- to post-time points (pbody fat (ptraining groups exhibited significant increases in bone free lean tissue mass for the total body, arm and trunk regions from pre to post (ptraining alone and with whole-body vibration resulted in positive body composition changes by increasing lean tissue. However, only the combination of resistance training and whole-body vibration was effective for decreasing percent body fat.

  15. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    of contemporary Danish children. We did find the “classical” height velocity peak during spring, but unlike many earlier studies this was coincident with peaks in BW, BMI and FFMI velocities. Seasonal variation in physical activity may explain seasonal variations in BW and body composition velocities. Taken......Growth and body composition in childhood are influenced by many factors. Some of these are modifiable e.g. dietary intake, while others may be less easy to influence. The hormonal regulation of growth and body composition during childhood is complex and the interrelationship between the numerous...... growth or remodeling. Seasonal variations in growth and changes in body composition, if present, are of interest when trying to understand the regulation of growth. They may also be important to be aware of when assessing growth and body composition during shorter periods of time. The overall aim...

  17. Neonatal body proportionality and body composition after in utero exposure to cocaine and marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, D A; Bauchner, H; Parker, S; Huber, A M; Kyei-Aboagye, K; Cabral, H; Zuckerman, B

    1990-10-01

    The relationship of maternal use of marijuana and cocaine during pregnancy to measures of neonatal body proportionality and body composition was assessed in a multiethnic sample of 1082 newborn infants. Maternal use of marijuana and cocaine during pregnancy was ascertained by self-report and by an enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique for screening of urine samples obtained prenatally and again post partum. After each substance was analytically controlled for use of the other and for other potentially confounding variables, detection of marijuana metabolites in maternal urine was associated (p less than 0.05) with depressed mean arm muscle circumference and nonfat area of the arm but not with any measure of neonatal fatness. In contrast, detection of cocaine in maternal urine was associated (p less than 0.05) with decrements of subscapular fat folds and of the fat and nonfat areas of the arm. Although both substances were associated with depressed birth weight, there was no decrement of neonatal ponderal index or of the arm circumference/head circumference ratio in association with exposure to either substance. We conclude that both marijuana exposure and cocaine exposure during pregnancy are associated with symmetric intrauterine growth retardation, but that deficits are in differing compartments of intrauterine growth. These findings suggest that marijuana may retard fetal growth through maternal-fetal hypoxia, whereas cocaine may alter nutrient transfer to the fetus and fetal metabolism.

  18. Body composition of Fanconi anemia patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Priscilla Peixoto Policarpo da; Schmit, Daniella; Bonfim, Carmem; Campos, Denise Johnsson; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Vilela, Regina Maria

    Fanconi anemia is a rare genetic disease linked to bone marrow failure; a possible treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Changes in the nutritional status of Fanconi anemia patients are not very well known. This study aimed to characterize body composition of adult, children and adolescent patients with Fanconi anemia who were submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or not. This cross-sectional study enrolled 63 patients (29 adults and 34 children and adolescents). Body composition was assessed based on diverse methods, including triceps skin fold, arm circumference, arm muscle area and bioelectrical impedance analysis, as there is no established consensus for this population. Body mass index was also considered as reference according to age. Almost half (48.3%) of the transplanted adult patients were underweight considering body mass index whereas eutrophic status was observed in 66.7% of the children and adolescents submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and in 80% of those who were not. At least 50% of all groups displayed muscle mass depletion. Half of the transplanted children and adolescents presented short/very short stature for age. All patients presented low muscle stores, underweight was common in adults, and short stature was common in children and adolescents. More studies are needed to detect whether muscle mass loss measured at the early stages of treatment results in higher risk of mortality, considering the importance of muscle mass as an essential body component to prevent mortality related to infectious and non-infectious diseases and the malnutrition inherent to Fanconi anemia. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Differential effects of raloxifene and estrogen on body composition in growth hormone-replaced hypopituitary women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Birzniece, Vita

    2012-03-01

    GH deficiency causes reduction in muscle and bone mass and an increase in fat mass (FM), the changes reversed by GH replacement. The beneficial effects of GH on fat oxidation and protein anabolism are attenuated more markedly by raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, compared with 17β-estradiol. Whether this translates to a long-term detrimental effect on body composition is unknown.

  20. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  1. Body composition changes in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Aging or disease process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Wen; Lin, Chieh-Mo; Li, Hung-Chou; Hsiao, Pei-Lin; Chung, An-Chi; Hsieh, Chu-Jung; Wu, Pi-Chi; Hsu, Shu-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly affects middle-age and elderly adults. It is unclear if the presence of muscle wasting and fat accumulation in patients with COPD is age or disease-related. This study investigated the effect of age and COPD disease severity on body composition with the aim of identifying a biomarker(s) for COPD. Healthy subjects and patients with COPD of different severity were recruited. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze total and segmental body composition. Subjects included in the analysis were classified into four groups: healthy young (aged 20-45 years) (n = 35), healthy old (aged ≥ 60 years) (n = 37), moderate COPD (n = 40), and severe COPD (n = 14). In healthy old adults, leg and limb lean masses were lower by 10.6% and 8.5%, respectively, compared with healthy young adults (P changes in total and segmental body composition with aging and COPD severity. It found that aging and COPD altered the body composition differently, and the effect was most pronounced in leg lean mass. Remarkably, differences in appendicular lean masses were seen in mild COPD although no changes in body weight or BMI were apparent compared with healthy young adults. In contrast, fat depot changes were only observed in severe COPD. Aging and COPD processes are multifactorial and additional longitudinal studies are required to explore both the quantitative and qualitative changes in body composition with aging and disease process.

  2. Are the size and composition of the paraspinal muscles associated with low back pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranger, Tom A.; Cicuttini, Flavia M.; Jensen, Tue S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Context Although previous studies have investigated the association between paraspinal muscle morphology and low back pain (LBP), the results are conflicting. Purpose This systematic review examined the relationship between size and composition of the paraspinal muscles and LBP. Study ...

  3. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, M W

    2000-03-01

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting and fuelling. Four knots flew repeatedly for 10 h periods in a wind tunnel. Over this period, pectoral muscle thickness decreased in parallel with the decrease in body mass. The change in pectoral muscle thickness during flight was indistinguishable from that during periods of natural and experimental fasting and fuelling. The body-mass-related variation in pectoral muscle thickness between and within individuals was not related to the amount of flight, indicating that changes in avian muscle do not require power-training as in mammals. Our study suggests that it is possible for birds to consume and replace their flight muscles on a time scale short enough to allow these muscles to be used as part of the energy supply for migratory flight. The adaptive significance of the changes in pectoral muscle mass cannot be explained by reproductive needs since our knots were in the early winter phase of their annual cycle. Instead, pectoral muscle mass changes may reflect (i) the breakdown of protein during heavy exercise and its subsequent restoration, (ii) the regulation of flight capacity to maintain optimal flight performance when body mass varies, or (iii) the need for a particular protein:fat ratio in winter survival stores.

  4. Influence of maturation on anthropometry and body composition in Japanese junior high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine maturity-related differences in anthropometry and body composition in Japanese youth within a single year. Methods Two hundred and ten Japanese youth aged from 13 to 13.99 years participated in this study. Their maturity status was assessed using a self-assessment of stage of pubic hair development. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to estimate percent body fat and lean body mass (LBM). Muscle thickness of the anterior thigh, posterior lower leg and rectus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasound. Results For boys, height, body weight, and LBM in less mature groups were lower than that in more mature groups. The maturity-related differences were still significant after adjusting for chronological age. On the other hand, muscle thickness values in the lower extremity and abdomen differed among the groups at different stages of pubic hair development, whereas there was no maturity-related difference in the relative values corrected by LBM, except for those thickness values measured at the abdomen. For girls, only the muscle thickness at the anterior thigh and muscle thickness relative to LBM1/3 at the posterior lower leg was significantly affected by maturity status, but significant maturity-related difference was not found after adjusting for chronological age. Conclusions At least for Japanese boys and girls aged 13 years, maturity status affected body size in boys, but not in girls, and the influence of maturation on the muscularity of the lower extremity and trunk muscles is less in both sexes. PMID:23497570

  5. Comparison of the body compositions in obese and nonobese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-01

    Mar 1, 2016 ... cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Learning the health risks can motivate losing weight. Multicentered studies can be illuminating different cultural factors about obesity. Key words: Body composition, body fat distribution, body mass index, obesity, weight loss. Date of Acceptance: 01‑Mar‑ ...

  6. Differences in body composition and prevalence for postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence rate for postural deviations and body composition status among two racial groups in South Africa. The sample (n = 216) consisted of 89 African girls and 127 Caucasian girls. Anthropometric (BMI and percentage body fat) and body posture measurements were performed.

  7. Dosage of estradiol, bone and body composition in Turner syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleemann, Line; Holm, Kirsten; Kobbernagel, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is seen in Turner syndrome (TS) with an increased risk of fractures, and body composition is characterized by increased body fat and decreased lean body mass. To evaluate the effect of two different doses of oral 17ß-estradiol in young TS women on bone...

  8. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.

  9. Gluteal muscle composition differentiates fallers from non-fallers in community dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Inacio, Mario; Ryan, Alice S; Bair, Woei-Nan; Prettyman, Michelle; Beamer, Brock A; Rogers, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired balance, loss of mobility and falls are major problems associated with changes in muscle in older adults. However, the extent to which muscle composition and related performance measures for different lower limb muscles are associated with falls in older individuals is unclear. This study evaluated lower limb muscle attenuation, intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) infiltration and muscle performance in older fallers and non-fallers. Methods For this cross-sectional study, ...

  10. Gluteal muscle composition differentiates fallers from non-fallers in community dwelling older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Impaired balance, loss of mobility and falls are major problems associated with changes in muscle in older adults. However, the extent to which muscle composition and related performance measures for different lower limb muscles are associated with falls in older individuals is unclear. This study evaluated lower limb muscle attenuation, intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) infiltration and muscle performance in older fallers and non-fallers. Methods For this cross-sectional study, fifty-eight community dwelling older individuals (>65 years) were classified into fallers (n = 15) or non-fallers (n = 43). Computed tomography (CT) was used to determine muscle attenuation and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of multiple thigh and hip muscles. Muscle performance was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry. Results For both groups, Rectus Femoris showed the highest muscle attenuation and lowest IMAT infiltration, and Gluteus Maximus and Gluteus Medius/Minimus muscles had the lowest muscle attenuation and highest IMAT infiltration. Fallers exhibited lower muscle attenuation and higher IMAT infiltration than non-faller participants in most muscles, where the gluteal muscles were the most affected (p Gluteus Medius/Minimus and hip abduction strength. Conclusions While fallers were generally differentiated from non-fallers by muscle composition, the most affected muscles were the proximal gluteal muscles of the hip joint accompanied by lower hip abduction strength, which may contribute to impaired balance function and increased risk for falls. PMID:24666603

  11. Gluteal muscle composition differentiates fallers from non-fallers in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inacio, Mario; Ryan, Alice S; Bair, Woei-Nan; Prettyman, Michelle; Beamer, Brock A; Rogers, Mark W

    2014-03-25

    Impaired balance, loss of mobility and falls are major problems associated with changes in muscle in older adults. However, the extent to which muscle composition and related performance measures for different lower limb muscles are associated with falls in older individuals is unclear. This study evaluated lower limb muscle attenuation, intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) infiltration and muscle performance in older fallers and non-fallers. For this cross-sectional study, fifty-eight community dwelling older individuals (>65 years) were classified into fallers (n = 15) or non-fallers (n = 43). Computed tomography (CT) was used to determine muscle attenuation and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of multiple thigh and hip muscles. Muscle performance was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry. For both groups, Rectus Femoris showed the highest muscle attenuation and lowest IMAT infiltration, and Gluteus Maximus and Gluteus Medius/Minimus muscles had the lowest muscle attenuation and highest IMAT infiltration. Fallers exhibited lower muscle attenuation and higher IMAT infiltration than non-faller participants in most muscles, where the gluteal muscles were the most affected (p abduction torque (p Gluteus Medius/Minimus and hip abduction strength. While fallers were generally differentiated from non-fallers by muscle composition, the most affected muscles were the proximal gluteal muscles of the hip joint accompanied by lower hip abduction strength, which may contribute to impaired balance function and increased risk for falls.

  12. Body composition changes in pregnancy: measurement, predictors and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, EM; Gallagher, D

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of overweight and obesity has risen in the United States over the past few decades. Concurrent with this rise in obesity has been an increase in pregravid body mass index and gestational weight gain affecting maternal body composition changes in pregnancy. During pregnancy, many of the assumptions inherent in body composition estimation are violated, particularly the hydration of fat-free mass, and available methods are unable to disentangle maternal composition from fetus and supporting tissues; therefore, estimates of maternal body composition during pregnancy are prone to error. Here we review commonly used and available methods for assessing body composition changes in pregnancy, including: (1) anthropometry, (2) total body water, (3) densitometry, (4) imaging, (5) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, (6) bioelectrical impedance and (7) ultrasound. Several of these methods can measure regional changes in adipose tissue; however, most of these methods provide only whole-body estimates of fat and fat-free mass. Consideration is given to factors that may influence changes in maternal body composition, as well as long-term maternal and offspring outcomes. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research in this area. PMID:24667754

  13. Assessment of gender differences in body composition and physical fitness scoring in Saudi adults by bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dokhi, Laila; Habib, Syed Shahid

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is a global problem that is reaching epidemic proportions. Body composition is an important parameter for humans because previous studies indicate high values of body fat as a predictor of mortality. The aim of the study was to assess gender differences in body composition and physical fitness in Saudi adult population. This epidemiological cross-sectional study included 411 healthy adult Saudi subjects aged 18-72 years (mean +/- SD, 36.91 +/- 15.22). All participants underwent body composition analysis. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, with a commercially available body analyzer (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). Measurements included body weight, body mass index (BMI), percent body fat, target weight, fat control, muscle control and fitness scoring based on target values. The mean BMI of the whole study population was 27.22 +/- 5.65 (median = 26.80, range = 15.6-55.4). The mean fitness score was 69.3 +/- 8.48 (median = 71.0, range = 29-99). Significant gender differences were observed in BMI, fitness score, percent body fat, and other parameters of body composition. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity, percent body fat (%BF) and poor fitness is high in Saudi population with significant gender differences. In this regard, public awareness programs including exercise and diet teaching are required at large scale to cope up with the growing burden of obesity.

  14. Non-invasive techniques for determining musculoskeleton body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation analysis, combined with gamma spectrometry, has ushered in a new era of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of therapies, as well as investigation into and modelling of body composition in both normal individuals and patients suffering from various diseases and dysfunctions. Body composition studies have provided baseline data on such vital constituents as nitrogen, potassium and calcium. The non-invasive measurement techniques are particularly suitable for study of the musculo-skeletal changes in body composition. Of particular relevance here is the measurement of calcium loss in astronauts during prolonged space flights

  15. Glycogen synthesis in human gastrocnemius muscle is not representative of whole-body muscle glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, Mireille J. M.; de Haan, Jacco H.; Tack, Cees J.; Verberne, Hein J.; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Heerschap, Arend; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of C-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Conclusions based on measurements by the MRS technique assume that glucose metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle is representative for all skeletal muscles and thus

  16. Glycogen synthesis in human gastrocnemius muscle is not representative of whole-body muscle glycogen synthesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serlie, M.J.; Haan, J.H.A. de; Tack, C.J.J.; Verberne, H.J.; Ackermans, M.T.; Heerschap, A.; Sauerwein, H.P.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has enabled noninvasive measurement of muscle glycogen synthesis in humans. Conclusions based on measurements by the MRS technique assume that glucose metabolism in gastrocnemius muscle is representative for all skeletal muscles and thus

  17. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Secomb, Josh L.; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R.L.; Lundgren, Lina E.; Tran, Tai T.; Sheppard, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isome...

  18. It is not just muscle mass: a review of muscle quality, composition and metabolism during ageing as determinants of muscle function and mobility in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Robin A; Cameron-Smith, David; Poppitt, Sally D

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide estimates predict 2 billion people will be aged over 65 years by 2050. A major current challenge is maintaining mobility and quality of life into old age. Impaired mobility is often a precursor of functional decline, disability and loss of independence. Sarcopenia which represents the age-related decline in muscle mass is a well-established factor associated with mobility limitations in older adults. However, there is now evidence that not only changes in muscle mass but other factors underpinning muscle quality including composition, metabolism, aerobic capacity, insulin resistance, fat infiltration, fibrosis and neural activation may also play a role in the decline in muscle function and impaired mobility associated with ageing. Importantly, changes in muscle quality may precede loss of muscle mass and therefore provide new opportunities for the assessment of muscle quality particularly in middle-aged adults who could benefit from interventions to improve muscle function. This review will discuss the accumulating evidence that in addition to muscle mass, factors underpinning muscle quality influence muscle function and mobility with age. Further development of tools to assess muscle quality in community settings is needed. Preventative diet, exercise or treatment interventions particularly in middle-aged adults at the low end of the spectrum of muscle function may help preserve mobility in later years and improve healthspan.

  19. Comparative Study of Anthropometric Measurement and Body Composition between Elite Handball and Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldijana Muratovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric characteristics and body composition of elite handball and basketball players as well as to make comparisons between them. Fifty-nine males were enrolled in the study, divided into three groups: fifteen handball players, fourteen basketball players and thirty healthy sedentary subjects. The descriptive statistics were expressed as a mean (SD for each variable, while the ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc tests were carried out to detect the effects of each type of sport. The results showed there was no significant difference in body mass index among the groups, while a significant difference was found for body height and body weight as well as for all three of the body contents measured (muscle, bone and fat among the groups. These findings may give coaches from the region better working knowledge and suggest to them to follow recent selection process methods and to be more careful during the recruitment.

  20. Can Basic Characteristics Estimate Body Composition in Early Infancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Bracco, Beatrice; Menis, Camilla; Morniroli, Daniela; Perrone, Michela; Giannì, Maria L; Mosca, Fabio

    2018-03-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that body composition in early life contributes to the programming of health later in life in both full-term and preterm infants. Given the important role of body composition, the increased availability of easy, noninvasive, and accurate techniques for its assessment has been recommended. The aim of the present study was to identify basic characteristics and anthropometric measurements that best correlate with body composition in infants. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessed by air-displacement plethysmography were assessed either at birth or at term-corrected age in 1239 infants (654 full-term, 585 preterm). The associations of sex, GA (gestational age), and weight with FFM (fat-free mass) and FM (fat mass) adjusted by length (g/cm) were investigated by multiple linear regression models. Bland-Altman tests were performed, and an equation for calculating FFM was determined. Preterm infants exhibited increased FM and reduced FFM compared with full-term infants (477.6 ± 204 vs 259.7 ± 147 g and 2583 ± 494 vs 2770 ± 364 g, respectively). GA, male sex, and weight were positively associated with FFM (r = 0.806, P composition represents the criterion standard. When body composition assessment is not feasible, the equation based on sex, GA, and anthropometric measurements can be useful in predicting body composition in both full-term and preterm infants.

  1. Toward body composition reference data for infants, children, and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2014-05-01

    Growth charts for weight and height have provided the basis for assessment of children's nutritional status for over half a century, with charts for body mass index (BMI) introduced in the 1990s. However, BMI does not provide information on the proportions of fat and lean mass; and within the past decade, growth charts for children's body composition have been produced by using techniques such as skinfold thicknesses, body circumferences, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For public health research, BIA and skinfold thicknesses show negligible average bias but have wider limits of agreement than specialized techniques. For patients, DXA is the best individual method, but multicomponent models remain ideal because they address perturbations in lean mass composition. Data can be expressed in age- and sex-specific SD scores, in some cases adjusting for height. Most such reference data derive from high-income countries, but techniques such as air-displacement plethysmography allow infant body composition growth charts to be developed in low- and middle-income settings, where the data may improve understanding of the effects of low birth weight, wasting, and stunting on body composition. Recent studies suggest that between-population variability in body composition may derive in part from genetic factors, suggesting a universal human body composition reference may not be viable. Body composition growth charts may be extended into adult life to evaluate changes in fat and lean mass through the entire life course. These reference data will improve the understanding of the association between growth, body composition, health, and disease. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Quantitative CT: Associations between Emphysema, Airway Wall Thickness and Body Composition in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutten, Erica P A; Grydeland, Thomas B; Pillai, Sreekumar G

    2011-01-01

    , CT scans were performed to determine emphysema (%LAA), airway wall thickness (AWT-Pi10), and lung mass. Muscle wasting based on FFMI was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. In both the men and women with COPD, FFMI was negatively associated with %LAA. FMI was positively associated with AWT-Pi10......The objective of the present study was to determine the association between CT phenotypes-emphysema by low attenuation area and bronchitis by airway wall thickness-and body composition parameters in a large cohort of subjects with and without COPD. In 452 COPD subjects and 459 subjects without COPD...... in both subjects with and without COPD. Among the subjects with muscle wasting, the percentage emphysema was high, but the predictive value was moderate. In conclusion, the present study strengthens the hypothesis that the subgroup of COPD cases with muscle wasting have emphysema. Airway wall thickness...

  3. Resistance exercise dosage in older adults: single- versus multiset effects on physical performance and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Daniel A; Taaffe, Dennis R

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether variation in resistance exercise volume affects muscle function and physical performance response in older adults. A randomized trial with subjects assigned to a single-set (1-SET) or three-set (3-SET) exercise group. An exercise facility at the University of Queensland. Twenty-eight community-dwelling men and women aged 65 to 78. Progressive resistance training consisting of seven exercises targeting the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body performed on exercise machines twice weekly for 20 weeks at eight-repetition maximum (RM) intensity. Muscle function included isotonic muscle strength (1-RM) of the seven exercises, isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength, and muscle endurance for the chest press and leg press exercises. Physical performance included timed chair rise, usual and fast 6-m walk, 6-m backwards walk, 400-m walk, floor rise to standing, and stair climbing ability. In addition, body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Isotonic muscle strength increased in both exercise groups for all seven exercises (P<.01), with the gain in the 3-SET group greater (P<.05) for the seated row, triceps extension, and knee extension (analysis of covariance). Similarly, muscle endurance gains were greater for the 3-SET than the 1-SET group (P<.01), with no significant difference between groups for isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength. Both groups improved (P<.05) in the chair rise (1-SET, 10.1%; 3-SET, 13.6%), 6-m backwards walk (1-SET, 14.3%; 3-SET, 14.8%), 400-m walk (1-SET, 3.8%; 3-SET, 7.4%), and stair climbing test (1-SET, 7.7%; 3-SET, 6.4%), with the only difference between groups for the 400-m walk (P<.05). There was no difference between groups for change in body composition. Resistance training consisting of only single-set exercises is sufficient to significantly enhance muscle function and physical performance, although muscle strength and endurance gains are greater with higher

  4. Pre- and Postoperative Body Composition and Metabolic Characteristics in Patients with Acromegaly: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the preoperative body composition, metabolic characteristics, and postoperative changes in patients with active acromegaly and analyze the effects of gender and age. Methods. We included 36 patients with untreated acromegaly and 37 patients with nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Adipose tissue (AT, the visceral fat index (VFI, sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, total body water (TBW, intracellular water (ICW, and extracellular water (ECW were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Total energy expenditure (TEE and basal metabolism (BM were measured with a cardiopulmonary and metabolic analyzer (CMA. Tricep skinfold thickness (TST, bicep circumference, waistline, hipline, and calf circumference were measured with a skinfold caliper and tape. These indices were measured before surgery and 3 months and 1 year after surgery. Results. Overall, AT, VFI, and TST were lower, whereas sclerotin, protein, skeletal muscle, TBW, ICW, ECW, TEE, and BM were higher in acromegaly patients. Postoperatively, TST rose initially and then decreased, the waistline increased, and sclerotin, skeletal muscle, TEE, and BM decreased. Changes in these indices differed with gender and age in unique patterns. Conclusions. Body composition and metabolism in acromegaly patients changed after surgery, and gender and age influenced these changes.

  5. Changes in body composition and metabolic profile during interleukin 6 inhibition in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournadre, Anne; Pereira, Bruno; Dutheil, Fréderic; Giraud, Charlotte; Courteix, Daniel; Sapin, Vincent; Frayssac, Thomas; Mathieu, Sylvain; Malochet-Guinamand, Sandrine; Soubrier, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by increased mortality associated with cardiometabolic disorders including dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and cachectic obesity. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors and interleukin 6 receptor blocker licensed for the treatment of RA decrease inflammation and could thus improve cardiovascular risk, but their effects on body composition and metabolic profile need to be clarified. We investigated the effects of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, on body composition and metabolic profile in patients treated for RA. Twenty-one active RA patients treated with TCZ were included in a 1 year open follow-up study. Waist circumference, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting glucose, insulin, serum levels of adipokines and pancreatic/gastrointestinal hormones, and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were measured at baseline and 6 and 12 months of treatment. At baseline, RA patients were compared with 21 non-RA controls matched for age, sex, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Compared with controls, body composition was altered in RA with a decrease in total and appendicular lean mass, whereas fat composition was not modified. Among RA patients, 28.6% had a skeletal muscle mass index below the cut-off point for sarcopaenia (4.8% of controls). After 1 year of treatment with TCZ, there was a significant weight gain without changes for fat mass. In contrast, an increase in lean mass was observed with a significant gain in appendicular lean mass and skeletal muscle mass index between 6 and 12 months. Distribution of the fat was modified with a decrease in trunk/peripheral fat ratio and an increase in subcutaneous adipose tissue. No changes for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and atherogenic index were observed. Despite weight gain during treatment with TCZ, no increase in fat but a modification in fat

  6. Hydrometry and body composition : methods development and validation in athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, Ana Catarina Francisco Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Doutoramento em Motricidade Humana na especialidade de Atividade Física e Saúde It is recognized that an accurate body composition and hydration assessment is relevant for prescribing adequate training and nutritional regimens in highly trained athletes. The present dissertation presents four research studies conducted under the scope of the body composition and hydration methodological research area. An alternative solution to evaluate the extracellular water (ECW) compartment by the dilu...

  7. Relationships among muscle dysmorphia characteristics, body image quality of life, and coping in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, D; Edwards, C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among bodybuilding dependence, muscle satisfaction, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping strategies, and test the hypothesis that muscle dysmorphia characteristics may predict quality of life via coping strategies. Participants (294 males, Mage=20.5 years, SD=3.1) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed questionnaires assessing muscle satisfaction, bodybuilding dependence, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping. Quality of life was correlated positively with muscle satisfaction and bodybuilding dependence but negatively with body image coping (Pbodybuilding dependence and negatively with muscle satisfaction (Pbodybuilding dependence and muscle satisfaction predicted quality of life both directly and indirectly via body image coping strategies (as evidenced by the bias corrected and accelerated bootstrapped confidence intervals). These results provide preliminary evidence regarding the ways that muscularity concerns might influence body image-related quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Body composition assessment by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, Juan Carlos; Restrepo, María Teresa; Estrada, Alejandro

    2007-06-01

    Anthropometry and electric impedance methods are widely used for body composition assessment. However the evidence is unclear whether the results obtained from the two methods can be compared. Two methods are compared for assessment of body composition; anthropometry and electric impedance. Body composition was measured in 70 women; aged 22 to 56 and 53 men; aged 24 to 54, using anthropometry (Durning/Womersley and Jackson/Pollock skinfolds equations) and electric impedance (foot to foot electric impedance) to obtain percentage body fat. The mean percentage body fat was significant higher with Durning/Womersley (25.2%) than Jackson/Pollock (20.1%) and electric impedance (19.3%) for men (pimpedance (27.6%) for women (p0.77) however, the concordance between methods to classify obesity subjects was low (Kbioelectrical impedance method. A significant difference was found between methods applied in men and women, and therefore these methods are not comparable.

