WorldWideScience

Sample records for body composition estimation

  1. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Salamat

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets.

  2. Body composition estimations by BIA versus anthropometric equations in body builders and other power athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huygens, W; Claessens, A L; Thomis, M; Loos, R; Van Langendonck, L; Peeters, M; Philippaerts, R; Meynaerts, E; Vlietinck, R; Beunen, G

    2002-03-01

    Two main questions are stated: 1) are BIA and anthropometric equations accurate in estimating body composition in male power athletes and more specifically in body builders and 2) is there a difference in body composition when body builders are compared to weight and power lifters? this is a descriptive, comparative study on a selected sample of power athletes. 49 Belgian elite and sub-top male power athletes (34 body builders and 15 weight and power lifters) were included in this sample. More than 70% was in preparation of competition at time of data collection. an extended set of anthropometric measures was taken. Body composition was estimated by BIA (Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis) and by regression equations of skinfolds. Somatotype and muscle+bone areas were calculated. Factor analysis on all anthropometric measures was carried out to determine the body structure of the athletes. Compared to external visual criteria, the equations of Durnin and Womersley and Lohman (skinfolds) and the Guo-equation (BIA) were the only equations that could accurately estimate the body composition for this specific group of athletes. However, the sum of skinfolds attains the most accurate estimate of subcutaneous fatness. Body builders have significantly (pathletes (5.9 vs 3.8). This study shows that to estimate body composition in extreme power athletes BIA is not as accurate as compared to anthropometric equations. Moreover, the sum of a larger set of skinfolds is preferred to anthropometric prediction equations. In addition, body builders are more muscular and leaner than other power athletes.

  3. A model for estimating body shape biological age based on clinical parameters associated with body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bae CY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chul-Young Bae,1 Young Gon Kang,2 Young-Sung Suh,3 Jee Hye Han,4 Sung-Soo Kim,5 Kyung Won Shim61MediAge Research Center, Seoul, Korea; 2Chaum Power Aging Center, College of Medicine, CHA University, Seoul, Korea; 3Health Promotion Center, Keimyung University Dongsam Medical Center, Daegu, Korea; 4Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul, Korea; 5Department of Family Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea; 6Department of Family Medicine, Ewha Womans University Mokdong Hospital, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, KoreaBackground: To date, no studies have attempted to estimate body shape biological age using clinical parameters associated with body composition for the purposes of examining a person's body shape based on their age.Objective: We examined the relations between clinical parameters associated with body composition and chronological age, and proposed a model for estimating the body shape biological age.Methods: The study was conducted in 243,778 subjects aged between 20 and 90 years who received a general medical checkup at health promotion centers at university and community hospitals in Korea from 2004 to 2011.Results: In men, the clinical parameters with the highest correlation to age included the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.786, P < 0.001, hip circumference (r = −0.448, P < 0.001, and height (r = −0.377, P < 0.001. In women, the clinical parameters with the highest correlation to age include the waist-to-hip ratio (r = 0.859, P < 0.001, waist circumference (r = 0.580, P < 0.001, and hip circumference (r = 0.520, P < 0.001. To estimate the optimal body shape biological age based on clinical parameters associated with body composition, we performed a multiple regression analysis. In a model estimating the body shape biological age, the coefficient of determination (R2 was 0.71 in men and 0.76 in women.Conclusion: Our model for estimating body shape biological age

  4. Validation of Body Condition Indices and Quantitative Magnetic Resonance in Estimating Body Composition in a Small Lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    WARNER, DANIEL A.; JOHNSON, MARIA S.; NAGY, TIM R.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of body condition are typically used to assess an individual’s quality, health, or energetic state. Most indices of body condition are based on linear relationships between body length and mass. Although these indices are simple to obtain, nonlethal, and useful indications of energetic state, their accuracy at predicting constituents of body condition (e.g., fat and lean mass) are often unknown. The objectives of this research were to (1) validate the accuracy of another simple and noninvasive method, quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR), at estimating body composition in a small-bodied lizard, Anolis sagrei, and (2) evaluate the accuracy of two indices of body condition (based on length–mass relationships) at predicting body fat, lean, and water mass. Comparisons of results from QMR scans to those from chemical carcass analysis reveal that QMR measures body fat, lean, and water mass with excellent accuracy in male and female lizards. With minor calibration from regression equations, QMR will be a reliable method of estimating body composition of A. sagrei. Body condition indices were positively related to absolute estimates of each constituent of body composition, but these relationships showed considerable variation around regression lines. In addition, condition indices did not predict fat, lean, or water mass when adjusted for body mass. Thus, our results emphasize the need for caution when interpreting body condition based upon linear measurements of animals. Overall, QMR provides an alternative noninvasive method for accurately measuring fat, lean, and water mass in these small-bodied animals. PMID:28035770

  5. [Body composition at menarche. Estimation of total body weight, total body water, lean and fat body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo de Mirotti, S M; Lesa, A M; Barrón de Carbonetti, M; Roitter, H; Villagra de Lacuara, S

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to confirm in our environment what has been observed and described by other writers about the importance of achieving a "critical body weight'' and an adequate "fat percentage'' -on the basis of the calculation of total body water- for the initiation and development of pubertal events. This study included 92 girls, healthy, well nourished, belonging to upper middle class from a high school of The National University of Cordoba. The longitudinal method of control was used every 6 months and at the precise moment of menarche. Out of 20 antropometrical variables observed height, weight and height, TBW as percentage of body weight, lean body and fat weight, fat percentage and skin folds ppercentiles for each girl at menarche. A regression between fat percentage and skin folds was done. Percentiles 5 to 95 of fat percentage in relation to body water percentage were estimated. At menarche the average for the different variables are: Heigth 155.6 cm +/- 0.469; Weight 45.8 Kg +/- 0,5; TBW 25.216 lit. +/- 0.318; lean body weigth 35.02 Kg (S.D.2.98); fat weigth 10.86 Kg (S. D. 3.17). The addition of skin folds was correlated fat percentage, thus, an equation was obtained for the average calculation of such percentage %F= 12.16 + (0.313 x fold addition). The minium percentage for the onset of menstrual cycles is 17.3% and corresponds to percentile 10. However, there is a 5% of girls who start to menstruate with a 15.5% of fat and none of them is below that value. The reasons mentioned above suggest that is necessary to obtain a "critical body weigth'' as well as a "fat percentage'' minimum for the onset and maintenance of menstrual cycles, among our girls, similar o what has been obtained by doctor Frisch.

  6. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, R.N.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Lichtman, S.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine, Dayton, OH (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, {sup 3}H{sub 2}O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition.

  7. Estimating body composition from skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance analysis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Battezzati, Alberto; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; Loi, Silvana; Speziali, Chiara; Bisogno, Arianna; Colombo, Carla

    2015-11-01

    The accuracy of body composition estimates based on skinfold thickness measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is not yet adequately explored in cystic fibrosis (CF). Using DXA as reference method we verified the accuracy of these techniques and identified predictors of body composition specific for CF. One hundred forty-two CF patients (age range: 8-31 years) underwent a DXA scan. Body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated from skinfolds, while fat free mass (FFM) from single-frequency 50 kHz BIA. Bland-Altman analysis showed poor intra-individual agreement between body composition data provided by DXA and BF% estimated from skinfolds or FFM estimated from BIA. The skinfolds of the upper arm were better predictors of BF% than BMI, while compared to other BIA measurements the best predictor of FFM was the R-index (Height(2)/Resistance). Due to poor accuracy at individual level, the estimates of body composition obtained from these techniques cannot be part of the standard nutritional assessment of CF patients until reliable CF-specific equations will become available. BMI has limited value in predicting body fatness in CF patients and should be used in combination with other predictors. Skinfolds of the upper arm and R-index are strongly related to BF% and FFM and should be tested in a large CF population to develop specific predictive equations. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Estimation of body composition in Chinese and British men by ultrasonographic assessment of segmental adipose tissue volume.

    OpenAIRE

    Eston, R; Evans, R.; Fu, F.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that ultrasonographic measurements can be used to predict body composition in adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between ultrasonograph and caliper (SKF) measurements of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness in athletic Caucasian (English, E) and Asian (Chinese, C) men against estimates of body composition determined from hydrodensitometry (HYD). The usefulness of a proposed ultrasonographic method of estimating lean and fat proportions in the u...

  9. Male and female differences in variability with estimating body fat composition using skinfold calipers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Marc P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obesity is a major health problem in the United States. Skinfold measurements are routinely used in assessing outcomes in the management of obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex differences in skinfold measurements would be apparent in intraobserver and interobserver reliability as well as validity when compared with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) measurements. Methods To determine intraobserver and interobserver variability, 71 male and 45 female subjects (chiropractic students) were assessed by 4 separate observers who each took 4 separate skinfold measurements. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was later conducted using a foot-to-foot technique. The average sums of the skinfold measurement and their standard deviations were calculated, and correlation coefficients between skinfold measurements and BIA techniques for male and female subjects were plotted separately to assess validity. Results Men tended to have greater amounts of intraobserver and interobserver variability when compared with women, but these differences were not significant. In regard to validity, there was no significant difference between skinfold measurements and BIA when estimating percentage body fat for men; but the difference was significant for women, where BIA underestimated by 3.4%. Conclusions The differences observed in variability could be explained by the fact that there is a difference in skinfold compressibility between men and women. Physicians who are using skinfold calipers for body composition assessment should take into account these small potential differences when evaluating total body fatness. PMID:22027106

  10. Validity of Standing Posture Eight-electrode Bioelectrical Impedance to Estimate Body Composition in Taiwanese Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Chun Lee

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the impedance index and LST in the whole body, upper limbs, and lower limbs derived from DXA findings were highly correlated. The LST and BF% estimated by BIA8 in whole body and various body segments were highly correlated with the corresponding DXA results; however, BC-418 overestimates the participants' appendicular LST and underestimates whole body BF%. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting the results of appendicular LST and whole body BF% estimated for elderly adults.

  11. iiv vito estimation of body composition in cattle with tritium and urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate the tritium and urea dilution techniques for accurate predictron of body composition. Approximately l,l - 1 ..... assumed that the same principles would apply in the .... Automated and manual direct methods for the determination of blood ...

  12. Assessment of skinfold thickness equations in estimating body composition in children with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callias, Céline; Ezri, Jessica; Marques-Vidal, Pedro Manuel; Nydegger, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the agreement of commonly used skinfold thickness equations to estimate percentage of Fat Mass (FM%) in paediatric patients with IBD, in comparison with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Twenty-one paediatric IBD patients were included: 11 females and 10 males; mean age for the entire group: 14.3 years, range 12-16 years, 16 with Crohn's disease, five with ulcerative colitis. The FM% was calculated using six established paediatric skinfold thickness equations and compared to the results obtained by DEXA. The statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient and corresponding 95% confidence interval, Bland-Altman's limits of agreement method and the Bradley-Blackwood test. Correlation between skinfold and DEXA values ranged between 0.85 (Deurenberg) and 0.92 (Durnin and Rahaman and Johnston), all P skinfold and DEXA values ranged between -3.6% (Deurenberg) and 2.5% (Weststrate). Bland-Altman limits of agreement were wide, spanning over 10%. Finally, the Bradley-Blackwood test of equality of means and variances was significant in all but the Durnin and Rahaman equation. In adolescents with IBD, fat mass calculated from six skinfold thickness equations showed good correlation but poor agreement with reference values from DEXA. Assessment of body composition using skinfold thickness equations cannot be recommended in paediatric patients with IBD. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Zooplankton body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinousforms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most groups body composition is size independent. Exceptions are protozoans, chaetognaths, and pteropods, where larger individuals becomeincreasingly watery. I speculate about the dichotomy in body compo...

  14. Estimating Body Composition in Adolescent Sprint Athletes: Comparison of Different Methods in a 3 Years Longitudinal Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerenhouts, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A recommended field method to assess body composition in adolescent sprint athletes is currently lacking. Existing methods developed for non-athletic adolescents were not longitudinally validated and do not take maturation status into account. This longitudinal study compared two field methods, i.e., a Bio Impedance Analysis (BIA) and a skinfold based equation, with underwater densitometry to track body fat percentage relative to years from age at peak height velocity in adolescent sprint athletes. In this study, adolescent sprint athletes (34 girls, 35 boys) were measured every 6 months during 3 years (age at start = 14.8 ± 1.5yrs in girls and 14.7 ± 1.9yrs in boys). Body fat percentage was estimated in 3 different ways: 1) using BIA with the TANITA TBF 410; 2) using a skinfold based equation; 3) using underwater densitometry which was considered as the reference method. Height for age since birth was used to estimate age at peak height velocity. Cross-sectional analyses were performed using repeated measures ANOVA and Pearson correlations between measurement methods at each occasion. Data were analyzed longitudinally using a multilevel cross-classified model with the PROC Mixed procedure. In boys, compared to underwater densitometry, the skinfold based formula revealed comparable values for body fatness during the study period whereas BIA showed a different pattern leading to an overestimation of body fatness starting from 4 years after age at peak height velocity. In girls, both the skinfold based formula and BIA overestimated body fatness across the whole range of years from peak height velocity. The skinfold based method appears to give an acceptable estimation of body composition during growth as compared to underwater densitometry in male adolescent sprinters. In girls, caution is warranted when interpreting estimations of body fatness by both BIA and a skinfold based formula since both methods tend to give an overestimation. PMID:26317426

  15. Zooplankton body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    I compiled literature on zooplankton body composition, from protozoans to gelatinous plankton, and report allometric relations and average body composition. Zooplankton segregate into gelatinous and non-gelatinous forms, with few intermediate taxa (chaetognaths, polychaetes, and pteropods). In most...

  16. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in obese individuals: The possibility to estimate whole body composition from DXA half-body scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, K. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: kent.lundqvist@karolinska.se; Neovius, M. [Obesity Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Grigorenko, A. [Research and Development Unit, YLab Wellcare Institute, SE-113 60 Stockholm (Sweden); Nordenstroem, J. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Roessner, S. [Obesity Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    Background: Because of its high accuracy, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become one of the most frequently used methods for estimating human body composition. One limiting factor concerning measuring obese people with the DXA technique is the size of the scanning area. Objective: To explore the possibility of estimating whole body composition from half-body scans before and after weight reduction, and compare the results with densitometry measurements. Design: Intervention study of 15 obese adults (age 47.2 {+-} 13.4; BMI 35.9 {+-} 3.1) who were measured with full- and half-body DXA scans before and after a 7-week weight loss program. On both occasions, body composition was also assessed with air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Results: The mean weight loss at follow-up was 14.9 {+-} 4.1 kg (5.0 kg/m{sup 2}), corresponding to a 14% decrease in body weight. When comparing the results from full- and half-body DXA, between 96% and 98% of the variance was explained. At baseline, %Body Fat (%BF) did not differ significantly between full and half-body measurements (0.6, -0.1-1.3), but the half-body method overestimated it by 1.0% (0.2-1.8) at follow-up. On the contrary, the difference between DXA and ADP in the assessment of %BF was both significant and of large magnitude (5.2; 2.4-8.0) at baseline, while non-significant and near zero (0.4; -1.3-2.2) at follow-up when the subjects had lost a significant amount of weight. Conclusion: The results obtained from half-body DXA scans can accurately predict whole body composition, as measured by full-body DXA, before and after significant weight reduction, in obese patients who barely fit into the scanning area. However, increasing discordance between DXA and ADP with increasing adiposity was seen, indicating that the measurements might not be as reliable on extreme obese subjects as on normal and overweight ditto.

  17. Percentile distribution for anthropometric variables used to estimate body composition in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rached-Sosa, Ingrid; Henríquez-Pérez, Gladys

    2015-09-01

    Anthropometric indicators of body composition, reflective of fat and lean compartments in pregnant women, undergo changes throughout gestation. The adequate interpretation of these indicators requires the availability of percentile distribution values for each week of gestational age. The objective was to determine the percentile distribution for subcutaneous skin-fold thicknesses: biceps, triceps, subscapular, mid-thigh, and both arm fat and arm muscle areas for each week of gestational age. This descriptive and cross-sectional study included 4,481 measurements of anthropometric variables obtained from 745 pregnancies out of 719 subjects aged between 19 and 39 years, well-nourished, healthy, without clinical edema, single pregnancy, and validated gestational age. Evaluations were conducted at the Centro de Atencion Nutricional Infantil Antimano, between 1998 and 2012. The anthropometric measurements were performed by standardized anthropometrists. Descriptive statistics, bivariant correlations, and percentiles 3, 10, 25, 50, 75, 90, and 97 were calculated for each week of pregnancy between weeks 8 thru 37. The number of measurements performed for each variable studied at each week of gestation ranged between 100 and 236. The behavior of the variables reflecting the fat component showed increases as the gestational age advanced (1.86 cm2), whereas the muscle area showed decreases (-0.02 cm2). The most noticeable variations were seen in the subscapular and mid-thigh skin-fold thicknesses 2.90 mm and 5.0 mm, respectively. The availability of percentile distributions of the anthropometric variables used in the evaluation of body composition for pregnant women per gestational age, contributes to optimizing the nutritional categorization in this population group.

  18. Estimation of body composition in Chinese and British men by ultrasonographic assessment of segmental adipose tissue volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eston, R; Evans, R; Fu, F

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that ultrasonographic measurements can be used to predict body composition in adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between ultrasonograph and caliper (SKF) measurements of subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness in athletic Caucasian (English, E) and Asian (Chinese, C) men against estimates of body composition determined from hydrodensitometry (HYD). The usefulness of a proposed ultrasonographic method of estimating lean and fat proportions in the upper and lower limbs was also evaluated as a potential method of predicting body composition. Ultrasonography (US) was used to measure adipose and skin thickness at the following sites: biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdominal, pectoral, thigh and calf. Caliper measurements were also made at the above sites. Subcutaneous fat thickness and segmental radius were measured directly from the display screen of the ultrasonic scanner (Aloka 500 SD). By applying the geometry of a cone, the proximal and distal radii of the upper arm and upper leg were used to calculate the proportionate volumes of adipose tissue. The best correlations for US and SKF were obtained at the quadriceps, subscapular and pectoral sites for E (r = 0.96, 0.93 and 0.90, respectively) and at the quadriceps, calf and abdominal sites for C (r = 0.90, 0.81 and 0.75, respectively). The best ultrasonographic predictor of the percentage fat in both groups was the percentage adipose tissue volume in the upper leg (r = 0.83 and 0.79 for C and E, respectively). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the prediction of percentage fat was improved by the addition of the ultrasonographic abdomen measurement in both groups: Chinese sample: %fat = %fat(leg) (0.491) + US abdomen (0.337) + 0.95 ( R = 0.89, s.e.e. = 1.9%); English sample: %fat = %fat(leg) (0.435) + US abdomen (0.230) - 0.765 ( R = 0.80, s.e.e. = 3.6%). It is concluded that ultrasonographic measurements of subcutaneous adipose tissue and

  19. The application of digital imaging techniques in the in vivo estimation of the body composition of pigs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, C.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vangen, O.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kanis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetry and comparative slaughter measurement are techniques widely used to measure chemical body composition of pigs, while dissection is the standard method to determine physical (tissue) composition of the body. The disadvantage of calorimetry is the small number of observations possible, whi

  20. The application of digital imaging techniques in the in vivo estimation of the body composition of pigs: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, C.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vangen, O.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kanis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetry and comparative slaughter measurement are techniques widely used to measure chemical body composition of pigs, while dissection is the standard method to determine physical (tissue) composition of the body. The disadvantage of calorimetry is the small number of observations possible,

  1. Assessment methods of body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment has an important role in many fields of medicine, in evaluation of health status of the individual, as well as in sports sciences as a part of physiological profile of athletes. There are several methods for body composition assessment, which provide indirect data on the body structure. For instance in anthropometry, simple techniques such as skinfold measurements provide simply, quick and nonexpensive assessment of body fat mass. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA is described as a method with rising validity, especially for measurement in regional body composition. The value of BIA in routine clinical terms is still limited, while DXA has potential of becoming new golden standard for body composition assessment. More sophisiticated methods such is MRI have advantage over other techniques for estimation of regional body composition, since it provides the only accurate and viable approach for the estimation of intra-abdominal adipose tissue. This method is limited to experimental studies on smaller group of individuals, since it is expensive and not available to routine assessment. Combination of more methods may be the best approach for obtaining accurate results and informations about health status of individual.

  2. Cole Parameter Estimation from the Modulus of the Electrical Bioimpeadance for Assessment of Body Composition. A Full Spectroscopy Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Buendia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Activities around applications of Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS have proliferated in the past decade significantly. Most of these activities have been focused in the analysis of the EBIS measurements, which eventually might enable novel applications. In Body Composition Assessment (BCA the most common analysis approach currently used in EBIS is based on the Cole function, which most often requires curve fitting. One of the most implemented approaches for obtaining the Cole parameters is performed in the impedance plane through the geometrical properties that the Cole function exhibit in such domain as depressed semi-circle. To fit the measured impedance data to a semi-circle in the impedance plane, obtaining the Cole parameters in an indirect and sequential manner has several drawbacks. Applying a Non-Linear Least Square (NLLS iterative fitting on the spectroscopy measurement, obtains the Cole parameters considering the frequency information contained in the measurement. In this work, from experimental total right side EBIS measurements, the BCA parameters have been obtained to assess the amount and distribution of whole body fluids. The values for the BCA parameters have been obtained using values for the Cole parameters estimated with both approaches: circular fitting on the impedance plane and NLLS impedance-only fitting. The comparison of the values obtained for the BCA parameters with both methods confirms that the NLLS impedance-only is an effective alternative as Cole parameter estimation method in BCA from EBIS measurements. Using the modulus of the Cole function as the model for the fitting would eliminate the need for performing a phase detection in the acquisition process, simplifying the hardware specifications of the measurement instrumentation when implementing a bioimpedance spectrometer.doi:10.5617/jeb.197 J Electr Bioimp, vol. 2, pp. 72-78, 2011

  3. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  4. Measurement of Body Composition in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    Identification and treatment of obesity in children is believed to be an important factor in its control during the adult years. Laboratory and field methods for body composition measurement are described along with estimates of body fat content from anthropometric dimensions. (CJ)

  5. Body composition in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoli, Angela; Garaci, Francesco; Cafarelli, Francesco Pio; Guglielmi, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Nutritional status is the results of nutrients intake, absorption and utilization, able to influence physiological and pathological conditions. Nutritional status can be measured for individuals with different techniques, such as CT Body Composition, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Ultrasound, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Bioimpendance. Because obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic, there is an increasing interest in the study of body composition to monitor conditions and delay in development of obesity-related diseases. The emergence of these evidence demonstrates the need of standard assessment of nutritional status based on body weight changes, playing an important role in several clinical setting, such as in quantitative measurement of tissues and their fluctuations in body composition, in survival rate, in pathologic condition and illnesses. Since body mass index has been shown to be an imprecise measurement of fat-free and fat mass, body cell mass and fluids, providing no information if weight changes, consequently there is the need to find a better way to evaluate body composition, in order to assess fat-free and fat mass with weight gain and loss, and during ageing. Monitoring body composition can be very useful for nutritional and medical interventional. This review is focused on the use of Body Composition in Clinical Practice.

  6. Correlation between birth weight and maternal body composition.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Etaoin

    2013-01-01

    To estimate which maternal body composition parameters measured using multifrequency segmental bioelectric impedance analysis in the first trimester of pregnancy are predictors of increased birth weight.

  7. Use of a cyanine dye probe to estimate the composition of the vitreous body after enzymatic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Ina G.; Tatikolov, Alexander S.; Sharova, Natalia P.

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of enzymes such as proteinase K, trypsin, collagenase with hyaluronidase, as well as a mixture of all these enzymes, on albumin and collagens incorporated in the vitreous body, using a cyanine dye as a spectral-fluorescent probe. We studied the vitreous body of the eyes of 19/20-week human fetuses, in which, as we showed earlier, the concentration of albumin in the vitreous body is sufficiently high. Proteinase K steeply decreased the albumin content in the vitreous body, whereas trypsin and hyaluronidase with collagenase had no effect on the albumin content. Collagen was not subjected to proteinase K. Enzymatic digestion of collagen occurred under the action of collagenase with hyaluronidase. The content of albumin and collagen sharply decreased in the system after treatment of the vitreous body with mixture of all enzymes. Hence, the results obtained showed that, even being in the mixture, these enzymes have a selective effect on albumin and collagens. The possibility to study the dose-dependent character of enzymatic vitreolysis using a cyanine dye probe has been shown. The spectral-fluorescent probe for albumin and collagens proved to be useful for experimental approaches at screening the enzymatic mixtures possessing the selective action. The study performed is considered as a preclinical trial, and the method presented as promising for the further research in this field. The effect of the enzymes used for therapeutic purposes on the functional conditions of the vitreous body should be studied.

  8. Body composition of Native-American women estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and hydrodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, V L; Heyward, V H; Baumgartner, R N; Flores, A J; Stolarczyk, L M; Wotruba, E A

    1993-01-01

    In the present sample, the Native-American women varied in age (18-60 y) and fatness (23.0-57.4% BF). The cross-validation analysis for %BF estimated by DXA for this sample yielded a high validity coefficient (r = 0.89), and the average %BFDXA (37.3%) and %BFHW (37.6%) did not differ significantly. The prediction error (3.28% BF) was less than the theoretical expected value, given the wide range in age and fatness in this sample. Thus, it appears that DXA may be a viable alternative method for estimating the %BF of a diverse group of Native-American women. The DXA method is more practical than hydrostatic weighing, especially for subjects who are uncomfortable in the water. Also, DXA estimates of bone mineral may lead to improved estimates of FFB density for different ethnic populations.

  9. Determination of body composition from skinfold thickness: a validation study.

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, J J; Wilson, J.; Durnin, J V

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of body composition is proving increasingly important in clinical nutrition and research. Skinfold thickness is a simple means of estimating body composition which is widely used in children, but there is little information on its validity. There has been a proliferation of equations for estimation of body composition from skinfolds, but some doubt as to their general applicability. The aim of the present study was to validate five currently used equations for this purpose in a sa...

  10. Postpartum changes in body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Geum Joon; Yoon, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eung-Ju; Oh, Min-Jeong; Seo, Hong-Seog; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2011-12-01

    Parity is associated with weight retention and has long-lasting and detrimental effects on the health of women. Previous studies have shown that increasing parity was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Postpartum weight is made up of several components including uterine and mammary tissues, body water (intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW)), and fat. These components change in variable amounts postpartum, thereby distinctly affecting the interpretation of individual weight retention; however, it is unclear which components contribute to weight retention. The aims of this longitudinal study were to evaluate changes in body composition during the postpartum period and to investigate their effects on weight retention. This prospective study examined 41 healthy, pregnant women who gave birth at Korea University Guro Hospital. We measured body composition at 2 days, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks postpartum using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Weight decreased during this postpartum period (P < 0.001); the postpartum weight retention from prepregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum was 4.43 ± 4.0 kg. Among various body composition components, ECW, ICW, total body water, and fat-free mass (FFM) decreased postpartum. However, fat mass (FM) and visceral fat area, the components that experienced the greatest changes, increased postpartum. Our results demonstrate that the postpartum period is associated with a preferential accumulation of adipose tissue in the visceral compartment, even though overall body weight is decreased. Further studies are needed to evaluate the changes in body composition over longer time periods and their long-term effects on health.

  11. Evaluation of body composition. Current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, V H

    1996-09-01

    In the selection of body composition field methods and prediction equations, exercise and health practitioners must consider their clients' demographics. Factors, such as age, gender, level of adiposity, physical activity and ethnicity influence the choice of method and equation. Also, it is important to evaluate the relative worth of prediction equations in terms of the criterion method used to derive reference measures of body composition for equation development. Given that hydrodensitometry, hydrometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry are subject to measurement error and violation of basic assumptions underlying their use, none of these should be considered as a 'gold standard' method for in vivo body composition assessment. Reference methods, based on whole-body, 2-component body composition models, are limited, particularly for individuals whose fat-free body (FFB) density and hydration differ from values assumed for 2-component models. Use of field method prediction equations developed from 2-component model (Siri equation) reference measures of body composition will systematically underestimate relative body fatness of American Indian women, Black men and women, and Hispanic women because the average FFB density of these ethnic groups exceeds the assumed value (1.1 g/ml). Thus, some researchers have developed prediction equations based on multicomponent model estimates of body composition that take into account interindividual variability in the water, mineral, and protein content of the FFB. One multicomponent model approach adjusts body density (measured via hydrodensitometry) for total body water (measured by hydrometry) and/or total body mineral estimated from bone mineral (measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry). Skinfold (SKF), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and near-infrared interactance (NIR) are 3 body composition methods used in clinical settings. Unfortunately, the overwhelming majority of field method prediction equations

  12. Body composition and functional limitation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Patricia P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low body mass index has been associated with increased mortality in severe COPD. The impact of body composition earlier in the disease remains unclear. We studied the impact of body composition on the risk of functional limitation in COPD. Methods We used bioelectrical impedance to estimate body composition in a cohort of 355 younger adults with COPD who had a broad spectrum of severity. Results Among women, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a lower risk of self-reported functional limitation after controlling for age, height, pulmonary function impairment, race, education, and smoking history (OR 0.45 per 0.50 increment in lean-to-fat ratio; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.74. Among men, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a greater distance walked in 6 minutes (mean difference 40 meters per 0.50 ratio increment; 95% CI 9 to 71 meters. In women, the lean-to-fat ratio was associated with an even greater distance walked (mean difference 162 meters per 0.50 increment; 95% CI 97 to 228 meters. In women, higher lean-to-fat ratio was also associated with better Short Physical Performance Battery Scores. In further analysis, the accumulation of greater fat mass, and not the loss of lean mass, was most strongly associated with functional limitation among both sexes. Conclusion Body composition is an important non-pulmonary impairment that modulates the risk of functional limitation in COPD, even after taking pulmonary function into account. Body composition abnormalities may represent an important area for screening and preventive intervention in COPD.

  13. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejczyk Marcin; Wiecek Magdalena; Szymura Jadwiga; Szygula Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group) and lean body mass (HLBM group). In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and maximal heart rate were me...

  14. Nutritional aspects and body composition in motocross

    OpenAIRE

    Mňuk, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Title: Nutritional aspects and body composition in motocross Objectives: The goal of this work is monitoring nutritional habits and parameters for the assessment of body composition and somatotype for Czech junior national team in motocross and enduro. Methotds: There was used four day record of consumed food to map out nutritional habits, which was evaluted by software Nutirs. The input data of body composition were obtained by Bioimpendance InBody 230. Following were also measured selected ...

  15. REVIEW: Development of methods for body composition studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Sören; Thomas, Brian J.

    2006-07-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease.

  16. Ultrasound: Which role in body composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzocchi, Alberto; Filonzi, Giacomo; Ponti, Federico; Albisinni, Ugo; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Battista, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound is a non-invasive, fast, relatively inexpensive and available tool for estimating adiposity in clinical practice, and in several research settings. It does not expose patients to ionizing radiation risks, making the method ideal for the evaluation, and for follow-up studies. Several parameters and indexes based on adipose tissue thickness have been introduced and tested, and these have been correlated with clinical and laboratoristic parameters. Moreover, ultrasound can also be directed to the estimation of adipose tissue and intracellular fat indirectly, at cellular-molecular level: an opportunity for many radiologists who already and sometimes unconsciously perform "body composition" assessment when looking at the liver, at muscle as well as at other organs. However, standardized procedure and parameters are needing to improve accuracy and reproducibility. The purposes of this review are: 1) to provide a complete overview of the most used and shared measurements of adiposity; 2) to analyze technical conditions, accuracy, and clinical meaning of ultrasound in the study of body composition; 3) to provide some elements for the use of ultrasound in the evaluation of intra-cellular lipids accumulation, in two hot spots: liver and skeletal muscle.

  17. Composition of Solar System Small Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Vernazza, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the chapter is to summarize our understanding of the compositional distribution across the different reservoirs of small bodies (main belt asteroids, giant planet trojans, irregular satellites of the giant planets, TNOs, comets). We then use this information to i) discuss current dynamical models (Nice and Grand Tack models), ii) mention possible caveats in these models if any, and iii) draw a preliminary version of the primordial compositional gradient across the solar system before planetary migrations occured. Note that the composition of both planetary satellites (the regular ones) and that of the transient populations (NEOs, centaurs) is not discussed here. We strictly focus on the composition of the main reservoirs of small bodies. The manuscript's objective is to provide a global and synthetic view of small bodies' compositions rather than a very detailed one, for specific reviews regarding the composition of small bodies, see papers by Burbine (2014) for asteroids, Emery et al. (2015) for J...

  18. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body.......70-105.56) (P Hidradenitis Suppurativa is associated with a high fat percentage, high visceral fat, and low muscle percentage adding to the morbidity of HS. The higher predicted estimate of basal metabolic rate (BMR) in HS patients may reflect...

  19. Determination of body composition from skinfold thickness: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J J; Wilson, J; Durnin, J V

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of body composition is proving increasingly important in clinical nutrition and research. Skinfold thickness is a simple means of estimating body composition which is widely used in children, but there is little information on its validity. There has been a proliferation of equations for estimation of body composition from skinfolds, but some doubt as to their general applicability. The aim of the present study was to validate five currently used equations for this purpose in a sample of 98 healthy prepubertal children (64 boys, 34 girls), mean (SD) age 9.1 (1.7) years by comparison of estimates from each equation with measurements of fatness derived from hydrodensitometry. Differences between methods were determined by calculation of biases and limits of agreement. Limits of agreement between predicted and measured fatness were wide, particularly in the girls, and some distinct biases were apparent. Choice of prediction equation therefore has a substantial influence on the estimate of fatness obtained when using skinfolds in children. The existing published equations are associated with large random errors or significant systematic errors. For the time being skinfolds might best be regarded as indices (rather than measures) of body fatness in individuals, or means of estimating body fatness of groups. Estimating the total body fatness of individual prepubertal children using skinfolds, on the basis of this evidence, is not advisable at present. PMID:7492193

  20. Effect of intense military training on body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavolti, Marcella; Battistini, Nino C; Dugoni, Manfredo; Bagni, Bruno; Bagni, Ilaria; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-03-01

    Individuals in a structural physical training program can show beneficial changes in body composition, such as body fat reduction and muscle mass increase. This study measured body composition changes by using 3 different techniques-skinfold thickness (SF) measurements, air displacement plethysmography (BOD-POD), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-during 9 months of intense training in healthy young men engaged in military training. Twenty-seven young men were recruited from a special faction of the Italian Navy. The program previewed three phases: ground combat, sea combat, and amphibious combat. Body composition was estimated at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the training. After the subjects performed the ground combat phase, body composition variables significantly decreased: body weight (P BOD-POD (P = 0.90) and DXA was significantly greater than measured by SF. A significant difference was found in body mass index (BMI) measured during the study. BOD-POD and SF, compared with DXA, provide valid and reliable measurement of changes in body composition in healthy young men engaged in military training. In conclusion, the findings suggest that for young men of normal weight, changes in body weight alone and in BMI are not a good measure to assess the effectiveness of intense physical training programs, because lean mass gain can masquerade fat weight loss.

  1. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of the pancreas lipase inhibitor orlistat (OLS) on calcium metabolism, bone turnover, bone mass, bone density and body composition when given for obesity as adjuvant to an energy- and fat-restricted diet. DESIGN: Randomized controlled double-blinded trial...... of treatment with OLS 120 mg three times daily or placebo for 1 y. SUBJECTS: Thirty obese subjects with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 36.9+/-3.7 kg/m(2) and a mean age of 41+/-11 y. Sixteen patients were assigned to OLS and 14 to placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements...... of bone mineral and body composition included total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMC and BMD, forearm BMC and BMD, fat mass (FM), fat free-mass (FFM), percentage fat mass (FM%) as well as a DXA estimate of the body weight. Body composition (FM, FFM and FM...

  2. Influence of orlistat on bone turnover and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, A; Westergren Hendel, H; Andersen, T

    2001-01-01

    of bone mineral and body composition included total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lumbar spine BMC and BMD, forearm BMC and BMD, fat mass (FM), fat free-mass (FFM), percentage fat mass (FM%) as well as a DXA estimate of the body weight. Body composition (FM, FFM and FM...... biochemical variables except s-osteocalcin changed significantly after 1 y in the OLS group, disclosing a pattern of an incipient negative vitamin D balance, a secondary increase in PTH-secretion, and an increase in bone turnover with the emphasis on an increase in resorption parameters (fU-OHpr/creat, f...

  3. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  4. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moushira Erfan Zaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS. They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH. Materials and Methods: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS method. Results: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. Conclusion: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy.

  5. Cosmochemical Estimates of Mantle Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, H.; O'Neill, H. St. C.

    2003-12-01

    , and a crust. Both Daubrée and Boisse also expected that the Earth was composed of a similar sequence of concentric layers (see Burke, 1986; Marvin, 1996).At the beginning of the twentieth century Harkins at the University of Chicago thought that meteorites would provide a better estimate for the bulk composition of the Earth than the terrestrial rocks collected at the surface as we have only access to the "mere skin" of the Earth. Harkins made an attempt to reconstruct the composition of the hypothetical meteorite planet by compiling compositional data for 125 stony and 318 iron meteorites, and mixing the two components in ratios based on the observed falls of stones and irons. The results confirmed his prediction that elements with even atomic numbers are more abundant and therefore more stable than those with odd atomic numbers and he concluded that the elemental abundances in the bulk meteorite planet are determined by nucleosynthetic processes. For his meteorite planet Harkins calculated Mg/Si, Al/Si, and Fe/Si atomic ratios of 0.86, 0.079, and 0.83, very closely resembling corresponding ratios of the average solar system based on presently known element abundances in the Sun and in CI-meteorites (see Burke, 1986).If the Earth were similar compositionally to the meteorite planet, it should have a similarly high iron content, which requires that the major fraction of iron is concentrated in the interior of the Earth. The presence of a central metallic core to the Earth was suggested by Wiechert in 1897. The existence of the core was firmly established using the study of seismic wave propagation by Oldham in 1906 with the outer boundary of the core accurately located at a depth of 2,900km by Beno Gutenberg in 1913. In 1926 the fluidity of the outer core was finally accepted. The high density of the core and the high abundance of iron and nickel in meteorites led very early to the suggestion that iron and nickel are the dominant elements in the Earth's core (Brush

  6. Body Composition Changes Associated With Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Methadone is associated with a statistically significant increase in BMI in the first 2 years of treatment. Objectives To evaluate the changes of body composition (bone mass, % fat, % muscle mass, % water, and basal metabolic rate related to this increase. Patients and Methods Changes in body composition were monitored, via bioelectrical impedance, in 29 patients in methadone treatment for opiate dependency (age 18 to 44, mean = 29.3, SD = 7.0, 13 men, 16 women. Results Within one year from admission to treatment, a statistically significant (t-tests, P < 0.05 increase was noted in their body mass index (BMI, % of body fat, average body mass, and average basal metabolic rate, and relative decrease in their % of muscle mass and % of bone mass. Neither absolute bone mass nor muscle mass changed significantly. Conclusions Physicians involved in care of methadone patients should recommend dietary and lifestyle changes to improve their overall health.

  7. Effect of Body Composition on Walking Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejczyk Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate walking economy and physiological responses at two walking speeds in males with similar absolute body mass but different body composition. Methods. The study involved 22 young men with similar absolute body mass, BMI, aerobic performance, calf and thigh circumference. The participants differed in body composition: body fat (HBF group and lean body mass (HLBM group. In the graded test, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and maximal heart rate were measured. Walking economy was evaluated during two walks performed at two different speeds (4.8 and 6.0 km ‧ h-1. Results. The VO2max was similar in both groups, as were the physiological responses during slow walking. The absolute oxygen uptake or oxygen uptake relative to body mass did not significantly differentiate the studied groups. The only indicator significantly differentiating the two groups was oxygen uptake relative to LBM. Conclusions. Body composition does not significantly affect walking economy at low speed, while during brisk walking, the economy is better in the HLBM vs. HBF group, provided that walking economy is presented as oxygen uptake relative to LBM. For this reason, we recommend this manner of oxygen uptake normalization in the evaluation of walking economy.

  8. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  9. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    . This review is focused on currently applied methods for in vivo measurement of body composition, including densitometry, bioimpedance analysis, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance techniques and anthropometry. Multicompartment models including quantification of trace......Reliable and valid body composition assessment is important in both clinical and research settings. A multitude of methods and techniques for body composition measurement exist, all with inherent problems, whether in measurement methodology or in the assumptions upon which they are based...... elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost...

  10. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  11. Childhood body composition in relation to body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, L M; Wisemandle, W; Roche, A F; Chumlea, W C; Guo, S S; Siervogel, R M

    2001-02-01

    The aim is to describe body composition in relation to body mass index (BMI; body weight/stature(2)) to provide health care professionals insight into the meaning, significance, and limitations of BMI as an index of adiposity during childhood. Data from 387 healthy, white children 8 to 18 years of age from the Fels Longitudinal Study were analyzed. Measurements were scheduled annually and each child was examined 1 to 11 times, totaling 1748 observations. Total body fat (TBF) and fat-free mass (FFM) were determined from hydrodensitometry. Stature and weight were measured using standard methods and BMI and the components of BMI, TBF/stature(2), and FFM/stature(2) were calculated. Analyses included correlations between BMI and body composition variables; age-related patterns of BMI, TBF/stature(2), and FFM/stature(2); and annual changes in BMI, TBF/stature(2), and FFM/stature(2). Generally, correlations between BMI and body composition variables were strong and significantly different from zero. Means for BMI throughout childhood were similar for boys and girls, although significantly larger values were observed for girls at ages 12 to 13 years. Age-related patterns of TBF/stature(2) and FFM/stature(2) differed between sexes. In each sex, annual increases in BMI were driven primarily by increases in FFM/stature(2) until late adolescence, with increases in TBF/stature(2) contributing to a larger proportion of the BMI increases in girls than in boys. Unlike adults, annual increases in BMI during childhood are generally attributed to the lean rather than to the fat component of BMI. Because the properties of BMI vary during childhood, health care professionals must consider factors such as age and sex when interpreting BMI.

  12. Estimation of carcass and empty body composition of zebu bulls using the composition of rib cuts Estimativa da composição corporal de tourinhos Nelore através da composição de cortes de costela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P.D. Lanna

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available Determination of body composition is very important in nutritional and growth regulation studies. However, determination of body composition by grinding and analyzing all tissues is unfeasible as an experimental routine. The objective of this study was to test methodologies for body composition estimation. Linear measurements and chemical composition of the 9-10-11th and 10th rib sections were used to estimate chemical composition of 31 Nellore (Zebu intact males with an average 333.5 kg body weight (range of 180.5 to 496.0 and 16.1% empty body lipid (range of 10.6 to 22.1. Composition of ribs, carcass and empty body were obtained by quantitatively grinding, homogenizing and sampling all body tissues. The 9-10-11th composition was a good estimator of body composition with r² of 0.99; 0.98; 0.98 and 0.91 for estimates of kg water, lipid, protein, and ash; with low standard errors of the estimate. Results with the 10th rib cut were similar (r² of 0.98, 0.98, 0.97 and 0.88 for the same regressions. Data are in the range of published results, however coefficients of regression were statistically different from those published for Bos taurus populations. Rib cut composition is a good parameter for the estimation of chemical body composition, but specific equations must be used for Zebu animals.A determinação da composição corporal é fundamental em estudos nutricionais e da regulação do crescimento. Entretanto, a determinação direta é impraticável como rotina experimental. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar metodologias para estimar a composição química corporal. A composição da secções da 9-10-11ª e da 10ª costelas foram empregadas para estimar a composição corporal de 31 tourinhos Nelore com média de 333,5 kg de peso (variação de 180,5-496,0 e 16,1% de lípideo no corpo vazio (variação de 10,6-22,1. A composição dos costelas, carcaça e corpo vazio foram obtidas através de moagem quantitativa de todos os tecidos. A

  13. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Going, Scott; Lee, Vinson; Blew, Rob; Laddu, Deepika; Hetherington-Rauth, Megan

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of body composition is crucial to understanding human health, disease, and function. Research in body composition has focused on the development of assessment methods, description of normal changes in body composition with growth and development and aging, and the changes that occur in body composition in response to challenges…

  14. Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Paulo N. Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents with or without excessive body fat. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 118 female adolescents, from 14 to 19 years-old, in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 (G1, eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 (G2, eutrophic with high body fat percentage. The somatic maturation was assessed by the formula for estimating the Peak Height Velocity (PHV. Results: The PHV had higher average score in G1 adolescents compared to G2 (0.26 versus 0.05; p=0.032. There was an association between G1, G2 and the somatic maturation (p=0.049. The female adolescents before and during PHV presented higher values of fat body BMI (p=0.034 and percentage of central fat (p=0.039 compared to the adolescents after PHV. There was a correspondence between before PHV stage and the excess of body fat (α=0.751. Conclusions: There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better evaluate and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.

  15. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE COMPOSITION AND BODY COMPOSITION IN HAMMER THROWERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos Terzis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01. The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05. Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm2, p < 0.01. Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05. These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance

  16. A comparison between the body composition, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jasper

    The body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of 61 Dormers (21 rams ... rams were more developed in the neck and head area than ewes, while ... 200 volts) the sheep were exsanguinated and the carcasses suspended to bleed. ... After 48 hours in the cooler the carcasses were partitioned into South African ...

  17. Writing Bodies: Somatic Mind in Composition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleckenstein, Kristie S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the somatic mind, a permeable materiality in which mind and body resolve into a single entity which is (re)formed by the constantly shifting boundaries of discursive and corporeal intertextualities. Addresses its importance in composition studies. Critiques the poststructuralist disregard of corporeality. (CR)

  18. Body composition phenotypes and obesity paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M; Gonzalez, M Cristina; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-11-01

    The obesity paradox is a highly controversial concept that may be attributed to methodological limitations related to its identification. One of the primary concerns is the use of BMI to define obesity. This index does not differentiate lean versus adipose tissue compartments (i.e. body composition) confounding health consequences for morbidity and mortality, especially in clinical populations. This review will describe the past year's evidence on the obesity paradox phenomenon, primarily focusing on the role of abnormal body composition phenotypes in explaining the controversies observed in the literature. In spite of the substantial number of articles investigating the obesity paradox phenomenon, less than 10% used a direct measure of body composition and when included, it was not fully explored (only adipose tissue compartment evaluated). When lean tissue or muscle mass is taken into account, the general finding is that a high BMI has no protective effect in the presence of low muscle mass and that it is the latter that associates with poor prognosis. In view of the body composition variability of patients with identical BMI, it is unreasonable to rely solely on this index to identify obesity. The consequences of a potential insubstantial obesity paradox are mixed messages related to patient-related prognostication.

  19. Muscle fibre type composition and body composition in hammer throwers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Gerasimos; Spengos, Konstantinos; Kavouras, Stavros; Manta, Panagiota; Georgiadis, Giorgos

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to describe the muscle fibre type composition and body composition of well-trained hammer throwers. Six experienced hammer throwers underwent the following measurements: one repetition maximum in squat, snatch, and clean, standing broad jump, backward overhead shot throw and the hammer throw. Dual x-ray absorptiometry was used for body composition analysis. Fibre type composition and cross sectional area was determined in muscle biopsy samples of the right vastus lateralis. Eight physical education students served as a control group. One repetition maximum in squat, snatch and clean for the hammer throwers was 245 ± 21, 132 ± 13 and 165 ± 12kg, respectively. Lean body mass was higher in hammer throwers (85.9 ± 3. 9kg vs. 62.7 ± 5.1kg (p < 0.01). The percentage area of type II muscle fibres was 66.1 ± 4% in hammer throwers and 51 ± 8% in the control group (p < 0.05). Hammer throwers had significantly larger type IIA fibres (7703 ± 1171 vs. 5676 ± 1270μm(2), p < 0.01). Hammer throwing performance correlated significantly with lean body mass (r = 0.81, p < 0.05). These data indicate that hammer throwers have larger lean body mass and larger muscular areas occupied by type II fibres, compared with relatively untrained subjects. Moreover, it seems that the enlarged muscle mass of the hammer throwers contributes significantly to the hammer throwing performance. Key pointsWell-trained hammer throwers had increased lean body mass, higher type IIA muscle fibres cross sectional areas, as well as higher bone mineral density, compared to controls.Increased lean body mass was closely related with hammer throwing performance.The relative high percentage of type IIX muscle fibres in vastus lateralis in hammer throwers warrants further investigation.

  20. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowke Jay H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM fat-free mass (FFM, and percent body fat (%BF, and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC with prostate cancer. Methods The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057. Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402, Gleason 7 (n = 272, or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135 cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Results Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6 prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (ORBMI = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081, ORWC = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033, continuous scales with control for total body FFM (ORBMI = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052, ORWC = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017. Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (ORFFM = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052 and Gleason 8-10 (ORFFM = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074 after controlling for FM. Conclusions Our results

  1. Obesity, body composition, and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowke, Jay H; Motley, Saundra S; Concepcion, Raoul S; Penson, David F; Barocas, Daniel A

    2012-01-18

    Established risk factors for prostate cancer have not translated to effective prevention or adjuvant care strategies. Several epidemiologic studies suggest greater body adiposity may be a modifiable risk factor for high-grade (Gleason 7, Gleason 8-10) prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality. However, BMI only approximates body adiposity, and may be confounded by centralized fat deposition or lean body mass in older men. Our objective was to use bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) to measure body composition and determine the association between prostate cancer and total body fat mass (FM) fat-free mass (FFM), and percent body fat (%BF), and which body composition measure mediated the association between BMI or waist circumference (WC) with prostate cancer. The study used a multi-centered recruitment protocol targeting men scheduled for prostate biopsy. Men without prostate cancer at biopsy served as controls (n = 1057). Prostate cancer cases were classified as having Gleason 6 (n = 402), Gleason 7 (n = 272), or Gleason 8-10 (n = 135) cancer. BIA and body size measures were ascertained by trained staff prior to diagnosis, and clinical and comorbidity status were determined by chart review. Analyses utilized multivariable linear and logistic regression. Body size and composition measures were not significantly associated with low-grade (Gleason 6) prostate cancer. In contrast, BMI, WC, FM, and FFM were associated with an increased risk of Gleason 7 and Gleason 8-10 prostate cancer. Furthermore, BMI and WC were no longer associated with Gleason 8-10 (OR(BMI) = 1.039 (1.000, 1.081), OR(WC) = 1.016 (0.999, 1.033), continuous scales) with control for total body FFM (OR(BMI) = 0.998 (0.946, 1.052), OR(WC) = 0.995 (0.974, 1.017)). Furthermore, increasing FFM remained significantly associated with Gleason 7 (OR(FFM) = 1.030 (1.008, 1.052)) and Gleason 8-10 (OR(FFM) = 1.044 (1.014, 1.074)) after controlling for FM. Our results suggest that associations between BMI and

  2. Methods for nurses to measure body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Jose Maria; Lavado-Garcia, Jesus Maria; Pedrera-Zamorano, Juan Diego

    2011-01-01

    Among the methods available for assessing body composition, traditional methods like hydrodensitometry and skin-fold measurements are well known. In this review, we focus on the impedance and interactance methods, which use systems that are usually inexpensive, easily transportable and simple to operate. We also discuss the usefulness of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, particularly for the measurement of fat distribution. Nurses need to be skilled in the use of the equipment and familiar with the techniques.

  3. Body composition in postpubertal boy cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, H; Revilla, M; Villa, L F; Gómez-Castresana, F; Alvarez del Buergo, M

    1993-09-01

    Twenty-two young male cyclists aged 15 to 19 years (mean 16.2 +/- 0.4 years) were studied in order to assess the effect of physical training on the body composition of adolescents. The subjects had been training on the road 10 hours per week for over 2 years, and were compared to 22 sedentary normal subjects of similar age range (mean 16.9 +/- 0.3 years). Food and calcium intake was similar in both groups. The total body bone mineral content and total body bone mineral density were lower in the group of cyclist adolescents (p cycling in male adolescents may be associated with a lower bone mass gain. In our opinion, the recommendable nature, quantity and quality of exercise at these ages must be better defined, through additional experimentally-designed studies, in order to prevent negative effects over bone mass gain.

  4. Human Body Orientation Estimation using a Committee based Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ichim, M; Tan, R.T.; van der Aa, N.P.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Human body orientation estimation is useful for analyzing the activities of a single person or a group of people. Estimating body orientation can be subdivided in two tasks: human tracking and orientation estimation. In this paper, the second task of orientation estimation is accomplished by using H

  5. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.

    1997-01-01

    regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes......The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, substantial improvements can be obtained by developing models that are specific to a given site....

  6. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    by nutrition this was included in the analyses. Results: In paper I, we showed that a simple model including bioelectrical impedance, height and weight was as good to predict fat-free mass as a more comprehensive model including the sum of subscapularis and triceps skinfolds as well. Prediction error for FFM...... were strongly related to body composition at 3 years. No measures of adiposity (BMI, fat mass, fat mass index and skinfold thickness) were significantly associated to weight gain after 5 months of age. Two interesting effects modifications by full breastfeeding on the effect of birth weight and early...

  7. BODY COMPOSITION ASSESSMENT WITH SEGMENTAL MULTIFREQUENCY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka A. Salmi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Body composition assessment is an important factor in weight management, exercise science and clinical health care. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is widely used method for estimating body composition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance method (SMFBIA in body composition assessment with underwater weighing (UWW and whole body dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in healthy obese middle-aged male subjects. The measurements were carried out at the UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research in Tampere, Finland according to standard procedures of BIA, UWW and DXA. Fifty-eight (n=58 male subjects, aged 36-53 years, body mass index (BMI 24.9-40.7, were studied. Of them forty (n=40 underwent also DXA measurement. Fat mass (FM, fat-percentage (F% and fat free mass (FFM were the primary outcome variables. The mean whole body FM (±SD from UWW was 31.5 kg (±7.3. By DXA it was 29.9 kg (±8.1 and by SMFBIA it was 25.5 kg (±7.6, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients (r were 0.91 between UWW and SMFBIA, 0.94 between DXA and SMFBIA and 0.91 between UWW and DXA, respectively. The mean segmental FFM (±SD from DXA was 7.7 kg (±1.0 for arms, 41.7 kg (±4.6 for trunk and 21.9 kg (±2.2 for legs. By SMFBIA, it was 8.5 kg (±0.9, 31.7 kg (±2.5 and 20.3 kg (±1.6, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.75 for arms, 0.72 for legs and 0.77 for trunk. This study demonstrates that SMFBIA is usefull method to evaluate fat mass (FM, fat free mass (FFM and fat percentage (F% from whole body. Moreover, SMFBIA is suitable method for assessing segmental distribution of fat free mass (FFM compared to whole body DXA. The results of this study indicate that the SMFBIA method may be particularly advantageous in large epidemiological studies as being a simple, rapid and inexpensive method for field use of whole body and segmental body composition assessment

  8. Feasibility and reliability of body composition measurements in adults with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waninge, A.; van der Weide, W.; Evenhuis, I. J.; van Wijck, R.; van der Schans, C. P.

    Anthropometric measurements are widely used to reliably quantify body composition and to estimate risks of overweight in healthy subjects and in patients. However, information about the reliability of anthropometric measurements in subjects with severe intellectual and sensory disabilities is

  9. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  10. Estimating body mass of fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the body mass of a fossil animal is an essential step toward understanding its palaeoecological role. Length × width (L×W) of the first lower molar (m1) is frequently used as a proxy for body mass in fossil mammals. However, among rodents, Muroidea have no premolar and an elongated m1

  11. Body Composition at 3-years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    are physiologically plausible and should be investigated in other study settings. Results from paper III showed that total and free IGF-I at both 9 and 36 months were positively related to most measures of anthropometry and body composition at 3 years. We found no clear associations between IGF-I levels and early...... development of obesity. It is possible that IGF-I levels are related to later risk of obesity through increased tempo of weight gain and linear growth leading to early adiposity rebound but this was not visible at 3 years. We had expected that intake of protein and cow’s milk was positively associated...... obesity risk is speculative. A continuation of the SKOT cohort with a follow-up visit when the children have reached 7 - 8 years of age would be highly relevant and enable further elaboration on the findings presented in paper II and III. At this age most children have passed the adiposity rebound...

  12. Body composition and energy metabolism in elderly people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes several studies related to the three components of energy balance in elderly people: body composition, energy expenditure, and energy intake.Body composition. The applicability of the body mass index, skinfold thickness method, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance was te

  13. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  14. Effects of Whole Body Vibration Training on Body Composition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Aguero, Alejandro; Matute-Llorente, Angel; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Casajus, Jose A.; Vicente-Rodriguez, German

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)…

  15. Reliability estimates for flawed mortar projectile bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, J.A. [US Army ARDEC, AMSRD-AAR-MEF-E, Analysis and Evaluation Division, Fuze and Precision Armaments Technology Directorate, US Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000 (United States)], E-mail: jennifer.cordes@us.army.mil; Thomas, J.; Wong, R.S.; Carlucci, D. [US Army ARDEC, AMSRD-AAR-MEF-E, Analysis and Evaluation Division, Fuze and Precision Armaments Technology Directorate, US Army Armament Research Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ 07806-5000 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The Army routinely screens mortar projectiles for defects in safety-critical parts. In 2003, several lots of mortar projectiles had a relatively high defect rate, 0.24%. Before releasing the projectiles, the Army reevaluated the chance of a safety-critical failure. Limit state functions and Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate reliability. Measured distributions of wall thickness, defect rate, material strength, and applied loads were used with calculated stresses to estimate the probability of failure. The results predicted less than one failure in one million firings. As of 2008, the mortar projectiles have been used without any safety-critical incident.

  16. Body Composition and Somatotype of Male and Female Nordic Skiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinning, Wayne E.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements (body composition and somatotype characteristics) for male and female Nordic skiers showed small values for measures of variance, suggesting that the subjects represented a select body type for the sport. (Author/MJB)

  17. Body composition in normal subjects: relation to lipid and glucose variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gotfredsen, A;

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe sex- and age-dependent values of total and regional body composition as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in normal subjects, and furthermore to relate body composition measurements to blood lipids, glucose and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A cross...... subjects. In 87 of the subjects fasting blood glucose, S-insulin and lipid profile were measured. RESULTS: The study population was for each sex divided into five decades for which results on body composition and blood lipids are presented. Body weight increased 2 kg per age decade, representing......-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 173 (84 male and 89 female) healthy subjects, BMI Body composition parameters including data on total bone mineral content (TBMC), total bone mineral density (TBMD), lean body soft tissue mass (LTM), total and regional fat mass (FM) were estimated in all...

  18. Body composition in MesoAmerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, N W; Mazariegos, M

    1995-03-01

    The fundamental paradigm for the region is short stature. Adult height is on the order of 160 cm for men and 140 cm for women. The timing of this delayed growth has been fixed to the first two years of life, when as much as 2 Z-scores of stature may be loss to the median of the NCHS reference. In the elderly of the region, we have the issue of being initially short and then suffering further loss of stature with age. The height/armspan ratio has proven instructive for exploring that change in height with age. It appears to be less than in Europeans. Demands of a rigorous agricultural lifestyle, the energy content and density of the diet, and the ravages of recurrent infection and parasitism comprise the environmental determinants of body composition in poor MesoAmerican population. They are conducive to a low storage of fat, with lean body mass being subject to response to infections. Because of the basic short stature but muscular maturity of children and adults, one questions whether the assumptions of proportionality of weight for height from the NCHS reference data apply, or whether MesoAmericans should be normally greater in weight for height than a comparably short North American. For some at the lower end of the stature scale, no international reference standards actually exist for adults. All than can be measured with microtoise, calliper, flexible tape and balance has long been recorded in MesoAmerican populations. Certain high-cost and facility- dependent technologies, such as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and whole-body neutron activation analysis, are beyond the scientific economies of any part of the region. Dual energy x-ray absorbitometry instruments are available for clinical diagnosis in Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica, and could be turned to research ends. Underwater weighing has been practiced variously in MesoAmerica. Researchers in Guatemala have pioneered in the investigative use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to all ages from low

  19. Analysis of the body composition of Paralympic athletes: Comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valdir De Aquino; Alves, Eduardo Da Silva; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Silva, Andressa Da; Winckler, Ciro; Vital, Roberto; De Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Tufik, Sergio; De Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-11-01

    Body composition is a physiological variable associated with physical activity and, in some cases, is related to athletic performance. Our objectives were to describe the body composition of participants in three distinct Paralympic sports and to compare the values of body density and estimated body fat obtained from the Paralympic athletes on the National Team by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and by the anthropometric method (skinfolds (SFs)). The sample consisted of 70 volunteers of both genders. The body composition of the volunteers was evaluated using the ADP in a Bod Pod(®) and seven SFs. There were no significant differences between the values obtained by ADP and SF for body fat percentage (p = .58) and body density (p = .49). Analysis by Bland-Altman plots showed mean differences of 0.56 ± 4.94 (-9.12-10.23) and -0.0017 ± 0.0113 (-0.024-0.020) for body fat percentage and body density, respectively. In conclusion, body composition analyses of Paralympic athletes by the ADP and SF methods show similar results, and ADP should be used as the first option when available. When the use of ADP is not possible, estimating body density and fat percentage by SF is a viable alternative for Paralympic athletes when future comparisons will use the same analysis method.

  20. Composite likelihood estimation of demographic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigan Daniel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most existing likelihood-based methods for fitting historical demographic models to DNA sequence polymorphism data to do not scale feasibly up to the level of whole-genome data sets. Computational economies can be achieved by incorporating two forms of pseudo-likelihood: composite and approximate likelihood methods. Composite likelihood enables scaling up to large data sets because it takes the product of marginal likelihoods as an estimator of the likelihood of the complete data set. This approach is especially useful when a large number of genomic regions constitutes the data set. Additionally, approximate likelihood methods can reduce the dimensionality of the data by summarizing the information in the original data by either a sufficient statistic, or a set of statistics. Both composite and approximate likelihood methods hold promise for analyzing large data sets or for use in situations where the underlying demographic model is complex and has many parameters. This paper considers a simple demographic model of allopatric divergence between two populations, in which one of the population is hypothesized to have experienced a founder event, or population bottleneck. A large resequencing data set from human populations is summarized by the joint frequency spectrum, which is a matrix of the genomic frequency spectrum of derived base frequencies in two populations. A Bayesian Metropolis-coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMCMC method for parameter estimation is developed that uses both composite and likelihood methods and is applied to the three different pairwise combinations of the human population resequence data. The accuracy of the method is also tested on data sets sampled from a simulated population model with known parameters. Results The Bayesian MCMCMC method also estimates the ratio of effective population size for the X chromosome versus that of the autosomes. The method is shown to estimate, with reasonable

  1. Body image, body mass index, and body composition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Veronica M; Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Associations were examined between body image and body mass index (BMI) in comparison with body composition in healthy weight, overweight, and obese young adults. Weight and height were determined, and the percentage of fat mass (%FM) and percentage of fat-free mass (%FFM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 75 male and 87 female young adults (21.1 ± 1.9 years; 25.2 ± 4.4 kg/m² [mean ± standard deviation]). Body image was measured using the three subscales Weight Esteem, Appearance Esteem, and External Attribution of the Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Body mass index and %FM were highly correlated (r for males = 0.74, r for females = 0.82; both pbody image, particularly Weight Esteem. After adjustment for physical activity, BMI and %FM (and %FFM, although in the opposite direction) were associated with each BESAA subscale: %FM, %FFM, and BMI explained 12% to 14% of the variance in Appearance Esteem for both sexes, 33% to 41% in Weight Esteem in women and 16% to 18% in men, and 8% to 10% in External Attribution in women (all pbody image decreases, particularly in women.

  2. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2002-01-01

    Composite likelihood; Two-stage estimation; Family studies; Copula; Optimal weights; All possible pairs......Composite likelihood; Two-stage estimation; Family studies; Copula; Optimal weights; All possible pairs...

  3. Body Density Estimates from Upper-Body Skinfold Thicknesses Compared to Air-Displacement Plethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical Summary Objectives: Determine the effect of body mass index (BMI) on the accuracy of body density (Db) estimated with skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in adults. Subjects/Methods: We estimated Db with SFT and ADP in 131 healthy men an...

  4. Somatotype and Body Composition of Normal and Dysphonic Adult Speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Débora; Fragoso, Isabel; Andrea, Mário; Teles,Júlia; Martins, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Voice quality provides information about the anatomical characteristics of the speaker. The patterns of somatotype and body composition can provide essential knowledge to characterize the individuality of voice quality. The aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences in somatotype and body composition between normal and dysphonic speakers.

  5. Peer Victimisation and Its Relationships with Perceptions of Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisen, Ann; Lunde, Carolina; Hwang, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the links between children's exposure to peer victimisation, in terms of type and frequency, their body composition and subjective perceptions of body composition. A total of 960 Swedish 10-year-olds (515 girls and 445 boys) completed questionnaires about their peer victimisation experiences, weight and height, and…

  6. Growth, feed intake and body composition of ostriches (Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different patterns of energy intake, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, body composition and the composition of ... was closely related to deposition rate of body fat and inversely related to energy loss as heat expenditure. ... of feed to animal tissue is expressed ... The diet was initially formulated according to poultry values.

  7. Body composition and somatotype of the elite of Polish fencers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in epée (n = 10), foil (n = 10) and sabre (n = 10). They were aged 23.3 +/- 2.9; their length of training was 12.6 +/- 2.5 years, with the frequency of training 15.9 +/- 3.1 hours per week. In each weapon style there were champions and vice-champions of Poland from the year 2004. Twelve of them were classified among the first fifty contestants according to the D'Escrime International Federation (FIE) ranking. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate somatotypes by means of Heath-Carter method and to estimate the percentage of body fat and composition. Sabre fencers (weight = 84.4 kg, somatotype = 3.4-5.4-1.8) were heavier than both epée fencers (77.9 kg, 3.6-4.9-2.5) and foil fencers (74.9 kg, 2.9-4.2-2.8). Sabre specialists had higher mesomorphy than foil fencers (ANOVA and Bonferroni's multi comparison test). Sabre fencers were characterized by higher fat free mass and a higher BMI and fat free mass index than fencers of the other two weapons. Discriminant analysis result was significant (p somatotypes differed from the somatotypes of the untrained (3.3-4.8-2.3 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were characterized by their higher mesomorphy (t = 2.10, p < 0.05) and lower ectomorphy (t = 3.48, p < 0.01), as well as greater adiposity (16.8 vs. 15.7%, t = 2.03, p < 0.05).

  8. Assessing body composition: the skinfold method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, L A; Lister, Z

    1995-12-01

    1. Excess body fat contributes to many chronic diseases. Using a case scenario, an initial screening assessment is performed on two clients. The occupational health nurse provides feedback on current lifestyle behaviors and educates the clients about relevant lifestyle changes. 2. Tables illustrate the step by step procedures for measuring body fat using the skinfold thickness method. Photographs show the multiple body sites used in the skinfold analysis. 3. Commonly asked client questions related to body fat are discussed in detail, and the use of body fat assessment as a screening method for the health promotion professional is described.

  9. Clinical Usefulness of a New Equation for Estimating Body Fat

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Ambrosi, J.; De Silva, C.; Catalan, V.; Rodriguez, A.; Galofre, J.C. (Juan Carlos); Escalada, J.; Valenti, V; Rotellar, F. (Fernando); Romero, S.; Ramirez, B.; J. Salvador; Frühbeck, G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from b...

  10. The Effects of Different Exercise Programmes on Female Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Costa de Mendonça Rosa Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 16 weeks of practicing different exercise programmes on body composition. This is an exploratory and descriptive study of 89 women aged 25 to 55 years (41.42 ± 9.23 years. The subjects were randomly divided into three experimental groups (EG: practitioners of strength training (SG, dance (DG, hydrogymnastics (HG, and a control group (CG with sedentary women. Measurements of body mass and height, circumferences of the chest, waist, abdomen, hips, thighs, calves, and skinfolds of the triceps, suprailiac and thigh were registered in three different moments: prior to the commencement of the training program, again after 8 weeks of training, and finally after 16 weeks of training. Body density was estimated by using the trifold protocol by Jackson, Pollock and Ward. The ANOVA and deltas of change (Δ% were used for data analysis. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The effects of greater statistical significance on body composition related the variables "time", "group" and the interaction between the two (time x group were observed for the percentage of fat - F% (F (1.79, 152.52 = 24.59, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.22, fat mass - FM (F (1.75, 149.01 = 12.65, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.13 and lean mass - LM (F (1.77, 150.66 = 47.38, p <0.001, η 2 = 0.36. The HG and SG were more beneficial in reducing F%. It was observed that the EG indicated healthier anthropometric aspects compared to the CG, regardless of the type of exercise programmes practiced. The time factor was more representative over the effects of exercise on anthropometric dimensions.

  11. Body composition and dietary intake in neoplasic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Gartenhaus, W.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Zanzi, I.; Vaswani, A. Yasummure, S.; Rai, K.; Cartes, E.; Ellis, K.J.

    1981-10-01

    Changes in body composition in 37 cancer patients were studied over a period of 6 months. Initially, the patients were divided into two groups: those who lost body weight (over 10%) and those who maintained or gained body weight before the study. Analysis of body composition indicated that patients who lost body weight has caloric and protein intakes markedly below ''normal'' levels at the beginning of the study. There also appears to be a direct relationship between the protein intake and the total body potassium/total body water ratio in the cancer patients. At the end of the 6-month study, the patients were again placed into two groups on the basis of weight loss or gain (and maintenance). Changes in body composition over the period were analyzed in terms of lean body mass, its protein constituent, water, and fat. Weight loss was found to reflect primarily the loss of fat, water, lean body mass (potassium), and only to a minor extent the protein component of lean body mass (nitrogen). Further, on the basis of the values of the ratios of total body nitrogen/total body potassium/total body water, it was possible to ascertain the relative normalcy of the body tissue gained or lost in the 6-month period. The results of the study suggest that the ratio total body nitrogen/total body potassium may serve as the best indicator of recent or ongoing catabolism or anabolism of the neoplastic process. By means of the application of the techniques used for the determination of body composition, it should be possible to assess regimes of hyperalimentation of cancer patients who lose body weight. (JMT)

  12. Body composition and net energy requirements of Brazilian Somali lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzânia S. Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy requirements for maintenance (NEm and growth of 48 Brazilian Somali ram lambs with an average initial body weight of 13.47±1.76 kg. Eight animals were slaughtered at the trials beginning as a reference group to estimate the initial empty body weight (EBW and body composition. The remaining animals were assigned to a randomised block design with eight replications per block and five diets with increasing metabolisable energy content (4.93, 8.65, 9.41, 10.12 and 11.24 MJ/kg dry matter. The logarithm of heat production was regressed against metabolisable energy intake (MEI, and the NEm (kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day were estimated by extrapolation, when MEI was set at zero. The NEm was 239.77 kJ/kg0.75 EBW/day. The animal’s energy and EBW fat contents increased from 11.20 MJ/kg and 208.54 g/kg to 13.54 MJ/kg and 274.95 g/kg of EBW, respectively, as the BW increased from 13 to 28.70 kg. The net energy requirements for EBW gain increased from 13.79 to 16.72 MJ/kg EBW gain for body weights of 13 and 28.70 kg. Our study indicated the net energy requirements for maintenance in Brazilian Somali lambs were similar to the values commonly recommended by the United States’ nutritional system, but lower than the values recommended by Agricultural Research Council and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. Net requirements for weight gain were less compared to the values commonly recommended by nutritional system of the United States.

  13. Body composition and perception of teenagers from public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Araújo Ferreira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is accompanied by cognitive, emotional, social and biological changes; situations that increase the risk for development of psychosomatic disorders. This study measured and classified body composition and compared it to body self-perception in adolescents. Students from the seventh to ninth grade in public primary education in Distrito Federal, Brazil, answered socio-demographic and body self-perception questionnaires. Weight and height were measured and body mass index (BMI was calculated for body composition classification. From the 977 adolescents, 79.1% presented eutrophic BMI. Of the 473 boys, 11.4% were overweight and 4.7% underweight, 23.8% perceived the body as smaller than it really is and 25.5% tried to gain body mass. Of the 504 girls, 11.9% were overweight and 13.4% underweight, 24.1% perceived the body as larger than it really is and 32.5% tried to lose body mass. Inadequate body composition, prevalent in 20.9% of adolescents, may harm growth, development and health. These problems may be aggravated by the high prevalence of distorted body self-perception and attitudes for bodily changes. It is recommended the implementation of educational interventions on body composition, perception and culture and health, with different approaches by gender.

  14. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  15. Relationships among Body Weight, Body Measurements and Estimated Feed Efficiency Characteristics in Holstein Friesian Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning body measurements, milk yield and body weights data were analysed on 101 of Holstein Friesian cows. Phenotypic correlations indicated positive significant relations between estimated feed efficiency (EFE and milk yield as well as 4 % fat corrected milk yield, and between body measurements and milk yield. However, negative correlations were found between the EFE and body measurements indicating that the taller, longer, deeper and especially heavier cows were not to be efficient as smaller cows

  16. Estimation of Human Body Shape and Posture Under Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Wuhrer, Stefanie; Pishchulin, Leonid; Brunton, Alan; Shu, Chang; Lang, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Estimating the body shape and posture of a dressed human subject in motion represented as a sequence of (possibly incomplete) 3D meshes is important for virtual change rooms and security. To solve this problem, statistical shape spaces encoding human body shape and posture variations are commonly used to constrain the search space for the shape estimate. In this work, we propose a novel method that uses a posture-invariant shape space to model body shape variation combined with a skeleton-bas...

  17. Estimating Body Related Soft Biometric Traits in Video Frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasimbo Ayodeji Arigbabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft biometrics can be used as a prescreening filter, either by using single trait or by combining several traits to aid the performance of recognition systems in an unobtrusive way. In many practical visual surveillance scenarios, facial information becomes difficult to be effectively constructed due to several varying challenges. However, from distance the visual appearance of an object can be efficiently inferred, thereby providing the possibility of estimating body related information. This paper presents an approach for estimating body related soft biometrics; specifically we propose a new approach based on body measurement and artificial neural network for predicting body weight of subjects and incorporate the existing technique on single view metrology for height estimation in videos with low frame rate. Our evaluation on 1120 frame sets of 80 subjects from a newly compiled dataset shows that the mentioned soft biometric information of human subjects can be adequately predicted from set of frames.

  18. New techniques in nutritional assessment: body composition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Ward, L C

    1999-02-01

    New techniques in air-displacement plethysmography seem to have overcome many of the previous problems of poor reproducibility and validity. These have made body-density measurements available to a larger range of individuals, including children, elderly and sick patients who often have difficulties in being submerged underwater in hydrodensitometry systems. The BOD POD air-displacement system (BOD POD body composition system; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA, USA) is more precise than hydrodensitometry, is simple and rapid to operate (approximately 1 min measurements) and the results agree closely with those of hydrodensitometry (e.g. +/- 3.4% for estimation of body fat). Body line scanners employing the principles of three-dimensional photography are potentially able to measure the surface area and volume of the body and its segments even more rapidly (approximately 10 s), but the validity of the measurements needs to be established. Advances in i.r. spectroscopy and mathematical modelling for calculating the area under the curve have improved precision for measuring enrichment of 2H2O in studies of water dilution (CV 0.1-0.9% within the range of 400-1000 microliters/l) in saliva, plasma and urine. The technique is rapid and compares closely with mass spectrometry (bias 1 (SD 2) %). Advances in bedside bioelectrical-impedance techniques are making possible potential measurements of skinfold thicknesses and limb muscle mass electronically. Preliminary results suggest that the electronic method is more reproducible (intra- and inter-individual reproducibility for measuring skinfold thicknesses) and associated with less bias (+12%), than anthropometry (+40%). In addition to these selected examples, the 'mobility' or transfer of reference methods between centres has made the distinction between reference and bedside or field techniques less distinct than in the past.

  19. Method of estimating mechanical stress on Si body of MOSFET using drain–body junction current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Gang-Jun; Son, Donghee; Lee, Nam-Hyun; Kang, Bongkoo

    2017-01-01

    A simple and accurate method of estimating the mechanical stress σ on the Si body of a MOSFET is proposed. This method measures the doping concentration of the body, N d, and the onset voltage V hl for the high-level injection of the drain–body junction, uses N d, the ideality factor η, and the Fermi potential ϕf ≈ V hl/2η to calculate the intrinsic carrier concentration n i of the Si body, and then uses the calculated n i to obtain the bandgap energy E g of the Si body. σ is estimated from E g using the deformation potential theory. The estimates of σ agree well with those obtained using previous methods. The proposed method requires one MOSFET, whereas the others require at least two MOSFETs, so the proposed method can give an absolute measurement of σ on the Si body of a MOSFET.

  20. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapses Sue A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction of the morbidly obese. Methods The analysis was applied to 3 compartment (density and total body water measurements of body fat. The data was collected at the New York Obesity Research Center, Body Composition Unit, as part of ongoing studies. A total of 1356 subjects were included, with a BMI range of 17 to 50 for males and 17 to 65 for females. The body composition model assumes that obese subjects can be represented by the sum of a standard lean reference subject plus an extra weight that has a constant adipose, bone and muscle fraction. Results There is marked age and sex dependence in the relationship between BMI and fat fraction. There was no significant difference among Caucasians, Blacks and Hispanics while Asians had significantly greater fat fraction for the same BMI. A linear relationship between BMI and fat fraction provides a good description for men but overestimates the fat fraction in morbidly obese women for whom a non-linear regression should be used. New regression relations for predicting body fat just from experimental measurements of body density are described that are more accurate then those currently used. From the fits to the experimental BMI and density data, a quantitative description of the bone, adipose and muscle body composition of lean and obese subjects is derived. Conclusion Physiologically realistic models of body composition provide both accurate regression relations and new insights about changes in body composition in

  1. Effect of Stress Conditions on Body Composition Parameters of Farmed Rohu (Labeo rohita)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Hussain, Muhammad Zubair; Asif Ali, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Various stressors affect the body composition of fish. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of stress conditions on the body composition of farmed Labeo rohita. Sixty fingerlings were subjected to experimentation in aquaria after being acclimatized. The specimens were divided...... into control, starvation stress and double stress (pH 8 and starvation) groups with 20 individuals in each group. Fish samples for the estimation of body composition were taken after 12 days, 24 days, 36 days and 48 days. Standard procedures and protocols were used for analysis. There was a trend of gradual...... increase in ash contents (% dry body weight) in starvation and double stress group with increase in number of days. However, fat contents (% dry body weight) considerably decreased and protein contents remained unchanged. The inter-comparison of three groups showed that there was significant effect...

  2. Comparison of the effectiveness of body mass index and body fat percentage in defining body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonasegaran, Arvin Raj; Nabila, Fatin Nabila; Shuhada, Nurul Shuhada

    2012-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) has limited diagnostic performance due to its inability to discriminate between fat and lean mass. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of body fat percentage (BFP) against BMI in defining body composition. A cross-sectional study was conducted on students aged 17-30 years in Melaka, Malaysia. Basic anthropometric measurements were acquired using a manual weighing scale, measuring tape and a fixed stadiometer. BFP was calculated using the United States Navy formula. Data was tabulated and analysed using Epi Info and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Kappa values were used. A p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Out of the 490 subjects recruited, 43% of males and 24.6% of females were found to be overweight, while 14.3% of males and 7.8% of females were obese, when calculated using BMI. However, 8.9% of males and 22.8% of females were considered obese based on the BFP. BFP plays a more important role in distinguishing between healthy and obese individuals, as it has a greater ability to differentiate between lean mass and fat mass compared to BMI.

  3. Body Estimation and Physical Performance: Estimation of Lifting and Carrying from Fat-Free Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-30

    fat content determined from hydrodensitometry and application of the Siri 2- compartment model. 8 whom information was collected gave their consent to...the vertex of the head and measurement taken. Body composition Body volume was determined by hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing; Goldman and Buskirk

  4. EFFECTS OF WHOLE BODY RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BONE STATUS AND BODY COMPOSITION IN YOUNG FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole body resistance training on bone status and body composition in young female. Twenty five moderately active females volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to whole body resistance trained (WRT (n=13; 23.1±2.0 years and control (C groups (n=12; 22.5±1.7 years. Height, body weight and body composition measurements were held. Total body fat (%BF, fat mass (FM, fat-free mass (FFM, and bone mineral density (BMD measurements were performed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. After completing the pre-test measurements, the WRT subjects were participated in 12 week whole body resistance training. At the end of the 12-week training period, paired t-test results showed that there was a significant (p.05 change in the body weight (-.21kg or BMI (.09. In the control group, significant (p.05 change in the body weight (.85kg, FFM (.12kg, and BMD (-.002 g/cm2 after 12 week period. These results showed that 12 week whole body resistance training had a optimize effect on body composition and bone status, but had no effect on body weight and body mass index in young female subjects.

  5. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria; Cristiana Araújo Gontijo; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo C.; Maria do Carmo G. Peluzio; Silvia Eloiza Priore

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents. METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected. RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat pe...

  6. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ; Alexandra-Mihaela RUSU; Adrian NAGEL; Claudiu AVRAM

    2017-01-01

    Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization an...

  7. Comparison of Bioelectrical Impedance and Skinfolds with Hydrodensitometry in the Assessment of Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, W. J.; Diemer, Gary A.; Scott, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a widely used method for estimating body composition, yet issues concerning its validity persist in the literature. The purpose of this study was to validate percentage of body fat (BF) values estimated from BIA and skinfold (SF) with those obtained from hydrodensitometry (HD). Percent BF values measured…

  8. The interplay between nutrition and body composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or radiation treatment for cancer.3.4 The loss of body tissue may be ... observed in surviving patients, while BCM remained low in those with .... in terminal patients. One may ..... chronic obstr1JClive lung disease and acute respiratory failure.

  9. Body composition analyses by air displacement plethysmography in adults ranging from normal weight to extremely obese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Kazanna C.; Anthony, Steven J.; Thornton, John C.; Gallagher, Dympna; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare body composition parameters estimated by air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in body mass index (BMI) classifications that include extremely obese (BMI≥40.0kg/m2), and to examine if differences between analyses were influenced by BMI. Design and Methods Fat free mass (FFM,kg), fat mass (FM,kg) and body fat (BF,%) were analyzed with both technologies. Results All outcome measures of ADP and DXA were highly correlated (r≥0.95,Pobese classification; ADP estimated lower FFM and greater FM and BF (Pobese. PMID:24170704

  10. Body composition of preschool children and relation to birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Costa Machado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between body composition of preschool children suffering from excess weight and birth weight (BW. Methods: probabilistic sample, by conglomerates, with 17 daycare centers (of a total of 59 composing a final sample of 479 children. We used Z-score of Body Mass Index (zBMI ≥ +1 and ≥ +2, respectively, to identify preschool children with risk of overweight and excess weight (overweight or obesity. The arm muscle area (AMA and the arm fat area (AFA were estimated from measurements of arm circumference, triceps skin fold thickness. Results: the prevalence of risk of overweight was 22.9% (n=110 and excess weight was 9.3% (n=44. The risk of overweight and excess weight in children did not show correlation between BW and AFA, but it did with adjusted arm muscle area (AMAa (rp= 0.21; p= 0.0107. The analysis of the group with excess weight alone also showed a positive correlation between BW and AMAa (rp= 0.42; p= 0.0047. Conclusion: among overweight children, lower BW is associated with a lower arm muscle area in early preschool age, regardless of the fat arm area presented by them.

  11. [Aging and body composition: the sarcopenic obesity in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cabello, A; Vicente Rodríguez, G; Vila-Maldonado, S; Casajús, J A; Ara, I

    2012-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy occurred during the last decades has resulted in a growth of the elderly population, being estimated that a third of the Spanish population will be elderly (> 65 years) in the year 2050. Human aging involves many changes, such as a variation in body composition. Different factors work together leading to an increase in fat mass, decreased muscle mass and reduced bone mass among seniors. These characteristic changes among elderly people may lead to suffer several diseases such as obesity, sarcopenia and osteoporosis and may result in decreased quality of life, increased dependence and increased risk of mortality in this population. In the late 90's, "sarcopenic obesity" was a concept that emerged in order to define those people who simultaneously have an excess of body fat and a significant loss of muscle mass. Recently, for the first time in Spain (the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study), it has been shown that the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a representative sample of non-institutionalized seniors reaches values of 15%.

  12. Body mass estimates of hominin fossils and the evolution of human body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Mark; Hatala, Kevin G; Jungers, William L; Richmond, Brian G

    2015-08-01

    Body size directly influences an animal's place in the natural world, including its energy requirements, home range size, relative brain size, locomotion, diet, life history, and behavior. Thus, an understanding of the biology of extinct organisms, including species in our own lineage, requires accurate estimates of body size. Since the last major review of hominin body size based on postcranial morphology over 20 years ago, new fossils have been discovered, species attributions have been clarified, and methods improved. Here, we present the most comprehensive and thoroughly vetted set of individual fossil hominin body mass predictions to date, and estimation equations based on a large (n = 220) sample of modern humans of known body masses. We also present species averages based exclusively on fossils with reliable taxonomic attributions, estimates of species averages by sex, and a metric for levels of sexual dimorphism. Finally, we identify individual traits that appear to be the most reliable for mass estimation for each fossil species, for use when only one measurement is available for a fossil. Our results show that many early hominins were generally smaller-bodied than previously thought, an outcome likely due to larger estimates in previous studies resulting from the use of large-bodied modern human reference samples. Current evidence indicates that modern human-like large size first appeared by at least 3-3.5 Ma in some Australopithecus afarensis individuals. Our results challenge an evolutionary model arguing that body size increased from Australopithecus to early Homo. Instead, we show that there is no reliable evidence that the body size of non-erectus early Homo differed from that of australopiths, and confirm that Homo erectus evolved larger average body size than earlier hominins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed ... of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was allotted to three dietary ... Diets were fed ad libitum from 8 weeks of age up to slaughter for whole body ...

  14. Human body composition models and methodology: theory and experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01

    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors. Accordingly, the study of human

  15. Human body composition models and methodology : theory and experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.M.

    1997-01-01


    The study of human body composition is a branch of human biology which focuses on the in vivo quantification of body components, the quantitative relationships between components, and the quantitative changes in these components related to various influencing factors.

  16. Estimating liver weight of adults by body weight and gender

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See Ching Chan; Chi Leung Liu; Chung Mau Lo; Banny K Lam; Evelyn W Lee; Yik Wong; Sheung Tat Fan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the standard liver weight for assessing adequacies of graft size in live donor liver transplantation and remnant liver in major hepatectomy for cancer.METHODS: In this study, anthropometric data of body weight and body height were tested for a correlation with liver weight in 159 live liver donors who underwent donor right hepatectomy including the middle hepatic vein. Liver weights were calculated from the right lobe graft weight obtained at the back table, divided by the proportion of the right lobe on the computed tomography.RESULTS: The subjects, all Chinese, had a mean age of 35.8 ± 10.5 years, and a female to male ratio of 118:41. The mean volume of the right lobe was 710.14 ±131.46 mL and occupied 64.55%±4.47% of the whole liver on computed tomography. Right lobe weighed 598.90±117.39 g and the estimated liver weight was 927.54 ± 168.78 g. When body weight and body height were subjected to multiple stepwise linear regression analysis, body height was found to be insignificant. Females of the same body weight had a slightly lower liver weight. A formula based on body weight and gender was derived: Estimated standard liver weight (g) = 218 + BW (kg) x 12.3 + genderx 51 (R2 = 0.48)(female = 0, male = 1). Based on the anthropometric data of these 159 subjects, liver weights were calculated using previously published formulae derived from studies on Caucasian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese.All formulae overestimated liver weights compared to this formula. The Japanese formula overestimated the estimated standard liver weight (ESLW) for adults less than 60 kg.CONCLUSION: A formula applicable to Chinese males and females is available. A formula for individual races appears necessary.

  17. Body composition in patients with schizophrenia: Comparison with healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara Norio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a relationship between obesity and schizophrenia has been reported. Although fat- mass and fat free mass have been shown to be more predictive of health risk than body mass index, there are limited findings about body composition among patients suffering from schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to compare the body composition of schizophrenia patients with that of healthy subjects in Japan. Methods We recruited patients (n = 204, aged 41.3 ± 13.8 (mean ± SD years old with the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia who were admitted to psychiatric hospital using a cross-sectional design. Subjects' anthropometric measurements including weight, height, body mass index (BMI, and medications were also collected. Body fat, percent (% body fat, fat- free mass, muscle mass, and body water were measured using the bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA method. Comparative analysis was performed with schizophrenic subjects and 204 healthy control individuals. Results In a multiple regression model with age, body mass index, and dose in chlorpromazine equivalents, schizophrenia was a significantly linked with more body fat, higher % body fat, lower fat- free mass, lower muscle mass, and lower body water among males. In females, schizophrenia had a significant association with lower % body fat, higher fat- free mass, higher muscle mass, and higher body water. Conclusions Our data demonstrate gender differences with regard to changes in body composition in association with schizophrenia. These results indicate that intervention programs designed to fight obesity among schizophrenic patients should be individualized according to gender.

  18. Physiological models of body composition and human obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Shapses Sue A; Pierson Richard N; Heymsfield Steven B; Levitt David G; Kral John G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The body mass index (BMI) is the standard parameter for predicting body fat fraction and for classifying degrees of obesity. Currently available regression equations between BMI and fat are based on 2 or 3 parameter empirical fits and have not been validated for highly obese subjects. We attempt to develop regression relations that are based on realistic models of body composition changes in obesity. These models, if valid, can then be extrapolated to the high fat fraction...

  19. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  20. Evaluation of Five Formulae for Estimating Body Surface Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in pediatric practice and child health is body surface area (BSA) ... Conclusion: Formulae by Boyd and Mosteller are the best BSA estimate for. Nigerian .... weight: (21.5 [7.6] kg vs. 20.8 [6.7] .... formula best fits with the “gold standard.” However ...

  1. Estimating head and body length in fossil rodents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.; Martín-Suárez, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present estimates for head and body length (HBL) of fossil rodents. We assembled HBL data and tooth row length data (LTR, UTR) for a large number of extant rodents, and calculated regression lines of HBL on LTR and UTR for all rodents together (all-rodents equation), and for separate taxonomic gr

  2. Associations between childhood body size, composition, blood pressure and adult cardiac structure: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy T Sabo

    Full Text Available To determine whether childhood body size, composition and blood pressure are associated with adult cardiac structure by estimating childhood "age of divergence."385 female and 312 male participants in the Fels Longitudinal Study had echocardiographic measurements of left ventricular mass, relative wall thickness, and interventricular septal thickness. Also available were anthropometric measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, percentage body fat, fat free mass, total body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, taken in both childhood and adulthood. The age of divergence is estimated as the lowest age at which childhood measurements are significantly different between patients with low and high measurements of adult cardiac structure.Childhood body mass index is significantly associated with adult left ventricular mass (indexed by height in men and women (ages of divergence: 7.5 years and 11.5 years, respectively, and with adult interventricular septal thickness in boys (age of divergence: 9 years. Childhood waist circumference indexed by height is associated with left ventricular mass (indexed by height in boys (age of divergence: 8 years. Cardiac structure was in general not associated with childhood body composition and blood pressure.Though results are affected by adult body size, composition and blood pressure, some aspects of adult cardiac structure may have their genesis in childhood body size.

  3. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  4. Estimation of body mass index from the metrics of the first metatarsal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Tyler E.

    Estimation of the biological profile from as many skeletal elements as possible is a necessity in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts; this includes non-standard aspects of the biological profile, such as body mass index (BMI). BMI is a measure that allows for understanding of the composition of an individual and is traditionally divided into four groups: underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese. BMI estimation incorporates both estimation of stature and body mass. The estimation of stature from skeletal elements is commonly included into the standard biological profile but the estimation of body mass needs to be further statistically validated to be consistently included. The bones of the foot, specifically the first metatarsal, may have the ability to estimate BMI given an allometric relationship to stature and the mechanical relationship to body mass. There are two commonly used methods for stature estimation, the anatomical method and the regression method. The anatomical method takes into account all of the skeletal elements that contribute to stature while the regression method relies on the allometric relationship between a skeletal element and living stature. A correlation between the metrics of the first metatarsal and living stature has been observed, and proposed as a method for valid stature estimation from the boney foot (Byers et al., 1989). Body mass estimation from skeletal elements relies on two theoretical frameworks: the morphometric and the mechanical approaches. The morphometric approach relies on the size relationship of the individual to body mass; the basic relationship between volume, density, and weight allows for body mass estimation. The body is thought of as a cylinder, and in order to understand the volume of this cylinder the diameter is needed. A commonly used proxy for this in the human body is skeletal bi-iliac breadth from rearticulated pelvic girdle. The mechanical method of body mass estimation relies on the

  5. The finite body triangulation: algorithms, subgraphs, homogeneity estimation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Cantwell G; Levine, Jonathan S

    2016-09-01

    The concept of a finite body Dirichlet tessellation has been extended to that of a finite body Delaunay 'triangulation' to provide a more meaningful description of the spatial distribution of nonspherical secondary phase bodies in 2- and 3-dimensional images. A finite body triangulation (FBT) consists of a network of minimum edge-to-edge distances between adjacent objects in a microstructure. From this is also obtained the characteristic object chords formed by the intersection of the object boundary with the finite body tessellation. These two sets of distances form the basis of a parsimonious homogeneity estimation. The characteristics of the spatial distribution are then evaluated with respect to the distances between objects and the distances within them. Quantitative analysis shows that more physically representative distributions can be obtained by selecting subgraphs, such as the relative neighbourhood graph and the minimum spanning tree, from the finite body tessellation. To demonstrate their potential, we apply these methods to 3-dimensional X-ray computed tomographic images of foamed cement and their 2-dimensional cross sections. The Python computer code used to estimate the FBT is made available. Other applications for the algorithm - such as porous media transport and crack-tip propagation - are also discussed.

  6. Dialysis vintage, body composition, and survival in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avram, Morrell M; Mittman, Neal; Fein, Paul A; Agahiu, Samuel; Hartman, William; Chattopadhyay, Neil; Matza, Betty

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between dialysis vintage (length of time on dialysis), body composition, and survival has been reported in hemodialysis patients. In the present study, we examined the association ofdialysis vintage with body composition and survival in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. At enrollment, body composition in 65 PD patients was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients (mean age at enrollment: 54 years) were followed for up to 11 years maximum. At enrollment, the mean, median, and maximum dialysis vintages were 51, 34, and 261 months respectively. After adjusting for age, race, sex, and diabetes status, dialysis vintage was indirectly correlated (partial correlation coefficients) with body weight (r = -0.40, p = 0.001), body mass index (r = -0.40, p = 0.002), body surface area (r = -0.39, p = 0.002), body cell mass (r = -0.39, p = 0.002), total body fat weight (r = -0.30, p = 0.02), and fat percentage of body weight (r = -0.31, p = 0.018), and directly correlated with extracellular mass to body cell mass ratio (r = 0.27, p = 0.039). The observed cumulative survival was significantly higher (p = 0.007) in patients with a dialysis vintage at enrollment of 35 months or less, than in patients with dialysis vintage at enrollment of more than 35 months. In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, adjusting for age, race, sex, and diabetes, dialysis vintage at enrollment remained an independent predictor of mortality (relative risk: 1.010; p = 0.002). Increase in relative risk of death with increasing dialysis vintage may be partly explained by the association of vintage with unfavorable changes in body composition and the nutrition status of patients over time.

  7. Comparison of nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength in collegiate female dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Se-Na; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong Kook; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae

    2015-12-01

    This study compared nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength by dance type in collegiate female dancers. The study subjects included Korean dancers (n=12), ballet dancers (n=13), contemporary dancers (n=8), and controls (n=12). Nutritional intake was estimated using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis Program. Body composition and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Isokinetic knee joint strength was measured by Cybex 770-NORM. All statistical analyses were performed by SAS 9.2. Means and standard deviations were calculated using descriptive statistics. One-way analysis of variance was applied to evaluate nutritional intake, body composition, bone mineral density, and isokinetic strength differences. Duncan multiple range test was used for post hoc testing. A level of significance was set at Pcontemporary and ballet dancers had lower body fat percentages than controls (Pdance type and more scientific methods of dance training are needed.

  8. Relationships Between Body Image, Body Composition, Sexual Functioning, and Sexual Satisfaction Among Heterosexual Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhausen, Robin R; Buchholz, Andrea C; Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the association between body image and body-image self-consciousness on sexual satisfaction, accounting for relationships between body fat and body image, and between sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction, while controlling for relationship satisfaction. Participants were 143, 18-25 year-old Caucasian men and women in heterosexual monogamous relationships, recruited from the University of Guelph and surrounding community in Ontario, Canada. Various domains of body image, body-image self-consciousness, sexual satisfaction and functioning, and relationship satisfaction data were collected by questionnaires. Body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Among men, body image was positively associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Men with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer behavioral and affective body image. Only body image specific to the sexual encounter influenced sexual functioning. Among women, no domain of body image was associated with sexual satisfaction, after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Women with greater body fat were more likely to have poorer affective and sexual-encounter-specific body image. As percent total fat increased, sexual functioning decreased. Our results suggest a complex pattern of relationships exists among body image and body composition constructs and sexual and relationship variable; and that these relationships are not the same for men and women.

  9. Comparison of ultrasonography and skinfold measurements of subcutaneous fat thickness in the evaluation of body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Adıgüzel, Esat; Sabir, Nuran; Akdoğan, Ilgaz; Yılmaz, Birsen; yonguç, gökşin nilüfer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:To determine the amount of body fat tissue with skinfold thickness measurements is a common method to estimate the body composition. The other method used for this purpose is ultrasonography which is expensive and needs specialization to apply. In this study, validity of skinfold thickness measurements was investigated using ultrasonography. Methods: One hundred adult volunteers (50 males and 50 females) were used in this study. The ages of the subjects were 20to 70, selected as10 ...

  10. Comparison of percent body fat estimates using air displacement plethysmography and hydrodensitometry in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demerath, E W; Guo, S S; Chumlea, W C; Towne, B; Roche, A F; Siervogel, R M

    2002-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare estimates of body density and percentage body fat from air displacement plethysmography (ADP) to those from hydrodensitometry (HD) in adults and children and to provide a review of similar recent studies. Body density and percentage body fat (% BF) were assessed by ADP and HD on the same day in 87 adults aged 18-69 y (41 males and 46 females) and 39 children aged 8-17 y (19 males and 20 females). Differences between measured and predicted thoracic gas volumes determined during the ADP procedure and the resultant effects of those differences on body composition estimates were also compared. In a subset of 50 individuals (31 adults and 19 children), reliability of ADP was measured and the relative ease or difficulty of ADP and HD were probed with a questionnaire. The coefficient of reliability between %BF on day 1 and day 2 was 96.4 in adults and 90.1 in children, and the technical error of measurement of 1.6% in adults and 1.8% in children. Using a predicted rather than a measured thoracic gas volume did not significantly affect percentage body fat estimates in adults, but resulted in overestimates of percentage body fat in children. Mean percentage body fat from ADP was higher than percentage body fat from HD, although this was statistically significant only in adults (29.3 vs 27.7%, P<0.05). The 95% confidence interval of the between-method differences for all subjects was -7 to +9% body fat, and the root mean square error (r.m.s.e.) was approximately 4% body fat. In the subset of individuals who were asked to compare the two methods, 46 out of 50 (92%) indicated that they preferred the ADP to HD. ADP is a reliable method of measuring body composition that subjects found preferable to underwater weighing. However, as shown here and in most other studies, there are differences in percentage body fat estimates assessed by the two methods, perhaps related to body size, age or other factors, that are sufficient to preclude ADP

  11. Body composition in children based on anthropometric data - A presentation of normal values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerver, WJM; deBruin, R

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass is used in paediatrics to estimate a child's nutritional status. To obtain the fat content or protein content sophisticated techniques exist. These techniques are often difficult to apply in daily practice. An anthropometric

  12. Body composition in children based on anthropometric data - A presentation of normal values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerver, WJM; deBruin, R

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass is used in paediatrics to estimate a child's nutritional status. To obtain the fat content or protein content sophisticated techniques exist. These techniques are often difficult to apply in daily practice. An anthropometric approac

  13. Body composition in children based on anthropometric data - A presentation of normal values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerver, WJM; deBruin, R

    1996-01-01

    Knowledge of the body composition in terms of fat and fat-free mass is used in paediatrics to estimate a child's nutritional status. To obtain the fat content or protein content sophisticated techniques exist. These techniques are often difficult to apply in daily practice. An anthropometric approac

  14. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water.

  15. Change of body composition in process of power conditional training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikieiev D.M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees, considering decrease of fat mass percentage as the purpose. Methods: analysis of changes of body composition of trainees, practicing different kinds of conditional power training. Results: the data about influence of different physical loads on thickness of subcutaneous fat in different parts of body have been generalized. Recommendations on choosing of exercises for power conditional trainees for body composition improving have been presented. It was found that fat loss occurs quicker in upper part of body (subcutaneous and visceral. This is observed with increasing of motor functioning and reducing calories of eating. When training any separate muscular group changes of subcutaneous fat take place not compulsory in body parts, in which the trained group is located. Conclusions: it is purposeful to mainly use basic (multi-joint exercises in power conditional training.

  16. Body Image in Anorexia Nervosa: Body Size Estimation Utilising a Biological Motion Task and Eyetracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Troje, Nikolaus Friedrich; Abel, Larry Allen

    2016-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric condition characterised by a distortion of body image. However, whether individuals with AN can accurately perceive the size of other individuals' bodies is unclear. In the current study, 24 women with AN and 24 healthy control participants undertook two biological motion tasks while eyetracking was performed: to identify the gender and to indicate the walkers' body size. Anorexia nervosa participants tended to 'hyperscan' stimuli but did not demonstrate differences in how visual attention was directed to different body areas, relative to controls. Groups also did not differ in their estimation of body size. The hyperscanning behaviours suggest increased anxiety to disorder-relevant stimuli in AN. The lack of group difference in the estimation of body size suggests that the AN group was able to judge the body size of others accurately. The findings are discussed in terms of body image distortion specific to oneself in AN. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. Effects of rapid weight loss and regain on body composition and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Yamada, Yosuke; Ichikawa, Mamiko; Ebine, Naoyuki; Higaki, Yasuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Weight-classified athletes need an energy intake plan to accomplish target weight reduction. They have to consider body composition and energy metabolism during rapid weight loss followed by rapid weight regain to achieve their energy intake plan. We investigated the effects of rapid weight loss, followed by weight regain, on body composition and energy expenditure. Ten weight-classified athletes were instructed to reduce their body weight by 5% in 7 days. Following the weight loss, they were asked to try to regain all of their lost weight with an ad libitum diet for 12 h. Food intake was recorded during the baseline, weight loss, and regain periods. Fat mass, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were estimated by underwater weighing and stable isotope dilution methods. A three-component model was calculated using Siri's equation. Basal and sleeping metabolic rates were measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition and energy expenditure were measured before and after weight loss and after weight regain. Body weight, total body water, and fat-free dry solids were decreased after the weight loss period but recovered after weight regain (p weight loss but recovered after weight regain. Changes in total body water greatly affect body weight during rapid weight loss and regain. In addition, rapid weight loss and regain did not greatly affect the basal metabolic rate in weight-classified athletes.