  9. Effect of ‘Water Induced Thermogenesis’ on Body Weight, Body Mass Index and Body Composition of Overweight Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Vij, Vinu A.; Joshi, Anjali S.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Drinking lots of water is commonly suggested as a part of weight loss regimens. However, only few systematic studies have addressed this notion. In this study, the effect of drinking 1500 ml of water, over and above the daily water intake on body weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition of overweight subjects was assessed.

  10. Growth performance, body measurements, carcass composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gizzard percentage was significantly greater in males, and heart percentage was significantly greater in females. Due to their high bodyweight, good FCR, and favourable carcass composition, SM3 Heavy male ducks are more useful as broiler duck than females. Keywords: carcasses, digestive system, growth, Pekin duck, ...

  11. Effect of whole-body vibration on muscle strength, spasticity, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marwa M. Ibrahim

    Abstract Background and purpose: Spastic diplegia is a common form of cerebral palsy (CP) and is characterized by spasticity and muscle weakness of both lower limbs resulting in decreased walk- ing ability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) training on muscle strength, ...

  12. Avian pectoral muscle size rapidly tracks body mass changes during flight, fasting and fuelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, A; Kvist, A; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Lindström, Åke

    We used ultrasonic imaging to monitor short-term changes in the pectoral muscle size of captive red knots Calidris canutus. Pectoral muscle thickness changed rapidly and consistently in parallel with body mass changes caused by flight, fasting;and fuelling. Four knots hew repeatedly for 10h periods

  13. Body composition validation technique using anthropometrics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The horizontal bodyweights of the participantsweremeasured inlying positionsusing anadaptation of theGuthri Smith apparatus frame towhich a firmstretcher and two spring balances were attached on a horizontal level position. The heights of the subjects were also taken on supine lying on a firm plinth. The body weight and ...

  14. Bioelectrical Impedance and Body Composition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Mike

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses field tests that can be used in physical education programs. The most common field tests are anthropometric measurements, which include body mass index (BMI), girth measurements, and skinfold testing. Another field test that is gaining popularity is bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Each method has particular strengths…

  15. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets.

  16. Body composition estimation using skinfolds in children with and without health conditions affecting growth and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Danielle; Weber, David; Leonard, Mary B.; Magge, Sheela N.; Kelly, Andrea; Stallings, Virginia A.; Pipan, Mary; Stettler, Nicolas; Zemel, Babette S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Body composition prediction equations using skinfolds are useful alternatives to advanced techniques, but their utility across diverse pediatric populations is unknown. Aim To evaluate published and new prediction equations across diverse samples of children with health conditions affecting growth and body composition. Subjects and Methods Anthropometric and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measures were obtained in children with Down syndrome (n=59), Crohn disease (n=128), steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (n=67), and a healthy reference group (n=835). Published body composition equations were evaluated. New equations were developed for ages 3 to 21y using the healthy reference sample and validated in other groups and national survey data. Results Fat mass [FM], fat-free mass [FFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) from published equations were highly correlated with DXA-derived measures (r=0.71 to 0.98), but with poor agreement (mean difference: 2.4kg, −1.9kg, and 6.3% for FM, FFM and %BF). New equations produced similar correlations (r=0.85 to 1.0) with improved agreement for the reference group (0.2kg, 0.4kg, and 0.0% for FM, FFM and %BF, respectively), and in sub-groups. Conclusions New body composition prediction equations show excellent agreement with DXA, and improve body composition estimation in healthy children and those with selected conditions affecting growth. PMID:27121656

  17. Relationships of 35 lower limb muscles to height and body mass quantified using MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Meyer, Craig H; Hart, Joseph M; Abel, Mark F; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-02-07

    Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body and serves various physiological functions including the generation of movement and support. Whole body motor function requires adequate quantity, geometry, and distribution of muscle. This raises the question: how do muscles scale with subject size in order to achieve similar function across humans? While much of the current knowledge of human muscle architecture is based on cadaver dissection, modern medical imaging avoids limitations of old age, poor health, and limited subject pool, allowing for muscle architecture data to be obtained in vivo from healthy subjects ranging in size. The purpose of this study was to use novel fast-acquisition MRI to quantify volumes and lengths of 35 major lower limb muscles in 24 young, healthy subjects and to determine if muscle size correlates with bone geometry and subject parameters of mass and height. It was found that total lower limb muscle volume scales with mass (R(2)=0.85) and with the height-mass product (R(2)=0.92). Furthermore, individual muscle volumes scale with total muscle volume (median R(2)=0.66), with the height-mass product (median R(2)=0.61), and with mass (median R(2)=0.52). Muscle volume scales with bone volume (R(2)=0.75), and muscle length relative to bone length is conserved (median s.d.=2.1% of limb length). These relationships allow for an arbitrary subject's individual muscle volumes to be estimated from mass or mass and height while muscle lengths may be estimated from limb length. The dataset presented here can further be used as a normative standard to compare populations with musculoskeletal pathologies. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. PHYSIQUE AND BODY COMPOSITION OF GIRLS PRACTISING CONTEMPORARY DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przednowek Karolina H.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Physique and body composition are often explored in sport-related research. This is due to the fact that morphological features can be useful for determining a person’s predispositions for practising a given type of physical activity. Dance, as any other sports discipline, has an impact on the physique and motor skills of those who practise it. Most research concerning the physique and body composition of dancers conducted so far has focused on persons practising ballet or competitive ballroom dancing. Investigating these issues in contemporary dancers is a new field of study. The aim of the current study was to examine the physique and body composition of girls aged 14-17 years practising contemporary dance. Material and methods. The study involved 23 girls who trained contemporary dance twice a week for 2 hours. The participants of the study had been training since the age of six. Basic anthropometric measurements were performed. Body composition was analysed based on parameters measured using a Tanita body composition analyser. Conclusions. The analysis found that girls training contemporary dance were characterised by a leptosomatic physique. BMI values in both younger and older contemporary dancers indicated that their weight was normal. Compared to girls who did not practise any particular type of sport, contemporary dancers had a lower weight, a lower body water percentage, and a lower body fat percentage. The dancers were also characterised by a greater circumference of the waist, hips, arm, and chest compared to untrained peers.

  19. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR, and body composition parameters (BIA as fat tissue (FAT%, fat-free mass (FFM%, predicted muscle mass (PMM%, and total body water (TBW% were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26% moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL and in 11 (18% severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p<0.05 in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD.

  20. Effect of sixteen weeks of combined exercise on body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , including 40min of resistance exercise, 40min of aerobic exercise and10min warm-up and cool-down. The CG did not participate in any exercise or physical activity. Body composition variables (weight, body mass index, fat-free mass, percent ...

  1. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  2. Body composition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between macronutrient intake, body composition (lean body mass and fat mass) and bone mineral content in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods: a cross-sectional study, conducted between May 2010 and June 2011, covering ...

  3. Impact of Incident Heart Failure on Body Composition Over Time in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Daniel E; Santanasto, Adam J; Boudreau, Robert; Harris, Tamara; Kanaya, Alka M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Butler, Javed; Kizer, Jorge R; Newman, Anne B

    2017-09-01

    Prevalence of heart failure (HF) increases significantly with age, coinciding with age-related changes in body composition that are common and consequential. Still, body composition is rarely factored in routine HF care. The Health, Aging, and Body Composition study is a prospective cohort study of nondisabled adults. Using yearly dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, body composition was assessed in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study over 6 years, comparing those who developed incident HF versus those who did not. Among 2815 Health, Aging, and Body Composition participants (48.5% men; 59.6% whites; mean age, 73.6±2.9 years), 111 developed incident HF over the 6-year study period. At entry into the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study, men and women who later developed HF had higher total body mass when compared with those versus those who did not develop HF (men, 80.9±10 versus 78.6±12.9 kg, P =0.05; women, 72.7±15.0 versus 68.2±14.2 kg, P =0.01, respectively). However, after developing HF, loss of total lean body mass was disproportionate; men with HF lost 654.6 versus 391.4 g/y in non-HF participants, P =0.02. Loss of appendicular lean mass was also greater with HF (-419.9 versus -318.2 g/y; P =0.02), even after accounting for total weight change. Among women with HF, loss of total and appendicular lean mass were also greater than in non-HF participants but not to the extent seen among men. Incident HF in older adults was associated with disproportionate loss of lean mass, particularly among men. Prognostic implications are significant, with key sex-specific inferences on physical function, frailty, disability, and pharmacodynamics that all merit further investigation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  5. Changes in body composition after spasticity treatment with intrathecal baclofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogberg, Olle; Samuelsson, Kersti; Ertzgaard, Per; Levi, Richard

    2017-01-19

    To assess changes in body composition, body weight and resting metabolic rate in patients who received intrathecal baclofen therapy for spasticity. Prospective, longitudinal, quasi-experimental, with a pre/post design. Twelve patients with spasticity, fulfilling study criteria, and due for pump implantation for intrathecal baclofen therapy, completed the study. Data were obtained before, 6 months and 12 months after commencement of intrathecal baclofen therapy as regards body composition (by skinfold calliper), body weight, and resting metabolic rate (by resting oxygen consumption). Spasticity was assessed according to the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) and Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS). A reduction in spasticity according to MAS occurred. Mean fat body mass increased and mean lean body mass decreased. Mean body weight showed a non-significant increase and resting metabolic rate a non-significant decrease. This explorative study indicates that unfavourable changes in body composition might occur after intrathecal baclofen therapy. Since obesity and increased fat body mass contribute to an increased cardiovascular risk, these findings may indicate a need for initiation of countermeasures, e.g. increased physical activity and/or dietary measures, in conjunction with intrathecal baclofen therapy. Further studies, including larger study samples and control groups, are needed to corroborate these findings.

  6. Profiling the diet and body composition of subelite adolescent rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Claudia; Morelli, Ester; Evangelisti, Irene; Galetta, Fabio; Franzoni, Ferdinando; Lazzeri, Donatella; Piazza, Marina; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the body composition and dietary intake of competitive club-level rhythmic gymnasts, who represent the larger cohort of the sport's practitioners. Fifty-five rhythmic gymnasts and 55 nonathlete females (13-19 years of age) were seen individually to collect a dietary recall and to take anthropometric data and bioelectric-impedance analysis. Gymnasts had lower body-mass index and lesser skinfold thickness, although middle arm-muscle circumference was similar in the 2 groups. Gymnasts had lower body-fat measures but normal levels of fat-free mass (FFM) and body-cellular mass. Gymnasts had better dietary habits than the age-matched controls. Low levels of calcium, phosphorous, iron, and zinc and a disparity between reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement were observed in both groups.

  7. BODY COMPOSITION AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Myasoedova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to establish specific features of body composition, skeletal muscle changes and bone mineral density (BMD in middle-aged and elderly female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA as compared to female subjects without RA.Materials and methods. The study included 86 female patients with RA aged 59.06 ± 7.52 years and 81 female subjects without RA aged 57.4 ± 5.3 years. Body composition and BMD in spine and femur was assessed using Lunar Prodidgy device (General Electric. Sarcopenia was defined as lean mass index (LMI of < 5.64 kg/m2 .Results. We have detected statistically significant decrease in fat, muscle and femoral BMD in female patients with RA as compared to their non-RA counterparts. Sarcopenia in the form of osteopenic sarcopenia and osteosarcopenia obesity was detected in 13.95 % RA patients vs 4.94 % non-RA subjects based on LMI findings. Both groups had high prevalence of osteopenia obesity.Conclusions. Assessment of the body composition by radiographic densitometry in female RA patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis may be used to detect sarcopenia and its phenotypes in order to inform prognosis and adjust the management plan.

  8. Dense-body aggregates as plastic structures supporting tension in smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Herrera, Ana M; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2010-11-01

    The wall of hollow organs of vertebrates is a unique structure able to generate active tension and maintain a nearly constant passive stiffness over a large volume range. These properties are predominantly attributable to the smooth muscle cells that line the organ wall. Although smooth muscle is known to possess plasticity (i.e., the ability to adapt to large changes in cell length through structural remodeling of contractile apparatus and cytoskeleton), the detailed structural basis for the plasticity is largely unknown. Dense bodies, one of the most prominent structures in smooth muscle cells, have been regarded as the anchoring sites for actin filaments, similar to the Z-disks in striated muscle. Here, we show that the dense bodies and intermediate filaments formed cable-like structures inside airway smooth muscle cells and were able to adjust the cable length according to cell length and tension. Stretching the muscle cell bundle in the relaxed state caused the cables to straighten, indicating that these intracellular structures were connected to the extracellular matrix and could support passive tension. These plastic structures may be responsible for the ability of smooth muscle to maintain a nearly constant tensile stiffness over a large length range. The finding suggests that the structural plasticity of hollow organs may originate from the dense-body cables within the smooth muscle cells.

  9. Planarian body-wall muscle: regeneration and function beyond a simple skeletal support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc eCebrià

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The body-wall musculature of adult planarians consists of intricately organized muscle fibers, which after amputation are regenerated rapidly and with great precision through the proliferation and differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. These traits make the planarian body-wall musculature a potentially useful model for the study of cell proliferation, differentiation, and pattern formation. Planarian body-wall muscle shows some ambiguous features common to both skeletal and smooth muscle cells. However, its skeletal nature is implied by the expression of skeletal myosin heavy-chain genes and the myogenic transcription factor myoD. Where and when planarian stem cells become committed to the myogenic lineage during regeneration, how the new muscle cells are integrated into the pre-existing muscle net, and the identity of the molecular pathway controlling the myogenic gene program are key aspects of planarian muscle regeneration that need to be addressed. Expression of the conserved transcription factor myoD has been recently demonstrated in putative myogenic progenitors. Moreover, recent studies suggest that differentiated muscle cells may provide positional information to planarian stem cells during regeneration. Here, I review the limited available knowledge on planarian muscle regeneration.

  10. Normal composition and histo-ultrastructure of the rectus femoris muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Mosendz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The information on histometric and electron microscopic study of the muscle fibers of the rats’ rectus femoris in the norm is presented. The basic types of muscle fibers and their composition are described. The composition reflects the close morphological interdependence of the structure of myoneural junctions and elements of muscular tissue. It may determine different patterns of both reactive and destructive processes in the skeletal muscles.

  11. Relationships between mitochondrial content and bioenergetics with obesity, body composition and fat distribution in healthy older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, Manish S.; Tyrrell, Daniel J.; Leng, Iris; Demons, Jamehl L.; Lyles, Mary F.; Carr, J. Jeffrey; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Molina, Anthony J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial function declines with age; however, the relationship between adiposity and mitochondrial function among older adults is unclear. This study examined relationships between skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and electron transport chain complex 2 driven respiration with whole body and thigh composition, body fat distribution, and insulin sensitivity in older adults. Methods 25 healthy, sedentary, weight-stable men (N = 13) and women (N = 12) >65 years of age, with a...

  12. Wide range of body composition measures are associated with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Huiloo; Abdul Manaf, Zahara; Mat Ludin, Arimi Fitri; Shahar, Suzana

    2017-04-01

    Studies of the association between body composition, both body fat and body muscle, and cognitive function are rarely reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between a wide range of body composition measures with cognitive function in older adults. A total of 2322 Malaysian older adults aged 60 years and older were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population-based cross-sectional study. Out of 2322 older adults recruited, 2309 (48% men) completed assessments on cognitive function and body composition. Cognitive functions were assessed using the Malay version of the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Digit Span Test, Digit Symbol Test and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Body composition included body mass index, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference, calf circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, percentage body fat and skeletal muscle mass. The association between body composition and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. After adjustment for age, education years, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, depression, smoking status and alcohol consumption, we found that calf circumference appeared as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among both men and women (P < 0.05), except for the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Waist-to-hip ratio was detected as a significant predictor for all cognitive tests among women (P < 0.05), but was only a significant predictor for the Bahasa Malaysia version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment among men (P < 0.05). These results suggest that there is a need to maintain muscle mass and lower adipose tissue among older adults for optimal cognitive function. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 554-560. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Evaluation of segmental body composition by gender in obese children using bioelectric impedance analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate segmental body composition of children diagnosed with obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis method in terms of different gender. Methods: 48 children, aged between 6-15 years, 21 of whom were boys while 27 were girls, diagnosed with obesity in Erciyes University Medical Faculty Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic were included in our study from April to June in 2011. Those over 95 percentile were defined as obese group. Tanita BC-418 device was used to analyze the body composition. Results: As a result of bioelectrical impedance analysis, lean body mass and body muscle mass were found to be statistically significantly higher in obese girls compared with obese boys. However, lean mass of the left arm, left leg muscle mass and basal metabolic rate were found to be statistically significantly lower in obese girls compared with obese boys. Conclusion: Consequently, it may be suggest that segmental analysis, where gender differences are taken into account, can provide proper exercise pattern and healthy way of weight loss in children for prevention of obesity and associated diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetics and cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secomb, Josh L; Nimphius, Sophia; Farley, Oliver R L; Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ), and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23) and female (n = 7) surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg) undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP). In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73) were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF) in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59) were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59) also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle. Key pointsGreater thickness of the VL and LG muscles were significantly related to an enhanced ability to express higher levels of isometric and dynamic strength, and explosiveness in adolescent athletes.Isometric strength underpinned performance in the CMJ and SJ in these athletes.Greater lower-body isometric strength was significantly related to eccentric leg stiffness, which is potentially the result of greater neuromuscular activation in the muscle-tendon unit.

  15. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (pbody fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental interactions in the etiology of weight gain and the obesity epidemic. PMID:25067962

  16. Skeletal muscle mass adjusted by height correlated better with muscular functions than that adjusted by body weight in defining sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hong; Kao, Tung-Wei; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Wang, Tyng-Grey; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-20

    Sarcopenia, characterized by low muscle mass and function, results in frailty, comorbidities and mortality. However, its prevalence varies according to the different criteria used in its diagnosis. This cross-sectional study investigated the difference in the number of sarcopenia cases recorded by two different measurement methods of low muscle mass to determine which measurement was better. We recruited 878 (54.2% female) individuals aged over 65 years and obtained their body composition and functional parameters. Low muscle mass was defined as two standard deviations below either the mean height-adjusted (hSMI) or weight-adjusted (wSMI) muscle mass of a young reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.7% vs. 0.4% (male/female) by hSMI, and 4.0% vs. 10.7% (male/female) by wSMI. The κ coefficients for these two criteria were 0.39 vs. 0.03 (male/female), and 0.17 in all subjects. Serum myostatin levels correlated positively with gait speed (r = 0.142, p = 0.007) after adjustment for gender. hSMI correlated with grip strength, cardiopulmonary endurance, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. wSMI correlated with grip strength, leg endurance, gait speed, and flexibility. Since hSMI correlated more closely with grip strength and more muscular functions, we recommend hSMI in the diagnosis of low muscle mass.

  17. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water

  18. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Anikieiev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  19. Effect of a precompetition bodybuilding diet and training regimen on body composition and blood chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, D; Wakayama, E J; Locati, L L; Landwer, G E

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to document the effect of a 10-wk precompetition bodybuilding diet and training, on blood chemistry and body composition. One adult male, steroid and drug free, preparing for a first competition. Average daily dietary intake consisted of 2263 calories (71% protein, 16% carbohydrate, 13% fats), with a protein intake of 5.0 gm.kg-1 body mass (BM). Initial body weight of 76.3 kgf (16% body fat) decreased to 63.4 kgf (4.4% body fat). Blood samples for electrolytes, TP, Alb, bilirubin, LDL-C, TG, UA, and amylase were normal. HDL-C levels increased from 65 to 89 mg.dL-1. Decreased glucose levels (< 50 mg.dL-1), indicated hypoglycemia. Increased Mg, LD, and CK levels indicated intense training. Increased inorganic phosphorus from 3.7 to 8.2 mg.dL-1 suggested lactic acidosis. Increased BUN levels from 16 to 53 mg.dL-1 and creatinine from 1.1 to 1.8 mg.dL-1 may be attributed to a high protein diet. However, heart muscle enzyme (CK-MB) was not elevated. Substantial changes in body composition and blood chemistry suggest adequate nutrition be ensured, and caution taken to avoid excessive physiologic stresses on the body during precompetition diet and training.

  20. Dynamics of body composition and bone in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Susanne; Ripperger, Peter; Dalla Pozza, Robert; Roth, Johannes; Häfner, Renate; Michels, Hartmut; Schwarz, Hans Peter

    2010-01-01

    GH has a positive impact on growth, bone, and muscle development. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the effects of GH treatment on regional body composition and bone geometry at final height in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). In this longitudinal study, parameters of bone mineral density and geometry as well as muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) in the nondominant forearm were recorded using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at yearly intervals until final height in 12 patients (seven females) receiving GH treatment. Data at final height were compared with 13 patients (nine females) with JIA not treated with GH. Patients were treated with GH for a mean of 5.35 +/- 0.7 yr. Correcting for height, total bone CSA (+0.89 +/- 0.5 sd) and muscle CSA (+1.14 +/- 0.6 sd) increased significantly and normalized at final height. Compared with JIA patients without GH at final height, there was a significantly higher muscle CSA and a lower fat CSA in GH-treated patients. Additionally, in relation to total bone CSA, there was significantly more cortical and less marrow CSA in boys with GH treatment. During GH treatment, there was a significant increase and normalization of total bone and muscle CSA at final height. In accordance with an anabolic effect of GH, fat mass stabilized at the lower limit of healthy children. At final height, cortical and marrow CSA, relative to total bone CSA, were normalized in GH-treated patients.

  1. New body composition reference charts for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, Ellen W; Johnson, William; Davern, Bridget A; Anderson, Christina G; Shenberger, Jeffrey S; Misra, Sonya; Ramel, Sara E

    2017-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that nutritional management of the preterm infant should aim to achieve body composition that replicates the in utero fetus, but intrauterine body composition reference charts for preterm infants are lacking. Our objective was to create body composition reference curves for preterm infants that approximate the body composition of the in utero fetus from 30 to 36 wk of gestation. A total of 223 ethnically diverse infants born at 30 + 0 to 36 + 6 wk of gestation were enrolled. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were specified so that the sample would represent healthy appropriately growing fetuses (e.g., singleton, birth weight appropriate for their gestational age, and medically stable). Cross-sectional reference values were generated for fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and percentage body fat (PBF) by gestational age (GA), with the use of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and the lambda-mu-sigma method for percentile estimation. GA-specific percentile values and a percentile and z score calculator for FFM, FM, and PBF are presented. These values aligned closely with ADP centile values published for term infants from 36 to 38 wk of gestation. The medians were also similar to the mean values for the reference fetus derived from chemical analysis previously. To our knowledge, these are the first body composition reference charts for total FM and FFM at birth in preterm infants to assist in following AAP guidelines. Future work will test the clinical utility of body composition monitoring for improving nutritional management in this population. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02855814. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Body composition assessment in athletes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazić, Sanja; Lazović, Biljana; Delić, Marina; Lazić, Jelena Suzić; Aćimović, Tijana; Brkić, Predrag

    2014-01-01

    Body composition represents an unbreakable unity of the human body basic structure elements and involves a relative representation of the various constituent elements of the human total body weight. It is well known that body composition changes under the influence of continuous physical activity, and, therefore, it is one of the major components of fitness, and general health of the athletes. Therefore, this topic has become a major field of interest for many exercise and sport scientists as well as clinicians who specialize not only in different training methods but also in the prevention of and rehabilitation from major injuries. To date, having considered issues of accuracy, repeatability and utility, there is no universally applicable criterion or 'gold standard' methodology for body composition assessment in athletes. The main objective of this review was to give a short overview of methods for body composition analysis in athletes and to show and compare the latest data on their usefulness and reliability in order to find the best solution for practical everyday work.

  3. Inclusion-body myositis, a multifactorial muscle disease associated with aging: current concepts of pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanas, Valerie; Engel, W King

    2007-11-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis, the most common muscle disease of older persons, has no known cause or persistently beneficial treatment. The unfolding pathogenesis could lead to new treatment strategies and it is now of growing interest among clinicians and basic scientists. About 100 papers related to the subject were published in 2006 and the first part of 2007 (we cite only articles most relevant to this review). This review focuses on the current concepts of the pathogenesis of sporadic inclusion-body myositis. Both degeneration and mononuclear-cell inflammation are components of the pathology, but how each relates to the pathogenesis remains unclear. We suggest that an intramuscle fiber degenerative component is primary, leading to muscle-fiber destruction, while the lymphocytic inflammatory component may only slightly contribute to sporadic inclusion-body myositis muscle-fiber damage. Intracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta precursor protein, amyloid-beta, and amyloid-beta oligomers in an aging muscle-fiber cellular milieu, and other abnormalities, appear to be key pathogenic factors. We summarize intracellular molecular events and their consequences, and correlate findings in sporadic inclusion-body myositis muscle biopsies with inclusion-body myositis experimental models in tissue culture and in transgenic mice. Treatment of sporadic inclusion-body myositis remains a challenge. Antiinflammatory approaches used so far are without major or enduring benefit. Possible new treatment avenues are suggested.

  4. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128

    2001-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...

  5. Maternal body composition, smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikanes, Ase; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Vangen, Siri; Gunnes, Nina; Samuelsen, Sven O; Magnus, Per

    2010-08-01

    To study associations between maternal prepregnant body mass index (BMI), smoking, and hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis). The sample consisted of 33,467 primiparous women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008). Data on hyperemesis, BMI, education, maternal age, eating disorders, maternal and paternal smoking habits were obtained from questionnaires. All associations were studied by logistic regression. Altogether, 353 (1.1%) women had hyperemesis. Among non-smokers, both underweight and obese women were more likely to develop hyperemesis than normal-weighted women: odds ratio (OR), 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.43-3.88 and OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.00-2.20, respectively. No associations were found among smokers. Women who smoked daily (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.32-0.60) or occasionally (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.93) had lower risk of hyperemesis than non-smokers. No effect of partner's smoking habits was observed. Both underweight and obesity were associated with hyperemesis, but only among non-smokers. Maternal prepregnant smoking reduced the risk of hyperemesis, whereas partner's smoking habits had no effect. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Composition of Staff Review Advisory Bodies - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  7. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...

  8. TUNING IN TO FISH SWIMMING WAVES - BODY FORM, SWIMMING MODE AND MUSCLE FUNCTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARDLE, CS; VIDELER, JJ; ALTRINGHAM, JD

    Most fish species swim with lateral body undulations running from head to tail, These waves run more slowly than the waves of muscle activation causing them, reflecting the effect of the interaction between the fish's body and the reactive forces from the water, The coupling between both waves

  9. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liqin; Tang, Changfa; Tao, Xia

    2018-01-01

    To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST) indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump) were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength ( F total ) through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints' flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the F total . (1) Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2) Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  10. Criterion-Related Validity of a Simple Muscle Strength Test to Assess Whole Body Muscle Strength in Chinese Children Aged 10 to 12 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the criterion-related validity of simple muscle strength test (SMST indicators and assess whole body muscle strength in Chinese children aged 10 to 12 years old. Methods. Two hundred and forty children were equally divided into four groups in different genders and residences. The SMST indicators (hand-grip, knee bent push-up, back muscle strength, sit-up, leg muscle strength, and standing long jump were tested. We set up the total level of the whole-body muscle strength (Ftotal through testing isokinetic muscle strength of the six joints’ flexion and extension movements. Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the correlation between the SMST indicators and the Ftotal. Results. (1 Leg muscle strength and back muscle strength demonstrated the highest validity scores. Sit-ups, hand grip, and standing long jump demonstrated the lowest validity scores. (2 Leg muscle strength had the highest validity for males, but back muscle strength had the highest validity for females. Conclusions. Back muscle strength and leg muscle strength can give the highest validity of assessing whole body muscle strength, and also has higher validity in both the urban and rural children. For urban children, but not rural, the knee bent push-up also has a high validity indicator.