  18. Composition of Staff Review Advisory Bodies - 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David Plane/EP [Convener] Enrico Chiaveri/AB Peter Schmid/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin Lauckner/AB [Chairman]Marcel Mottier/EST Michael Letheren/EP Louis Walckiers/AT Lucie Linssen/EP Mats Wilhelmsson/ST Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/EP [Convener]Florence Ranjard/EP [Alternate] Roger Bailey/ABPeter Sievers/AT " " Doris Forkel-Wirth/TISPierre Ninin/ST " " Rob Rayson/HRMaarten Wilbers/DSU " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/AB [Convener]Fabien Perriollat/AB [Alternate] Christian Lasseur/ESTRamon Folch/EST " " Lucie Linssen/EP Alfredo Placci/EP " " Mats Møller/ASLaszlo Abel/SPL " " Seamus Hegarty/HR [Secretary] Human Resources Division Tel. 74128

  19. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows: Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) Cristoforo BENVENUTI/EST [Convener] David PLANE/EP Peter SCHMID/EP Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Robin LAUCKNER/SL [Chairman] Flemming PEDERSEN/PS Lucie LINSSEN/EP Dietrich SCHINZEL/EP Marcel MOTTIER/EST Louis WALCKIERS/LHC Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano CAMPORESI/EP [Convener] Florence RANJARD/EP [Alternate] Jacques GRUBER/PS [until 30.6.2002] Roger BAILEY/SL [from 1.7. 2002] Peter SIEVERS/LHC [Alternate] Doris FORKEL-WIRTH/TIS Pierre NININ/ST [Alternate] Sue FOFFANO/AS Maarten WILBERS/DSU [Alternate] Werner ZAPF/HR[Secretary] LTCB 2 Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique PARIS/SL [Convener] Fabien PERRIOLLAT/PS [Alternate] Mats WILHELMSSON/ST Charles NUTTALL/TIS [Alternate] Lucie LINSSEN/EP Alfredo PLACCI/EP [Alternate] Patrick GEERAER...

  20. COMPOSITION OF STAFF REVIEW ADVISORY BODIES - 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Seamus Hegarty / HR; Tel. 74128

    2001-01-01

    For the present staff review, the advisory bodies set up to prepare recommendations are composed as follows : Senior Staff Advancement Committee (SSAC) David O. Williams/it (Convener) Cristoforo Benvenuti/est David Plane/ep Technical Engineers & Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) Sverre Jarp/it (Chairman) Flemming Pedersen/ps Robin Lauckner/sl Christian Roche/ett Lars Leistam/est Dietrich Schinzel/ep Long-term contract Boards (LTCBs) LTCB 1 (Categories 2 & 5a) Tiziano Camporesi/ep [Convener] - Florence Ranjard/ep [Alternate] Jacques Gruber/ps - Peter Sievers/lhc [Alternate] Thomas Pettersson/est - Michel Mayoud/est [Alternate] Sue Foffano/as - Thierry Lagrange/spl [Alternate] Werner Zapf/hr (Secretary) LTCB 2 (Categories 3, 4, 5b & 5c) Véronique Paris/sl [Convener] - Fabien Perriollat/ps [Alternate] Mats Wilhelmsson/st - Véronique Fassnacht/tis [Alternate] Lucie Linssen/ep - Alfredo Placci/ep [Alternate] Patrick Geeraert/fi - John Cuthb...

  1. The Use Of Biostereometric Methods To Study Astronaut Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, M. W.

    1980-07-01

    Biostereometric analysis of body form was performed preflight and postflight on the 9 Skylab astronauts, using 4-camera stereophotogrammetry. The estimated standard deviation of the measurement of total body volume was 2-3%, but it should be possible to improve this to 1-2%, given some comparative studies with other methods, and some improvements in technique. The accuracy would then be comparable with underwater weighing, which is acknowledged to be the best currently available method for determining body density, and hence calculating body fat. Improvements beyond this accuracy are unlikely to lead to an enhancement in the accuracy of estimating body fat, because of uncertainties in the relationship between body fat and body density. Biostereometric analysis possesses one important advantage over underwater weighing, in that it is able to measure the volume of any chosen region of the body. This ability was used on Skylab to study the changes in leg muscle over the course of the flight, and also to measure the changes in body fat, which were particularly evident in the volume of the abdomen and buttocks. This approach would be greatly enhanced, however, by studies on the effects of diet and exercice on the volume of different body regions.

  2. Quality control issues related to assessment of body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Stephen; Durkin, Kesta; Jackson, Alan

    2014-06-01

    There are no internationally agreed quality standards for the measurement of stature, weight, and body composition. This lack of agreement constrains the quality of work in nutrition and must be addressed in order to build systemic capacity within the Scaling Up Nutrition agenda. There is a need to reach agreement and define standards of performance and the required training to be able to demonstrate the competency of those responsible for making the measurements. This, together with the adoption of standardized protocols, traceable reference materials, quality assurance frameworks, and publication guidance, would mark an important first step in improving the conduct and interpretation of measurements of growth and body composition.

  3. Body Composition and Somatotype of the Elite of Polish Fencers

    OpenAIRE

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine body composition and somatotype of the male fencers who were grouped by different fencing weapons. Analysis of body composition, with untrained men as background, will update the data necessary for the somatic profiles of fencers. Thirty contestants were examined during the Polish Fencing Championships in 2004. They took part in épée (n=10), foil (n=10) and sabre (n=10). They were aged 23.3±2.9; their length of training was 12.6±2.5 years, with the f...

  4. Basal metabolic rate and body composition of elite Japanese male athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Takako; Matsushima, Yoshiko; Yokota, Yukari; Yanagisawa, Kae; Nagai, Satsuki; Okamura, Koji; Komatsu, Yutaka; Kawahara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    The estimated energy requirement is important for adequate nutritional management in athletes. The energy requirement can be estimated from the basal metabolic rate (BMR). However, there is little data regarding the BMR of Japanese athletes. This study measured the BMR and body composition of 81 elite Japanese male athletes in different sports categories: endurance (E), strength, power and sprint (S) and ball game (B). The factors influencing the BMR were also investigated. The BMR and body composition were measured by indirect calorimetry and an air-displacement plentysmograph device (the BOD POD), respectively. The BMR per lean body mass (LBM) differed significantly among the three groups. The BMR was significantly correlated with the body weight (BW) and LBM in all groups. A multiple-regression analysis showed that the LBM was the most powerful predictor in the E and S groups, whereas the BW was the most powerful predictor in the B group. The BW appears to become an important predictor as the BW of athletes increases. Additionally, height was the second explanatory variable in the S and B groups, thus suggesting that height needs to be considered for the BMR in these groups. Therefore, the BMR in elite athletes needs to be estimated according to their body composition.

  5. Impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of the body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrino Edilson Serpeloni

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advances in the studies of body composition, it has been observed that several factors can interfere with the estimates of relative body fat using the skinfold thicknesses method. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of the use of different skinfold calipers for the analysis of body composition by skinfold thicknesses measurements. Two hundred and fifty nine male subjects (23.3 ± 2.9 years took part of the study. Nine skinfold thicknesses were measured (abdominal, subscapular, suprailiac, triceps, biceps, midaxillary, chest, medial calf, and thigh using the Lange (USA and the Cescorf (Brazil calipers with accuracy of 1.0 and 0.1 mm, respectively. Significant differences were found in the comparison between the two calipers on all the investigated skinfold thicknesses (1.8 to 31.0% with highest values obtained by the Lange caliper (p < 0.01. When these values were applied to four different predictive equations, developed by different researchers, the body fat estimate was significantly modified (p < 0.01, resulting in differences of 5.2 to 6.9%. Results indicate that the use of different skinfold calipers may maximize the errors of estimation produced by different predictive equations used for the analysis of body composition.

  6. Validation of expedient methods for measuring body composition in Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, R; Petracchi, C; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Shetty, P S; Kurpad, A V

    1998-01-01

    The body composition of 99 men and 89 women from south India was estimated using hydrodensitometry, bioelectrical impedance and skinfold thickness. Comparisons of the hydrodensitometry (reference method) and skinfold methods showed that there were no significant differences between the methods, for estimates of fat free mass (FFM) and per cent fat. The mean difference between the estimates FFM (bias), from skinfold measurement and hydrodensitometry was small for both groups (+0.16 +/- 1.09 kg in men and +0.67 +/- 0.9 kg in women). The same trend was observed in per cent fat estimates (-0.37 +/- 2.04 in men and -1.49 +/- 2.28 in women), showing that the skinfold method can be used as an accurate and expedient method to determine body composition. The bioelectrical impedance method obtained a significantly lower FFM and higher body fat than the reference (hydrodensitometry) method. This could have been due to the use of an inappropriate equation derived from Western population studies. Hence, a new predictive equation, for the measurement of FFM by the bioelectrical impedance method was derived for this population, using the variables of height2/impedance and FFM measured by underwater weighing. The new equation for the bioelectrical impedance method then gave values of body composition which compared well (0.26 +/- 2.32 kg) in men and (0.36 +/- 2.49 kg) in women with the hydrodensitometry method.

  7. Body composition and risk for metabolic alterations in female adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Rodrigues de Faria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study anthropometrical and body composition variables as predictors of risk for metabolic alterations and metabolic syndrome in female adolescents.METHODS: Biochemical, clinical and corporal composition data of 100 adolescents from 14 to 17 years old, who attended public schools in Viçosa, Southeastern Brazil, were collected.RESULTS: Regarding nutritional status, 83, 11 and 6% showed eutrophia, overweight/obesity and low weight, respectively, and 61% presented high body fat percent. Total cholesterol presented the highest percentage of inadequacy (57%, followed by high-density lipoprotein (HDL - 50%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL - 47% and triacylglycerol (22%. Inadequacy was observed in 11, 9, 3 and 4% in relation to insulin resistance, fasting insulin, blood pressure and glycemia, respectively. The highest values of the fasting insulin and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance(HOMA-IR were verified at the highest quartiles of body mass index (BMI, waist perimeter, waist-to-height ratio and body fat percent. Body mass index, waist perimeter, and waist-to-height ratio were the better predictors for high levels of HOMA-IR, blood glucose and fasting insulin. Waist-to-hip ratio was associated to arterial hypertension diagnosis. All body composition variables were effective in metabolic syndrome diagnosis.CONCLUSIONS: Waist perimeter, BMI and waist-to-height ratio showed to be good predictors for metabolic alterations in female adolescents and then should be used together for the nutritional assessment in this age range.

  8. The influence of body composition on quality of life of patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Porciúncula Frenzel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Unwanted changes in body composition, as well as their impact on these people's quality of life, have been little investigated in patients with breast cancer. Objetive: To assess the role of body composition on quality of life and the impact of chemotherapy on both, in women with breast cancer. Methods: It was assessed prospectively women with breast cancer in a cohort of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Body composition was estimated through bioelectrical impedance. The quality of life was evaluated using the World Health Organization quality of life questionnaire. Results: This study assessed 70 women, 77 and 73% of those were initially overweight and had excess of body fat, respectively. There was a significant increase in fat-free mass (p > 0.001, body mass index (p = 0.03 and weight (p = 0.02 while quality of life stayed the same during the study. Moreover, women with excess of body fat showed a significantly lower initial general health score, compared to those with normal body fat (p = 0.02. Conclusions: Chemotherapy proved to be a potential inducer in the weight gain in this population. We highlight the importance of further investigation about the impact of body fat accumulation on those women's quality of life.

  9. Effects of photoperiod on body mass, thermogenesis and body composition in Eothenomys miletus during cold exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-long Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many small mammals respond to seasonal changes in photoperiod by altering body mass and adiposity. These animals may provide valuable models for understanding the regulation of energy balance. In present study, we examined the effect on body mass, rest metabolic rate, food intake and body composition in cold-acclimated (5 °C in Eothenomys miletus by transferring them from a short (SD, 8h :16h L: D to long day photoperiod (LD, 16h: 8h L:D. During the first 4 weeks of exposure to SD, E. miletus decreased body mass. After the next 4 weeks of exposure to LD, which the average difference between body masses of LD and SD voles was 4.76 g. This 14.74% increase in body mass reflected significant increases in absolute amounts of body components, including wet carcass mass, dry carcass mass and body fat mass. After correcting body composition and organ morphology data for the differences in body mass, only livers, kidney, and small intestine were enlarged due to photoperiod treatment during cold exposure. E. miletus increased RMR and energy intake exposure to LD, but maintained a stable level to SD after 28 days. Serum leptin levels were positively correlated with body mass, body fat mass, RMR as well as energy intake. All of the results indicated that E. miletus may provide an attractive novel animal model for investigation of the regulation of body mass and energy balance at organism levels. Leptin is potentially involved in the photoperiod induced body mass regulation and thermogenesis in E. miletus during cold exposure.

  10. Determination of maternal body composition in pregnancy and its relevance to perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Strauss, Boyd J G; Walker, Susan P; Permezel, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Three models and 10 specific methods for determining maternal body composition are discussed and their perinatal relevance reviewed. English language publications (1950 to January 2004) were searched electronically and by hand. Search terms included "body composition," "human," " pregnancy," "obesity," "adiposity," "regional," "2-, 3-, 4-component," "truncal," "peripheral," "central," "visceral" along with specific techniques and outcomes listed subsequently. Three models of body composition are described: 2-component being fat and fat-free mass; 3-component being fat, water, and protein; and 4-component being fat, water, protein, and osseous mineral. Ten techniques of body composition assessment are described: 1) anthropometric techniques including skinfold thicknesses and waist-hip ratio; 2) total body water (isotopically labeled); 3) hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing); 4) air-displacement plethysmography; 5) bio-impedance analysis (BIA); 6) total body potassium (TBK); 7) dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA); 8) computed tomography (CT); 9) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); and 10) ultrasound (USS). Most methods estimate total adiposity. Regional fat distribution-central (truncal) compared with peripheral (limb) or visceral compared with subcutaneous-is important because of regional variation in adipocyte metabolism. Skinfolds, DEXA, CT, MRI, or USS can distinguish central from peripheral fat. CT, MRI, or USS can further subdivide central fat into visceral and subcutaneous. Perinatal outcomes examined in relation to body composition include pregnancy duration, birth weight, congenital anomalies, gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension, and the fetal origins of adult disease. A few studies suggest that central compared with peripheral fat correlates better with birth weight, gestational carbohydrate intolerance, and hypertension. Means of accurately assessing maternal body composition remain cumbersome and impractical, but may more accurately

  11. Effects of bariatric surgery on the body composition of adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Wally Hartwig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The most alarming cases are known as morbidly obese. An effective method to change the anthropometric characteristics of this population with excess body weight and high fat mass is bariatric surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze the body composition of morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil. In a prospective cohort study, a group of morbidly obese patients was followed up 30 days before and 30 days after surgery. The sample consisted of 123 patients who underwent vertical banded Roux-en-Y gastroplasty between April 2003 and May 2010. Body composition (fat percentage was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The mean age of the patients was 36.1 ± 8.8 years and mean body weight loss was 14.1 ± 6.0 kg (p<0.001. The mean reduction in body mass index (BMI was 5.2 ± 2.1 kg/m2 (p<0.001. Body fat percentage and fat mass were reduced by 2.8% (p<0.001 and 9.7 ± 4.9 kg (p<0.001, respectively. In addition, there was a reduction of 4.4 ± 3.4 kg (p<0.001 in lean mass. We concluded that the surgical procedure significantly reduced body weight, BMI, fat percentage and fat mass and is an alternative when conventional treatments appear ineffective.

  12. Estimating Quartz Reserves Using Compositional Kriging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Taboada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine spatial distribution and volume of four commercial quartz grades, namely, silicon metal, ferrosilicon, aggregate, and kaolin (depending on content in impurities in a quartz seam. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the reserves in the seam were determined from samples collected from outcrops, blasting operations, and exploratory drilling, and compositional kriging was used to calculate the volume and distribution of the reserves. A more accurate knowledge of the deposit ensures better mine planning, leading to higher profitability and an improved relationship with the environment.

  13. ESTIMATION OF LIVE BODY WEIGHT FROM LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS FOR FARTA SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENGISTIE TAYE

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study, to develop regression models for prediction of body weight from other linear body measurements, was conducted in Esite, Farta and Lai-Gaint districts of South Gondar, Amhara region. Records on body weight (BW and other linear body measurements (Body Length (BL, Wither Height (WH, Chest Girth (CH, Pelvic Width (PW and Ear Length (EL were taken from 941 sheep. Non-linear, simple linear and multiple linear regression models were developed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12.0. For the multiple linear regressions, step-wise regression procedures were used. Predicting models were developed for different age, sex and for the pool. Positive and significant (P<0.01 correlations were observed between body weight and linear body measurements for all sex and age groups. Among the four linear body measurements, heart girth had the highest correlation coefficient (except ear length in all age and sex groups which is followed by body length, height at wither and pelvic width. Heart girth was the first variable to explain more variation than other variables in both sex and age groups. The models developed had a coefficient of determination of 0.26 to 0.89; the highest coefficient of determination was depicted for male while the lowest was for dentition groups having two permanent incisors. Regression models in general were poor in explaining weight for the dentition groups above one pair of permanent incisors. Heart girth alone was able to estimate weight with a coefficient of determination of 0.77, for both sexes and the pool. The coefficient of determination of the fitted equations (in general decreased as the age of sheep advances indicating that the fitted equations can predict weight for younger sheep with better accuracy than for older ones. In general, much of the variation in weight was explained when many traits were included in the model. However, for ease of use and to avoid complexity at field condition, it is

  14. A new air displacement plethysmograph for the determination of Japanese body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatake, N; Nonaka, K; Fujii, M

    1999-11-01

    A new device based on the plethysmographic measurement of body volume, named the BOD POD Body Composition System, was developed for the purpose of estimating body composition. The performance, reliability, validity, and clinical application of this system were evaluated in Japanese subjects. The coefficient variation (CV:%) in same-day tests was 2.48, in three separate-day tests it was 2.27, and for independent operators it was 4.53, respectively. There was a clear correlation between the results from BOD POD and those from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (r = 0.910, p BOD POD. The findings indicate that the BOD POD is a highly reliable and valid method for determining body fat percentage. This new method has several advantages, e.g. it is quick, simple to operate and may accommodate wide populations.

  15. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabet Forsum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2 Methods: In 14 infants in an age range of 3–7 days, born after 32–35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software, and total body water (isotope dilution were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3 Results: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05 different from reference estimates. Body fat (%, assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL; (4 Conclusion: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  16. An Evaluation of the Pea Pod System for Assessing Body Composition of Moderately Premature Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsum, Elisabet; Olhager, Elisabeth; Törnqvist, Caroline

    2016-04-22

    (1) BACKGROUND: Assessing the quality of growth in premature infants is important in order to be able to provide them with optimal nutrition. The Pea Pod device, based on air displacement plethysmography, is able to assess body composition of infants. However, this method has not been sufficiently evaluated in premature infants; (2) METHODS: In 14 infants in an age range of 3-7 days, born after 32-35 completed weeks of gestation, body weight, body volume, fat-free mass density (predicted by the Pea Pod software), and total body water (isotope dilution) were assessed. Reference estimates of fat-free mass density and body composition were obtained using a three-component model; (3) RESULTS: Fat-free mass density values, predicted using Pea Pod, were biased but not significantly (p > 0.05) different from reference estimates. Body fat (%), assessed using Pea Pod, was not significantly different from reference estimates. The biological variability of fat-free mass density was 0.55% of the average value (1.0627 g/mL); (4) CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the Pea Pod system is accurate for groups of newborn, moderately premature infants. However, more studies where this system is used for premature infants are needed, and we provide suggestions regarding how to develop this area.

  17. Using Amazon's Mechanical Turk website to measure accuracy of body size estimation and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rick M; Brown, Dana L; Boice, Russell

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated Amazon.com's website Mechanical Turk (MTurk) as a research tool for measuring body size estimation and dissatisfaction. 160 U.S. participants completed the BIAS-BD figural drawing scale and demographic questions posted on the MTurk website. The BIAS-BD consists of 17 drawings of various male and female body sizes based on anthropometric data corresponding to a range of 60% below to 140% above the average U.S. adult. Respondents selected a drawing that best reflected their current size and ideal size. Results revealed that respondents overestimated their body size by 6% and desired an ideal size 9.2% smaller than their perceived size. Findings are compared with three previous studies using the BIAS-BD scale. A general correspondence in findings between the four studies was found. We conclude that the MTurk can serve as a viable method for collecting data on the perceptual and attitudinal aspects of body image quickly and inexpensively.

  18. ESTIMATING FIBRE DIRECTION DISTRIBUTIONS OF REINFORCED COMPOSITES FROM TOMOGRAPHIC IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Wirjadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced composites constitute a relevant class of materials used chiefly in lightweight constructions for example in fuselages or car bodies. The spatial arrangement of the fibres and in particular their direction distribution have huge impact on macroscopic properties and, thus, its determination is an important topic of material characterisation. The fibre direction distribution is defined on the unit sphere, and it is therefore preferable to work with fully three-dimensional images of the microstructure as obtained, e.g., by computed micro-tomography. A number of recent image analysis algorithms exploit local grey value variations to estimate a preferred direction in each fibre point. Averaging these local results leads estimates of the volume-weighted fibre direction distribution. We show how the thus derived fibre direction distribution is related to quantities commonly used in engineering applications. Furthermore, we discuss four algorithms for local orientation analysis, namely those based on the response of anisotropic Gaussian filters, moments and axes of inertia derived from directed distance transforms, the structure tensor, or the Hessian matrix. Finally, the feasibility of these algorithms is demonstrated for application examples and some advantages and disadvantages of the underlying methods are pointed out.

  19. Body size and composition of National Football League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Torine, Jon C; Silvestre, Ricardo; French, Duncan N; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Spiering, Barry A; Hatfield, Disa L; Vingren, Jakob L; Volek, Jeff S

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a profile of body size and composition of National Football League (NFL) players prior to the start of the regular season. Fifty-three members of the Indianapolis Colts professional football team were measured for height, body mass, and percentage body fat using the BOD POD air-displacement plethysmography system during summer camp of the 2003 football season. These data were categorized by position for comparison with previous studies of NFL football players. The relationships observed were as follows (= represents nonsignificant; > represents p Linebackers > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Body Mass: Offensive Line = Defensive Line > Tight Ends = Linebackers > Running Backs = Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters > Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Percentage Body Fat: Offensive Line > Defensive Line > Quarterbacks/ Kickers/Punters = Linebackers = Tight Ends > Running Backs = Wide Receivers = Defensive Backs. Comparisons to teams in the 1970s indicate that body mass has increased only for offensive and defensive linemen; however, height and body fat among player positions have not dramatically changed. Furthermore, the body mass index is not an accurate measure or representation of body fat or obesity in NFL players. These data provide a basic template for size profiles and differences among various positions and allow comparisons with other studies for changes in the NFL over the past 3 decades.

  20. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fa...... article preview online, 19 April 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.59....

  1. Body composition, dietary intake and supplement use among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition is a very important aspect of an athlete's perfor- mance. According to ... inadequate diet, reduced absorption by the gastro-intestinal tract, increased excretion in ..... Obesity Research 2005;13(3):626-634. 4. Kyle UG, Bosaeus ...

  2. Body composition and physical function in women with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie L. Ward, MS

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS have reduced physical activity (PA and lower-limb physical function and potentially disordered body composition compared with their peers without MS. The aim of this study was to determine whether PA and body composition were differentially associated with lower-limb physical function in persons with MS compared with controls. Females with MS and age- and body mass index-matched female controls (n = 51; average age 48.1 +/– 9.7 yr were measured for PA with daily step counts, relative fat mass (%Fat, and leg lean mass (LM-LEG via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and for lower-limb physical function with objective performance tests. Persons with MS had 12.5% to 53% poorer lower-limb physical function than controls (all p < 0.05. PA, %Fat, and LM-LEG to body mass ratio (LM-LEG/BM were associated with lower-limb physical function in both persons with MS and controls (all p < 0.05. Based on median splits, higher %Fat, lower LM-LEG/BM, and MS conferred poorer lower-limb physical function (all p < 0.05. PA, %Fat, and LM-LEG/BM were associated with lower-limb physical function, suggesting that body composition, specifically reducing adiposity and increasing lean mass and/or increasing PA levels, may be a potential target for MS interventions.

  3. Childhood thyroid function, body composition and cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaktarovic, Mirjana; Korevaar, Tim I M; Gaillard, Romy; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Visser, Theo J; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Peeters, Robin P

    2017-10-01

    The cardiovascular system is a known target for thyroid hormone. Early-life cardiovascular alterations may lead to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. Little is known about the effects of thyroid hormone on cardiovascular function during childhood, including the role of body composition in this association. Population-based prospective cohort of children (n = 4251, median age 6 years, 95% range: 5.7-8.0 years). Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) concentrations were measured to assess thyroid function. Left ventricular (LV) mass was assessed with echocardiography. Arterial stiffness was assessed with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP) was measured. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. FT4 was inversely associated with LV mass (P = 0.002), and with lean body mass (P cardiovascular function during early childhood. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Relationship Between Diet and Body Composition After Biliopancreatic Diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Fernández, Alicia; Pintor-de-la-Maza, Begoña; Diez-Rodríguez, Rubén; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Urioste-Fondo, Ana; Cano-Rodríguez, Isidoro; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D

    2015-11-01

    Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) has been shown to be one of the most effective techniques for losing weight, although the relationship between body composition and diet after the procedure is not well known. Our aim was to assess dietary changes and their effects on body composition. This longitudinal study included all patients eligible for BPD who had undergone body composition analysis. Two assessments were performed: 6 weeks before and 1 year after surgery. Nutritional education was given after surgery by a registered dietitian, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed and a 3-day food record was collected for further analysis at both of the visits. Forty-six patients were included. The percentage of excess of weight loss was 61.03 % (SD 14.01 %), which was statistically different by gender (p = 0.045). The percentage of subjects reporting a low daily protein consumption of less than 60 g and 1.2 g/kg of ideal body weight (IBW)/day was 15.2 % before surgery and 19.6 % at 12 months (p = 0.006). The weight loss was mainly of fat mass (FM). There were differences of body composition by gender before and after surgery. A simple correlation analysis showed a significant association between daily energy intake and FM (g) only before surgery (p = 0.030), and also between daily protein intake (expressed as total g) and lean body mass (LBM) 12 months after surgery (p = 0.018), but no association was found with achieved protein goal. BPD enhanced by nutritional education seems to improve its results by achieving an adequate weight loss, preserving LBM, decreasing FM, and guaranteeing an appropriate protein intake.

  5. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Walter; He, Wenjun

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics.

  6. Composition Estimation in Dividing-Wall Columns Using Temperature Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadrdan, Maryam; Ivar J. Halvorsen; Skogestad, Sigurd

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we propose a method to estimate the product compositions in a distillation column section based on a combination of a number of temperature measurements from different locations in the column stages.

  7. Chinook Bycatch - Contemporary Salmon Genetic Stock Composition Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to measure and monitor impacts on ESA-listed populations and to estimate overall Chinook salmon stock composition in bycatch...

  8. Body fat estimations by electrical impedance and infra-red interactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, D A; Eston, R G

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body fat estimation using three methods of electrical impedance (the BIA-103 Body Composition Analyser--RJL Systems, Detroit; the BMR 2000 Body Composition Analyzer--Berkeley Medical Research, San Leandro; the BC300 Body Composition Analyzer--Spacelabs, Dallas) and an infra-red interactance method (Futrex 5000 Analyzer--Futrex Inc. Gaithersburg) as an alternative to hydrodensitometry. Five different groups were examined using at least one of the electrical systems and in all cases utilising hydrodensitometry as the criterion method. The results produced highly significant correlations between all methods, but caution is recommended due to the limited common variance in some cases. The individual electrical methods differed from hydrodensitometry by a maximum of 1.1% in obese women, by 21.6% in athletic adults, by 6.2% in the slightly obese group, by 8.1% in normal women and by 56.0% in normal children. Significant mean differences between one of the impedance methods and hydrodensitometry were only noted in two of the groups tested. This suggests, allowing for the limitations of hydrodensitometry itself, that the other three electrical methods appear to be reasonably valid alternatives to underwater weighing, especially for field work of an epidemiological nature.

  9. Crossfit-based high-intensity power training improves maximal aerobic fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael M; Sommer, Allan J; Starkoff, Brooke E; Devor, Steven T

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a crossfit-based high-intensity power training (HIPT) program on aerobic fitness and body composition. Healthy subjects of both genders (23 men, 20 women) spanning all levels of aerobic fitness and body composition completed 10 weeks of HIPT consisting of lifts such as the squat, deadlift, clean, snatch, and overhead press performed as quickly as possible. Additionally, this crossfit-based HIPT program included skill work for the improvement of traditional Olympic lifts and selected gymnastic exercises. Body fat percentage was estimated using whole-body plethysmography, and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) was measured by analyzing expired gasses during a Bruce protocol maximal graded treadmill test. These variables were measured again after 10 weeks of training and compared for significant changes using a paired t-test. Results showed significant (p < 0.05) improvements of VO2max in men (43.10 ± 1.40 to 48.96 ± 1.42 ml · kg · min) and women (35.98 ± 1.60 to 40.22 ± 1.62 ml · kg · min) and decreased body fat percentage in men (22.2 ± 1.3 to 18.0 ± 1.3) and women (26.6 ± 2.0 to 23.2 ± 2.0). These improvements were significant across all levels of initial fitness. Significant correlations between absolute oxygen consumption and oxygen consumption relative to body weight was found in both men (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and women (r = 0.94, p < 0.001), indicating that HIPT improved VO2max scaled to body weight independent of changes to body composition. Our data show that HIPT significantly improves VO2max and body composition in subjects of both genders across all levels of fitness.

  10. Latino Mothers' Cumulative Food Insecurity Exposure and Child Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Daphne C

    2016-01-01

    To document whether an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity is occurring by assessing low-income foreign-born Latino mothers' experiences with food insecurity as none, once (either childhood or adulthood) or twice (during both childhood and adulthood). Also the association between maternal cumulative food insecurity and children's body composition was examined. Maternal self-reported surveys on retrospective measures of food insecurity during childhood, current measures of food insecurity, and demographics were collected from Houston-area community centers (N = 96). Children's body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were directly assessed. Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models analyzed the association between cumulative food insecurity experiences and children's body composition. Fifty-eight percent of mothers experienced food insecurity both as a child and as an adult and 31% of the mothers experienced food insecurity either as a child or adult. Maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity was unrelated to BMI but was negatively related to elevated WC. Although an intergenerational transmission of food insecurity does exist, maternal cumulative exposure to food insecurity does not impact children's body composition negatively in the short term. Studying the long-term effects of cumulative food insecurity exposure can provide information for the development and timing of obesity interventions.

  11. Analysis of Relationship between the Body Mass Composition and Physical Activity with Body Posture in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Wyszyńska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Excessive body mass in turn may contribute to the development of many health disorders including disorders of musculoskeletal system, which still develops intensively at that time. Aim. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between children’s body mass composition and body posture. The relationship between physical activity level of children and the parameters characterizing their posture was also evaluated. Material and Methods. 120 school age children between 11 and 13 years were enrolled in the study, including 61 girls and 59 boys. Each study participant had the posture evaluated with the photogrammetric method using the projection moiré phenomenon. Moreover, body mass composition and the level of physical activity were evaluated. Results. Children with the lowest content of muscle tissue showed the highest difference in the height of the inferior angles of the scapulas in the coronal plane. Children with excessive body fat had less slope of the thoracic-lumbar spine, greater difference in the depth of the inferior angles of the scapula, and greater angle of the shoulder line. The individuals with higher level of physical activity have a smaller angle of body inclination. Conclusion. The content of muscle tissue, adipose tissue, and physical activity level determines the variability of the parameter characterizing the body posture.

  12. The association of body composition parameters with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Sipahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD which is strongly correlated with obesity; has been a common worldwide health problem with the improvements in social status. Body composition studies are accepted as a simple follow-up tool for treatment of obesity. Since the correlation of body mass index (BMI with the hepatosteatosis (HS is well known; the aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of body composition parameters (BCP to determine HS on NAFLD patients; using dual bioimpedance analyzer (BIA. Methods:A total of 253 patients with diagnosis of NAFLD were included into the study. The demographic parameters such as age, sex and BMI were collected; and the ultrasonographic (US evolution was performed to determine the HS stages. The BCP, such as amount and the percentage of total body fat, fat free mass, and total body water were assessed with the dual bioimpedance analyzer. Results:There were strong significant correlations between BMI and HS, between BCP and HS (p0.05. Conclusion: According to our results, it can be concluded that BCP values may have a diagnostic value on diagnosis of NAFLD.

  13. Objective estimation of body condition score by modeling cow body shape from digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzaro, G; Caccamo, M; Ferguson, J D; Battiato, S; Farinella, G M; Guarnera, G C; Puglisi, G; Petriglieri, R; Licitra, G

    2011-04-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is considered an important tool for management of dairy cattle. The feasibility of estimating the BCS from digital images has been demonstrated in recent work. Regression machines have been successfully employed for automatic BCS estimation, taking into account information of the overall shape or information extracted on anatomical points of the shape. Despite the progress in this research area, such studies have not addressed the problem of modeling the shape of cows to build a robust descriptor for automatic BCS estimation. Moreover, a benchmark data set of images meant as a point of reference for quantitative evaluation and comparison of different automatic estimation methods for BCS is lacking. The main objective of this study was to develop a technique that was able to describe the body shape of cows in a reconstructive way. Images, used to build a benchmark data set for developing an automatic system for BCS, were taken using a camera placed above an exit gate from the milking robot. The camera was positioned at 3 m from the ground and in such a position to capture images of the rear, dorsal pelvic, and loin area of cows. The BCS of each cow was estimated on site by 2 technicians and associated to the cow images. The benchmark data set contained 286 images with associated BCS, anatomical points, and shapes. It was used for quantitative evaluation. A set of example cow body shapes was created. Linear and polynomial kernel principal component analysis was used to reconstruct shapes of cows using a linear combination of basic shapes constructed from the example database. In this manner, a cow's body shape was described by considering her variability from the average shape. The method produced a compact description of the shape to be used for automatic estimation of BCS. Model validation showed that the polynomial model proposed in this study performs better (error=0.31) than other state-of-the-art methods in estimating BCS even at the

  14. Body composition measurement: a review of hydrodensitometry, anthropometry, and impedance methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, D; Moscrip, V; Hutcheon, R

    1998-03-01

    Human body composition is an expression of genetic and nutritional factors. It can change as a consequence of exogenous influences such as training, disease, or diet and is therefore of particular interest to nutrition professionals. Two of the main methods of estimating body composition in this review (hydrodensitometry and anthropometry) have been in use for decades, but the third method (bioelectrical impedance) is more recent. The procedure, theoretical basis, assumptions, standard error of estimates, and comparisons with other techniques are presented for each of the three methods. References to general and specific populations are presented that illustrate regression equations for different ages, ethnic groups, and gender. The advantages and disadvantages of the three methods are reviewed with reference made to the alternative compartment models. Other methods (DEXA, infrared interactance) are briefly reviewed.

  15. The relationships among body composition, anaerobic performance and back strength characteristics of sub-elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sinan Aslan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among age, height, body weight, body fat percentage, long jump (standing, vertical jump, 20 meter sprint, back strength, relative strength and anaerobic power characteristics of the 80 sub-elit male athletes who are students at a physical education and sports department and participate competitions.  In this study, 80 male students at 22.17 ± 1.97 average age who have been doing exercises regularly, were participate as voluntary. Firstly, their age, height, body weight and skin fold values were determined. Body fat percentage was estimated by Zorba Formula. Anaerobic performance was determined via long jump (standing, vertical jump and 20 meter sprint. Relative strength was estimated with “back strength / body weight” formula. Then, the relationships among body composition, anaerobic performance and back strength characteristics of the participants were determined by Pearson correlation analysis. Analyses of collected data were used by SPSS for Windows (Ver. 10 and alpha level was set as 0.05 for statistical significance.Correlation analysis’ results indicated that there were statically significant correlations among lots of physical and physiological parameters. In conclusion; it was determined that height, body weight, body fat percentage and back strength were played an explicit role on anaerobic performance of athletes.

  16. Composite likelihood and two-stage estimation in family studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    In this paper register based family studies provide the motivation for linking a two-stage estimation procedure in copula models for multivariate failure time data with a composite likelihood approach. The asymptotic properties of the estimators in both parametric and semi-parametric models are d...

  17. Scaling of adult regional body mass and body composition as a whole to height: Relevance to body shape and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuna, John M; Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Heo, Moonseong; Hong, Sangmo; Choi, Woong; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Adult body mass (MB) empirically scales as height (Ht) squared (MB ∝ Ht(2) ), but does regional body mass and body composition as a whole also scale as Ht(2) ? This question is relevant to a wide range of biological topics, including interpretation of body mass index (BMI). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify regional body mass [head (MH), trunk, arms, and legs] and whole-body composition [fat, lean soft tissue (LST), and bone mineral content (BMC)] in non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black, Mexican American, and Korean adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; n = 17,126) and Korean NHANES (n = 8,942). Regression models were developed to establish Ht scaling powers for each measured component with adjustments for age and adiposity. Exploratory analyses revealed a consistent scaling pattern across men and women of the four population groups: regional mass powers, head (∼0.8-1) body composition, LST (∼2.0-2.3) body mass scaled uniformly across the eight sex and population groups as Ht(∼2) , tall and short subjects differed in body shape (e.g., MH/MB ∝ Ht(-∼1) ) and composition. Adult human body shape and relative composition are a function of body size as represented by stature, a finding that reveals a previously unrecognized phenotypic heterogeneity as defined by BMI. These observations provide new pathways for exploring mechanisms governing the interrelations between adult stature, body morphology, biomechanics, and metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Composition and function of P bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Maldonado-Bonilla

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available mRNA accumulation is tightly regulated by diverse molecular pathways. The identification and characterization of enzymes and regulatory proteins involved in controlling the fate of mRNA offers the possibility to broaden our understanding of posttranscriptional gene regulation. Processing bodies (P bodies, PB are cytoplasmic protein complexes involved in degradation and translational arrest of mRNA. Composition and dynamics of these subcellular structures have been studied in animal systems, yeasts and in the model plant Arabidopsis. Their assembly implies the aggregation of specific factors related to decapping, deadenylation and exoribonucleases that operate synchronously to regulate certain mRNA targets during development and adaptation to stress. Although the general function of PB along with the flow of genetic information is understood, several questions still remain open. This review summarizes data on the composition, potential molecular roles, and biological significance of PB and potentially related proteins in Arabidopsis.

  19. Connection Between Body Composition and Milk Production of Lacaune Sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea Ms. Kupai

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Five, non-related, female and male progeny groups of rams were qualified in their body composition and milk production characteristics. Body composition characteristics (fat tissue, muscle tissue and water dense substances were examined on 38 rams-to-be in 38-48 live weight with CT. Milk production data were collected from the half-sisters (n=106. According to our judgement the influence of rams can be proven statistically in both production characteristics. As we have found close (in order: r = -0,786 and r = 0,721; P<0,05 connection between daily milk production and the areas of muscle tissue and water dense substances of the carcass measured by CT, we suggest taking the correlation between them into consideration in the selection of milk production. To get a precise prediction equation, further examinations are needed.

  20. In vivo body composition studies in rats: assessment of total body protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumura, S; Stamatelatos, I E; Boozer, C N; Moore, R; Ma, R

    1998-01-01

    The precision and accuracy of a prompt-gamma neutron activation facility developed to assess total body protein in rats is estimated. The coefficient of variation of nitrogen measurement, as estimated by repeated measurements on 15 rats, was 5.5% for an equivalent dose of 60 mSv (Q = 20). Good agreement was observed in comparing the results of in vivo neutron activation analysis and chemical carcass analysis performed by the Kjeldahl method. The application of the technique in comparing the effect of a low-fat and a high-fat diet on body protein in rats is demonstrated.

  1. General many-body formalism for composite quantum particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescot, M; Betbeder-Matibet, O

    2010-05-21

    This Letter provides a formalism capable of exactly treating Pauli blocking between n-fermion particles. This formalism is based on an operator algebra made of commutators and anticommutators which contrasts with the usual scalar formalism of Green functions developed half a century ago for elementary quantum particles. We also provide the diagrams which visualize the very specific many-body physics induced by fermion exchanges between composite quantum particles.

  2. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Márcio Augusto Nogueira [UNIFESP; Garcia,Patrícia Novita; Barroso, Letícia Fernandes [UNIFESP; Ferreira, Marco Antonio; Okuda, Érika Araki [UNIFESP; Allemann,Norma

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes we...

  3. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Márcio Augusto Nogueira; Garcia, Patrícia Novita; Barroso, Letícia Fernandes; Ferreira, Marco Antonio; Okuda, Érika Araki; Allemann, Norma

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete) and similar dimensions (4 mm) were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed). Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and measure the intraocular foreign body, directing

  4. Composition of intraocular foreign bodies: experimental study of ultrasonographic presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Augusto Nogueira Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the reliability of ultrasound in determining the size and identify the sonographic features and artifacts generated by intraocular foreign bodies of different materials. METHODS: Experimental study using 36 enucleated porcine eyes. Fragments of nine different compositions (wood, glass, plastic, cardboard, iron, aluminum, lead, powder and concrete and similar dimensions (4 mm were implanted via scleral incision into the vitreous cavity of 36 porcine eyes, four eyes were used for each material. Ultrasound examination was performed in all eyes using the contact technique, conductive gel and 10-MHz transducer (EZScan, Sonomed. RESULTS: Considering the material fragments of gunpowder, lead, concrete, aluminum, wood and glass, the size determined by ultrasound was considered statistically similar to the actual size. The material iron presented ultrasound-determined dimension statistically smaller than its actual size. Cardboard and plastic materials showed ultrasound-determined measurements far greater than the actual. All fragments of intraocular foreign bodies demonstrated hyper-reflective interfaces, irrespective of their composition. Whereas the artifacts generated by different materials, it was found that the materials iron, aluminum and lead showed reverberation of great extent. The material wood showed no reverberation. The length of the reverberation artifact for the materials iron, glass, aluminum and cardboard was lower when compared to other materials. All materials presented posterior shadowing artifact, with the exception of aluminum. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography was considered a reliable technique to determine the size of intraocular foreign bodies in pigs, with little influence caused by its composition. Ultrasound artifacts generated were considered material-dependent and can assist the examiner to identify the nature of a foreign body of unknown etiology. Ultrasonography aided the surgeon to identify, locate and

  5. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN.

  6. Effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Rong; Lin Shou-qing; Lin Xia; Chen Yan; Yang Qiu-hong; Zhou Yong; Zhang Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of age on body composition in healthy Beijing women.Methods:We measured body composition with dual-energy X-ray (GE Lunar Prodigy) in 316 healthy Beijing females aged 20 to 74 years (5-7 women per age).Parameters provided by the software were as following:total body bone mineral content (BMC),lean mass (LM),fat mass and fat mass percentage (FM%).Local regions measured included arm,leg,trunk,android region and gynoid region.Body mass index (BMI),fat mass index (FMI),free fat mass index (FFMI) and A/G were calculated.Volunteers were assigned to 6 groups according to age by every ten years a group.Results..BMC peaked during the 4th decade,LM peaked during the 5th decade,with a decline of 18.1% and 5.2% respectively at age 74 years.Total body fat mass and FM% showed a general increase with aging throughout the studied age range.Total body fat mass increased from (16±5) kg at age 20-29 years to (24±6)kg at age 70-74years,while FM% increased from 31.3% to 39.5%.All local region FM% increased with aging at different extents.Android region FM% showed the largest raise extent (32.2%).BMI increased gradually from 21.1 kg/m2 at age 20-29 years to 26.1 kg/m2 at age 70-74 years.FMI changed more obviously than FFMI.A/G increased from 0.85 at age 20-29 years to 1.02 at age 70-74 years.Different menstrual status in women of 40-59 years had obvious effect on A/G and BMC (P<0.05),while it had no significant effect on BMI,body weight and waist circumference (P>0.05).Conclusion:Aging has a great effect on body composition distribution in healthy Beijing women.

  7. Body composition and nutritional profile of male adolescent tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juzwiak, Claudia R; Amancio, Olga M S; Vitalle, Maria S S; Pinheiro, Marcelo M; Szejnfeld, Vera L

    2008-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the body composition and dietary intake of 44 adolescent tennis players. After being divided into two groups (age 10-13 years and age 14-18), the players had their weight, height, and sexual maturation assessed. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition. Food intake was obtained from a non-consecutive 4-day food record. The data were analysed using the Virtual Nutri v.1.0 software and compared with the present recommendations for adolescent athletes or dietary reference intakes. Body mass index and body fat for tennis practice were adequate for 89% and 71% of the tennis players respectively, regardless of age group. A calorie deficit greater than 10% of energy expenditure was observed in 32% of the sample. Fifty percent of the athletes consumed carbohydrates in accordance with recommended values. Protein and lipid intakes were above recommended values, while fibre, calcium, potassium, magnesium, and folic acid intakes were below recommendation for 98%, 80%, 100%, 100%, and 98% of the tennis players respectively. The observed nutritional deficiencies represent an additional barrier for adolescents engaged in competitive sports to achieve an optimum nutrition to maintain growth, health, and performance.

  8. Somatotype and Body Composition of Normal and Dysphonic Adult Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Débora; Fragoso, Isabel; Andrea, Mário; Teles, Júlia; Martins, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Voice quality provides information about the anatomical characteristics of the speaker. The patterns of somatotype and body composition can provide essential knowledge to characterize the individuality of voice quality. The aim of this study was to verify if there were significant differences in somatotype and body composition between normal and dysphonic speakers. Cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements were taken of a sample of 72 adult participants (40 normal speakers and 32 dysphonic speakers) according to International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry standards, which allowed the calculation of endomorphism, mesomorphism, ectomorphism components, body density, body mass index, fat mass, percentage fat, and fat-free mass. Perception and acoustic evaluations as well as nasoendoscopy were used to assign speakers into normal or dysphonic groups. There were no significant differences between normal and dysphonic speakers in the mean somatotype attitudinal distance and somatotype dispersion distance (in spite of marginally significant differences [P speakers. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Body composition and somatotype of experienced mountain climbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Davide; Zaccagni, Luciana; Cogo, Annalisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2012-03-01

    In order to evaluate body composition and somatotype, 10 Italian experienced mountain climbers were assessed from an anthropometric point of view, before a high altitude ascent. Body mass, height, girths, skinfolds, and bone breadths were gathered and used to calculate body composition and somatotype of each subject. Means and standard deviations of the subjects' anthropometric characteristics were calculated. Mesomorphism (5.28±1.10) is the dominant somatotype component in all but one the participants, endomorphism (1.55±0.49) is low, and body fat percentage (11.76%±2.93) is low. Comparisons with athletes involved in other climbing subdisciplines highlight the specificity of elite mountain climbers anthropometry. The elite mountain climbers in our sample were predominantly mesomorphic with somatotype attitudinal mean values lower than reported for male athletes participating in free-climbing, volleyball, gymnastics, and soccer. Anthropometric characteristics may therefore play a role in mountain climbing, even though the trainable components may be more relevant than the nontrainable ones.

  10. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  11. [Body composition assessment and body image perception in a group of University females of the Basque Country].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, M; Ansotegui, L; Pereira, E; Lacerda, F; Valador, N; Serrano, L; Rocandio, A Ma

    2008-01-01

    [corrected] To assess the body image perception and to compare the results with the true measurements in a group of university students. Participants were 28 volunteer females recruited from the degree in Human Nutrition and Dietetic from the University of the Basque Country (Spain). All participants gave their informed consent. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 22.01 (2.12) years (20,23-28,25). Anthropometric measurement estimated directly and the derived indexes were compared with reference values. The assessment of body image perception was made using a somatomorphic software. The difference between the perceived measurements and the ideals were used as measure of body dissatisfaction. Data were analyzed using SPSS vs 14.0. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.7%, and of under-weight was 70.1%. The body fat perception was well, while the perception of the muscle index was significantly different from the real measure (3.91+/-2.75 kg/m2; P<0.001). The level of body dissatisfaction was higher for the body fat (6.00+/-8.61%; P<0.001) than for the muscle index (1.65+/-2.82 kg/m2; P<0.01). This result can be justified for the present canons of beauty and for the overvaluation of the thinness. Additional research is needed to further know the relation between female body image and true measurements of body composition. Future research will allow to compare the results with other populations.

  12. Body composition and energy and protein nutritional requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; dos Santos, Rozilda da Conceição; da Mata, Vanessa Jaqueline Veloso; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Gomes, Daiany Íris; Mezzomo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the body composition and net energy and protein requirements for weight gain in Santa Ines crossbred sheep. Thirty woolless, 4-month-old, castrated male sheep with an initial body weight (BW) of 19.77 ± 1.99 kg were used. Six animals (reference group) were slaughtered after the adaptation period to estimate empty body weight (EBW) and initial body composition. The remaining 24 animals were randomly distributed among four treatments (experimental diets) and slaughtered when they reached 30.24 ± 0.78 kg BW. The body composition ranged from 162.88 to 160.4 g protein/kg EBW, from 59.49 to 164.23 g fat/kg EBW and from 1.54 to 2.46 Mcal energy/kg EBW for animals ranging between 20 and 30 kg BW. The net energy requirement for Santa Ines crossbred sheep linearly increased when BW increased from 20 to 30 kg. Within that same weight range, the net protein requirement for weight gain in sheep was constant, ranging from 12.61 to 12.42 g/day to 100 g daily weight gain.

  13. Body mass index and body composition among rescue firefighters personnel in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Nor Atiqah; Sedek, Razalee; Teh, Arnida Hani

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem in general population and there is no exception for firefighters. This disorder is definitely a burden for firefighters as they needed to be physically fit in order to work in dangerous situation and extinguishing fires. The purposes of this study were to determine physical characteristics and body composition among Malaysian Firefighters (MF) and to explore their association. This cross-sectional study involved 330 rescue firefighters aged between 20-50 years old from nine different districts in Selangor conducted between August and November 2015. Anthropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance. The mean height, weight, body mass index (BMI), WC and body fat percentage were 169.4±5.3 cm, 74.5±12.2 kg, 25.9±3.82 kg/m2, 90.7±48.3 cm and 25.8±6.2 % respectively. The results also showed that 0.6% of them were underweight, 41.5% were normal, 44.8% were overweight and 13% were obese. The percentage of 34.8% firefighters with WC values of more than 90 cm means that they were at greater risk to have cardiovascular and diabetes disease. Body composition analysis showed that 75.5% of the subjects have high body fat level, 19.7% subjects were in healthy range but only 4.8% were considered as lean subjects. BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.917, peducated and have longer duration of services. It can be concluded that more than half of the firefighter personnel were either overweight or obese and 35% of them were at greater risk of having non-communicable diseases. This study provides useful information and serves as a source of reference for planning health related program for MF personnel to prevent non-communicable disease among firefighters population.

  14. Whole Body Computed Tomography with Advanced Imaging Techniques: A Research Tool for Measuring Body Composition in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharma Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of computed tomography (CT to evaluate obesity in canines is limited. Traditional CT image analysis is cumbersome and uses prediction equations that require manual calculations. In order to overcome this, our study investigated the use of advanced image analysis software programs to determine body composition in dogs with an application to canine obesity research. Beagles and greyhounds were chosen for their differences in morphology and propensity to obesity. Whole body CT scans with regular intervals were performed on six beagles and six greyhounds that were subjected to a 28-day weight-gain protocol. The CT images obtained at days 0 and 28 were analyzed using software programs OsiriX, ImageJ, and AutoCAT. The CT scanning technique was able to differentiate bone, lean, and fat tissue in dogs and proved sensitive enough to detect increases in both lean and fat during weight gain over a short period. A significant difference in lean : fat ratio was observed between the two breeds on both days 0 and 28 (P<0.01. Therefore, CT and advanced image analysis proved useful in the current study for the estimation of body composition in dogs and has the potential to be used in canine obesity research.

  15. Body composition in adults with Type 1 diabetes at onset and during the first year of insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Hilsted, J

    2002-01-01

    index (BMI) 20.8 +/- 1.6 (19.2-23.4) kg/m2, body composition was estimated by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole body scanning supplemented by estimation of total body water (TBW) (isotope dilution technique with 3H2O) at diagnosis and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of insulin therapy......AIMS: To describe body composition in patients with Type 1 diabetes at diagnosis and during the first year after initiation of insulin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 10 (eight male and two female) newly onset Type 1 patients, age 31.5 +/- 3.2 years (27-37 years) (sd and range), body mass...

  16. Body composition in adults with Type 1 diabetes at onset and during the first year of insulin therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Hilsted, J;

    2002-01-01

    index (BMI) 20.8 +/- 1.6 (19.2-23.4) kg/m2, body composition was estimated by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole body scanning supplemented by estimation of total body water (TBW) (isotope dilution technique with 3H2O) at diagnosis and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of insulin therapy......AIMS: To describe body composition in patients with Type 1 diabetes at diagnosis and during the first year after initiation of insulin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In 10 (eight male and two female) newly onset Type 1 patients, age 31.5 +/- 3.2 years (27-37 years) (sd and range), body mass...

  17. Estimating of the Elastic Properties of the Composite with Anisotropic Ball Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zarubin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scope composites as structural materials sensing mechanical stresses are largely determined by a complex of their elastic properties. Described in the article of review papers devoted to the elastic properties of the composite, it follows that the problem of theoretical evaluation of these characteristics, remains relevant. When considering composites reinforced with spherical inclusions, most famous works of the composite matrix and the inclusion is considered to be isotropic. However, for use as inclusions of metal particles and nanostructured elements often need to consider the anisotropy of the elastic characteristics.In the article for a composite with anisotropic spherical inclusions built two types of estimates of values of the bulk modulus and shear modulus . As background information used elastic properties of the matrix and the inclusions and their content by volume in the composite.The first type is classified as two-sided estimates of desired values that are based on the dual variational formulation of the linear elasticity problem of an inhomogeneous solid body containing alternative functionals (Lagrange and Castigliano. These functionals on the true distribution of strains and stresses in an inhomogeneous body reach the same meaning extremes (minimum and maximum respectively. On the convergence of the distribution of the Lagrange functional application allows you to get an upper bound of desired values, and the use of functional Castigliano - their lower bound.The second type of assessment is built by self-consistency, this method allows for the interaction of a single particle on or matrix composite with a homogeneous isotropic medium having measured the elastic moduli. Averaging over the volume of the composite disturbances arising strains and stresses in the inclusions and matrix particles makes it possible to obtain the calculated dependences for the bulk modulus and shear modulus of the composite. Comparison of these

  18. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY); Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Sawitsky, A.; Gartenhaus, W.; Yasumura, S.; Vaswani, A.N.

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  19. Comparison of methods of estimating body fat in normal subjects and cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, S H; Ellis, K J; Vartsky, D; Sawitsky, A; Gartenhaus, W; Yasumura, S; Vaswani, A N

    1981-12-01

    Total body fat can be indirectly estimated by the following noninvasive techniques: determination of lean body mass by measurement of body potassium or body water, and determination of density by underwater weighing or by skinfold measurements. The measurement of total body nitrogen by neutron activation provides another technique for estimating lean body mass and hence body fat. The nitrogen measurement can also be combined with the measurement of total body potassium in a two compartment model of the lean body mass from which another estimate of body fat can be derived. All of the above techniques are subject to various errors and are based on a number of assumptions, some of which are incompletely validated. These techniques were applied to a population of normal subjects and to a group of cancer patients. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed in terms of their ability to estimate total body fat.

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Helena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years, whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720 and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (-6.16 ml/kg/min and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (-0.18 ml/kg/min. The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics.

  1. Body composition and physiological characteristics of law enforcement officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, D L; Jones, G; Hawkins, J; Dudka, L

    1987-12-01

    The physical work capacity, body composition, and physiological characteristics of 12 law enforcement officers (9 males, 3 females) were measured. Subjects included a representative sample from the occupational categories of detective, staff, investigative and patrol officer. Mean maximal oxygen uptake of the men was 42.1 +/- 8.9 ml.kg-1min-1 with mean values of 41.5 +/- 8.7 ml.kg-1min-1 for the women. Measurement of body composition indicated an average of 24.4 +/- 7.1% body fat for the men and 30.9 +/- 1.2% for the women. Muscular power, strength, and endurance as measured by isolated limb flexion-extension movement and fitness test performance was considered average with no excessive bilateral differences. The results of this study were compared with other investigations of law enforcement officers of similar age groups. The officers displayed average or above health and physical fitness scores for their age classification and were able to complete all police task-oriented tests.

  2. Accuracy of segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis for predicting body composition in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Hanawa, Satoshi; Murakami, Haruka; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Tanimoto, Michiya; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy for predicting body composition using single-frequent segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) between pre- and postmenopausal women. A total f 559 Japanese women aged 30-88yr were divided into 4 groups by questionnaire: natural menopause, pathological menopause, regular menstruation, or irregular menstruation. The measurement values by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were used as a reference of the body composition. In terms of the results, regardless of the menopausal status, BIA slightly but significantly overestimated the percentage of body fat (standard error of estimate: 5.3%-6.7%) and the leg lean soft tissue mass (LSTM; 5.1%-6.1%), and underestimated the LSTM in the whole body (6.2%-7.6%) and arm (2.8%-3.7%). The absolute values of the predictive error for leg LSTM were significantly higher in postmenopausal groups than in the premenopausal ones. The corresponding values for the whole body and arm LSTM, and the percentage of body fat were higher in premenopausal groups than in postmenopausal ones. In conclusion, the predictive accuracy of BIA for postmenopausal women is not inferior to that for premenopausal ones, unless we target the leg LSTM.

  3. Exoskeleton Heterogeneity in Crustaceans: Quantifying Compositional and Structural Variations Across Body Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, R. N.; Mergelsberg, S. T.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Crustacean exoskeletons are a complex biocomposite of organic macromolecules and calcium carbonate minerals. The highly divergent functions and diverse morphologies of these biominerals across taxa raise the question of whether these differences are systematically reflected in exoskeleton composition and structure. Previous studies that investigated element concentrations in exoskeletons used spectroscopic methods. However, the findings were largely inconclusive because of analytical limitations and most studies concluded that magnesium, phosphorus, and other trace elements are mostly contained in the mineral fraction because concentrations in the organic framework could not be resolved. This experimental study was designed to quantify the distributions of Ca, P, Mg, and Sr in the mineral versus organic fractions of exoskeletons from the American Lobster (H. americanus), Dungeness Crab (M. magister), and Red Rock Crab (M. productus). Samples of exoskeleton from 10 body parts were collected in triplicate and dissolved using three procedures specific to extracting the 1) mineral, 2) protein, and 3) chitin phases separately. Chemical analyses of the resulting effluents using ICP-OES show the mineral fraction of the skeleton can contain significant amounts of mineralized Mg and P particularly for body parts associated with a significant difference in mineral structural ordering. The protein fraction contains more Mg and P than expected based on estimates from previous studies (Hild et al., 2008). While the element distributions vary greatly depending on the location, in body parts with thicker cuticle (e.g. claw) the mineral component appears to control overall composition. The findings have implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions based upon exoskeleton composition. First, the chemical composition of an exoskeleton cannot be assumed constant across the different body parts of an entire organism. This is particularly true when the exoskeleton of the claw is

  4. Growth and Body Composition of School-Aged Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde

    based on the NND increased WC, AFM:TFM in intention-to-treat analyses and in completers-analysis also FMI compared with control in 8-11-yearold children, while no effects were seen on height, BMI z-score and FFMI. Effects were not dependent of initial BMI, and adjustment for physical activity, pubertal...... of contemporary Danish children. We did find the “classical” height velocity peak during spring, but unlike many earlier studies this was coincident with peaks in BW, BMI and FFMI velocities. Seasonal variation in physical activity may explain seasonal variations in BW and body composition velocities. Taken...... on energy metabolism and body fat deposition. The other way around overweight children seem to have an up-regulation of linear growth prior to puberty and a larger bone mass than their leaner peers, which may be partly due to the influence of adipokines or other hormones related to energy metabolism on bone...

  5. Longitudinal body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The longitudinal trajectories of body composition of children born to normal weight, overweight and obese mothers have not been evaluated using precise body composition methods. This study investigated the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and offspring body composition traj...

  6. Body Composition in Adult Patients with Thalassemia Major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vlychou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess body composition in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and to compare the findings with a group of healthy age-matched controls. Methods. Our study group included sixty-two patients (27 males, mean age 36 years, and 35 females, mean age 36.4 years and fifteen age-matched healthy controls. All patients had an established diagnosis of thalassemia major and followed a regular blood transfusion scheme since childhood and chelation treatment. Fat, lean, and bone mineral density (BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Ferritin levels and body mass index of all patients and controls were also recorded. Student t-test and Wilcoxon test were performed and statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. BMD and whole body lean mass are lower in both male and female adult patients compared with controls (p<0.01 in both groups, whereas whole body fat mass was found to have no statistically significant difference compared to controls. Regional trunk fat around the abdomen was found to be lower in male patients compared to controls (p=0.02. Conclusion. Severe bone loss and diminished lean mass are expected in adult male and female patients with thalassemia major. Fat changes seem to affect mainly male patients.

  7. Dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent female aesthetic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soric, Maroje; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Pedisic, Zeljko

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess dietary intake and body composition of prepubescent girls competing in 3 aesthetic sports (artistic and rhythmic gymnastics and ballet). Because physiological demands of ballet training are similar to those in other aesthetic sports, ballet dancers were, for the purpose of this study, regarded as athletes. The sample consisted of 39 athletes (median age, 11 years, range 9-13) and 15 controls (median age, 11 years, range 10-12). Dietary intake was assessed using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and body composition, by means of anthropometry. There was no significant difference in total energy intake between groups, but there was a significant difference in energy substrate distribution. Artistic gymnasts reported significantly higher carbohydrate and lower fat contribution to total energy (57% +/- 6% and 29% +/- 5%, respectively) than rhythmic gymnasts (48% +/- 6% and 36% +/- 5%), ballet dancers (51% +/- 4% and 34% +/- 3%), or controls (51% +/- 5% and 34% +/- 4%). Relative to body weight, artistic gymnasts reported higher intake of carbohydrates (9.1 +/- 4.2 g/kg) than rhythmic gymnasts (5.6 +/- 3.1 g/kg), ballet dancers (6.6 +/- 2.5 g/kg), or controls (5.4 +/- 1.9 g/kg). Artistic gymnasts also had the lowest body-fat percentage among the groups. In all the groups mean reported daily intakes of most nutrients were higher than the current daily recommended intakes. The exceptions were dietary fiber and calcium. The proportion of athletes with an inadequate reported intake was highest for phosphorus (33%), followed by vitamin A and niacin (18%) and zinc (13%).

  8. Total body water estimations in healthy men and women using bioimpedance spectroscopy: a deuterium oxide comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bemben Michael G

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total body water (TBW estimations have been used to estimate body composition, particularly fat-free mass, to aid in nutritional interventions, and to monitor hydration status. In the past, bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS devices have been used to estimate TBW. Previous investigations have examined the validity of the XiTRON 4000B (XiTRON Technologies BIS device for estimating TBW. Recently, a new BIS device (Imp™ SFB7 has become available, claiming greater precision when estimating TBW. The Imp™ SFB7 (SFB7 is based on similar BIS principles, while offering increased portability and a greater range of frequencies when compared to older devices, such as the XiTRON 4000B (4000B. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of the SFB7 for estimating total body water in healthy college-age men and women compared to the 4000B and deuterium oxide (D2O. Methods Twenty-eight Caucasian men and women (14 men, 14 women; 24 ± 4 yrs; 174.6 ± 8.7 cm; 72.80 ± 17.58 kg had their TBW estimated by the SFB7, the 4000B, and D2O. Results Both BIS devices produced similar standard error of estimate (SEE and r values (SFB7, SEE = 2.12L, r = 0.98; 4000B, SEE = 2.99L, r = 0.96 when compared to D2O, though a significant constant error (CE was detected for the 4000B (2.26L, p ≤ 0.025. The 4000B produced a larger total error (TE and CE (TE = 3.81L, CE = 2.26L when compared to the SFB7 (TE = 2.21L, CE = -0.09L. Additionally, the limits of agreement were larger for the 4000B (-3.88 to 8.39L than the SFB7 (-4.50 to 4.31L. These results were consistent when sex was analyzed separately, though women produced lower SEE and TE values for both devices. Conclusion The 4000B and SFB7 are valid BIS devices when compared to D2O to estimate TBW in college-age Caucasian men and women. Furthermore, the new SFB7 device displayed greater precision in comparison to the 4000B, which may decrease the error when estimating TBW on an individual basis.

  9. Association between body composition and body mass index in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo

    2002-06-01

    The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.

  10. Validation of body composition models for high school wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, H N; Smith, J F; Mansfield, E R; Conerly, M D; Bishop, P A

    1986-04-01

    This study investigates the utility of two equations for predicting minimum wrestling weight and three equations for predicting body density for the population of high school wrestlers. A sample of 54 wrestlers was assessed for body density by underwater weighing, residual volume by helium dilution, and selected anthropometric measures. The differences between observed and predicted responses were analyzed for the five models. Four statistical tests were used to validate the equations, including tests for the mean of differences, proportion of positive differences, equality of standard errors from regression, and equivalence of regression coefficients between original and second sample data. The Michael and Katch equation and two Forsyth and Sinning equations (FS1 and FS21) for body density did not predict as well as expected. The Michael and Katch equation tends to overpredict body density while FS1 underpredicts. The FS2 equation, consisting of a constant adjustment to FS1, predicts well near the mean but not at the ends of the sample range. The two Tcheng and Tipton equations produce estimates which slightly but consistently overpredict minimum wrestling weight, the long form equation by 2.5 pounds and the short form by 3.8 pounds. As a result the proportion of positive differences is less than would be expected. But based on the tests for the standard errors and regression coefficients, the evidence does not uniformly reject these two equations.

  11. Physical activity, body composition and metabolic syndrome in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.

  12. Resting energy expenditure and body composition in children with cancer: indirect calorimetry and bioimpedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Konovalova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Resting energy expenditure (REE by indirect calorimetry and body composition by bioimpedance analysis are studied in three groups of children aged 5–18 years. Group 1 (n = 181 – patients in remission of cancer, group 2 (n = 55 – children with oncology diseases receiving chemotherapy or who are in the early period after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, group 3 (n = 63 – children with non-malignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. To eliminate the influence of age and gender on the intergroup comparisons, body composition parameters were expressed as standardized values (z-scores relative to a reference group of healthy Russian children (n = 138,191. Group 1 was characterized by excess fat content with intact lean body mass, and groups 2 and 3 by protein depletion, more pronounced in Group 2 with a higher percentage of body fat. All used conventional formulas (WHO, Harris–Benedict and others in groups 1 and 3 underestimated REE as compared with indirect calorimetry. A new formula for REE, giving an unbiased estimate in the group 1 was proposed: REE (kcal/day = 28.7 × BCM (kg +10.5 × Height (cm – 38.6 × Age (years – 134, where BCM – body cell mass according to bioimpedance analysis (R2 = 0.67, the standard deviation of 196 kcal/day.

  13. Longitudinal changes in body composition in older men and women: role of body weight change and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Virginia A; Frontera, Walter R; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Evans, William J; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

    2002-08-01

    Estimates of body-composition change in older adults are mostly derived from cross-sectional data. We examined the natural longitudinal patterns of change in fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in older adults and explored the effect of physical activity, weight change, and age on these changes. The body composition measured by hydrodensitometry and the level of sports and recreational activity (SRA) of 53 men and 78 women with a mean (+/-SD) initial age of 60.7 +/- 7.8 y were examined on 2 occasions separated by a mean (+/-SD) time of 9.4 +/- 1.4 y. FFM decreased in men (2.0% per decade) but not in women, whereas FM increased similarly in both sexes (7.5% per decade). Levels of SRA decreased more in men than in women over the follow-up period. Baseline age and level of SRA were inversely and independently associated with changes in FM in women only. Neither age nor level of SRA was associated with changes in FFM in men or women. Weight-stable subjects lost FFM. FFM accounted for 19% of body weight in those who gained weight, even in the presence of decreased levels of SRA. Loss of FFM (33% of body weight) was pronounced in those who lost weight, despite median SRA levels >4184 kJ/wk. On average, FM increased; however, the increase in women was attenuated with advancing age. The decrease in FFM over the follow-up period was small and masked the wide interindividual variation that was dependent on the magnitude of weight change. The contribution of weight stability, modest weight gains, or lifestyle changes that include regular resistance exercise in attenuating lean-tissue loss with age should be explored.

  14. Accuracy of a digital skinfold system for measuring skinfold thickness and estimating body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Teresa F; Restivo, Maria Teresa; Guerra, Rita S; Marques, Elisa; Chousal, Maria F; Mota, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    The use of skinfold thickness measurements to evaluate the distribution of subcutaneous adipose tissue and to predict body fat has recognised advantages. However, the different types of skinfold calliper available present limitations that make them unattractive and perhaps less used in daily practice. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and functionality of a new digital skinfold system, the Liposoft 2008+Adipsmeter V0 (LA), for measuring skinfold thickness and determining body fat proportion (%BF). Skinfold thickness measurements made by the LA were compared with those obtained with a Harpenden (H) calliper from two samples of adults (n 45) and older adults (n 56) in a university-based cross-sectional study. A comparison was also conducted between estimated %BF from skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bland and Altman plots show that skinfolds measured by the LA and H calliper are in high agreement, with a mean difference of 0·3 (95% CI -3·1, 3·4) mm. In regard to the %BF estimated from LA and H skinfolds measurement, the LA produced a similar approximation to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry %BF, with a mean difference of 0·2 (95% CI -0·8, 1·2) %, compared with %BF obtained with the H calliper. The LA system is an accurate instrumentation and represents an innovation in the evaluation of skinfold thickness and body composition based on anthropometric measurement.

  15. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  16. The influence of maternal body composition on birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the maternal body composition parameters that independently influence birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective observational study in a large university teaching hospital. One hundred and eighty-four non-diabetic caucasian women with a singleton pregnancy were studied. In early pregnancy maternal weight and height were measured digitally in a standardised way and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. At 28 and 37 weeks\\' gestation maternal body composition was assessed using segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. At delivery the baby was weighed and the clinical details were recorded. RESULTS: Of the women studied, 29.2% were overweight and 34.8% were obese. Birth weight did not correlate with maternal weight or BMI in early pregnancy. Birth weight correlated with gestational weight gain (GWG) before the third trimester (r=0.163, p=0.027), but not with GWG in the third trimester. Birth weight correlated with maternal fat-free mass, and not fat mass at 28 and 37 weeks gestation. Birth weight did not correlate with increases in maternal fat and fat-free masses between 28 and 37 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, we found that early pregnancy maternal BMI in a non-diabetic population does not influence birth weight. Interestingly, it was the GWG before the third trimester and not the GWG in the third trimester that influenced birth weight. Our findings have implications for the design of future intervention studies aimed at optimising gestational weight gain and birth weight. CONDENSATION: Maternal fat-free mass and gestational weight gain both influence birth weight.

  17. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  18. Somatotype, body composition and proportionality in polish top greco-roman wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna L; Sterkowicz, Stanisław; Zarów, Ryszard T

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the paper was to determine body composition and somatotype of male Greco-Roman wrestlers grouped by different weight categories and level of competition. Twenty three contestants (aged 24.9±5.5 years, training experience 13.7±5.8 years) were examined during their competitive period. They were divided into heavier (n=12) and lighter weight categories (n=11).Twelve of them took part in Olympic Qualification Tournaments, whereas six others participated in the Olympic Games in Athens. An experienced evaluator performed 10 measurements necessary to designate Heath-Carter somatotypes and additional skinfolds to estimate the percentage of body fat and body composition. Heavier wrestlers (weight=92.4 kg) exhibited more endomorphy and mesomorphy than lighter wrestlers (weight=70.1 kg). Heavier wrestlers were characterized by higher BMI, fat mass, fat percentage and fat free mass index than wrestlers in lighter weight categories. Sports level was evaluated with discriminant analysis which revealed significant results (psomatotypes differed from those of untrained subjects (2.0-6.6-1.2 vs. 3.7-4.3-3.1). They were also characterized by lower adiposity (12.1 vs. 15.7%, t=7.84, p<0.001). In conclusion, body build and composition in wrestlers depend on their weight category. In heavier categories, characteristic type is endomorph-mesomorph, whereas lighter weight categories are dominated by balanced mesomorph. A considerable difference in endomorphy and indices of body composition can also be observed. Higher sport experience with lower endomorphy (tendencies for lower fat content) and Pelvis/Shoulder Ratio are interrelated with higher competition level presented by wrestlers.

  19. Impact of body-composition methodology on the composition of weight loss and weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Schautz, B; Braun, W; Gluer, C-C; Bosy-Westphal, A; Müller, M J

    2013-05-01

    We intended to (i) to compare the composition of weight loss and weight gain using densitometry, deuterium dilution (D₂O), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the four-compartment (4C) model and (ii) to compare regional changes in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) and skeletal muscle as assessed by DXA and MRI. Eighty-three study participants aged between 21 and 58 years with a body mass index range of 20.2-46.8 kg/m(2) had been assessed at two different occasions with a mean follow-up between 23.5 and 43.5 months. Body-weight changes within weight stable, a gain or a loss of >3% of initial weight was considered as a significant weight change. There was a considerable bias between the body-composition data obtained by the individual methods. When compared with the 4C model, mean bias of D₂O and densitometry was explained by the erroneous assumption of a constant hydration of FFM, thus, changes in FM were underestimated by D₂O but overestimated by densitometry. Because hydration does not normalize after weight loss, all two-component models have a systematic error in weight-reduced subjects. The bias between 4C model and DXA was mainly explained by FM% at baseline, whereas FFM hydration contributed to additional 5%. As to the regional changes in body composition, DXA data had a considerable bias and, thus, cannot replace MRI. To assess changes in body composition associated with weight changes, only the 4C model and MRI can be used with confidence.

  20. Effect of infant feeding on maternal body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDougald Dawn M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women gain total body weight and accrue body fat during pregnancy. Breastfeeding has been suggested as an efficient means of promoting postpartum weight loss due to its high energy cost. We investigated the effect of infant feeding mode on maternal body composition. Methods This study evaluated maternal weight and percent body fat changes in exclusively breastfeeding versus mixed feeding mothers during the first 12 weeks postpartum using the BOD POD. Twenty four mothers aged 19 – 42 years were studied. Participants were recruited from Athens-Clarke County and surrounding areas of the State of Georgia, USA. The study was conducted between November 2005 and December 2006. Results Prepregnancy weight was higher in mixed feeding mothers than in exclusively breastfeeding mothers (68.4 kg vs. 61.4 kg but the difference was not statistically significant. At 12 weeks postpartum, exclusively breastfeeding mothers had lost more total body weight than mixed feeding mothers (4.41 ± 4.10 kg versus 2.79 ± 3.09 kg; p = 0.072. There was no significant difference in fat weight change between the two groups (4.38 ± 2.06 kg versus 4.17 ± 2.63 kg. However, mixed feeding mothers lost slightly more percent body fat than exclusively breastfeeding mothers (1.90 ± 4.18 kg versus 1.71 ± 3.48 kg, but the difference was not statistically significant. The trend in percent body fat loss was significant among exclusively breastfeeding mothers (p = 0.034 but not mixed feeding mothers (p = 0.081. Exclusively breastfeeding mothers consumed more calories than mixed feeding mothers (1980 ± 618 kcal versus 1541 ± 196 kcal p = 0.08. Physical activity levels were, however, higher in mixed feeding mothers than exclusively breastfeeding mothers. Conclusion Our results provide further evidence that exclusive breastfeeding promotes greater weight loss than mixed feeding among mothers even in the early postpartum period. This suggests that there is the need

  1. Relationship between body composition and blood pressure in Bahraini adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sendi, Aneesa M; Shetty, Prakash; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Myatt, Mark

    2003-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between body composition and blood pressure (BP) in Bahraini adolescents. A sample of 504 Bahraini schoolchildren aged 12-17 years (249 boys and 255 girls) was selected using a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure. BP measurements were performed on the students. Anthropometric data including weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and triceps, subscapular and medial calf skinfold thicknesses were also collected. BMI, percentage body fat, waist:hip (WHR), and subscapular:triceps skinfold ratio were calculated. Mean systolic BP and mean diastolic BP were higher in males than in females. Weight and height in boys and weight only in girls were significantly associated with systolic BP independent of age or percentage fat. Nearly 14 % of the adolescents were classified as having high BP. BMI and percentage body fat were significantly and positively associated with the risk of having high BP in the boys and girls. Adolescents with high WHR or WC, as indicators for central obesity, tended to have higher BP values. The results from the present study indicate that obesity influences the BP of Bahraini adolescents and that simple anthropometric measurements such as WHR and WC are useful in identifying children at risk of developing high BP. These findings together with the known tracking of BP from adolescence into adulthood underline the importance of establishing intervention programmes in order to prevent the development of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  2. Growth and body composition in Brazilian female rhythmic gymnastics athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Cristiane Teixeira Amaral; Gomez-Campos, Rossana Anelice; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio; Barbeta, Vinicius Justino De Oliveira; Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to analyse the physical growth and body composition of rhythmic gymnastics athletes relative to their level of somatic maturation. This was a cross-sectional study of 136 athletes on 23 teams from Brazil. Mass, standing height and sitting height were measured. Fat-free and fat masses, body fat percentages and ages of the predicted peak height velocity (PHV) were calculated. The z scores for mass were negative during all ages according to both WHO and Brazilian references, and that for standing height were also negative for all ages according to WHO reference but only until 12 years old according to Brazilian reference. The mean age of the predicted PHV was 12.1 years. The mean mass, standing and sitting heights, body fat percentage, fat-free mass and fat mass increased significantly until 4 to 5 years after the age of the PHV. Menarche was reached in only 26% of these athletes and mean age was 13.2 years. The mass was below the national reference standards, and the standing height was below only for the international reference, but they also had late recovery of mass and standing height during puberty. In conclusion, these athletes had a potential to gain mass and standing height several years after PHV, indicating late maturation.

  3. Body composition and pulmonary function in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba eSheikh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lower body mass index (BMI is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF. Hypothesis: Lean body mass (LBM is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is.Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z were generated for CF and controls. 1 Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and 2 age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: 208 PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (pConclusions: In PI-CF youth, deficits in LBM were apparent. At lower BMI percentiles, BMI may not accurately depict LBM in PI-CF. In under-nourished PI-CF youth this preservation of FM in preference to LBM is relevant since LBMI-Z, but not FMI-Z, is positively associated with FEV1%-predicted. LBMI is more strongly associated with lung function compared to BMI, especially in the undernourished child and adolescent with PI-CF.

  4. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years and 7 girls (15±1.83 years. A qualified anthropometrist took anthropometric measures according to the protocol of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK, with approved materials according to the methodology of Marfell-Jones et al, 2003. Body composition was calculated according to the consensus of Kinanthropometry and somatotype with Heath-Carter´s method.Results: Of all the variables studied (weight, height, folds, circumferences, diameters and lengths, significant differences were found (P<.05 between the sexes in height, arm span, skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, crestailiaca, ileo-spinal, abdominal, thigh, leg, sum of skinfolds, biacromial-bi-iliac index, bone body mass, muscle and fat, ectomorphy, and endomorphy.Conclusions: There are significant anthropometric differences between genders in adolescent swimmers (P<.05. Such differences, resulting in the development of both sexes, might be highly related to athletic performance of young athletes.

  5. [Endocrine obesity: bioelectric profiles (biotypes) detected in the body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miggiano, G A D; Petitti, T

    2004-09-01

    136 patients were selected (16 men and 120 women with non-specific menstrual disturbances) with a BMI (Body Mass Index) between 25 and 45 kg/m2, which were diagnosed with "disendocrinia" (GH deficit, hyperadrenocorticism, hypothyroidsm, hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle disorders). The proposed approach, based on the visualization of the value distribution of the electric measures in different graphics, is able to immediately explain the bioelectric state of the individual's lean-mass. Subjects with hypothyroidism present, along with their overweight, less bio-conducting mass, with an altered fluid intra/extra-cellular distribution. Patients with hyperadrenocorticism show instead an hyperhydratation of the body mass, especially in the extracellular level. Patients with menstrual disorders (amenorrea, polycystic ovary syndrome, anovulatory cycle etc...) present a lean mass reduction (elevated Rs) and an increase of the intra-cellular compartment (elevated-Xc). Patients with hyper-androgenism (and hirsutism) show a characteristic bioelectric "pattern", with low Rs levels and high Xc levels. Subjects with GH deficit (men and women), has a trend of documenting bioelectric measures with lower lean mass and higher fat-mass. Different electric biotypes seem to characterize the body composition in the several endocrine disorders.

  6. Body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns in young women during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hourani, H M; Atoum, M F

    2007-10-01

    Muslims abstain from food and fluid between the hours of sunrise to sunset, and usually eat a large meal after sunset and a lighter meal before sunrise. The purpose of this study was to assess body composition, nutrient intake and physical activity patterns during Ramadan fasting. This study was carried out during Ramadan in October 2004. A total of 57 female subjects were recruited from The Hashemite University in Jordan. Body weight, fat percentage, muscle mass, and percentage body water content were measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Estimated food records over a duration of three days were used to assess the intake of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and sugars before and during Ramadan fasting. Physical activity patterns were determined from a three-day activity diary before and during Ramadan fasting; the amount of physical activity was expressed as the physical activity level. Body weight and BMI decreased significantly during Ramadan fasting. The mean energy and nutrients intake before Ramadan (energy; percent carbohydrates:protein:fat was 1,252; 56:12:33) and during Ramadan (1,171; 56:13:34) were not significantly different. The mean physical activity level was 1.54 before Ramadan and 1.51 during Ramadan, and this was also not significantly different. This study revealed that there was a significant weight loss during Ramadan. Estimates of energy, carbohydrates, protein, fat and sugar did not change, despite the reduction in the number of meals taken. The overall activity patterns remained similar.

  7. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P men.

  8. Muscle function and body composition profile in adolescents with restrictive anorexia nervosa: does resistance training help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-del-Valle, Maria; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Morande-Lavin, Gonzalo; Perez Ruiz, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of short-term resistance training on the body composition profile and muscle function in a group of Anorexia Nervosa restricting type (AN-R) patients. The sample consisted of AN-R female adolescents (12.8 ± 0.6 years) allocated into the control and intervention groups (n = 18 each). Body composition and relative strength were assessed at baseline, after 8 weeks and 4 weeks following the intervention. Body mass index (BMI) increased throughout the study (p = 0.011). Significant skeletal muscle mass (SMM) gains were found in the intervention group (p = 0.045, d = 0.6) that correlated to the change in BMI (r = 0.51, p  0.60) with change in BMI in both the groups. Significant relative strength increases (p strength when resistance training is prescribed. Although FM, relative body fat (%BF), BMI and body weight (BW) are used to monitor nutritional progress. Based on our results, we suggest to monitor SMM and relative strength ratios for a better estimation of body composition profile and muscle function recovery. Implications for Rehabilitation Anorexia Nervosa Restricting Type (AN-R) AN-R is a psychiatric disorder that has a major impact on muscle mass content and function. However, little or no attention has been paid to muscle recovery. High intensity resistance training is safe for AN-R after hospitalization and enhances the force generating capacity as well as muscle mass gains. Skeletal muscle mass content and muscular function improvements are partially maintained for a short period of time when the exercise program ceases.

  9. [Correlation between pulmonary function, posture, and body composition in patients with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, V P; Guimarães, F S; Moço, V J R; Menezes, S L S; Mafort, T T; Lopes, A J

    2013-01-01

    Asthma may result in postural disorders due to increased activity of accessory respiratory muscles and hyperinflation. Our primary objective was to assess the correlation between pulmonary function and posture in adult patients with asthma. Secondarily, we aimed to study the correlation between body composition and body posture in this group of patients. This was a cross-sectional study including 34 patients with asthma who were subjected to postural assessment (photogrammetry), pulmonary function testing (spirometry, whole-body plethysmography, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, and respiratory muscle strength), and body composition estimation by means of bioelectrical impedance. Most patients were female (70.6%) with a median age of 32.5 years (range: 23-42 years old). We found a significant correlation between horizontal alignment of head (anterior view) and the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC; ρ=-0,37; P=.03), total lung capacity (TLC; ρ=0,42; P=.01), and residual volume (RV; ρ=0,45; P<.001). Bronchial obstruction and respiratory muscle strength variables also correlated with postural assessment measures on the right and left lateral views. Both body mass index and the percentage of fat mass correlated with horizontal alignment of head, horizontal alignment of the pelvis, and the frontal angle of the lower limbs. Adult patients with asthma exhibit specific postural disorders that correlate with pulmonary function and body composition. The assessment of postural variables may provide a better pulmonary rehabilitation approach for these patients. Copyright © 2012 Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. A STUDY ON BODY COMPOSITION, BODY COMPONENTS AND SOMATOTYPE CHARACTERISTICS OF SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep KÜRKÇÜ

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to study to determine and comparison the body composition, body components and somatotype characteristics of young soccer players (Young Soccer Team of Sport Club of Muğla University with other national and international soccer players. Subjects were eighteen pubescent soccer players (age, 13.22y of a team playing in regional soccer league. Skinfolds (biceps, triceps, back, suprailiac, abdominal, leg, thigh, diameters (femur and humerus biconduler, circumferences (biceps, thigh of the body and body fat parameters were measured. Somatotype characteristics were calculated and evaluated by Heat-Carter formula. Subjects’ measurements were as; height 158.44±10.42cm, body weight 47.65±8.38kg, skinfolds; biceps 5.75±1.54mm, triceps 10.61±2.93mm, back 7.30±1.59mm, suprailiac 7.00±2.04mm, abdominal 9.91±3.98mm, leg 13.52±4.76mm; diameters; femur biconduler 11.03±0.74cm; humerus biconduler 7.30±0.59cm; circumferences, biceps 22.76±3.11cm, thigh 32.84±3.33cm and body fat percentage 5.41±1.37 %, somatotype characteristics; Endomorph; 4.59±2.08, Mezomorph; 6.94±3.10, and Ecthomorph; 3.55±1.34. In related sports, physical fitness parameters including physical and anthropometric characteristics of athletes are very important in talent identification. Therefore, results of the present study could provide important data on selection of talented players in soccer and to the other related researches.

  11. Body composition in adults with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIO SOUZA

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective To evaluate the body composition and nutritional status of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 adult patients. Method A cross-sectional study of 60 NF1 patients (29 men, 31 women aged ≥ 18 years who were evaluated from September 2012 to September 2013 in a Neurofibromatosis Outpatient Reference Center. Patients underwent nutritional assessment including measurements of weight, stature, waist circumference (WC, upper-arm circumference (UAC, and skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac. Body mass index (BMI, upper-arm total area (UATA, upper-arm muscle area (UAMA, upper-arm fat area (UAFA, body fat percentage (BFP, fat mass, fat-free mass, fat mass index, and fat-free mass index were also calculated. Results The mean age of the study population was 34.48±10.33 years. The prevalence of short stature was 28.3%. Low weight was present in 10% of the sample and 31.7% of patients had a BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2. Reduced UAMA (<5th percentile was present in 43.3% and no difference was found in UAFA between the sexes. The BFP was considered high in 30% and 17 (28.3% patients had a WC above the World Health Organization cutoffs. Conclusion In this study, NF1 patients had a high prevalence of underweight, short stature, and reduced UAMA, with no difference between the sexes. Reduced UAMA was more prevalent in underweight patients; however, this was also observed in the normal and overweight patients. Further studies should investigate the distribution of body tissues in NF1 patients, including differences between men and women, and the influence of diet and nutrition on clinical features in NF1.

  12. Body Composition and Pulmonary Function in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Saba; Zemel, Babette S.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Kelly, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lower body mass index (BMI) is associated with worse pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypothesis: lean body mass (LBM) is more strongly associated with pulmonary function than BMI is. Methods: Anthropometrics, body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry, and pulmonary function were determined in pancreatic insufficient CF (PI-CF) youth. Sex and age-adjusted Z-scores (BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, FMI-Z) were generated for CF and controls. (1) Associations of BMI-Z with LBMI-Z and FMI-Z and (2) age-adjusted associations of BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z with FEV1%-predicted were tested. Results: Two hundred eight PI-CF subjects had lower BMI-Z, LBMI-Z, and FMI-Z compared to 390 controls. BMI-Z was associated with lower LBMI-Z (p < 0.0001) in PI-CF. In females, LBMI-Z and BMI-Z were positively associated with FEV1%-predicted; this relationship did not persist for FMI-Z after adjustment for LBMI-Z. In males, only LBMI-Z and BMI-Z were associated with FEV1%-predicted. Conclusion: In PI-CF youth, deficits in LBM were apparent. At lower BMI percentiles, BMI may not accurately depict LBM in PI-CF. In under-nourished PI-CF youth, this preservation of FM in preference to LBM is relevant since LBMI-Z, but not FMI-Z, is positively associated with FEV1%-predicted. Lean body mass index is more strongly associated with lung function compared to BMI, especially in the under-nourished child and adolescent with PI-CF. PMID:24783186

  13. On-farm estimation of energy balance in dairy cows using only frequent body weight measurements and body condition score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; Edwards, David; Friggens, N C

    2012-01-01

    Precise energy balance estimates for individual cows are of great importance to health, reproduction and feed management. Energy balance is usually calculated as energy input minus output (EBalinout), requiring measurements of feed intake and energy output sources (milk, maintenance, activity......, growth and pregnancy). Except milk yield, direct measurements of these are difficult to obtain in practice, and estimates involve considerable error sources, so limiting on-farm use. Alternatively, energy balance can be estimated from body reserve changes (EBalbody) using body weight (BW) and body...... repeated BW, a milk-free BW was derived, and from between milking repeated BW, a meal-related gutfill-free BW was derived. Changes in BW and BCS were used to calculate changes in body protein, body lipid, and thus EBalbody during the first 150 DIM. As there is no gold standard energy balance measurement...

  14. Relationship of sarcopenia and body composition with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, H; Liu, Y; Tian, Q; Papasian, C J; Hu, T; Deng, H-W

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and body composition and osteoporosis in cohorts of three different races with a total of 17,891 subjects. Lean mass and grip strength were positively associated with bone mineral densities (BMDs). Subjects with sarcopenia were two times more likely to have osteoporosis compared with normal subjects. The relationship between sarcopenia and osteoporosis is not totally clear. First, the present study assessed this relationship by using two different definitions for sarcopenia. Second, we examined the associations of body composition (including muscle mass as a major and important component) and muscle strength on regional and whole-body BMDs. In total, 17,891 subjects of African American, Caucasian, and Chinese ethnicities were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined by relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (RASM) cut points and also by the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (low RASM plus low muscle function). Multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of fat mass, lean mass (including muscle mass), and grip strength with regional and whole-body BMDs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the association between sarcopenia and osteopenia/osteoporosis. BMDs were positively associated with lean mass and negatively associated with fat mass, after controlling for potential confounders. Grip strength was significantly associated with higher BMDs. Each standard deviation (SD) increase in RASM resulted in a ~37 % reduction in risk of osteopenia/osteoporosis (odds ratio (OR) = 0.63; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.59, 0.66). Subjects with sarcopenia defined by RASM were two times more likely to have osteopenia/osteoporosis compared with the normal subjects (OR = 2.04; 95 % CI = 1.61, 2.60). Similarly, subjects with sarcopenia (low muscle mass and low grip strength) were ~1.8 times more

  15. A method to estimate relative orientations of body segments during movement using accelerometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortier, H.G.; Schenk, O.; Luinge, H.J.; Veltink, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of human body movements includes the analysis of joint orientations. We propose a new method to estimate relative orientation between body segments using a single 3D accelerometer per segment.

  16. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry; basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue<0.021 and Huang et al. (Pvalue≤0.005 equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al’s. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  17. Body composition and prediction equations using skinfold thickness for body fat percentage in Southern Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripka, Wagner Luis; Ulbricht, Leandra; Gewehr, Pedro Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: a) determine the nutritional status of Brazilian adolescents, and; b) present a skinfold thickness model (ST) to estimate body fat developed with Brazilian samples, using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method. The main study group was composed of 374 adolescents, and further 42 adolescents for the validation group. Weight, height, waist circumference measurements, and body mass index (BMI) were collected, as well as nine ST-biceps (BI), triceps (TR), chest (CH), axillary (AX) subscapularis (SB), abdominal (AB), suprailiac (SI), medial thigh (TH), calf (CF), and fat percentage (%BF) obtained by DXA. The prevalence of overweight in adolescents was 20.9%, and obesity 5.8%. Regression analysis through ordinary least square method (OLS) allowed obtainment of three equations with values of R2 = 0.935, 0.912 and 0.850, standard error estimated = 1.79, 1.78 and 1.87, and bias = 0.06, 0.20 and 0.05, respectively. the innovation of this study lies in presenting new regression equations for predicting body fat in Southern Brazilian adolescents based on a representative and heterogeneous sample from DXA.

  18. Temperature control of thermal radiation from composite bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Weiliang; Polimeridis, Athanasios G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro W.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate that recent advances in nanoscale thermal transport and temperature manipulation can be brought to bear on the problem of tailoring thermal radiation from wavelength-scale composite bodies. We show that such objects—complicated arrangements of phase-change chalcogenide (Ge2Sb2Te5 ) glasses and metals or semiconductors—can be designed to exhibit strong resonances and large temperature gradients, which in turn lead to large and highly directional emission at midinfrared wavelengths. We find that partial directivity depends sensitively on a complicated interplay between shape, material dispersion, and temperature localization within the objects, requiring simultaneous design of the electromagnetic scattering and thermal properties of these structures. Our calculations exploit a recently developed fluctuating-volume current formulation of electromagnetic fluctuations that rigorously captures radiation phenomena in structures with strong temperature and dielectric inhomogeneities, such as those studied here.

  19. The elite athlete - assessing body shape, size, proportion and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, D A; Ackland, T R; Schreiner, A B

    1995-03-01

    In the quest to optimize performance of the elite athlete the sport scientist has sought to determine the ideal physique for a given sport or event. For some sports, specific structural characteristics offer definite performance advantages; for example in rowing, in addition to height, a large arm span has been identified as important. In other sports. such as long distance running, low levels of adiposity or 'fatness' appear to be linked with faster running times. There are four areas where appraisal of the athlete's physique can provide useful information: (1) identification of talented athletes; (2) to assess and monitor the growing athlete; (3) to monitor training and performance; and (4) to determine 'race weight' in weight-category sports. As a research tool a particular method must be reliable and valid. Other considerations include how expensive the method is, if it is suitable for a field situation and if large amounts of data on a number of subjects can be collected quickly. The method should be safe for both the athlete and the tester and provide useful feedback for the athlete or coach. Anthropometry, with training is able to fulfil most of these criteria and is the most widely used method of physique assessment in sports science. Large anthropometric data bases have been collected on elite athletes at Olympic games and world championships according to a standard protocol. Kinanthropometry, which has developed from anthropometry, is concerned with measurement and evaluation of different aspects of human movement and individual variation in body shape, size, proportion and composition. For the assessment of adiposity a sum of skinfolds, usually over six sites, is most commonly used rather than percentage body fat formulae. Muscle mass can be assessed indirectly through girth and corrected girth measurements. Limb lengths and breadths are used to assess skeletal structure and proportional differences in limb size. The anthropometric methods most commonly

  20. Use of B-Mode Ultrasound as a Body Fat Estimate in Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Parker N; Kendall, Kristina L; Fairman, Ciaran M; Coker, Nicholas A; Yarbrough, Mary E; Rossi, Steve J

    2016-12-01

    Hyde, PN, Kendall, KL, Fairman, CM, Coker, NA, Yarbrough, ME, and Rossi, SJ. Utilization of B-mode ultrasound as a body fat estimate in collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3525-3530, 2016-The purpose of the present study was to validate a 7-site ultrasound imaging protocol to predict the percent body fat (%BF) in a division I football team. Body composition was estimated by ultrasound, 7-site skinfolds, and the 3-compartment-water (3C-W) model of Siri, using bioimpedance spectroscopy to estimate the total body water and air displacement plethysmography (using BODPOD) to determine the body density. Pearson's product-moment correlation analyses were run to determine correlations between ΣUltrasound and the criterion 3C-W, and between the ΣSkinfold and ΣUltrasound. Strong positive correlations were observed between ΣSkinfold and ΣUltrasound (r = 0.984; p < 0.001). Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was observed between ΣUltrasound and %BF from 3C-W (r = 0.878; p < 0.001). Based on the significant correlation analysis, a linear regression equation was developed to predict the %BF from ΣUltrasound, using %BF from the 3C-W model as the dependent variable: %BF = 6.194 + (0.096 × ΣUltrasound); standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 2.97%. Cross-validation analyses were performed using an independent sample of 29 players. The mean observed %BF from the 3C-W model and the mean predicted %BF were 18.32 ± 6.26% and 18.78 ± 6.22%, respectively. The constant error, SEE, and validity coefficient (r) were 0.87%, 2.64%, and 0.91%, respectively. The total error was 2.87%. The positive relationship between ultrasound measurements and the 3C-W model suggests that ultrasound imaging may be a practical alternative to predicting %BF in division I football players.

  1. A bootstrap estimation scheme for chemical compositional data with nondetects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palarea-Albaladejo, J; Martín-Fernández, J.A; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    The bootstrap method is commonly used to estimate the distribution of estimators and their associated uncertainty when explicit analytic expressions are not available or are difficult to obtain. It has been widely applied in environmental and geochemical studies, where the data generated often represent parts of whole, typically chemical concentrations. This kind of constrained data is generically called compositional data, and they require specialised statistical methods to properly account for their particular covariance structure. On the other hand, it is not unusual in practice that those data contain labels denoting nondetects, that is, concentrations falling below detection limits. Nondetects impede the implementation of the bootstrap and represent an additional source of uncertainty that must be taken into account. In this work, a bootstrap scheme is devised that handles nondetects by adding an imputation step within the resampling process and conveniently propagates their associated uncertainly. In doing so, it considers the constrained relationships between chemical concentrations originated from their compositional nature. Bootstrap estimates using a range of imputation methods, including new stochastic proposals, are compared across scenarios of increasing difficulty. They are formulated to meet compositional principles following the log-ratio approach, and an adjustment is introduced in the multivariate case to deal with nonclosed samples. Results suggest that nondetect bootstrap based on model-based imputation is generally preferable. A robust approach based on isometric log-ratio transformations appears to be particularly suited in this context. Computer routines in the R statistical programming language are provided. 

  2. Body composition of physically active women aged over 60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Antonio Herrera Mogollón

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of analyzing the body composition of physical active seniors: 116 women enrolled on the Program of Integrated Care for the older Adult in the Municipality of Chacao, Venezuela, were studied. Anthropometric variables were measured. Comparisons between variables revealed no statistical differences, with the exception of suprailiac skinfolds (p <0,05. Results indicated that most of the mean values were lower in the oldest group, with the exception of height, which was greater. The waist/hip ratio remained constant. More than 50% of women exhibited good nutritional status with appropriate body mass index. Cases of energy malnutrition were observed (defi ciencies and excesses, with overweight prevailing at around 20%. Waist circumference and the waist/hip ratio indicated that around 55% of the sample exhibited a high risk of developing chronic non-infectious illnesses. Comparisons with other population samples indicated greater similarity with those in their environment (Venezuelan and Mexican samples and with Italian and Australian women, and distant from the American pattern, with minor values of the variables compared.

  3. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk.

  4. Are immunoglobulin concentrations associated with the body composition of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Torres, María G; Martínez-Carrillo, Beatriz E; Pardo-Morales, Rosa V; Wärnberg, Julia; Marcos, Ascensión; Benítez-Arciniega, Alejandra D; Valdés-Ramos, Roxana

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association between serum concentrations of immunoglobulins (Ig) A, G, and M and body composition of adolescents from Mexico. Informed consent was obtained from parents and assent was obtained from the adolescents for the evaluation of 125 adolescents from the Capital city of Toluca and the adjacent semiurban county of Lerma de Villada. Height, weight, waist, and hip circumference were measured by trained personnel. Body mass index and waist:hip ratio were calculated from these measurements, whereas body fat (BF) was calculated from tricipital and subscapular skinfolds and measured by bioelectrical impedance. Serum concentrations of Ig were determined by nephelometry. Data were analyzed by independent samples t test and Pearson correlations. Subjects were mainly females (71.2%), with a mean age of 16.8 years (+/-0.8). No differences were reported in all indicators by weight or BF between gender. Female participants had higher Ig concentrations than males (IgG t = 2.24, p = 0.027; IgA t = 2.05, p = 0.043; IgM t = 4.49, p < 0.001). Positive correlations were reported for IgA and IgM with tricipital skinfold (r = 0.192, p = 0.041; and r = 0.221, p = 0.018, respectively) and for total BF by bioimpedance (r = 0.243, p = 0.009). Ig concentrations do not seem to be affected by overweight, obesity, or excessive or central BF in adolescents.

  5. Sedentary Activity and Body Composition of Middle School Girls: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Charlotte; Webber, Larry S.; Baggett, Chris D.; Ward, Dianne; Pate, Russell R.; Murray, David; Lohman, Timothy; Lytle, Leslie; Elder, John P.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the relationships between sedentary activity and body composition in 1,458 sixth-grade girls from 36 middle schools across the United States. Multivariate associations between sedentary activity and body composition were examined with regression analyses using general linear mixed models. Mean age, body mass index, and…

  6. Body composition and diet of Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the studies on body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore, and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups.Body composition : Body fat percentage was measured using a four-compartment model described by B

  7. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  8. School-Based BMI and Body Composition Screening and Parent Notification in California: Methods and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Linchey, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background: School-based body mass index (BMI) or body composition screening is increasing, but little is known about the process of parent notification. Since 2001, California has required annual screening of body composition via the FITNESSGRAM, with optional notification. This study sought to identify the prevalence of parental notification…

  9. Whole body air displacement plethysmography compared with hydrodensitometry for body composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewit, O; Fuller, N J; Fewtrell, M S; Elia, M; Wells, J C

    2000-02-01

    To assess the acceptability and feasibility of whole body air displacement plethysmography in children and to determine its precision and agreement with hydrodensitometry, an appropriate reference method. Age specific two component model equations were used to predict fat mass from body density in 22 children aged 8-12 years and in 10 adults for comparison of methods. Precision for each method was established from duplicate measurements. Plethysmography was accepted more readily than hydrodensitometry (100% v 69% provided duplicate measurements). Precision for fat mass in children was 0.38 kg by plethysmography and 0.68 kg by hydrodensitometry, and results were similar in adults. The mean (SD) fat mass in children was 6.9 kg (4.0) and 6.7 kg (4. 2) by plethysmography and hydrodensitometry, respectively, but 95% limits of agreement between methods were large (-4.1 kg to 3.5 kg fat). Plethysmography was more readily accepted and had better precision than hydrodensitometry. It also provided similar body composition results for the group but not for all individual children.