  11. Body composition of freshwater Wallago attu in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... equations can be used to estimate the body composition with a fair level of accuracy. ... were assessed in order to establish the safety level of the ... So, bio- chemical evaluation is necessary to ensure the nutritional value as well as eating quality fish (Azam et al., 2004). However, the value of these body ...

  12. Nutritional consequences of total gastrectomy: the relationship between mode of reconstruction, postprandial symptoms, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miholic, J; Meyer, H J; Müller, M J; Weimann, A; Pichlmayr, R

    1990-09-01

    Body composition, postprandial symptoms, and social performance were assessed in 41 patients who were free of tumors 16 to 63 months (median, 41 months) after total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy (n = 15) or jejunal interposition (n = 26). There were no significant differences with respect to age, sex, initial tumor stage, interval since operation, and premorbid weight/height2 (body mass index). The lowest postoperative body mass index (BMI) was 72% +/- 3% of the preillness BMI in patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction and 79% +/- 2% in patients with jejunal interposition (p less than 0.05). At the time of the study the relative BMI was 88% +/- 2% of the preillness BMI in patients with jejunal interposition but only 81% +/- 3% in patients with the Roux-en-Y reconstruction (p less than 0.01). Muscle mass and lean body mass estimated from anthropometric and bioelectric impedance measurements were correlated with sex (p = 0.0001) and with the mode of reconstruction (p = 0.02) independently, which was confirmed by multiple linear regression. The postprandial symptoms were not significantly associated with changes in body composition except for an inverse relationship between Sigstad's dumping score and the extracellular mass/body cell mass ratio (r = 0.553; p = 0.0002). Of the patients under 60 years of age, 10 of 15 patients with jejunal interposition and two of eight patients with Roux-en-Y reconstruction were back at work (p = 0.057). The persons who had resumed their work had a significantly higher relative BMI (90% +/- 2% vs 82% +/- 3%), lean body mass (53 +/- 3 kg vs 46 +/- 3 kg), and muscle mass (25 +/- 2 kg vs 21 +/- 1 kg) than persons in early retirement. We concluded that preserving the duodenal transit should be a main objective of gastric replacement after total gastrectomy.

  13. Body Composition Assessment from Birth to Two Years of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    During infancy and early childhood, the pace and quality of growth mark the risk of ill health in the short and longer term. Measurements of body weight and its changes are frequently taken as indicators of growth, without adequate attention being paid to linear growth or body composition during this critical window of opportunity, as these measurements are more challenging to make. To better define and characterize healthy growth, there is a need for guidance on the use of standardized methodologies to assess body composition during early life to differentiate between nutrient partitioning to fat free mass and to fat mass in infants and young children. Given the necessity for an international consensus, in 2009 the IAEA initiated a review of body composition assessment techniques as the basis for efforts aimed at the standardization of body composition assessment from birth to 2 years of age. This initiative follows the IAEA's long standing tradition of providing guidance on the use of nuclear techniques in nutrition. This publication was developed by an international group of experts as an integral part of the IAEA's contribution to the transfer of technology and capacity building in this field to assist Member States in their efforts to improve the nutrition and health of infants and young children, who are among the most vulnerable population groups. This publication provides practical information on the assessment of body composition from birth up to 2 years of age and is intended for nutritionists, paediatricians and other health professionals. The body composition assessment techniques included in this publication were considered the methodologies with the highest potential for standardization globally - based on considerations such as access to equipment, cost and the training needs of staff - and include stable isotope dilution for total body water assessment as well as dual energy X ray absorptiometry and air displacement plethysmography. In addition, the

  14. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blasio, Francesca; de Blasio, Francesco; Miracco Berlingieri, Giulia; Bianco, Andrea; La Greca, Marta; Franssen, Frits M E; Scalfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients. MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer) in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz) impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients. After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients ( P impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age ( r =-0.316 and r =-0.346, respectively). Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength ( P impedance ratio was reduced ( P impedance ratio could give valuable information on cellular integrity and muscle quality.

  15. Pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception among Brazilian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacomori, Cinara; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Vanderlinde, Cristiane

    2010-12-01

    To examine the relationship between pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception variables in pregnant women; and, more specifically, to determine the influence of the number of pregnancies (primigravidas vs multigravidas) on the strength of contraction of the pelvic floor muscles and on the body self-perception of pregnant women. Comparative cross-sectional research. Public health centres from Florianópolis, Brazil. Thirty-five pregnant women (18 primigravidas, 17 multigravidas) with a mean age of 25.5 (standard deviation 5.7) years. Pelvic floor strength measured through manual palpation, and body self-perception using the Questionnaire of Corporeality and Human Sexuality. Pelvic floor muscle strength was positively correlated with schooling [rho (ρ)=0.496] and body self-perception variables: finding the body beautiful (ρ=0.476), finding the body sexy (ρ=0.520), feeling that others find them sexy (ρ=0.364), finding the body proportional (ρ=0.412), touching the body generally (ρ=0.554) and recognising the smell of the body (ρ=0.454). Primigravidas found their bodies more beautiful and were more satisfied with their bodies. On a scale of 0 to 6, multigravid participants expressed a greater wish than primigravid participants to be thinner (median difference 2, 95% confidence interval 0-3, P=0.03). Pelvic floor strength did not differ between groups. The results suggest a relationship between pelvic floor muscle strength and body self-perception. Professionals involved in women's health may have a role in helping their patients to understand their bodies. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. On the potential of lower limb muscles to accelerate the body's centre of mass during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Tomas A; Pandy, Marcus G

    2013-01-01

    Quantification of lower limb muscle function during gait or other common activities may be achieved using an induced acceleration analysis, which determines the contributions of individual muscles to the accelerations of the body's centre of mass. However, this analysis is reliant on a mathematical optimisation for the distribution of net joint moments among muscles. One approach that overcomes this limitation is the calculation of a muscle's potential to accelerate the centre of mass based on either a unit-force or maximum-activation assumption. Unit-force muscle potential accelerations are determined by calculating the accelerations induced by a 1 N muscle force, whereas maximum-activation muscle potential accelerations are determined by calculating the accelerations induced by a maximally activated muscle. The aim of this study was to describe the acceleration potentials of major lower limb muscles during normal walking obtained from these two techniques, and to evaluate the results relative to absolute (optimisation-based) muscle-induced accelerations. Dynamic simulations of walking were generated for 10 able-bodied children using musculoskeletal models, and potential- and absolute induced accelerations were calculated using a perturbation method. While the potential accelerations often correctly identified the major contributors to centre-of-mass acceleration, they were noticeably different in magnitude and timing from the absolute induced accelerations. Potential induced accelerations predicted by the maximum-activation technique, which accounts for the force-generating properties of muscle, were no more consistent with absolute induced accelerations than unit-force potential accelerations. The techniques described may assist treatment decisions through quantitative analyses of common gait abnormalities and/or clinical interventions.

  17. Hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation with maternal body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosus, Aydin; Eser, Ayla; Kosus, Nermin; Usluogullari, Betul; Hizli, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if maternal body fat composition and body mass index were associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 30) without nausea and vomiting (control group) and women with HG (n = 54; study group), all with singleton pregnancy at 6-14 weeks gestational age, were included. Body mass index was measured before and during pregnancy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous fat thickness were measured during pregnancy. Comparison of the groups revealed that VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index but not subcutaneous fat thickness were significantly higher in the HG group versus controls. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index predicted 83.8% and 67.1% of HG cases, respectively. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index were correlated with the development of hyperemesis gravidrum and hence could be considered as predictive markers for HG.

  18. Influence of body composition on physiological responses to post-exercise hydrotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jessica M; Halson, Shona L; Miller, Joanna; Slater, Gary J; Askew, Christopher D

    2018-05-01

    This study examined the influence of body composition on temperature and blood flow responses to post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI) and control (CON). Twenty-seven male participants were stratified into three groups: 1) low mass and low fat (LM-LF); 2) high mass and low fat (HM-LF); or 3) high mass and high fat (HM-HF). Experimental trials involved a standardised bout of cycling, maintained until core temperature reached 38.5°C. Participants subsequently completed one of three 15-min recovery interventions (CWI, HWI, or CON). Core, skin and muscle temperatures, and limb blood flow were recorded at baseline, post-exercise, and every 30 min following recovery for 240 min. During CON and HWI there were no differences in core or muscle temperature between body composition groups. The rate of fall in core temperature following CWI was greater in the LM-LF (0.03 ± 0.01°C/min) group compared to the HM-HF (0.01 ± 0.001°C/min) group (P = 0.002). Muscle temperature decreased to a greater extent during CWI in the LM-LF and HM-LF groups (8.6 ± 3.0°C) compared with HM-HF (5.1 ± 2.0°C, P < 0.05). Blood flow responses did not differ between groups. Differences in body composition alter the thermal response to post-exercise CWI, which may explain some of the variance in the responses to CWI recovery.

  19. Differences in Body Composition According to Gross Motor Function in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki Hyuk; Chung, Chin Youb; Lee, Kyoung Min; Cho, Byung Chae; Moon, Seung Jun; Kim, Jaeyoung; Park, Moon Seok

    2017-11-01

    To assess differences in body composition according to gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared with healthy controls. Retrospective case-control study. Tertiary referral center for CP. Participants (N=146) comprised consecutive patients with CP (n=100; mean age, 11.5±4.2y) who were admitted for orthopedic surgery between May 2014 and March 2016 and typically developing children (TDC, n=46; control group). Not applicable. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was used to assess body composition, including body fat, soft lean mass (SLM), fat-free mass (FFM), skeletal muscle mass (SMM), body cell mass (BCM), bone mineral content (BMC), and basal metabolic rate. Body composition measures were compared according to Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level, as well as between children with CP and TDC. Children with CP with GMFCS levels IV and V had a lower height, weight, and body mass index than those with GMFCS levels I to III. Children with CP with GMFCS levels IV and V had a significantly lower SLM, SLM index, FFM, FFM index, SMM, SMM index, BCM, BCM index, BMC, and BMC index than those with GMFCS levels I to III and TDC. GMFCS level significantly affected SLM and BMC. Body composition analysis using BIA showed that nonambulatory children with CP had significantly lower FFM, SLM, SMM, BCM, and BMC than ambulatory children with CP and TDC. However, further study is required to allow the use of BIA as a valid nutritional assessment tool in patients with CP. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of Frequent Hemodialysis on Nutrition and Body Composition: Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, George A.; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Mehta, Ravindra, L.; Lindsay, Robert; Depner, Tom A.; Hall, Yoshio N.; Daugirdas, John T.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of frequency of hemodialysis on nutritional status by analyzing the data in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Trial. We compared changes in albumin, body weight and composition among 245 patients randomized to 6- or 3-times per week in-center hemodialysis (Daily Trial) and 87 patients randomized to 6-times per week nocturnal or 3-times per week conventional hemodialysis, performed largely at home (Nocturnal Trial). In the Daily Trial, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in serum albumin or the equilibrated protein catabolic rate by 12 months. There was a significant relative decrease in pre-dialysis body weight of 1.5 ± 0.2 kg in the 6 times per week group at one month, but this significantly rebounded by 1.3 ± 0.5 kg over the remaining 11 months. Extracellular water decreased in the 6 times per week compared to the 3 per week hemodialysis group. There were no significant between-group differences in phase angle, intracellular water or body cell mass. In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant between-group differences in any study parameter. Any gain in “dry” body weight corresponded to increased adiposity rather than muscle mass but was not statistically significant. Thus, frequent in-center hemodialysis reduced extracellular water but did not increase serum albumin or body cell mass while frequent nocturnal hemodialysis yielded no net effect on parameters of nutritional status or body composition. PMID:22456602

  1. Computation of trunk muscle forces, spinal loads and stability in whole-body vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazrgari, B.; Shirazi-Adl, A.; Kasra, M.

    2008-12-01

    Whole-body vibration has been indicated as a risk factor in back disorders. Proper prevention and treatment management, however, requires a sound knowledge of associated muscle forces and loads on the spine. Previous trunk model studies have either neglected or over-simplified the trunk redundancy with time-varying unknown muscle forces. Trunk stability has neither been addressed. A novel iterative dynamic kinematics-driven approach was employed to evaluate muscle forces, spinal loads and system stability in a seated subject under a random vertical base excitation with ˜±1 g peak acceleration contents. This iterative approach satisfied equations of motion in all directions/levels while accounting for the nonlinear passive resistance of the ligamentous spine. The effect of posture, co-activity in abdominal muscles and changes in buttocks stiffness were also investigated. The computed vertical accelerations were in good agreement with measurements. The input base excitation, via inertial and muscle forces, substantially influenced spinal loads and system stability. The flexed posture in sitting increased the net moment, muscle forces and passive spinal loads while improving the trunk stability. Similarly, the introduction of low to moderate antagonistic coactivity in abdominal muscles increased the passive spinal loads and improved the spinal stability. A trade-off, hence, exists between lower muscle forces and spinal loads on one hand and more stable spine on the other. Base excitations with larger peak acceleration contents substantially increase muscle forces/spinal loads and, hence, the risk of injury.

  2. The presence and impact of diastolic dysfunction on physical function and body composition in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin Hee; Wu, Pei-Tzu; Kistler, Brandon Michael; Fitschen, Peter John; Biruete, Annabel Guzman; Phillips, Shane Aaron; Ali, Mohamed M; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth Robert

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are the main cause of death in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Muscle wasting and physical function decline are common in MHD patients, and significantly impair their quality of life. These can result from abnormalities in cardiac function, which can be further worsened by physical deconditioning. Left ventricular diastolic function parameters were recently shown to be a better predictor of exercise capacity than systolic measures in patients with CV complications. But little is known about the relationship between cardiac function and physical function in MHD patients. In 82 MHD patients, left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) was assessed by ejection fraction and fractional shortening with echocardiography, and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) was assessed by pulse wave and tissue Doppler indices. Physical function was assessed by gait speed, performance on a shuttle walk test, and leg muscle strength. Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure whole body lean mass (WBLM). The prevalence of LVDD and LVSD was 48.8 and 12.2%, respectively. Gait speed, shuttle walk time, leg strength, and WBLM% were significantly higher in the group without LVDD than with LVDD (p physical function or body composition between patients with and without LVSD. These data suggest that LVDD is more closely related to physical function and body composition than LVSD in MHD patients, and hence that LVDD may be an important therapeutic target.

  3. Body composition changes with time in pediatric burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przkora, Rene; Barrow, Robert E; Jeschke, Marc G; Suman, Oscar E; Celis, Mario; Sanford, Arthur P; Chinkes, David L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Herndon, David N

    2006-05-01

    Major trauma and burns are associated with whole body catabolism which can persist for 1 or more years after injury. This study investigates body composition in massively burned children for up to 2 years. Twenty-five pediatric patients with greater than 40% total body surface area burns were studied. At discharge, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after burn height, weight, body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, cortisol, parathyroid hormone, and thyroid hormones were measured. Tukey's test was used for analysis. Significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Lean body mass, fat mass, bone mineral content, height, and weight increased significantly during the second year after burn. Percent predicted REE decreased significantly, whereas IGFBP-3 and parathyroid hormone levels increased significantly over time. Insulin and T3 uptake were significantly higher at discharge. Body composition of severely burned children significantly improved in the second year compared with the first year after injury. This demonstrates a need for long-term rehabilitation in these burn patients.

  4. DNA and RNA analysis of blood and muscle from bodies with variable postmortem intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob; Lesnikova, Iana; Funder, Anette Mariane Daa

    2014-01-01

    The breakdown of DNA and RNA in decomposing human tissue represents a major obstacle for postmortem forensic molecular analysis. This study investigated the feasibility of performing PCR-based molecular analysis of blood and muscle tissue from 45 autopsy cases with defined postmortem intervals...... ranging from one to more than 14 days. It was not possible to collect blood from 38 % of the autopsy cases due to severe coagulation and hemolysis, whereas muscle tissue was available for all cases. PCR-amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 96 % of the frozen muscle specimens and from 93...... % of the formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE) muscle specimens. A quality assessment of muscle-derived DNA showed increased fragmentation with advancing body decomposition and generally more fragmentation in DNA from FFPE tissue than in DNA from frozen tissue. It was possible to amplify 1,000 basepair (bp...

  5. Body composition assessment in Taiwanese individuals with poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kwang-Hwa; Lai, Chien-Hung; Chen, Shih-Ching; Hsiao, Wen-Tien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Lee, Chi-Ming

    2011-07-01

    To measure the changes in the total and regional body fat mass, and assess the clinical usefulness of the body mass index (BMI) in detecting overweight subjects with sequelae of poliomyelitis. Prospective, cross-sectional study. General community. Subjects with poliomyelitis (n=17; age range, 42-57y; mean, 47y; 12 men, 5 women) and able-bodied people (n=17) matched by sex, age, body weight, and body height participated in the study. Not applicable. Total and regional body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Clinical characteristics such as blood pressure, serum biochemical studies, and habitual behaviors (daily cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise regimen) of all participants were evaluated. Compared with able-bodied controls, subjects with poliomyelitis had a 50% greater total body fat mass, significant increases in the regional fat mass in every part of the body, and had the greatest increase of fat mass in the thorax. Nearly all the subjects (94%) with poliomyelitis were obese according to standards of body composition. However, one third of them had a BMI value of less than 25.0kg/m(2). People with poliomyelitis have a higher prevalence of obesity and a significant increase in total and regional fat mass. Current BMI underestimates the total body fat mass percentage compared with the control; therefore, a population-specific BMI should be used to address the prevalence of obesity in postpolio survivors. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  7. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α modulates systemic ketone body homeostasis and ameliorates diabetic hyperketonemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Kristoffer; Albert, Verena; Cardel, Bettina; Salatino, Silvia; Handschin, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are crucial energy substrates during states of low carbohydrate availability. However, an aberrant regulation of KB homeostasis can lead to complications such as diabetic ketoacidosis. Exercise and diabetes affect systemic KB homeostasis, but the regulation of KB metabolism is still enigmatic. In our study in mice with either knockout or overexpression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α in skeletal muscle, PGC-1α regulated ketolytic gene transcription in muscle. Furthermore, KB homeostasis of these mice was investigated during withholding of food, exercise, and ketogenic diet feeding, and after streptozotocin injection. In response to these ketogenic stimuli, modulation of PGC-1α levels in muscle affected systemic KB homeostasis. Moreover, the data demonstrate that skeletal muscle PGC-1α is necessary for the enhanced ketolytic capacity in response to exercise training and overexpression of PGC-1α in muscle enhances systemic ketolytic capacity and is sufficient to ameliorate diabetic hyperketonemia in mice. In cultured myotubes, the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor-α was a partner of PGC-1α in the regulation of ketolytic gene transcription. These results demonstrate a central role of skeletal muscle PGC-1α in the transcriptional regulation of systemic ketolytic capacity.-Svensson, K., Albert, V., Cardel, B., Salatino, S., Handschin, C. Skeletal muscle PGC-1α modulates systemic ketone body homeostasis and ameliorates diabetic hyperketonemia in mice. © FASEB.

  8. [Muscle dysmorphia, body image and eating behaviors in two male populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Rosa; Molinari, Daniela

    2010-11-01

    Muscle dysmorphia or vigorexia is a disorder in which a person becomes obsessed with the idea that he or she is not muscular enough. To assess physical exercise, eating behaviors and the presence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters and medical students. Cross sectional evaluation of 88 male weightlifters aged 27 ± 7 years and 84 male medical students aged 22 ± 1 year was made. Eating behaviors were evaluated using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-40) and the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI). The perception of body image was assessed using the Graduate Hannover Scale (GHS). Prevalence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters was 13.6%. Both groups did not differ in body dissatisfaction. Interest in appearance among weightlifters was significantly higher than in students and ranged significantly higher in EAT-40 and EDI (p < 0.001). Other sports were practiced with the same frequency by weightlifters and students. Weightlifters expended more time than students exercising to improve their appearance (p < 0.005). Forty two percent of weightlifters with muscle dysmorphia displayed abuse of anabolics and 67% used other substances to improve their performance (p < 0.005). The presence of muscle dysmorphia among weightlifters was confirmed. They were dissatisfied with their body image and more concerned with their physical appearance than those without muscle dysmorphia and/or students. Their anabolic abuse rate was high. Our findings were similar to those reported in the international literature.

  9. Sequence variants at the myostatin gene locus influence the body composition of Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozaki, Teruaki; Sato, Fumio; Hill, Emmeline W; Miyake, Takeshi; Endo, Yoshiro; Kakoi, Hironaga; Gawahara, Hitoshi; Hirota, Kei-ichi; Nakano, Yasuko; Nambo, Yasuo; Kurosawa, Masahiko

    2011-12-01

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β family with a key role in inhibition of muscle growth by negative regulation of both myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Recently, a genomic region on ECA18, which includes the MSTN gene, was identified as a candidate region influencing racing performance in Thoroughbreds. In this study, four SNPs on ECA18, g.65809482T>C, g.65868604G>T, g.66493737C>T, and g.66539967A>G, were genotyped in 91 Thoroughbred horses-in-training to evaluate the association between genotype and body composition traits, including body weight, withers height, chest circumference, cannon circumference, and body weight/withers height. Of these, statistically differences in body weight and body weight/withers height were associated with specific genotypes in males. Specifically, body weight/withers height showed statistically significant differences depending on genotype at g.658604G>T, g.66493737C>T, and g.66539967A>G (PT, had the highest value (3.17 ± 0.05 kg·cm(-1)) for body weight/withers height in March, while those with a genotype associated with suitability for long-distance racing, T/T, had the lowest (2.99 ± 0.03 kg·cm(-1)). In females, the trends in the association of body weight/withers height with genotypes were similar to those observed in males. As the SNPs are not believed to be linked to coding variants in MSTN, these results suggest that regulation of MSTN gene expression influences skeletal muscle mass and hence racing performance, particularly optimum race distance, in Thoroughbred horses.

  10. Effects of bariatric surgery on the body composition of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Wally Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.

  11. Effect of armor and carrying load on body balance and leg muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Kim, Seonyoung; Warren, Aric; Jacobson, Bert; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of weight and weight distribution of body armor and load carriage on static body balance and leg muscle function. A series of human performance tests were conducted with seven male, healthy, right-handed military students in seven garment conditions with varying weight and weight distributions. Static body balance was assessed by analyzing the trajectory of center of plantar pressure and symmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Leg muscle functions were assessed by analyzing the peak electromyography amplitude of four selected leg muscles during walking. Results of this study showed that uneven weight distribution of garment and load beyond an additional 9 kg impaired static body balance as evidenced by increased sway of center of plantar pressure and asymmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Added weight on non-dominant side of the body created greater impediment to static balance. Increased garment weight also elevated peak EMG amplitude in the rectus femoris to maintain body balance and in the medial gastrocnemius to increase propulsive force. Negative impacts on balance and leg muscle function with increased carrying loads, particularly with an uneven weight distribution, should be stressed to soldiers, designers, and sports enthusiasts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships between physical exercise practice, dietary behaviour and body composition in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, E; Di Blasio, A; Di Donato, F; Di Gregorio, S; Di Renzo, D; Ripari, P

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between female body composition, total energy expenditure and physical exercise energy expenditure is not very strong because women can compensate by increasing their energy intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between total minutes of exercise per week, dietary habits and body composition in female university students using physical activity and the habit to cook as covariates. Fifty-one female university students were investigated for body composition, dietary habits, aerobic fitness, physical activity and physical exercise practice. Participants were grouped in three sub-samples (1, 2 and 3) according to the 33rd and 66th percentiles of weekly minutes (min/wk) of training. Group 1 had 0.00 min/wk, group 2 had 95±35.59 min/wk and group 3 had 231.66±85.97 min/wk of training. Sub-samples did not differ for IPAQ parameters while differed for aerobic fitness (P=0.001). Group 3 had a higher energy intake (EI) (P=0.008), a higher intake of lipids (P=0.017), saturated (P=0.042) and monounsaturated fat (P=0.024) and a lower intake of carbohydrates (P=0.007). Group 3 maintained the higher EI and the worse composition of lipid intake considering the habit to cook as covariate. Group 3 also had higher muscle mass. In order to positively affect body composition, in the sedentary women it is enough to control the energy balance, whereas in those that trained regularly it is necessary to control both energy balance and composition of daily meals.

  13. Influence of body composition on the prevalence of postural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of body composition on the prevalence of postural deformities among Black South African children aged 11 to 13 years in selected schools in the Potchefstroom area in the North West Province. The sample (n = 168) consisted of 47 eleven year olds, 58 twelve year olds and ...

  14. Body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among Olympic and Ironman distance triathletes residing in the Western Cape. Methods. A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study design was conducted in Western Cape Province. Twenty-six triathletes registered ...

  15. Changes in body composition and other anthropometric measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. An understanding of the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on various aspects of health, including nutritional status, is needed to ensure that population-specific guidelines can be developed for South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the changes in body composition and ...

  16. Association between blood pressure, measures of body composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk factors for development of cardiovascular disease develop early in life and track into adulthood. This study investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and measures of body composition in adolescents. The study participants were 307 adolescents. Blood pressure (BP) and anthropometric parameters: ...

  17. Sarcopenia and body composition in diabetic Charcot osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA) requires restricted walking and offloading for several months, which lead to fat re-distribution and increased sarcopenia. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To investigate whether subjects with COA have an altered body composition compared to controls. METHOD...

  18. Fitness and body composition profiling of elite junior South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.

  19. Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition, disordered eating and menstrual regularity in a group of South African endurance athletes. ... behaviour. This places them at a high risk of developing two components of the female athlete triad namely funct ional hypotha lamic amenorrhea and low energy-availability with or without an eating disorder.

  20. Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestine histology, nutrient digestibility and body composition of Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) fed on diets with both cotton and sunflower seed cakes. ... The formulations with 10%CSC25%SFSC and 20%CSC15%SFSC could be used for making Nile tilapia diets. Keywords: Plant protein, intestine histology, ...

  1. Body composition of normal and malnourished rural South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition was evaluated using anthropometric variables (weight, height, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, biceps skinfolds). The anthropometric variables were measured according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Children were categorized by the age groups as ...

  2. Voluntary feed intake, body composition and efficiency of two Merino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    individually on a diet with a metabolizable energy content of 10,26 MJ/kg. Measurements were made continuously of livemass, voluntary intake and body composition wsing tritium dilution. The growth results were analysed and interpreted relative to percentage of mature mass to account for differences in size. The intake of ...

  3. Physical activity, body composition and physical fitness status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the physical activity (PA), body composition and physical fitness status of 1361 (boys: n=678; girls: n= 683) primary school children aged 9-12 years in Mpumalanga (MP) and Limpopo (LP) provinces of South Africa. Anthropometric and physical fitness measurements were taken using the ...

  4. The association between leptin, body composition and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the association between leptin, body composition and physical fitness in black adolescents from two selected schools in Ikageng, in the North West Province of South Africa. Baseline measurements were obtained from 124 boys and 148 girls between the ages of 13 and 20 years, which participated in ...

  5. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fat...

  6. Proximate composition of Mystus bleekeri in relation to body size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan. Accepted 27 May, 2011 ... Key words: Proximate composition, body size, condition factor, predictive equation, catfish, Mystus bleekeri. .... a multiple regression model having the general form: Y = a + b1 W + b2 X.

  7. Body composition and somatotype of male Zimbabwean league ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a profile of the body composition and somatotype characteristics of male Zimbabwean league basketball players, which information is lacking. Twenty six players aged 22.0±5.3 years were purposively sampled from the top teams of the Bulawayo Basketball Association. Anthropometric variables were ...

  8. [Body composition investigation of 2321 Shenzhen government and enterprise staffs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Jichang; Sun, Shiqiang; Xu, Jiazhang; Zhou, Xiaoying; Huang, Changhua; He, Shan; Liu, Can; Xu, Jian; Gong, Chunmei

    2016-01-01

    To understand the laws of human body composition change and the status of the overweight and obesity of government and enterprise staffs. In July 2013 - January 2014, 2321 adults more than 20-year-old healthy check-up crowd with complete human body composition and height as well as weight data in a medical center in Shenzhen were collected by convenience sampling method. The overweight rates of male and female were 46.41% and 18.94% respectively (standardized overweight rates were 44.02% and 14.51%, respectively), and the difference between them was statisically significant (Χ2 = 201.01, P = 0. 000). The obesity rates of male and female were 12.13% and 3.57%, respectively (standardized overweight rates were 11.11% (see symbol) 2.63%, respectively), and the difference between them was statisically significant (X2 = 48.45, P = 0.000). The parameters of bone mineral quality, visceral fat area, body fat, body fat percentage, abdominal obesity, body moisture and free fat weight increased with body weight, and there were statistical significance among normal weight, overweight and obesity groups (P = 0.000). Bone mineral quality was highest at the age of 30 to 40 for men and women, and there was the statistical significance. There was statistical significance in visceral fat area between different ages in the same gender. Body fat percentage (34.24 + 5.39)% of all ages 50 to 59 years old and body moisture (28.53 + 3.77)% of age 40 - 49 group were highest in women. Male body fat percentage (27.08 + 5.01)% at the age of 60-age group was the highest. Male and female visceral fat area increasesd with age, but there was no statistical difference between men and women at the same age. The human body composition had not a statistically significant difference among normal weight and overweight groups, but a significant difference between normal weight and obesity groups (P = 0.000). Overweight and obesity rates in Shenzhen government and enterprise staffs increase with age

  9. Body composition in men with anorexia nervosa: Longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Milanese, Chiara; Bazzani, Paola Vittoria; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-07-01

    To compare body composition patterns before and after complete weight restoration in men with anorexia nervosa. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to measure body composition patterns in 10 men with anorexia nervosa before and after complete weight restoration, and in 10 healthy men matched to age and patients' post-treatment body mass index (BMI). Before weight restoration, men with anorexia nervosa displayed lower total body fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LBM) than those in the healthy comparison group, with a greater FM loss from the extremity than the trunk region. After short-term weight restoration, patients displayed complete normalization in total LBM and FM, but greater deposition of FM in the trunk region. Short-term weight restoration can normalize body composition patterns in men with anorexia nervosa, but results in a central adiposity phenotype. The clinical implication of this finding is unknown, but should be explored given the high levels of concern about central adiposity in anorexia nervosa. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A review of body composition and pharmacokinetics in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Jessica J; Sawyer, Michael B

    2017-09-01

    Body surface area dosing of chemotherapeutic agents is based on limited scientific data, and often results in unpredictable plasma drug levels. Cross-sectional computed tomography (CT) imaging provides an accurate measurement of lean mass. This review summarizes emerging roles of lean mass in predicting pharmacokinetics and drug toxicities in cancer patients. Areas covered: A concise review of body composition measurement with CT cross-sectional imaging and its relationship to drug pharmacokinetics and toxicities. A comprehensive review of the predictive value of low lean mass (sarcopenia) in dose-limiting toxicities is also included. Expert commentary: Drug dosing in medical oncology faces many challenges, including heterogeneous body composition profiles. The emerging role of sarcopenia in predicting lean mass may provide the tool needed to more accurately dose patients and prevent dose-limiting toxicities.

  11. Intermittent Cold Exposure Causes a Muscle-Specific Shift in the Fiber Type Composition in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    exposure on the fiber type composition of the predominantly type I soleus and the predominantly type lIb extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats...the predominantly type Ilb extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of rats. Cold exposure was accomplished by submerg- position would occur in rats if...were killed with an over- dose of pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal). The soleus "* -4 and extensor digitorum longus (EDL. muscles were ex- cised

  12. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  13. A bedside measure of body composition in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah A; Davidson, Zoe E; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In clinical practice, monitoring body composition is a critical component of nutritional assessment and weight management in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a simple bedside measurement tool for body composition, namely bioelectrical impedance analysis, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Measures of fat-free mass were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and compared against estimations obtained from a reference body composition model. Additionally, the use of raw impedance values was analyzed using three existing predictive equations for the estimation of fat-free mass. Accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis was assessed by comparison against the reference model by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Body composition was measured in 10 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, mean age 9.01 ± 2.34 years. The bioelectrical impedance analysis machine values of fat-free mass were on average 2.3 ± 14.1 kg higher than reference values. Limits of agreement (based on 95% confidence interval of the mean) were -7.4 to 2.9 kg. There was a significant correlation between the mean fat-free mass and difference in fat-free mass between the bioelectrical impedance analysis machine and the reference model (r = -0.86; P = 0.02) suggesting that the bias was not consistent across the range of measurements. The most accurate predictive equation for the estimation of fat-free mass using raw impedance values was the equation by Pietrobelli et al. (mean difference, -0.7 kg; 95% limits of agreement, -3.5 to 2.0 kg). In a clinical setting, where a rapid assessment of body composition is advantageous, the use of raw impedance values, combined with the equation by Pietrobelli et al., is recommended for the accurate estimation of fat-free mass, in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary strategies and body composition in elite weightlifting: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is little literature that showed the nutritional bases to optimize weightlifting performance. The objective was to perform a systematic review of the body composition and nutritional composition of diets in elite weightlifting athletes. Material and Methods: Articles published in Pubmed, Web of Science and Sport Discuss were reviewed following PRISMA Statement. The process for selecting studies was performed duplicated by two researchers in two stages (screening and application of eligibility criteria. A qualitative synthesis of the main characteristics and findings was made. The quality of studies was assessed. Results: Of the 610 articles found, 8 met the inclusion criteria, which were the studies performed in elite or high-level menopausal women, and information on dietary habits and/or body composition. Body composition identified that the percentage of fat mass was around 15%. A caloric intake of 4080.65±1602.69kcal, a protein intake of 17.29±3.2% of total daily energy (TDE, 42.48±5.6% TDE of carbohydrates and a 36.1±9.75% TDE of fats. A suboptimal dietary profile is suggested, showing an excess in fat intake, which could explain the excess body fat observed in some. Athletes’ protein intake and carbohydrates were within the recommended ranges except for 2 studies. Conclusions: An incorrect diet on the part of the elite weightlifting athletes was observed, which could condition their body composition negatively. The need for advice and intervention by a dietitian-nutritionist professionals was observed.

  15. A lumbar body support (KBS 2000) alters lumbar muscle recruitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    back pain. K. L. Derman, E. w. Derman, T. D. Noakes. Objective. To determine the effects of a locally designed lumbar body support (LBS) on integrated ... surface, patients with chronic low back pain have higher. IEMG activity of the erector spinae ... It has also been shown that changes in sitting posture can alter LBP.6 The ...

  16. Body composition impacts appetite regulation in middle childhood. A prospective study of Norwegian community children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-05-30

    Research suggests a role for both fat mass and muscle mass in appetite regulation, but the longitudinal relationships between them have not yet been examined in children. The present study therefore aimed to explore the prospective relationships between fat mass, muscle mass and the appetitive traits food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness in middle childhood. Food responsiveness and satiety responsiveness were measured using the parent-reported Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in a representative sample of Norwegian 6 year olds, followed up at 8 and 10 years of age (n = 807). Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Applying a structural equation modeling framework we found that higher fat mass predicted greater increases in food responsiveness over time, whereas greater muscle mass predicted decreases in satiety responsiveness. This pattern was consistent both from ages 6 to 8 and from ages 8 to 10 years. Our study is the first to reveal that fat mass and muscle mass predict distinct changes in different appetitive traits over time. Replication of findings in non-European populations are needed, as are studies of children in other age groups. Future studies should also aim to reveal the underlying mechanisms.

  17. Body Composition and Mortality Predictors in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Cristina; Valente, Ana; Oliveira, Telma; Garagarza, Cristina

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate how different compartments of body composition can affect survival in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Multicenter longitudinal observational study of a cohort of patients in HD with 12 months of follow-up. Patients from 34 Nephrocare dialysis units in Portugal were included. A total of 697 patients on maintenance HD during 4 hours 3 days per week were enrolled. Dry weight, presence of diabetes, body mass index (BMI), lean tissue index (LTI), fat tissue index (FTI), body cell mass index (BCMI), albumin and hydration status were recorded at baseline. In all patients, the assessment of body composition was carried out using the Body Composition Monitor (BCM; Fresenius Medical Care a Deutschland GmbH, Germany). Survival during a 12-month period of follow-up. Patient's mean (±standard deviation) age was 65.4 ± 14.3 years, and median (interquartile range) HD vintage was 41 (19-81) months. Patients who died during the study period, had higher age (P < .001), lower dry weight (P = .001), BMI (P < .001), albumin (P < .001), LTI (P = .015), and also lower BCMI (P = .046). Patients with diabetes (P = .045), BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) (P < .001), albumin < 4.0 g/dL (P < .001), relative overhydration ≥ 15% (P = .001), low FTI (P = .019), and also those in the lowest tertile of BCMI (P = .022) displayed a significantly worse survival. In the Cox regression analysis, the overall mortality of patient was related to low FTI, relative overhydration, BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2), BCMI ≤ 5.2 kg/m(2), and albumin < 4.0 g/dL. Several body composition parameters demonstrated to have an important role in predicting 1-year mortality in HD patients. Albumin, FTI, and BMI were useful predictors of mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship of Physical Performance with Body Composition and Bone Mineral Density in Individuals over 60 Years of Age: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyehyung Shin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to examine the relationship between physical performance and body composition measurements, including fat/muscle mass and bone mineral density (BMD in individuals ≥60 years of age. Various measurements used to assess body composition, BMD, and physical performance (PP were discussed as well. Medline/PubMed, CINAHL, and SCIE were used to identify articles. After limiting the search for age and kind of physical performance measures, 33 articles were evaluated. Higher fat mass was associated with poorer physical performance while higher muscle mass was a predictor of better physical performance, especially in the lower extremities. Additionally, evidence showed that higher muscle fat infiltration was a determinant of poorer physical performance. BMD was shown to be a good predictor of physical performance although the relationship was stronger in women than in men. Developing standardized methods for PP measurements could help in further investigation and conclusions of its relationship with body composition.

  19. BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT WITH SEGMENTAL MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka A. Salmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment

  20. Potential of lower-limb muscles to accelerate the body during cerebral palsy gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Tomas A; Schache, Anthony G; Graham, H Kerr; Baker, Richard; Thomason, Pam; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-06-01

    Two of the most common gait patterns in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) are termed 'crouch gait' and 'jump gait'. While outcomes of surgical interventions designed to improve functional mobility are generally positive, many children displaying these gait patterns show minimal or no improvement post-surgery. A poor response to treatment may be partially attributable to incorrect interpretations of muscle function. Computational techniques that assess muscle function may help address this issue, but before studying specific surgeries, the gait patterns themselves must be better understood. The aim of this study was to identify differences in lower-limb muscle function when comparing crouch, jump and able-bodied gait patterns by quantifying the potential of lower-limb muscles to accelerate the body's center of mass. A muscle's potential acceleration was defined as the acceleration induced by a unit of muscle force. Dynamic simulations of walking using musculoskeletal models were developed for eight children with crouch gait, ten with jump gait, and ten controls. There were significant differences (pmuscle potential accelerations between crouch and able-bodied gait patterns, and between jump and able-bodied gait patterns, for most of the major muscles of the hip, knee, and ankle. One important outcome was the identification of the significantly reduced potential of gluteus medius to extend the hip in both crouch gait and jump gait. Potential acceleration analyses appear to be suitable for evaluating differences between common gait patterns and may also be applied to study the effects of surgical treatments. The results of such studies may lead to improved treatment outcomes for individuals with impaired mobility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 6-year changes in body composition in women at mid-life: ovarian and chronological aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, MaryFran; Zheng, Huiyong; Tomey, Kristin; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie; Jannausch, Mary; Li, Xizhao; Yosef, Matheos; Symons, James

    2009-01-01

    Context Understanding the menopause association with body weight is important because excess weight increases risk for stroke, incident cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality among the middle-aged. Objective To examine chronological age and ovarian age and consider how these could influence body size and composition in mid-life women. Design and Setting The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation is a longitudinal, community-based study. This report uses data from the Michigan SWAN site. Participants 543 pre- or early perimenopausal African-American and Caucasian women aged 42–52 years at baseline examination. Main Outcome Measures Waist circumference, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass, from bioelectrical impedance, was assessed in 7 annual serial measures. Annual follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were assayed by ELISA. The final menstrual period (FMP) was defined retrospectively following 12 months of amenorrhea. Results There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase in fat mass of 3.4 kg and a six-year decrease in skeletal muscle mass of ~0.23 kg. There was an absolute cumulative six-year increase of ~5.7 cm in waist circumference. The logFSH change was positively correlated with log(fat mass) change. Waist circumference increased over the time period, but one year following FMP, the rate of increase slowed. Fat mass continued to increase with no change in rate. Conclusions Both time (chronological aging) and ovarian aging contributed to substantial changes in body composition (fat and skeletal muscle mass) and waist circumference. These changes have important ramifications for establishing a metabolic environment that can be healthy or unhealthy. PMID:17192296

  2. Postnatal development of fiber type composition in rabbit jaw and leg muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, J. A. M.; Helmers, R.; Matignon, M. de Goüyon; van Wessel, T.; Langenbach, G. E. J.; van Eijden, T. M. G. J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the difference in fiber type composition and cross-sectional areas during postnatal development in male rabbit jaw muscles and compared these with changes in leg muscles. The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) content of the fibers was determined by immunohistochemistry. No fiber type difference

  3. Sporadic inclusion-body myositis: A degenerative muscle disease associated with aging, impaired muscle protein homeostasis and abnormal mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanas, Valerie; Engel, W King; Nogalska, Anna

    2015-04-01

    Sporadic inclusion-body myositis (s-IBM) is the most common degenerative muscle disease in which aging appears to be a key risk factor. In this review we focus on several cellular molecular mechanisms responsible for multiprotein aggregation and accumulations within s-IBM muscle fibers, and their possible consequences. Those include mechanisms leading to: a) accumulation in the form of aggregates within the muscle fibers, of several proteins, including amyloid-β42 and its oligomers, and phosphorylated tau in the form of paired helical filaments, and we consider their putative detrimental influence; and b) protein misfolding and aggregation, including evidence of abnormal myoproteostasis, such as increased protein transcription, inadequate protein disposal, and abnormal posttranslational modifications of proteins. Pathogenic importance of our recently demonstrated abnormal mitophagy is also discussed. The intriguing phenotypic similarities between s-IBM muscle fibers and the brains of Alzheimer and Parkinson's disease patients, the two most common neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging, are also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. International society of sports nutrition position stand: diets and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Alan A; Schoenfeld, Brad J; Wildman, Robert; Kleiner, Susan; VanDusseldorp, Trisha; Taylor, Lem; Earnest, Conrad P; Arciero, Paul J; Wilborn, Colin; Kalman, Douglas S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Willoughby, Darryn S; Campbell, Bill; Arent, Shawn M; Bannock, Laurent; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Antonio, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Position Statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) bases the following position stand on a critical analysis of the literature regarding the effects of diet types (macronutrient composition; eating styles) and their influence on body composition. The ISSN has concluded the following. 1) There is a multitude of diet types and eating styles, whereby numerous subtypes fall under each major dietary archetype. 2) All body composition assessment methods have strengths and limitations. 3) Diets primarily focused on fat loss are driven by a sustained caloric deficit. The higher the baseline body fat level, the more aggressively the caloric deficit may be imposed. Slower rates of weight loss can better preserve lean mass (LM) in leaner subjects. 4) Diets focused primarily on accruing LM are driven by a sustained caloric surplus to facilitate anabolic processes and support increasing resistance-training demands. The composition and magnitude of the surplus, as well as training status of the subjects can influence the nature of the gains. 5) A wide range of dietary approaches (low-fat to low-carbohydrate/ketogenic, and all points between) can be similarly effective for improving body composition. 6) Increasing dietary protein to levels significantly beyond current recommendations for athletic populations may result in improved body composition. Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg FFM) may be required to maximize muscle retention in lean, resistance-trained subjects under hypocaloric conditions. Emerging research on very high protein intakes (>3 g/kg) has demonstrated that the known thermic, satiating, and LM-preserving effects of dietary protein might be amplified in resistance-training subjects. 7) The collective body of intermittent caloric restriction research demonstrates no significant advantage over daily caloric restriction for improving body composition. 8) The long-term success of a diet depends upon compliance and suppression or

  5. The functional significance of hamstrings composition: is it really a "fast" muscle group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelidis, Pavlos E; Massey, Garry J; Ferguson, Richard A; Wheeler, Patrick C; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-11-01

    Hamstrings muscle fiber composition may be predominantly fast-twitch and could explain the high incidence of hamstrings strain injuries. However, hamstrings muscle composition in vivo, and its influence on knee flexor muscle function, remains unknown. We investigated biceps femoris long head (BFlh) myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition from biopsy samples, and the association of hamstrings composition and hamstrings muscle volume (using MRI) with knee flexor maximal and explosive strength. Thirty-one young men performed maximal (concentric, eccentric, isometric) and explosive (isometric) contractions. BFlh exhibited a balanced MHC distribution [mean ± SD (min-max); 47.1 ± 9.1% (32.6-71.0%) MHC-I, 35.5 ± 8.5% (21.5-60.0%) MHC-IIA, 17.4 ± 9.1% (0.0-30.9%) MHC-IIX]. Muscle volume was correlated with knee flexor maximal strength at all velocities and contraction modes (r = 0.62-0.76, P hamstrings strain injury. Hamstrings muscle volume explained 38-58% of the inter-individual differences in knee flexor maximum strength at a range of velocities and contraction modes, while BFlh muscle composition was not associated with maximal or explosive strength. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of small-volume soccer and vibration training on body composition, aerobic fitness, and muscular PCr kinetics for inactive women aged 20–45

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, Luke J.; Scott, Suzanne; Mohr, Magni

    2014-01-01

    premenopausal women in comparison with an inactive control group (CO, n = 14). Methods: Training for SG and VG consisted of twice-weekly 15-min sessions with average heart rates (HRs) of ∼ 155 and 90 bpm respectively. Pre- and post-measurements of body composition (DXA), phosphocreatine (PCr) on- and off...... in body composition and indicators of aerobic fitness and muscle oxidative capacity in untrained premenopausal women....

  7. Comparison of body composition, exercise and nutritional profiles of female and male body builders at competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, W M; Heyward, V H; Lyons, T M

    1989-03-01

    Limited research information is available on the training programs and dietary practices of competitive male and female body builders. Information on body composition, training programs, and nutritional profiles of eleven competitive male and female body builders were obtained 48 hours prior to competition. Body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing. Skinfold data were obtained to assess the distribution of subcutaneous fat. Questionnaires concerning training programs and a three day food intake record were collected. The female body builders achieved a degree of leanness similar to the males. The relative training volumes for the women were greater than those of the men for all body regions. Gender differences were found in regional deposition of subcutaneous fat between males and females, with the males showing a more uniform distribution of subcutaneous fat. The nutritional profiles of male and female body builders were similar. The pre-competitive diets were low in kilocalories, and the relative energy intakes for men and women were 28.6 kcal/kg and 29.2 kcal/kg respectively. Both men and women consumed low fat and high protein foods. All of the vitamin/mineral intakes of the body builders exceeded the RDA's with the exceptions of calcium for men and women and iron for women only.

  8. INSULIN HORMONE EFFECTS ON FT&ST MUSCLES OF BODY BULDING ATHLETS AND DIABETIC PEOPLE TYPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI GHORBANI

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is a Hormone that is secreted from pancreas and has an undeniable role in regulating blood - suger. In medicine, the injection samples of this Hormone are used for controlling diabetes disease. But recently, it has been used by athletes for driving G lucose and Amino Acids in to muscle - cells in industrial and injection forms for fast development of muscle volume and power among potency athletes specially body - builders. The present study, is reviewing consumption consequences of this drug by athletes and it’s important and of course hidden hazards. In this study, the Hormone’s impression and it’s high secretion and mechanism imbalance in body - builders bodies are analyzed by following Dosage and period of Insulin consumption among athletes and body - b uilders and studying different forms and injection amounts of Insulin, and comparing them with diabetes disease. Results show that Insulin is a Hormone with high Anabolic effect and it is responsible for nutrient materials transmission into blood stream an d muscle - cells. The blood - suger is saved as glycogen in muscles on this hormone effect and Amino acid transmission is developed in body’s muscle system. This features by muscle manufacturing apparent of athletes and muscle exhausting delay in fast contra cting muscle fibers and enthusiasm of practicing for hours, dosen’t cause to ignore the dangerous disadvantageous of this hormone including: imbalance of metabolism such as extra lipid burning and glycogen saving in body. Because of Insulin long consumptio n body produces little amount of glycogen and adrenaline hormones to re increase the amount of blood - suger, therefore increasing blood - suger isn’t declared with warning signals such as: trembling and nervousness, and athletes encounter with the shock of decreasing blood - suger (Hyper - glysemia and die. This study shows that in correct consumption of diabetes drugs are hazardous in body. Builders in different

  9. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  10. Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four isonitrogenous diets containing different lipid levels on the muscle fatty acid profiles of Malaysian mahseer were evaluated over a period of six weeks from June to July, 2010. A general increase of monounsaturated fatty acid contents in the muscle of fish that were fed the test diets was detected after two ...

  11. Myosin heavy chain composition of the human sternocleidomastoid muscle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cvetko, E.; Karen, Petr; Eržen, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 194, č. 5 (2012), s. 467-472 ISSN 0940-9602 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB090910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : immunohistochemistry * MyHC isoforms * muscle fibre types * sternocleidomastoid muscle Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.960, year: 2012

  12. Relationships Between Lower-Body Muscle Structure and, Lower-Body Strength, Explosiveness and Eccentric Leg Stiffness in Adolescent Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh L. Secomb, Sophia Nimphius, Oliver R.L. Farley, Lina E. Lundgren, Tai T. Tran, Jeremy M. Sheppard

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine whether any relationships were present between lower-body muscle structure and, lower-body strength, variables measured during a countermovement jump (CMJ and squat jump (SJ, and eccentric leg stiffness, in adolescent athletes. Thirty junior male (n = 23 and female (n = 7 surfing athletes (14.8 ± 1.7 y; 1.63 ± 0.09 m; 54.8 ± 12.1 kg undertook lower-body muscle structure assessment with ultrasonography and performed a; CMJ, SJ and an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP. In addition, eccentric leg stiffness was calculated from variables of the CMJ and IMTP. Moderate to very large relationships (r = 0.46-0.73 were identified between the thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL and lateral gastrocnemius (LG muscles, and VL pennation angle and; peak force (PF in the CMJ, SJ and IMTP. Additionally, moderate to large relationships (r = 0.37-0.59 were found between eccentric leg stiffness and; VL and LG thickness, VL pennation angle, and LG fascicle length, with a large relationship (r = 0.59 also present with IMTP PF. These results suggest that greater thickness of the VL and LG were related to improved maximal dynamic and isometric strength, likely due to increased hypertrophy of the extensor muscles. Furthermore, this increased thickness was related to greater eccentric leg stiffness, as the associated enhanced lower-body strength likely allowed for greater neuromuscular activation, and hence less compliance, during a stretch-shortening cycle.

  13. BODY COMPOSITE ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL STRUCTURE, CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS USING BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER „TANITA“ TBF-300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the research based on the sample of 56 children with special needs, age 12 to 15, we conducted composite morphological analysis, apropos body composite physical structure analysis using BODY COMPOSITION ANALYZER TANITA TBF- 300. Likewise, with Cluster analysis, actually method of conformational criteria (K-Means Cluster Analysis, using values BMI we made the assessment of physical status and fattening up. The gained results present justification, in another words, product of sensory - motor disorder in this population which is manifested with reduced kinesiology activity because of limited various motor task performance. This and similar kind of condition inevitably leads to disorder in structural analysis of physical structure, therefore to fattening up disorder

  14. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-09-01

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm 2 ; centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m 2 ). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  15. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P Weights varied by year (P weights increased (P weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  16. Maternal and Fetal Determinants of Neonatal Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breij, Laura M; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Briceno, Daniela; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-01-01

    Body composition in early life influences the development of obesity during childhood and beyond. It is, therefore, important to adequately determine neonatal body composition. Fetal growth and maternal factors might influence neonatal fat mass percentage (FM%), independent of birth weight. In 194 healthy neonates, we investigated neonatal body composition, measured by air-displacement plethysmography (PEAPOD), and its associations with estimated fetal weight (EFW), neonatal anthropometric data, maternal preconceptional body mass index (BMI) and maternal weight gain during pregnancy. There was a large variation in neonatal FM%, even in case of a similar birth weight, corrected for gender and gestational age. Neonatal FM% was associated with EFW at 30 and 36 weeks of gestation and with catch-up in weight between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation, but not with EFW at 20 weeks (p Neonatal FM% was also associated with preconceptional BMI of the mother (p maternal weight gain. Our study shows that term neonates have a large variation in FM%. Neonatal FM% is associated with EFW at 30 and 36 weeks, catch-up in weight between 30 and 36 weeks of gestation and preconceptional BMI of the mother. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Determination and regulation of body composition in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonksen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    In 2011, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) and IOC introduced a 'hyperandrogenism' rule that excluded women with a serum testosterone >10 nmol/L from participating in elite sport. This rule was based on the false premise that the greater lean body mass in men was a consequence of their higher serum testosterone. This rule did not have scientific backing and the Court of Arbitration for Sport subsequently rescinded the rule following an appeal from an Indian athlete barred from the Commonwealth Games. This review covers the scientific knowledge about the development and regulation of body composition in humans but also considers the lessons learnt from evolution and breeding in animals. The importance of heredity has been documented in family and twin studies. The roles of growth hormone and sex steroids are reviewed. The Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is considered as a model of the role of testosterone in development of body composition and also as evidence of the importance of other factors carried on the Y-chromosome that are of prime importance but have been systematically ignored. Finally the key factors determining body composition are considered and placed in a suggested order of importance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. [Effect of Acupuncture Therapy on Body Compositions in Patients with Obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Wu, Xue-Liang; Jiang, Chao; Shi, Rong-Xing

    2017-04-25

    To observe the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture intervention in weight reduction by modulating body compositions in obesity patients. A total of 71 obesity patients during weight-loss procedure were allocated to acupuncture+nutrition-consultation group ( n =40) and simple nutrition-consultation group ( n =31). The patients of the acupuncture +nutrition-consultation group were treated by acupuncture stimulation of Zhongwan (CV 12), Xiawan (CV 10), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Qihai (CV 6), Guanyuan (CV 4), etc. for 30 min, once every other day, 3 times per week, 12 times altogether, and also given with weekly nutrition consultation (including subjective query, objective measurement, analysis, program for nutrition support) at the same time. The patients of the simple nutrition-consultation group were treated by only weekly nutrition consultation for 4 weeks. Before and after the treatment, the patients' body weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, percentage of body fat, muscle mass, protein quality, water quality and bone mass were measured by using a composition analyzer. After 4 weeks' treatment, the body mass, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage in both acupuncture+nutrition-consultation and simple nutrition-consultation groups were significantly decreased ( P 0.05). The therapeutic effect of acupuncture+nutrition-consultation group was markedly superior to that of the simple nutrition-consultation group in increasing the improved degrees of body weight, BMI, fat mass and fat percentage ( P Acupuncture plus nutrition consultation is effective in reducing body mass, fat mass and percentage of body fat in obesity patients.