  10. Body composition as a frailty marker for the elderly community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falsarella GR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gláucia Regina Falsarella,1 Lívia Pimenta Renó Gasparotto,1 Caroline Coutinho Barcelos,2 Ibsen Bellini Coimbra,1,2 Maria Clara Moretto,1 Mauro Alexandre Pascoa,3 Talita C B Rezende Ferreira,1 Arlete Maria Valente Coimbra1,41Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 2Department of Medical Clinics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, 3Department Biodynamics of Movement, Faculty of Physical Education, 4Family Health Program, Gerontology Program, Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas (Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: Body composition (BC in the elderly has been associated with diseases and mortality; however, there is a shortage of data on frailty in the elderly.Objective: To investigate the association between BC and frailty, and identify BC profiles in nonfrail, prefrail, and frail elderly people.Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 235 elderly (142 females and 93 males aged ≥65 years, from the city of Amparo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, was undertaken. Sociodemographic and cognitive features, comorbidities, medication, frailty, body mass index (BMI, muscle mass, fat mass, bone mass, and fat percent (% data were evaluated. Aiming to examine the relationship between BC and frailty, the Mann–Whitney and Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric tests were applied. The statistical significance level was P<0.05.Results: The nonfrail elderly showed greater muscle mass and greater bone mass compared with the prefrail and frail ones. The frail elderly had greater fat % than the nonfrail elderly. There was a positive association between grip strength and muscle mass with bone mass (P<0.001, and a negative association between grip strength and fat % (P<0.001. Gait speed was positively associated with fat mass (P=0.038 and fat % (P=0.002. The physical activity level was negatively associated with fat % (P=0.022. The weight loss criterion was positively related to muscle mass (P<0.001, bone mass (P=0.009, fat mass

  11. A comparison of bone mineral densities and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Ye, Ziliang; Lu, Jingjing; Lu, Haili; Guan, Liping; Teng, Zhihai; Gao, Shangzhi; Li, Mingyi

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bone mineral densities (BMDs) and body composition between Southeast Asia college students and Chinese college students, in order to provide a certain reference enhancing college students' physical fitness.A total of 1694 Chinese college students (294 men and 1400 women, aged 18-22 years) and 250 Southeast Asia college students (148 men and 102 women, aged 19-22 years) were included in the study. Weight, height, and body mass index were measured anthropometrically. BMD values were determined by ultrasound bone densitometer and body composition was determined by body composition analyzer.Southeast Asia college students were overweight than Chinese college students (250 vs 1694) (P college students had a significantly lower body weight, fat mass, lean tissue mass, lean body weight, estimation of bone mass, protein, and metabolic rate but higher BMD at the calcaneus compared with Southeast Asia college students (P college students and Southeast Asia college students (P > 0.01 for all parameters).The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that Chinese college students had a higher BMD but lower body composition than Southeast Asia college students, which may be associated with genes, diet, exercise, and other factors.

  12. Beyond Body Mass Index: Using Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition Indicators to Assess Odds of an Endometriosis Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backonja, Uba; Hediger, Mary L; Chen, Zhen; Lauver, Diane R; Sun, Liping; Peterson, C Matthew; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2017-05-24

    Body mass index (BMI) and endometriosis have been inversely associated. To address gaps in this research, we examined associations among body composition, endometriosis, and physical activity. Women from 14 clinical sites in the Salt Lake City, Utah and San Francisco, California areas and scheduled for laparoscopy/laparotomy were recruited during 2007-2009. Participants (N = 473) underwent standardized anthropometric assessments to estimate body composition before surgery. Using a cross-sectional design, odds of an endometriosis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]; 95% confidence interval [CI]) were calculated for anthropometric and body composition measures (weight in kg; height in cm; mid upper arm, waist, hip, and chest circumferences in cm; subscapular, suprailiac, and triceps skinfold thicknesses in mm; arm muscle and fat areas in cm(2); centripetal fat, chest-to-waist, chest-to-hip, waist-to-hip, and waist-to-height ratios; arm fat index; and BMI in kg/m(2)). Physical activity (metabolic equivalent of task-minutes/week) and sedentariness (average minutes sitting on a weekday) were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form. Measures were modeled continuously and in quartiles based on sample estimates. Adjusted models were controlled for age (years, continuous), site (Utah/California), smoking history (never, former, or current smoker), and income (below, within 180%, and above of the poverty line). Findings were standardized by dividing variables by their respective standard deviations. We used adjusted models to examine whether odds of an endometriosis diagnosis were moderated by physical activity or sedentariness. Inverse relationships were observed between endometriosis and standardized: weight (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.57-0.88); subscapular skinfold thickness (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.65-0.98); waist and hip circumferences (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98 and aOR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.61-0.94, respectively); total

  13. Respiratory function, physical activity and body composition in adult rural population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rożek-Piechura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate functioning of the respiratory system and to estimate the correlation between the function parameters of the respiratory system and the level of physical activity and body composition in the adult rural population. The study involved a group of 116 people from rural population aged 35–60 years, staying on 3-week rehabilitation camps. They were divided into two groups: men (29 and women (87. The somatic features: body height, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and body copmposition were analysed, on the status of smoking and declared level of physical activity (PA was checked. For the evaluation of the functional parameters of the respiratory system the pattern of flow volume curve was used. The following parameters were determined: vital capacity (VC, forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF, MEF50 (maximum expiratory flow at 50% of VC and Tiffenau index. Hand grip and maximum torque of the knee join flexor and extensor muscles was measured. As expected, men had significantly higher levels of respiratory parameters. In analyzing the status of smoking cigarettes, it can be stated that the majority of subjects are smokers. conclusions. The values of functional parameters of the respiratory system were suitable for the age they were within the norm and did not show lung ventilation disorder. Most subjects of the study declared low physical activity which may be due to manual work on the farm. Smoking cigarettes significantly lowered the value of such parameters as FEV1, PEF and MEF50 only in the male group but the values did not indicate ventilatory disorder. Parameters of the respiratory system show the highest correlations with the parameters of muscle strength. Significant correlations with body compositions parameters (FFM, water have been noticed too.

  14. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four ``virtual family'' members for thermoregulatory modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P.; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N.; Potter, Adam W.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  15. Measured body composition and geometrical data of four "virtual family" members for thermoregulatory modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojiang; Rioux, Timothy P.; MacLeod, Tynan; Patel, Tejash; Rome, Maxwell N.; Potter, Adam W.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a database of tissue composition, distribution, volume, surface area, and skin thickness from anatomically correct human models, the virtual family. These models were based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of human volunteers, including two adults (male and female) and two children (boy and girl). In the segmented image dataset, each voxel is associated with a label which refers to a tissue type that occupies up that specific cubic millimeter of the body. The tissue volume was calculated from the number of the voxels with the same label. Volumes of 24 organs in body and volumes of 7 tissues in 10 specific body regions were calculated. Surface area was calculated from the collection of voxels that are touching the exterior air. Skin thicknesses were estimated from its volume and surface area. The differences between the calculated and original masses were about 3 % or less for tissues or organs that are important to thermoregulatory modeling, e.g., muscle, skin, and fat. This accurate database of body tissue distributions and geometry is essential for the development of human thermoregulatory models. Data derived from medical imaging provide new effective tools to enhance thermal physiology research and gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of how the human body maintains heat balance.

  16. Long term survey of body composition in hemodialysis patients using the Body Composition Monitor® (BCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislas Trolonge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2 years all 265 incident patients in self-dialysis units were included in a prospective study. Every 6-months, clinical and biological nutritional evaluation was associated to a BCM measure. 205 pts have a complete set of data at start (age 60±16 years, BMI 25±5 kg/m2, albumin 37±4 g/L, prealbumin 0.32±0.1 g/L, CRP median 5 mg/L, 135 pts at 6 mo and 56 pts at 2 years. Measures were performed before HD session to ensure stability and reproducibility of body fluid compartments by the same examiner. Lean and fat masses (lean tissue index: LTI, fat tissue index: FTI were normalized by square body height and compared with a reference range derived from 2000 healthy controls, according to gender and age. 28% of pts had values of LTI below the 10th percentile. A linear correlation exists (p<0.001 between pre-dialysis creatinine level and LTI. Albumin or prealbumin were not predictive of sarcopenia. Prescribed post dialysis BW was underestimated in 25% of pts and 16% remain overhydrated. In stable patients repeated measures analysis reveal no significant variation of LTI even in case of reevaluation of BW and gain of BW is associated with fat mass increase. BCM is a simple tool in clinical practice to evaluate body composition and hydratation status and help to guide nutritional support.

  17. The Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Postmenopausal Women: Relationship to Body Composition, Visceral Fat, and Inflammation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    You, Tongjian; Ryan, Alice S; Nicklas, Barbara J

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether aerobic fitness, body composition, body fat distribution, and inflammation are different in obese postmenopausal women with and without the metabolic syndrome (MS...

  18. Determination of body composition--a comparison of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and hydrodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A G; Forslund, A; Sjödin, A; Mallmin, H; Hambraeus, L; Ljunghall, S

    1993-03-01

    Determination of body composition by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was evaluated in healthy men, by using underwater weighing (UWW), skinfold thickness measurement, and bioimpedance analysis. There were strong correlations between percent body fat obtained by all techniques, but DEXA gave significantly lower values (P < 0.001). The influence of differences in bone mineral density (BMD) on fat content determined by UWW was also studied. The individual differences between UWW and DEXA fat estimates were calculated and there was a negative correlation with BMD (r = -0.50, P < 0.05). There was also a negative correlation between body fat by UWW and BMD (r = -0.71, P < 0.01) in the subjects with lowest fat by DEXA, indicating that high or low BMD gave false values by UWW. In conclusion, DEXA and UWW provide complementary information and a combination of these techniques seems to offer new opportunities in evaluations of body composition.

  19. Glycemic control and variability in association with body mass index and body composition over 18months in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsky, Leah M; Gee, Benjamin; Liu, Aiyi; Nansel, Tonja R

    2016-10-01

    The impact of adiposity on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes patients has important implications for preventing complications. This study examined associations of glycemic outcomes with body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and body composition in youth with type 1 diabetes. This is a secondary analysis of an 18-month randomized controlled dietary intervention trial (N=136, baseline age=12.3±2.5y, HbA1c=8.1±1.0% (65±11mmol/mol)). Measured height and weight every 3months were abstracted from medical records. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline, 12 and 18months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycemic variability assessed by masked 3-day continuous blood glucose monitoring (CGM) were obtained every 3months. 1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) was assessed every 6months. Adjusted random effects models for repeated measures estimated associations of time-varying BMI and body composition with time-varying glycemic outcomes. There was no treatment effect on glycemic outcomes. HbA1c was not associated with BMI or body composition indicators. 1,5-AG was inversely associated with BMI and adiposity indicators (%fat, trunk fat mass and trunk %fat), adjusting for developmental covariates. Adiposity indicators were positively associated with %glucose >180mg/dL and >126mg/dL when adjusting for developmental covariates, and %glucose >126mg/dL when additionally adjusting for diabetes-related covariates. Fewer consistent relationships were observed for 3-day mean glucose and %glucose BMI and body composition variables were not associated with standard deviation of glycemic values or mean amplitude of glycemic excursions. The role of greater BMI and adiposity in diabetes management in youth with type 1 diabetes may relate specifically to increased hyperglycemic excursions. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Fast-Food Restaurant Advertising on Television and Its Influence on Youth Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy

    2012-01-01

    We examine the effects of fast-food restaurant advertising on television on the body composition of adolescents as measured by percentage body fat (PBF) and to assess the sensitivity of these effects to using conventional measures of youth obesity based on body-mass index (BMI). We merge measures of body composition from bioelectrical-impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with individual level data from th...

  1. Bone Mineral Density and Body Composition of Adult Premenopausal Women with Three Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando D. Saraví

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Weight-bearing and resistance physical activities are recommended for osteoporosis prevention, but it is unclear whether an intensity level above current recommendations has a positive effect on adult premenopausal women. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD by DXA were compared in three groups of women as follows: Sedentary, Maintenance exercise, and federated Sport Team (n=16 for each group. Physical activity was estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The groups did not differ in age, height, weight, or body mass index. Bone mineral content and non-fat soft tissue mass were higher and fat mass was lower in the Sport Team group than in the other groups. The same was true for BMD of total skeleton, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip. A test for linear trend of body composition and BMD showed significant results when including all three groups. Simple and multiple regression analyses showed significant associations between physical activity level (or alternatively, years of participation in programmed physical activity and bone mass measures at all sites except for the middle third of radius. It is concluded that a level of physical activity higher than that usually recommended benefits bone health in adult premenopausal women.

  2. Evaluation of morphological indices and total body electrical conductivity to assess body composition in big brown bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wunder, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bat researchers have used both morphological indices and total body electric conductivity (TOBEC) as proxies for body condition in a variety of studies, but have typically not validated these indices against direct measurement of body composition. We quantified body composition (total carcass lipids) to determine if morphological indices were useful predictors of body condition in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). We also evaluated body composition indirectly by TOBEC using EM-SCAN?? technology. The most important predictors of body composition in multiple regression analysis were body mass-to-forearm ratio (partial r2 = 0.82, P < 0.001) followed by TOBEC measurement (partial r2 = 0.08, P < 0.001) and to a minor extent head length (partial r2 = 0.02, P < 0.05). Morphological condition indices alone may be adequate for some studies because of lower cost and effort. Marking bats with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags affected TOBEC measurements. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  3. Classification of slaughtered animals and estimation of body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... The animals slaughtered at the Sokoto City Abattoir in Northwestern Nigeria from 5 ... ruminant slaughtered were in borderline to optimum (3-4) body condition while the majority of small ruminant ... data recording system for slaughter statistics and research ..... Report Submitted to ADENI Project/NAERLS,.

  4. Estimation of hip abduction moment based on body fixed sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Bisseling, R

    2004-01-01

    Background During standing and walking, abnormal trunk posture or movements may result from insufficient hip abductor force. Quantifying abduction moments requires inverse dynamics based on an appropriate model and measured data. Contrary to using a force plate and motion analysis system, body fixed

  5. [Body composition analysis in obesity: radionuclide and non radionuclide methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Krassas, Gerasimos E; Doumas, Argirios

    2008-01-01

    Body composition (BC) assessment provides important information regarding the absolute or relative amount of bone, lean and fat tissue. Different somatometric techniques have been applied in numerous epidemiological and experimental studies, as well as in every day clinical practice. Traditional techniques for BC analysis include skin fold thickness measurements, radioisotope dilution methods, hydrodensitometry and underwater weighing, while newer techniques include bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-rays absorptiometry (DEXA), computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, positron emission tomography helped to the functional investigation of adipose tissue, in particular of brown tissue. All these techniques have contributed a lot to the understanding of physiological conditions such as exercise training, menopause and ageing, adolescence health parameters, as well as pathological conditions such as disorders of nutrition, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus. In obesity, BC contributed to diagnosis and the pathological impact of visceral adipose tissue. In addition, conditions such as pseudo- or hypermuscular obesity and sarcopenia, which are often observed in various endocrine diseases, were investigated in detail by using such methods. During weight loss, some of these methods were quite accurate in measuring changes in fat and lean mass. Apart from anthropometric measurements, a BC measurement if possible should be included in obesity assessment. Measurements of skin fold thickness combined with BIA are quite sufficient for routine clinical practice. However, in specialized clinics and in research, more sophisticated methods like ADP or DEXA are used.

  6. Estimation of elemental composition from proximate analysis of black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakkilainen, E.K. [Andritz-Ahlstrom Corporation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The black liquor properties will vary depending on the raw material used for pulping, the pulping conditions, the equipment used for pulping and the treatment of the liquor after the pulping. Accurate analysis of black liquor is needed to determine energy efficiency of o pulp mill, to calculate gas flows for environmental compliance reports and for production statistics. Black liquor composition and combustion properties can be estimated from known spread of data. Main source has been an internal company black liquor databank, which contains over 900 black liquor analysis. Regression equations for black liquor carbon, hydrogen, and inorganic element contents were derived. (orig.)

  7. Remarks on human body posture estimation from silhouette image based on heuristic rules and Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiko; Naemura, Masahide

    2005-12-01

    This paper proposes a human body posture estimation method based on analysis of human silhouette and Kalman filter. The proposed method is based on both the heuristically extraction method of estimating the significant points of human body and the contour analysis of the human silhouette. The 2D coordinates of the human body's significant points, such as top of the head, and tips of feet, are located by applying the heuristically extraction method to the human silhouette, those of tips of hands are obtained by using the result of the contour analysis, and the joints of elbows and knees are estimated by introducing some heuristic rules to the contour image of the human silhouette. The estimated results are optimized and tracked by using Kalman filter. The proposed estimation method is implemented on a personal computer and runs in real-time. Experimental results show both the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed method for estimating human body postures.

  8. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  9. Neurocognitive aspects of body size estimation - A study of contemporary dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bizerra

    Full Text Available Abstract Dancers use multiple forms of body language when performing their functions in the contemporary dance scene. Some neurocognitive aspects are involved in dance, and we highlight the aspect of body image, in particular, the dimensional aspect of the body perception. The aim of this study is to analyze the perceptual aspect of body image (body size estimation and its possible association with the motor aspect (dynamic balance involved in the practice of dance, comparing contemporary dancers with physically active and inactive individuals. The sample consisted of 48 subjects divided into four groups: 1 Professional Group (PG; 2 Dance Student Group (SG; 3 Physically Active Group (AG; and 4 Physically Inactive Group (IG.Two tests were used: the Image Marking Procedure (body size estimation and the Star Excursion Balance Test (dynamic balance. Was observed that dancing and exercising contribute to a proper body size estimation, but cannot be considered the only determining factor. Although dancers have higher ability in the motor test (dynamic balance, no direct relation to the perception of body size was observed, leading us to conclude it is a skill task/dependent acquired by repeating and training. In this study, we found a statistical significant association between educational level and body size estimation. The study opens new horizons in relation to the understanding of factors involved in the construction of the body size estimation.

  10. Beyond the body mass index: tracking body composition in the pathogenesis of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M J; Lagerpusch, M; Enderle, J; Schautz, B; Heller, M; Bosy-Westphal, A

    2012-12-01

    Body composition is related to various physiological and pathological states. Characterization of individual body components adds to understand metabolic, endocrine and genetic data on obesity and obesity-related metabolic risks, e.g. insulin resistance. The obese phenotype is multifaceted and can be characterized by measures of body fat, leg fat, liver fat and skeletal muscle mass rather than by body mass index. The contribution of either whole body fat or fat distribution or individual fat depots to insulin resistance is moderate, but liver fat has a closer association with (hepatic) insulin resistance. Although liver fat is associated with visceral fat, its effect on insulin resistance is independent of visceral adipose tissue. In contrast to abdominal fat, appendicular or leg fat is inversely related to insulin resistance. The association between 'high fat mass + low muscle mass' (i.e. 'sarcopenic adiposity') and insulin resistance deserves further investigation and also attention in daily clinical practice. In addition to cross-sectional data, longitudinal assessment of body composition during controlled under- and overfeeding of normal-weight healthy young men shows that small decreases and increases in fat mass are associated with corresponding decreases and increases in insulin secretion as well as increases and decreases in insulin sensitivity. However, even under controlled conditions, there is a high intra- and inter-individual variance in the changes of (i) body composition; (ii) the 'body composition-glucose metabolism relationship' and (iii) glucose metabolism itself. Combining individual body components with their related functional aspects (e.g. the endocrine, metabolic and inflammatory profiles) will provide a suitable basis for future definitions of a 'metabolically healthy body composition'. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  11. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake—Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Corinna Geisler; Prado, Carla M.; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2...

  12. Functional body composition and related aspects in research on obesity and cachexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, M J; Baracos, V; Bosy-Westphal, A;

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of 'functional body composition' integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo...... and tissues mediated by cytokines, hormones and metabolites that are coupled with changes in body weight, composition and function as observed in obesity and cancer cachexia. In addition to established roles in intermediary metabolism, cell function and inflammation, organ-tissue crosstalk mediators...... are determinants of body composition and its change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks' concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition...

  13. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women. PMID:27073713

  14. Influence of Body Composition on Gait Kinetics throughout Pregnancy and Postpartum Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Marco; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Vieira, Filomena; Silva, Maria-Raquel; Aguiar, Liliana; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy leads to several changes in body composition and morphology of women. It is not clear whether the biomechanical changes occurring in this period are due exclusively to body composition and size or to other physiological factors. The purpose was to quantify the morphology and body composition of women throughout pregnancy and in the postpartum period and identify the contribution of these parameters on the lower limb joints kinetic during gait. Eleven women were assessed longitudinally, regarding anthropometric, body composition, and kinetic parameters of gait. Body composition and body dimensions showed a significant increase during pregnancy and a decrease in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, body composition was similar to the 1st trimester, except for triceps skinfold, total calf area, and body mass index, with higher results than at the beginning of pregnancy. Regression models were developed to predict women's internal loading through anthropometric variables. Four models include variables associated with the amount of fat; four models include variables related to overall body weight; three models include fat-free mass; one model includes the shape of the trunk as a predictor variable. Changes in maternal body composition and morphology largely determine kinetic dynamics of the joints in pregnant women.

  15. Full Body Pose Estimation During Occlusion using Multiple Cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Cosar, Serhan

    people is a very challenging problem for methods based on pictorials structure as for any other monocular pose estimation method. In this report we present work on a multi-view approach based on pictorial structures that integrate low level information from multiple calibrated cameras to improve the 2D...

  16. EFFECTS OF AN EXTREME ENDURANCE RACE ON ENERGY BALANCE AND BODY COMPOSITION - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Bircher

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case study was to examine energy expenditure (EE in one cyclist during an extreme endurance cycling race - the "XXAlps 2004" (2,272 km distance and 55,455 m altitude which was completed in 5 days and 7 hours - and whether the energy deficit derives primarily from the degradation of subcutaneous adipose tissue or loss of muscle mass. Energy intake (EI was continuously recorded. EE was estimated using two different methods: 1 Continuous heart rate recording using a portable heart rate monitor (POLAR® S710 and 2 using the individual relationship between heart rate and oxygen uptake (VO2 determined under laboratory conditions. Body composition was assessed by measuring body mass, skinfold thickness and extremity circumferences. The cyclist lost 2.0 kg body mass, corresponding to 11,950 kcal (50 MJ. Fat mass was reduced by 790 g (7,110 kcal; 30 MJ and fat free mass by 1.21 kg (4,840 kcal; 20 MJ. Circumferences of the lower extremities were reduced, in contrast skinfold thickness at the lower limbs increased. Energy deficit (ED was calculated as the difference between EI and EE. Energy deficit using continuous heart rate monitoring was 29,554 kcal (124 MJ, and using the individual relationship between heart rate and VO2 was 7,111 kcal (30 MJ. The results show that the difference between ED due to decreased body mass and ED estimated from continuous heart rate monitoring was 74 MJ (124 MJ - 50 MJ. In contrast the difference between ED due to decreased body mass and ED estimated from laboratory data was 20 MJ (30 - 50 MJ. This difference between methodologies cannot properly be explained. Body mass and skinfold thickness may be overestimated due to hypoproteinemic oedemas during endurance exercise. Data from the present study suggests the individual relationship between heart rate and VO2 may provide a closer estimation of EE during extreme endurance exercise compared with corresponding data derived from continuous heart rate monitoring

  17. Occupational exposure to phthalates in relation to gender, consumer practices and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovičová, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Šidlovská, Miroslava; Pilka, Tomáš; Wimmerová, Soňa; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found in plastic industry workers compared to community service workers and subjects of the control group significantly higher urinary concentration mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono (2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), sum di-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). We identified by multivariate analysis of covariance inverse relationship between MEHP and body parameters as waist-to-height ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference and waist circumference among females, whereas in males, no significant association was found. Results of our study show, despite of variability in terms of occupational exposure to phthalates, that plastic manufactory represents a higher occupational risk in comparison with waste management. The differences in anthropometric parameters between the two occupationally exposed groups and the general population are suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational exposure on body weight homeostasis.

  18. Bioactive hydroxyapatite/graphene composite coating and its corrosion stability in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janković, Ana; Eraković, Sanja [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitrić, Miodrag [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Matić, Ivana Z.; Juranić, Zorica D. [Institute of Oncology and Radiology of Serbia, Pasterova 14, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tsui, Gary C.P.; Tang, Chak-yin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Mišković-Stanković, Vesna [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, Karnegijeva 4, 11 000 Belgrade (Serbia); Rhee, Kyong Yop, E-mail: rheeky@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soo Jin [Chemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-05

    Highlights: • Bioactive HAP/Gr coating on Ti was successfully obtained by EPD. • Increased fracture toughness of the HAP/Gr coating compared to pure HAP coating. • HAP/Gr coating exhibited superior biomimetic mineralization vs. pure HAP coating. • Gr improved the mechanical properties and thermal stability of HAP/Gr coating. • HAP/Gr coating was classified as non-cytotoxic against the targeted PBMC. - Abstract: The hydroxyapatite/graphene (HAP/Gr) composite was electrodeposited on Ti using the electrophoretic deposition process to obtain uniform bioactive coating with improved mechanical strength and favorable corrosion stability in simulated body fluid (SBF). Incorporation of Gr was verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and X-ray photoelectron analysis. The HAP/Gr composite coating exhibited reduced surface cracks, nearly double the hardness, and elastic modulus increased by almost 50% compared to pure HAP coating, as estimated by a nanoindentation test. The bioactive HAP/Gr composite coating provided a newly formed apatite layer in SBF with enhanced corrosion stability, as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the HAP/Gr coating was improved in comparison to the pure HAP coating, and the Ca/P ratio was closer to the stoichiometric value. No antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus or Escherichia coli could be verified. The HAP/Gr composite coating was classified as non-cytotoxic when tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)

  19. Estimation of body fat in rats by whole-body counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pommer, A.M.; Lakshmanan, F.L.

    1975-07-01

    A method for determining body fat in vivo in rats by whole-body counting of /sup 40/K is described. The technique utilizes a Nuclear Chicago Corporation TOBOR system with 5-in thallium-activated sodium iodide crystals. To test the method a regression equation was developed using the /sup 40/K counts and body weight of young adult rats weighing 333 to 788 g; the results were compared with those obtained from the gravimetric determination of fat in the carcass. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was 0.945. (auth)

  20. Body composition from birth to 6 mo of age in Ethiopian infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Girma, Tsinuel; Wells, Jonathan C;

    2013-01-01

    Data on body composition in infancy may improve the understanding of the relation between variability in fetal and infant growth and disease risk through the life course. Although new assessment techniques have recently become available, body composition is rarely described in infants from low-in...

  1. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille;

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...

  2. Ultrasound use for body composition and carcass quality assessment in cattle and lambs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic evaluation for carcass quality traits has evolved over time, in large part due to introduction of new technology such as ultrasound measures of body composition. Ultrasound measured body composition traits emulate important carcass traits, are very informative for selection purposes, are ac...

  3. Comparison of body composition in persons with epilepsy on conventional & new antiepileptic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandra Sarangi

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The alterations observed in body composition with valproic acid in contrast to other AEDs like levetiracetam, carbamazepine and phenytoin could affect treatment response in epilepsy especially in subjects with already altered body composition status like obese and thin frail patients, which needs to be established by prospective studies (CTRI/2013/05/003701.

  4. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens.

  5. Assessment of nutritional status in cancer--the relationship between body composition and pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Maia, Yara L M; Ormsbee, Michael; Sawyer, Michael B; Baracos, Vickie E

    2013-10-01

    Several nutritional assessment tools have been used in oncology settings to monitor nutritional status and its associated prognostic significance. Body composition is fundamental for the assessment of nutritional status. Recently, the use of accurate and precise body composition tools has significantly added to the value of nutritional assessment in this clinical setting. Computerized tomography (CT) is an example of a technique which provides state-of-the-art assessment of body composition. With use of CT images, a great variability in body composition of cancer patients has been identified even in people with identical body weight or body mass index. Severe muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has emerged as a prevalent body composition phenotype which is predictive of poor functional status, shorter time to tumor progression, shorter survival, and higher incidence of dose-limiting toxicity. Variability in body composition of cancer patients may be a source of disparities in the metabolism of cytotoxic agents. Future clinical trials investigating dose reductions in patients with sarcopenia and dose-escalating studies based on pre-treatment body composition assessment have the potential to alter cancer treatment paradigms.

  6. Prediction of body composition of Iberian pigs by means bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, A; Mateos, A; Ovejero, I; Bote, C J López

    2006-01-01

    Twelve barrow Iberian pigs with an average weight at slaughter of 109.2kg were used to evaluate bioelectrical impedance procedures to predict the body composition of live pigs. Twelve hours before slaughter pigs were weighed, and a four-terminal body composition analyser (Model BIA-101, RJL Systems, Detroit, MI) was utilized to determine resistance (R(s) in Ω) and reactance (X(c) in Ω). The length values (L in cm) were measured between detector electrodes with a flexible steel tape. Twenty four hours after slaughter the left side of each carcass was separated using a scalpel into fat, lean, bone and skin. Multiple regression equations for estimating lean, fat, bone and skin amounts and lean, fat, bone and skin proportions with respect to slaughter weight were calculated. The live weight (LW) and L independent variables predicted 85.3% and 64.3% of the variability of the lean amount and lean proportion, respectively. The LW, X(c) and L variables accounted for 96% and 91.6% of the variation in fat quantity and fat proportion, respectively. The LW and R(s) accounted for 58.9% of the variation in bone amount, and the same variables predict 79.1% of the variability of bone percentage. The R(s) and L variables explained 68% of the variability of skin quantity and LW, R(s) and X(c) predicted 83.1% of the variation of skin proportion. Results from this experiment indicate that bioelectrical impedance may be of interest for body composition prediction of live Iberian pigs.

  7. Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods.

    OpenAIRE

    Brassey, CA; Maidment, SC; Barrett, PM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Authors. Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited. The file attached is the published version of the article. Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outpu...

  8. Estimation of body size and growth patterns in Korean boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsuk

    2015-04-24

    Anthropometric surveys devised by each country attempt to fulfill the requirements of the manufacturers, designers, and human welfare device production, providing them with data and tools and allowing them to face both the internal and export markets. To this end, national anthropometric data collections and comparisons including three-dimensional information, together with comparison of these data among countries, are conducted at both the domestic and global levels. The anthropometric data of the Korean population measured in 2013 (Korean Agency for Technology and Standard (KATS) 2013 data) and the data collected from 2010 (KATS 2010 data) that was conducted on 710 males between the ages of 13 and 18 years were analyzed in this section to obtain information on Korean boys' physical features and growth. The mean height increased about 5 cm from 13 to 14 years which shows the early fast maturing somatotype. Also, the mean height of boys aged from 15 to 16 increased about 1 to 2 cm. For the results of body proportion rate index against height, they show 0.93, 0.81, 0.38, 0.99, and 0.26 times the height in eye height, shoulder height, fingertip height, and span and maximum shoulder breadth, respectively, in 16-year-old boys. For the body mass index, the weight is increased from the age of 16 years. There are several studies that cover growth features of the entire range from birth to maturity, and they have reported the comparison of the growth patterns among Europeans. Even though such researches have been made, as for the industry, the human modeling tools based on the anthropometric data and morphological features that cover all the countries should be developed for well-fit garments and other human-oriented design process.

  9. Comparison of three bioimpedance techniques with hydrodensitometry for assessment of body composition in young adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristizábal, Juan Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bioimpedance measurement allows quick and safe estimation of the body composition. However, it remains controversial which bioimpedance measurement technique is more exact for calculating the fat mass percentage (%FM. Objective: To compare the %FM obtained with three bioimpedance techniques with hydrodensitometry, as a reference method. Materials and methods: In 31 women, the %FM was assessed by hydrodensitometry with simultaneous lung residual volume measurement and three bioimpedance techniques: hands-to-feet (8-electrodes, hand-to-foot (4-electrodes and footto-foot (4-electrodes. Results: Average age and body mass index were 22.4 ± 2.8 years and 23.6 ± 3.3 kg/m2, respectively. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between the %FM obtained by hydrodensitometry (31.4 ± 6.6 and hands-to-feet technique (31.9 ± 5.9. However, hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot techniques showed differences (p < 0.05 with the reference method of +1.4 % and -4.9%, respectively. There was a fair agreement between hydrodensitometry and the results obtained with hands-to-feet (Bland-Altman: IC95 %: -6.6; 5.6 and hand-to-foot (Bland-Altman: IC95 %: -8.0; 5.2 techniques. The foot-to-foot measurement showed poor agreement with the reference method (Bland-Altman: IC95 %: -4.7; 14.4. Conclusions: In this group of young women with healthy body weight, the hands-to-feet bioimpedance technique generates body composition values closer to the hydrodensitometry results as compared with the hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot techniques. Additionally, the hands-to-feet technique shows a slightly better agreement with hydrodensitometry than the hand-to-foot and foot-to-foot techniques.

  10. Prevalence of malnutrition and validation of bioelectrical impedance analysis for the assessment of body composition in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanjer, Moon J; Bultink, Irene E M; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Voskuyl, Alexandre E

    2017-06-01

    The aims were to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and to validate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against whole-body DXA for the assessment of body composition in patients with SSc. Malnutrition was defined as BMI 10% in combination with a fat-free mass index (FFMI) 70 years). Body composition was assessed in 72 patients with whole-body DXA (Hologic, Discovery A) and BIA (Bodystat Quadscan 400). The manufacturer's equation and the Geneva equation were used to estimate FFM and fat mass. The agreement between BIA and whole-body DXA was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis and intraclass correlation coefficient. Malnutrition was found in 8.3% (n = 6) and low FFMI in 20.8% (n = 15) of patients. The mean difference in FFM between BIA and DXA applying the Geneva equation was 0.02 ( s . d . 2.4) kg, intraclass correlation coefficient 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95, 0.98). Limits of agreement were ±4.6 kg. The manufacturer's equation was less adequate to predict FFM. This study shows a relatively low prevalence of malnutrition in comparison with other studies, but a high prevalence of low FFMI, underlining the necessity of measuring body composition in SSc patients with a standardized and validated method. A good validity of BIA in determining FFM was found at a group level, while at an individual level the FFM may vary by 4.6 kg.

  11. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P loss during the first 15% reduction in body weight. Finally, no significant differences (P = 0.103) between groups for maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of age, menopause status, body mass index and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in midlife women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Dai-min; Yu Qi; Zhang Ying; Chen Feng-ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of age,menopause status,body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on body composition and body fat distribution in Chinese midlife women.Methods: The healthy women who underwent anniversary health checkup in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were recruited cross-sectionally.The level of physical activity was determined via International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short in Chinese Version.The body composition and fat distribution were measured by dualenergy X-ray absorptiometry.Results: A total of 162 women with average age 52 years (40-62 years) were recruited.Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to test the relationship between age,menopause status,BMI and physical activity and parameters of body composition and body fat distribution.The total fat tissue percentage was positively associated with BMI (standardized partial regression coefficient: b=0.70),menopause status (b=0.19,grading variables 1,2,3 were assigned to represent for reproductive group,menopausal transition group and postmenopausal group,respectively),and negatively associated with physical activity energy expenditure (b=-0.17) with model determination coefficient 0.55.Total body fat-free-tissue mass was positively associated with BMI (b =0.61),negatively associated with menopause status (b =-0.14) with model determination coefficient 0.39.The ratio of trunk fat-tissue mass/total body fat-tissue mass (Tr/T) was positively associated with BMI (b=0.32) and menopause status (b= 0.30) with model determination coefficient 0.20.After adjusted the effects of BMI,menopause status and physical activity,age was not significantly related with total fat tissue percentage,body fat-free-tissue mass,nor ratio of (Tr/T).Conclusion: Menopause impacts body composition and body fat distribution independently.During the process of female reproductive aging,body fat tissue mass and centrally distributed fat tissue mass increase,while body fatfree

  13. A Comparing of Body Composition Components in Physically Active and Inactive Male Students of Sharoud University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bahrololoum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a serious health problem that reduces life expectancy by increasing one's risk of developing coronary artery disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obstructive pulmonary disease, osteoarthritis and certain types of cancer. Moreover, body composition is divided into fat and fat free mass components. Research shows that physical activity is an important factor that affects body composition. This research aimed at estimating and comparing the body composition components of physically active and inactive male student of Shahroud University of technologyMethods: Participants of this study were 70 inactive male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years and 65 physically active male students with average age of (20.86±1.72 years. The participants were randomly selected through stratified sampling procedure from various faculties and different admission years. Body composition was estimated with Body composition analyzer system that measured body composition components using bioelectrical impedance method.Results: Data analysis with SPSS-15 software revealed that: average of BF% in physically active sample was (13.43±3.15 and average of inactive samples was (16.73±6.16 which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.001 ; the LBM in physically active samples was (60.27±8.05 Kg and average of inactive samples was (56.43±7.6 Kg which statistically showed significant difference (P<0.005; the average of BMI in physically active sample was (22.62±2.8 kgm and average of inactive samples was (22.25±3.84 kgm which statistically did not show significant difference (P=0.519; the WHR average of physically active samples was (0.798±.03m and average of inactive samples was (0.81±.06m and there was not a significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: These results revealed that body composition of physically active students were better than that of the inactive ones, so it can be concluded that there is a

  14. Moving human full body and body parts detection, tracking, and applications on human activity estimation, walking pattern and face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Wen; McGurr, Mike

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a new way for detection and tracking of human full-body and body-parts with color (intensity) patch morphological segmentation and adaptive thresholding for security surveillance cameras. An adaptive threshold scheme has been developed for dealing with body size changes, illumination condition changes, and cross camera parameter changes. Tests with the PETS 2009 and 2014 datasets show that we can obtain high probability of detection and low probability of false alarm for full-body. Test results indicate that our human full-body detection method can considerably outperform the current state-of-the-art methods in both detection performance and computational complexity. Furthermore, in this paper, we have developed several methods using color features for detection and tracking of human body-parts (arms, legs, torso, and head, etc.). For example, we have developed a human skin color sub-patch segmentation algorithm by first conducting a RGB to YIQ transformation and then applying a Subtractive I/Q image Fusion with morphological operations. With this method, we can reliably detect and track human skin color related body-parts such as face, neck, arms, and legs. Reliable body-parts (e.g. head) detection allows us to continuously track the individual person even in the case that multiple closely spaced persons are merged. Accordingly, we have developed a new algorithm to split a merged detection blob back to individual detections based on the detected head positions. Detected body-parts also allow us to extract important local constellation features of the body-parts positions and angles related to the full-body. These features are useful for human walking gait pattern recognition and human pose (e.g. standing or falling down) estimation for potential abnormal behavior and accidental event detection, as evidenced with our experimental tests. Furthermore, based on the reliable head (face) tacking, we have applied a super-resolution algorithm to enhance

  15. Body size, body composition, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in NFL players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas W; Vogel, Robert A; Lincoln, Andrew E; Dunn, Reginald E; Tucker, Andrew M

    2010-04-01

    We characterized the size of active National Football League (NFL) players by multiple criteria and analyzed their relation to traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with the objective of further clarifying the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in different player positions. This cross-sectional study was conducted in professional athletic training facilities. The participants were 504 active veteran players from a convenience sample of 12 NFL teams, grouped as interior linemen (IL) or all others (AO). Comparisons were made between the NFL groups and an age-equivalent general population database. The IL group was significantly larger than AO by all size measures. Both groups were significantly larger than the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) group. Mean percent body fat measurements in AO (mean, 13.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9%-14%) and IL (mean, 25.2%; 95% CI, 24.4%-26%) groups were lower than estimates for the general population. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was higher in IL (mean, 131 mm Hg; 95% CI, 129-133 mm Hg) than AO (mean, 126 mm Hg; 95% CI, 125-127 mm Hg) and greater in both groups compared with the CARDIA group (mean, 112 mm Hg; 95% CI, 111-112 mm Hg). Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose were within the normal range for both IL and AO. Interior linemen had significantly lower HDL-C than AO and the CARDIA group. Both NFL groups had significantly lower fasting glucose than CARDIA. Body fat in active NFL players was lower than predicted by standard measures of obesity. Although the players were large, they were in the normal range for most CVD risk factors. Mean BP in the prehypertensive range was found in both NFL position groups, but was significantly higher in IL than in AO. Prehypertension in these athletes warrants vigilance.

  16. Prevalence of cachexia in chronic heart failure and characteristics of body composition and metabolic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Marie; Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Schou, Morten;

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiac cachexia has previously been estimated to 8-42 %. However, novel treatment strategies for chronic heart failure (CHF) have improved and decreased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, we aimed to reassess the prevalence of cachexia in an outpatient CHF clinic...... and to characterize a CHF population with and without cachexia with respect to body composition and related biomarkers. From 2008 to 2011, we screened 238 optimally treated, non-diabetic CHF patients for cardiac cachexia, defined as unintentional non-oedematous weight loss of >5 % over ≥6 months. CHF patients (LVEF...... 45 % (n = 19). The groups were matched for age, sex, and kidney function. Body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The prevalence of cachexia was 10.5 %. Abdominal fat ± SD (%) was reduced in cachectic CHF: 27.4 ± 10.0 versus 37.5 ± 10.6 % (CHF, no cachexia) and 40...

  17. Changes in body composition during weight loss in obese subjects in the NUGENOB study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdich, C.; Barbe, P.; Petersen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: We studied the accuracy of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to assess changes in body composition during moderate weight loss in obese subjects. METHODS: Estimates of changes in fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) by BIA were compared with those by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA......) as the reference method during a 10-week standardized weight-loss intervention. In obese women (age: 20-50years, mean BMI: 33.8kg/m(2)) participating in a European multicentre trial (nutrient-gene interactions in human obesity [NUGENOB]), body composition was assessed by BIA (Bodystat QuadScan 4000) and DXA (Lunar...... DPX-IQ at two centres, Hologic QDR 2000 at another centre) at baseline (n=131) and at week 10 (n=105) after a mean weight loss of -5.7kg. RESULTS: At baseline, BIA significantly overestimated FFM and underestimated FM (by 1-3kg on average) compared with DXA, and the limits of agreement were wide (mean...

  18. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  19. Body Composition Outcomes of a Qigong Intervention Among Community-Dwelling Aging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Ying; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Aging causes various changes in body composition, which are critical implications for health and physical functioning in aging adults. The aim of this study was to explore the body composition outcomes of a qigong intervention among community-dwelling aging adults. This was a quasi-experimental study in which 90 participants were recruited. Forty-eight participants (experimental group) attended a 30-min qigong program 3 times per week for 12 weeks, whereas 42 participants (control group) continued performing their usual daily activities. The experimental group achieved a greater reduction in the fat mass percentage at the posttest, and exhibited increased fat-free mass, lean body mass percentage, and lean body mass to fat mass ratio compared with the controls. No difference between the two groups in body mass index, fat mass, and lean body mass was observed. These results indicated that the qigong intervention showed beneficial outcomes of body composition among community-dwelling aging adults.

  20. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to assess body composition in rural Gambian children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Hawkesworth, S.; Wright, A.; Fulford, A.J.C.; Jarjou, L.M.A.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To validate the Tanita BC-418MA Segmental Body Composition Analyser and four-site skinfold measurements for the prediction of total body water (TBW), percentage fat-free mass (% FFM) and percentage body fat (%BF) in a population of rural Gambian children. Subjects/Methods: One hundred and

  1. Many-body problems with composite particles and q-Heisenberg algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avancini, S.S. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Krein, G.

    1994-07-01

    It is proposed to employ deformed communication relations to treat many body problems of composite particles. The deformation parameter is interpreted as a measure of the effects of the statistics of the internal degrees of freedom of the composite particles. A simple application of the method is made for the case of a gas of composite bosons. (author). 14 refs.

  2. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, J G; Schmidt, E B; Obel, T

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat...... of obesity showed significant positive associations with incident MI. However, BFM adjusted for WC showed no association. Low LBM was associated with a higher risk of incident MI in both genders, and high LBM was associated with a higher risk in men.Conclusion:Obesity was positively associated with MI....... Estimates of obesity achieved by BIA seemed not to add additional information to classical anthropometric measures regarding MI risk. Both high and low LBM may be positively associated with MI.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 1 February 2011; doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.278....

  3. [Changes in body composition during an extreme endurance run].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, B; Bircher, S

    2005-03-09

    We measured before, during and after a six-day-run in one athlete body weight, skinfold thickness, circumference of extremities, energy expenditure and nutritional intake. Despite an increased fat and protein intake during the race we found a significantly decrease in adipose subcutaneous tissue of the whole body and muscle mass in the active limbs whereas body weight remained stable. We presume that during running as eccentric exercise subcutaneous adipose tissue and muscle mass will be oxidised.

  4. [Human body composition during extended stay in microgravity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Vasilieva, G Yu; Smirnov, Yu I

    2015-01-01

    According to the Sprut-2 protocol, bio-impedancemetry of ISS cosmonauts was performed once a month and also before and after mission. Multiple non-invasive body measurements were carried out in 15 cosmonauts in real time. Relocation of extracellular liquid along the body axis led to its reduction in legs and, on the contrary, an increase in the abdomen. Volumes of total body liquid as well as intra- and extracellular liquids decreased in comparison with pre-flight levels. Lean body mass also became less in microgravity, whereas fat mass showed an increase.

  5. Early weaning impairs body composition in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta

  6. Adipokines, hormones related to body composition, and insulin resistance in HIV fat redistribution syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Paula; Carvalho, Davide; Santos, Ana Cristina; Madureira, António José; Martinez, Esteban; Pereira, Jorge; Sarmento, António; Medina, José Luís

    2014-06-23

    Lipodystrophies are characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic complications. Adipokines and hormones related to body composition may play an important role linking these alterations. Our aim was to evaluate adipocyte-derived hormones (adiponectin, leptin, resistin, TNF-α, PAI-1) and ghrelin plasma levels and their relationship with IR in HIV-infected patients according to the presence of lipodystrophy and fat redistribution. Anthropometric and metabolic parameters, HOMA-IR, body composition by DXA and CT, and adipokines were evaluated in 217 HIV-infected patients on cART and 74 controls. Fat mass ratio defined lipodystrophy (L-FMR) was defined as the ratio of the percentage of the trunk fat mass to the percentage of the lower limb fat mass by DXA. Patient's fat redistribution was classified into 4 different groups according the presence or absence of either clinical lipoatrophy or abdominal prominence: no lipodystrophy, isolated central fat accumulation (ICFA), isolated lipoatrophy and mixed forms (MXF). The associations between adipokines levels and anthropometric, metabolic and body composition were estimated by Spearman correlation. Leptin levels were lower in patients with FMR-L and isolated lipoatrophy, and higher in those with ICFA and MXF. Positive correlations were found between leptin and body fat (total, trunk, leg, arm fat evaluated by DXA, and total, visceral (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and VAT/SAT ratio evaluated by CT) regardless of FMR-L, and with HOMA-IR only in patients with FMR-L. Adiponectin correlated negatively with VAT, and its mean levels were lower in patients with ICFA and higher in those with no lipodystrophy. Resistin was not correlated with adipose tissue but positively correlated with HOMA-IR in FMR-L patients. PAI-1 levels were higher in MXF-patients and their levels were positively correlated with VAT in those with FMR-L. Ghrelin was higher in HIV-infected patients than

  7. An estimate of the chemical composition of Titan's lakes

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, D; Lunine, J -I; Lavvas, P; Vuitton, V

    2009-01-01

    Hundreds of radar-dark patches interpreted as lakes have been discovered in the north and south polar regions of Titan. We have estimated the composition of these lakes by using the direct abundance measurements from the Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) aboard the Huygens probe and recent photochemical models based on the vertical temperature profile derived by the Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument (HASI). Thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed between the atmosphere and the lakes, which are also considered as nonideal solutions. We find that the main constituents of the lakes are ethane (C2H6) (~76-79%), propane (C3H8) (~7-8%), methane (CH4) (~5-10%), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) (~2-3%), butene (C4H8) (~1%), butane (C4H10) (~1%) and acetylene (C2H2) (~1%). The calculated composition of lakes is then substantially different from what has been expected from models elaborated prior to the exploration of Titan by the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft.

  8. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi...

  9. Body composition, somatotype and risk of premenopausal breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronco AL

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze detailed anthropometric characterisation for risk of breast cancer (BC in premenopausal Uruguayan women, a case-control study was carried out at the Pereira Rossell Women’s Hospital, Montevideo, where 253 incident BC cases and 497 frequency-matched healthy controls were interviewed on menstrual and reproductive story, and a series of body measurements were performed to calculate body composition and somatotype. Odds ratio (OR’s coefficients were taken as estimates of relative risk derived from unconditional logistic regression. Results show a positive association for the fat fraction (OR for highest quartile =4.19, 95% CI (95% Confidence Interval 2.70-6.50 as well as for the fat-to-muscle ratio (OR=4.68, 95% CI 2.98-7.36. Muscle fraction was inversely associated with risk (OR=0.53 95% CI 0.36-0.78. High endomorphism was the only somatotype variable associated to the disease risk (OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.13-2.54, however, losing its association when fat amount was included in the regression model. Stratified analyses by body mass index (BMI levels, bone weight, age groups and number of live births also showed risk increases for the highest fat fractions, displaying significant linear trends. Albeit most of the literature reports a putative slight protective effect for a high BMI in premenopausal women, our results suggest that fat fraction, amount and distribution might play a role as predisposing factors for premenopausal BC.

  10. A Smartphone Application for Personal Assessments of Body Composition and Phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Farina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal assessments of body phenotype can enhance success in weight management but are limited by the lack of availability of practical methods. We describe a novel smart phone application of digital photography (DP and determine its validity to estimate fat mass (FM. This approach utilizes the percent (% occupancy of an individual lateral whole-body digital image and regions indicative of adipose accumulation associated with increased risk of cardio-metabolic disease. We measured 117 healthy adults (63 females and 54 males aged 19 to 65 years with DP and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and report here the development and validation of this application. Inter-observer variability of the determination of % occupancy was 0.02%. Predicted and reference FM values were significantly related in females (R2 = 0.949, SEE = 2.83 and males (R2 = 0.907, SEE = 2.71. Differences between predicted and measured FM values were small (0.02 kg, p = 0.96 and 0.07 kg, p = 0.96 for females and males, respectively. No significant bias was found; limits of agreement ranged from 5.6 to −5.4 kg for females and from 5.6 to −5.7 kg for males. These promising results indicate that DP is a practical and valid method for personal body composition assessments.

  11. Estimating terpene and terpenoid emissions from conifer oleoresin composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2015-07-01

    The following algorithm, which is based on the thermodynamics of nonelectrolyte partitioning, was developed to predict emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids from specific storage sites in conifers: Ei =xoriγoripi∘ where Ei is the emission rate (μg C gdw-1 h-1) and pi∘ is the vapor pressure (mm Hg) of the pure liquid terpene or terpenoid, respectively, and xori and γori are the mole fraction and activity coefficient (on a Raoult's law convention), respectively, of the terpene and terpenoid in the oleoresin. Activity coefficients are calculated with Hansen solubility parameters that account for dispersive, polar, and H-bonding interactions of the solutes with the oleoresin matrix. Estimates of pi∘ at 25 °C and molar enthalpies of vaporization are made with the SIMPOL.1 method and are used to estimate pi∘ at environmentally relevant temperatures. Estimated mixing ratios of terpenes and terpenols were comparatively higher above resin-acid- and monoterpene-rich oleoresins, respectively. The results indicated a greater affinity of terpenes and terpenols for the non-functionalized and carboxylic acid containing matrix through dispersive and H-bonding interactions, which are expressed in the emission algorithm by the activity coefficient. The correlation between measured emission rates of terpenes and terpenoids for Pinus strobus and emission rates predicted with the algorithm were very good (R = 0.95). Standard errors for the range and average of monoterpene emission rates were ±6 - ±86% and ±54%, respectively, and were similar in magnitude to reported standard deviations of monoterpene composition of foliar oils (±38 - ±51% and ±67%, respectively).

  12. Assessment of body composition by air-displacement plethysmography: influence of body temperature and moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, David A; Higgins, Paul B; Hunter, Gary R

    2004-04-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of body temperature and moisture on body fat (%fat), volume and density by air-displacement plethysmography (BOD POD). METHODS: %fat, body volume and density by the BOD POD before (BOD PODBH) and immediately following hydrostatic weighing (BOD PODFH) were performed in 32 healthy females (age (yr) 33 +/- 11, weight (kg) 64 +/- 14, height (cm) 167 +/- 7). Body temperature and moisture were measured prior to BOD PODBH and prior to BOD PODFH with body moisture defined as the difference in body weight (kg) between the BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH measurements. RESULTS: BOD PODFH %fat (27.1%) and body volume (61.5 L) were significantly lower (P BOD PODBH %fat (28.9%), body volume (61.7 L), and body density (1.0341 g/cm3). A significant increase in body temperature (~0.6 degrees C; P BOD PODBH and BOD PODFH. Body surface area was positively associated with the difference in %fat independent of changes in body temperature and moisture, r = 0.30, P BOD POD, however, the precise mechanism remains unidentified.

  13. Measurement precision of body composition variables in elite wheelchair athletes, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Mhairi; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 12 elite male wheelchair basketball players (age 31 ± 7 years, BMI 21 ± 2 kg/m(2) and onset of disability 25 ± 9 years). Two whole body scans were performed on each participant in the supine position on the same day, using Lunar Prodigy Advance DXA (GE Lunar, Madison, WI, USA). Participants dismounted from the scanning table and were repositioned in-between the first and second scan. Whole body coefficient of variation (CV) values for bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM) and soft tissue lean mass (LTM) were all effect of treatment intervention in an individual is 1.0 kg, 1.1 kg, 0.12 kg for FM, LTM, and BMC, respectively. This information can be used to determine meaningful changes in body composition when assessed using the same methods longitudinally. Whilst there may be challenges in the correct positioning of an individual with disability that can introduce greater measurement error, DXA is a highly reproducible technique in the estimation of total and regional body composition of elite wheelchair basketball athletes.

  14. The Pattern of Gestational Weight Gain is Associated with Changes in Maternal Body Composition and Neonatal Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Factor-Litvak, Pam R; Gallagher, Dympna; Paxton, Anne; Pierson, Richard N; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lederman, Sally A

    2015-10-01

    The pattern of gestational weight gain (GWG) reflects general nutrient availability to support growing fetal and maternal compartments and may contribute to later health, but how it relates to changes in maternal body composition is unknown. We evaluated how the pattern of GWG related to changes in maternal body composition during pregnancy and infant size at birth. A prospective, multi-ethnic cohort of 156 pregnant women and their infants was studied in New York City. Prenatal weights were used to estimate total and rate (kg/week) of GWG by trimester. Linear regression models evaluated the association between trimester-specific GWG group (low, medium, high GWG) [total (low ≤25, high ≥75 percentile) or rate (defined by tertiles)] and infant weight, length and maternal body composition changes from 14 to 37 weeks, adjusting for covariates. Compared to the low gain group, medium/high rate of GWG in the second trimester and high rate of GWG in the third trimester were associated with larger gains in maternal fat mass (β range for fat Δ = 2.86-5.29 kg, all p changes in maternal body fat and body water, and are associated with neonatal size, which supports the importance of monitoring trimester-specific GWG.

  15. Modular neuron-based body estimation: Maintaining consistency over different limbs, modalities, and frames of reference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan eEhrenfeld

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of how the brain may maintain a probabilistic body state estimate over time from a modeling perspective.The neural Modular Modality Frame (nMMF model simulates such a body state estimation process by continuously integrating redundant, multimodal body state information sources.The body state estimate itself is distributed over separate, but bidirectionally interacting modules.nMMF compares the incoming sensory and present body state information across the interacting modules and fuses the information sources accordingly. At the same time, nMMF enforces body state estimation consistency across the modules.nMMF is able to detect conflicting sensory information and to consequently decrease the influence of implausible sensor sources on the fly. In contrast to the previously published Modular Modality Frame (MMF model, nMMF offers a biologically plausible neural implementation based on distributed, probabilistic population codes. Besides its neural plausibility, the neural encoding has the advantage of enabling (a additional probabilistic information flow across the separate body state estimation modules and (b the representation of arbitrary probability distributions of a body state.The results show that the neural estimates can detect and decrease the impact of false sensory information, can propagate conflicting information across modules, and can improve overal estimation accuracy due to additional module interactions. Even bodily illusions, such as the rubber hand illusion, can be simulated with nMMF. We conclude with an outlook on the potential of modeling human data and of invoking goal-directed behavioral control.

  16. Human body mass estimation: a comparison of "morphometric" and "mechanical" methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Benjamin M; Ruff, Christopher B

    2004-12-01

    In the past, body mass was reconstructed from hominin skeletal remains using both "mechanical" methods which rely on the support of body mass by weight-bearing skeletal elements, and "morphometric" methods which reconstruct body mass through direct assessment of body size and shape. A previous comparison of two such techniques, using femoral head breadth (mechanical) and stature and bi-iliac breadth (morphometric), indicated a good general correspondence between them (Ruff et al. [1997] Nature 387:173-176). However, the two techniques were never systematically compared across a large group of modern humans of diverse body form. This study incorporates skeletal measures taken from 1,173 Holocene adult individuals, representing diverse geographic origins, body sizes, and body shapes. Femoral head breadth, bi-iliac breadth (after pelvic rearticulation), and long bone lengths were measured on each individual. Statures were estimated from long bone lengths using appropriate reference samples. Body masses were calculated using three available femoral head breadth (FH) formulae and the stature/bi-iliac breadth (STBIB) formula, and compared. All methods yielded similar results. Correlations between FH estimates and STBIB estimates are 0.74-0.81. Slight differences in results between the three FH estimates can be attributed to sampling differences in the original reference samples, and in particular, the body-size ranges included in those samples. There is no evidence for systematic differences in results due to differences in body proportions. Since the STBIB method was validated on other samples, and the FH methods produced similar estimates, this argues that either may be applied to skeletal remains with some confidence.

  17. Prediction of body composition in anorexia nervosa: Results from a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Maurizio; Sammarco, Rosa; De Filippo, Emilia; Caldara, Annarita; Speranza, Enza; Scalfi, Luca; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-07-27

    The assessment of body composition is crucial in evaluating nutritional status in female subjects with anorexia nervosa (AN) and improving their clinical management. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the accuracy of selected BIA (bioimpedance analysis) equations for fat-free mass (FFM) in female AN subjects and to formulate a specific equation for these subjects. Eighty-two restrictive female AN subjects (age 20.5 ± 3.7 yrs, BMI 15.7 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were studied. Body composition was determined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and estimated by BIA using five different equations. Linear correlation analysis was carried out to evaluate the association of FFM with selected variables. Multiple regression analysis was used to formulate specific equations to predict FFM in AN. All predictive equations underestimated FFM at the population level with a bias from -5.6 to -11.7%, while the percentage of accurate predictions varied from 12.2% to 35.4%. More interestingly, multiple regression analysis clearly indicates that, in addition to weight, ZI100 or RI also emerged as independent predictors of DXA-derived FFM, increasing the prediction power of the equation well above that observed with anthropometric characteristics only. This study shows that the selected predictive BIA equations considered exhibit an insufficient accuracy at the population and the individual level. Predictive formulas based on body weight plus BIA parameters such as RI and ZI100 offer a rather accurate prediction of FFM (with high R squared). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Body Fat Assessment: A Comparison of Visual Estimation and Skinfold Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, Thomas G.; Burke, Edmund J.

    1986-01-01

    This study compared skinfold measurements and visual estimation as methods of measuring percent body fat against underwater weighing, using a sample of 71 males. The results suggest some individuals can visually estimate percent fat about as accurately as skinfold measures do. (MT)

  19. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blasio, Francesca; de Blasio, Francesco; Miracco Berlingieri, Giulia; Bianco, Andrea; La Greca, Marta; Franssen, Frits M E; Scalfi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Background Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) is a technique that measures body impedance (Z) at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz). Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality. Objectives To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients. Methods MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer) in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz) impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients. Results After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001) and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively). Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001), 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005), respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P<0.05) and vital capacity (P<0.005). Finally, the 5/250 impedance ratio was reduced (P<0.05) in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) III and IV (compared to those with GOLD I and II) or a BODE index between 6 and 10 points (compared to those with BODE index between 1 and 5 points). Conclusion MF-BIA may be a useful tool for assessing body composition and nutritional status in COPD patients. In particular, the impedance ratio could give valuable information on cellular integrity and muscle quality.

  20. Sequential changes of body composition in patients with enterocutaneous fistula during the 10 days after admission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Bo Wang; Jian-An Ren; Jie-Shou Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the sequential changes of body composition in the metabolic response that occurred in a group of patients with enterocutaneous fistula after admission to the hospital.METHODS: Sixty-one patients with enterocutaneous fistula admitted to our hospital had measurements of body composition by multiple-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis after admission and 5, 10 days later. Sequential measurements of plasma constitutive proteins were also made. RESULTS: The body weight, fat-free mass, body mass index, and body cell mass were initially well below the normal range, especially the body mass index and body cell mass. And all the data gradually moved up over the 10-day study period, only a highly significant difference was found in body cell mass. Once the patients Received nutrition supplement, ECW began to return to normal range slowly as well as ICW and TBW began to rise up, and ECW/TBW significantly declined to near normal level by day 10 in either male or female patients. There was a reprioritization of plasma constitutive protein synthesis that was obligatory and independent of changes in FFM.CONCLUSION: Serial measurements can quantify the disturbance of body composition in enterocutaneous fistula patients. The early nutritional intervention rapidly ameliorates the abnormal distribution of body water while the state-of-the-art surgical management prevents the further deterioration in cellular composition.

  1. The effect of oxandrolone on body proportions and body composition in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Zandwijken, G.R.; Ridder, M.A. de; Stijnen, T.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Untreated girls with Turner syndrome (TS) have short stature, relatively broad shoulders, a broad pelvis, short legs, a high fat mass and low muscle mass. Our objective was to assess the effect of the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) on body proportions and composition in growth hormone (GH

  2. Nutrition-induced differences in body composition, compensatory growth and endocrine status in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2009-02-01

    In this experiment, we assessed the effect of amino acid (AA) intake restriction in entire male Yorkshire pigs between 15 and 38 kg BW (restriction phase) on BW gain, body composition and plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cortisol, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone (GH) and leptin during the subsequent re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase, 36 pigs were allotted to one of two dietary treatments: adequate AA intake (control) or AA-limiting diets (AA-30%). Thereafter, pigs were fed common non-limiting diets up to 110 kg BW. Throughout the experiment, pigs were scale-fed at 90% of the estimated voluntary daily digestible energy intake. At the end of the restriction phase, pigs on AA-30% had lesser BW gain (650 v. 784 g/day; P plasma levels of IGF-I (440 v. 640 ng/m; P plasma levels of leptin (2.7 v. 1.8 ng/ml; P = 0.027) and GH (3.3 v. 2.0 ng/ml; P = 0.05) than pigs on control. During the re-alimentation phase, previously restricted pigs showed full compensatory growth (CG) in terms of BW gain (1170 v. 1077 g/day; P composition (whole-body lipid to body protein mass ratio, LB/PB; 1.14 v. 1.15; P > 0.10). Besides GH at 45 kg BW (4.2 v. 2.4 ng/ml; P = 0.066), there were no effects of previous AA intake restriction on leptin, IGF-I and BUN during the re-alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Plasma cortisol and IGF-I levels may act as an indicator of AA-induced restriction in Pd in growing pigs. Plasma BUN level does not appear as a sensitive indicator for compensatory Pd. Plasma leptin and GH levels allow for the involvement of the brain in controlling chemical body composition. Full CG was observed during the energy-dependent phase of Pd in growing pigs and might be driven by a target LB/PB, possibly mediated via plasma leptin, IGF-I and GH levels.

  3. Body condition score, morphometric measurements and estimation of body weight in mature Icelandic horses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bovbjerg; Danielsen, Signe H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is related to the development of several diseases like insulin resistance and laminitis in horses. The prevalence of obesity among mature Icelandic horses in Denmark has not been investigated previously. This study aimed to find the prevalence of obesity, to compare body condi......, and that owners tend to underestimate the BCS of their Icelandic horses. The GC:HW ratio might indicate overweight or obesity, however, the ratio for Icelandic horses is different than reported for horses and ponies of other breeds....

  4. Body composition by a three compartment model in adult Indian male and female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonha, S; Kuriyan, R; Shetty, P; Ferro-Luzzi, A; Kurpad, A V

    1997-07-01

    The body composition of 10 adult Indian male and female subjects was investigated by a three compartment model, using measurements of Total Body Water (TBW) by deuterium dilution, and of body density by hydrodensitometry. The three compartment model yielded significantly different (P hydrodensitometry, was 1.107+/-0.014 in the males and 1.101+/-0.001 in the females with no significant differences between the groups. This study demonstrates differences in body composition between BMI matched healthy adult male and female subjects. Although there are significant differences for % Fat and FFM between the sexes, there are no significant differences in the hydration fraction and the density of the FFM.

  5. Regression methodology in groundwater composition estimation with composition predictions for Romuvaara borehole KR10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luukkonen, A.; Korkealaakso, J.; Pitkaenen, P. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-11-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy selected five investigation areas for preliminary site studies (1987Ae1992). The more detailed site investigation project, launched at the beginning of 1993 and presently supervised by Posiva Oy, is concentrated to three investigation areas. Romuvaara at Kuhmo is one of the present target areas, and the geochemical, structural and hydrological data used in this study are extracted from there. The aim of the study is to develop suitable methods for groundwater composition estimation based on a group of known hydrogeological variables. The input variables used are related to the host type of groundwater, hydrological conditions around the host location, mixing potentials between different types of groundwater, and minerals equilibrated with the groundwater. The output variables are electrical conductivity, Ca, Mg, Mn, Na, K, Fe, Cl, S, HS, SO{sub 4}, alkalinity, {sup 3}H, {sup 14}C, {sup 13}C, Al, Sr, F, Br and I concentrations, and pH of the groundwater. The methodology is to associate the known hydrogeological conditions (i.e. input variables), with the known water compositions (output variables), and to evaluate mathematical relations between these groups. Output estimations are done with two separate procedures: partial least squares regressions on the principal components of input variables, and by training neural networks with input-output pairs. Coefficients of linear equations and trained networks are optional methods for actual predictions. The quality of output predictions are monitored with confidence limit estimations, evaluated from input variable covariances and output variances, and with charge balance calculations. Groundwater compositions in Romuvaara borehole KR10 are predicted at 10 metre intervals with both prediction methods. 46 refs.

  6. Measuring Body Composition in Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Faith Casey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research shows obesity to be more prevalent amongst individuals with intellectual disability (ID making correct measurement of body composition crucial. This study reviewed the validity and reliability of methods used for assessing body composition in individuals with ID. Methods. Authors conducted electronic searches through PubMed (1990 to present and PsycINFO (1990 to present and assessed relevant articles independently based on scoping review guidelines. Reviewers included primary research related to the validity and reliability of body composition measures on individuals with ID. Results. Searches identified six articles assessing body composition methods used on individuals with ID including body mass index (BMI, skinfold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, waist circumference, tibia length, and anthropometric girth measurements. BMI and waist circumference appear suitable measures but skinfold thickness measurements may not be advisable due to participants' noncompliance resulting in a lack of precision and inaccurate results. Conclusions. The current literature contains too few well-conducted studies to determine the precision and validity of body composition measures on individuals with ID. There may be a need to devise further regression equations that apply to individuals with specific types of ID in order to increase the reliability and validity of body composition measurements.

  7. Metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance and body composition of growing farm-raised male pastel mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R B; Travis, H F; Glinsky, M S

    1978-12-01

    The requirement of metabolizable energy (ME) for maintenance was studied in 31 male pastel farm-raised mink. The procedure used was a body balance regression technique that included an initial baseline group, a group allowed feed ad libitum, and a group allowed feed at the level of 65% of average intake of the ad libitum animals. The requirement for ME was 147.8 +/- 6.06 kcal/wtkg 0.734/day. This value falls within the range of estimates of maintenance requirements noted for younger animals of other species, such as the rat, chicken, and calf. The relationships of the chemical composition of the body to functions of body weight were also examined. The composition of the mink body was closely related to the weight of the animal rather than to age or conformation, as has been noted in other species. However, the fat-free dry body of the mink contained more protein and less ash than any other species studied up to this point. On a percentage basis, protein was 87.29 and ash was 12.72. Protein in the fat-free body of other species range from 80 to 82%.

  8. Mediating effects of body composition between physical activity and body esteem in Hong Kong adolescents: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cerin, Ester; McManus, Alison M; Lai, Ching-Man; Day, Jeffrey R; Ho, Sai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating role of body mass index (BMI) in the relationship between physical activity and body esteem in adolescents. Nine hundred and five Hong Kong Chinese students aged 12-18 years participated in a cross-sectional study in 2007. Students' BMI was computed as an indicator of their body composition. Their physical activity level and body esteem were examined using the Physical Activity Rating for Children and Youth (PARCY) and Body Esteem Scale (BES), respectively. Structural equation modelling was used to investigate the mediating effects of BMI and physical activity in predicting body esteem, with stratification by sex. The overall fit of the hypothesized models was satisfactory in boys (NFI = 0.94; NNFI = 0.88; CFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07) and girls (NFI = 0.89; NNFI = 0.77; CFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.11). When BMI was considered as a mediator, higher physical activity had a significant negative total effect on body esteem in boys, but not in girls. The indirect effect of higher physical activity on body esteem via BMI was positive in boys, but negative in girls. Regular physical activity may help overweight adolescents, especially boys, improve their body esteem. Kinesiologists and health professionals could explore the use of physical activity prescriptions for weight management, aiming at body esteem improvement in community health programs for adolescents. Among Western adolescents, negative body esteem is more pervasive in girls than in boys. There are consistent findings of the association between higher body mass index and lower body esteem in adolescents, but the association between physical activity and body esteem are equivocal. A negative association between body mass index and body esteem was found in both Hong Kong adolescent boys and girls. The indirect effect of physical activity on body esteem via body mass index was positive in Hong Kong adolescent boys, but negative in girls.

  9. The effect of Pilates exercise on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şavkin, Raziye; Aslan, Ummuhan B

    2017-11-01

    Pilates is a popular exercise approach among women. Still there is poor empirical quantitative evidence indicating a positive effect of Pilates exercises on body composition. The aim of our study is to determine the effects of Pilates exercises on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Thirty-seven women, aged between 30 to 50 (43.79±4.88) years, included the study. Subjects are randomly divided into Pilates group (N.=19) and control group (N.=18). Pilates exercises was given for 90 minutes, 3 times/week, for 8 week with a gradual strength increase of 11-17 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise. Control group did not participate in any physical activity program. Bioelectric Impedance Analysis was used for determine the body composition of participants. Weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), body fat mass, lean body mass, waist, abdomen and hip circumference were measured at pre- and post-training period. In Pilates group, weight, BMI, fat percentage, waist, abdomen and hip circumference decreased significantly after training (P0.05). In control group, abdomen and hip circumference increased significantly (PPilates exercises have positive effects on body composition in sedentary overweight and obese women. Pilates exercises can be applied for improving body composition.

  10. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzolin, Caroline Cristina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Costa Junior, Paulo; Machado, Dalmo Roberto Lopes; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K=0.61), Conde and Monteiro (K=0.65), Must et al. (K=0.61) and WHO (K=0.63). The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC=0.72). The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84]) and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]). For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927]) was observed. The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassey, Charlotte A; Maidment, Susannah C R; Barrett, Paul M

    2015-03-01

    Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082-2256 kg) for this individual. By contrast, bivariate equations based on limb dimensions predict values between 2355 and 3751 kg and require implausible amounts of soft tissue and/or high body densities. When corrected for ontogenetic scaling, however, volumetric and linear equations are brought into close agreement. Our results raise concerns regarding the application of predictive equations to extinct taxa with no living analogues in terms of overall morphology and highlight the sensitivity of bivariate predictive equations to the ontogenetic status of the specimen. We emphasize the significance of rare, complete fossil skeletons in validating widely applied mass estimation equations based on incomplete skeletal material and stress the importance of accurately determining specimen age prior to further analyses.

  12. Supplementation with a fish protein hydrolysate (Micromesistius poutassou: effects on body weight, body composition, and CCK/GLP-1 secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Nobile

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fish protein hydrolysates (FPHs have been reported as a suitable source of proteins for human nutrition because of their balanced amino acid composition and positive effect on gastrointestinal absorption. Objective: Here, we investigated the effect of a FPH, Slimpro®, obtained from blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou muscle by enzymatic hydrolysis, on body composition and on stimulating cholecystokinin (CCK and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 secretion. Design: A randomized clinical study was carried out on 120, slightly overweight (25 kg/m2 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m2, male (25% and female (75% subjects. FPH was tested in a food supplement at two doses (1.4 and 2.8 g to establish if a dose–effect relationship exists. Product use was associated with a mild hypocaloric diet (−300 kcal/day. Body composition (body weight; fat mass; extracellular water; and circumference of waist, thighs, and hips and CCK/GLP-1 blood levels were measured at the beginning of the study and after 45 and 90 days of product use. CCK/GLP-1 levels were measured since they are involved in controlling food intake. Results: Treated subjects reported an improvement of body weight composition and an increased blood concentration of both CCK and GLP-1. No differences were found between the 1.4 and 2.8 g FPH doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 1.4 g FPH. Conclusions: Both 1.4 and 2.8 g of FPH were effective in improving body composition and in increasing CCK and GLP-1 blood levels.

  13. Whole body air displacement plethysmography compared with hydrodensitometry for body composition analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dewit, O; Fuller, N J; Fewtrell, M S; Elia, M; Wells, J C

    2000-01-01

    To assess the acceptability and feasibility of whole body air displacement plethysmography in children and to determine its precision and agreement with hydrodensitometry, an appropriate reference method...

  14. Body composition among Sri Lankan infants by 18*O dilution method and the validity of anthropometric equations to predict body fat against 18*O dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body composition indicators provide a better guidance for growth and nutritional status of the infants. This study was designed to (1) measure the body composition of the Sri Lankan infants using a reference method, the 18*O dilution method; (2) calculate the body fat content of the infants using pu...

  15. Body composition, fitness score and arterial stiffness assesment in a chronic hemodialysis population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Mihăescu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Arterial stiffness is highly prevalent in this type of patients. The aim of our study was to analyse the relationship between body composition, blood chemistries and arterial stiffness in a poorly fit population of chronic hemodialysed patients. Patients and methods involved measuring body composition and fitness score by multifrequence bioimpedance with the body composition analyzer InBody720 and arterial stiffness by the measurement of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (PWVao and Aortic Augmentation Index (Aix using an oscillometric method on 65 HD patients; measurements were made before a midweek dialysis session. Results: PWVao correlated significantly with weight (p=0.01, r2=1.14, body fat mass (p=0.007, r2=0.14, abdominal circumference (p=0.01, r2=0.12 and with fitness score (p=0.01, r2=0.11. Aix correlated with weight (p<0.05, r2=0.25, intracellular, extracellular- and total body water (p<0.05, r2=0.24 with body protein, soft lean mass, minerals, fat free mass and skeletal muscle mass (p<0.05, r2= 0.3 and with serum calcium (p=0.005, r2=0.2. Conclusions: Arterial stiffness is a common feature of the hemodialysed patients, significantly related to the blood calcium, fitness score and the body composition, especially fat body mass.

  16. International symposium on in vivo body composition studies: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    This booklet contains the program and individual abstracts for papers presented at the International symposium on in vivo body composition studies. The presentations were divided into five sessions. Individual abstracts were indexed for the Energy Data Base. (DT)

  17. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  18. Body Composition Monitor Assessing Malnutrition in the Hemodialysis Population Independently Predicts Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Kissova, Viera; Majernikova, Maria; Straussova, Zuzana; Boldizsar, Jan

    Objective: Malnutrition is a known predictor of mortality in the general and hemodialysis populations. However, diagnosing malnutrition in dialysis patients remains problematic. Body composition monitoring (BCM) is currently used mainly for assessing overhydratation in hemodialysis patients, but it

  19. Fitness knowledge, cardiorespiratory endurance and body composition of high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Skip M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this study was to determine if high school physical education seniors’ health-related fitness knowledge is related to their aerobic capacity and body composition.

  20. Relationship between daily dietary fructose intake, body composition and biochemical parameters patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabriye Arslan

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: Further studies are needed to develop more specific suggestions regarding fructose intake and to better understand the relationship between fructose intakes, body composition and biochemical parameters in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  1. The effects of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on body composition and hematological biochemical parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini; Morteza Motahari Rad; Keyvan Hejazi

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aimed to have a closer look at fasting and regular physical activity and their impacts on body composition and blood hematological-biochemical parameters among professional wrestlers. Method...

  2. Body Composition Monitor Assessing Malnutrition in the Hemodialysis Population Independently Predicts Mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Kissova, Viera; Majernikova, Maria; Straussova, Zuzana; Boldizsar, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Malnutrition is a known predictor of mortality in the general and hemodialysis populations. However, diagnosing malnutrition in dialysis patients remains problematic. Body composition monitoring (BCM) is currently used mainly for assessing overhydratation in hemodialysis patients, but it

  3. Body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders: impact of feeding strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Key words: broiler breeder, feeding strategies, body composition, reproduction, behavior Nowadays, welfare issues in broiler breeders associated with nutrition and reproductive characteristics, are becoming increasingly challenging. Due to genetic selection on broilers,

  4. Sarcopenia and body composition in diabetic Charcot osteoarthropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Christensen, Tomas Møller; Bülow, Jens

    2015-01-01

    : Cross-sectional case-control study of people with diabetes with acute or chronic Charcot osteoarthropathy, matched with otherwise healthy people with diabetes. A total of 49 subjects (distribution ~1:1) had a total body DXA-scanning, measuring appendicular lean mass, android/gynoid and truncal...... (24.5-31.9%), whereas there were no significant differences found between the groups (P=0.065). Neither truncal/total fat percent nor android/gynoid fat percent ratios showed differences between the groups. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first published dataset investigating body...

  5. Body image and correlation with body composition and attrition rate in the TIGER study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body image can be a very important part of determining an individual's outlook and behavior. Previous research has shown that the degree of satisfaction women have with their bodies may vary across race and may have a significant impact on an individual's motivation and commitment to a regular exer...

  6. Associations between Body Composition, Hormonal and Lifestyle Factors, Bone Turnover, and BMD

    OpenAIRE

    Gourlay, Margaret L.; Hammett-Stabler, Catherine A; Renner, Jordan B.; Rubin, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The relative importance of body composition, lifestyle factors, bone turnover and hormonal factors in determining bone mineral density (BMD) is unknown. We studied younger postmenopausal women to determine whether modifiable or nonmodifiable risk factors for osteoporosis have stronger associations with BMD. Methods In multivariable linear regression models, we tested associations between non-bone body composition measures, self-reported measures of physical activity and dietary int...

  7. The effect of protein and glycemic index on children's body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadaki, Angeliki; Linardakis, Manolis; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study.......To investigate the effect of protein and glycemic index (GI) on body composition among European children in the randomized, 6-month dietary intervention DiOGenes (diet, obesity, and genes) family-based study....

  8. Maternal Physical Activity and Insulin Action in Pregnancy and Their Relationships With Infant Body Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Pomeroy, Jeremy; Renström, Frida; Gradmark, Anna M.; Mogren, Ingrid; Persson, Margareta; Bluck, Les; Wright, Antony; Kahn, Steven E; Domellöf, Magnus; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to assess the association between maternal gestational physical activity and insulin action and body composition in early infancy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS At 28–32 weeks' gestation, pregnant women participating in an observational study in Sweden underwent assessments of height, weight, and body composition, an oral glucose tolerance test, and 10 days of objective physical activity assessment. Thirty mothers and infants returned at 11–19 weeks postpartum. Infants under...

  9. Adhesion molecules and chemokines: relation to anthropometric, body composition, biochemical and dietary variables

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Among the inflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, the cell adhesion molecules P-selectin, E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and the chemokine MCP-1 stand out. They play a crucial role in adherence of cells to endothelial surfaces, in the integrity of the vascular wall and can be modulated by body composition and dietary pattern. Objectives: To describe and discuss the relation of these cell adhesion molecules and chemokines to anthropometric, body composition, d...

  10. Adhesion molecules and chemokines : relation to anthropometric, body composition, biochemical and dietary variables.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Renata Adrielle Lima; Freitas,Renata Nascimento; Volp, Ana Carolina Pinheiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Among the inflammatory mediators involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, the cell adhesion molecules Pselectin, E-selectin, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and the chemokine MCP-1 stand out. They play a crucial role in adherence of cells to endothelial surfaces, in the integrity of the vascular wall and can be modulated by body composition and dietary pattern. Objectives: To describe and discuss the relation of these cell adhesion molecules and chemokines to anthropometric, body composition, di...

  11. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition in patients with secondary osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Carmelo; Monaco, Cristian Giuseppe; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo; Sardanelli, Francesco; Sconfienza, Luca Maria

    2016-08-01

    Due to the tight relationship between bone and soft tissues, there has been an increased interest in body composition assessment in patients with secondary osteoporosis as well as other pathological conditions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is primarily devoted to the evaluation of bone mineral status, but continuous scientific advances of body composition software made DXA a rapid and easily available technique to assess body composition in terms of fat mass and lean mass. As a result, the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recently developed Official Positions regarding the use of this technique for body composition analysis. According to ISCD paper, indications are mainly limited to three conditions: HIV patients treated with antiretroviral agents associated with a risk of lipoatrophy; obese patients undergoing treatment for high weight loss; patients with sarcopenia or muscle weakness. Nevertheless, there are several other interesting clinical applications that were not included in the ISCD position paper, such as body composition assessment in patients undergoing organ transplantation, pulmonary disease as well as all those chronic condition that may lead to malnutrition. In conclusion, DXA body composition offers new diagnostic and research possibilities for a variety of diseases; due to its high reproducibility, DXA has also the potential to monitor body composition changes with pharmacological, nutritional or physic therapeutic interventions. ISCD addressed and recommended a list of clinical condition, but the crescent availability of DXA scans and software improvements may open the use of DXA to other indication in the next future. This article provides an overview of DXA body composition indications in the management of secondary osteoporosis and other clinical indications in adults.

  12. 2. Essential amino acid composition of the whole empty body

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion of various tissues and organs be compared with that of the whole empty body to ... efficiency of protein and fat deposition in ruminants have been found to be ..... It has already been recognised in poultry that the proportion of total protein ...

  13. Trend of Body Compositions with Aging among Chinese Adolescents, Adults and Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Zhu, G; Han, S

    2015-12-01

    Rare reports can be found about sex- and age-specific body composition survey among Chinese population. The aim of this study is to explore the change of sex-specific body compositions with aging among Chinese adolescents, adults and elders. In a large-scale population survey about physiological constants and health conditions, 75,714 subjects who aged from 8 to 80 completed body composition array. Body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat (PBF), water percentage of body weight (WPBW), water percentage of lean body mass (WPLBM), fat-free mass index (FFMI) and basic metabolic rate were examined with Biodynamics BI-310 body composition analyzer. General obesity is defined as BMI equal to or greater than 28 kg/m2. The prevalence rates of general obesity were 9.4% for males and 7.7% for females respectively. With aging, PBF and FMI showed a U-shape curvilinear trend and WPBW showed a parabolic trend for males. At same age group: 18-19 age groups, PBF and FMI declined to the valley and WPBW rose to the peak. For females, PBF, WPBW and FMI changed in a linear trend. The values of WPLBM and FFMI showed same curvilinear trend for two genders. WPLBM changed in a U-shape trend and touched the valley in twenties for males and in 18-19 age groups for females. The value of FFMI was larger for older age groups in the younger generation but smaller in the older generation. A parabolic trend peaking was seen in the thirties for males and in the forties for females. Regression models with age as independent variable showed that the larger rate of increase of PBF and smaller rates of increase for WPBM and WPLBM with aging for males. This study presents detailed data about sex-specific body composition conditions. Different change trend with aging was found about body composition conditions.

  14. Water aerobics II: maternal body composition and perinatal outcomes after a program for low risk pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Ana L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of water aerobics during pregnancy. Methods A randomized controlled trial carried out in 71 low-risk sedentary pregnant women, randomly allocated to water aerobics or no physical exercise. Maternal body composition and perinatal outcomes were evaluated. For statistical analysis Chi-square, Fisher's or Student's t-tests were applied. Risk ratios and their 95% CI were estimated for main outcomes. Body composition was evaluated across time using MANOVA or Friedman multiple analysis. Results There were no significant differences between the groups regarding maternal weight gain, BMI or percentage of body fat during pregnancy. Incidence of preterm births (RR = 0.84; 95%CI:0.28–2.53, vaginal births (RR = 1.24; 95%CI:0.73–2.09, low birthweight (RR = 1.30; 95%CI:0.61–2.79 and adequate weight for gestational age (RR = 1.50; 95%CI:0.65–3.48 were also not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate between before and immediately after the water aerobics session. Conclusion Water aerobics for sedentary pregnant women proved to be safe and was not associated with any alteration in maternal body composition, type of delivery, preterm birth rate, neonatal well-being or weight.

  15. Somatotype, size and body composition of competitive female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malousaris, Grigoris G; Bergeles, Nikolaos K; Barzouka, Karolina G; Bayios, Ioannis A; Nassis, George P; Koskolou, Maria D

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the morphological characteristics of competitive female volleyball players. For this purpose, body weight and height, breadths and girths as well as skinfold thickness at various body sites were assessed in 163 elite female volleyball players (age: 23.8+/-4.7 years, years of playing: 11.5+/-4.2, hours of training per week: 11.9+/-2.9, means+/-S.D.). Seventy-nine of these players were from the A1 division and the rest from the A2 division of the Greek National League. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the differences in these characteristics between competition level and playing position. Body height ranged from 161cm to 194cm, and the mean value (177.1+/-6.5cm) was not inferior to that of international players of similar calibre. Adiposity of these players (sum of 5 skinfolds: 51.8+/-10.2mm, percent body fat: 23.4+/-2.8) was higher than that reported in other studies in which, however, different methodology was used. Volleyball athletes of this study were mainly balanced endomorphs (3.4-2.7-2.9). The A1 division players were taller and slightly leaner with greater fat-free mass than their A2 counterparts. Significant differences were found among athletes of different playing positions which are interpreted by their varying roles and physical demands during a volleyball game. The volleyball players who play as opposites were the only subgroup of players differing between divisions; the A2 opposites had more body fat than A1 opposites. These data could be added in the international literature related to the anthropometric characteristics of competitive female volleyball players.

  16. School Processes Mediate School Compositional Effects: Model Specification and Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongqiang; Van Damme, Jan; Gielen, Sarah; Van Den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    School composition effects have been consistently verified, but few studies ever attempted to study how school composition affects school achievement. Based on prior research findings, we employed multilevel mediation modeling to examine whether school processes mediate the effect of school composition upon school outcomes based on the data of 28…

  17. Association between dietary protein and change in body composition among children (EYHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vught, Anneke J A H; Heitmann, Berit L; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G;

    2009-01-01

    mass index (FFMI) and fat mass index (FMI), based on skinfold measurements. Dietary intake was estimated via 24h recall. Associations between intakes of protein as well as arginine, lysine and change in FFMI and FMI were analysed by multiple linear regressions, adjusted for social economic status...... of protein, arginine, lysine and subsequent 6-year change in body composition among 8-10-year-old children. METHODS: Data of 364 children were collected from Odense, Denmark, during 1997-1998 and 6-year later as part of the European Youth Heart Study. Body mass index among children was subdivided by fat free......, puberty stage and physical activity level. RESULTS: Among lean girls inverse associations were found between protein as well as arginine and lysine intake and change in fat mass index (beta=-1.12+/-0.56, p=0.03, beta=-1.10+/-0.53, p=0.04, beta=-1.13+/-0.51, p=0.03 respectively). Furthermore among girls...

  18. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression modeling performed on measurements of selected pesticides in composited duplicate diet samples allowed (1) estimation ...

  19. Body composition and phase angle in Russian children in remission from acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Khomyakova, I. A.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Konovalova, M. V.; Vashura, A. Yu; Tretyak, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Rudnev, S. G.

    2010-04-01

    Elevated degree of body fatness and changes in other body composition parameters are known to be common effects of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children. In order to study peculiarities of somatic growth and development in ALL survivors, we describe the results of BIA body composition analysis of 112 boys and 108 girls aged 5-18 years in remission from ALL (remission time range 1-13 years) compared to data from the same number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n=220). Detrimental effect on height in ALL boys was observed, whereas girls experienced additional weight gain compared to healthy subjects. In ALL patients, resistance, body fat, and percent body fat were significantly increased. The reactance, phase angle, absolute and relative values of skeletal muscle and body cell mass were significantly decreased. Principal component analysis revealed an early prevalence of adiposity traits in the somatic growth and development of ALL girls compared to healthy controls.

  20. Body composition of active persons with spinal cord injury and with poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study sought to evaluate the body composition of subjects with active spinal cord injuries and polio. Two groups of males and females, active, free-living, of similar ages and body mass index (BMI), were distributed according to the source of deficiency: SCI – low spinal cord injury (T5-T12) an...

  1. The Pituitary Gland and Age-Dependent Regulation of Body Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Andre P.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Runge, Evelien; Trainer, Peter J.; Jonsson, Peter J.; Koltowska-Haggstrom, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of obesity is increased in hypopituitarism. In the general population, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference increase with advancing age. It remains uncertain whether age-related changes in pituitary function contribute to the changes in body composition associated wi

  2. The Relationship between Selected Body Composition Variables and Muscular Endurance in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R.; Olson, Michele S.; Williford, Henry N.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if muscular endurance is affected by referenced waist circumference groupings, independent of body mass and subcutaneous abdominal fat, in women. This study also explored whether selected body composition measures were associated with muscular endurance. Eighty-four women were measured for height,…

  3. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  4. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, A; Heitmann, B L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, inexpensive and non-invasive technique to measure body composition and is therefore suitable in field studies and larger surveys. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an overview of BIA-derived body fat percentages (BF...

  5. Testosterone and growth hormone improve body composition and muscle performance in older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONTEXT: Impairments in the pituitary-gonadal axis with aging are associated with loss of muscle mass and function and accumulation of upper body fat. OBJECTIVES: We tested the hypothesis that physiological supplementation with testosterone and GH together improves body composition and muscle perfor...

  6. Body Composition in Relation to Clinical Outcomes in Renal Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, Alina; Kampman, Ellen; Knijnenburg, Nathalja C.; Mulders, Peter F.; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Baracos, Vickie E.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Several studies suggest that body composition (ie, body proportions of muscle and fat defined by computed tomography) is associated with clinical outcomes of several cancer types, including renal cell cancer (RCC). Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence

  7. Body composition and flight ranges of Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) from New Zealand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battley, Phil F.; Piersma, Theunis; Holberton, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Body composition analysis was performed on 37 Bar-tailed Godwits (Limosa lapponica baueri) that had been illegally shot during migratory fueling in northern New Zealand in March 1992. Adults (n = 35) were heavy (442-721 g), with fat loads of 30-45% of body mass. Two first-year males had only 5.4% an

  8. Effects of a Rebound Exercise Training Program on Aerobic Capacity and Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoni, Teresa L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine if aerobic dancing on rebound exercise equipment (minitrampolines) is an effective way to improve aerobic capacity and body composition. Although aerobic capacity improved, percent body fat did not change. Results were similar to those produced by conventional aerobic dance programs of like intensity. (MT)

  9. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake-Lessons from Body Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M; Müller, Manfred J

    2016-12-31

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  10. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake—Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geisler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM, which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years; (2 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years and (3 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years. LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance, body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day. Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs.

  11. Inadequacy of Body Weight-Based Recommendations for Individual Protein Intake—Lessons from Body Composition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Prado, Carla M.; Müller, Manfred J.

    2016-01-01

    Current body weight-based protein recommendations are ignoring the large variability in body composition, particularly lean mass (LM), which drives protein requirements. We explored and highlighted the inter-individual variability of weight versus body composition-adjusted protein intakes by secondary analysis in three cohorts of (1) 574 healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 41.4 ± 15.2 years); (2) 403 cirrhotic patients (age: 44.7 ± 12.3 years) and (3) 547 patients with lung cancer (age: 61.3 ± 8.2 years). LM was assessed using different devices (magnetic resonance imaging, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, computer tomography, total body potassium and bioelectrical impedance), body weight-based protein intake, its ratio (per kg LM) and mean protein requirement were calculated. Variability in protein intake in all cohorts ranged from 0.83 to 1.77 g protein per kg LM per day using (theoretical protein intake of 60 g protein per day). Calculated mean protein requirement was 1.63 g protein per kg LM per day; consequently, 95.3% of healthy subjects, 100% of cirrhotic and 97.4% of cancer patients would present with a low protein intake per kg LM. Weight-adjusted recommendations are inadequate to address the LM specific differences in protein needs of healthy subjects or clinical populations. Absolute protein intake seems to be more relevant compared to the relative proportion of protein, which in turn changes with different energy needs. PMID:28042853

  12. The Body Composition Project: A Summary Report and Descriptive Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Hispanic American Indian/Alagan Native Asian /Pacific Islan, Table la. Percent of sample by age groups that exceeded the weight for height screening tables...category followed by Black, Hispanic, Asian /Pacific Islander and- American IndianlAlaskan Nativei respectively. Also, the 21-27 year age group make up the...questions ralating to cardiovascular disease, asthma. me.dicatlon. coffe consuvtion1 Injuries to the upper and lowor body, ss w*1 as swnking historieo

  13. EKF composition estimation and GMC control of a reactive distillation column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintavon, Sirivimon; Kittisupakorn, Paisan

    2017-08-01

    This research work proposes an extended Kalman filter (EKF) estimator to give estimates of product composition and a generic model controller (GMC) to control the temperature of a reactive distillation column (RDC). One of major difficulties to control the RDC is large time delays of product composition measurement. Therefore, the estimates of the product composition are needed and determined based on available and reliable measured tray temperature via the extended Kalman Filter (EKF). With these estimates, the GMC controller is applied to control the RDC's temperature. The performance of the EKF estimator under the GMC control is evaluated in various disturbances and set point change.

  14. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on body composition, body fat mobilization, protein accretion, and energy utilization in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soosten, D; Meyer, U; Piechotta, M; Flachowsky, G; Dänicke, S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, mobilization or accretion of body fat and protein mass, as well as the energy metabolism of dairy cows during the first 105 d in milk (DIM). For this purpose, a comparative slaughter experiment was conducted with 25 primiparous German Holstein cows. The experiment started at 1 DIM with the slaughter of 5 animals of an initial group receiving no CLA supplement. The remaining animals were fed a CLA supplement (n=10) or a stearic acid-based control fat supplement (CON; n=10) from 1 DIM up to slaughter. After 42 DIM, 5 more cows from each treatment (42-CLA and 42-CON) were slaughtered. The remaining 5 cows in each treatment were slaughtered after 105 DIM (105-CLA and 105-CON). The animals of the CLA groups consumed 6.0 g/d of trans-10,cis-12 CLA and 5.7 g/d of cis-9,trans-11 CLA. During the slaughter process, the empty body mass was recorded and partitioned into 9 fractions (meat, bone, offal, hide, mammary gland, retroperitoneal fat, omental fat, mesenteric fat, and s.c. fat). The fractions were analyzed for dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, and ash to calculate the body composition of the empty body mass at the different slaughter times. The principle of the comparative slaughter technique was applied to estimate body fat or protein mobilization and accretion in the viewed periods from 1 DIM until 42 and 105 DIM. The heat production (HP) was calculated by subtracting the energy in milk and energy changes in body mass from the metabolizable energy intake. The body composition was not affected by CLA supplementation. However, the mobilization of body fat mass from 1 until 42 DIM was 24.1 kg in the 42-CON group and 14.3 kg in the 42-CLA group. This resulted in a trend to lower body mass (fat and protein) mobilization of 10.5 kg in the 42-CLA group. Energy mobilization from body mass was 21.2 MJ/d in

  15. Whole body air displacement plethysmography compared with hydrodensitometry for body composition analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dewit, O; Fuller, N.; Fewtrell, M; Elia, M; Wells, J.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the acceptability and feasibility of whole body air displacement plethysmography in children and to determine its precision and agreement with hydrodensitometry, an appropriate reference method.
METHODS—Age specific two component model equations were used to predict fat mass from body density in 22 children aged 8-12 years and in 10 adults for comparison of methods. Precision for each method was established from duplicate measurements.
RESULTS—Plethysmography ...

  16. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Richard V; Walker, Ann C; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L; Leonard, Michael S; Miller, Ram R; Stimpson, Stephen A; Turner, Scott M; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T; Hellerstein, Marc K; Evans, William J

    2014-06-15

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19-30 yr, 70-84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51-62 yr, 70-84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA.

  17. Weight, body composition and handgrip strength among pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praygod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate deficits in weight, arm fat area (AFA), arm muscle area (AMA) and handgrip strength among smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB+) patients starting treatment. We conducted a cross-sectional study among PTB+ patients and age- and sex-matched neighborhood controls. HIV statu...

  18. Assessment and correction of skinfold thickness equations in estimating body fat in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Matthew J; Kuperminc, Michelle N; Busby, Marjorie G; Bennis, Jacey A; Grossberg, Richard I; Houlihan, Christine M; Stevenson, Richard D; Henderson, Richard C

    2010-02-01

    To assess the accuracy of skinfold equations in estimating percentage body fat in children with cerebral palsy (CP), compared with assessment of body fat from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Data were collected from 71 participants (30 females, 41 males) with CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels I-V) between the ages of 8 and 18 years. Estimated percentage body fat was computed using established (Slaughter) equations based on the triceps and subscapular skinfolds. A linear model was fitted to assess the use of a simple correction to these equations for children with CP. Slaughter's equations consistently underestimated percentage body fat (mean difference compared with DXA percentage body fat -9.6/100 [SD 6.2]; 95% confidence interval [CI] -11.0 to -8.1). New equations were developed in which a correction factor was added to the existing equations based on sex, race, GMFCS level, size, and pubertal status. These corrected equations for children with CP agree better with DXA (mean difference 0.2/100 [SD=4.8]; 95% CI -1.0 to 1.3) than existing equations. A simple correction factor to commonly used equations substantially improves the ability to estimate percentage body fat from two skinfold measures in children with CP.

  19. Effects of varying dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer fingerlings (Tor tambroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Sairatul Dahlianis; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Saad, Che Roos; Yusof, Yus Aniza

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of four iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-caloric (17.6 kJ g(-1)) diets with different dietary carbohydrate levels (15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings in a 10-week feeding trial. Fish (initial weight of 0.8?0.1 g; initial total length 4.2?0.1 cm) were fed twice daily at 4% body mass. Dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects (Pfish body were also significantly differed (Phistology showed mild hepatic steatosis and hypertrophy for fishes receiving a higher dietary carbohydrate inclusion. In general, treatments with 20% and 25% dietary carbohydrate levels produced better growth results compared to the rest of the treatments. Using a second-order polynomial regression analysis model, the optimal dietary carbohydrate level of 23.4% was estimated for mahseer fingerlings. ?

  20. How Accurate Are the Anthropometry Equations in in Iranian Military Men in Predicting Body Composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaee, Abolfazl; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Alishiri, Gholam Hossein; Ebrahimpour, Zeynab; Faradjzadeh, Shahram; Sobhani, Vahid; Asgari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: The body composition varies according to different life styles (i.e. intake calories and caloric expenditure). Therefore, it is wise to record military personnel’s body composition periodically and encourage those who abide to the regulations. Different methods have been introduced for body composition assessment: invasive and non-invasive. Amongst them, the Jackson and Pollock equation is most popular. Objectives: The recommended anthropometric prediction equations for assessing men’s body composition were compared with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) gold standard to develop a modified equation to assess body composition and obesity quantitatively among Iranian military men. Patients and Methods: A total of 101 military men aged 23 - 52 years old with a mean age of 35.5 years were recruited and evaluated in the present study (average height, 173.9 cm and weight, 81.5 kg). The body-fat percentages of subjects were assessed both with anthropometric assessment and DEXA scan. The data obtained from these two methods were then compared using multiple regression analysis. Results: The mean and standard deviation of body fat percentage of the DEXA assessment was 21.2 ± 4.3 and body fat percentage obtained from three Jackson and Pollock 3-, 4- and 7-site equations were 21.1 ± 5.8, 22.2 ± 6.0 and 20.9 ± 5.7, respectively. There was a strong correlation between these three equations and DEXA (R² = 0.98). Conclusions: The mean percentage of body fat obtained from the three equations of Jackson and Pollock was very close to that of body fat obtained from DEXA; however, we suggest using a modified Jackson-Pollock 3-site equation for volunteer military men because the 3-site equation analysis method is simpler and faster than other methods. PMID:26715964

  1. Body composition of adult cystic fibrosis patients and control subjects as determined by densitometry, bioelectrical impedance, total-body electrical conductivity, skinfold measurements, and deuterium oxide dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newby, M.J.; Keim, N.L.; Brown, D.L. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1990-08-01

    This study contrasts body compositions (by six methods) of eight cystic fibrosis (CF) subjects with those of eight control subjects matched for age, height, and sex. CF subjects weighed 84% as much as control subjects. Densitometry and two bioelectrical impedance-analysis methods suggested that reduced CF weights were due to less lean tissue (10.7, 9.5, and 10.4 kg). Total-body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) and skinfold-thickness measurements indicated that CF subjects were leaner than control subjects and had less fat (5.4 and 3.6 kg) and less lean (5.2 and 7 kg) tissue. D2O dilution showed a pattern similar to TOBEC (8.3 kg less lean, 2.7 kg less fat tissue). Densitometry estimates of fat (mass and percent) were not correlated (r less than 0.74, p greater than 0.05) with any other method for CF subjects but were correlated with all other methods for control subjects. CF subjects contained less fat and lean tissue than did control subjects. Densitometry by underwater weighing is unsuitable for assessing body composition of CF patients.

  2. Fixation patterns, not clinical diagnosis, predict body size over‐estimation in eating disordered women and healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Katri K.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Hancock, Peter J. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over‐estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye‐movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over‐estimating body size. Method To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (rAN) who had concerns about body shape and weight and who over‐estimated body size, (ii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape and who estimated body size accurately (iii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape but who did over‐estimate body size. Results Comparisons between the three groups showed that: (i) accurate body size estimators tended to look more in the waist region, and this was independent of clinical diagnosis; (ii) there is a pattern of looking at images of bodies, particularly viewing the upper parts of the torso and face, which is specific to participants with rAN but which is independent of accuracy in body size estimation. Discussion Since the over‐estimating controls did not share the same body image concerns that women with rAN report, their over‐estimation cannot be explained by attitudinal concerns about body shape and weight. These results suggest that a distributed fixation pattern is associated with over‐estimation of body size and should be addressed in treatment programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:507–518). PMID:26996142

  3. Association between infancy BMI peak and body composition and blood pressure at age 5-6 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel H P Hof

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development of overweight is often measured with the body mass index (BMI. During childhood the BMI curve has two characteristic points: the adiposity rebound at 6 years and the BMI peak at 9 months of age. In this study, the associations between the BMI peak and body composition measures and blood pressure at age 5-6 years were investigated. METHODS: Measurements from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD study were available for this study. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic and body composition measures (BMI, waist-to-height ratio, fat percentage were gathered during a health check at about 6 years of age (n = 2822. All children had multiple BMI measurements between the 0-4 years of age. For boys and girls separately, child-specific BMI peaks were extracted from mixed effect models. Associations between the estimated BMI peak and the health check measurements were analysed with linear models. In addition, we investigated the potential use of the BMI at 9 months as a surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak. RESULTS: After correction for the confounding effect of fetal growth, both timing and magnitude of the BMI peak were significantly and positively associated (p<0.001 with all body composition measures at the age of 5-6 years. The BMI peak showed no direct association with blood pressure at the age 5-6 year, but was mediated by the current BMI. The correlation between the magnitude of the BMI peak and BMI at 9 months was approximately 0.93 and similar associations with the measures at 5-6 years were found. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of the BMI peak was associated with body composition measures at 5-6 years of age. Moreover, the BMI at 9 months could be used as surrogate measure for the magnitude of the BMI peak.

  4. Comparison of body composition assessment by hydrodensitometry, skinfolds, and multiple site near-infrared spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortobágyi, T; Israel, R G; Houmard, J A; McCammon, M R; O'Brien, K F

    1992-03-01

    Percent body fat (%BF) was assessed in 171 men with underwater weighing (UWW), seven-site skinfolds (7 SF), and near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIR). NIR was determined at eight sites, including biceps, triceps, axilla, chest, abdomen, suprailium, subscapula and thigh. Analysis of variance and Dunnett's post-hoc procedure revealed that NIR significantly (P less than 0.05) underpredicted %BF when using the biceps (12.9%), chest (11.3%), abdomen (10.2%), subscapula (11.3%) and thigh (9.9%) sites compared to the criterion %BF measured with UWW (13.4% +/- SD = 6.49). %BF with 7 SF was only 0.3% higher than %BF with UWW (r = 0.94, standard error of estimate = 2.9%). Correlation coefficients between SF thickness and NIR optical density readings at 940 nm (OD1) and 950 nm (OD2) wavelengths ranged from r = -0.30 (subscapula) to r = -0.67 (biceps) for OD1 and r = -0.39 (axilla) to r = -0.68 (biceps) for OD2. Multiple linear regression showed that the OD readings were not significant predictors of UWW %BF when using body mass, stature, activity level, and frame size as predictors, except for the OD2 reading at the biceps site. Stepwise regression revealed that NIR OD readings did not predict additional variance in %BF beyond mass, stature, activity level, frame size, or 7 SF. It was concluded that 7 SF are better predictors of %BF than NIR, and that NIR at multiple sites is inconsistent in assessing body composition.

  5. THE RESULTS OF THE ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ BODY COMPOSITION BY BIOIMPEDANCE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Blinov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tissues of the human body can conduct electricity. Liquid medium (water, blood, the contents of hollow bodies, have a low impedance, i.e. good conductors, while denser tissue (muscle, nerves, etc. resistance is significantly higher. The biggest impedance have fat and bone tissues. The bioimpendancemetry – a method which allows to determine the composition of the human body by measuring electrical resistance (impedance of its tissues. Relevance. This technique is indispensable to dieticians and fitness trainers. In addition, the results of the study can provide invaluable assistance in the appointment of effective treatment physicians, gynecologists, orthopedists, and other specialists. The bioimpedance method helps to determine the risks of developing diabetes type 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension, diseases of the musculoskeletal system, disorders of the endocrine system, gall-stone disease and etc. Materials and Methods. In the list of parameters of body composition assessed by bioimpedance analysis method, included absolute and relative indicators. Depending on the method of measurement of the absolute rates were determined for the whole body. To absolute performance were: fat and skinny body mass index, active cell and skeletal muscle mass, total body water, cellular and extracellular fluid. Along with them were calculated relatively (normalized to body weight, lean mass, or other variables indicators of body composition. Results. In the result of the comparison of anthropometric and bioimpedance method found that growth performance, vital capacity, weight, waist circumference, circumfer¬ence of waist and hip, basal metabolism, body fat mass, normalized on growth, lean mass, percentage skeletal muscle mass in boys and girls with normal and excessive body weight had statistically significant differences. Discussion and Conclusions. In the present study physical development with consideration of body composition in students

  6. Impact of body composition changes on risk of all-cause mortality in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graf, Christophe E; Herrmann, François R; Spoerri, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluates the relationship between body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) changes and mortality in persons ≥65 years. METHODS: Adults ≥65 years with at least two body composition measurements (BCM) between 1990 and 2011 were included. We...... excluded persons who died within one month of the second BCM and who had two single BCM in a one-month timeframe. Mortality data was retrieved until December 2012. For each person, we calculated the regression slopes for BMI, FMI and FFMI changes. Significant positive slopes were categorized as "gain......", negative slopes as "loss" and the others as "maintenance". The impact of body composition changes was evaluated by Cox regression models while adjusting for sex, age, co-morbidities and body composition at the last measurement. RESULTS: We included 791 persons with 3049 BCM. After adjustment for sex...

  7. Insulin resistance, exercise capacity and body composition in subjects with two hypertensive parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, U B; Dige-Petersen, H; Ibsen, H

    1999-01-01

    for the difference between the means; -0.5; -7.9), but the insulin sensitivity index was similar: 312 versus 362 I(2) min(-1) pmol(-1) kg(-1) (28; -129). The two groups were similar in terms of body composition, exercise capacity and composition of usual diet. Resting and 24-h diastolic blood pressures were...... being highly selected as to confounding factors. The increased blood pressure in the hypertension prone subjects could not be attributed to differences in body composition, exercise capacity or dietary habits....... parents were both normotensive, were studied. Subjects or parents with diabetes and morbid obesity were excluded. METHODS: The study comprised (1) a frequent sampling oral glucose tolerance test; (2) an isoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp study; (3) an analysis of body composition by dual-energy X...

  8. Body Composition and Somatotype in Adolescent Competion Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Martínez-Sanz; Juan Mielgo-Ayuso; Aritz Urdampilleta

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The swimmer is a high level athlete, with long limbs, and whose musculoskeletal components are important in sporting success. However, the fat component is paradoxical because of its relationship with the buoyancy and displacement of the body in the water. The aim of this study is to describe the anthropometric profile of adolescent competition swimmers.Material and methods: A total of 17 adolescent swimmers were evaluated, 10 boys (13.2 ±1.32 years) and 7 girls (15±1.83 years)....

  9. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Martínez-Torres, Javier; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel Humberto; Carrillo, Hugo Alejandro; Ramos-Sepúlveda, Jeison Alexander; Villa-González, Emilio; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference)/((height)(1.5))−18) was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF%) in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3). We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and the coefficient of determination (R2) between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)). The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001). For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI) = −6.0 to 18.2), indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414). In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels. PMID:28106719

  10. Body Adiposity Index Performance in Estimating Body Fat Percentage in Colombian College Students: Findings from the FUPRECOL—Adults Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a body adiposity index (BAI = (hip circumference/((height(1.5−18 was developed and validated in adult populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of BAI in estimating percentage body fat (BF% in a sample of Colombian collegiate young adults. The participants were comprised of 903 volunteers (52% females, mean age = 21.4 years ± 3.3. We used the Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient, linear regression, Bland–Altman’s agreement analysis, concordance correlation coefficient (ρc and the coefficient of determination (R2 between BAI, and BF%; by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. The correlation between the two methods of estimating BF% was R2 = 0.384, p < 0.001. A paired-sample t-test showed a difference between the methods (BIA BF% = 16.2 ± 3.1, BAI BF% = 30.0 ± 5.4%; p < 0.001. For BIA, bias value was 6.0 ± 6.2 BF% (95% confidence interval (CI = −6.0 to 18.2, indicating that the BAI method overestimated BF% relative to the reference method. Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient was poor (ρc = 0.014, 95% CI = −0.124 to 0.135; p = 0.414. In Colombian college students, there was poor agreement between BAI- and BIA-based estimates of BF%, and so BAI is not accurate in people with low or high body fat percentage levels.

  11. Voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition depend on genetic selection history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehrenberg, Derrick L; Hua, Kunjie; Estrada-Smith, Daria; Garland, Theodore; Pomp, Daniel

    2009-07-01

    Little is known about how genetic variation affects the capacity for exercise to change body composition. We examined the extent to which voluntary exercise alters body composition in several lines of selectively bred mice compared to controls. Lines studied included high runner (HR) (selected for high wheel running), M16 (selected for rapid weight gain), Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) (randomly bred as control for M16), M16i (an inbred line derived from M16), HE (selected for high percentage of body fat while holding body weight constant), LF (selected for low percentage of body fat), C57BL/6J (common inbred line), and the F1 between HR and C57BL/6J. Body weight and body fat were recorded before and after 6 days of free access to running wheels in males and females that were individually caged. Total food intake was measured during this 6-day period. All pre- and postexercise measures showed significant strain effects. While HR mice predictably exercised at higher levels, all other selection lines had decreased levels of wheel running relative to ICR. The HR x B6 F1 ran at similar levels to HR demonstrating complete dominance for voluntary exercise. Also, all strains lost body fat after exercise, but the relationships between exercise and changes in percent body were not uniform across genotypes. These results indicate that there is significant genetic variation for voluntary exercise and its effects on body composition. It is important to carefully consider genetic background and/or selection history when using mice to model effects of exercise on body composition, and perhaps, other complex traits as well.

  12. Functional Body Composition and Related Aspects in Research on Obesity and Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M.J.; Baracos, V.; Bosy-Westphal, A.; Dulloo, A.; Eckel, J.; Fearon, K.C.H.; Hall, K.D.; Pietrobelli, A.; Sørensen, T.I.A.; Speakman, J.; Trayhurn, P.; Visser, M.; Heymsfield, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    The 12th Stock Conference addressed body composition and related functions in two extreme situations, obesity and cancer cachexia. The concept of “functional body composition” integrates body components into regulatory systems relating the mass of organs and tissues to corresponding in vivo functions and metabolic processes. This concept adds to an understanding of organ/tissue mass and function in the context of metabolic adaptations to weight change and disease. During weight gain and loss there are associated changes in individual body components while the relationships between organ and tissue mass are fixed. Thus, an understanding of weight regulation involves an examination of organ-tissue regulation rather than of individual organ mass. The between organ/tissue mass relationships are associated with and explained by cross-talk between organs and tissues mediated by cytokines, hormones, and metabolites that are coupled with changes in body weight, composition, and function as observed in obesity and cancer cachexia. In addition to established roles in intermediary metabolism, cell function and inflammation, organ-tissue cross-talk mediators are determinants of body composition and its’ change with weight gain and loss. The 12th Stock Conference supported Michael Stocks’ concept of gaining new insights by integrating research ideas from obesity and cancer cachexia. The conference presentations provide an in-depth understanding of body composition and metabolism. PMID:24835453

  13. Diet and exercise effects on aerobic fitness and body composition in seriously mentally ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulou, Ifigenia; Botonis, Petros; Kostara, Christina; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Low exercise capacity and high obesity levels are the main characteristics of people with serious mental illness (SMI). We conducted a pilot study on the effects of a 3-month exercise and dietary intervention on the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI taking Olanzapine, a second generation antipsychotic medication known to induce weight increments. Fifty adults with SMI (15 males and 35 females) followed a 3-month weight loss intervention programme based on exercise and diet. Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. All participants were obese (body mass index (BMI): 33.61 ± 0.91 kg/m(2)). Pre- and post-intervention, a submaximal [Formula: see text]O2 exercise test on the treadmill was performed in order to assess [Formula: see text]O2max anthropometric and body composition measurements were also performed. Significant reductions in body weight, BMI, body fat and waist circumference were found from pre to post (p diet improves the aerobic capacity and body composition of obese adults with SMI, despite the use of Olanzapine.

  14. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men.

  15. Comparison of diet consumption, body composition and lipoprotein lipid values of Kuwaiti fencing players with international norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajji Salman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No published data is currently available that describes the dietary patterns or physiological profiles of athletes participating on the Kuwaiti national fencing team and its potential impact on health and physical performance. The purpose of this investigation was to: 1 collect baseline data on nutrient intake 2 collect, analyze and report baseline for body composition, plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations during the competitive season, 3 compare the results with the international norms, 4 and provide necessary health and nutritional information in order to enhance the athletes' performance and skills. Methods Fifteen national-class fencers 21.5 ± 2.6 years of age participated in this study. Food intake was measured using a 3-day food record. Body composition was estimated using both the BOD POD and Body Mass Index (BMI. Total blood lipid profiles and maximum oxygen consumption was measured for each of the subjects during the competitive season. Results The results of the present study showed significant differences in dietary consumption in comparison with the recommended dietary allowances (RDA. The blood lipids profile and body composition (BMI and % body fat were in normal range in comparison with international norms However, the average VO2 max value was less than the value of the other fencers. Conclusion Due to the results of the research study, a dietary regimen can be designed that would better enhance athletic performance and minimize any health risks associated with nutrition. Percent body fat and BMI will also be categorized for all players. In addition, the plasma blood tests will help to determine if any of the players have an excessive level of lipids or any blood abnormalities. The outcomes of present study will have a direct impact on the players health and therefore their skills and athletic performance.

  16. Body composition of anorexia nervosa patients assessed by underwater weighing and skinfold-thickness measurements before and after weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, M; Goris, M; Vandereycken, W; Van Coppenolle, H

    2001-02-01

    Weight restoration is a crucial element in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Therefore, the validity of different methods for measuring body composition is important. We tested the concurrent validity of hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing) and anthropometry (12 skinfold thicknesses) and assessed body composition and subcutaneous fat before and after a refeeding program and a multifaceted program of therapy in a specialized inpatient unit for eating disorders. The body composition of a large sample of anorexia nervosa patients (97 restricting type, 33 binging-purging type) was studied by using 2 methods both before and after weight gain. We applied a behavioral contract for weight restoration with a minimum weekly gain of 700 g and a maximum of 3 kg. Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson correlation analysis, t tests, and analysis of covariance were used. There was good agreement between the results obtained by underwater weighing and by skinfold-thickness measurement (r = 0.76, P < 0.001); the results produced by the 2 methods did not differ significantly. On average, a significant weight gain (11.9 kg) was observed, composed of 6.6 kg fat and 5.3 kg fat-free mass. Body fat estimation by skinfold-thickness equation appeared to be as accurate as underwater weighing. The refeeding program led to a significant increase in body weight, of which 55.5% was body fat. The mean ratio of fat-free mass to fat mass at the end of the treatment was 3.4:1.

  17. [Energy balance, body composition and the female athlete triad syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yitzhak; Weinstein, Ayelet

    2012-02-01

    With the rising participation of women in sports events, the prevalence of eating disorders and the female athlete triad (FTS), a syndrome of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, have also increased in recent years. FTS is often seen in sports that emphasize thinness (e.g. gymnastics, figure skating and dancing) and also in endurance events. Elements of the FTS are pathophysiologically linked, leading to several disease risks and even to mortality. In spite of the considerable knowledge about sports nutrition, there is no consensus as to the correct nutrition regime for the female athlete. There is consensus that minimizing fluctuations in 'target-body-weight' is an indication of a long-term energy balance. Female athletes (e.g. in endurance events and gymnastics) are less likely to achieve the recommended carbohydrates (CHO) and fat consumption due to chronic or episodic constraints of total energy intake while struggling to achieve or maintain low levels of body fat. It is recommended that dietary CHO and fat content be increased to preserve fat-free mass thus enhancing health and performance. Energy balance should also be maintained during recesses. Furthermore, within-day episodes of energy deficits/surplus (measured by the frequency and/or magnitude of the episodes) should be monitored and treated closest to the time of the incidents.

  18. Mass and body composition particularities of rugby compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru OPREAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and underline the morphological particularities of Romanian professional rugby players. This aspect can contribute to the improvement of training contents. The hypothesis of this study is that body mass values of the two compartments are in conformity with the optimal standards for this sport. The study included the players of the team Stejarii București, which comprises the best players of the Romanian championship. Among the 32 tested players, 17 are forwards and 15 backs. Evaluations were done by positions, and we drafted tables with arithmetic means and standard deviations for each position. We took several anthropometric measurements for the rugby players, thus determining the qualitative level of the body mass between the two compartments. The findings indicate that players have a certain level of morphological adaptation to specific effort by the post they occupy within the team. The players feature a hypertrophy of the muscle tissue, a phenomenon specific to strength sports. However, some of the players also had a significant amount of fat mass, which contributes to less impressive performances.

  19. Body mass index and body composition scaling to height in children and adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sochung

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity prevalence has been increased and known to be related to various diseases and mortality in adult and body mass index (BMI) has been widely used as a screening tool in children with obesity. It is important to understand what BMI is and its limitations. BMI is a measure of weight adjusted for height. Weight scales to height with a power of about 2, is the basis of BMI (weight/height2) as the scaling of body weight to height across adults provides powers rounded to 2. BMI has ...

  20. Body Parts Dependent Joint Regressors for Human Pose Estimation in Still Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantone, Matthias; Gall, Juergen; Leistner, Christian; Van Gool, Luc

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we address the problem of estimating 2d human pose from still images. Articulated body pose estimation is challenging due to the large variation in body poses and appearances of the different body parts. Recent methods that rely on the pictorial structure framework have shown to be very successful in solving this task. They model the body part appearances using discriminatively trained, independent part templates and the spatial relations of the body parts using a tree model. Within such a framework, we address the problem of obtaining better part templates which are able to handle a very high variation in appearance. To this end, we introduce parts dependent body joint regressors which are random forests that operate over two layers. While the first layer acts as an independent body part classifier, the second layer takes the estimated class distributions of the first one into account and is thereby able to predict joint locations by modeling the interdependence and co-occurrence of the parts. This helps to overcome typical ambiguities of tree structures, such as self-similarities of legs and arms. In addition, we introduce a novel data set termed FashionPose that contains over 7,000 images with a challenging variation of body part appearances due to a large variation of dressing styles. In the experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed parts dependent joint regressors outperform independent classifiers or regressors. The method also performs better or similar to the state-of-the-art in terms of accuracy, while running with a couple of frames per second.

  1. No association between body composition and cognition in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis: A brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian M. Sandroff, MS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that body fat is inversely associated with cognitive functioning in adults from the general population, and this has been associated with systemic inflammation. The association between body fat and cognition might further be augmented in the presence of an immune-mediated, inflammatory disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS. This cross-sectional study investigated the associations between objective measures of body composition and cognitive function in 60 persons with MS. Participants underwent a neurological examination for generating Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, followed by the Brief International Cognitive Assessment in Multiple Sclerosis neuropsychological battery for measurement of cognitive processing speed, verbal learning and memory, and visual learning and memory. Whole-body fat mass, percent body fat, lean body mass, and bone mineral density were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Whole-body fat mass and percent body fat were not associated with any cognitive outcome (all p > 0.41. However, lean body mass was associated with cognitive processing speed (p 0.13. Body composition might not represent a target of interventions for improving cognitive processing speed or learning and memory in MS.

  2. Comparison in maternal body composition between Caucasian Irish and Indian women.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, N

    2012-02-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity has limitations, especially when comparing ethnic groups with different body proportions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare maternal body composition in early pregnancy between Caucasian Irish and Indian women. A total of 81 Indian women and 81 Irish Caucasian women were matched for age, parity and BMI. Maternal weight and height were measured, and body composition analysed using bioelectrical impedance. The Irish women were taller and weighed more than the Indian women (p<0.001). At any given BMI, the Indian women had a higher total body fat percentage, visceral fat level and high fat percentage than the Irish women (p=0.024, 0.001 and 0.001, respectively). Our findings suggest that lower BMI cut-offs should be used for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in Indian women attending our antenatal services.

  3. Seasonal changes in body composition of Ctenomys talarum (Rodentia: Octodontidae): an herbivore subterranean rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle, Juana C; López Mañanes, Alejandra A; Busch, Cristina

    2006-09-01

    Ctenomys talarum is a subterranean herbivorous rodent whose burrow systems exhibit particular characteristics, distinct from other subterranean environments. We studied seasonal variation in body composition of C. talarum in relation to energetic requirements. Body lipid content seasonally changed in C. talarum, related to reproductive cycle and thermorregulatory mechanisms. A decrease in protein body content was found only in spring. Ash content of females was lowest when most of them are in post partum estro. Observed variations in water body content could be associated with plant water content and/or metabolic regulation. Our results show the occurrence of seasonal variations in body composition in C. talarum, which could be related to the high cost of reproduction and the subterranean life style of this species.

  4. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA: effect modulation of body composition and lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baddini Feitoza

    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA refers to a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids, being represented by a group of isomers of linoleic acid called conjugated for having a double bound after a simple bound. Among its isomers, trans-10,cis-12 and cis-9, cis-12 CLA stand out. These isomers can lead to different effects on the body: anticarcinogenic, antidiabetogenic, antiatherogenesis and positive body composition alteration. The objective of this review is to describe their mechanisms of action, effects on body composition, on plasmatic lipoproteins and supplementation. Studies about CLA supplementation show its capacity of reducing fat percentage, body mass and of promoting an improvement in lipid metabolism. One of the adverse effects attributed to one of the isomers is insulin resistance by body fat redistribution. Limitations in the scientific models used in CLA researches make impossible to draw conclusions about the action of this fatty acid on human metabolism.

  5. Shuttle-food consumption, body composition and body weight in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Frye, Sherrie; Kloeris, Vickie; Rice, Barbara; Siconolfi, Steven F.; Spector, Elisabeth; Gretebeck, Randall J.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to determine whether the NASA Space Shuttle food system can provide the food and fluid required to mitigate weight loss and physical decomposition in 12 female subjects for 28 days. Subjects receive only foods from the Space Shuttle system for four weeks within an 11-wk monitoring period. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is employed throughout the trial period to study lean body mass, percent body fat, and energy-intake levels with attention given to differences the experimental diet and the subjects' typical diet. Percent body fat is found to change significantly with losses of less than 0.05 percent, whereas energy intake based on autonomous diet choices by the participants does not vary significantly. Lean body mass remains unchanged throughout the study in which the subjects receive a relatively low-fat and low-protein menu. The 100 items on the space shuttle list of approved food items are shown to provide a palatable dietary framework for maintaining the health of female astronauts.

  6. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13. (auth)

  7. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p systemic lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all

  8. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  9. Effect of the calculation methods on body moment of inertia estimations in individuals of different morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damavandi, Mohsen; Barbier, Franck; Leboucher, Julien; Farahpour, Nader; Allard, Paul

    2009-09-01

    Body segment moments of inertia (MOI) are estimated from data obtained from cadavers or living individuals. Though these methods can be valid for the general population, they usually are limited when applied to special populations (e.g., obese). The effect of two geometric methods, photogrammetry and two new methods, namely, inverse dynamics and angular momentum on the estimations of MOI in individuals of different body mass index (BMI) were compared to gain insight into their relative accuracy. The de Leva (1996) method was chosen as a criterion to determine how these methods behaved. MOI methods were not different in individuals with a normal BMI. On the average, MOI values obtained with inverse dynamics and angular momentum were respectively 13.2% lower for lean participants and 17.9% higher for obese subjects than those obtained from the de Leva method. The average Pearson coefficients of correlation between the MOI values, estimated by the de Leva method, and the other methods was 0.76 (+/-0.31). Since the proposed methods made no assumption on the mass distribution and segments' geometry, they appeared to be more sensitive to body morphology changes to estimate whole body MOI values in lean and obese subjects.

  10. Estimating relative foot positions for assessment of body balance in an ambulatory setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meulen, Fokke; Limón Alonzo, D. P.; Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.

    2012-01-01

    For the assessment of body balance, foot placement (i.e. relative foot position), is a crucial variable. In this study, the relative foot positions estimated using Xsens MVN Biomech were compared with position measurements of the optical reference system, Vicon. The results show a good

  11. Postmortem time estimation using body temperature and a finite-element computer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Lotens, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands most murder victims are found 2-24 h after the crime. During this period, body temperature decrease is the most reliable method to estimate the postmortem time (PMT). Recently, two murder cases were analysed in which currently available methods did not provide a su.ciently reliabl

  12. Measurement Agreement between Estimates of Aerobic Fitness in Youth: The Impact of Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on the agreement between aerobic capacity estimates from different Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) equations and the Mile Run Test. Method: The agreement between 2 different tests of aerobic capacity was examined on a large data set…

  13. Comparison of Point and Line Features and Their Combination for Rigid Body Motion Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilz, Florian; Pugeault, Nicolas; Krüger, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the usage of dierent image features and their combination in the context of estimating the motion of rigid bodies (RBM estimation). From stereo image sequences, we extract line features at local edges (coded in so called multi-modal primitives) as well as point features (by...... evaluate and compare the results using line and point features as 3D-2D constraints and we discuss the qualitative advantages and disadvantages of both feature types for RBM estimation. We also demonstrate an improvement in robustness through the combination of these features on large data sets...

  14. Validity of dual X-ray absorptiometry scanning for determination of body composition in IDDM patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Almdal, T; Gotfredsen, A

    1995-01-01

    Data on body composition in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) are scarce. Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning has proved useful for this purpose in other groups of patients. We tested the validity of the DXA scanner for the determination of fat-free mass (FFM) and fat...... mass in IDDM patients and control subjects, as compared to other reference methods, i.e. total body potassium by 40K whole body counting (TBK), total body water by tritiated water (TBW), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and 24-h urinary creatinine excretion (Ucrea). A total of 13 healthy controls...

  15. Structure and Composition of Protein Bodies from Wild-Type and High-Lysine Barley Endosperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingversen, J.

    1975-01-01

    Protein bodies were isolated from 13 and 28 day old endosperms of barley mutant 1508 and its wild type, Bomi barley. The fine structure of the isolated protein bodies was determined by electron microscopy, and the proteins present in the preparations characterized by amino-acid analysis and SDS...... with a granular component. Particles with the same structure were present in the protein body preparation from the mutant, where, however, the granular component was the most prominent. Amino-acid composition and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins from the protein body preparation revealed...

  16. Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Mariman, Edwin C M; Vogels, Neeltje; Bouwman, Freek G; den Hoed, Marcel; Brown, Louise; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-03-23

    Genetic variation in the perilipin (PLIN) gene may play a role in the etiology and treatment of obesity. To examine different polymorphisms in the PLIN gene in relation to body-weight regulation. 118 subjects followed a 6 wk VLCD, followed by 1 year weight maintenance. Body-weight (BW), body composition, leptin concentration, and polymorphisms of the PLIN gene: PLIN1:rs2289487, PLIN4:rs894160, PLIN6:rs1052700, PLIN5:rs2304795 and PLIN7:rs 2304796 were determined. BW loss during VLCD was 7.0+/-3.1 kg (p0.9, r2=0.72; PLIN5 and PLIN7: D' >0.9, r2=0.85. In men, body weight, BMI, waist circumference, body fat, leptin concentrations were significantly lower for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). In women weight loss and loss of fat mass were larger for the haplotype of PLIN1 (C-alleles) and PLIN4 (A-alleles). For PLIN6 genotypes body weight and body fat were lower for homozygotes of the minor allele (T/T) in the men; in the women leptin concentrations were lower. The haplotype of PLIN5 and PLIN7 consisting of A/G and G/G of PLIN5 and A/A of PLIN7 showed a reduction in FM: 5.9+/-0.6 kg vs 3.1+/-0.4 kg, % body fat: 5.5+/-0.6% vs 2.2+/-0.2%, and leptin: 20.5+/-10.8 ng/ml vs 12.9+/-6.7 ng/ml over time in the women (pinfluencer of obesity risk in humans.

  17. Intensive nutritional support improves the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. García-Contreras

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate that a nutritional support intervention, via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy, has a significant impact on the nutritional status and body composition in severely malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia Methods: Thirteen patients with moderate/severe malnutrition and cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia who were fed via naso-enteral tube-feeding or gastrostomy were included in a cohort study. Anthropometric measurements and estimated body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis were obtained. ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests were used. Results: During the four weeks of nutritional recovery, an average weight increase of 2700 g was achieved. There were significant increases in anthropometric indicators, including BMI and weight/length (p < 0.01. The increase in arm fat area was significantly higher than the increase in arm muscle area (104.5 vs 17.5%. Conclusion: Intensive nutritional support for four weeks had a significant effect on the nutritional status and body composition of severe and moderately malnourished children with cerebral palsy spastic quadriplegia.

  18. A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4232 A MODEL FOR ESTIMATING NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND DAMAGE IN CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES (PREPRINT) Unni Santhosh and...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad 5d. PROJECT...Composite Materials, 2010 A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad Research

  19. Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sender, Ron; Fuchs, Shai; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-01

    Reported values in the literature on the number of cells in the body differ by orders of magnitude and are very seldom supported by any measurements or calculations. Here, we integrate the most up-to-date information on the number of human and bacterial cells in the body. We estimate the total number of bacteria in the 70 kg "reference man" to be 3.8·1013. For human cells, we identify the dominant role of the hematopoietic lineage to the total count (≈90%) and revise past estimates to 3.0·1013 human cells. Our analysis also updates the widely-cited 10:1 ratio, showing that the number of bacteria in the body is actually of the same order as the number of human cells, and their total mass is about 0.2 kg.

  20. Predicting Football Players' Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry Body Composition Using Standard Anthropometric Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M.; Lambert, Brad S.; Martin, Steven E.; Green, John S.; Crouse, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The recent increase in athlete size, particularly in football athletes of all levels, coupled with the increased health risk associated with obesity warrants continued monitoring of body composition from a health perspective in this population. Equations developed to predict percentage of body fat (%Fat) have been shown to be population specific and might not be accurate for football athletes. Objective: To develop multiple regression equations using standard anthropometric measurements to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry %Fat (DEXA%Fat) in collegiate football players. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Patients and Other Participants: One hundred fifty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA football athletes (age  =  20 ± 1 years, height  =  185.6 ± 6.5 cm, mass  =  103.1 ± 20.4 kg, DEXA%Fat  =  19.5 ± 9.1%) participated. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants had the following measures: (1) body composition testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; (2) skinfold measurements in millimeters, including chest, triceps, subscapular, midaxillary, suprailiac, abdominal (SFAB), and thigh; and (3) standard circumference measurements in centimeters, including ankle, calf, thigh, hip (AHIP), waist, umbilical (AUMB), chest, wrist, forearm, arm, and neck. Regression analysis and fit statistics were used to determine the relationship between DEXA%Fat and each skinfold thickness, sum of all skinfold measures (SFSUM), and individual circumference measures. Results: Statistical analysis resulted in the development of 3 equations to predict DEXA%Fat: model 1, (0.178 • AHIP) + (0.097 • AUMB) + (0.089 • SFSUM) − 19.641; model 2, (0.193 • AHIP) + (0.133 • AUMB) + (0.371 • SFAB) − 23.0523; and model 3, (0.132 • SFSUM) + 3.530. The R2 values were 0.94 for model 1, 0.93 for model 2, and 0.91 for model 3 (for all, P < .001). Conclusions: The equations developed provide an accurate way to assess DEXA

  1. Maternal weight and body composition in the first trimester of pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fattah, Chro

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on weight gain in pregnancy suggested that maternal weight on average increased by 0.5-2.0 kg in the first trimester of pregnancy. This study examined whether mean maternal weight or body composition changes in the first trimester of pregnancy. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. POPULATION: We studied 1,000 Caucasian women booking for antenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. SETTING: Large university teaching hospital. METHODS: Maternal height and weight were measured digitally in a standardized way and Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Maternal body composition was measured using segmental multifrequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Sonographic examination confirmed the gestational age and a normal ongoing singleton pregnancy in all subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Maternal weight, maternal body composition. RESULTS: The mean BMI was 25.7 kg\\/m(2) and 19.0% of the women were in the obese category (> or =30.0 kg\\/m(2)). Cross-sectional analysis by gestational age showed that there was no change in mean maternal weight, BMI, total body water, fat mass, fat-free mass or bone mass before 14 weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous reports, mean maternal weight and mean body composition values remain unchanged in the first trimester of pregnancy. This has implications for guidelines on maternal weight gain during pregnancy. We also recommend that calculation of BMI in pregnancy and gestational weight gain should be based on accurate early pregnancy measurements, and not on self-reported or prepregnancy measurements.

  2. Controlling parental feeding practices and child body composition in ethnically and economically diverse preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrly, Sarah E; Bonilla, Chantal; Perez, Marisol; Liew, Jeffrey

    2014-02-01

    Controlling parental feeding practices may be associated with childhood overweight, because coercive or intrusive feeding practices may negatively impact children's development of self-regulation of eating. This study examined pressuring or forcing a child (healthy or unhealthy foods) and restricting child from unhealthy or snack foods as two types of controlling feeding practices that explain unique variances in measures of child body composition (BMI, percent body fat, and parental perception of child weight). In an ethnically and economically diverse sample of 243 children aged 4-6years old and their biological parents (89% biological mothers, 8% biological fathers, and 3% step or grand-parent), descriptive statistics indicate ethnic and family income differences in measures of feeding practices and child body composition. Additionally, the two "objective" indices of body composition (BMI and percent body fat) were related to low pressure to eat, whereas the "subjective" index (perceived child weight) was related to restriction. Regression analyses accounting for ethnic and family income influences indicate that pressure to eat and restriction both explained unique variances in the two "objective" indices of body composition, whereas only restriction explained variance in perceived child weight. Findings have implications for helping parents learn about feeding practices that promote children's self-regulation of eating that simultaneously serves as an obesity prevention strategy.

  3. Neonatal Body Composition: Measuring Lean Mass as a Tool to Guide Nutrition Management in the Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Melissa S; Valentine, Christina J

    2015-10-01

    Neonatal nutrition adequacy is often determined by infant weight gain. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about neonatal body composition and the use of body composition as a measure for adequate neonatal nutrition. Unlike traditional anthropometric measures of height and weight, body composition measurements account for fat vs nonfat mass gains. This provides a more accurate picture of neonatal composition of weight gain. Providing adequate neonatal nutrition in the form of quantity and composition can be a challenge, especially when considering the delicate balance of providing adequate nutrition to preterm infants for catch-up growth. Monitoring weight gain as fat mass and nonfat mass while documenting dietary intake of fat, protein, and carbohydrate in formulas may help provide the medical community the tools to provide optimal nutrition for catch-up growth and for improved neurodevelopmental outcomes. Tracking body composition in term and preterm infants may also provide critical future information concerning the nutritional state of infants who go on to develop future disease such as obesity, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia as adolescents or adults. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. The application of digital imaging techniques in the in vivo estimation of the body compsition of pigs : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, C.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vangen, O.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kanis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetry and comparative slaughter measurement are techniques widely used to measure chemical body composition of pigs, while dissection is the standard method to determine physical (tissue) composition of the body. The disadvantage of calorimetry is the small number of observations possible, whi

  5. The application of digital imaging techniques in the in vivo estimation of the body compsition of pigs : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, C.; Babinszky, L.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Vangen, O.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Kanis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Calorimetry and comparative slaughter measurement are techniques widely used to measure chemical body composition of pigs, while dissection is the standard method to determine physical (tissue) composition of the body. The disadvantage of calorimetry is the small number of observations possible,

  6. Assessment of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, bioimpedance analysis and anthropometrics in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tompuri, Tuomo T; Lakka, Timo A; Hakulinen, Mikko;

    2015-01-01

    We compared InBody720 segmental multifrequency bioimpedance analysis (SMF-BIA) with Lunar Prodigy Advance dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessment of body composition among 178 predominantly prepubertal children. Segmental agreement analysis of body compartments was carried out, and i......, and inter-relationships of anthropometric and other measures of body composition were defined. Moreover, the relations of different reference criteria for excess body fat were evaluated....

  7. Workstation Related Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Indian Women of Different Geographical Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design, ergonomics and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in lifestyles, nutrition, and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions (e.g. the obesity epidemic, and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections. Aim and Objectives: This study analyzed the variation in anthropometric dimensions and body composition parameters of working women employees of different geographical zones. Material and Methods: The study was undertaken on nine hundred forty (940 women employees of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO working in seventeen different laboratories and belonged to different states of India. The age range of studied women was between 20-60 years. Fourteen body dimensions namely stature, popliteal height, knee height, buttock to popliteal length, hip breadth, waist breadth, shoulder breadth, forearm length, arm length, eye height (sitting, sitting shoulder height, hand length, hand breadth and elbow width were measured in cm using Martin anthropometers and Martin's sliding caliper. Body composition parameters like weight, percentage body fat, fat mass and fat free mass were recorded. Results: All anthropometric parameters were found significantly different (p<0.001. Body composition variables of women were also found significantly different in all three zones but fat free mass was not significantly different. Conclusion:It can be concluded that diet, environmental conditions and living style of different regions can influence the anthropometry and body composition of the individuals, however the influence of ethnic, genetic and hereditary factor are not controlled in this study.

  8. Effects of canagliflozin on body weight and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes over 104 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonde, Lawrence; Stenlöf, Kaj; Fung, Albert; Xie, John; Canovatchel, William; Meininger, Gary

    2016-05-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has been associated with weight loss in a broad range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This analysis further evaluated changes in body weight and composition with canagliflozin in two 104-week, Phase 3 studies. In Study 1, patients aged 18-80 years (N = 1,450) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or glimepiride as add-on to metformin for a 52-week core treatment period, followed by a 52-week extension period. In Study 2, patients aged 55-80 years (N = 714) received canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg or placebo added to stable background antihyperglycemic agents for a 26-week core treatment period, followed by a 78-week extension period. Percent change from baseline in body weight; proportion of patients with any weight loss, ≥5% weight loss, and ≥10% weight loss; change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference; change in body weight across weight-loss quartiles; and changes in body composition were evaluated in both studies. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained weight loss versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. More patients experienced any weight loss and ≥5% weight loss with canagliflozin versus comparator. Across the 3 highest weight-loss quartiles, canagliflozin provided greater weight loss versus glimepiride or placebo. BMI and waist circumference reductions were observed with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus either glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks; more patients had BMI or waist circumference reductions with canagliflozin versus comparator. Body composition analysis indicated that the majority of weight loss was due to loss of fat mass. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated, with increased incidence of adverse events related to the SGLT2 inhibition mechanism. Canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus

  9. Coupled orbit-attitude dynamics and relative state estimation of spacecraft near small Solar System bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Gaurav; Izadi, Maziar; Sanyal, Amit; Scheeres, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The effects of dynamical coupling between the rotational (attitude) and translational (orbital) motion of spacecraft near small Solar System bodies is investigated. This coupling arises due to the weak gravity of these bodies, as well as solar radiation pressure. The traditional approach assumes a point-mass spacecraft model to describe the translational motion of the spacecraft, while the attitude motion is considered to be completely decoupled from the translational motion. The model used here to describe the rigid-body spacecraft dynamics includes the non-uniform rotating gravity field of the small body up to second degree and order along with the attitude dependent terms, solar tide, and solar radiation pressure. This model shows that the second degree and order gravity terms due to the small body affect the dynamics of the spacecraft to the same extent as the orbit-attitude coupling due to the primary gravity (zeroth order) term. Variational integrators are used to simulate the dynamics of both the rigid spacecraft and the point mass. The small bodies considered here are modeled after Near-Earth Objects (NEO) 101955 Bennu, and 25143 Itokawa, and are assumed to be triaxial ellipsoids with uniform density. Differences in the numerically obtained trajectories of a rigid spacecraft and a point mass are then compared, to illustrate the impact of the orbit-attitude coupling on spacecraft dynamics in proximity of small bodies. Possible implications on the performance of model-based spacecraft control and on the station-keeping budget, if the orbit-attitude coupling is not accounted for in the model of the dynamics, are also discussed. An almost globally asymptotically stable motion estimation scheme based solely on visual/optical feedback that estimates the relative motion of the asteroid with respect to the spacecraft is also obtained. This estimation scheme does not require a model of the dynamics of the asteroid, which makes it perfectly suited for asteroids whose

  10. Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition, skeletal muscle strength, and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular heal...

  11. Height and Body Composition Determine Arm Propulsive Force in Youth Swimmers Independent of a Maturation Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura Tatiane

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between anthropometric variables, body composition and propulsive force in swimmers aged 9-17 years. Anthropometric characteristics (body height and mass, sitting height, arm span, arm muscle area and body composition and the propulsive force of the arm (tethered swimming test were evaluated in 56 competitive male swimmers. Tanner’s stages of genital maturation (P1-5 were used. The data analysis included correlations and multiple linear regression. The propulsive force of the arm was correlated with body height (r = 0.34; p =0.013, arm span (r = 0.29; p =0.042, sitting height (r = 0.36; p =0.009, % body fat (r = 0.33; p =0.016, lean body mass (r = 0.34; p =0.015 and arm muscle area (r = 0.31; p =0.026. Using multiple linear regression models, the percent body fat and height were identified as significant predictors of the propulsive force of the arm after controlling for the maturation stage. This model explained 22% (R2 = 0.22 of associations. In conclusion, the propulsive force of swimmers was related to body height and percent body fat

  12. Use of bioelectrical impedance analysis to determine body composition changes in HIV-associated wasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauke, Stephan; Fischer, Harald; Rieger, Armin; Frühauf, Lukas; Staszewski, Schlomo; Althoff, Peter-Henning; Helm, Eilke Brigitte

    2005-04-01

    AIDS wasting syndrome results in loss of lean body mass and body cell mass. This 12-week, open-label study used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure body composition changes in 24 patients with AIDS wasting syndrome receiving recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH). The primary endpoint was percentage monthly change in body weight before/after r-hGH. Secondary endpoints included change from baseline in body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), isometric strength and CD4+ count. Twenty patients completed the study: r-hGH resulted in mean weight gains (+2.7%, P = 0.146), and significant increases in mean body cell mass (+8.0%, P = 0.0211), lean body mass (+4.8%, P = 0.0373) and water (+5.5%, P r-hGH was generally well tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were fever (7.3%) and diarrhoea (6.3%). Thus, bioelectrical impedance analysis can detect improved body cell mass independent of changes in body weight resulting from r-hGH treatment in patients with AIDS wasting syndrome.

  13. Use of a novel pediatric body composition technique for assessing body fatness and its changes during the first 6 month of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Clinical assessment of infant growth and nutritional status is enhanced by accurate measurement of body composition and its changes over time. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of an air-displacement plethysmograph, the PEA POD (Registered Trademark) Infant Body Composition System (Lif...

  14. Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in relation to measures of body size and composition among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Savonen, Kai; Laitinen, Tomi; Laaksonen, David; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Lakka, Timo A

    2015-11-01

    In the exercise testing measures of cardiorespiratory fitness need to be scaled by body size or composition to enable comparison between individuals. Traditionally used weight-proportional measures are potentially confounded by body adiposity that hampers their interpretation and applicability in the clinical assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. We aimed to find the most appropriate measure of body size or composition for scaling of measures of cardiorespiratory fitness among children. We assessed body weight and height, maximal workload (W MAX ) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 MAX ) using cycle ergometer exercise test with respiratory gas analysis and body lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and by bioimpedance analysis among 38 children. The data were analysed using Pearson's coefficients for correlation and stepwise linear regression models. Lean mass (r > 0.54) and height (r > 0.51) had stronger positive correlations with absolute W MAX and VO2 MAX than weight (r > 0.30) in girls and boys. None of the measures of body size or composition correlated with LM-proportional W MAX or VO2 MAX in girls or boys. Only LM correlated positively with height-proportional W MAX (r = 0.65) and VO2 MAX (r = 0.71) in boys. FM correlated negatively with weight-proportional W MAX (r VO2 MAX (r MAX (β = -0.68) and VO2 MAX (β = -0.61) than exercise performance in multivariate linear regression models. While assessing cardiorespiratory fitness, LM is the most appropriate measure of body size or composition for scaling of W MAX and VO2 MAX, because scaling by body weight introduces confounding by body adiposity. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Body composition and diet of Chinese, Malays and Indians in Sininfluence on cardiovascular risk factorsgapore: and their

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the studies on body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore, and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups.

    Body composition : Body fat percentage was measu

  16. Body composition and diet of Chinese, Malays and Indians in Sininfluence on cardiovascular risk factorsgapore: and their

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the studies on body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore, and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups.

    Body composition : Body fat percentage was

  17. Body size, body composition and fat distribution: comparative analysis of European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine C; Freitas, Ismael; Plank, Lindsay D

    2009-08-01

    Although there is evidence that Asian Indians, Polynesians and Europeans differ in their body fat (BF)-BMI relationships, detailed comparative analysis of their underlying body composition and build characteristics is lacking. We investigated differences in the relationships between body fatness and BMI, fat distribution, muscularity, bone mineral mass, leg length and age-related changes in body composition between these ethnic groups. Cross-sectional analysis of 933 European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adult volunteers was performed for total and percentage of BF, abdominal fat, thigh fat, appendicular muscle mass, bone mineral content and leg length measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Asian Indian men and women (BMI of 24 and 26 kg/m2, respectively) had the same percentage of BF as Europeans with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or Pacific men and women with BMI of 34 and 35 kg/m2, respectively. Asian Indians had more fat, both total and in the abdominal region, with less lean mass, skeletal muscle and bone mineral than all other ethnic groups. Leg length was relatively longer in Pacific men and Asian and Pacific women than in other ethnic groups. In Asian Indians, abdominal fat increased with increasing age, while the percentage of BF showed little change. In the other ethnic groups, both abdominal and total BF increased with age. In conclusion, ethnic differences in fat distribution, muscularity, bone mass and leg length may contribute to ethnic-specific relationships between body fatness and BMI. The use of universal BMI cut-off points may not be appropriate for the comparison of obesity prevalence between ethnic groups.

  18. Relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abera, Mubarek; Tesfaye, Markos; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    -displacement plethysmography. Child development was assessed at 2 years of age using Denver developmental screening test. Associations between body composition at birth and development at 2 years of age were tested using linear regression analysis. RESULTS: FFM but not FM at birth was positively associated with higher global...... (FFM) at birth. This study therefore aimed at investigating the relation between body composition at birth and child development at 2 years of age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An Ethiopian birth cohort was followed up at 2 years. Body composition was measured within 48 h of birth using infant air......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Birth weight (BW), independent of socioeconomic status, has been identified as a predictor for childhood cognitive development. However, it is not known whether this relation is related to low BW per se or particularly related to a deficit in fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass...

  19. A study of apatite formation on natural nano-hydroxyapatite/ chitosan composite in simulated body fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-bin FAN; Xiao-ying L(U)

    2008-01-01

    This study is focused on the ability of apatite formation on the surface of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/chitosan (CH) composite in simulated body fluid (SBF) in vitro. At first, natural nano-HA was prepared according to a wet-bailing method and the composite was prepared by combining the natural nano-hydroxyapatite and chit-osan, and then in vitro biomineralization test of natural nano-HA/CH composite was carried out in standard SBF. Subsequently, the quantity of the weight of the particles formed on the composite surface in SBF was measured by analytical balance, and the morphology change on the surface of the composite was observed by a scanning elec-tron microscope (SEM). Lastly, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FTIR) was used to investigate the chemical components of the particles formed on the nat-ural nano-HA/CH composite surface in SBF. The result of quantity assessment shows that the weight of the com-posite increased with the increase of soaking time. The SEM image shows that the particles were gradually formed on natural nano-HA/CH composite surface, and the FTIR spectrum of the particles on composite surface confirms that these particles were carbonate apatite. This study indicates that the nano-HA/CH composite has a good ability for apatite formation in SBF, which predicts the bone-inducing ability of natural nano-HA/CH com-posite in vivo.

  20. Evaluation of body composition in COPD patients using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Blasio F

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Francesca de Blasio,1 Francesco de Blasio,2,3 Giulia Miracco Berlingieri,2 Andrea Bianco,3,4 Marta La Greca,1 Frits M E Franssen,5 Luca Scalfi1 1Department of Public Health, Medical School, “Federico II” University of Naples, 2Respiratory Medicine and Pulmonary Rehabilitation Section, Clinic Center, Private Hospital, Naples, 3Department of Medicine and Health Sciences “V Tiberio”, University of Molise, Campobasso, 4Department of Cardio-Thoracic and Respiratory Sciences, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 5Department of Research and Education, CIRO, Horn, the NetherlandsBackground: Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA is a technique that measures body impedance (Z at different frequencies (5, 10, 50, 100, and 250 kHz. Body composition may be estimated using empirical equations, which include BIA variables or, alternatively, raw BIA data may provide direct information on water distribution and muscle quality.Objectives: To compare raw MF-BIA data between COPD patients and controls and to study their relationship with respiratory and functional parameters in COPD patients.Methods: MF-BIA was performed (Human Im-Touch analyzer in 212 COPD patients and 115 age- and BMI-matched controls. Fat-free mass (FFM and fat mass were estimated from BIA data, and low- to high-frequency (5 kHz/250 kHz impedance ratio was calculated. Physical fitness, lung function and respiratory muscle strength were also assessed in COPD patients.Results: After adjusting for age, weight, and body mass index, FFM and the 5/250 impedance ratio were lower in COPD patients (P<0.001 and were negatively affected by disease severity. In both male and female patients, the 5/250 impedance ratio was significantly correlated mainly with age (r=−0.316 and r=−0.346, respectively. Patients with a 5/250 impedance ratio below median value had lower handgrip strength (P<0.001, 6-minute walk distance (P<0.005, respiratory muscle strength (P<0.005, forced

  1. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique A Parsons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown. METHODS: We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT images. A body mass index (BMI≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria. RESULTS: Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%; 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%, including 79% of patients with a BMI<25 kg/m² and 34% of those with BMI≥25 kg/m². Sarcopenic patients were older and less frequently African-American. Symptom burden did not differ among patients classified according to BMI and presence of sarcopenia. Median (95% confidence interval survival (days varied according to body composition: 215 (71-358 (BMI<25 kg/m²; sarcopenic, 271 (99-443 (BMI<25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic, 484 (286-681 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; sarcopenic; 501 d (309-693 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic. Higher muscle index and gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  2. Relation between Lifestyle and Socio-Demographic Factors and Body Composition among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Fahime; Habibi, Nahal; Samadi, Mehnoosh; Azam, Kamal; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2016-08-01

    Aging is accompanied by various changes that can cause changes in diet and body composition resulting sometimes in malnutrition and disability in the elderly. Changes in body composition among the elderly are mainly the result of physical inactivity and nutrition. This study was designed to examine the relationship between lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and body composition. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 380 elderly people aged 60 and over in district 5 of Tehran, Iran. Their body composition was measured by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis and the Actigraph device was used for assessing physical activity patterns. A three-day food recall was conducted to measure their intake of energy and macronutrients. Lifestyle and socio-demographic information were collected by interview using a pretested questionnaire. Overweight, obesity and central obesity were more prevalent in women than in men (p<0.001). Moreover, 57.1% and 18.7% of participants had high and very high fat mass index, respectively. High fat mass index was seen in 47% of men and 37.5% of women who had normal body mass index (BMI). Meanwhile, age, gender, physical activity, energy intake, the percentage of energy from fat and protein, educational level, job, television watching time, smoking, chronic diseases, and taking medicine were significantly associated with anthropometric measurements (p<0.05). Overweight, obesity and high body fat percentage were common among the aged. Considering the factors that are significantly associated with body composition, programs that can increase their awareness about the dietary balance and suitable physical activity should be organized to address these problems.

  3. Assessment of nutritional status, body composition, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated morphologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Tamsin A; Zafonte-Sanders, Melissa; Fields-Gardner, Cade; Moen, Karol; Johansen, Diana; Paton, Nicholas

    2003-04-01

    Nutritional status should be assessed at regular intervals as part of management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The simplest approach to assessment is serial weight measurement. A comprehensive nutritional assessment includes (1) anthropometric measurements of body composition; (2) biochemical measurements of serum protein, micronutrients, and metabolic parameters; (3) clinical assessment of altered nutritional requirements and social or psychological issues that may preclude adequate intake; and (4) measurement of dietary intake. Techniques for measuring body composition of fat and lean body mass include anthropometry and bioelectric impedance analysis. Other techniques, including dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hydrodensitometry, total body potassium measurement, and cross-sectional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are available in research centers. Anthropometry, including waist-hip ratios, regional DXA, and cross-sectional imaging, is best for detecting morphologic changes associated with fat redistribution syndrome. Nutritional assessment and intervention in children with HIV can help to prevent stunted growth and development.

  4. Body composition in affective disorder before, during, and after lithium carbonate therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colt, E W; Dunner, D L; Wang, J; Ross, D C; Pierson, R N; Fieve, R R

    1982-05-01

    The body composition of three unipolar and 17 bipolar patients, studied during the depressive state, was compared with that of 48 controls. The ratio of extracellular to intracellular water content was significantly less in male patients than in male controls: the difference between female patients and female controls was not statistically significant. In patients of both sexes, residual sodium concentration was greater in patients than in controls. The intracellular content of potassium was the same in patients as in controls. In six patients, body composition was studied prior to lithium carbonate therapy, after 17 days of treatment, and 17 days after discontinuing administration of the drug. The significant changes were a decrease in body weight during therapy, and a decrease in body water content and an increase in residual sodium concentration after drug treatment was discontinued.

  5. Effects of creatine supplementation on the performance and body composition of competitive swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Renata Rebello; Pires, Ivanir; Oliveira, Althair; Tirapegui, Julio

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of creatine supplementation on performance and body composition of swimmers. Eighteen swimmers were evaluated in terms of post-performance lactate accumulation, body composition, creatine and creatinine excretion, and serum creatinine concentrations before and after creatine or placebo supplementation. No significant differences were observed in the marks obtained in swimming tests after supplementation, although lactate concentrations were higher in placebo group during this period. In the creatine-supplemented group, urinary creatine, creatinine, and body mass, lean mass and body water were significantly increased, but no significant difference in muscle or bone mass was observed. These results suggest that creatine supplementation cannot be considered to be an ergogenic supplement ensuring improved performance and muscle mass gain in swimmers.

  6. Body composition in Pan paniscus compared with Homo sapiens has implications for changes during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zihlman, Adrienne L; Bolter, Debra R

    2015-06-16

    The human body has been shaped by natural selection during the past 4-5 million years. Fossils preserve bones and teeth but lack muscle, skin, fat, and organs. To understand the evolution of the human form, information about both soft and hard tissues of our ancestors is needed. Our closest living relatives of the genus Pan provide the best comparative model to those ancestors. Here, we present data on the body composition of 13 bonobos (Pan paniscus) measured during anatomical dissections and compare the data with Homo sapiens. These comparative data suggest that both females and males (i) increased body fat, (ii) decreased relative muscle mass, (iii) redistributed muscle mass to lower limbs, and (iv) decreased relative mass of skin during human evolution. Comparison of soft tissues between Pan and Homo provides new insights into the function and evolution of body composition.

  7. Spring snow goose hunting influences body composition of waterfowl staging in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    A spring hunt was instituted in North America to reduce abundance of snow geese (Chen caerulescens) by increasing mortality of adults directly, yet disturbance from hunting activities can indirectly influence body condition and ultimately, reproductive success. We estimated effects of hunting disturbance by comparing body composition of snow geese and non-target species, greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons) and northern pintails (Anas acuta) collected in portions of south-central Nebraska that were open (eastern Rainwater Basin, ERB) and closed (western Rainwater Basin, WRB; and central Platte River Valley, CPRV) to snow goose hunting during springs 1998 and 1999. Lipid content of 170 snow geese was 25% (57 g) less in areas open to hunting compared to areas closed during hunting season but similar in all areas after hunting was concluded in the ERB. Protein content of snow geese was 3% (14 g) less in the region open to hunting. Greater white-fronted geese had 24% (76 g; n = 129) less lipids in the hunted portion of the study area during hunting season, and this difference persisted after conclusion of hunting season. We found little difference in lipid or protein content of northern pintails in relation to spring hunting. Indirect effects of spring hunting may be considered a collateral benefit regarding efforts to reduce overabundant snow goose populations. Disrupted nutrient storage observed in greater white-fronted geese represents an unintended consequence of spring hunting that has potential to adversely affect reproduction for this and other species of waterbirds staging in the region.

  8. Estimating whole body intermuscular adipose tissue from single cross-sectional magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiang Yan; Gallagher, Dympna; Harris, Tamara; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley

    2007-02-01

    Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), a novel fat depot linked with metabolic abnormalities, has been measured by whole body MRI. The cross-sectional slice location with the strongest relation to total body IMAT volume has not been established. The aim was to determine the predictive value of each slice location and which slice locations provide the best estimates of whole body IMAT. MRI quantified total adipose tissue of which IMAT, defined as adipose tissue visible within the boundary of the muscle fascia, is a subcomponent. Single-slice IMAT areas were calculated for the calf, thigh, buttock, waist, shoulders, upper arm, and forearm locations in a sample of healthy adult women, African-American [n = 39; body mass index (BMI) 28.5 +/- 5.4 kg/m2; 41.8 +/- 14.8 yr], Asian (n = 21; BMI 21.6 +/- 3.2 kg/m2; 40.9 +/- 16.3 yr), and Caucasian (n = 43; BMI 25.6 +/- 5.3 kg/m2; 43.2 +/- 15.3 yr), and Caucasian men (n = 39; BMI 27.1 +/- 3.8 kg/m2; 45.2 +/- 14.6 yr) and used to estimate total IMAT groups using multiple-regression equations. Midthigh was the best, or near best, single predictor in all groups with adjusted R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.84. Adding a second and third slice further increased R2 and reduced the error of the estimate. Menopausal status and degree of obesity did not affect the location of the best single slice. The contributions of other slice locations varied by sex and race, but additional slices improved predictions. For group studies, it may be more cost-effective to estimate IMAT based on one or more slices than to acquire and segment for each subject the numerous images necessary to quantify whole body IMAT.

  9. Parameter estimation for whole-body kinetic model of FDG metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yunfeng; BAI Jing; CHEN Yingmao; TIAN Jiahe

    2006-01-01

    Based on the radioactive tracer [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), positron emission tomography (PET), and compartment model, the tracer kinetic study has become an important method to investigate the glucose metabolic kinetics in human body.In this work, the kinetic parameters of three-compartment and four-parameter model for the FDG metabolism in the tissues of myocardium, lung, liver, stomach, spleen, pancreas, and marrow were estimated through some dynamic FDG-PET experiments. Together with published brain and skeletal muscle parameters, a relatively complete whole-body model was presented. In the liver model, the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver was considered for parameter estimation, and the more accurate results were obtained using the dual-input rather than the single arterial-input. The established whole-body model provides the functional information of FDG metabolism in human body. It can be used to further investigate the glucose metabolism, and also be used for the simulation and visualization of FDG metabolic process in human body.

  10. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  11. An interrelation of physical working capacity and body component composition indicators of amateur athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gorenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determine the features of the body component composition and the level of physical performance, as well as the structure of the correlation between these indicators in amateur athletes. Material & Methods: in conditions of the test with physical load with stepwise increasing power in the 71-st physically active person, the reaction of the cardio-respiratory system to physical activity. The body component composition was determined by the bioelectrical impedance method. Result: in amateur athletes, the relative VO2max and power ratings are positively correlated with the relative body water content and have a negative relationship with age, body weight, body mass index, fat content. Oxygen pulse with a high degree of probability positively correlated with body weight, body mass index, metabolic rate, fat-free mass, water content and predictable muscle mass in all body segments. Conclusion: Conducted studies indicate a sufficient level of aerobic capacity, overall performance, the efficiency of the cardiac cycle, the functioning of the О2-transport system and skeletal muscles ability to absorb oxygen from the amateur athletes, and excess fat tissue negatively affects physical performance, overall endurance and achieving high sports results in sports on the endurance.

  12. Noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions influence body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afa K Palu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the Unites States has reached unprecedented levels, and so has the need for effective exercise and nutritional programs for prevention of unhealthy weight gain or safe weight loss. Aims: The present study was conducted in overweight men and women to assess the impact of noni-based nutritional supplementation and exercise interventions on body composition. Materials and Methods: Twenty two participants (16 women and 6 men, ages 18-65, were enrolled in a 12-week, open-label trial of a weight-loss program involving noni-based dietary supplements, gender-specific daily calorie restriction, and exercise interventions. Weight, percent body fat, and body mass index were measured before and after the trial. Results: All participants experienced weight loss. The average decrease in fat mass was highly significant (P < 0.0001, as were decreases in percent body fat and body mass index. Individual weight and fat mass losses were 17.55 ± 9.73 and 21.78 ± 8.34 lbs., respectively, and individual percent body fat and body mass index decreases were 8.91 ± 3.58 % and 2.6 ± 1.32, respectively. Conclusion: The nutritional and exercise interventions significantly influenced body composition among participants.

  13. Fitness, daily activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahlkvist, S; Pedersen, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about how the asthma disease affects the life style and health in children is sparse. Aim: To measure fitness, daily physical activity and body composition in children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and healthy controls, and to assess the association between...... the level of asthma control and these parameters. Methods: Daily physical activity measured using accelerometry, cardiovascular fitness and body composition (per cent fat, per cent lean tissue and bone mineral density) were measured in 57 children with newly diagnosed, untreated asthma and in 157 healthy...... fitness and daytime spent in intensive activity. Overweight children are physically less active than normal weight children....

  14. Deuterium dilution technique for body composition assessment: resolving methodological issues in children with moderate acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Yaméogo, Charles W; Devi, Sarita

    2017-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent and associated with high mortality risk. In observational and interventional studies among malnourished children, body composition is increasingly recognised as a key outcome. The deuterium dilution technique has generated high-quality data on body...... composition in studies of infants and young children in several settings, but its feasibility and accuracy in children suffering from moderate acute malnutrition requires further study. Prior to a large nutritional intervention trial among children with moderate acute malnutrition, we conducted pilot work...... quality when using the deuterium dilution technique in malnutrition studies in field conditions, and may encourage a wider use of isotope techniques....

  15. Static and Dynamic Mechanical Behavior of Hydroxyapatite-Polyacrylic Acid Composites Under Simulated Body Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S. Katti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have investigated mechanical response of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic composites under dry, wet and simulated body fluid conditions. Hydroxyapatite (HAP is mineralized under two conditions; one, in presence of polyacrylic acid (in situ HAP, second, in absence of polyacrylic acid (ex situ HAP. Further, in situ and ex situ HAP are mixed with polyacrylic acid to make HAP/PAAc composites. Interfacial interactions between PAAc and HAP have been studied using photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PAS-FTIR. The mechanical response of the composites under wet condition is studied by soaking composite samples in simulated body fluid (SBF. Under wet conditions, SBF and water weaken the HAP-HAP interface significantly. PAS-FTIR data suggests that PAAc attaches to HAP through the dissociated carboxylate groups. The water and SBF soaked samples showed creep-like behavior and exhibit large residual strain after unloading. Loading under different strain rates has significant effect on mechanical properties of these composites. Both in situ and ex situ 70:30 composites exhibit highest elastic modulus at strain rate of 0.01 sec-1. XRD study indicates formation of Ca2P2O7 phase in ex situ composite after soaking in SBF and water for 3 hours, whereas in situ composites showed presence of only hydroxyapatite phase after soaking in SBF and water for same duration of time.

  16. REVIEW: A review of in vivo experimental methods to determine the composition of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, J. F.

    1996-05-01

    This review of experimental methods employed in the measurement of the composition of the human body covers the developments that have occurred over the past 30 years. Early methods such as hydrodensitometry and skinfold anthropometry have been superseded by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. The measurement of the whole-body abundance of certain elements by isotopic dilution, neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence can give important information of clinical significance, but neutron activation facilities remain available in only a few centres worldwide. The relatively simple, rapid and risk-free electrical methods such as multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, which can be employed at the bedside, have been found to be more complicated in their interpretation. Electromagnetic methods may only measure the composition of the human body at its surface. X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging have not yet been employed much in body composition measurements. Some models for the composition of the human body are reviewed.

  17. Executive summary of the 2013 International Society for Clinical Densitometry Position Development Conference on Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, John A; Baim, Sanford; Bilezikian, John P; Schousboe, John T

    2013-01-01

    There have been many scientific advances in measurement of fat and lean body mass as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) convened a Position Development Conference (PDC) on the use of DXA for body composition measurement. Previously, no guidelines to the use of DXA for body composition existed. The recommendations pertain to clinically relevant issues regarding DXA indications of use, acquisition, analysis, quality control, interpretation, and reporting were addressed. The topics and questions for consideration were developed by the ISCD Board of Directors and the Scientific Advisory Committee and were designed to address the needs of clinical practitioners. Three Task Forces were created and assigned these questions and asked to conduct comprehensive literature reviews. The Task Forces included participants from 6 countries and a variety of interests including academic institutions, private clinics, and industry. Reports with proposed Position Statements were then presented to an international panel of experts with backgrounds in DXA and bone densitometry and a variety of fields that use body composition measures. The PDC was held in Tampa, FL, contemporaneously with the Annual Meeting of the ISCD, March 21 through March 23, 2013. This report describes the methodology of the 2013 ISCD Body Composition PDC and summarizes the results. Three separate articles in this issue will detail the rationale, discussion, and additional research topics for each question the Task Forces addressed. Copyright © 2013 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Techniques of body composition assessment: a review of laboratory and field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, D R; Heyward, V H

    1999-06-01

    Body composition is one of the major health-related components of fitness. Thus, it is important for health and fitness professionals to have a general understanding of the most commonly used techniques for assessing body composition. This review presents the developmental background and underlying principles and theory of four laboratory (hydrodensitometry, air displacement plethysmography, isotope dilution, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and four field (bioelectrical impedance analysis, near-infrared interactance, skinfolds, and anthropometry) methods of body composition assessment. In addition to a description of the methods, the validity, and reliability, strengths, and limitations of each measurement tool are examined. Highlights of the laboratory methods include the relatively new Bod Pod air displacement device, which is a promising assessment tool more convenient than hydrodensitometry but still lacking substantial validity testing and the ability of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure regional composition making it an attractive method for clinicians. Advancements in segmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance for compartmental analysis have enhanced the value of this field method, but research continues to show that commercially available near-infrared interactance units are invalid. With this knowledge, the clinician and researcher should be able to make an informed decision regarding the most appropriate measurement device for their body composition assessments.

  19. Body composition measurement in African and Caribbean children and its relationship with morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Amoako-Attah, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The global increase in obesity prevalence has led to a surge in metabolic disease in both adults and children. Furthermore, the burden of obesity and its related morbidities is not equally distributed across the UK population, with those from minority ethnic groups particularly affected. Effective paediatric epidemiological monitoring and clinical referral requires improved tools for assessing body fatness, and other body composition measures related to metabolic disease are needed. Presently...

  20. A review on effects of conjugated linoleic fatty acid (CLA) upon body composition and energetic metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; da Silva, Marcondes Ramos; Camacho, Augusto; Marcadenti, Aline; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is highly found in fats from ruminants and it appears to favorably modify the body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. The capacity of CLA to reduce the body fat levels as well as its benefic actions on glycemic profile, atherosclerosis and cancer has already been proved in experimental models. Furthermore, CLA supplementation may modulate the immune function, help re-synthetize of glycogen and potentiate the bone mineralization. CLA supplementation al...

  1. Body composition in obstructive sleep apneahypopnea syndrome bio-impedance reflects the severity of sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovin Sînziana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS is characterized by repeated breathing pauses during sleep and is closely associated with obesity. Body fat is known to be a predictive factor for OSAHS and its severity. Aim To study the correlation between the severity of OSAHS and body composition measurements. Methods 30 patients with OSAHS (21 men, 9 women, mean age 45.1 years, mean apnea-hypopnea index = 29.6/hour were included in the study after full polysomnography. They were divided into 3 groups according to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI: mild OSAHS (mean AHI 10.9/h, moderate OSAHS (mean AHI 23.9/h and severe OSAHS (mean AHI 53.9/h. Body composition (body fat, body water and dry lean mass was assessed using bioelectric impedance assay (BIA. Other measurements included neck and abdominal circumferences and body mass index (BMI. Pearson's coefficient (r was used to express correlations between AHI and the following parameters: BMI, neck and abdominal circumferences, body fat, dry lean mass, and body water. Wilcoxon Sum-of-Ranks (Mann-Whitney test for comparing unmatched samples was used to compare anthropometric and body composition measurements between groups. Results The correlation between AHI and BMI was weak (r = 0.38. AHI correlated moderately with neck circumference (r = 0.54, with neck circumference corrected by height (r = 0.60, and more strongly with body fat (r = 0.67, with body water (r = 0.69 and with abdominal circumference (r = 0.75. There was a strong negative correlation between AHI and dry lean mass (r = - 0.92. There were significant differences in body fat, body water, neck circumference corrected by height and abdominal circumference (Wilcoxon Sum-of-Ranks, p Conclusions In our study, the severity of OSAHS correlated with body fat and with body water more strongly than with general and cervical obesity. Abdominal adiposity may predict OSAHS severity better than neck circumference.

  2. Somatotype and body composition of referees and assistant referees from the CBF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Ricardo Rech

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine and compare the somatotype and body composition of principal soccer referees and assistant soccer referees from the state of Paraná in Brazil, all working for the Brazilian Soccer Confederation – (CBF Confederaçao Brasileira de Futebol. Twenty-five referees participated in this study: 12 principal referees (PR and 13 assistant referees (AR, all male. The variables body mass, height, skinfolds, body girth and bone diameters were collected with the aim of estimating the referees’ body composition and determining their somatotypes. Data are presented in the form of descriptive statistics. Comparisons between the PR and AR groups were made using Student’s t test for independent samples. The PR referees had a mean age of 38.5 + 5.1 years of age, body mass of 80.9 + 7.61 Kg, mean height of 179 + 3.3 cm and an average percentage of fat of 20.81 + 3.29%. The AR group were significantly younger on average (37.3 + 3.1 years old, p Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar e comparar o somatotipo e a composição corporal de árbitros e árbitros assistentes de futebol do Estado do Paraná, Brasil, que atuam junto à Confederação Brasileira de Futebol (CBF. Participaram do estudo 25 árbitros, sendo 12 árbitros principais (AP e 13 árbitros assistentes (AA ambos do sexo masculino. As variáveis de massa corporal, estatura, espessura de dobras cutâneas, perímetros corporais e diâmetros ósseos foram coletados com a finalidade de estimar a composição corporal e determinar o somatotipo dos árbitros. Os dados são apresentados mediante estatística descritiva, a comparação entre os grupos de AP e AA foi realizada por meio do teste “t” de student para amostras independentes. Os AP apresentaram uma idade média de 38,5±5,1 anos, massa corporal de 80,9±7,61 kg, estatura 179±3,3 cm e um percentual de gordura médio de 20,81±3,29 %. O grupo de AA apresentou uma idade média menor (37,3±3

  3. Effects of programmed physical activity on body composition in post-pubertal schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Edson Dos Santos; Gonçalves, Ezequiel Moreira; Morcillo, André Moreno; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio

    2015-01-01

    To assess body composition modifications in post-pubertal schoolchildren after practice of a physical activity program during one school year. The sample consisted of 386 students aged between 15 and 17 years and divided into two groups: the study group (SG) comprised 195 students and the control group (CG), 191. The SG was submitted to a physical activity program and the CG attended conventional physical education classes. Body composition was assessed using body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF), fat mass (FM), and lean mass (LM). A positive effect of the physical activity program on body composition in the SG (p<0.001) was observed, as well as on the interaction time x group in all the variables analyzed in both genders. A reduction in %BF (mean of differences = -5.58%) and waist circumference (-2.33 cm), as well as an increase in LM (+2.05 kg) were observed in the SG for both genders, whereas the opposite was observed in the CG. The practice of programmed physical activity promotes significant reduction of body fat in post-pubertal schoolchildren. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometry for the determination of body composition in rats: effects of high-fat and high-sucrose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Neto Angéloco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the impedance of Wistar rats treated with high-fat and high-sucrose diets and correlate their biochemical and anthropometric parameters with chemical analysis of the carcass. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed a standard (AIN-93, high-fat (50% fat or high-sucrose (59% of sucrose diet for 4 weeks. Abdominal and thoracic circumference and body length were measured. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine resistance and reactance. Final body composition was determined by chemical analysis. RESULTS: Higher fat intake led to a high percentage of liver fat and cholesterol and low total body water in the High-Fat group, but these changes in the biochemical profile were not reflected by the anthropometric measurements or bioelectrical impedance analysis variables. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analysis changes were not observed in the High-Sucrose group. However, a positive association was found between body fat and three anthropometric variables: body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference. CONCLUSION: Bioelectrical impedance analysis did not prove to be sensitive for detecting changes in body composition, but body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference can be used for estimating the body composition of rats.

  5. Is infant body mass index associated with adulthood body composition trajectories? An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Lee, M; Towne, B; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2017-02-01

    Infant body mass index (BMI) is increasingly used as a marker of obesity risk based on its association with young-adulthood BMI. The aim of this study is to test the association of infant BMI with young-adulthood fat mass and fat-free mass, and how this association changes during advancing adulthood. Body mass index Z-score at age 9 months was measured in 350 White, non-Hispanic Fels Longitudinal Study participants. This exposure was entered into multilevel models to test its association with trajectories describing 2665 BMI observations and 1388 observations of fat mass index (FMI, kg m(-2) ) and fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg m(-2) ) between ages 20 and 60 years. Partitioning young-adulthood BMI into its fat and fat-free components, infant BMI Z-score was associated with FFMI (β = 0.745; 95% confidence interval = 0.367 to 1.124) but not FMI (0.528; -0.055 to 1.110) at age 20 years. Greater infant BMI Z-score was associated with slower age-related increases in all outcomes, such that (looking at 10-year intervals) only FFMI at age 30 years was related to infant BMI Z-score (0.338; 0.119, 0.557). Focus on infant BMI reduction for adulthood obesity prevention warrants caution as high infant BMI values are associated with greater lean mass, which is protective against ageing changes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  6. Estimation of physical properties of laminated composites via the method of inverse vibration problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Murat [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Bayburt University, Bayburt (Turkmenistan); Gundogdu, Omer [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    In this study, estimation of some physical properties of a laminated composite plate was conducted via the inverse vibration problem. Laminated composite plate was modelled and simulated to obtain vibration responses for different length-to-thickness ratio in ANSYS. Furthermore, a numerical finite element model was developed for the laminated composite utilizing the Kirchhoff plate theory and programmed in MATLAB for simulations. Optimizing the difference between these two vibration responses, inverse vibration problem was solved to obtain some of the physical properties of the laminated composite using genetic algorithms. The estimated parameters are compared with the theoretical results, and a very good correspondence was observed.

  7. Equestrian expertise affecting physical fitness, body compositions, lactate, heart rate and calorie consumption of elite horse riding players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Bong-Ju; Jeon, Sang-Yong; Lim, Sung-Ro; Lee, Kyu-Eon; Jee, Hyunseok

    2015-01-01

    Horse riding (HR) is a sport harmonized with rider and horse. HR is renowned as an effective sport for young and old women and men. There is rare study regarding comparison between elite horse riders and amateurs. We aimed to investigate comprehensive ranges of parameters such as change of lactate, heart rate, calorie, VO2max, skeletal muscle mass, body water, body fat, etc between amateurs and professionals to emphasize HR not only as a sport training but also as a therapeutic aspect. We performed 3 experiments for comparing physical fitness, body compositions, lactate value, heart rate and calorie consumption change before and after riding between amateurs and elites. Around 3 yr riding experienced elites are preeminent at balance capability compared to 1 yr riding experienced amateurs. During 18 min horse riding, skeletal muscle mass and body fat were interestingly increased and decreased, respectively. Lactate response was more sensitive in elites rather than amateurs and its recovery was reversely reacted. Exercise intensity estimated from heart rate was significantly higher in elites (PHorse riding possibly induces various physiological (muscle strength, balance, oxidative capability, flexibility, and metabolic control) changes within body and is thus highly recommended as combined exercise for women, children, and aged as therapeutic and leisure sport activity. PMID:26171385

  8. Long-term precision of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry body composition measurements and association with their covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Cassidy; Fan, Bo; Borrud, Lori G; Looker, Anne C; Shepherd, John A

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have described the long-term repeatability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans. Even fewer studies have been performed with enough participants to identify possible precision covariates such as sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Our objective was to investigate the long-term repeatability of both total and subregional body composition measurements and their associations with covariates in a large sample. Two valid whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were available for 609 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2000-2002. Participants with scan-quality issues were excluded. Participants varied in race and ethnicity, sex, age (mean 38.8±17.5; range 16-69 yr), and BMI (mean, 26.9±5.2; range 14.1-43.5 kg/m2). The length of time between scans ranged from 3 to 51 days (mean, 18.7±8.4). Precision error estimates for total body measures (bone mineral density, bone mineral content, lean mass, total mass, fat mass, and percent body fat) were calculated as root mean square percent coefficients of variation and standard deviations. The average root mean square percent coefficients of variation and root mean square standard deviations of the precision error for total body variables were 1.12 and 0.01 g/cm2 for bone mineral density, 1.14 and 27.3 g for bone mineral content, 1.97 and 505 g for fat mass, 1.46 and 760 g for lean mass, 1.10 and 858 g for total mass, and 1.80 and 0.59 for percent body fat. In general, only fat and lean masses were impacted by participant and scan qualities (obesity category, sex, the magnitude of the body composition variables, and time between scans). We conclude that long-term precision error values are impacted by BMI, and sex. Our long-term precision error estimates may be more suitable than short-term precision for calculating least significant change and monitoring time intervals.

  9. DETERMINATION OF PREDICTION EQUATIONS TO ESTIMATE BODY CONDITION SCORE FROM BODY SIZE AND TESTICULAR TRAITS OF YANKASA RAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yakubu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to develop prediction models using stepwise multiple linear regressionanalysis for estimating the body condition score (BCS from the body weight (BW, testicular length(TL, testicular diameter (TD and scrotal circumference (SC of indigenous Yankasa rams. Data wereobtained from 120 randomly selected rams with approximately two and half years of age, from differentextensively managed herds in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Although pairwise phenotypic correlationsindicated strong association (P<0.01 among the measured variables, there was collinearity problembetween BW and SC as revealed by the variance inflation factors (VIF and tolerance valves (T. TheVIT was higher than 10 (VIF = 19.45 and 16.65 for BW and SC, respectively. The Twas smaller than0.1 (T = 0.05 and 0.06 in BW and SC, respectively. BW was retained among the collinear variables, andwas singly accounted for 83.7% of the variation in BCS. However, a slight improvement was obtainedfrom the prediction of BCS from BW and TL [coefficient of determination (R2, adjusted R2 and rootmean squares error (RMSE were 85.3%, 85.1% and 0.305, respectively]. The prediction of the BCS ofYankasa rams from BW and testicular measurements could therefore be a potential tool for sustainableproduction and improvement of small ruminants in Nigeria.

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone Supplementation Combined with Whole-Body Vibration Training Affects Testosterone Level and Body Composition in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang; Tzeng, Yen-Dun

    2016-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related biochemical responses and testosterone content in young-adult C57BL/6 mice. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) for 6-weeks treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), DHEA supplementation (DHEA, 10.2 mg/kg), WBV training (WBV; 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g), and WBV training with DHEA supplementation (WBV+DHEA; WBV: 5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g and DHEA: 10.2 mg/kg). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, creatine kinase (CK), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after a 15-min swimming exercise. In addition, the biochemical parameters and the testosterone content were measured at the end of the experiment. Six-week DHEA supplementation alone significantly increased mice body weight (BW), muscle weight, testosterone level, and glycogen contents (liver and muscle) when compared with SC group. DHEA supplementation alone had no negative impact on all tissue and biochemical profiles, but could not improve exercise performance. However, WBV+DHEA supplementation also significantly decreased BW, testosterone level and glycogen content of liver, as well as serum

  11. Estimation of computed tomography dose in various phantom shapes and compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Lae [Dept. of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate CTDI (computed tomography dose index at center) for various phantom shapes, sizes, and compositions by using GATE (geant4 application for tomographic emission) simulations. GATE simulations were performed for various phantom shapes (cylinder, elliptical, and hexagonal prism PMMA phantoms) and phantom compositions (water, PMMA, polyethylene, polyoxymethylene) with various diameters (1-50 cm) at various kVp and mAs levels. The CTDI100center values of cylinder, elliptical, and hexagonal prism phantom at 120 kVp, 200 mAs resulted in 11.1, 13.4, and 12.2 mGy, respectively. The volume is the same, but CTDI{sub 100center} values are different depending on the type of phantom. The water, PMMA, and polyoxymethylene phantom CTDI{sub 100center} values were relatively low as the material density increased. However, in the case of Polyethylene, the CTDI{sub 100center} value was higher than that of PMMA at diameters exceeding 15 cm (CTDI{sub 100center} : 35.0 mGy). And a diameter greater than 30 cm (CTDI{sub 100center} : 17.7 mGy) showed more CTDI{sub 100center} than Water. We have used limited phantoms to evaluate CT doses. In this study, CTDI{sub 100center} values were estimated and simulated by GATE simulation according to the material and shape of the phantom. CT dosimetry can be estimated more accurately by using various materials and phantom shapes close to human body.

  12. Association of Fluid Status and Body Composition with Physical Function in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Chen, Tzu-Hui; Wang, Shu-Li; Hsiao, Pei-Ni; Kung, Lan-Fang; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Huang, Mei-Feng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Kuo, Mei-Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Impairment of physical function and abnormal body composition are the major presentations in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between body composition and physical function in CKD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 172 of CKD stages 1–5 from February 2013 to September 2013. Handgrip strength (upper extremity muscle endurance), 30-second chair-stand test (lower extremity muscle endurance) and 2-minute step test (cardiorespiratory endurance) were used as indices of physical function. Body composition, including fluid status (extracellular water/total body water, ECW/TBW), lean tissue index (LTI), and fat tissue index (FTI), was measured using a bioimpedance spectroscopy method. Results All patients with high ECW/TBW had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low ECW/TBW (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). CKD patients with high FTI had lower handgrip strength and 30-second chair-stand than those with low FTI (P<0.001 and P = 0.002). These patients with low LTI had lower handgrip strength than those with high LTI (P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, high ECW/TBW was positively associated with decreased handgrip strength (β = -41.17, P = 0.03) in CKD patients. High FTI was significantly correlated with decreased times of 30-second chair-stand (β = -0.13, P = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between body composition and 2-minute step test. Conclusions Our results show a significant association of impaired upper and lower extremity muscle endurance with high fluid status and fat tissue. Evaluation of body composition may assist in indentifying physical dysfunction earlier in CKD patients. PMID:27798648

  13. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Michael I; Martin, Ashley A; Alderete, Tanya L; Fujiwara, Hideji; Fields, David A

    2017-02-16

    Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother-infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose) were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively). Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02), 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01), 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05), and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03). In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  14. Fructose in Breast Milk Is Positively Associated with Infant Body Composition at 6 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Goran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary sugars have been shown to promote excess adiposity among children and adults; however, no study has examined fructose in human milk and its effects on body composition during infancy. Twenty-five mother–infant dyads attended clinical visits to the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center at 1 and 6 months of infant age. Infants were exclusively breastfed for 6 months and sugars in breast milk (i.e., fructose, glucose, lactose were measured by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and glucose oxidase. Infant body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 1 and 6 months. Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations between breast milk sugars and infant body composition at 6 months of age. Fructose, glucose, and lactose were present in breast milk and stable across visits (means = 6.7 μg/mL, 255.2 μg/mL, and 7.6 g/dL, respectively. Despite its very low concentration, fructose was the only sugar significantly associated with infant body composition. A 1-μg/mL higher breast milk fructose was associated with a 257 g higher body weight (p = 0.02, 170 g higher lean mass (p = 0.01, 131 g higher fat mass (p = 0.05, and 5 g higher bone mineral content (p = 0.03. In conclusion, fructose is detectable in human breast milk and is positively associated with all components of body composition at 6 months of age.

  15. Body composition differences in normal weight, obese-overweight and anorexic adolescents: role of adipocytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrak, Kristin S; Hackney, Anthony C

    2010-01-01

    Adipocytokines are signaling molecules released by adipose tissue with numerous functions, including regulation of metabolism, inflammatory process, and body mass. They are particularly interesting in youth, considering the rising prevalence of overweight/obesity and the linkage of this condition to inflammation. This chapter examines the relationship between body composition and select adipocytokines: leptin, adiponectin, IL-6, TNF-α, and resistin, in overweight, normal weight and anorexic youth. Leptin, which stimulates energy expenditure and promotes satiety, is highest in overweight youth, followed by normal weight and lastly anorexic youth. Adiponectin has similar functions to leptin but is negatively correlated with measures of body composition. Anorexic youth have the highest adiponectin per kg fat mass, followed by normal weight and overweight. Conversely, IL-6 is positively associated with body composition; however, research in anorexic youth is inconclusive. It has some pro-inflammatory effects and promotes glucose and fat use, therefore beneficial for maintenance of normal weight status. TNF-α is also a pro-inflammatory adipocytokine thought to be somewhat protective against cancer. TNF-α is highest in overweight, followed by normal weight and anorexic youth, similar to leptin. Finally, resistin is also involved in the pro-inflammatory response and the development of insulin resistance. However, far less research exists on this adipocytokine and its relation to body composition in overweight or anorexic youth is equivocal. In conclusion, several consistent relationships exist regarding adipocytokines and body composition; however, there is a need for additional research on these relationships in youth especially at extremes of adiposity such as overweight and anorexics. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Adult onset global loss of the fto gene alters body composition and metabolism in the mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona McMurray

    Full Text Available The strongest BMI-associated GWAS locus in humans is the FTO gene. Rodent studies demonstrate a role for FTO in energy homeostasis and body composition. The phenotypes observed in loss of expression studies are complex with perinatal lethality, stunted growth from weaning, and significant alterations in body composition. Thus understanding how and where Fto regulates food intake, energy expenditure, and body composition is a challenge. To address this we generated a series of mice with distinct temporal and spatial loss of Fto expression. Global germline loss of Fto resulted in high perinatal lethality and a reduction in body length, fat mass, and lean mass. When ratio corrected for lean mass, mice had a significant increase in energy expenditure, but more appropriate multiple linear regression normalisation showed no difference in energy expenditure. Global deletion of Fto after the in utero and perinatal period, at 6 weeks of age, removed the high lethality of germline loss. However, there was a reduction in weight by 9 weeks, primarily as loss of lean mass. Over the subsequent 10 weeks, weight converged, driven by an increase in fat mass. There was a switch to a lower RER with no overall change in food intake or energy expenditure. To test if the phenotype can be explained by loss of Fto in the mediobasal hypothalamus, we sterotactically injected adeno-associated viral vectors encoding Cre recombinase to cause regional deletion. We observed a small reduction in food intake and weight gain with no effect on energy expenditure or body composition. Thus, although hypothalamic Fto can impact feeding, the effect of loss of Fto on body composition is brought about by its actions at sites elsewhere. Our data suggest that Fto may have a critical role in the control of lean mass, independent of its effect on food intake.

  17. Stationary variational estimates for the effective response and field fluctuations in nonlinear composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponte Castañeda, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a variational method for estimating the effective constitutive response of composite materials with nonlinear constitutive behavior. The method is based on a stationary variational principle for the macroscopic potential in terms of the corresponding potential of a linear comparison composite (LCC) whose properties are the trial fields in the variational principle. When used in combination with estimates for the LCC that are exact to second order in the heterogeneity contrast, the resulting estimates for the nonlinear composite are also guaranteed to be exact to second-order in the contrast. In addition, the new method allows full optimization with respect to the properties of the LCC, leading to estimates that are fully stationary and exhibit no duality gaps. As a result, the effective response and field statistics of the nonlinear composite can be estimated directly from the appropriately optimized linear comparison composite. By way of illustration, the method is applied to a porous, isotropic, power-law material, and the results are found to compare favorably with earlier bounds and estimates. However, the basic ideas of the method are expected to work for broad classes of composites materials, whose effective response can be given appropriate variational representations, including more general elasto-plastic and soft hyperelastic composites and polycrystals.

  18. Validity and Reliability of A-Mode Ultrasound for Body Composition Assessment of NCAA Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R; Cain, Dustin L; Clark, Nicolas W

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the BodyMetrix™ BX2000 A-mode ultrasound for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in athletes by comparing it to skinfolds and the BOD POD. Forty-five (22 males, 23 females) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I athletes volunteered for this study. Subjects were measured once in the BOD POD then twice by two technicians for skinfolds and ultrasound. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between body composition methods (F = 13.24, p BOD POD was large for females (~ 5% BF) but small for males (~ 1.5% BF). Linear regression using the %BF estimate from ultrasound to predict %BF from BOD POD resulted in an R2 = 0.849, SEE = 2.6% BF and a TE = 4.4% BF. The inter-rater intraclass correlation (ICC) for skinfold was 0.966 with a large 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.328 to 0.991. The inter-rater ICC for ultrasound was 0.987 with a much smaller 95% CI of 0.976 to 0.993. Both skinfolds and ultrasound had test-retest ICCs ≥ 0.996. The BX2000 ultrasound device had excellent test-retest reliability, and its inter-rater reliability was superior to the skinfold method. The validity of this method is questionable, particularly for female athletes. However, due to its excellent reliability, coaches and trainers should consider this portable and easy to use A-mode ultrasound to assess body composition changes in athletes.

  19. Validity and Reliability of A-Mode Ultrasound for Body Composition Assessment of NCAA Division I Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dale R.; Cain, Dustin L.; Clark, Nicolas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the validity and reliability of the BodyMetrix™ BX2000 A-mode ultrasound for estimating percent body fat (%BF) in athletes by comparing it to skinfolds and the BOD POD. Forty-five (22 males, 23 females) National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division-I athletes volunteered for this study. Subjects were measured once in the BOD POD then twice by two technicians for skinfolds and ultrasound. A one-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant differences between body composition methods (F = 13.24, p BOD POD was large for females (~ 5% BF) but small for males (~ 1.5% BF). Linear regression using the %BF estimate from ultrasound to predict %BF from BOD POD resulted in an R2 = 0.849, SEE = 2.6% BF and a TE = 4.4% BF. The inter-rater intraclass correlation (ICC) for skinfold was 0.966 with a large 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.328 to 0.991. The inter-rater ICC for ultrasound was 0.987 with a much smaller 95% CI of 0.976 to 0.993. Both skinfolds and ultrasound had test-retest ICCs ≥ 0.996. The BX2000 ultrasound device had excellent test-retest reliability, and its inter-rater reliability was superior to the skinfold method. The validity of this method is questionable, particularly for female athletes. However, due to its excellent reliability, coaches and trainers should consider this portable and easy to use A-mode ultrasound to assess body composition changes in athletes. PMID:27073854

  20. Body composition in older acute stroke patients after treatment with individualized, nutritional supplementation while in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Lisa; Hauge, Truls; Iversen, Per Ole

    2010-10-18

    Individualized, nutritional support reduced undernutrition among older stroke patients and improved quality of life in our recent randomized, controlled trial. Weight control thus seems to be important after stroke, and methods for monitoring nutritional status need to be simple and non-invasive. Here we aimed to assess if the nutritional intervention altered body composition in men and women in this study cohort, and also to examine the correlation between the methods for assessing body-, fat- and fat-free mass. Acute stroke patients > 65 years at nutritional risk were randomized to either individualized, nutritional treatment with energy- and protein rich supplementation (intervention, n = 58) or routine, nutritional care (control, n = 66) while in hospital. Body composition was assessed with anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. The follow-up period was three months. During the first week while in hospital, weight loss was smaller in the intervention group compared with the controls (P = 0.013). After three months weight- and fat loss were significant in both men and women. Whereas no significant differences were found in changes in body composition between the male study groups, in the women both weight loss (P = 0.022) and fat loss (P = 0.005) was smaller in the intervention group compared with the controls. A high correlation (r = 0.87) between mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) and body mass index (BMI) was found. Individualized nutritional support to older stroke patients in hospital was beneficial for maintaining an adequate body mass and body composition the first week and seemed to have a preventive effect on fat loss among women, but not among men after three months. Measurement of MUAC may be used in the assessment of nutritional status when BMI cannot be obtained. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00163007.

  1. Composition of chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffold evaluation after simulated body fluid immersion as reconstruction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verisqa, F.; Triaminingsih, S.; Corputty, J. E. M.

    2017-08-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) formation is one of the most important aspects of bone regeneration. Because domestically made chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffolding from crab shell and bovine bone and tendon has potential as a maxillofacial reconstruction material, the material’s HA-forming ability requires evaluation. The aim of this research is to investigate chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffold’s potential as a maxillofacial reconstruction material by observing the scaffold’s compositional changes. Scaffold specimens were immersed in 37°C simulated body fluid (SBF) for periods of 2, 4, 6, and 8 days. Scaffold composition was then evaluated by using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) percentages of the scaffold were found to increase following SBF immersion. The high Ca/P ratio (3.82) on the scaffold indicated HA formation. Ion exchange played a significant role in the increased percentages of Ca and P, which led to new HA layer formation. The scaffold’s HA acted as a nucleation site of Ca and P from the SBF, with collagen and chitosan as the scaffold’s matrix. Chitosan-hydroxyapatite-collagen composite scaffold shows potential as a maxillofacial reconstruction material, since its composition favors HA formation.

  2. [Body composition and metabolic risk in small for gestational age children treated with growth hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Moreno Aznar, Luis Alberto; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2016-09-16

    Small for gestational age (SGA) children are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate changes in body composition produced by growth hormone (GH) treatment. A group of 28 SGA children without catch-up growth and undergoing treatment with GH was selected for evaluation. Over the course of 3 years from the beginning of the treatment with GH, the children's body composition variables (bone mineral density [BMD], fat and lean body mass proportion) were evaluated annually with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. A study of correlation between metabolic and body composition variables was also made. Treatment with GH produces a reduction in fat mass proportion in relation to lean body mass, decreasing from 25.94±6.09 to 22.88±5.38% (P=.034). In the abdominal regions we observe an increase in lean mass, from 1,356,91±426,71 to 2,570,96±814,36g (P=.000) and a tendency for visceral fat deposits to decrease. BMD in lumbar vertebrae improved from -1.55±0.68 to -0.90±0.79Z (P=.019). Treatment with GH produces changes in body composition, improving BMD and increasing the proportion of lean body mass with a reduction in fat mass. If these changes persisted into adulthood, they may cause a reduction in the metabolic and cardiovascular risk in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-body wave functions and compositeness from scattering amplitudes. I. General properties with schematic models

    CERN Document Server

    Sekihara, Takayasu

    2016-01-01

    For a general two-body bound state in quantum mechanics, both in the stable and decaying cases, we establish a way to extract its two-body wave function in momentum space from the scattering amplitude of the constituent two particles. For this purpose, we first show that the two-body wave function of the bound state corresponds to the residue of the off-shell scattering amplitude at the bound state pole. Then, we examine our scheme to extract the two-body wave function from the scattering amplitude in several schematic models. As a result, the two-body wave functions from the Lippmann--Schwinger equation coincides with that from the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for an energy-independent interaction. Of special interest is that the two-body wave function from the scattering amplitude is automatically scaled; the norm of the two-body wave function, to which we refer as the compositeness, is unity for an energy-independent interaction, while the compositeness deviates from unity for an energy-dependent interaction, ...

  4. THE RELATIONS BETWEEN BODY COMPOSITION AND MOTORICAL SKILLS BY THE CHILDREN OF AGE 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabolč Halaši

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available On the example of 125 respondents, 65 boys and 63 girls at 7.39 decimal years, who attended first grade at Primary Schools „Majšanski Put“ and „Jovan Jovanovic Zmaj“ from Subotica, basical antropometrical characteristics are measured, general motorical skills are proved on the basis of 7 motorical tests, body composition is showed by In Body 230 machine. With regressive analysis it is proved that the predictorical system of variables for the percentage of body composition (the whole quantity of body fat, water and muscles is statistically significantly connected with the criteria defined as general motorical factor and with that it is described that 39 % of boys and 34 % of girls have the same variables. Standardized regressional coefficient showed that by boys and girls at 7.39 decimal years the whole quantity of body fat and body weight have a statistically negative influence on general motorics, and by girls body height has a statistically positive influence on it.

  5. The effects of polyethylene glycosylated creatine supplementation on anaerobic performance measures and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camic, Clayton L; Housh, Terry J; Zuniga, Jorge M; Traylor, Daniel A; Bergstrom, Haley C; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 28 days of polyethylene glycosylated creatine (PEG-creatine) supplementation (1.25 and 2.50 g·d) on anaerobic performance measures (vertical and broad jumps, 40-yard dash, 20-yard shuttle run, and 3-cone drill), upper- and lower-body muscular strength and endurance (bench press and leg extension), and body composition. This study used a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel design. Seventy-seven adult men (mean age ± SD, 22.1 ± 2.5 years; body mass, 81.7 ± 10.8 kg) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to a placebo (n = 23), 1.25 g·d of PEG-creatine (n = 27), or 2.50 g·d of PEG-creatine (n = 27) group. The subjects performed anaerobic performance measures, muscular strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM]), and endurance (80% 1RM) tests for bench press and leg extension, and underwater weighing for the determination of body composition at day 0 (baseline), day 14, and day 28. The results indicated that there were improvements (p creatine groups without changes for the placebo group. Thus, the present results demonstrated that PEG-creatine supplementation at 1.25 or 2.50 g·d had an ergogenic effect on lower-body vertical power, agility, change-of-direction ability, upper-body muscular endurance, and body mass.

  6. CT scan range estimation using multiple body parts detection: let PACS learn the CT image content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunliang; Lundström, Claes

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient CT scan range estimation method that is based on the analysis of image data itself instead of metadata analysis. This makes it possible to quantitatively compare the scan range of two studies. In our study, 3D stacks are first projected to 2D coronal images via a ray casting-like process. Trained 2D body part classifiers are then used to recognize different body parts in the projected image. The detected candidate regions go into a structure grouping process to eliminate false-positive detections. Finally, the scale and position of the patient relative to the projected figure are estimated based on the detected body parts via a structural voting. The start and end lines of the CT scan are projected to a standard human figure. The position readout is normalized so that the bottom of the feet represents 0.0, and the top of the head is 1.0. Classifiers for 18 body parts were trained using 184 CT scans. The final application was tested on 136 randomly selected heterogeneous CT scans. Ground truth was generated by asking two human observers to mark the start and end positions of each scan on the standard human figure. When compared with the human observers, the mean absolute error of the proposed method is 1.2% (max: 3.5%) and 1.6% (max: 5.4%) for the start and end positions, respectively. We proposed a scan range estimation method using multiple body parts detection and relative structure position analysis. In our preliminary tests, the proposed method delivered promising results.

  7. The influence of maternal body mass index on fetal weight estimation in twin pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Helen M

    2013-11-08

    Sonographic estimation of fetal weight (EFW) is important in the management of high-risk pregnancies. The possibility that increased maternal body mass index (BMI) adversely affects EFW assessments in twin pregnancies is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal BMI on the accuracy of EFW assessments in twin gestations prospectively recruited for the ESPRiT (Evaluation of Sonographic Predictors of Restricted growth in Twins) study.

  8. Estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space using inertial sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Peng, E-mail: peng.he.1@ulaval.ca; Cardou, Philippe, E-mail: pcardou@gmc.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Robotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Canada); Desbiens, André, E-mail: andre.desbiens@gel.ulaval.ca [Université Laval, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Canada); Gagnon, Eric, E-mail: Eric.Gagnon@drdc-rddc.gc.ca [RDDC Valcartier (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents a novel method of estimating the orientation of a rigid body moving in space from inertial sensors, by discerning the gravitational and inertial components of the accelerations. In this method, both a rigid-body kinematics model and a stochastic model of the human-hand motion are formulated and combined in a nonlinear state-space system. The state equation represents the rigid body kinematics and stochastic model, and the output equation represents the inertial sensor measurements. It is necessary to mention that, since the output equation is a nonlinear function of the state, the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied. The absolute value of the error from the proposed method is shown to be less than 5 deg in simulation and in experiments. It is apparently stable, unlike the time-integration of gyroscope measurements, which is subjected to drift, and remains accurate under large accelerations, unlike the tilt-sensor method.

  9. Non-invasive Player Experience Estimation from Body Motion and Game Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Triantafyllidis, George; Patras, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    . The data collected was analysed and a neural network was trained to find the mapping between player body movements, player in- game behaviour and player experience. The results reveal that some aspects of player experience, such as anxiety or challenge, can be detected with high accuracy (up to 81......In this paper, we investigate on the relationship between player experience and body movements in a non-physical 3D computer game. During an experiment, the participants played a series of short game sessions and rated their experience while their body movements were tracked using a depth camera......%). Moreover, taking into account the playing context, the accuracy can be raised up to 86%. Following such a multi-modal approach, it is possible to estimate the player experience in a non-invasive fashion during the game and, based on this information, the game content could be adapted accordingly....

  10. Plasma adiponectin concentration in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women: relationship with body composition, bone mineral, and metabolic variables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaak Jürimäe; Toivo Jürimäe

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to determine the possible relationships of fasting adiponectin level with body composition, bone mineral, insulin sensitivity, leptin, and cardiorespiratory...

  11. Improved tilt-depth method for fast estimation of top and bottom depths of magnetic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Guo; Zhang, Jin; Ge, Kun-Peng; Chen, Xiao; Nie, Feng-Jun

    2016-06-01

    The tilt-depth method can be used to make fast estimation of the top depth of magnetic