  19. Nonlinear muscles, passive viscoelasticity and body taper conspire to create neuromechanical phase lags in anguilliform swimmers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T McMillen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Locomotion provides superb examples of cooperation among neuromuscular systems, environmental reaction forces, and sensory feedback. As part of a program to understand the neuromechanics of locomotion, here we construct a model of anguilliform (eel-like swimming in slender fishes. Building on a continuum mechanical representation of the body as an viscoelastic rod, actuated by a traveling wave of preferred curvature and subject to hydrodynamic reaction forces, we incorporate a new version of a calcium release and muscle force model, fitted to data from the lamprey Ichthyomyzon unicuspis, that interactively generates the curvature wave. We use the model to investigate the source of the difference in speeds observed between electromyographic waves of muscle activation and mechanical waves of body curvature, concluding that it is due to a combination of passive viscoelastic and geometric properties of the body and active muscle properties. Moreover, we find that nonlinear force dependence on muscle length and shortening velocity may reduce the work done by the swimming muscles in steady swimming.

  20. Body-building without power training : Endogenously regulated pectoral muscle hypertrophy in confined shorebirds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Dekinga, A

    1999-01-01

    Shorebirds such as red knots Calidris canutus routinely make migratory flights of 3000 km or more. Previous studies on this species, based on compositional analyses, suggest extensive pectoral muscle hypertrophy in addition to fat storage before take-off. Such hypertrophy could be due to power

  1. Closing the Loop: Integrating Body, Muscle and Environment with Locomotion Central Pattern Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-30

    between the neural circuitry, body, and fluid environment for swimming locomotion , where the lamprey serves as a model system1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. Our...REPORT Final Report: Closing the Loop: Integrating Body, Muscle and Environment with Locomotion Central Pattern Generators 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...CLASSIFICATION OF: The role of sensory feedback is a central question in understanding vertebrate locomotion . Sensory feedback related to movement of

  2. Tracking of Body Composition in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for

  3. Effects of Aqua Aerobics on Body Composition, Body Mass, Lipid Profile, and Blood Count in Middle-Aged Sedentary Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantyka Joanna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effects of aqua aerobics on body weight and composition, lipid profile, and selected blood count parameters in middle-aged sedentary females. Methods. Twenty-one women were randomly assigned to an experimental group (age 56.20 ± 2.57 years, height 162.80 ± 4.76 cm, weight 74.03 ± 3.84 kg that participated in aqua aerobics classes three times a week for three months and a control group (mean age 56.44 ± 3.28 years, height 165.00 ± 3.91 cm, weight 70.01 ± 11.36 kg not involved in any kind of targeted exercise. The aqua aerobics classes were tailored to suit the age and abilities of the participants, with workout intensity controlled and maintained at approximately 128-137 bpm. Results. Significant differences between the experimental and control groups were found for body weight, total body water, fat-free mass, and skeletal muscle mass. A significant increase in post-intervention hemoglobin and erythrocyte counts was observed in the experimental group. Conclusions. Future studies should determine the intensity of physical activity with the most beneficial effect on blood variables in middle-aged and older individuals.

  4. The association of body composition parameters with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.

  5. Body uneasiness, eating disorders, and muscle dysmorphia in individuals who overexercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-García, Cristina; Ammendolia, Antonio; Procopio, Leonardo; Papaianni, Maria C; Sinopoli, Flora; Bianco, Carmelina; De Fazio, Pasquale; Capranica, Laura

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate exercise dependence, body and eating concerns of active individuals in relation to muscle dysmorphia (MD) and eating disorders (EDs). One hundred and thirty-four active individuals (86 men, 48 women) and 20 ED women were divided into 4 groups according to their sex and the difference between their actual and desired body weight (group A: men who wanted to gain weight; group B: men who wanted to lose weight; group C: women who wanted to lose weight; group D: ED women). The Eating Disorder Inventory 2, Body Uneasiness Test, and Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory questionnaires were administered. All women desired to reduce their body weight, whereas 55% of men wanted to increase their muscle mass, also using anabolic steroids and food integrators. All groups showed a similar use of diuretics and laxatives (range 10-21%). The findings highlighted the presence of minor body image disorders in groups B and C. Conversely, body image was remarkably altered in groups D and A. Recognizing main MD traits, physical trainers should recommend further psychological counseling. Information should also be provided to gym clients regarding the health risks associated with purgative behaviors, use of steroids, and abuse of food supplements.

  6. Effect of whole body vibration exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in females with knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trans, T; Aaboe, J; Henriksen, M

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise on muscle strength and proprioception in female patients with osteoarthritis in the knee (knee-OA). A single blinded, randomised, controlled trial was performed in an outpatient clinic on 52 female patients...

  7. Analysis of Muscle Activity Utilizing Bench Presses in the AnyBody Simulation Modelling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqiu Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the AnyBody human modeling system with identical weights and varying grip distance (40.0 cm, 50.0 cm, and 60.0 cm, the stress distribution for the pectoralis and the muscle of upper extremity during a bench press was simulated, and the surface myoelectricity (EMG method was validated. Methods. The physical parameters driving the model of the human body were selected as weights of 35.0% (25.0 kg and grip distances. Conclusion. The validation of AnyBody software was proved as a high validity by using EMG test of four muscles’ activity compared to AnyBody software. During a bench press, the pectoralis major is the main muscle, the pectoralis major discharge increases with the height of barbell increases, and the pectoralis major discharge decreases as the short grip width increases. When the grip width equals the shoulder width, the value of pectoralis minor is lowest; when the grip width is smaller or larger than the shoulder width, the value is larger. As the short grip distance increases, the discharge of posterior deltoid muscle and triceps surface myoelectricity increases; thus, as the short grip distance increases, the deltoid muscle and triceps assist the pectoralis major during a bench press.

  8. Body, heart, thyroid gland and skeletal muscle weight changes in rats with altered thyroid status

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soukup, Tomáš; Zachařová, Gisela; Smerdu, V.; Jirmanová, Isa

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 6 (2001), s. 619-626 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/00/1653 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : thyroid state * skeletal muscles * body and organ weight Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.027, year: 2001

  9. The effects of 8 weeks of whey or rice protein supplementation on body composition and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jordan M; Lowery, Ryan P; Wilson, Jacob M; Purpura, Martin; De Souza, Eduardo O; Wilson, Stephanie Mc; Kalman, Douglas S; Dudeck, Joshua E; Jäger, Ralf

    2013-06-20

    Consumption of moderate amounts of animal-derived protein has been shown to differently influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy during resistance training when compared with nitrogenous and isoenergetic amounts of plant-based protein administered in small to moderate doses. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine if the post-exercise consumption of rice protein isolate could increase recovery and elicit adequate changes in body composition compared to equally dosed whey protein isolate if given in large, isocaloric doses.

  10. Body Composition Evaluation Issue among Young Elite Football Players: DXA Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Leão

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate assessment of body composition is an important issue among athletes. Different methodologies generate controversial results, leading to a deep uncertainty on individual exercise prescriptions. Thus, this study aims to identify the differences between field methods, such as bioelectrical impedance (BIA and skinfold assessment, with a clinical method, highly accurate, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, among elite young football players. Thirty-eight male football players with a mean (sd age of 16.7 (0.87 years, involved in the Portuguese national competition of U16 (n = 13 and U19 (n = 25, were evaluated and objective measures of body composition, muscle strength and football skills were collected by trained specialists. Body composition was assessed using BIA (Tanita BC-418, Tanita Corp., Tokyo, Japan, in agreement with all the evaluation premises. Additionally, all athletes were evaluated using the clinical method DXA (Hologic Inc., Waltham, MA, USA. Among the U19 athletes, three skinfold sites (SKF were assessed: chest, abdomin and thigh. The Spearman correlation coefficients and the mean difference between methods were calculated. The agreement between both methods was analyzed using Bland-Altman plots. Among the evaluated athletes, lower mean values of body fat % were found using BIA as a method of body composition assessment compared with DXA (12.05 vs. 15.58 for U16; 11.97 vs. 14.16 for U19. Despite the moderate correlation between methods (r = 0.33 to estimate the percentage of total fat, the median of the difference (DXA vs. BIA was relevant in clinical terms, with 2.90% and 1.47% for U16 and U19 athletes, respectively. Stronger correlations were found between the sum of the SKF and DXA fat estimation (r = 0.68. The Bland-Altman plots showed a clear underestimation in the evaluations using the BIA, namely among athletes with better body composition profiles (8%–12% of fat. Using BIA, an underestimation of body fat

  11. The effects of Nordic and general walking on depression disorder patients' depression, sleep, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Doo; Yu, Seong Hun

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] This study examined Nordic walking as an exercise intervention for the elderly with depression. [Subjects] Twenty-four patients who were diagnosed with depression were randomly selected and divided into two groups, an experimental group which performed Nordic walking, and a control group, which performed normal walking. [Methods] Both groups practiced their respective walking exercise for 50 minutes per day, three times a week for eight weeks. To compare the effects of the intervention, psychological factors using the Beck depression inventory and sleep quality was assessed using the Korean version Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Skeletal muscle mass, fat free mass, body mass index, body fat percentage, and basal metabolism were estimated three times by a body composition analyzer, before the intervention, four weeks after the intervention, and eight weeks after the intervention. [Results] There was a significant difference in depression with a main effect of time in both groups. There was also a significant difference in sleep in over time and interaction. The differences over time between the two groups were significant for depression, sleep, and skeletal muscle mass. [Conclusion] The results suggests that Nordic walking has a positive effect on depression and sleeping disorders of the elderly, suggesting that Nordic walking based exercise programs should be developed for the elderly who suffer from depression or a sleeping disorder.

  12. Effects of a water aerobics program on the body composition of active middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Manzano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe and analyze changes in body composition of middle-aged women after participating in a water aerobics physical activity program and a subsequent detraining period. Materials and Methods: The group analyzed consisted of 17 women from Arroyo de San Serván (Badajoz, who were physically active (had participated in fitness gymnastics programs one to three sessions per week for the past three months, with an average age of 53.6 ± 9.1 years. The program was comprised of sixty minute-sessions five days a week, for 6 weeks, with a 4-week detraining period. Three anthropometric evaluations were conducted: at the beginning and at the end of the program and after the detraining period. Size and weight were recorded during each measurement, including six skinfolds, four body circumferences and three bone diameters. Fat percentage was obtained from four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac and abdominal using the Yuhasz formula modified by Faulkner (1968. The muscle percentage was calculated from total mass percentage less bone percentage (Rocha, 1975, body fat percentage (Faulkner, 1968 and the residual percentage using the Wurch ́s equation (Esparza, 1993 of subjects measured, based on Matiegka ́s basic proposal (four components model. Results: after the program a significant increase was observed in muscle percentage: 32.69 ± 2.69% vs. 33.44 ± 2.89% (p <0.05, in muscle weight: 23.45 ± 3.53 kg vs. 24.02 ± 3.33 kg (p <0.05, as well as a significant decrease in the fat component reflected in the sum of skinfolds: 193.66 ± 25.54 mm vs. 188.38 ± 25.67 mm (p <0.05 and more specifically in the suprailiac skinfold, 30.47 ± 8.49 mm. vs 28.00 ± 8.78 mm (p <0.05. These trends were maintained during the detraining period, specifically in muscle percentage: 33.44 ± 2.89% vs. 34.25 ± 3.04% (p <0.01 compared to initial measurement, muscle weight: 24.02 ± 3.33 kg vs 24.74 ± 3.64 kg (p <0.01 compared to initial measurement, the sum

  13. Early Hormonal Treatment Affects Body Composition and Body Shape in Young Transgender Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Maartje; de Mutsert, Renée; Wiepjes, Chantal M; Twisk, Jos W R; den Heijer, Martin; Rotteveel, Joost; Klink, Daniël T

    2018-02-01

    Transgender adolescents aspiring to have the body characteristics of the affirmed sex can receive hormonal treatment. However, it is unknown how body shape and composition develop during treatment and whether transgender persons obtain the desired body phenotype. To examine the change in body shape and composition from the start of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) until 22 years of age and to compare these measurements at 22 years with those of age-matched peers. 71 transwomen (birth-assigned boys) and 121 transmen (birth-assigned girls) who started treatment from 1998 through 2014 were included in this retrospective study. GnRHa treatment was started and cross-sex hormonal treatment was added at 16 years of age. Anthropometric and whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry data were retrieved from medical records. Linear mixed model regression was performed to examine changes over time. SD scores (SDS) were calculated to compare body shape and composition with those of age-matched peers. Change in waist-hip ratio (WHR), total body fat (TBF), and total lean body mass (LBM) during hormonal treatment. SDS of measures of body shape and composition compared with age-matched peers at 22 years of age. In transwomen, TBF increased (+10%, 95% CI = 7-11) while total LBM (-10%, 95% CI = -11 to -7) and WHR (-0.04, 95% CI = -0.05 to -0.02) decreased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.3 (95% CI = 0.0-0.5) for WHR, and 0.0 (95% CI = -0.2 to 0.3) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -1.0 (95% CI = -1.3 to -0.7) for WHR, and +2.2 (95% CI = 2.2-2.4) for TBF. In transmen, TBF decreased (-3%, 95% CI = -4 to -1), while LBM (+3%, 95% CI = 1-4) and WHR (+0.03, 95% CI = 0.01-0.04) increased. Compared with ciswomen, SDS at 22 years of age were +0.6 (95% CI = 0.4-0.8) for WHR, and -1.1 (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.9) for TBF. Compared with cismen, SDS were -0.5 (95% CI = -0.8 to -0.3) for WHR, and +1.8 (95% CI = 1.6-1.9) for TBF. Knowing body

  14. Composition and function of P bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.

  15. A method for estimating fetal weight based on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Chen; Jie, Yu; Xiu-E, Gao; Gui-Chuan, Fan; Wen-Long, Zhang

    2018-04-02

    Fetal weight is an important factor to determine the delivery mode of pregnant women. The change of fetal weight is significant, according to regular health monitoring of pregnant women. Conventional methods of fetal weight estimation, namely those based on B-ultrasound, are very complicated and the costs are high. In this paper, we propose a new method based on body composition. An abdominal four-segment impedance model is first established upon pregnant women, as well as the method of calculation. A body composition based method is then given to estimate the fetal weight, with the solution given explicitly. Analyses of clinical data reveal the smallness of the error between the estimated value and the actual value. The error between B-ultrasound and the present method is less than 15%.

  16. Circulating leptin and body composition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakas, S; Karadag, F; Karul, A B; Gurgey, O; Gurel, S; Guney, E; Cildag, O

    2005-10-01

    Nutritional depletion and weight loss are two features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the association between low body mass index (BMI) and poor prognosis in patients with COPD is a common clinical observation. Mechanisms of weight loss are still unclear in COPD. Excessive energy expenditure partly due to increased work of breathing was shown, but other mechanisms have been searched for. Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that plays an important role in energy homeostasis and regulates body weight through control of appetite and energy expenditure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of circulating leptin levels and measures of body composition in COPD patients. Thirty male COPD outpatients (mean age 66.3 +/- 8.4) and 20 controls (mean age 65.9 +/- 10.8) were included in the study. After standard spirometry and body composition measurements, serum leptin concentration was measured by ELISA assay. COPD patients were grouped according to BMI. Mean BMI was 19.01 +/- 2.26 kg/m2 in group 1 (COPD patients with low BMI), 26.85 +/- 4.51 in group 2 COPD (COPD patients with normal/high BMI) and 27.64 +/- 2.75 kg/m2 in healthy controls (group 3). Mean serum leptin concentration was 1.41 +/- 1.86 ng/ml in group 1, 2.60 +/- 1.38 ng/ml in group 2 and 2.82 +/- 1.46 ng/ml in group 3 (p = 0.002). Leptin correlated to not only BMI but also body weight, waist circumference, triceps and biceps skinfold thickness and body fat percent (p leptin in COPD. Instead, leptin remains regulated in COPD and further decreased in patients with low BMI, probably as a compensatory mechanism to preserve body fat content, which should be evaluated in further studies.

  17. Relation between maternal body composition and birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin Aguirre, Luz Helena; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2004-01-01

    In order to establish the relationship between maternal body composition indicators (fat-free mass, fat mass, total body water) and birth weight, a cross-sectional study was designed, based on 196 pairs of mothers and live singleton newborns with gestational age of 37 weeks or more. Immediately after delivery, the mothers were interviewed to obtain information about different birth weight predictors. An analysis of maternal body composition through bioelectric impedance was held. Multiple linear regression was used to measure the effect of each variable on birth weight. The birth weight mean was 3,251 +/- 514 g. Maternal height was 160.44 +/- 6.3 cm, total net weight gain was 5.85 +/- 5.15 kg, fat mass consisted of 15.84 +/- 6.72 kg, and fat-free mass was 50.42 +/- 7.65 kg; total body water was 34.82 +/- 5.61 liters. The model which included total body water and all predictors found to be associated with birth weight in the bivariate analysis (maternal age, gestational age, gender, placenta weight, and placenta weight squared) was found to be the best in explaining the variability of birth weight (R(2) = 45.26%). Fat mass was an important predictor only in the subgroup of women within the low tertile of body mass index. In conclusion, fat-free mass and total body water explained a major proportion of the variability of birth weight in comparison with the mother's weight gain during the pregnancy period, which has already been considered an important predictor of birth weight. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Prediction of whole-body and segmental body composition by bioelectrical impedance in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Amanda; Omaña, Wilberto; Flores, Lílliam; Coves, María José; Bellido, Diego; Perea, Verónica; Vidal, Josep

    2012-04-01

    Validated equations for body composition analysis using bioelectrical impedance (BIA) in morbidly obese (MO) subjects are scarce. Thus, our aim was todevelop new equations from physical and BIA parameters to estimate whole-body and segmental body composition inMO subjects, with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA) as the reference method. A cross-sectional study on 159 Caucasian MO subjects (female 78%, age 43.5 ± 11.8 years, BMI 45.6 ± 4.9 kg/m2) divided in two groups was conducted: model building cohort (n = 110) and model validation cohort (n 0 49). Stepwise regression analysis was used to develop specific fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) equations. Gender, body weight, and height2/impedance accounted, respectively, for 89.4% (p impedance, and waist and hip circumferences (respectively, R2 adjusted: 0.657, 0.776, and 0.770; p < 0.001). The new equations derived from physical and BIA parameters provide accurate estimates of body composition in MO subjects.

  19. Features of somatotype and body weight component composition in patients with acne: boys and girls of Podillya region of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunas Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the differences in peculiarities of somatotype and body weight component composition in patients with acne, the study population being boys and girls of the Podillya region of Ukraine. In the study subjects, regardless of sex, body muscle mass, bone mass and the mesomorphic somatotype component of those with acne were significantly greater, while fat body mass indicators and the endomorphic somatotype component was smaller – in comparison to that of non-afflicted subjects of similar gender. Regarding the ectomorphic component of somatotype, between the surveyed groups of those with and without acne, whether male or female, no significant differences were revealed. For all indicators, whether the somatotype components or the component composition of body weight, between groups of boys or girls with different degrees of severity of acne, again no significant differences were established.

  20. Whole-Body Vibration and Blood Flow and Muscle Oxygenation: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Kenneth E.; Sefton, JoEllen M.; Wilson, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. Objective: To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. Data Sources: We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Study Selection: Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Data Extraction: Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. Data Synthesis: We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation

  1. Whole-body vibration and blood flow and muscle oxygenation: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Kenneth E; Sefton, JoEllen M; Wilson, Alan E

    2015-05-01

    The use and popularity of whole-body vibration (WBV) has increased in recent years, but there is a lack of consensus in the literature about the effectiveness of the treatment. To quantitatively examine the effects of WBV on muscle oxygenation and peripheral blood flow in healthy adults. We searched Web of Science and PubMed databases and reference lists from relevant articles using the key terms whole body vibration, whole-body vibration, WBV, blood flow, peripheral blood flow, oxygenation, muscle oxygenation, circulation, circulatory, near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS, and power Doppler. Key terms were searched using single word and combination searches. No date range was specified. Criteria for inclusion were (1) use of a commercially available WBV device, (2) a human research model, (3) a pre-WBV condition and at least 1 WBV experimental condition, and (4) reporting of unstandardized means and standard deviations of muscle oxygenation or peripheral blood flow. Means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted from the text, tables, and figures of included studies. A total of 35 and 90 data points were extracted for the muscle-oxygenation and blood-flow meta-analyses, respectively. Data for each meta-analysis were combined and analyzed using meta-analysis software. Weighted, random-effects meta-analyses using the Hedges g metric were completed for muscle oxygenation and blood flow. We then conducted follow-up analyses using the moderator variables of vibration type, vibration time, vibration frequency, measurement location, and sample type. We found 18 potential articles. Further examination yielded 10 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Whole-body vibration was shown to positively influence peripheral blood flow. Additionally, the moderators of vibration type and frequency altered the influence of WBV on blood flow. Overall, WBV did not alter muscle oxygenation; however, when the measurement site was considered, muscle oxygenation increased or

  2. Change in functional status and body composition in institutionalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Novo, André; Preto, Leonel; Santos, Ana; Mendes, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    The decrease on muscular strength, flexibility and balance are widely recognized as the main causes of disability in older people. A better knowledge of these variables can help to plan programs for active aging.Objective – To assess physical functioning, body composition and fear of falling and analyze these dimensions on the aging process. Methods – This is a longitudinal descriptive-correlational study. The sample comprise 51 institutionalized elderly followed for two years. The data colle...

  3. General many-body formalism for composite quantum particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, M; Betbeder-Matibet, O

    2010-05-21

    This Letter provides a formalism capable of exactly treating Pauli blocking between n-fermion particles. This formalism is based on an operator algebra made of commutators and anticommutators which contrasts with the usual scalar formalism of Green functions developed half a century ago for elementary quantum particles. We also provide the diagrams which visualize the very specific many-body physics induced by fermion exchanges between composite quantum particles.

  4. Heat-Induced Calcium Leakage Causes Mitochondrial Damage inCaenorhabditis elegansBody-Wall Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Kenta; Homma, Takashi; Isaka, Ruri; Sudevan, Surabhi; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2017-08-01

    Acute onset of organ failure in heatstroke is triggered by rhabdomyolysis of skeletal muscle. Here, we showed that elevated temperature increases free cytosolic Ca 2+ [Ca 2+ ]f from RYR (ryanodine receptor)/UNC-68 in vivo in the muscles of an experimental model animal, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans This subsequently leads to mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction, and breakdown of myofilaments similar to rhabdomyolysis. In addition, treatment with an inhibitor of RYR (dantrolene) or activation of FoxO (Forkhead box O)/DAF-16 is effective against heat-induced muscle damage. Acute onset of organ failure in heatstroke is triggered by rhabdomyolysis of skeletal muscle. To gain insight into heat-induced muscle breakdown, we investigated alterations of Ca 2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial morphology in vivo in body-wall muscles of C. elegans exposed to elevated temperature. Heat stress for 3 hr at 35° increased the concentration of [Ca 2+ ]f, and led to mitochondrial fragmentation and subsequent dysfunction in the muscle cells. A similar mitochondrial fragmentation phenotype is induced in the absence of heat stress by treatment with a calcium ionophore, ionomycin. Mutation of the unc-68 gene, which encodes the ryanodine receptor that is linked to Ca 2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, could suppress the mitochondrial dysfunction, muscle degeneration, and reduced mobility and life span induced by heat stress. In addition, in a daf-2 mutant, in which the DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor is activated, resistance to calcium overload, mitochondrial fragmentation, and dysfunction was observed. These findings reveal that heat-induced Ca 2+ accumulation causes mitochondrial damage and consequently induces muscle breakdown. Copyright © 2017 Momma et al.

  5. Development of body weight support gait training system using antagonistic bi-articular muscle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Shingo; Nobutomo, Tatsuya; Miyoshi, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichiroh

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a body weight support gait training system for stroke and spinal cord injury. This system consists of a powered orthosis, treadmill and equipment of body weight support. Attachment of the powered orthosis is able to fit subject who has difference of body size. This powered orthosis is driven by pneumatic McKibben actuator. Actuators are arranged as pair of antagonistic bi-articular muscle model and two pairs of antagonistic mono-articular muscle model like human musculoskeletal system. Part of the equipment of body weight support suspend subject by wire harness, and body weight of subject is supported continuously by counter weight. The powered orthosis is attached equipment of body weight support by parallel linkage, and movement of the powered orthosis is limited at sagittal plane. Weight of the powered orthosis is compensated by parallel linkage with gas-spring. In this study, we developed system that has orthosis powered by pneumatic McKibben actuators and equipment of body weight support. We report detail of our developed body weight support gait training system.

  6. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  7. Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J; Jørgensen, T B

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated if prior eccentric contractions, and thus mechanical strain and muscle damage, exert an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats, and whether a possible effect could be attenuated by dietary supplements. Twenty-three rats were randomised...... to three groups who received chow with added fish oil (n = 8), vitamin C (n = 8) or no supplement (n = 7). After 3 weeks of feeding, calf muscles on one side were stimulated electrically during anaesthesia causing eccentric contractions. Two days later the white gastrocnemius, a part of the stimulated calf...... muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0...

  8. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jacqueline C

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (body mass index (BMI and height as predictors of newborn body composition. Methods Weight, height, head and mid-arm circumferences, skinfold thicknesses and external pelvic diameters were measured at 30 ± 2 weeks gestation in 571 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Paternal height and weight were also measured. At birth, detailed neonatal anthropometry was performed. Unrotated and varimax rotated PCA was applied to the maternal and neonatal measurements. Results Rotated PCA reduced maternal measurements to 4 independent components (fat, pelvis, height and muscle and neonatal measurements to 3 components (trunk+head, fat, and leg length. An SD increase in maternal fat was associated with a 0.16 SD increase (β in neonatal fat (p Conclusion Principal components analysis is a useful method to describe neonatal body composition and its determinants. Newborn adiposity is related to maternal nutritional status and parity, while newborn length is genetically determined. Further research is needed to understand mechanisms linking maternal pelvic size to fetal growth and the determinants and implications of the components (trunk v leg length of fetal skeletal growth.

  10. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2014-04-01

    The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. THERE WERE THREE DIETARY PATTERNS DERIVED BY CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN THIS STUDY: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m(2)), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be increased for Korean elderly health body composition.

  11. Total body composition by dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazess, R.B.; Peppler, W.W.; Gibbons, M.

    1984-10-01

    The lean-fat composition (%FATR) of soft tissue and the mineral mass of the skeleton were determined in vivo using dual-photon (153Gd) absorptiometry (dose under 2 mrem). A rectilinear raster scan was made over the entire body in 18 subjects (14 female, 4 male). Single-photon absorptiometry (125I) measured bone mineral content on the radius. Percentage fat (%FATD) was determined in the same subjects using body density (from underwater weighing with correction for residual lung volume). Lean body mass (LBM) was determined using both %FATR and %FATD. Percentage fat from absorptiometry and from underwater density were correlated (r . 0.87). The deviation of %FATD from %FATR was due to the amount of skeletal mineral as a percentage of the LBM (r . 0.90). Therefore, skeletal variability, even in normal subjects, where mineral ranges only from 4 to 8% of the LBM, essentially precludes use of body density as a composition indicator unless skeletal mass is measured. Anthropometry (fatfolds and weight) predicted %FATR and LBM at least as well as did underwater density. The predictive error of %FATR from fatfolds was 5% while the predictive error in predicting LBM from anthropometry was 2 to 3 kg (3%).

  12. Abdominal bracing during lifting alters trunk muscle activity and body kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Pieter; Campbell, Amity; Kemp-Smith, Kevin; O'Sullivan, Peter; Straker, Leon

    2017-09-01

    We assessed whether participants are able to perform abdominal bracing during lifting, and described its effects on trunk muscle activity and body kinematics. Fourteen participants performed 10 lifts (symmetrical lifting of a 15 kg load from floor level), 5 with abdominal bracing and 5 without. Activity of the lumbar multifidus (LM) and internal oblique (IO) muscles, and trunk and lower body kinematics were obtained. During non-bracing lifting, IO activity did not increase beyond rested standing levels (with average muscle activity ranging between 8.2 and 9.1% maximum voluntary contraction; %MVC), while LM activity did (range: 8.5-21.0 %MVC). During bracing lifting, muscle activity was higher compared to non-bracing in IO and LM at the start of the lift (with average between condition differences up to 10.9 %MVC). Upper leg, pelvis and lumbar spine angles were smaller, but thorax flexion angles were larger while lifting with bracing compared to without (with average between condition differences ranging from 0.7° to 4.3°). Although participants do not typically brace their abdominal muscles while lifting, they can be trained to do so. There appears to be no clear advantage of abdominal bracing during lifting, leaving its value for low-back pain prevention unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of nutrition, supplementation and body composition parameters on the example of professional volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolska, Joanna; Witczak, Katarzyna; Mańczuk, Angelika; Ostrowska, Lucyna

    2014-01-01

    Volleyball is a team game belonging to a group of sports disciplines that involve indirect fighting. Adequate energy coverage in athletes is a crucial issue. It depends primarily on the type, intensity and duration of physical activity related to the sports discipline practiced and to the training cycle duration. The average energy requirement in sportsmen is 50% higher than that of adults. The aim of the study was to characterize the mode of nutrition, including dietary supplements and to assess somatic indices in female volleyball players of the AZS Bialystok team. The study involved 17 women. Research tools included a questionnaire consisting of 24-hour recall, a questionnaire survey concerning supplement intake and body composition analysis performed using a bioimpedance analyzer InBody 220. Data analysis indicates that the anthropometric characteristics and body composition of the AZS Bialystok players meet the recommendations associated with the somatic features in volleyball. Daily diet of the volleyball players were of low-energy with regard to the recommendations for physically active people, with very low supply of carbohydrates and dietary fiber, excessive proportion of saturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol, and too low content of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Supply of vitamins and minerals was found to be alarmingly low, especially of iron and calcium; diet supplementation was insufficient. No significant abnormalities were noted in body composition of the study athletes. However, they are recommended to increase muscle mass and slightly reduce body fat. Results of diet evaluation show the need for education in the field of nutrition and the necessity of further research into dietary habits among sportsmen.

  14. Body composition and physical fitness of undernourished South African rural primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, M A; Koppes, L L J; Kemper, H C G; Monyeki, K D; Toriola, A L; Pienaar, A E; Twisk, J W R

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between the body composition characteristics, body mass index (BMI), sum of skinfolds (SSF), % body fat (%BF), fat-free mass (FFM) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and nine physical fitness items in undernourished rural primary school children in Ellisras, South Africa. A cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 462 boys and 393 girls who were aged 7-14 y. Five body composition measures were assessed: BMI, SSF, %BF, FFM and WHR. Nine physical fitness test items were assessed: standing long jump, bent arm hang, sit-ups, 10 x 5 m shuttle run, 50 m sprint, 1600 m run, flamingo balance, sit and reach, plate tapping. BMI was highly correlated with FFM (r = 0.7, P sit and reach (B = -7.48, P = 0.01). In contrast, significant relationships were found between BMI and standing long jump (B = 0.74, P = 0.04), sit and reach (B = 0.51, P sit and reach (B = 0.04, P = 0.03). Significant inverse associations were found between FFM and bent arm hang (girls, B = -0.06, P = 0.05), 1600 m run (girls, B = -2.33, P = 0.003) and 50 m run (boys, B = -0.11, P = 0.006). FFM was significantly associated with standing long jump (boys, B = 0.99, P sit and reach (boys, B = 0.59, P = 0.03). In the present study in undernourished children, body composition was significantly related to physical fitness, but not always in the expected direction. It is therefore important to note that in this population, BMI should not be interpreted as a measure of fatness/overweight, but rather as an indicator of muscle mass.

  15. Body composition and physical fitness in women with bulimia nervosa or binge-eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Therese Fostervold; Rosenvinge, Jan H; Friborg, Oddgeir; Pettersen, Gunn; Stensrud, Trine; Hansen, Bjørge Herman; Underhaug, Karoline E; Teinung, Elisabeth; Vrabel, KariAnne; Svendsen, Mette; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge about physical fitness in women with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED) is sparse. Previous studies have measured physical activity largely through self-report, and physical fitness variables are mainly restricted to body mass index (BMI) and bone mineral density. We expanded the current knowledge in these groups by including a wider range of physical fitness indicators and objective measures of physical activity, assessed the influence of a history of anorexia nervosa (AN), and evaluated predictive variables for physical fitness. Physical activity, blood pressure, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength, body composition, and bone mineral density were measured in 156 women with BN or BED, with mean (SD) age 28.4 years (5.7) and BMI 25.3 (4.8) kg m -2 . Level of physical activity was higher than normative levels, still Fitness in women with BN were on an average comparable with recommendations or normative levels, while women with BED had lower CRF and higher BMI, VAT, and body fat percentage. We found 10-12% with masked obesity. A history of AN did not predict current physical fitness, still values for current body composition were lower when comparing those with history of AN to those with no such history. Overall, participants with BN or BED displayed adequate physical fitness; however, a high number had unfavorable CRF and body composition. This finding calls for inclusion of physical fitness in routine clinical examinations and guided physical activity and dietary recommendations in the treatment of BN and BED. © 2018 The Authors International Journal of Eating Disorders Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzell, Anthony R; Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Kraemer, William J; Otieno, Sango

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to document changes in height (cm), body weight (kg), and body composition (%fat) of American football players from 1942 to 2011. Published articles were identified from databases and cross-referencing of bibliographies. Studies selected met the requirements of (1) having 2 of 3 dependent (height, body weight, and body composition) variables reported in the results; (2) containing a skill level of college or professional; (3) providing measured not self-reported data; and (4) published studies in English language journals. The data were categorized into groups based on skill level (college and professional). The player positions were grouped into 3 categories: mixed linemen (offensive and defensive linemen, tight ends, and linebackers), mixed offensive backs (quarterback and running backs), and mixed skilled positions (defensive backs and wide receivers). Linear regression was used to provide slope estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Unpaired t-tests were used to determine whether an individual regression slope was significantly different from zero. Statistical significance was set at p offensive backs 0.089-0.298 kg·y(-1); mixed skilled 0.078-0.334 kg·y(-1)). The college level mixed linemen showed a significant increase over time for height (95% CI: 0.034-0.188 cm·y(-1)) and body composition (0.046-0.275% fat per year). Significant increases in body weight over time were found for professional level mixed lineman (95% CI: 0.098-0.756 kg·y(-1)) and mixed offensive backs (95% CI: 0.1800-0.545 kg·y(-1)). There were no other significant changes at the professional level. These data demonstrate that body weight of all college players and professional mixed lineman have significantly increased from 1942 to 2011.

  17. BODY COMPOSITION IN HEMODIALYSIS AND PERITONEAL DIALYSIS PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Ho Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance analysis is a reliable technique for determining post dialysis target weight. Using this technique, we can understand body fluid status easier and conveniently. Moreover this technique can be used for check nutrition status and nutritional status of dialysis patients. We compared the body fluid status and nutrition status between hemodialysis (HD patients and peritoneal dialysis (PD patients by BCM (Body composition monitor technique. We studied 48 (30 males and 18 females PD patients, 21 (10 males and 11 females HD patients. Body composition monitoring (BCM, Fesenitus Medical Care, Germany was used as a tool for the analysis of bioimpedance. Extracellular water, Total body water, Intracellular water, Overhydration, E/I, Lean tissue mass, Fat Tissue mass was measured and those results were compared between two groups. HD patients were more hydrated than PD patients (61.9% vs. 35.4% and nutritional status such as LTI was poorer than peritoneal dialysis patients (11.7±1.7 vs. 15.3±2.6. Although total body water is more abundant in peritoneal patients (29.4±5.5L vs. 35.9±6.2L, Extracellular water and intracellular water ratio was relatively higher in Hemodialysis patients (E/I 0.98±0.13 vs. 0.87±0.12. The nutrition status was better in PD patients by comparing the percent of lean tissue mass (LTM% between two groups (LTM% 52.1±10.6% vs. 66.8±11.3. In conclusions, Hemodialysis patients were more hydrated with poorer nutrition status than peritoneal dialysis patients, but, due to the significant difference of age between two groups, further study should be required.

  18. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy ...

  19. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four "virtual family" members for thermoregulatory modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N; Potter, Adam W

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  20. A Research Program of Weight and Body Composition Management for Women with Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingram, Caroyln

    2004-01-01

    ...) to examine the relationships between physical activity and body composition changes during adjuvant chemotherapy, and the changes in proportions of body water and lean tissue underlying changes...

  1. Computational method for the real-time calculation of the full-body muscle load distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippen, James

    2016-01-01

    A method is described for minimising a quadratic function subject to equality and inequality constraints. This approach is applicable to solving the full-body muscle load distribution problem and calculating joint contact loads. It has been found that this approach can provide the solution on modest computing facilities and in significantly less time than using active set and interior point quadratic programming techniques. Hence the approach is suitable for providing real-time feedback to subjects undergoing biomechanical analysis of muscle, skeletal and joint loadings.

  2. Novel biocompatible transversal pneumatic artificial muscles made of PDMS/PET satin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmechtyk Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study novel transversal pneumatic artificial muscles (TPAM, made from composite – poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS matrix membrane and poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET satin reinforcement, are presented. Miniature TPAM consists of a flexible internal braid (IB reinforcing the membrane and the external braid (EB. EB, with fibers arranged transversely to the IB, is placed laterally. Differently prepared TPAMs were tested for their effectiveness as actuators for robot drive and the PDMS/PET composite suitability was evaluated for applications in human gastrointestinal tract (chemical resistance, thermal characteristic. FT-IR spectra of the composite were compared for study PDMS impregnation process of PET satin and effect of immersion in selected solution. The composite shows outstanding biocompatibility and the muscles have competitive static load characteristics in comparison with other pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM. These results lead to believe, that in the near future painless examination of the gastrointestinal tract using a secure robot will be possible.

  3. Phase-contrast imaging for body composition measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huajie; Hu, Renfang; Wali, Faiz; Wu, Zhao; Gao, Kun; Wang, Shenghao; Gu, Yonggang; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel method for human body composition measurement, especially for the bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. The proposed method, using the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from X-ray grating-based interferometer (XGBI) to measure the BMD, has potential to replace dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), which is currently widely used for body composition measurement. The DEXA method employs two absorption images acquired at two different X-ray spectra (high energy and low energy) to calculate the human body composition. In this paper, a new method to calculate BMD using a single X-ray measurement is proposed. XGBI is a relatively new X-ray technique that provides absorption, phase and scattering information simultaneously using a single X-ray spectrum. With the absorption and differential phase information retrieved from XGBI, BMD can be measured using only one single X-ray spectrum. Numerical simulations are performed with a body phantom of bone (Cortical, ICRU-44) surrounded by soft tissue (Soft, ICRU-44). BMD is calculated with both the DEXA method and the proposed method. Results show that BMD can be measured accurately with the proposed method; moreover, better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is obtained compared to DEXA. With the proposed method, BMD can be measured with XGBI setup. Further, the proposed method can be realized using current X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) apparatus without any hardware modification, suggesting that this technique can be a promising supplementary function to current XPCI equipment. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Etaoin; O'Dwyer, Vicky; Fattah, Chro; Farah, Nadine; O'Connor, Clare; Turner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight. Nondiabetic women were recruited after ultrasonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy in the first trimester. Maternal body composition was measured using bioelectric impedance analysis. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to identify the strongest predictors of birth weight, with multiple logistic regression analysis performed to assess predictors of birth weight greater than 4 kg. Data were analyzed for 2,618 women, of whom 49.6% (n=1,075) were primigravid and 16.5% (n=432) were obese based on a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher. In univariable analysis, maternal age, BMI, parity, gestational age at delivery, smoking, fat mass, and fat-free mass all correlated significantly with birth weight. In multivariable regression analysis, fat-free mass remained a significant predictor of birth weight (model R=0.254, standardized β=0.237; Prelationship was found between maternal fat mass and birth weight. After adjustment for confounding variables, women in the highest fat-free mass quartile had an adjusted odds ratio of 3.64 (95% confidence interval 2.34-5.68) for a birth weight more than 4 kg compared with those in the lowest quartile. Based on direct measurements of body composition, birth weight correlated positively with maternal fat-free mass and not adiposity. These findings suggest that, in nondiabetic women, interventions intended to reduce fat mass during pregnancy may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates and revised guidelines for gestational weight gain in obese women may not prevent large-for-gestational-age neonates. : III.

  5. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  6. Body composition measurement using computed tomography: Does the phase of the scan matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Katie E; Javanmard-Emamghissi, Hannah; Awwad, Amir; Macdonald, Ian A; Fearon, Kenneth C H; Lobo, Dileep N

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine, from the methodologic standpoint, the effect of the presence or absence of intravenous contrast on body composition variables obtained by analysis of computed tomography (CT) images. Triphasic abdominal (noncontrast, arterial phase, and portovenous phase contrast) CT scans from 111 patients were analyzed by two independent assessors at the third lumbar vertebral level using SliceOmatic software (version 5.0, TomoVision, Montreal, Canada). Variables included skeletal muscle index (SMI), fat and fat-free mass (FM and FFM, respectively), and mean skeletal muscle Hounsfield units (SMHU). Mean SMHU was lowest in the noncontrast phase (29.4, standard deviation [SD] 8.9 HU), followed by arterial (32.4, SD 9.3 HU) then portovenous phases (34.9, SD 9.4 HU). The mean skeletal muscle attenuation was significantly different depending on the phase of the scan in which the images were obtained. Calculated FM was significantly lower in both arterial (28.6, SD 8.8 kg, P definition of myosteatosis should include a standardized phase of CT for analysis and this should be incorporated within its definition. However, as the magnitudes of the differences were relatively small, the effect of the phase of the scan on predicting outcome needs to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Body Composition Changes After Very-Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet in Obesity Evaluated by 3 Standardized Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Bellido, Diego; Castro, Ana I; Ordoñez-Mayan, Lucia; Carreira, Jose; Galban, Cristobal; Martinez-Olmos, Miguel A; Crujeiras, Ana B; Sajoux, Ignacio; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-02-01

    Common concerns when using low-calorie diets as a treatment for obesity are the reduction in fat-free mass, mostly muscular mass, that occurs together with the fat mass (FM) loss, and determining the best methodologies to evaluate body composition changes. This study aimed to evaluate the very-low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diet-induced changes in body composition of obese patients and to compare 3 different methodologies used to evaluate those changes. Twenty obese patients followed a VLCK diet for 4 months. Body composition assessment was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), multifrequency bioelectrical impedance (MF-BIA), and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) techniques. Muscular strength was also assessed. Measurements were performed at 4 points matched with the ketotic phases (basal, maximum ketosis, ketosis declining, and out of ketosis). After 4 months the VLCK diet induced a -20.2 ± 4.5 kg weight loss, at expenses of reductions in fat mass (FM) of -16.5 ± 5.1 kg (DXA), -18.2 ± 5.8 kg (MF-BIA), and -17.7 ± 9.9 kg (ADP). A substantial decrease was also observed in the visceral FM. The mild but marked reduction in fat-free mass occurred at maximum ketosis, primarily as a result of changes in total body water, and was recovered thereafter. No changes in muscle strength were observed. A strong correlation was evidenced between the 3 methods of assessing body composition. The VLCK diet-induced weight loss was mainly at the expense of FM and visceral mass; muscle mass and strength were preserved. Of the 3 body composition techniques used, the MF-BIA method seems more convenient in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  8. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, page, married, less educated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of reference for planning health related program for MF personnel to prevent non-communicable disease among firefighters population.

  9. Bioelectric impedance analysis of body composition of children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia in Enugu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Christopher Bismarck; Chukwu, Bartholomew Friday; Ikefuna, Anthony Nnaemeka; Ezenwosu, Osita Uchenna; Emodi, Ifeoma Josephine

    2015-05-01

    Body composition indices are widely used to evaluate growth and nutrition in children, particularly those with sickle cell anemia (SCA), who are known to have impaired growth, impaired skeletal maturation, and delayed puberty. The current study is aimed at determining the body composition of children with SCA. Consecutive selection of SCA children aged 6 to 18 years, who served as subjects and their age and gender matched children with HbAA (controls), selected using multi-stage systematic sampling. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the pediatric hematology and oncology clinic. Bioelectric impedance analysis was used to determine the body composition parameters, including weight, body fat percentage (BFP), visceral fat percentage, body mass index (BMI), skeletal muscle percentage, and resting metabolic rate. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 at P Children with SCA, particularly the older males, have impaired body composition indices. There is a need to conduct further studies to determine the longitudinal aspects of growth as well as quantitative and qualitative assessment of nutritional intake in children with SCA, which will inform higher alimentation requirements for HbSS children as compared with HbAA individuals.

  10. Age-dependent changes in physical performance and body composition in community-dwelling Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sung Chul; Harada, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Yoshida, Daisuke; Uemura, Kazuki; Anan, Yuya; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the age-dependent changes in the parameters of physical performance and body composition in Japanese older adults who are independently dwelling in the community. We also examined whether the age-dependent changes differ among physical performance and body composition parameters. Cross-sectional data from 10 092 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 73.6 years; 5296 women) were analyzed. The measures of physical performance included hand-grip strength, the five-times-sit-to-stand test, and walking speed. Body composition parameters (body weight, fat mass, and appendicular skeletal muscle mass) were measured with a bioelectrical impedance analyser. Correlations between age and the physical performance and body composition parameters were tested. The T-scores of physical performance and body composition measurements were calculated and presented according to 5-year age groups to examine the differences in age-dependent changes in physical performance and body composition parameters. All physical performance measures significantly decreased with aging. The cumulative mean T-scores according to age group showed different age-dependent changes between body mass index (BMI) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) (cumulative mean T-score change of BMI and ASMI of -5.7 to -2.9 and -12.7 to -12.1, respectively). The slope declines in age-associated changes were greater in grip strength (β = -0.77, 95% confidence interval = -0.82 to -0.76) for men and in walking speed (β = -0.95, 95% confidence interval = -0.99 to -0.90) for women. The patterns of age-dependent decreases in physical performance measures differed among parameters and between sexes. There is a possibility of a difference in the age-related slope patterns among parameters; decreases in grip strength in men and walking speed in women may be more prominent with advancing age. Furthermore, the decrease in ASMI with age is more striking than that of BMI.

  11. Whole body heat stress attenuates the pressure response to muscle metaboreceptor stimulation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; Blaha, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    The effects of whole body heat stress on sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to stimulation of muscle metaboreceptors and mechanoreceptors remains unclear. We examined the muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), blood pressure, and heart rate in 14 young healthy subjects during fatiguing isometric handgrip exercise, postexercise circulatory occlusion (PECO), and passive muscle stretch during PECO. The protocol was performed under normothermic and whole body heat stress (increase internal temperature ~0.6°C via a heating suit) conditions. Heat stress increased the resting MSNA and heart rate. Heat stress did not alter the mean blood pressure (MAP), heart rate, and MSNA responses (i.e., changes) to fatiguing exercise. During PECO, whole body heat stress accentuated the heart rate response [change (Δ) of 5.8 ± 1.5 to Δ10.0 ± 2.1 beats/min, P = 0.03], did not alter the MSNA response (Δ16.4 ± 2.8 to Δ17.3 ± 3.8 bursts/min, P = 0.74), and lowered the MAP response (Δ20 ± 2 to Δ12 ± 1 mmHg, P heat stress prevented the MAP and MSNA responses to stretch during PECO (both P > 0.05). These data suggest that whole body heat stress attenuates the pressor response due to metaboreceptor stimulation, and the sympathetic nerve response due to mechanoreceptor stimulation. PMID:27763873

  12. Measuring body composition and energy expenditure in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieken, Rob; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Schierbeek, Henk; Willemsen, Sten P.; Calis, Elsbeth A. C.; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; Penning, Corine

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction equations for estimating body composition and total energy expenditure (TEE) in children with severe neurologic impairment and intellectual disability are currently lacking. The objective was to develop group-specific equations to predict body composition by using

  13. Body composition and cardiac dimensions in elite rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetta, F; Franzoni, F; D'alessandro, C; Piazza, M; Tocchini, L; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A; Cupisti, F; Santoro, G

    2015-09-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts are often believed to be a population at risk of malnutrition because of their tendency to keep a low weight and a lean appearance for better athletic performance, and because they start intensive training at a very young age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in adolescent elite gymnasts the effects of physical activity on body composition and cardiac morphology and function. Sixteen national level rhythmic gymnasts and 16 control adolescent female underwent anthropometric measurements, bioelectric impedance and echocardiography to assess body composition and cardiac morphology and function. As compared to controls, gymnasts had lower body mass index (16.9±1.1 vs. 18.7±1.0, Pgymnasts, together with a higher percentage of fat-free mass. Echocardiographic findings indicate that elite rhythmic gymnastics present left ventricular remodeling as training-induced cardiac adaptation. Intensive training, dietary attitude and evident leanness of rhythmic gymnasts are not associated with cardiac abnormalities, as it is the case of pathological leanness.

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Helena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years, whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720 and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min. The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-09-29

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  16. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    was the fU-OHpr/creat ratio, which increased from 12.0 to 20.1 in the OLS group but only from 10.9 to 1 3.2 in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: One year's treatment with OLS induces a lipid malabsorption which enhances a dietary weight loss without any significant deleterious effects on body composition. OLS......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the pancreas lipase inhibitor orlistat (OLS) on calcium metabolism, bone turnover, bone mass, bone density and body composition when given for obesity as adjuvant to an energy- and fat-restricted diet. DESIGN: Randomized controlled double-blinded trial...... of treatment with OLS 120 mg three times daily or placebo for 1 y. SUBJECTS: Thirty obese subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.9+/-3.7 kg/m(2) and a mean age of 41+/-11 y. Sixteen patients were assigned to OLS and 14 to placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...

  17. A principal components approach to parent-to-newborn body composition associations in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Wills, Andrew K; Hill, Jacqueline C; Fall, Caroline Hd

    2009-02-24

    Size at birth is influenced by environmental factors, like maternal nutrition and parity, and by genes. Birth weight is a composite measure, encompassing bone, fat and lean mass. These may have different determinants. The main purpose of this paper was to use anthropometry and principal components analysis (PCA) to describe maternal and newborn body composition, and associations between them, in an Indian population. We also compared maternal and paternal measurements (body mass index (BMI) and height) as predictors of newborn body composition. Weight, height, head and mid-arm circumferences, skinfold thicknesses and external pelvic diameters were measured at 30 +/- 2 weeks gestation in 571 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India. Paternal height and weight were also measured. At birth, detailed neonatal anthropometry was performed. Unrotated and varimax rotated PCA was applied to the maternal and neonatal measurements. Rotated PCA reduced maternal measurements to 4 independent components (fat, pelvis, height and muscle) and neonatal measurements to 3 components (trunk+head, fat, and leg length). An SD increase in maternal fat was associated with a 0.16 SD increase (beta) in neonatal fat (p maternal parity, newborn sex and socio-economic status). Maternal pelvis, height and (for male babies) muscle predicted neonatal trunk+head (beta = 0. 09 SD; p = 0.017, beta = 0.12 SD; p = 0.006 and beta = 0.27 SD; p maternal BMI predicted neonatal fat (beta = 0.20 SD; p neonatal trunk+head (beta = 0.15 SD; p = 0.001). Both maternal (beta = 0.12 SD; p = 0.002) and paternal height (beta = 0.09 SD; p = 0.030) predicted neonatal trunk+head but the associations became weak and statistically non-significant in multivariate analysis. Only paternal height predicted neonatal leg length (beta = 0.15 SD; p = 0.003). Principal components analysis is a useful method to describe neonatal body composition and its determinants. Newborn

  18. Myosin Heavy Chain Composition of the Human Genioglossus Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Megan; Luo, Qingwei; Sokoloff, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The human tongue muscle genioglossus (GG) is active in speech, swallowing, respiration, and oral transport, behaviors encompassing a wide range of tongue shapes and movement speeds. Studies demonstrate substantial diversity in patterns of human GG motor unit activation, but whether this is accompanied by complex expression of muscle…

  19. Changes over time in muscle fatty acid composition of Malaysian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Key words: Fatty acid, lipid, muscle, Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides. INTRODUCTION. The content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. (n-3 PUFAs) differentiates fish from the other food products. These fatty acids are important beneficial nutrients for the prevention of human coronary disease,.

  20. Skeletal muscle mass and composition during mammalian hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Clark J

    2016-01-01

    Hibernation is characterized by prolonged periods of inactivity with concomitantly low nutrient intake, conditions that would typically result in muscle atrophy combined with a loss of oxidative fibers. Yet, hibernators consistently emerge from winter with very little atrophy, frequently accompanied by a slight shift in fiber ratios to more oxidative fiber types. Preservation of muscle morphology is combined with down-regulation of glycolytic pathways and increased reliance on lipid metabolism instead. Furthermore, while rates of protein synthesis are reduced during hibernation, balance is maintained by correspondingly low rates of protein degradation. Proposed mechanisms include a number of signaling pathways and transcription factors that lead to increased oxidative fiber expression, enhanced protein synthesis and reduced protein degradation, ultimately resulting in minimal loss of skeletal muscle protein and oxidative capacity. The functional significance of these outcomes is maintenance of skeletal muscle strength and fatigue resistance, which enables hibernating animals to resume active behaviors such as predator avoidance, foraging and mating immediately following terminal arousal in the spring. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Physical activity, body composition and bone density in ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Marken Lichtenbelt, W D; Fogelholm, M; Ottenheijm, R; Westerterp, K R

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to examine factors that affect bone mineral density (BMD) in female ballet dancers. Training history, Ca intake, body composition, total body BMD (TBMD) and site-specific BMD, and bone mineral content were described in twenty-four female ballet dancers (mean age 22.6 (SD 4.5) years). Training history was determined by questionnaires, Ca intake by 7 d dietary record, BMD and bone mineral content by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), total body water by 2H dilution, extracellular water by bromide dilution, body fat by underwater weighing (UWW; two-component model), DXA, and the four-component (4C) model. Dancers had a significantly lower body mass index (BMI 18.9 (SD 1.0) kg/m2) than controls (21.3 (SD 1.9) kg/m2), with significantly lower percentage body fat (17.4 (SD 3.9) v. 24.4 (SD 5.1)) but comparable fat-free mass. Mean TBMD (1.147 (SD 0.069) g/cm2) was significantly higher (6%) compared with that of a reference population. These high values could be attributed to the high BMD of legs and pelvis, the weight-bearing sites of the dancer's body. No relationship was found between age, start of ballet classes, period (years) of dancing, Ca intake, and BMD (total and site-specific). However, TBMD was positively related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to BMI, and negatively related to the age of menarche. BMD of the legs was significantly related to daily period (h) of training. Depending on the method used the percentage body fat ranged from 16.4 (by DXA) to 18.3 by the 4C model. These differences were significantly related to the TBMD. Percentage body fat by the different methods was not significantly different, except for DXA and 4C model. The present study showed that, despite the factors that have a negative effect on BMD, such as low body mass and late menarche, BMD in female ballet dancers was relatively high. These high values were probably caused by

  2. [Body composition and heart rate variability in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pulmonary rehabilitation candidates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curilem Gatica, Cristian; Almagià Flores, Atilio; Yuing Farías, Tuillang; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Fernando

    2014-07-01

    Body composition is a non-invasive method, which gives us information about the distribution of tissues in the body structure, it is also an indicator of the risk of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heart rate variability is a technique that gives us information of autonomic physiological condition, being recognized as an indicator which is decreased in a number of diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition and heart rate variability. The methodology used is that of Debora Kerr (1988) endorsed by the International Society for advances in Cineantropometría for body composition and heart rate variability of the guidelines described by the American Heart Association (1996). Roscraff equipment, caliper Slimguide and watch Polar RS 800CX was used. , BMI 26.7 ± 3.9 kg / m²; Muscle Mass 26.1 ± 6.3 kg ; Bone Mass 1.3 kg ± 8.1 76 ± 9.9 years Age : 14 candidates for pulmonary rehabilitation patients were evaluated , Adipose mass 16.4 ± 3.6 kg ; FEV1 54 ± 14%. Increased waist circumference and waist hip ratio was associated with a lower overall heart rate variability. The bone component was positively related to the variability of heart rate and patients with higher forced expiratory volume in one second had lower high frequency component in heart rate variability. In these patients, the heart rate variability is reduced globally and is associated with cardiovascular risk parameters. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle activity during backward and forward running with body weight support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masumoto, Kenji; Soucy, Michael T; Bailey, Joshua P; Mercer, John A

    2017-10-01

    We investigated muscle activity during backward (BR) and forward (FR) running with body weight support (BWS). Ten participants completed BR and FR on a lower body positive pressure treadmill while selecting a preferred speed (PS) for different BWS conditions (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%BWS). Muscle activity from the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius (GA), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), preferred stride frequency (PSF), and PS were measured. Magnitude of muscle activity (BF, TA, and GA), RPE, PSF, and PS were not influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P>0.05). BF, TA, and GA were not different between directions (P>0.05) but were different between BWS conditions (P<0.01). RF was influenced by the interaction of direction and BWS (P<0.01). RF, BF, TA, and GA during BR were lower with increasing BWS. RF during BR was 59-86% higher than that of FR within BWS condition. RPE was lower with increasing BWS (P<0.001), regardless of direction of locomotion. PSF was lower and PS was higher during BR and FR with increasing BWS (both P<0.001). PSF during BR was 6-9% higher than that of FR. PS during BR was 24-31% lower than that of FR. These observations demonstrate that a change in BWS influences magnitude of muscle activity, PS, PSF, and RPE for both BR and FR. However, a change in direction of locomotion may not influence magnitude of muscle activity or RPE during running for a given BWS, even though muscle activity pattern, PS, and PSF were different between BR and FR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel neuromuscular form of glycogen storage disease type IV with arthrogryposis, spinal stiffness and rare polyglucosan bodies in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfatti, Edoardo; Barnerias, Christine; Hedberg-Oldfors, Carola; Gitiaux, Cyril; Benezit, Audrey; Oldfors, Anders; Carlier, Robert-Yves; Quijano-Roy, Susana; Romero, Norma B

    2016-10-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder causing polyglucosan storage in various tissues. Neuromuscular forms present with fetal akinesia deformation sequence, lethal myopathy, or mild hypotonia and weakness. A 3-year-old boy presented with arthrogryposis, motor developmental delay, weakness, and rigid spine. Whole body MRI revealed fibroadipose muscle replacement but sparing of the sartorius, gracilis, adductor longus and vastus intermedialis muscles. Polyglucosan bodies were identified in muscle, and GBE1 gene analysis revealed two pathogenic variants. We describe a novel neuromuscular GSD IV phenotype and confirm the importance of muscle morphological studies in early onset neuromuscular disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Acute and Long-Term Impact of High-Protein Diets on Endocrine and Metabolic Function, Body Composition, and Exercise-Induced Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Flor E; Tinsley, Grant M; Gordon, Paul M

    2017-01-01

    High-protein diets have been shown to improve body composition through alterations in satiety, muscle protein synthesis, and the thermic effect of food. Given these findings, the purpose of this review is to discuss the integration of the specific hormonal and metabolic effects of high-protein diets following both acute and long-term usage, especially with regard to body composition. Full-text articles were obtained through PubMed by using the terms "high-protein diet and body composition," "high-protein diet and exercise," "high-protein diet risk," "high-protein diet side effects," "protein quality PDCAAS," "RDA for protein," and "daily protein recommendation." Articles were initially screened according to their title and abstract; careful evaluation of the full manuscripts was then used to identify relevant articles. The higher satiety exerted by high-protein diets is generated through increments in anorexigenic, as well as decrements in orexigenic hormones. Improvements in muscle mass are achieved by activation of muscle protein synthesis acting through the mTOR pathway. High thermic effect of food is caused due to necessary deamination, gluconeogenesis, and urea synthesis caused by high-protein diets. Interestingly, high-protein diets in both hypo- and normocaloric conditions have shown to improve body composition, whereas in combination with hypercaloric conditions does not seem to increase fat mass, when the excess energy comes from protein. High protein diets effectively improve body composition by acting through different pathways.

  6. Body composition of Slovak midlife women with cardiovascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdová Darina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse differences in body composition of women with and without cardiovascular complications. Bioelectrical parameters were measured with bioimpedance monofrequency analyser (BIA 101 and tissue electric properties were analysed by bioelectric impedance vector analysis (BIVA. The clinical sample (with CVD consisted of 254 women ranging in age between 39 and 65 years. The sample of women without CVD consisted of 318 women in the same age range and was created from database of our previous studies. Statistical analysis adjusted for age showed significant differences in body composition characteristics of the studied samples. The results of vector analysis showed significantly different tissue electric properties of women in studied groups, what was confirmed by the Hotelling T2- test (p=0.0000. More women with CVD attained risky mean values of obesity indices of BMI and WHR than their “healthy” counterparts. Among women with CVD 80.2% had higher value of the BMI index than optimal one (>24.9 kg/m2 and 74.4% of women had higher value of the WHR index than optimal (>0.80. From the BIA parameters strong correlation coefficient was found between BMI and FM in both groups (r=0.962 for women with CVD; r=0.968 for relatively healthy women. Our data confirmed that cardiovascular disease complications are strongly linked in body composition changes. The cross-sectional nature of our study makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding causal pathways, though variables of obesity are in line with unhealthy conditions.

  7. Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Therkildsen, K J; Jørgensen, T B

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated if prior eccentric contractions, and thus mechanical strain and muscle damage, exert an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats, and whether a possible effect could be attenuated by dietary supplements. Twenty-three rats were randomised...... muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.......1% of total fatty acids, respectively) was uniformly higher across groups (P acids) compared to the control leg (38.2 +/- 0...

  8. Body proportions, body composition and pubertal development of children in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, R; Bencke, J; Matthiesen, G; Petersen, J H; Müller, J

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was primarily to investigate anthropometric variables, body composition and pubertal development in children aged 9-13 participating in competitive sports. Secondly, the influence of age, sport, training hours and pubertal development/maternal menarcheal age on body composition and pubertal development was explored. A total of 183 (96 girls, 87 boys) children performing swimming (Sw), tennis (Te), European team handball (TH), and gymnastics (Gy) took part in the study. Anthropometric measurements and pubertal development were determined. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding hours of training per week and maternal menarcheal age. Significant differences in stature (z-scores) were found in both boys (Sw=0.06; Te=0.04; TH=0.05; Gy=-0.66, Psports. A regression analysis revealed that in girls, age and maternal menarcheal age were significantly associated with pubertal development (Psport was associated with the sum of skinfolds (Psports but are more evident in females. Most importantly, we did not find any effect of training on body composition or pubertal development, confirming previous data that children in competitive sports are selected due to constitutional factors.

  9. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  10. Measurement of body composition in cats using computed tomography and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buelund, Lene E; Nielsen, Dorte H; McEvoy, Fintan

    2011-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is a reference method for assessing body composition but is seldom `accessible in veterinary settings. Computed tomography (CT) can provide similar body composition estimates and we propose that it can be used in body composition studies in animals. We...

  11. Gestational Undernourishment Modifies the Composition of Skeletal Muscle Transverse Tubule Membranes and the Mechanical Properties of Muscles in Newborn Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tonathiu Ramírez-Oseguera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud/Aims: Skeletal muscle (SM constitutes more than 40% of the body weight in adulthood. Transports dietary glucose mainly through the insulin-dependent glucose transporter (Glut-4 located in the Transverse tubule membrane system (TT. The TT development ends shortly after birth. The TT membrane hosts the proteins involved in excitation-contraction coupling and glucose uptake. Glycaemic regulation through movement is a key function of fully developed skeletal muscle. In this study, we aimed to characterize the effect of gestational undernourishment (GUN in rats GLUT-4 expression and on the protein/lipid content of the TT membranes. We also examined the effect of GUN on the mechanical properties of muscles as an indication of the metabolic condition of the SM at birth. Methods: Isolated TT membrane from SM of GUN rats were used to study lipid/protein content and protein stability by differential scanning calorimetry. The effect of GUN on the SM mechanical properties was determined in isolated Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscle. Results: We demonstrate that compared to control, GUN in the new-born produces; i decreases body weight; ii diminution in SM mass; iii decreases the formation of TT membranes; iv expresses TT membrane proteins with higher thermal stability. The TT membrane expression of GLUT-4 in GUN offspring was twice that of controls. The isolated EDL of GUN offspring was 20% stronger as measured by contractile force and more resistant to fatigue relative to controls. Conclusion; These results provide the first evidence of adaptive changes of the SM in new-borns exposed to severe gestational food restriction. The effects of GUN on muscle at birth are the first step toward detrimental SM metabolic function, contributing to the physiopathology of metabolic diseases in adulthood.

  12. Effect of maternal metabolism on fetal growth and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, P M; Thomas, A J; Huston, L P; Fung, C M

    1998-08-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the various maternal metabolic and parental anthropometric and demographic factors that affect fetal growth and body composition. These data are a review of previously published data evaluating 1) demographic and anthropometric factors associated with fetal growth; 2) differences in male and female neonatal body composition; 3) anthropometric and maternal metabolic factors correlated with neonatal birth weight, fat-free mass, and fat mass using stepwise logistic regression analysis; and 4) the relationship between maternal weight gain and birth weight in women with normal glucose tolerance (control subjects) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We estimated body composition in 186 neonates using anthropometry. Fat-free mass, which comprised 86% of mean birth weight, accounted for 83% of the variance in birth weight, and fat mass, which comprised only 14% of birth weight, accounted for 46% of the variance in birth weight. Male neonates were, on average, 175 g heavier than females. There was significantly (P = 0.0001) greater fat-free mass in males than in females but no significant difference in fat mass. Using stepwise logistic regression, we accounted for 29% of the variance in birth weight, 30% in fat-free mass, and 17% in fat mass. Independent variables included maternal height, pregravid weight, weight gain during pregnancy, education, parity, paternal height and weight, neonatal sex, and gestational age. Including maternal glucose insulin sensitivity in 16 additional subjects, we explained 48% of the variance in birth weight, 53% in fat-free mass, and 46% in fat mass. There was a positive (P = 0.0007) correlation between weight gain and birth weight in control subjects, but a negative (P = 0.34) correlation in women with GDM. In control subjects, the correlation was strongest in women who were lean before conception and became progressively weaker as pregravid weight for height increased. In women with GDM, there

  13. Sex steroids and body composition in men with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifke, E; Friemert, M; Heilmann, M; Puvogel, N; Smaczny, C; von zur Muhlen, A; Brabant, G

    2003-05-01

    Delayed sexual maturation and low body weight is common in cystic fibrosis (CF). Concomitant data on sex hormones and concomitant body composition are lacking in men with CF. Cross-sectional study. Serum levels of testosterone, 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)), 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and LH were measured by RIA and total and regional lean body mass (LBM), fat body mass (FBM), bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, in men with CF (n=40; age 24.7+/-5.4 years) and age-matched healthy controls (n=28; age 25.7+/-3.7). Only men without acute disease exacerbation or systemic glucocorticoid treatment were included. Mean levels of hormonal serum parameters differed significantly between healthy controls (testosterone=20.2+/-5.5 nmol/l; E(2)=95.0+/-20.2 pmol/l; 25(OH)D=62.8+/-28.3 nmol/l) and patients (testosterone=15.9+/-4.1 nmol/l; E(2)=60.7+/-19.4 pmol/l; 25(OH)D=39.5+/-17.8 nmol/l; Ptestosterone levels 2 s.d. below the mean of normal. Men with CF showed a relative shift from FBM to LBM and a different body fat distribution compared with healthy controls (PTestosterone was not correlated with weight, total or regional LBM or FBM, but significantly with BMD (r=0.32; Ptestosterone and body components on E(2), a testosterone-independent effect was found for FBM. CF patients with stable disease have moderately reduced serum testosterone levels. This might already imply detrimental effects on bone. The change in LBM of patients appears to have no direct association with sex hormone levels while low FBM might cause reduced net conversion of serum testosterone to E(2) with possible effects on FBM distribution.

  14. Body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, G E; Brooks, A G; Withers, R T; Dollman, J; Leaney, F; Chatterton, B E

    2001-04-01

    To determine anthropometric and body composition changes in female bodybuilders during preparation for competition. There was an attempt to match subjects in the control and experimental groups for height and percentage body fat (%BF) for the initial test of this longitudinal study. Five competitive bodybuilders (-X +/- s.d.: 35.3 +/- 5.7 y; 167.3 +/- 3.7 cm; 66.38 +/- 6.30 kg; 18.3 +/- 3.5 %BF) and five athletic females (-X +/- s.d.: 30.9 +/- 13.0 y; 166.9 +/- 3.9 cm; 55.94 +/- 3.59 kg; 19.1 +/- 3.3 %BF) were recruited from advertisements in a bodybuilding newsletter and placed on sports centre noticeboards. The following measurements were conducted 12 weeks, 6 weeks and 3-5 d before the bodybuilders' competitions: anthropometric profile, body density by underwater weighing, total body water via deuterium dilution and bone mineral mass from a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. A combination of the last three measurements enabled the %BF to the determined by a four compartment model. A significant (P bodybuilders as they prepared for competition was primarily due to a reduction in fat mass (FM; -4.42 kg; 76.2%) as opposed to fat-free mass (FFM; -1.38 kg; 23.8%). The decreases in body mass and FM over the final 6 weeks were greater than those over the first 6 weeks. Their %BF decreased (P bodybuilders were accompanied by a significant decline (P bodybuilders presented with low %BFs at the start of the experiment, they still significantly decreased their body mass during the 12 week preparation for competition and most of this loss was due to a reduction in FM as opposed to FFM.

  15. Effect of muscle length on cross-bridge kinetics in intact cardiac trabeculae at body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani-Nejad, Nima; Xu, Ying; Davis, Jonathan P; Campbell, Kenneth S; Janssen, Paul M L

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic force generation in cardiac muscle, which determines cardiac pumping activity, depends on both the number of sarcomeric cross-bridges and on their cycling kinetics. The Frank-Starling mechanism dictates that cardiac force development increases with increasing cardiac muscle length (corresponding to increased ventricular volume). It is, however, unclear to what extent this increase in cardiac muscle length affects the rate of cross-bridge cycling. Previous studies using permeabilized cardiac preparations, sub-physiological temperatures, or both have obtained conflicting results. Here, we developed a protocol that allowed us to reliably and reproducibly measure the rate of tension redevelopment (k(tr); which depends on the rate of cross-bridge cycling) in intact trabeculae at body temperature. Using K(+) contractures to induce a tonic level of force, we showed the k(tr) was slower in rabbit muscle (which contains predominantly β myosin) than in rat muscle (which contains predominantly α myosin). Analyses of k(tr) in rat muscle at optimal length (L(opt)) and 90% of optimal length (L(90)) revealed that k(tr) was significantly slower at L(opt) (27.7 ± 3.3 and 27.8 ± 3.0 s(-1) in duplicate analyses) than at L(90) (45.1 ± 7.6 and 47.5 ± 9.2 s(-1)). We therefore show that k(tr) can be measured in intact rat and rabbit cardiac trabeculae, and that the k(tr) decreases when muscles are stretched to their optimal length under near-physiological conditions, indicating that the Frank-Starling mechanism not only increases force but also affects cross-bridge cycling kinetics.

  16. Effects of a physical activity programme on body perception and composition in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onofre Ricardo Contreras-Jordán

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a six months' physical activity programme for overweight and obese adolescents, in order to improve the perception of their own body image and composition between two groups of adolescents, and to check possible gender differences. Aims The aim is to improve the body perception and composition in overweight adolescents with a physical activity programme. Methods It was a quasi-experimental design, with a control group and intervention group. Measures of pre-test and post-test were taken. A total of 38 adolescents that belong to the first cycle of Compulsory Secondary aged 12–15, with a body mass index (BMI higher than the 85th percentile according to the WHO (World Health Organization, participated in the intervention. The anthropometric variables, height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and the circumference of the waist, hip, arm and medial calf, were measured pre- and post-treatment. The body image perception was measured using the Gardner test. The experimental group participated in the physical activity programme for a six months period. The physical activity intervention consisted of three sessions of 90 minutes each week in a sports centre. The structure of the sessions consisted of a warm-up (5–10 minutes, a main activity (60–70 minutes, combineding strength and cardiovascular training and a cool-down (7–10 minutes. Results After physical activity intervention the results showed significant improvements in the experimental group compared to the control group in the circumference of the waist, the hip, the arm, the medial calf (p<0.01 and as well as the fat percentage, the percentage of muscle mass (p<0.05. The results showed how the body image distortion presented a significant and negative correlation with the circumference of the waist (p<0.001, of the hips (p<0.01, and of the arm (p<0.001, differences were observed between gender. Conclusion Our study

  17. Whole-body muscle MRI to detect myopathies in non-extrapyramidal bent spine syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohana, Mickael; Durand, Marie-Christine; Marty, Catherine; Lazareth, Jean-Philippe; Maisonobe, Thierry; Mompoint, Dominique; Carlier, Robert-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Bent spine syndrome (BSS), defined as an abnormal forward flexion of the trunk resolving in supine position, is usually related to parkinsonism, but can also be encountered in myopathies. This study evaluates whole-body muscle MRI (WB-mMRI) as a tool for detecting underlying myopathy in non-extrapyramidal BSS. Forty-three patients (90 % women; 53-86 years old) with a non-extrapyramidal BSS were prospectively included. All underwent a 1.5-T WB-mMRI and a nerve conduction study. Muscle biopsy was performed if a myopathy could not be eliminated based on clinical examination and all tests. Systematic MRI interpretation focused on peripheral and axial muscle injury; spinal posture and incidental findings were also reported. WB-mMRI was completed for all patients, with 13 muscle biopsies ultimately needed and myopathy revealed as the final etiological diagnosis in five cases (12 %). All biopsy-proven myopathies were detected by the WB-mMRI. Relevant incidental MRI findings were made in seven patients. This study supports WB-mMRI as a sensitive and feasible tool for detecting myopathy in BSS patients. Associated with electroneuromyography, it can better indicate when a muscle biopsy is needed and guide it when required. Rigorous radiological interpretation is mandatory, so as not to miss incidental findings of clinical consequence. (orig.)

  18. A new Caenorhabditis elegans model of human huntingtin 513 aggregation and toxicity in body wall muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Lee

    Full Text Available Expanded polyglutamine repeats in different proteins are the known determinants of at least nine progressive neurodegenerative disorders whose symptoms include cognitive and motor impairment that worsen as patients age. One such disorder is Huntington's Disease (HD that is caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the human huntingtin protein (htt. The polyglutamine expansion destabilizes htt leading to protein misfolding, which in turn triggers neurodegeneration and the disruption of energy metabolism in muscle cells. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie htt proteotoxicity have been somewhat elusive, and the muscle phenotypes have not been well studied. To generate tools to elucidate the basis for muscle dysfunction, we engineered Caenorhabditis elegans to express a disease-associated 513 amino acid fragment of human htt in body wall muscle cells. We show that this htt fragment aggregates in C. elegans in a polyglutamine length-dependent manner and is toxic. Toxicity manifests as motor impairment and a shortened lifespan. Compared to previous models, the data suggest that the protein context in which a polyglutamine tract is embedded alters aggregation propensity and toxicity, likely by affecting interactions with the muscle cell environment.

  19. Perceived body discomfort and trunk muscle activity in three prolonged sitting postures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waongenngarm, Pooriput; Rajaratnam, Bala S.; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the perceived discomfort and trunk muscle activity in three different 1-hour sitting postures. [Subjects] A repeated-measures design study was conducted on 10 healthy subjects. [Methods] Each subject sat for an hour in three sitting postures (i.e., upright, slumped, and forward leaning sitting postures). Subjects rated perceived body discomfort using Borg’s CR-10 scale at the beginning and after 1 hour sitting. The electromyographic activity of the trunk muscle activity was recorded during the 1-hour period of sitting. [Results] The forward leaning sitting posture led to higher Borg scores in the low back than those in the upright (p = 0.002) and slumped sitting postures (p sitting postures. The upright sitting posture was significantly associated with increased internal oblique (IO)/transversus abdominis (TrA) and ICL muscle activity compared with the slumped sitting posture. [Conclusion] The sitting posture with the highest low back discomfort after prolonged sitting was the forward leaning posture. Sitting in an upright posture is recommended because it increases IO/TrA muscle activation and induces only relatively moderate ICL and MF muscle activation. PMID:26311951

  20. Whole-body muscle MRI to detect myopathies in non-extrapyramidal bent spine syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohana, Mickael [Nouvel Hopital Civil - Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie B, Strasbourg (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Neurologie, Garches (France); Marty, Catherine; Lazareth, Jean-Philippe [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Rhumatologie, Garches (France); Maisonobe, Thierry [APH-HP - Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, Service de Neuropathologie, Paris (France); Mompoint, Dominique; Carlier, Robert-Yves [AP-HP - Hopital Raymond Poincare, Service de Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2014-08-15

    Bent spine syndrome (BSS), defined as an abnormal forward flexion of the trunk resolving in supine position, is usually related to parkinsonism, but can also be encountered in myopathies. This study evaluates whole-body muscle MRI (WB-mMRI) as a tool for detecting underlying myopathy in non-extrapyramidal BSS. Forty-three patients (90 % women; 53-86 years old) with a non-extrapyramidal BSS were prospectively included. All underwent a 1.5-T WB-mMRI and a nerve conduction study. Muscle biopsy was performed if a myopathy could not be eliminated based on clinical examination and all tests. Systematic MRI interpretation focused on peripheral and axial muscle injury; spinal posture and incidental findings were also reported. WB-mMRI was completed for all patients, with 13 muscle biopsies ultimately needed and myopathy revealed as the final etiological diagnosis in five cases (12 %). All biopsy-proven myopathies were detected by the WB-mMRI. Relevant incidental MRI findings were made in seven patients. This study supports WB-mMRI as a sensitive and feasible tool for detecting myopathy in BSS patients. Associated with electroneuromyography, it can better indicate when a muscle biopsy is needed and guide it when required. Rigorous radiological interpretation is mandatory, so as not to miss incidental findings of clinical consequence. (orig.)

  1. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vlychou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p<0.01 in both groups, whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p=0.02. Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  2. Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).

  3. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

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    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  4. A new method for non-invasive estimation of human muscle fiber type composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Baguet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been established that excellence in sports with short and long exercise duration requires a high proportion of fast-twitch (FT or type-II fibers and slow-twitch (ST or type-I fibers, respectively. Until today, the muscle biopsy method is still accepted as gold standard to measure muscle fiber type composition. Because of its invasive nature and high sampling variance, it would be useful to develop a non-invasive alternative. METHODOLOGY: Eighty-three control subjects, 15 talented young track-and-field athletes, 51 elite athletes and 14 ex-athletes volunteered to participate in the current study. The carnosine content of all 163 subjects was measured in the gastrocnemius muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS. Muscle biopsies for fiber typing were taken from 12 untrained males. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A significant positive correlation was found between muscle carnosine, measured by (1H-MRS, and percentage area occupied by type II fibers. Explosive athletes had ∼30% higher carnosine levels compared to a reference population, whereas it was ∼20% lower than normal in typical endurance athletes. Similar results were found in young talents and ex-athletes. When active elite runners were ranked according to their best running distance, a negative sigmoidal curve was found between logarithm of running distance and muscle carnosine. CONCLUSIONS: Muscle carnosine content shows a good reflection of the disciplines of elite track-and-field athletes and is able to distinguish between individual track running distances. The differences between endurance and sprint muscle types is also observed in young talents and former athletes, suggesting this characteristic is genetically determined and can be applied in early talent identification. This quick method provides a valid alternative for the muscle biopsy method. In addition, this technique may also contribute to the diagnosis and monitoring of many conditions and

  5. Myosin heavy chain composition of tiger (Panthera tigris) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) hindlimb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Jon-Philippe K; Roy, Roland R; Rugg, Stuart; Talmadge, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Felids have a wide range of locomotor activity patterns and maximal running speeds, including the very fast cheetah (Acinonyx jubatas), the roaming tiger (Panthera tigris), and the relatively sedentary domestic cat (Felis catus). As previous studies have suggested a relationship between the amount and type of activity and the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform composition of a muscle, we assessed the MHC isoform composition of selected hindlimb muscles from these three felid species with differing activity regimens. Using gel electrophoresis, western blotting, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry with MHC isoform-specific antibodies, we compared the MHC composition in the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius (MG), plantaris (Plt), and soleus muscles of the tiger, cheetah, and domestic cat. The soleus muscle was absent in the cheetah. At least one slow (type I) and three fast (types IIa, IIx, and IIb) MHC isoforms were present in the muscles of each felid. The tiger had a high combined percentage of the characteristically slower isoforms (MHCs I and IIa) in the MG (62%) and the Plt (86%), whereas these percentages were relatively low in the MG (44%) and Plt (55%) of the cheetah. In general, the MHC isoform characteristics of the hindlimb muscles matched the daily activity patterns of these felids: the tiger has daily demands for covering long distances, whereas the cheetah has requirements for speed and power. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Effects of tannic acid on performance and fatty acid composition of breast muscle in broiler chickens under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohollah Ebrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One hundred twenty day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500 were randomly assigned into 4 treatment groups to investigate the effects of tannic acid supplementation (TA on fatty acid composition in breast muscle of broilers under chronic heat exposure conditions. Five pen replicates of 6 chicks each were assigned to each of the following 4 dietary treatments: i basal diet containing no TA at 25°C (CL; ii basal diet containing no TA at 35°C (CH; iii basal diet supplemented with 1% TA at 25°C (TL; and iv basal diet supplemented with 1% TA at 35°C (TH. At the end of the 5-week experiment, breast muscle samples were collected to examine the fatty acid composition. Results showed that temperature, TA and their interaction effect significantly decreased body weight gain and feed intake. In addition, feed conversion ratio (FCR significantly increased under high temperature, and addition of TA under high temperature did not improve the FCR. The effects of temperature, TA and their interaction on the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids were not significant (P>0.05. However, monounsaturated fatty acids significantly reduced by adding TA to the diet. Generally, TA improved the fatty acid profile of breast muscle of broilers under heat stress in comparison to the heat stressed chickens, which did not receive TA. Hence, it seems that dietary TA supplementation can be applied as a biological antioxidant for poultry nutrition in hot climatic conditions.

  7. Malnutrition and body composition in urban and rural schoolchildren: A cross-sectional study in San Rafael, Mendoza (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraza, Mariela; Cesani, María F; Navone, Graciela T; Oyhenart, Evelia E

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the nutritional status and body composition of children from San Rafael, Mendoza, avoiding urban and rural categorization by generating subpopulations as a function of their socio-environmental characteristics. A cross-sectional study was performed in 3,596 schoolchildren from 4.0 to 13.9 years of age. Body weight, height, upper arm circumference, and triceps skinfold were measured. Body mass index, total muscle, and fat areas of the arm were calculated. To estimate nutritional status and body composition, the NHANES III reference was used. The socio-environmental variables were surveyed using a structured questionnaire. These variables were processed by categorical principal-component analysis (catPCA). The catPCA allowed the differentiation of four groups, three with urban characteristics (high urban, medium urban, impoverished urban), and a rural group. Stunting occurred at a higher rate in the impoverished urban group, and the occurrence of underweight children was higher in the rural group. The prevalence of excess weight varied in the range of 20-26%. The latter value corresponded to children of the high urban group, who also did not show reduced muscle mass. Children from San Rafael presented differences in nutritional condition and body composition associated with pronounced socio-environmental heterogeneity. Thus, we could observe a gradient from the "high urban" group, with better social, economic, and sanitation conditions and at the same time a more obesogenic environment to the "impoverished urban" and "rural" groups, whose vulnerability reflected a higher prevalence of child undernutrition and the association with excess weight and reduced muscle mass. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:796-803, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Whey protein preloads are more beneficial than soy protein preloads in regulating appetite, calorie intake, anthropometry, and body composition of overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahavorgar, Atefeh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Shidfar, Farzad; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Heydari, Iraj

    2014-10-01

    High-protein diets exert beneficial effects on appetite, anthropometry, and body composition; however, the effects of protein preloads depend on the amount, type, and time of consumption. Therefore, we hypothesized that long-term supplemental preloads of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soy protein isolate (SPI) consumed 30 minutes before the largest meal would decrease appetite, calorie intake (CI), and anthropometry and improve body composition in overweight and obese men in free-living conditions. The subjects included 45 men with a body mass index between 25 and 40 kg/m(2) and who were randomly allocated to either the WPC (n = 26) or SPI (n = 19) groups. For 12 weeks, the subjects consumed 65 g WPC or 60 g SPI that was dissolved in 500 mL water 30 minutes before their ad libitum lunch. Appetite, CI, anthropometry, and body composition were assessed before and after the study and biweekly throughout. After 12 weeks, mean changes between the groups were significant for appetite (P = .032), CI (P = .045), anthropometry (body weight [P = .008], body mass index [P = .006], and waist circumference), and body composition (body fat mass and lean muscle [P anthropometry, and body composition (P anthropometry, and body composition of free-living overweight and obese men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

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    de Blasio F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesca de Blasio,1 Francesco de Blasio,2,3 Giulia Miracco Berlingieri,2 Andrea Bianco,3,4 Marta La Greca,1 Frits M E Franssen,5 Luca Scalfi1 1Department of Public Health, Medical School, “Federico II” University of Naples, 2Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Section, Clinic Center, Private Hospital, Naples, 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 4Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 5Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, the NetherlandsBackground: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA is a technique that measures body impedance (Z at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz. Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality.Objectives: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients.Methods: MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients.Results: After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001 and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively. Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005, respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005, forced

  10. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity.......02, respectively). Longitudinally, after adjustment for age, sex, and percent body fat, low plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline was associated with a decrease in insulin sensitivity (P = 0.04). In conclusion, our cross-sectional data suggest a role of physiological concentration of fasting plasma...

  11. Body composition, volumetric and areal bone parameters in male-to-female transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapauw, Bruno; Taes, Youri; Simoens, Steven; Van Caenegem, Eva; Weyers, Steven; Goemaere, Stefan; Toye, Kaatje; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; T'Sjoen, Guy G

    2008-12-01

    Male-to-female (M-->F) transsexual persons undergo extreme changes in gonadal hormone concentrations, both by pharmacological and surgical interventions. Given the importance of sex steroids for developing and maintaining bone mass, bone health is a matter of concern in daily management of these patients. To provide data on bone metabolism, geometry and volumetric bone mineral density in M-->F transsexual persons. Twenty-three M-->F transsexual persons, recruited from our gender dysphoria clinic and at least 3 yrs after sex reassignment surgery, together with 46 healthy age- and height-matched control men were included in this cross-sectional study. Body composition, areal and volumetric bone parameters determined using DXA and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Hormone levels and markers of bone metabolism assessed using immunoassays. Peak torque of biceps and quadriceps muscles and grip strength assessed using an isokinetic and hand dynamometer, respectively. M-->F transsexual persons presented lower total and regional muscle mass and lower muscle strength as compared to controls (all PF transsexual persons were characterized by smaller cortical bone size at both the radius and tibia (PF transsexual persons have less lean mass and muscle strength, and higher fat mass. In addition, they present lower trabecular vBMD and aBMD at the lumbar spine, total hip and distal radius, and smaller cortical bone size as compared to matched controls. Both the lower level of sports-related physical activity as well testosterone deprivation could contribute to these findings. These results indicate that bone health should be a parameter of interest in the long-term follow-up care for M-->F transsexual persons.

  12. [Nutritional status and body composition of poor children in the outlying neighborhoods of La Plata, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyhenart, Evelia E; Torres, María F; Quintero, Fabián A; Luis, María A; Cesani, María F; Zucchi, Mariel; Orden, Alicia B

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate nutritional status and body composition as indicators of quality of life among poor children served by neighborhood soup kitchens in La Plata, Argentina. From April to November 2004, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 608 healthy children from 1-11 years of age who were being served by two neighborhood soup kitchens in the outlying areas of the city of La Plata. The sample was stratified by age and sex. Height-for-age, weight-for age, and weight-for-height, were measured, as well as BMI, muscle mass and adipose tissue. Z-scores were computed for the data. Odds ratios and the respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Prevalence of low weight-for-age was 9%; low weight-for-height, 3%; and low height-for-age, 15%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 12.5% and 7.1%, respectively. Among the study sample, 47.2% had low muscle mass and 20.4% had low adipose tissue. Among overweight and obese children, adipose tissue was 34.3% higher than that of the reference population, while muscle mass was 12.5% lower. Undernutrition and obesity are both found among the community of children studied. The high prevalence of delayed growth (i.e., low height-for-age), undernutrition (i.e., low weight-for-age), and the acute lack of muscle mass even among overweight and obese children, seem to be part of the consequences of an inevitable process that unfolds in the face of adverse living conditions.

  13. Use of upper-arm anthropometry as measure of body-composition and nutritional assessment in children and adolescents (6-20 years) of Assam, Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswant, Singh; Nitish, Mondal

    2014-07-01

    Upper-arm muscle area (UMA), upper-arm fat area (UFA), arm-fat index (AFI), upper-arm fat estimate (UFE) and upper-arm muscle estimate (UME) was introduced for the assessment of body-composition. This cross-sectional study assessed age-sex specific upper-arm composition and nutritional status among children and adolescents. The present cross-sectional study was conducted among 1545 (770 boys; 775 girls) Sonowal Kacharis of Dibrugarh District, Assam, Northeast-India, using multi-stage stratified random sampling method. The anthropometric measurements of height, weight, triceps and mid-upper-arm circumference were recorded. The upper-arm composition was assessed using standard equations. Nutritional status was assessed using standard classification of upper-arm muscle-area by height (UAMAH) and thinness (low BMI-for-age). Age and sex-specific muscularity were found significantly greater among boys than girls (p0.05). Body-composition and nutritional status of these children and adolescents were found markedly unsatisfactory using upper-arm composition, UAMAH and thinness. The combination of upper-arm composition and conventional anthropometric measures appear to be useful for body-composition and nutritional status assessment.

  14. Muscle strength and fiber composition in athletes and sedentary men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensson, A; Larsson, L; Tesch, P; Karlsson, J

    1977-01-01

    Members of Swedish national teams in track and field events (sprinting and jumping), downhill skiing, race walking, orienteering, and a group of sedentary men were studied to examine the relationship between muslce fiber characteristics in needle biopsy samples form m. vastus lateralis and muscle strength measured as peak torque during isokinectic knee extensions. In comparison with the sedentary group the following differences were found: a) percentage fast twitch fibers was lower in the endurance athetes, b) fast to slow twitch muscle fiber area ratio was higher in the track athletes, c)track athletes and downhill skier attained higher peak torque values at all angular velocities examined. The track athletes had, however, higher torque values at the fastest angular velocity as compared to the downhill skiers, whereas there was no differnce under isometric conditions. The proportion of fast twitch fibers was related to torque produced, especially at high motion velocity. The training also appeared to affect the force-velocity relationship.

  15. Muscle MRI / whole-body MRI in diagnosis and dynamic evaluation of neuro-muscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Carlier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of MRI in myopathies dates back to more than 20 years. The first investigations were slow and only allowed segmental and limited studies. Whole-body MRI has emerged over the past twelve years and became a useful diagnostic tool in the etiological diagnosis of myopathies and muscular dystrophies. This study must always be confronted with clinical and whichever other paraclinical data without being able to replace them. Indications to perform such an investigation are getting better and better defined and the diagnostic efficacy has progressed with the increasing number of cases, communications, publications and discussions within multidisciplinary working groups. Its noninvasive nature, the radiation-free exposure and its reasonable cost also enable this technique to be easily accepted by the patient. It also provides a valuable tool for monitoring the natural disease progression or the effectiveness of therapies. The radiology team must be acquainted with the management of neuromuscular patients. Interpreting muscle whole-body MRI requires an excellent knowledge of muscle anatomy whichever body part is examined. The radiologist performing these studies is ideally a specialist of musculoskeletal disorders or a neuroradiologist well trained in muscle anatomy.

  16. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  17. Assessment of Whole Body and Local Muscle Fatigue Using Electromyography and a Perceived Exertion Scale for Squat Lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Imran; Kim, Jung-Yong

    2018-04-18

    This research study aims at addressing the paradigm of whole body fatigue and local muscle fatigue detection for squat lifting. For this purpose, a comparison was made between perceived exertion with the heart rate and normalized mean power frequency (NMPF) of eight major muscles. The sample consisted of 25 healthy males (age: 30 ± 2.2 years). Borg’s CR-10 scale was used for perceived exertion for two segments of the body (lower and upper) and the whole body. The lower extremity of the body was observed to be dominant compared to the upper and whole body in perceived response. First mode of principal component analysis (PCA) was obtained through the covariance matrix for the eight muscles for 25 subjects for NMPF of eight muscles. The diagonal entries in the covariance matrix were observed for each muscle. The muscle with the highest absolute magnitude was observed across all the 25 subjects. The medial deltoid and the rectus femoris muscles were observed to have the highest frequency for each PCA across 25 subjects. The rectus femoris, having the highest counts in all subjects, validated that the lower extremity dominates the sense of whole body fatigue during squat lifting. The findings revealed that it is significant to take into account the relation between perceived and measured effort that can help prevent musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational tasks.

  18. Comparison of the effects of swimming and Tai Chi Chuan on body fat composition in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tung-Yang; Pei, Yu-Cheng; Lau, Yiu-Chung; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Wong, Alice M K

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of fat and substantial loss of muscle mass are common phenomena in the elderly. In this study, we observed the effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) and swimming, two exercises suitable for elderly people, on the percentage body fat and fat distribution by measuring subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness and body composition. Subjects were divided into three groups: regular swimmers (n = 20), regular TCC practitioners (n = 32), and age-matched control subjects (n = 31). Subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness was taken using a Lange skinfold caliper at the chests, abdomens, and thighs in the men, and the triceps, suprailium, and thighs in the women. Mid-arm circumference (MAC) was measured on the non-dominant upper arm using fiberglass tape. Body composition was analyzed using the Inbody 3.0 logo, a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system. No significant differences were found between the three test groups in relation to total body adiposity and arm muscle circumference in the men and women. There was significantly less subcutaneous adipose tissue at the abdomen (p = 0.011) and thigh (p < 0.001) of TCC-group men and at the thighs (p < 0.001) of the swimming group compared with the control group. In women, only the thigh skinfold (p = 0.002) showed a decrease in the TCC group compared with the control group. Swimming and TCC may not decrease total fat adiposity in elderly men and women, however, they may change body fat distribution due to certain muscle group usage. The differences observed in the effects of exercise on body fat distribution between elderly women and men may be gender-related.

  19. Effects of supplementation with L-glutamine and L-alanine in the body composition of rats submitted to resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Yule Coqueiro

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigated the effects of glutamine and alanine supplementation on body composition of rats submitted to resistance exercise. Wistar rats were submitted to eight-week of resistance exercise, which consisted of climbing a ladder with progressive loads (25–100% of body weight. In the last 21 days of training, animals were supplemented with L-glutamine and L-alanine, as a dipeptide or in their free form (DIP, GLN + ALA and ALA groups, or water (SED and CTRL groups. RE attenuated body weight gain and lipid contents of CTRL group (p < 0.05 vs. SED and DIP supplementation promoted an increase in tibialis muscle weight, as well as in protein content (p < 0.05 vs. CTRL. Taken together, our data indicated that resistance exercise improves body composition and dipeptide potentiated the muscle hypertrophic effect.

  20. Usefulness of a Body Composition Analyzer, InBody 2.0, in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machiko Okamoto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate whether InBody 2.0 might be useful in measuring the dry weight of chronic hemodialysis (HD patients. Thirty-five HD patients (22 males and 13 females; mean age 62.6 ± 14.0 years; mean HD duration 101.0 ± 118.06 months were examined. Multifrequency bioelectric impedance analysis was used to estimate the ratio of extracellular water (ECW to total body water (TBW. The body resistance was measured at frequencies ranging from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. The impedance index was determined at a low frequency (5 kHz and correlated closely with ECW, using sodium bromide dilution as standard comparison. The levels of serum albumin, prealbumin, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, transferrin, and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP were measured by routine methods in our hospital. The ECW/TBW ratio was significantly associated with the levels of hANP (p < 0.05. However, no associations between the levels of serum albumin, TC, TG, or transferrin and the ECW/TBW were observed. It appears that the body composition analyzer, InBody 2.0, may be useful for estimating the dry weight in chronic HD patients.

  1. Genetic association between body composition measured by ultrasound and visual scores in Brazilian Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, D G M; Baldi, F; Lôbo, R B; Koury Filho, W; Sainz, R D; Albuquerque, L G

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic variability of body composition traits measured by ultrasound, growth traits, and visual scores as well as their genetic associations in Nelore cattle. A total of 9,765, 13,285, 13,061, 12,811, 3,484, 3,484, 3,483, and 3,303 records of weight at time of ultrasound measure (W550), 12th-13th rib LM area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), rump fat thickness (RF), visual scores for body structure (BS), finishing precocity (FP), muscling (MS), and sheath and navel characteristics (SN), respectively, were used. The model included contemporary group (defined as year and season of birth, sex, and management group) as a fixed effect and age of dam at calving and age of the animal (linear and quadratic effects) as covariates. The direct additive genetic effect was included as a random effect. The analyses also included 46,157 observations of BW adjusted to 120 d. The (co)variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a multitrait animal model. Heritability estimates for W550, LMA, BF, RF, BS, FP, MS, and SN were 0.37 ± 0.030, 0.33 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.02, 0.28 ± 0.03, 0.24 ± 0.04, 0.38 ± 0.05, 0.29 ± 0.05, and 0.38 ± 0.06, respectively. The estimated genetic correlations between visual scores and LMA were moderate and positive, ranging from 0.37 to 0.44. Similar results were obtained for the estimated genetic correlations between FP and MS with fat thickness measures (BF and RF). Low genetic correlations were estimated between SN and BS and between SN and the body composition traits, indicating that selection for body composition traits and BS will not affect sheath and navel size. The estimated genetic correlations between weight adjusted to 120 d of age (W120) and W550 and BS were high (0.87 and 0.91) and moderate with LMA (0.49 and 0.55), FP (0.37 and 0.41), and MS (0.47 and 0.55). The visual scores and ultrasound-measured body composition traits have enough genetic variation for

  2. Whole-Body Vibration While Squatting and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Nicole C; Black, Christopher D; Garner, John

    2015-12-01

    Research into alleviating muscle pain and symptoms in individuals after delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) has been inconsistent and unsuccessful in demonstrating a useful recovery modality. To investigate the effects of short-term whole-body vibration (WBV) on DOMS over a 72-hour period after a high-intensity exercise protocol. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University laboratory. Thirty women volunteered to participate in 4 testing sessions and were assigned randomly to a WBV group (n = 16; age = 21.0 ± 1.9 years, height = 164.86 ± 6.73 cm, mass = 58.58 ± 9.32 kg) or a control group (n = 14; age = 22.00 ± 1.97 years, height = 166.65 ± 8.04 cm, mass = 58.69 ± 12.92 kg). Participants performed 4 sets to failure of single-legged split squats with 40% of their body weight to induce muscle soreness in the quadriceps. The WBV or control treatment was administered each day after DOMS. Unilateral pressure-pain threshold (PPT), range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference, and muscle-pain ratings of the quadriceps were collected before and for 3 days after high-intensity exercise. Each day, we collected 3 sets of measures, consisting of 1 measure before the WBV or control treatment protocol (pretreatment) and 2 sets of posttreatment measures. We observed no interactions for PPT, thigh circumference, and muscle pain (P > .05). An interaction was found for active ROM (P = .01), with the baseline pretreatment measure greater than the measures at baseline posttreatment 1 through 48 hours posttreatment 2 in the WBV group. For PPT, a main effect for time was revealed (P .05). The WBV treatment approach studied did not aid in alleviating DOMS after high-intensity exercise. Further research is needed in various populations.

  3. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND BODY COMPOSITION AS VO2MAX DETERMINANTS

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    Henry Humberto León-Ariza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max is the gold standard in the cardiorespiratory endurance assessment. Objective: This study aimed to develop a mathematical model that contains variables to determine the VO2max of sedentary people. Methods: Twenty participants (10 men and 10 women with a mean age of 19.8±1.77 years were included. For each participant, body composition (percentage of fat and muscle, heart rate variability (HRV at rest (supine and standing, and VO2max were evaluated through an indirect test on a cycloergometer. A multivariate linear regression model was developed from the data obtained, and the model assumptions were verified. Results: Using the data obtained, including percentage of fat (F, percentage of muscle (M, percentage of power at very low frequency (VLF, α-value of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFAα1, heart rate (HR in the resting standing position, and age of the participants, a model was established for men, which was expressed as VO2max = 4.216 + (Age*0.153 + (F*0.110 - (M*0.053 - (VLF*0.649 - (DFAα1*2.441 - (HR*0.014, with R2 = 0.965 and standard error = 0.146 L/min. For women, the model was expressed as VO2max = 1.947 - (Age*0.047 + (F*0.024 + (M*0.054 + (VLF*1.949 - (DFAα1*0.424 - (HR*0.019, with R2 = 0.987 and standard error = 0.077 L/min. Conclusion: The obtained model demonstrated the influence exerted by body composition, the autonomic nervous system, and age in the prediction of VO2max.

  4. Gender differences in body composition, physical activity, eating behavior and body image among normal weight adolescents--an evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchengast, Sylvia; Marosi, Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Body composition but also physical activity patterns underlie gender typical differences throughout human life. In the present study the body composition of 354 girls and 280 boys ageing between 11 and 18 years originating from Eastern Austria were analyzed using bioelectrical impedance method. Normal weight according to body mass index categories was a strict inclusion criterion. Information regarding physical activity during school and leisure time, daily nutritional habits, subjective body satisfaction and weight control practices were collected by means of a structured and standardized questionnaire. Results of the analyses reveal that--as to be expected--adolescent boys and girls differed significantly in body composition, but also in physical activity patterns. Even normal weight girls exhibited a significantly higher amount of absolute and relative fat mass, whereas normal weight boys showed a significantly higher amount of fat free body mass. Furthermore male adolescents were significantly more physically active than their female counterparts. According to the results of multiple regression analyses physical activity patterns had beside sex an independent influence on body composition parameters during adolescence. In contrast, girls and boys showed only minor differences in nutritional habits and weight control practices. Nutritional habits, body satisfaction and weight control practices were not significantly related to body composition parameters. The observed gender differences in body composition as well as in physical activity patterns are interpreted in an evolutionary sense.

  5. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  6. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

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    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  7. Correlation between Body Composition and Walking Capacity in Severe Obesity.

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    G Correia de Faria Santarém

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with mobility reduction due to mechanical factors and excessive body fat. The six-minute walk test (6MWT has been used to assess functional capacity in severe obesity.To determine the association of BMI, total and segmental body composition with distance walked (6MWD during the six-minute walk test (6MWT according to gender and obesity grade.University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil; Public Practice.Functional capacity was assessed by 6MWD and body composition (% by bioelectrical impedance analysis in 90 patients.The mean 6MWD was 514.9 ± 50.3 m for both genders. The male group (M: 545.2 ± 46.9 m showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.002 than the female group (F: 505.6 ± 47.9 m. The morbid obese group (MO: 524.7 ± 44.0 m also showed a 6MWD higher (p = 0.014 than the super obese group (SO: 494.2 ± 57.0 m. There was a positive relationship between 6MWD and fat free mass (FFM, FFM of upper limps (FFM_UL, trunk (FFM_TR and lower limbs (FFM_LL. Female group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM, FFM_UL and FFM_LL and male group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD and FFM_TR. In morbid obese group there was a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_UL, FFM_TR and FFM_LL. The super obese group presented a positive relationship between 6MWD with FFM, FFM_TR and FFM_LL.Total and segmental FFM is associated with a better walking capacity than BMI.

  8. [Evaluation of isometric force in lower limbs and body composition in preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata Zubillaga, D; Rodríguez Fernández, C; Rodríguez Fernández, L M; de Paz Fernández, J A; Arboleda Franco, S; Alonso Patiño, F

    2015-10-01

    Strength is a physical quality with a clear influence on quality of life. It is determined by the structure of the musculoskeletal system, and depends on the muscular structure. It has been described that prematurity conditions both qualities. The aims of this study are to determine whether prematurity is associated with strength or body composition and evaluate the relationship between prematurity, strength and muscle mass. Case-control study. Participants were premature 7-to-11 year-old children and full-term birth controls. Strength was measured by a strength gauge and body composition from DEXA (duel-energy X-ray absorptiometry) scans. A total of 89 subjects were included and divided into three groups: 30 prematures with birth-weight ≤ 1500g, 29 prematures with birth-weight 1500-2000g, and 30 controls. Weight and BMI z-score was lower in the premature group. No differences were found in muscular mass or strength between groups. A ratio was established between strength and weight or muscular mass. It was observed that it was possible for them to move four times their weight, without finding any differences between groups or a relationship with birth-weight. Between 7 and 11 years of age, children who were premature have lower weight and BMI than the rest of the children. However, there were no differences in body composition or strength between preterm children and controls. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Functional impairment, fear of falling and body composition in institutionalized elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    São Romão Preto, Leonel; Nogueiro Santos, Ana Luisa; Mendes, Maria Eugénia; Pinto Novo, André; Pimentel, Maria Helena

    2015-01-01

    To analyze changes in the aging process of institutionalized elderly over a 24 months period, including physical condition, fear of falling, and body composition. A longitudinal, analytic and prospective study was implemented in 3 residential care homes for seniors. Data were collected using a socio-demographic and clinical questionnaire, the Rikli and Jones Senior Fitness Test, handgrip dynamometry and bioelectric impedance. The Portuguese version of the Falls Efficacy Scale was used for measure fear of falling. Fifty-one institutionalized elderly (82.5 ± 7.4 years) were included. In the 24 months analysis period, functional decline was observed (Pdecrease of self-efficacy to prevent falling, and falls prevalence was 42.1%. Results suggest a functional decrease, mainly in variables related with strength and muscular control of arms and legs, agility/dynamic balance and flexibility. Data don't highlight significant changes in body composition, however, tend to a muscle mass and bone mineral mass reduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Body composition of chronic renal patients: anthropometry and bioimpedance vector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Soares

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to compare the body composition of patients undergoing hemodialysis with that of healthy individuals using different methods. METHOD: cross-sectional study assessing male individuals using anthropometric markers, electrical bioimpedance and vector analysis. RESULTS: the healthy individuals presented larger triceps skinfold and arm circumference (p<0.001. The bioimpedance variables also presented significant higher values in this group. Significant difference was found in the confidence interval of the vector analysis performed for both the patients and healthy individuals (p<0.0001. The tolerance intervals showed that 55.20% of the patients were dehydrated, 10.30% presented visible edema, and 34.50% were within normal levels of hydration. Bioimpedance and vector analysis revealed that 52% of the patients presented decreased cell mass while 14.00% presented increased cell mass. CONCLUSIONS: the differences in the body composition of patients and healthy individuals were revealed through bioimpedance and vector analysis but not through their measures of arm circumference and arm muscle area.

  11. Effects of Krankcycle Training on Performance and Body Composition in Wheelchair Users

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    Čichoň Rostislav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in training equipment is important for increasing training effectiveness, performance and changes in body composition, especially in wheelchair users with paraplegia. The main objective of a workout session is to induce an adaptation stimulus, which requires overload of involved muscles by voluntary effort, yet this overload may be highly influenced by the size of the spinal cord lesion. Krancykl construction is designed to allow exercise on any wheelchair and with adjustable height or width of crank handles, where even the grip handle may be altered. The aim of this study was to determine the differences in body composition, performance and the rate of perceived exertion (RPE in paraplegics with a different level of paralyses after a 12 week training programme of a unilateral regime on Krankcycle equipment (a crank machine. The study sample included four men and one women at a different spine lesion level. The 12 weeks programme was successfully completed by four participants, while one subject got injured during the intervention process. Three participants were paraplegics and one was quadriplegic with innervation of the biceps humeri, triceps humeri and deltoideus. The Krankcycle 30 min programme was followed by four other exercises, which were performed after themselves rather than in a circuit training manner as the latter would result in much longer rest periods between exercises, because paraplegics have to be fixed by straps during exercise on hydraulic machines. The RPE after the workout decreased following the twelve week adaptation period.

  12. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass