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Sample records for body color patterns

  1. Genetic Basis of Body Color and Spotting Pattern in Redheaded Pine Sawfly Larvae (Neodiprion lecontei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, Catherine R; O'Quin, Claire T; Shackleford, Taylor; Sears, Connor R; Lindstedt, Carita

    2018-03-01

    Pigmentation has emerged as a premier model for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic evolution, and a growing catalog of color loci is starting to reveal biases in the mutations, genes, and genetic architectures underlying color variation in the wild. However, existing studies have sampled a limited subset of taxa, color traits, and developmental stages. To expand the existing sample of color loci, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping analyses on two types of larval pigmentation traits that vary among populations of the redheaded pine sawfly ( Neodiprion lecontei ): carotenoid-based yellow body color and melanin-based spotting pattern. For both traits, our QTL models explained a substantial proportion of phenotypic variation and suggested a genetic architecture that is neither monogenic nor highly polygenic. Additionally, we used our linkage map to anchor the current N. lecontei genome assembly . With these data, we identified promising candidate genes underlying: (1) a loss of yellow pigmentation in populations in the Mid-Atlantic/northeastern USA [C locus-associated membrane protein homologous to a mammalian HDL receptor-2 gene ( Cameo2 ) and lipid transfer particle apolipoproteins II and I gene ( apoLTP-II/I )], and (2) a pronounced reduction in black spotting in Great-Lakes populations [members of the yellow gene family , tyrosine hydroxylase gene ( pale ) , and dopamine N- acetyltransferase gene ( Dat )]. Several of these genes also contribute to color variation in other wild and domesticated taxa. Overall, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that predictable genes of large-effect contribute to color evolution in nature. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  2. Individually unique body color patterns in octopus (Wunderpus photogenicus) allow for photoidentification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffard, Christine L; Caldwell, Roy L; DeLoach, Ned; Gentry, David Wayne; Humann, Paul; MacDonald, Bill; Moore, Bruce; Ross, Richard; Uno, Takako; Wong, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the longevity and migration patterns of wild animals rely heavily on the ability to track individual adults. Non-extractive sampling methods are particularly important when monitoring animals that are commercially important to ecotourism, and/or are rare. The use of unique body patterns to recognize and track individual vertebrates is well-established, but not common in ecological studies of invertebrates. Here we provide a method for identifying individual Wunderpus photogenicus using unique body color patterns. This charismatic tropical octopus is commercially important to the underwater photography, dive tourism, and home aquarium trades, but is yet to be monitored in the wild. Among the adults examined closely, the configurations of fixed white markings on the dorsal mantle were found to be unique. In two animals kept in aquaria, these fixed markings were found not to change over time. We believe another individual was photographed twice in the wild, two months apart. When presented with multiple images of W. photogenicus, volunteer observers reliably matched photographs of the same individuals. Given the popularity of W. photogenicus among underwater photographers, and the ease with which volunteers can correctly identify individuals, photo-identification appears to be a practical means to monitor individuals in the wild.

  3. Individually unique body color patterns in octopus (Wunderpus photogenicus allow for photoidentification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Huffard

    Full Text Available Studies on the longevity and migration patterns of wild animals rely heavily on the ability to track individual adults. Non-extractive sampling methods are particularly important when monitoring animals that are commercially important to ecotourism, and/or are rare. The use of unique body patterns to recognize and track individual vertebrates is well-established, but not common in ecological studies of invertebrates. Here we provide a method for identifying individual Wunderpus photogenicus using unique body color patterns. This charismatic tropical octopus is commercially important to the underwater photography, dive tourism, and home aquarium trades, but is yet to be monitored in the wild. Among the adults examined closely, the configurations of fixed white markings on the dorsal mantle were found to be unique. In two animals kept in aquaria, these fixed markings were found not to change over time. We believe another individual was photographed twice in the wild, two months apart. When presented with multiple images of W. photogenicus, volunteer observers reliably matched photographs of the same individuals. Given the popularity of W. photogenicus among underwater photographers, and the ease with which volunteers can correctly identify individuals, photo-identification appears to be a practical means to monitor individuals in the wild.

  4. Individually Unique Body Color Patterns in Octopus (Wunderpus photogenicus) Allow for Photoidentification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffard, Christine L.; Caldwell, Roy L.; DeLoach, Ned; Gentry, David Wayne; Humann, Paul; MacDonald, Bill; Moore, Bruce; Ross, Richard; Uno, Takako; Wong, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the longevity and migration patterns of wild animals rely heavily on the ability to track individual adults. Non-extractive sampling methods are particularly important when monitoring animals that are commercially important to ecotourism, and/or are rare. The use of unique body patterns to recognize and track individual vertebrates is well-established, but not common in ecological studies of invertebrates. Here we provide a method for identifying individual Wunderpus photogenicus using unique body color patterns. This charismatic tropical octopus is commercially important to the underwater photography, dive tourism, and home aquarium trades, but is yet to be monitored in the wild. Among the adults examined closely, the configurations of fixed white markings on the dorsal mantle were found to be unique. In two animals kept in aquaria, these fixed markings were found not to change over time. We believe another individual was photographed twice in the wild, two months apart. When presented with multiple images of W. photogenicus, volunteer observers reliably matched photographs of the same individuals. Given the popularity of W. photogenicus among underwater photographers, and the ease with which volunteers can correctly identify individuals, photo-identification appears to be a practical means to monitor individuals in the wild. PMID:19009019

  5. Cryptically patterned moths perceive bark structure when choosing body orientations that match wing color pattern to the bark pattern.

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    Chang-Ku Kang

    Full Text Available Many moths have wing patterns that resemble bark of trees on which they rest. The wing patterns help moths to become camouflaged and to avoid predation because the moths are able to assume specific body orientations that produce a very good match between the pattern on the bark and the pattern on the wings. Furthermore, after landing on a bark moths are able to perceive stimuli that correlate with their crypticity and are able to re-position their bodies to new more cryptic locations and body orientations. However, the proximate mechanisms, i.e. how a moth finds an appropriate resting position and orientation, are poorly studied. Here, we used a geometrid moth Jankowskia fuscaria to examine i whether a choice of resting orientation by moths depends on the properties of natural background, and ii what sensory cues moths use. We studied moths' behavior on natural (a tree log and artificial backgrounds, each of which was designed to mimic one of the hypothetical cues that moths may perceive on a tree trunk (visual pattern, directional furrow structure, and curvature. We found that moths mainly used structural cues from the background when choosing their resting position and orientation. Our findings highlight the possibility that moths use information from one type of sensory modality (structure of furrows is probably detected through tactile channel to achieve crypticity in another sensory modality (visual. This study extends our knowledge of how behavior, sensory systems and morphology of animals interact to produce crypsis.

  6. Complete and rapid reversal of the body color pattern in juveniles of the convict surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus at Moorea Island (French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Marc; Salis, Pauline; Laudet, Vincent; Lecchini, David

    2018-03-01

    Color polymorphism is widespread in animals and can be associated with temporary adjustments to environmental variables (phenotypic plasticity). In teleost fishes, one of the most remarkable examples of color plasticity is background adaptation in flatfishes. However, such rapid and complete changes in body color and pattern remain relatively unreported in other species. The convict surgeonfish Acanthurus triostegus is a gregarious species whose body color pattern consists of black vertical bars on a whitish body. Here, we describe an entirely reverse body color pattern (white vertical bars on a blackish body) that we observed in some A. triostegus juveniles in a nursery area at Moorea Island, French Polynesia. In aquaria, we determined that change from one color pattern to the other is rapid, reversible, and corresponds to phenotypic plasticity associated with aggressive behavior.

  7. Alternative Mating Tactics in Male Chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon Are Evident in Both Long-Term Body Color and Short-Term Courtship Pattern.

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    Tammy Keren-Rotem

    Full Text Available Alternative mating tactics in males of various taxa are associated with body color, body size, and social status. Chameleons are known for their ability to change body color following immediate environmental or social stimuli. In this study, we examined whether the differential appearance of male common chameleon during the breeding season is indeed an expression of alternative mating tactics. We documented body color of males and used computer vision techniques to classify images of individuals into discrete color patterns associated with seasons, individual characteristics, and social contexts. Our findings revealed no differences in body color and color patterns among males during the non-breeding season. However, during the breeding season males appeared in several color displays, which reflected body size, social status, and behavioral patterns. Furthermore, smaller and younger males resembled the appearance of small females. Consequently, we suggest that long-term color change in males during the breeding season reflects male alternative mating tactics. Upon encounter with a receptive female, males rapidly alter their appearance to that of a specific brief courtship display, which reflects their social status. The females, however, copulated indiscriminately in respect to male color patterns. Thus, we suggest that the differential color patterns displayed by males during the breeding season are largely aimed at inter-male signaling.

  8. Alternative Mating Tactics in Male Chameleons (Chamaeleo chamaeleon) Are Evident in Both Long-Term Body Color and Short-Term Courtship Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren-Rotem, Tammy; Levy, Noga; Wolf, Lior; Bouskila, Amos; Geffen, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Alternative mating tactics in males of various taxa are associated with body color, body size, and social status. Chameleons are known for their ability to change body color following immediate environmental or social stimuli. In this study, we examined whether the differential appearance of male common chameleon during the breeding season is indeed an expression of alternative mating tactics. We documented body color of males and used computer vision techniques to classify images of individuals into discrete color patterns associated with seasons, individual characteristics, and social contexts. Our findings revealed no differences in body color and color patterns among males during the non-breeding season. However, during the breeding season males appeared in several color displays, which reflected body size, social status, and behavioral patterns. Furthermore, smaller and younger males resembled the appearance of small females. Consequently, we suggest that long-term color change in males during the breeding season reflects male alternative mating tactics. Upon encounter with a receptive female, males rapidly alter their appearance to that of a specific brief courtship display, which reflects their social status. The females, however, copulated indiscriminately in respect to male color patterns. Thus, we suggest that the differential color patterns displayed by males during the breeding season are largely aimed at inter-male signaling. PMID:27409771

  9. Molecular basis and ecological relevance of aphid body colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Tsutomu

    2016-10-01

    Aphids are small phloem sap-feeding insects, and show color polymorphism even within the same species. Crossing experiments have revealed the inheritance pattern of the body color. Coloration of aphids is determined by mainly three pigments, melanin, carotenoid, and aphin, and is influenced by both abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Aphid body colors also seem to correspond with specific biological functions under various environments. Partly due to the presence of natural enemies in the environment, a variety of physiological and behavioral responses have evolved in each color form. Thus, predation is one of the most significant external factors for maintaining body color polymorphisms. In addition, endosymbiont infections also influence aphid body color and prey-predator interactions. However, many unsolved questions remain regarding the molecular basis for and biological functions of aphid body colors. Further work, including the development of molecular techniques for comprehensive functional analysis, is needed in these areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Preferences for Colorful Birds: Vivid Colors or Pattern?

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    Silvie Lišková

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern, and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  11. Human preferences for colorful birds: Vivid colors or pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lišková, Silvie; Landová, Eva; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-04-29

    In a previous study, we found that the shape of a bird, rather than its color, plays a major role in the determination of human preferences. Thus, in the present study, we asked whether the preferences of human respondents towards uniformly shaped, colorful birds are determined by pattern rather than color. The experimental stimuli were pictures of small passerine birds of the family Pittidae possessing uniform shape but vivid coloration. We asked 200 participants to rank 43 colored and 43 identical, but grayscaled, pictures of birds. To find the traits determining human preferences, we performed GLM analysis in which we tried to explain the mean preference ranks and PC axes by the following explanatory variables: the overall lightness and saturation, edges (pattern), and the portion of each of the basic color hues. The results showed that the mean preference ranks of the grayscale set is explained mostly by the birds' pattern, whereas the colored set ranking is mostly determined by the overall lightness. The effect of colors was weaker, but still significant, and revealed that people liked blue and green birds. We found no significant role of the color red, the perception of which was acquired relatively recently in evolution.

  12. Customized color patterning of photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Lentine, Anthony L.; Resnick, Paul J.; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2016-11-15

    Photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, as well as methods of making and using such photovoltaic cells and photovoltaic modules, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the photovoltaic cells selectively reflect visible light to provide the photovoltaic cells with a colorized appearance. Photovoltaic modules combining colorized photovoltaic cells may be used to harvest solar energy while providing a customized appearance, e.g., an image or pattern.

  13. COLOR SYSTEMATICS OF COMETS AND RELATED BODIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Most comets are volatile-rich bodies that have recently entered the inner solar system following long-term storage in the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud reservoirs. These reservoirs feed several distinct, short-lived “small body” populations. Here, we present new measurements of the optical colors of cometary and comet-related bodies including long-period (Oort cloud) comets, Damocloids (probable inactive nuclei of long-period comets) and Centaurs (recent escapees from the Kuiper belt and precursors to the Jupiter family comets). We combine the new measurements with published data on short-period comets, Jovian Trojans and Kuiper belt objects to examine the color systematics of the comet-related populations. We find that the mean optical colors of the dust in short-period and long-period comets are identical within the uncertainties of measurement, as are the colors of the dust and of the underlying nuclei. These populations show no evidence for scattering by optically small particles or for compositional gradients, even at the largest distances from the Sun, and no evidence for ultrared matter. Consistent with earlier work, ultrared surfaces are common in the Kuiper belt and on the Centaurs, but not in other small body populations, suggesting that this material is hidden or destroyed upon entry to the inner solar system. The onset of activity in the Centaurs and the disappearance of the ultrared matter in this population begin at about the same perihelion distance (∼10 AU), suggesting that the two are related. Blanketing of primordial surface materials by the fallback of sub-orbital ejecta, for which we calculate a very short timescale, is the likely mechanism. The same process should operate on any mass-losing body, explaining the absence of ultrared surface material in the entire comet population.

  14. The Effects of Color Patterns on Aggressive Behaviors of a Freshwater Serranid Fish, Coreoperca kawamebari

    OpenAIRE

    Yasutoshi, Kohda; Department of Biology, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Okayama University

    1983-01-01

    A freshwater serranid fish, Coreoperca kawamebari, show an intermediate coloration over the entire body with conspicuous eye-like spots when it is motivated aggressively and it displays a striped pattern when motivated in fear. A sexually-motivated female shows a black color over her entire body with a white vertex band. Whether the aggression-releasing effect differs among the aggressive, fear and courting-female patterns was studied using two-dimensional dummies made of paper. The aggressiv...

  15. Color variability and body size of larvae of two Epomis species (Coleoptera: Carabidae in Israel

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    Gil Wizen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Species identification using the characteristics of developmental stages is challenging. However, for insect taxonomy the coloration of larval stages can be an informative feature. The use of live specimens is recommended for this because the color fades in preserved specimens. In this study we examine the possibility of using variation in coloration and color pattern of larvae in order to distinguish between two ground beetles species Epomis dejeani Dejean, 1831 and E. circumscriptus Duftschmid, 1812. We present an atlas and describe the coloration and body size of the three larval stages of the above species based on live specimens. The first instar larvae of the two Epomis species can be easily distinguished based on their color. From the second instar on, the variability in coloration and color patterns increases, creating an overlap in these attributes between larvae of the two species. Except for minor differences in color of the antennae and the base of the mandibles, larvae of the two species are indistinguishable at the second and third larval stages. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use variation in coloration and color pattern in live larvae in order to identify coleopterans. The color atlas of the larvae enables simple separation of the two Epomis species without requiring sophisticated magnifying devices, although it is less straightforward at the second and third larval stages. We found similar body lengths between the two species for all developmental stages, except for third instar larvae prior to pupation. In the two species the difference in larval body length before pupation positively correlated with that of the adult beetles. More than 70% of the adults' length can be explained by the length of the late third-instar larva; i.e. the large larvae develop into large adults. The larger specimens are the females.

  16. Color filter array pattern identification using variance of color difference image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Jun; Jeon, Jong Ju; Eom, Il Kyu

    2017-07-01

    A color filter array is placed on the image sensor of a digital camera to acquire color images. Each pixel uses only one color, since the image sensor can measure only one color per pixel. Therefore, empty pixels are filled using an interpolation process called demosaicing. The original and the interpolated pixels have different statistical characteristics. If the image is modified by manipulation or forgery, the color filter array pattern is altered. This pattern change can be a clue for image forgery detection. However, most forgery detection algorithms have the disadvantage of assuming the color filter array pattern. We present an identification method of the color filter array pattern. Initially, the local mean is eliminated to remove the background effect. Subsequently, the color difference block is constructed to emphasize the difference between the original pixel and the interpolated pixel. The variance measure of the color difference image is proposed as a means of estimating the color filter array configuration. The experimental results show that the proposed method is effective in identifying the color filter array pattern. Compared with conventional methods, our method provides superior performance.

  17. Low contrast detectability for color patterns variation of display images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Akio

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, the radionuclide images are acquired in digital form and displayed with false colors for signal intensity. This color scales for signal intensity have various patterns. In this study, low contrast detectability was compared the performance of gray scale cording with three color scales: the hot color scale, prism color scale and stripe color scale. SPECT images of brain phantom were displayed using four color patterns. These printed images and display images were evaluated with ROC analysis. Display images were indicated higher detectability than printed images. The hot scale and gray scale images indicated better Az of ROC than prism scale images because the prism scale images showed higher false positive rate. (author)

  18. Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Ekaterina; Hansson, Christer; Janzen, Daniel H; Kjærandsen, Jostein

    2011-01-11

    Color patterns play central roles in the behavior of insects, and are important traits for taxonomic studies. Here we report striking and stable structural color patterns--wing interference patterns (WIPs)--in the transparent wings of small Hymenoptera and Diptera, patterns that have been largely overlooked by biologists. These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference. The visibility of these patterns is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling. Taxon-specific color patterns are formed by uneven membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement. The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences. WIPs can be applied to map the micromorphology of wings through direct observation and are useful in several fields of biology. We demonstrate their usefulness as identification patterns to solve cases of cryptic species complexes in tiny parasitic wasps, and indicate their potentials for research on the genetic control of wing development through direct links between the transregulatory wing landscape and interference patterns we observe in Drosophila model species. Some species display sexually dimorphic WIPs, suggesting sexual selection as one of the driving forces for their evolution.

  19. Evolution of facial color pattern complexity in lemurs.

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    Rakotonirina, Hanitriniaina; Kappeler, Peter M; Fichtel, Claudia

    2017-11-09

    Interspecific variation in facial color patterns across New and Old World primates has been linked to species recognition and group size. Because group size has opposite effects on interspecific variation in facial color patterns in these two radiations, a study of the third large primate radiation may shed light on convergences and divergences in this context. We therefore compiled published social and ecological data and analyzed facial photographs of 65 lemur species to categorize variation in hair length, hair and skin coloration as well as color brightness. Phylogenetically controlled analyses revealed that group size and the number of sympatric species did not influence the evolution of facial color complexity in lemurs. Climatic factors, however, influenced facial color complexity, pigmentation and hair length in a few facial regions. Hair length in two facial regions was also correlated with group size and may facilitate individual recognition. Since phylogenetic signals were moderate to high for most models, genetic drift may have also played a role in the evolution of facial color patterns of lemurs. In conclusion, social factors seem to have played only a subordinate role in the evolution of facial color complexity in lemurs, and, more generally, group size appears to have no systematic functional effect on facial color complexity across all primates.

  20. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R; Lindeman, Peter V; Lovich, Jeffrey E

    2015-06-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  1. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lindeman, Peter V.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  2. Evolution of facial color pattern complexity in lemurs

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotonirina, Hanitriniaina; Kappeler, Peter M.; Fichtel, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Interspecific variation in facial color patterns across New and Old World primates has been linked to species recognition and group size. Because group size has opposite effects on interspecific variation in facial color patterns in these two radiations, a study of the third large primate radiation may shed light on convergences and divergences in this context. We therefore compiled published social and ecological data and analyzed facial photographs of 65 lemur species to categorize variatio...

  3. The Association of Quantitative Facial Color Features with Cold Pattern in Traditional East Asian Medicine

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    Sujeong Mun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Facial diagnosis is a major component of the diagnostic method in traditional East Asian medicine. We investigated the association of quantitative facial color features with cold pattern using a fully automated facial color parameterization system. Methods. The facial color parameters of 64 participants were obtained from digital photographs using an automatic color correction and color parameter calculation system. Cold pattern severity was evaluated using a questionnaire. Results. The a⁎ values of the whole face, lower cheek, and chin were negatively associated with cold pattern score (CPS (whole face: B=-1.048, P=0.021; lower cheek: B=-0.494, P=0.007; chin: B=-0.640, P=0.031, while b⁎ value of the lower cheek was positively associated with CPS (B=0.234, P=0.019. The a⁎ values of the whole face were significantly correlated with specific cold pattern symptoms including cold abdomen (partial ρ=-0.354, P<0.01 and cold sensation in the body (partial ρ=-0.255, P<0.05. Conclusions. a⁎ values of the whole face were negatively associated with CPS, indicating that individuals with increased levels of cold pattern had paler faces. These findings suggest that objective facial diagnosis has utility for pattern identification.

  4. Topological color codes and two-body quantum lattice Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarian, M.; Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2010-02-01

    Topological color codes are among the stabilizer codes with remarkable properties from the quantum information perspective. In this paper, we construct a lattice, the so-called ruby lattice, with coordination number 4 governed by a two-body Hamiltonian. In a particular regime of coupling constants, in a strong coupling limit, degenerate perturbation theory implies that the low-energy spectrum of the model can be described by a many-body effective Hamiltonian, which encodes the color code as its ground state subspace. Ground state subspace corresponds to a vortex-free sector. The gauge symmetry Z2×Z2 of the color code could already be realized by identifying three distinct plaquette operators on the ruby lattice. All plaquette operators commute with each other and with the Hamiltonian being integrals of motion. Plaquettes are extended to closed strings or string-net structures. Non-contractible closed strings winding the space commute with Hamiltonian but not always with each other. This gives rise to exact topological degeneracy of the model. A connection to 2-colexes can be established via the coloring of the strings. We discuss it at the non-perturbative level. The particular structure of the two-body Hamiltonian provides a fruitful interpretation in terms of mapping onto bosons coupled to effective spins. We show that high-energy excitations of the model have fermionic statistics. They form three families of high-energy excitations each of one color. Furthermore, we show that they belong to a particular family of topological charges. The emergence of invisible charges is related to the string-net structure of the model. The emerging fermions are coupled to nontrivial gauge fields. We show that for particular 2-colexes, the fermions can see the background fluxes in the ground state. Also, we use the Jordan-Wigner transformation in order to test the integrability of the model via introducing Majorana fermions. The four-valent structure of the lattice prevents the

  5. HIV Testing Patterns among Urban YMSM of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Rajan, Sonali; Gwadz, Marya V.; Aregbesola, Temi

    2014-01-01

    The heightened level of risk for HIV infection among Black and Latino young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is driven by multilevel influences. Using cross-sectional data, we examined HIV testing patterns among urban YMSM of color in a high-HIV seroprevalence area (ages 16 to 21 years). Self-reported frequency of testing was high, with 42% of…

  6. Structural Color Patterns by Electrohydrodynamic Jet Printed Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haibo; Zhu, Cun; Tian, Lei; Liu, Cihui; Fu, Guangbin; Shang, Luoran; Gu, Zhongze

    2017-04-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the fabrication of photonic crystal patterns with controllable morphologies and structural colors utilizing electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet) printing with colloidal crystal inks. The final shape of photonic crystal units is controlled by the applied voltage signal and wettability of the substrate. Optical properties of the structural color patterns are tuned by the self-assembly of the silica nanoparticle building blocks. Using this direct printing technique, it is feasible to print customized functional patterns composed of photonic crystal dots or photonic crystal lines according to relevant printing mode and predesigned tracks. This is the first report for E-jet printing with colloidal crystal inks. Our results exhibit promising applications in displays, biosensors, and other functional devices.

  7. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy L Caldwell

    Full Text Available Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  8. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  9. Effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of the red sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Senhao; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Ren, Yichao; Wang, Fang

    2015-05-01

    Three color variants of the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus are recognized, the red one is highly valued in the market. When the red variant is cultured in ponds in China, its body color changes from red to celadon in 3-6 months. The effects of water depth and substrate color on the growth and body color of this animal were investigated. Juveniles of red A. japonicus were cultured in cages suspended at a range of water depths (20, 50, 100, 150 and 200 cm). The specific growth rate of red sea cucumbers was significantly higher in animals cultured at deeper water layers compared with those grown at shallowers. Body weights were greatest for sea cucumbers cultured at a depth of 150 cm and their survival rates were highest at a depth of 200 cm. A scale to evaluate the color of red sea cucumbers ( R value) was developed using a Pantone standard color card. All stocked animals in the 9-month trial retained a red color, however the red body color was much more intense in sea cucumbers cultured at shallower depths, while animals suspended in deeper layers became pale. In a separate trial, A. japonicus were cultured in suspended cages with seven different colored substrates. Substrate color had a significant effect on the growth and body-color of red A. japonicus. The yield were greatest for A. japonicus cultured on a yellow substrate, followed by green > white > orange > red > black and blue. All sea cucumbers in the 7-month trial retained a red color, although the red was most intense (highest R value) in animals cultured on a blue substrate and pale (lowest R value) for animals cultured on a green substrate.

  10. Body image and eating patterns among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Pich, Jordi; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2013-12-01

    Data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns among adolescents are scarce. This study assessed the association between body image and eating patterns among normal-weight, overweight and obese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey (n = 1231; 12-17 years old) was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain. Anthropometry, body image, socio-economic determinants, and food consumption were studied. Fifty-one percent of boys and sixty percent of girls that wished to be thinner had less than or equal to 3 eating occasions per day. Overfat girls that wish to be thinner skipped breakfast more frequently than normal-fat girls. Overfat boys and girls that wished a thinner body reported lower consumption of several food groups than normal-fat adolescents and overfat boys satisfied with their own body image (i.e. breakfast cereals, pasta and rice dishes, other oils and fats, high fat foods, soft drinks and chocolates in boys; and dairy products and chocolates in girls).A restriction of Western diet foods and energy intake was associated with a wish to be thinner among overfat adolescents. Many overfat boys were satisfied with their body image while practically all overfat girls reported wishing a thinner body. Meal patterns and food consumption were associated with body dissatisfaction and overfat status among adolescents.

  11. Tiling patterns from ABC star molecules: 3-colored foams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkensgaard, Jacob J K; Pedersen, Martin C; Hyde, Stephen T

    2014-10-07

    We present coarse-grained simulations of the self-assembly of 3-armed ABC star polyphiles. In systems of star polyphiles with two arms of equal length the simulations corroborate and expand previous findings from related miktoarm star terpolymer systems on the formation of patterns containing columnar domains whose sections are 2D planar tilings. However, the systematic variation of face topologies as the length of the third (unequal) arm is varied differs from earlier findings regarding the compositional dependence. We explore 2D 3-colored foams to establish the optimal patterns based on interfacial energy alone. A generic construction algorithm is described that accounts for all observed 2D tiling patterns and suggests other patterns likely to be found beyond the range of the simulations reported here. Patterns resulting from this algorithm are relaxed using Surface Evolver calculations to form 2D foams with minimal interfacial length as a function of composition. This allows us to estimate the interfacial enthalpic contributions to the free energy of related star molecular assemblies assuming strong segregation. We compare the resulting phase sequence with a number of theoretical results from particle-based simulations and field theory, allowing us to tease out relative enthalpic and entropic contributions as a function of the chain lengths making up the star molecules. Our results indicate that a richer polymorphism is to be expected in systems not dominated by chain entropy. Further, analysis of corresponding planar tiling patterns suggests that related two-periodic columnar structures are unlikely hypothetical phases in 4-arm star polyphile melts in the absence of sufficient arm configurational freedom for minor domains to form lens-shaped di-gons, which require higher molecular weight polymeric arms. Finally, we discuss the possibility of forming a complex tiling pattern that is a quasi-crystalline approximant for 3-arm star polyphiles with unequal arm

  12. Plutonium detection in humans using octagonal computer-generated color patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, W.G.; Curtis, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    Routine analysis of humans for plutonium lung burdens is accomplished with two phoswich low-energy gamma detectors. The analysis of data from each detector provides the spectroscopist with a total of eight parameters. These parameters are normalized and displayed as an octagonal histogram over laid against the historical analyses of uncontaminated humans similar in body geometry, i.e., weight, height, and chest thickness. Subjects containing lung burdens of plutonium within (one standard deviation) of the historical average yield data which are displayed on a color graphics terminal as a green octagon. Analyses which yield values greater than 1 sigma above the historical average produce a distorted yellow, orange, or red display. Thus, through color and pattern recognition, the analyst may see at a glance if the current data statistically indicate human contamination

  13. Sexually Dimorphic Body Color Is Regulated by Sex-Specific Expression of Yellow Gene in Ponerine Ant, Diacamma Sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoshi; Okada, Yasukazu; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Tokuda, Gaku; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Maekawa, Kiyoto; Miura, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Most hymenopteran species exhibit conspicuous sexual dimorphism due to ecological differences between the sexes. As hymenopteran genomes, under the haplodiploid genetic system, exhibit quantitative differences between sexes while remaining qualitatively identical, sexual phenotypes are assumed to be expressed through sex-specific gene usage. In the present study, the molecular basis for expression of sexual dimorphism in a queenless ant, Diacamma sp., which exhibits a distinct color dimorphism, was examined. Worker females of the species appear bluish-black, while winged males exhibit a yellowish-brown body color. Initially, observations of the pigmentation processes during pupal development revealed that black pigmentation was present in female pupae but not in males, suggesting that sex-specific melanin synthesis was responsible for the observed color dimorphism. Therefore, five orthologs of the genes involved in the insect melanin synthesis (yellow, ebony, tan, pale and dopa decarboxylase) were subcloned and their spatiotemporal expression patterns were examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Of the genes examined, yellow, which plays a role in black melanin synthesis in insects, was expressed at higher levels in females than in males throughout the entire body during the pupal stage. RNA interference of yellow was then carried out in order to determine the gene function, and produced females with a more yellowish, brighter body color similar to that of males. It was concluded that transcriptional regulation of yellow was responsible for the sexual color dimorphism observed in this species. PMID:24667821

  14. Sexually dimorphic body color is regulated by sex-specific expression of yellow gene in ponerine ant, Diacamma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Miyazaki

    Full Text Available Most hymenopteran species exhibit conspicuous sexual dimorphism due to ecological differences between the sexes. As hymenopteran genomes, under the haplodiploid genetic system, exhibit quantitative differences between sexes while remaining qualitatively identical, sexual phenotypes are assumed to be expressed through sex-specific gene usage. In the present study, the molecular basis for expression of sexual dimorphism in a queenless ant, Diacamma sp., which exhibits a distinct color dimorphism, was examined. Worker females of the species appear bluish-black, while winged males exhibit a yellowish-brown body color. Initially, observations of the pigmentation processes during pupal development revealed that black pigmentation was present in female pupae but not in males, suggesting that sex-specific melanin synthesis was responsible for the observed color dimorphism. Therefore, five orthologs of the genes involved in the insect melanin synthesis (yellow, ebony, tan, pale and dopa decarboxylase were subcloned and their spatiotemporal expression patterns were examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Of the genes examined, yellow, which plays a role in black melanin synthesis in insects, was expressed at higher levels in females than in males throughout the entire body during the pupal stage. RNA interference of yellow was then carried out in order to determine the gene function, and produced females with a more yellowish, brighter body color similar to that of males. It was concluded that transcriptional regulation of yellow was responsible for the sexual color dimorphism observed in this species.

  15. Design Support System for Coloring Illustrations by Using the Colors Preferred by a User as Determined from the Hue Patterns of Illustrations Prepared by that User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Hironobu; Mitsukura, Yasue

    We propose a new design support system that can color illustrations according to a person's color preferences that are determined on the basis of the color patterns of illustrations prepared by that person. Recently, many design tools for promoting free design have been developed. However, preferences for various colors differ depending on individual personality. Therefore, a system that can automatically color various designs on the basis of human preference is required. In this study, we propose an automatic modeling system that can be used to model illustrations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed system, we simulate a coloring design experiment to determine the color patterns preferred by some subjects by using various design data. By using the design data, we determine each subjects preferred color pattern, and send feedback on these individual color patterns to the proposed system.

  16. Does Fine Color Discrimination Learning in Free-Flying Honeybees Change Mushroom-Body Calyx Neuroarchitecture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerlandt, Frank M J; Spaethe, Johannes; Rössler, Wolfgang; Dyer, Adrian G

    2016-01-01

    Honeybees learn color information of rewarding flowers and recall these memories in future decisions. For fine color discrimination, bees require differential conditioning with a concurrent presentation of target and distractor stimuli to form a long-term memory. Here we investigated whether the long-term storage of color information shapes the neural network of microglomeruli in the mushroom body calyces and if this depends on the type of conditioning. Free-flying honeybees were individually trained to a pair of perceptually similar colors in either absolute conditioning towards one of the colors or in differential conditioning with both colors. Subsequently, bees of either conditioning groups were tested in non-rewarded discrimination tests with the two colors. Only bees trained with differential conditioning preferred the previously learned color, whereas bees of the absolute conditioning group, and a stimuli-naïve group, chose randomly among color stimuli. All bees were then kept individually for three days in the dark to allow for complete long-term memory formation. Whole-mount immunostaining was subsequently used to quantify variation of microglomeruli number and density in the mushroom-body lip and collar. We found no significant differences among groups in neuropil volumes and total microglomeruli numbers, but learning performance was negatively correlated with microglomeruli density in the absolute conditioning group. Based on these findings we aim to promote future research approaches combining behaviorally relevant color learning tests in honeybees under free-flight conditions with neuroimaging analysis; we also discuss possible limitations of this approach.

  17. Spatiotemporal variation in linear natural selection on body color in wild guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Dylan J; Gordon, Swanne P; Hendry, Andrew P; Kinnison, Michael T

    2010-06-01

    We conducted 10 mark-recapture experiments in natural populations of Trinidadian guppies to test hypotheses concerning the role of viability selection in geographic patterns of male color variation. Previous work has reported that male guppies are more colorful in low-predation sites than in high-predation sites. This pattern of phenotypic variation has been theorized to reflect differences in the balance between natural (viability) selection that disfavors bright male color (owing to predation) and sexual selection that favors bright color (owing to female choice). Our results support the prediction that male color is disfavored by viability selection in both predation regimes. However, it does not support the prediction that viability selection against male color is weaker in low-predation experiments. Instead, some of the most intense bouts of selection against color occurred in low-predation experiments. Our results illustrate considerable spatiotemporal variation in selection among experiments, but such variation was not generally correlated with local patterns of color diversity. More complex selective interactions, possibly including the indirect effects of predators on variation in mating behavior, as well as other environmental factors, might be required to more fully explain patterns of secondary sexual trait variation in this system.

  18. African American College Women's Body Image: An Examination of Body Mass, African Self-Consciousness, and Skin Color Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Jameca Woody; Neville, Helen A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the general and cultural factors associated with body image perceptions of African American female college students. Data from surveys of 124 women at a historically black college indicated that African self-consciousness, skin color satisfaction, and body mass index collectively accounted for significant variance in dimensions of…

  19. A Vision Chip for Color Segmentation and Pattern Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Etienne-Cummings

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A 128(H × 64(V × RGB CMOS imager is integrated with region-of-interest selection, RGB-to-HSI transformation, HSI-based pixel segmentation, (36bins × 12bits-HSI histogramming, and sum-of-absolute-difference (SAD template matching. Thirty-two learned color templates are stored and compared to each image. The chip captures the R, G, and B images using in-pixel storage before passing the pixel content to a multiplying digital-to-analog converter (DAC for white balancing. The DAC can also be used to pipe in images for a PC. The color processing uses a biologically inspired color opponent representation and an analog lookup table to determine the Hue (H of each pixel. Saturation (S is computed using a loser-take-all circuit. Intensity (I is given by the sum of the color components. A histogram of the segments of the image, constructed by counting the number of pixels falling into 36 Hue intervals of 10 degrees, is stored on a chip and compared against the histograms of new segments using SAD comparisons. We demonstrate color-based image segmentation and object recognition with this chip. Running at 30 fps, it uses 1 mW. To our knowledge, this is the first chip that integrates imaging, color segmentation, and color-based object recognition at the focal plane.

  20. Molecular patterns of X chromosome-linked color vision genes among 134 menof European ancestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond-Borg, M.; Deeb, S.S.; Motulsky, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors used Southern blot hybridization to study X chromosome-linked color vision genes encoding the apoproteins of red and green visual pigments in 134 unselected Caucasian men. One hundred and thirteen individuals (84.3%) had a normal arrangement of their color vision pigment genes. All had one red pigment gene; the number of green pigment genes ranged from one to five with a mode of two. The frequency of molecular genotypes indicative of normal color vision (84.3%) was significantly lower than had been observed in previous studies of color vision phenotypes. Color vision defects can be due to deletions of red or green pigment genes or due to formation of hybrid genes comprising portions of both red and green pigment genes. Characteristic anomalous patterns were seen in 15 (11.2%) individuals: 7 (5.2%) had patterns characteristic of deuteranomaly, 2 (1.5%) had patterns characteristic of deuteranopia, and 6 (4.5%) had protan patterns. Previously undescribed hybrid gene patterns consisting of both green and red pigment gene fragments in addition to normal red and green genes were observed in another 6 individuals (4.5%). Thus, DNA testing detected anomalous color vision pigment genes at a higher frequency than expected from phenotypic color vision tests

  1. The fossil record, function, and possible origins of shell color patterns in Paleozoic marine invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobluk, D.R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Mapes, R.H. (Ohio Univ., Athens (USA))

    1989-02-01

    Fossil invertebrate shells and carapaces displaying preserved original color patterns are among the rarest fossils. The fossil record of color patterns extends into the Middle Cambrian where the trilobite Anomocare displays a fan-like array of stripes on the pygidium. About 180 Paleozic genera are known with patterns, including trilobites, cephalopods, gastropods, brachiopods, bivalves, crinoids, and crustaceans. Based upon an analysis of these taxa, it appears that patterns and pigments in middle and late Paleozoic invertebrates may have served several functions such as warning displays, light screening, camouflage, or waste disposal. However, the presence of color patterns in fossil invertebrates in the early Paleozoic may have developed prior to the evolution of vision sufficiently sophisticated to see them. This suggests that camouflage and warning displays were not the original functions of color patterns, and that in the earliest Paleozoic they may not have been functional. The authors propose a hypothesis that involves three developmental phases in the evolution of invertebrate color patterns: (1) the incorporation of metabolic by-products, perhaps some pigmented and some not pigmented, into shells and carapaces as a means of disposal of dietary or metabolic wastes, (2) use of these pigments and patterns as an environmental adaptation, such as light screening, and (3) display during and following the evolution of vision in predators sufficiently sophisticated to see the patterns.

  2. Patterning between urban soil color and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifman, L. A.; Herrmann, D.; Shuster, W.

    2017-12-01

    Urban soils are extensively modified compared to their non-urban counterparts. These modifications are expected to affect the vertical distribution of total soil carbon as well as its constituent pools - soil organic carbon, black carbon, and inorganic carbon. Assigning color to soil horizons using the Munsell color system is a standard field method employed by soil scientists that can also reveal generalizable information about various environmental metrics. A new dataset on urban soils and their reference counterparts that cover 11 regions in the United States and advances in quantitative pedology allowed us to construct a log-linear model that relates Value, the lightness of a color hue, to the concentration of total carbon throughout a soil column of up to 450 cm depth. Overall, the relationship between 671 points resulted in an r2 of 0.23 with a p<0.001. As expected, organic carbon, shifted values to the lower end of the scale (darker), whereas inorganic carbon increased soil color values (lighter). These findings allow for a simplified understanding of shifts in carbon pools throughout a soil profile.

  3. [Association between iris color and ciliary body pigmentation: possible implications for cyclophotoablation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Ronit; Mechoulam, Hadas; Zamir, Ehud; Pe'er, Jacob

    2008-02-01

    Cyclophotoablation for glaucoma treatment is dependent on the amount of laser energy absorbed by the ciliary body and related to the degree of its pigmentation. Iris color may be assessed by observing the eye, but it is unknown whether it correlates with ciliary body pigmentation. We evaluated whether ciliary pigmentation correlates with iris color. The pigmented epithelium of the ciliary processes of 31 enucleated eyes was qualitatively scored for six histological parameters and correlated with iris color. The dark iris group (n = 19) had significantly increased histological parameters of pigmentation such as aggregation of melanosomes, compared to the light iris group (n = 12) (p Iris color correlates with ciliary pigmentation and may serve as one of the factors determining laser power needed for cyclophotoablation.

  4. Does Fine Color Discrimination Learning in Free-Flying Honeybees Change Mushroom-Body Calyx Neuroarchitecture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M J Sommerlandt

    Full Text Available Honeybees learn color information of rewarding flowers and recall these memories in future decisions. For fine color discrimination, bees require differential conditioning with a concurrent presentation of target and distractor stimuli to form a long-term memory. Here we investigated whether the long-term storage of color information shapes the neural network of microglomeruli in the mushroom body calyces and if this depends on the type of conditioning. Free-flying honeybees were individually trained to a pair of perceptually similar colors in either absolute conditioning towards one of the colors or in differential conditioning with both colors. Subsequently, bees of either conditioning groups were tested in non-rewarded discrimination tests with the two colors. Only bees trained with differential conditioning preferred the previously learned color, whereas bees of the absolute conditioning group, and a stimuli-naïve group, chose randomly among color stimuli. All bees were then kept individually for three days in the dark to allow for complete long-term memory formation. Whole-mount immunostaining was subsequently used to quantify variation of microglomeruli number and density in the mushroom-body lip and collar. We found no significant differences among groups in neuropil volumes and total microglomeruli numbers, but learning performance was negatively correlated with microglomeruli density in the absolute conditioning group. Based on these findings we aim to promote future research approaches combining behaviorally relevant color learning tests in honeybees under free-flight conditions with neuroimaging analysis; we also discuss possible limitations of this approach.

  5. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňuchová, Zuzana; Brunetto, Rosario; Melita, Mario; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    The surfaces of small bodies in the outer Solar System are rich in organic compounds and carbonaceous refractories mixed with ices and silicates. As made clear by dedicated laboratory experiments space weathering (e.g. energetic ion bombardment) can produce red colored materials starting from bright and spectrally flat ices. In a classical scenario, the space weathering processes “nurture” alter the small bodies surface spectra but are in competition with resurfacing agents that restore the original colors, and the result of these competing processes continuously modifying the surfaces is supposed to be responsible for the observed spectral variety of those small bodies. However an alternative point of view is that the different colors are due to “nature” i.e. to the different primordial composition of different objects. In this paper we present a model, based on laboratory results, that gives an original contribution to the “nature” vs. “nurture” debate by addressing the case of surfaces showing different fractions of rejuvenated vs. space weathered surface, and calculating the corresponding color variations. We will show how a combination of increasing dose coupled to different resurfacing can reproduce the whole range of observations of small outer Solar System bodies. Here we demonstrate, for the first time that objects having a fully weathered material turn back in the color-color diagrams. At the same time, object with the different ratio of pristine and weathered surface areas lay on specific lines in color-color diagrams, if exposed to the same amount of irradiation.

  6. Fabric Weave Pattern and Yarn Color Recognition and Classification Using a Deep ELM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Khan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a fabric weave pattern is recognized using methods which identify the warp floats and weft floats. Although these methods perform well for uniform or repetitive weave patterns, in the case of complex weave patterns, these methods become computationally complex and the classification error rates are comparatively higher. Furthermore, the fault-tolerance (invariance and stability (selectivity of the existing methods are still to be enhanced. We present a novel biologically-inspired method to invariantly recognize the fabric weave pattern (fabric texture and yarn color from the color image input. We proposed a model in which the fabric weave pattern descriptor is based on the HMAX model for computer vision inspired by the hierarchy in the visual cortex, the color descriptor is based on the opponent color channel inspired by the classical opponent color theory of human vision, and the classification stage is composed of a multi-layer (deep extreme learning machine. Since the weave pattern descriptor, yarn color descriptor, and the classification stage are all biologically inspired, we propose a method which is completely biologically plausible. The classification performance of the proposed algorithm indicates that the biologically-inspired computer-aided-vision models might provide accurate, fast, reliable and cost-effective solution to industrial automation.

  7. Estimation of color modification in digital images by CFA pattern change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang-Hee; Lee, Hae-Yeoun; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2013-03-10

    Extensive studies have been carried out for detecting image forgery such as copy-move, re-sampling, blurring, and contrast enhancement. Although color modification is a common forgery technique, there is no reported forensic method for detecting this type of manipulation. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for estimating color modification in images acquired from digital cameras when the images are modified. Most commercial digital cameras are equipped with a color filter array (CFA) for acquiring the color information of each pixel. As a result, the images acquired from such digital cameras include a trace from the CFA pattern. This pattern is composed of the basic red green blue (RGB) colors, and it is changed when color modification is carried out on the image. We designed an advanced intermediate value counting method for measuring the change in the CFA pattern and estimating the extent of color modification. The proposed method is verified experimentally by using 10,366 test images. The results confirmed the ability of the proposed method to estimate color modification with high accuracy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Structural Color Patterns on Paper Fabricated by Inkjet Printer and Their Application in Anticounterfeiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Suli; Liu, Baoqi; Su, Xin; Zhang, Shufen

    2017-07-06

    Inkjet-printed structural color patterns have attracted great attention in recent years because of their broadly promising applications. However, the patterns are usually fabricated on pretreated plastic substrates. Herein a convenient inkjet printing method was developed to fabricate large-scale computer-designed structural color patterns on photo paper without any treatment using inks containing monodisperse CdS spheres. By this strategy, not only were the single-color and multicolor structural color patterns on paper successfully obtained, but also invisible photonic anticounterfeiting was achieved without any external stimuli. The key point of this anticounterfeiting technique is printing patterns and the background with inks containing uniformed CdS spheres with different diameters but similar intrinsic colors, so that the invisible patterns can be observed clearly by simply changing the viewing angle. The invisible and visible can be realized without the change of intrinsic structure, and the patterns are all solids. The patterns will have long lifetime and good durability, which is beneficial for their practical usage.

  9. Identification of the Color Parameters in Pattern Recognition in Real-time Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Dronov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Problems of identification of the color parameters of moving raster image objects in pattern recognition in modern security systems, which include real-time video-surveillance systems, are declared in this paper. The description of algorithms of identification of the color parameters in frames coming from real-time video streams is given. The practical application of the developed algorithms in program modules of corresponding video systems is demonstrated.

  10. Application of Pattern Recognition Method for Color Assessment of Oriental Tobacco based on HPLC of Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnon S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The color of Oriental tobaccos was organoleptically assayed, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC of polyphenols was performed. The major tobacco polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, its isomers, and rutin, as well as scopoletin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were quantified. HPLC polyphenol profiles were processed by pattern recognition method (PRM, and the values of indexes of similarity (Is,% between the cultivars studied were determined. It was shown that data from organoleptic color assessment and from PRM based on HPLC profiles of polyphenols of the cultivars studied are largely compatible. Hence, PRM can be suggested as an additional tool for objective color evaluation and classification of Oriental tobacco.

  11. Color pattern evolution in Vanessa butterflies (Nymphalidae: Nymphalini): non-eyespot characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Roohollah; Marcus, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    A phylogenetic approach was used to study color pattern evolution in Vanessa butterflies. Twenty-four color pattern elements from the Nymphalid ground plan were identified on the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the fore- and hind wings. Eyespot characters were excluded and will be examined elsewhere. The evolution of each character was traced over a Bayesian phylogeny of Vanessa reconstructed from 7750 DNA base pairs from 10 genes. Generally, the correspondence between character states on the same surface of the two wings is stronger on the ventral side compared to the dorsal side. The evolution of character states on both sides of a wing correspond with each other in most extant species, but the correspondence between dorsal and ventral character states is much stronger in the forewing than in the hindwing. The dorsal hindwing of many species of Vanessa is covered with an extended Basal Symmetry System and the Discalis I pattern element is highly variable between species, making this wing surface dissimilar to the other wing surfaces. The Basal Symmetry System and Discalis I may contribute to behavioral thermoregulation in Vanessa. Overall, interspecific directional character state evolution of non-eyespot color patterns is relatively rare in Vanessa, with a majority of color pattern elements showing non-variable, non-directional, or ambiguous character state evolution. The ease with which the development of color patterns can be modified, including character state reversals, has likely made important contributions to the production of color pattern diversity in Vanessa and other butterfly groups. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The colorful brain: Visualization of EEG background patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a method to transform routine clinical EEG recordings to an alternative visual domain. The method is intended to support the classic visual interpretation of the EEG background pattern and to facilitate communication about relevant EEG characteristics. In addition, it provides

  13. Median Hetero-Associative Memories Applied to the Categorization of True-Color Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Roberto A.; Sossa, Humberto

    Median associative memories (MED-AMs) are a special type of associative memory based on the median operator. This type of associative model has been applied to the restoration of gray scale images and provides better performance than other models, such as morphological associative memories, when the patterns are altered with mixed noise. Despite of his power, MED-AMs have not been applied in problems involving true-color patterns. In this paper we describe how a median hetero-associative memory (MED-HAM) could be applied in problems that involve true-color patterns. A complete study of the behavior of this associative model in the restoration of true-color images is performed using a benchmark of 14400 images altered by different type of noises. Furthermore, we describe how this model can be applied to an image categorization problem.

  14. Caterpillar color patterns are determined by a two-phase melanin gene prepatterning process: new evidence from tan and laccase2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futahashi, Ryo; Banno, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2010-01-01

    The larval color patterns in Lepidoptera exhibit splendid diversity, and identifying the genes responsible for pigment distribution is essential to understanding color-pattern evolution. The swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, is a good candidate for analyzing marking-associated genes because its body markings change dramatically at the final molt. Moreover, the silkworm Bombyx mori is most suitable for identification of lab-generated color mutants because genome information and many color mutants are available. Here, we analyzed the expression pattern of 10 melanin-related genes in P. xuthus, and analyzed whether these genes were responsible for Bombyx larval color mutants. We found that seven genes correlated strongly with the stage-specific larval cuticular markings of P. xuthus, suggesting that, compared with Drosophila, more genes showed marking specificity in lepidopteran larvae. We newly found that the expression of both tan and laccase2 is strongly correlated with the larval black markings in both P. xuthus and B. mori. The results of F2 linkage analysis and mutant analysis strongly suggest that tan is the responsible gene for Bombyx larval color mutant rouge, and that tan is important in emphasizing black markings of lepidopteran larvae. Detailed comparison of temporal and spatial expression patterns showed that larval cuticular markings were regulated at two different phases. Marking-specific expression of oxidizing enzymes preceded the marking-specific expression of melanin synthesis enzymes at mRNA level, which is the reverse of the melanin synthesis step.

  15. Color pattern analysis of nymphalid butterfly wings: revision of the nymphalid groundplan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Joji M

    2012-09-01

    To better understand the developmental mechanisms of color pattern variation in butterfly wings, it is important to construct an accurate representation of pattern elements, known as the "nymphalid groundplan". However, some aspects of the current groundplan remain elusive. Here, I examined wing-wide elemental patterns of various nymphalid butterflies and confirmed that wing-wide color patterns are composed of the border, central, and basal symmetry systems. The central and basal symmetry systems can express circular patterns resembling eyespots, indicating that these systems have developmental mechanisms similar to those of the border symmetry system. The wing root band commonly occurs as a distinct symmetry system independent from the basal symmetry system. In addition, the marginal and submarginal bands are likely generated as a single system, referred to as the "marginal band system". Background spaces between two symmetry systems are sometimes light in coloration and can produce white bands, contributing significantly to color pattern diversity. When an element is enlarged with a pale central area, a visually similar (yet developmentally distinct) white band is produced. Based on the symmetric relationships of elements, I propose that both the central and border symmetry systems are comprised of "core elements" (the discal spot and the border ocelli, respectively) and a pair of "paracore elements" (the distal and proximal bands and the parafocal elements, respectively). Both core and paracore elements can be doubled, or outlined. Developmentally, this system configuration is consistent with the induction model, but not with the concentration gradient model for positional information.

  16. Precise colocalization of interacting structural and pigmentary elements generates extensive color pattern variation in Phelsuma lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Color traits in animals play crucial roles in thermoregulation, photoprotection, camouflage, and visual communication, and are amenable to objective quantification and modeling. However, the extensive variation in non-melanic pigments and structural colors in squamate reptiles has been largely disregarded. Here, we used an integrated approach to investigate the morphological basis and physical mechanisms generating variation in color traits in tropical day geckos of the genus Phelsuma. Results Combining histology, optics, mass spectrometry, and UV and Raman spectroscopy, we found that the extensive variation in color patterns within and among Phelsuma species is generated by complex interactions between, on the one hand, chromatophores containing yellow/red pteridine pigments and, on the other hand, iridophores producing structural color by constructive interference of light with guanine nanocrystals. More specifically, we show that 1) the hue of the vivid dorsolateral skin is modulated both by variation in geometry of structural, highly ordered narrowband reflectors, and by the presence of yellow pigments, and 2) that the reflectivity of the white belly and of dorsolateral pigmentary red marks, is increased by underlying structural disorganized broadband reflectors. Most importantly, these interactions require precise colocalization of yellow and red chromatophores with different types of iridophores, characterized by ordered and disordered nanocrystals, respectively. We validated these results through numerical simulations combining pigmentary components with a multilayer interferential optical model. Finally, we show that melanophores form dark lateral patterns but do not significantly contribute to variation in blue/green or red coloration, and that changes in the pH or redox state of pigments provide yet another source of color variation in squamates. Conclusions Precisely colocalized interacting pigmentary and structural elements generate extensive

  17. Organic Solid Matter as a Coloring Agent in Outer Solar System Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; DalleOre, C. M.; Roush, T. L.; Khare, B. N.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Small bodies in the outer Solar System OSS, exhibit a range of color, or slope of the reflectance in the photovisual spectral region, ranging from neutral to very red, sometimes with and sometimes without distinct absorption bands. These objects range in geometric albedo from 0.03 to 1.0, with the higher albedo objects typically showing clear evidence of water ice. Water ice has also been found in a few objects with albedo 0. 1 or less. We explore here the identification of the material or materials that color these icy and non-icy surfaces through scattering models that incorporate minerals, meteoritic material, and organic solids (tholins) produced ID the laboratory by energy deposition in ices and gases. These models must match not only the color in the photovisual region, but the spectral reflectance properties throughout the near-infrared. Among some classes of objects, such as Kuiper Belt objects, the coloring agent may be a single material that is present in greater or lesser abundance, thus accounting for the range in color from neutral to very red. This may also apply to the Centaur objects, the Jovian Trojans, and the outer-main belt asteroids, each taken as a separate class. If so, each class may be colored to varying degrees by a different material, or they all might be colored by a common material that is widespread throughout the OSS, from 3 to 50 AU, and beyond. In this paper, we model the reflectances of "Kuiper Belt objects, Centaurs, Trojans, outer ARAB asteroids, and planetary satellites. Our models show that the reddest surfaces cannot be colored by minerals or meteoritic materials, but can be matched throughout the photovisual and near-infrared by organic solids, specifically certain tholins.

  18. Diagnostic performance and color overlay pattern in shear wave elastography (SWE) for palpable breast mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jiyoon; Woo, Ok Hee; Shin, Hye Seon; Cho, Kyu Ran; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kang, Eun Young

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SWE in palpable breast mass and to compare with color overlay pattern in SWE with conventional US and quantitative SWE for assessing palpable breast mass. SWE and conventional breast US were performed in 133 women with 156 palpable breast lesions (81 benign, 75 malignant) between August 2013 to June 2014. Either pathology or periodic imaging surveillance more than 2 years was a reference standard. Existence of previous image was blinded to performing radiologists. US BI-RADS final assessment, qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE and US combined to SWE were calculated and compared. Correlation between pattern classification and quantitative SWE was evaluated. Both color overlay pattern and quantitative SWE improved the specificity of conventional US, from 81.48% to 96.30% (p=0.0005), without improvement in sensitivity. Color overlay pattern was significantly related to all quantitative SWE parameters and malignancy rate (poverlay pattern was between 2 and 3. Emax with optimal cutoff at 45.1 kPa showed the highest Az value, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy among other quantitative SWE parameters (poverlay pattern and pathology (poverlay pattern classification is more quick and easy and may represent quantitative SWE measurements with similar diagnostic performances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-body wear performance of dental colored zirconia after different surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yunyang; Zhao, Jing; Si, Wenjie; Wang, Xinzhi

    2016-10-01

    Colored zirconia is widely used in dental clinical practice; however, data pertaining to its wear resistance after different surface treatments are sparse. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the 2-body wear resistance of dental colored zirconia after different glazing and polishing treatments. Standardized specimens were prepared from dental zirconia (internal and external staining and no staining) and subjected to different surface treatments. The stained zirconia and control ceramics were polished with a Robinson brush and polishing paste or polishing kits, while the nonstained zirconia was airborne-particle abraded and glazed. The specimens were then abraded against steatite antagonists using a pin-on-disk wear tester. The wear depth for the specimens was measured using confocal microscopy. Wear areas on the steatite antagonists were measured by using an optical microscope. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the wear pattern of the zirconia specimens. All data were statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and the Tamhane test for post hoc analysis (α=.05). The surfaces polished using the Robinson brush and paste showed no wear. The wear depth of the unglazed surfaces was 42.27 ±3.21 ∼84.15 ±2.57 μm and 87.75 ±9.36 and 91.76 ±13.58 μm for the glazed surfaces. The antagonist wear area was 1.79 ±0.21 ∼2.69 ±0.34 mm 2 (unglazed) and 3.34 ±0.29 ∼4.51 ±0.88 mm 2 (glazed). SEM revealed chipping fractures, and peeling cracks were observed on the glazed zirconia surfaces, indicating a combination of fatigue and abrasive wear. The results of this in vitro study suggest that highly polished zirconia shows the least wear, including antagonist wear. Furthermore, glazed zirconia can be significantly more abrasive than polished zirconia. The wear properties of internally and externally stained zirconia are similar. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Color of hot soup modulates postprandial satiety, thermal sensation, and body temperature in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Maki; Kimura, Rie; Kido, Yasue; Inoue, Tomoko; Moritani, Toshio; Nagai, Narumi

    2017-07-01

    The color of food is known to modulate not only consumers' motivation to eat, but also thermal perception. Here we investigated whether the colors of hot soup can influence thermal sensations and body temperature, in addition to the food acceptability and appetite. Twelve young female participants consumed commercial white potage soup, modified to yellow or blue by adding food dyes, at 9 a.m. on 3 separated days. During the test, visual impression (willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, warmth, and anxiety) and thermal sensations were self-reported using visual analog scales. Core (intra-aural) and peripheral (toe) temperatures were continuously recorded 10 min before and 60 min after ingestion. Blue soup significantly decreased willingness to eat, palatability, comfort, and warmth ratings, and significantly increased anxiety feelings compared to the white and yellow soups. After ingestion, the blue soup showed significantly smaller satiety ratings and the tendency of lower thermal sensation scores of the whole body compared to the white and yellow soups. Moreover, a significantly greater increase in toe temperature was found with the yellow soup than the white or blue soup. In conclusion, this study provides new evidence that the colors of hot food may modulate postprandial satiety, thermal sensations and peripheral temperature. Such effects of color may be useful for dietary strategies for individuals who need to control their appetite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The evaluation of color and color difference according to the layering placement of Incisal shade composites on the body composites of the indirect resin restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jung Park

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface color of indirect resin restoration according to the layering placement of different shade of incisal composite. Materials and Methods In this study, CIE L*a*b* value of 16 Body composite of Tescera ATL (Bisco, Schaumburg IL,USA was measured by spectrophotometer (NF999, Nippon Denshuku, Japan, and compared to CIE L*a*b* value of Vitapan shade guide. Nine shade Incisal composite of Tescera ATL were build-up to 1 mm thickness on Body composites inlay block, and CIE L*a*b* value was measured. Incisal composite was ground to 0.5 mm thickness and CIE L*a*b* value was re-measured. Color difference between Body composite and Incisal composites layered on Body composite was calculated as a function of thickness. Results Color difference between corresponding shade of Tescera Body composite and Vitapan shade guide was from 6.88 to 12.80. L* and b*value was decreased as layering thickness of Incisal composite on Body composite was increased. But, a* value did not show specific change tendency. Conclusions Surface color difference between Body composites and Incisal composites layered on Body composite was increased as the layering thickness of Incisal composite increased (p < 0.05.

  2. Color pattern variation in Cichla temensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae: resolution based on morphological, molecular, and reproductive data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Reiss

    Full Text Available Morphological variants of Cichla temensis, readily differentiated by their striking color pattern differences, are found in several Amazon basin flood pulse river systems. The adult variants have at times been thought to represent different species or sexual dimorphism. A three part study was performed in two regions in Brazil (rio Igapó Açú and rio Caures to elucidate the nature of the variants. In part one; selected diagnostic morphometric characters were compared intraspecifically among the variants and interspecifically with C. monoculus and C. orinocensis. All of the C. temensis variants were found to differ significantly from their sympatric congeners while not differing among each other. In part two, mitochondrial DNA samples were compared intraspecifically among the variants and interspecifically with their sympatric congeners. There were no diagnostic molecular synapomorphies that would unambiguously distinguish the variants and all C. temensis variants were clearly diagnosable and divergent from their sympatric congeners. In part three, color pattern variation in both sexes was compared to a gonadosomatic index (GSI. A significant correlation between color pattern variation and gonadosomatic index was found. The results of this study demonstrate that Cichla temensis variants are confirmed to be members of a single species and that the variation does not represent a sexual dimorphism. The color pattern variation is a cyclically occurring secondary sexual characteristic and is indicative of the specific degree of an individual's seasonal sexual maturation.

  3. Visual memory for random block patterns defined by luminance and color contrast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, FW; Greenlee, MW

    2000-01-01

    We studied the ability of human subjects to memorize the visual information in computer-generated random block patterns defined either by luminance contrast, by color contrast, or by both. Memory performance declines rapidly with increasing inter-stimulus interval, showing a half-life of

  4. Heritable variation in garter snake color patterns in postglacial populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Westphal

    Full Text Available Global climate change is expected to trigger northward shifts in the ranges of natural populations of plants and animals, with subsequent effects on intraspecific genetic diversity. Investigating how genetic diversity is patterned among populations that arose following the last Ice Age is a promising method for understanding the potential future effects of climate change. Theoretical and empirical work has suggested that overall genetic diversity can decrease in colonial populations following rapid expansion into postglacial landscapes, with potential negative effects on the ability of populations to adapt to new environmental regimes. The crucial measure of this genetic variation and a population's overall adaptability is the heritable variation in phenotypic traits, as it is this variation that mediates the rate and direction of a population's multigenerational response to selection. Using two large full-sib quantitative genetic studies (N(Manitoba = 144; N(South Dakota = 653 and a smaller phenotypic analysis from Kansas (N(Kansas = 44, we compared mean levels of pigmentation, genetic variation and heritability in three pigmentation traits among populations of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, along a north-south gradient, including a postglacial northern population and a putative southern refuge population. Counter to our expectations, we found that genetic variance and heritability for the three pigmentation traits were the same or higher in the postglacial population than in the southern population.

  5. Heritable Variation in Garter Snake Color Patterns in Postglacial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Michael F.; Massie, Jodi L.; Bronkema, Joanna M.; Smith, Brian E.; Morgan, Theodore J.

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to trigger northward shifts in the ranges of natural populations of plants and animals, with subsequent effects on intraspecific genetic diversity. Investigating how genetic diversity is patterned among populations that arose following the last Ice Age is a promising method for understanding the potential future effects of climate change. Theoretical and empirical work has suggested that overall genetic diversity can decrease in colonial populations following rapid expansion into postglacial landscapes, with potential negative effects on the ability of populations to adapt to new environmental regimes. The crucial measure of this genetic variation and a population's overall adaptability is the heritable variation in phenotypic traits, as it is this variation that mediates the rate and direction of a population's multigenerational response to selection. Using two large full-sib quantitative genetic studies (NManitoba = 144; NSouth Dakota = 653) and a smaller phenotypic analysis from Kansas (NKansas = 44), we compared mean levels of pigmentation, genetic variation and heritability in three pigmentation traits among populations of the common garter snake, Thamnophis sirtalis, along a north-south gradient, including a postglacial northern population and a putative southern refuge population. Counter to our expectations, we found that genetic variance and heritability for the three pigmentation traits were the same or higher in the postglacial population than in the southern population. PMID:21935386

  6. The Larson Blue coat color phenotype in Holsteins: Characteristics and effects on body temperature regulation and production in lactating cows in a hot climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikmen, S; Dahl, G E; Cole, J B; Null, D J; Hansen, P J

    2017-03-01

    Here we report a previously undescribed coat color phenotype in Holstein cattle. Larson Blue Holsteins, located on a dairy in south Florida, exhibit a coloration pattern that is similar to that of black and white or red and white Holsteins except that, instead of being black or red, darker regions of the body vary in color from gray to taupe. The Larson Blue phenotype was readily apparent in young calves. The phenotype is not due to inheritance of known mutations causing coat color variation in cattle, including dominant red, Telstar, silver color dilutor, or Dun color. Three variants with moderate effects on the () gene were identified in 2 Larson blue cows. Despite being lighter in color, there was no difference in daily variation in vaginal temperature between Larson Blue and other Holsteins when recorded during the summer for cows housed in free-stall barns with shade, fans, and sprinklers. Similarly, there was no effect of the Larson Blue phenotype on seasonal variation in milk yield. Therefore, the phenotype confers no advantage in terms of response to heat stress when cattle are housed in facilities with extensive cooling.

  7. Patterns of color phase indicate spawn timing at a Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus spawning aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K ARCHER, Scott A HEPPELL, Brice X SEMMENS,Christy V PATTENGILL-SEMMENS, Phillippe G BUSH, Croy M MCCOY,Bradley C JOHNSON

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nassau grouper Epinephelus striatus are a large bodied, top level predator that is ecologically important throughout the Caribbean. Although typically solitary, Nassau grouper form large annual spawning aggregations at predictable times in specific locations. In 2003, The Cayman Islands Marine Conservation Board established protection for a newly rediscovered Nassau grouper spawning aggregation on Little Cayman, British West Indies. The large size of this aggregation provides a unique opportunity to study the behavior of Nassau grouper on a relatively intact spawning aggregation. During non-spawning periods Nassau grouper display a reddish-brown-and-white barred coloration. However, while aggregating they exhibit three additional color phases: “bicolor”, “dark”, and “white belly”. We video sampled the population on multiple days leading up to spawning across five spawning years. Divers focused a laser caliper equipped video camera on individual fish at the aggregation. We later analyzed the video to determine the length of the fish and record the color phase. Our observations show that the relative proportion of fish in the bicolor color phase increases significantly on the day leading up to the primary night of spawning. The increase in the proportion of the bicolor color phase from 0.05 early in the aggregation to 0.40 on the day of spawning suggests that this color phase conveys that a fish is behaviorally and physiologically prepared to spawn. Additionally, 82.7% of fish exhibiting dark or white belly coloration early in the aggregation period suggests that these color phases are not only shown by female fish as was previously posited [Current Zoology 58 (1: 73–83, 2012].

  8. Pseudo-random arranged color filter array for controlling moiré patterns in display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangui; Fan, Hang; An, Sengzhong; Li, Juntao; Wang, Jiahui; Zhou, Jianying; Liu, Yikun

    2015-11-16

    Optical display quality can be degraded by the appearance of moiré pattern occurring in a display system consisting of a basic matrix superimposed with a functional structured optical layer. We propose in this paper a novel pseudo-random arranged color filter array with the table number arranged with an optimal design scenario. We show that the moiré pattern can be significantly reduced with the introduction of the special color filter array. The idea is tested with an experiment that gives rise to a substantially reduced moiré pattern in a display system. It is believed that the novel functional optical structures have significant impact to complex structured display system in general and to the autostereoscopic and integrated display systems in particular.

  9. Growth Pattern of Body Dimension of Arfak Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda Irma Jeanne Joice Kawulur

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth pattern of body height and weight reflect the nutritional status and health condition of a population. Assessment of growth pattern and nutritional status of children and adolescence is urgently needed because during this growth period there is a transition period frominfant to adult with fast growth spurt, secondary sexual character maturation, and dramatic body proportion change. A cross-sectional study of the physical growth status was done to 514Arfak children consisted of 231 girls aged 6-19 years and 283 boys aged 6-23 years, in Manokwari, West Papua Province.The study was conducted to find out the growth pattern of the body size of Arfak children. Anthropometry measurement consists of body height (cm and body weight (kg. Growth charts of these variables showed increase with age in both sexes. Growth rate of body weight of Arfak children at juvenile phase was higher than those of other populations, such as India, Purwakarta, and Karawang, except American population.

  10. Color 3D electronic imaging of the surface of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioux, Marc

    1994-10-01

    The NRC laboratories have developed a laser scanning technique to digitize shapes and colors in registration. The technique, known as synchronized scanning, is capable of digitizing topography as small as the relief of a bare finger tip, showing a clear picture of the skin structure (essentially a clean fingerprint without distortion), as well as the shape and size of body components such as hands, face, and feet, and the full body of one or more subjects simultaneously. The laser scanner uses a RGB laser, coupled to an optical fiber, which is projected in the field of view. The 3D color measurements are made by optical triangulation to a resolution of 10 micrometers for finger tip scans and a resolution of 1 mm for whole body scans. Experimental results are presented and discussed. Potential applications of this technology in the field of identification and inspection of humans include face recognition, finger, foot and teeth print identification, and 3D mugshots that can be rapidly broadcast through satellite communication. One of the unique properties of this technology is that absolute measurements, not only appearance and relative position of features, can be used for identification purposes.

  11. Rapid sympatry explains greater color pattern divergence in high latitude birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul R; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2010-02-01

    Latitudinal variation in patterns of evolution has fascinated biologists for over a century, but our understanding of latitudinal differences in evolutionary processes-such as selection and drift-remains limited. Here, we test for, and find, accelerated evolution of color patterns in bird taxa that breed at higher latitudes compared with those breeding in the tropics, analyzing data from seven diverse avian families. Most important, we show that the extent of overlap of species' breeding ranges (degree of sympatry) explains the elevated rate of color pattern evolution at higher latitudes. We suggest that the dynamic shifts in breeding ranges that accompanied climatic changes during the last 3 million years (Milankovitch Oscillations) resulted in more rapid and more frequent secondary contact at high latitudes. We argue that sympatry among diverging clades causes greater divergence of color traits in birds at higher latitudes through sexual, social, or ecological character displacement that accelerate rates of evolution, and through the selective elimination of weakly differentiated lineages that hybridize and fuse in sympatry (differential fusion).

  12. Inkjet Printing Based Mono-layered Photonic Crystal Patterning for Anti-counterfeiting Structural Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyunmoon; Song, Kyungjun; Ha, Dogyeong; Kim, Taesung

    2016-01-01

    Photonic crystal structures can be created to manipulate electromagnetic waves so that many studies have focused on designing photonic band-gaps for various applications including sensors, LEDs, lasers, and optical fibers. Here, we show that mono-layered, self-assembled photonic crystals (SAPCs) fabricated by using an inkjet printer exhibit extremely weak structural colors and multiple colorful holograms so that they can be utilized in anti-counterfeit measures. We demonstrate that SAPC patterns on a white background are covert under daylight, such that pattern detection can be avoided, but they become overt in a simple manner under strong illumination with smartphone flash light and/or on a black background, showing remarkable potential for anti-counterfeit techniques. Besides, we demonstrate that SAPCs yield different RGB histograms that depend on viewing angles and pattern densities, thus enhancing their cryptographic capabilities. Hence, the structural colorations designed by inkjet printers would not only produce optical holograms for the simple authentication of many items and products but also enable a high-secure anti-counterfeit technique. PMID:27487978

  13. The Lycaenid Central Symmetry System: Color Pattern Analysis of the Pale Grass Blue Butterfly Zizeeria maha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masaki; Taira, Wataru; Hiyama, Atsuki; Otaki, Joji M

    2015-06-01

    The nymphalid groundplan has been proposed to explain diverse butterfly wing color patterns. In this model, each symmetry system is composed of a core element and a pair of paracore elements. The development of this elemental configuration has been explained by the induction model for positional information. However, the diversity of color patterns in other butterfly families in relation to the nymphalid groundplan has not been thoroughly examined. Here, we examined aberrant color pattern phenotypes of a lycaenid butterfly, Zizeeria maha, from mutagenesis and plasticity studies as well as from field surveys. In several mutants, the third and fourth spot arrays were coordinately positioned much closer to the discal spot in comparison to the normal phenotype. In temperature-shock types, the third and fourth array spots were elongated inwardly or outwardly from their normal positions. In field-caught spontaneous mutants, small black spots were located adjacent to normal black spots. Analysis of these aberrant phenotypes indicated that the spots belonging to the third and fourth arrays are synchronously changeable in position and shape around the discal spot. Thus, these arrays constitute paracore elements of the central symmetry system of the lycaenid butterflies, and the discal spot comprises the core element. These aberrant phenotypes can be explained by the black-inducing signals that propagate from the prospective discal spot, as predicted by the induction model. These results suggest the existence of long-range developmental signals that cover a large area of a wing not only in nymphalid butterflies, but also in lycaenid butterflies.

  14. Color Triads in Complex Networks: Uncovering Racial Segregation Patterns in US High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candia, Julian; Gonzalez, Marta

    2008-03-01

    Introducing color subgraph analysis as a novel tool for characterizing complex network structures, we identify the basic racial patterns in a nationally representative sample of all public and private High Schools in the US. We apply this method on color triad subgraphs and obtain quantitative measurements on racial homophily effects, as well as on interracial mixing patterns. Strongest homophily phenomena are observed within the white student population, followed in decreasing order by black, hispanic and asian students. Racial reciprocity measurements reveal that white students tend to form triads in which they constitute a racial majority. Black-hispanic triads are also observed to be non-reciprocal, while black-asian and hispanic-asian triads show a stronger tendency towards symmetric ties. Racial preference measurements show a rather weak white-black affinity. Since both white and black triad majorities prefer a hispanic third party, hispanic students may play the role of a bridge between white and black students. In order to design better integration strategies, quantitative observations on homophily and interracial mixing patterns could be used to redefine school organizational features. Moreover, the color subgraph analysis method can be applied to a large variety of complex network systems on other interdisciplinary fields of science.

  15. Full-body movement pattern recognition in climbing*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Dovgalecs, Vladislavs; Boulanger, Jérémie; Orth, Dominic; Hérault, Romain; Davids, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a method for full-body movement pattern recognition in climbing, by computing the 3D unitary vector of the four limbs and pelvis during performance. One climber with an intermediate skill level traversed two easy routes of similar rates of difficulty (5c

  16. Fast food consumption pattern and body weight status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed fast food consumption pattern (FFCP) and body weight status among the undergraduates of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, living in different halls of residence on the university campus during the Rain semester of 2011/2012 session. The study employed survey research design to give an ...

  17. Pattern of body mass index (BMI) among adult hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recent times Asaba – the capital of Delta State, Nigeria – is witnessing a rapid growth in urbanization and fast food eateries. Several studies have shown that Blood Pressure (BP) is directly associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) in populations worldwide. However, some variations exist in the pattern of the association ...

  18. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H; Han, Rou P; Chang, Shu J; Shih, Cheng T; Sun, Jing Y; Hsu, Shih M

    2012-01-01

    Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265) and OT (p = 0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

  19. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wu

    Full Text Available Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265 and OT (p = 0.07. The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

  20. Disruption of PTPS Gene Causing Pale Body Color and Lethal Phenotype in the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Tong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Phenylketonuria (PKU is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH gene or by defects in the tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4 synthesis pathway. Here, by positional cloning, we report that the 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase (PTPS gene, encoding a key enzyme of BH4 biosynthesis, is responsible for the alc (albino C mutation that displays pale body color, head shaking, and eventually lethality after the first molting in silkworm. Compared to wild type, the alc mutant produced more substrates (phenylalanine (Phe and tyrosine (Tyr and generated less DOPA and dopamine. Application of 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP to block BH4 synthesis in the wild type effectively produced the alc-like phenotype, while BH4 supplementation rescued the defective body color and lethal phenotype in both alc and DAHP-treated individuals. The detection of gene expressions and metabolic substances after drugs treatments in alc and normal individuals imply that silkworms and humans have a high similarity in the drugs metabolic features and the gene pathway related to BH4 and the dopamine biosynthesis. We propose that the alc mutant could be used as an animal model for drug evaluation for BH4-deficient PKU.

  1. Visual contrast and color in rapid learning of novel patterns by chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, S; Osorio, D

    2013-11-15

    Biological communication signals often combine bright and dark colors, such as yellow and black, but it is unclear why such patterns are effective. The literature on aposematism suggests that high contrast patterns may be easily learnt or innately avoided, whereas studies of sexual signaling refer to their attractiveness or to their cost. Here, in experiments with poultry chicks trained to find food in patterned containers, we confirm that elevated contrast dramatically increases the rate of initial attack on novel stimuli, but this response is labile. The chicks pecked once at a novel unrewarded stimulus and then ignored it for at least 24 h. Such single trial learning has not previously been reported for birds without a positively aversive unconditioned stimulus such as quinine. We then tested and rejected two hypotheses about the function of high contrast patterns: first that the preferential responses are due to novelty, and second that elevated contrast enhances learning about a novel color. More generally, the observations are consistent with the idea that elevated contrast attracts attention, thereby enhancing both initial responses - whether positive or negative - and the rate of learning.

  2. Patterns in body mass distributions: sifting among alternative hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C R; Garmestani, A S; Havlicek, T D; Marquet, P A; Peterson, G D; Restrepo, C; Stow, C A; Weeks, B E

    2006-05-01

    Understanding how animals interact with their environment is critical for evaluating, mitigating and coping with anthropogenic alteration of Earth's biosphere. Researchers have attempted to understand some aspects of these interactions by examining patterns in animal body mass distributions. Energetic, phylogenetic, biogeographical, textural discontinuity and community interaction hypotheses have been advanced to explain observed patterns. Energetic and textural discontinuity hypotheses focus upon the allometry of resource use. The community interaction hypothesis contends that biotic interactions within assemblages of species are of primary importance. Biogeographical and phylogenetic hypotheses focus on the role of constraints on the organization of communities. This paper examines and organizes these various propositions about species body mass distributions and discusses the multiple competing hypotheses, how their predictions vary, and possible methods by which the hypotheses can be distinguished and tested. Each of the hypotheses is partial, and explains some elements of pattern in body mass distributions. The scale of appropriate application, relevance and interpretation varies among the hypotheses, and the mechanisms underlying observed patterns are likely to be multicausal and vary with scale.

  3. Histopathological Image Classification With Color Pattern Random Binary Hashing-Based PCANet and Matrix-Form Classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Yan; Zhang, Qi; Ying, Shihui

    2017-09-01

    The computer-aided diagnosis for histopathological images has attracted considerable attention. Principal component analysis network (PCANet) is a novel deep learning algorithm for feature learning with the simple network architecture and parameters. In this study, a color pattern random binary hashing-based PCANet (C-RBH-PCANet) algorithm is proposed to learn an effective feature representation from color histopathological images. The color norm pattern and angular pattern are extracted from the principal component images of R, G, and B color channels after cascaded PCA networks. The random binary encoding is then performed on both color norm pattern images and angular pattern images to generate multiple binary images. Moreover, we rearrange the pooled local histogram features by spatial pyramid pooling to a matrix-form for reducing the dimension of feature and preserving spatial information. Therefore, a C-RBH-PCANet and matrix-form classifier-based feature learning and classification framework is proposed for diagnosis of color histopathological images. The experimental results on three color histopathological image datasets show that the proposed C-RBH-PCANet algorithm is superior to the original PCANet and other conventional unsupervised deep learning algorithms, while the best performance is achieved by the proposed feature learning and classification framework that combines C-RBH-PCANet and matrix-form classifier.

  4. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadulina, Albina; Panzera, Aurora; Verasztó, Csaba; Liebig, Christian; Jékely, Gáspár

    2012-12-03

    Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere) of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2'-thiodiethanol (TDE), which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP) in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4'6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental stage. We then registered to these templates the

  5. Whole-body gene expression pattern registration in Platynereis larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadulina Albina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital anatomical atlases are increasingly used in order to depict different gene expression patterns and neuronal morphologies within a standardized reference template. In evo-devo, a discipline in which the comparison of gene expression patterns is a widely used approach, such standardized anatomical atlases would allow a more rigorous assessment of the conservation of and changes in gene expression patterns during micro- and macroevolutionary time scales. Due to its small size and invariant early development, the annelid Platynereis dumerilii is particularly well suited for such studies. Recently a reference template with registered gene expression patterns has been generated for the anterior part (episphere of the Platynereis trochophore larva and used for the detailed study of neuronal development. Results Here we introduce and evaluate a method for whole-body gene expression pattern registration for Platynereis trochophore and nectochaete larvae based on whole-mount in situ hybridization, confocal microscopy, and image registration. We achieved high-resolution whole-body scanning using the mounting medium 2,2’-thiodiethanol (TDE, which allows the matching of the refractive index of the sample to that of glass and immersion oil thereby reducing spherical aberration and improving depth penetration. This approach allowed us to scan entire whole-mount larvae stained with nitroblue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate (NBT/BCIP in situ hybridization and counterstained fluorescently with an acetylated-tubulin antibody and the nuclear stain 4’6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Due to the submicron isotropic voxel size whole-mount larvae could be scanned in any orientation. Based on the whole-body scans, we generated four different reference templates by the iterative registration and averaging of 40 individual image stacks using either the acetylated-tubulin or the nuclear-stain signal for each developmental

  6. Three-dimensional shape profiling by out-of-focus projection of colored pulse width modulation fringe patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriana; Flores, Jorge L; Muñoz, Antonio; Ayubi, Gastón A; Ferrari, José A

    2017-06-20

    Three-dimensional (3D) shape profiling by sinusoidal phase-shifting methods is affected by the non-linearity of the projector. To overcome this problem, the defocusing technique has become an important alternative to generate sinusoidal fringe patterns. The precision of this method depends on the binary pattern used and on the defocusing applied. To improve the defocusing technique, we propose the implementation of a color-based binary fringe patterns. The proposed technique involves the generation of colored pulse width modulation (PWM) fringe patterns, which are generated with different frequencies at the carrier signal. From an adequate selection of these frequencies, the colored PWM fringe patterns will lead to amplitude harmonics lower than the conventional PWM fringe patterns. Hence, the defocusing can decrease, and the 3D shape profiling can be more accurate. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented as validation.

  7. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amber; MacDonald, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their behavior under those conditions. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M. pfefferi in their home aquarium at The Seas in Epcot at Walt Disney World Resorts(®), Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. pfefferi use a combination of 7 textural, 14 postural, 7 locomotor and between 42 and 75 chromatic components in their home aquarium. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass@IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. The software was able to sort 98% of the live animal observations into one of the 11 patterns with 90% confidence and 88% of observations with 99% confidence. Unusually for cuttlefish, 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one "traveling" component (i.e., traveling waves or blinking spots) in which the colors on the skin appeared to travel on the animal's mantle. In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. pfefferi uses them frequently during a variety of contexts in their home aquarium. With few published data on the behavior of M. pfefferi in their natural environment, we cannot compare the behavior of the tank-raised individuals in

  8. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their behavior under those conditions. This study aimed to identify the dorsally-visible components of the body patterns used by 5 sexually-mature, freely-behaving, F5 generation M. pfefferi in their home aquarium at The Seas in Epcot at Walt Disney World Resorts®, Lake Buena Vista, FL, USA. Furthermore, we aimed to determine the most probable patterns used by this population of animals and to create a database of components that can be used in future behavioral studies. We found that this population of M. pfefferi use a combination of 7 textural, 14 postural, 7 locomotor and between 42 and 75 chromatic components in their home aquarium. Using maximum likelihood analysis and AutoClass@IJM software, we found that these components combine to generate 11 distinct body patterns. The software was able to sort 98% of the live animal observations into one of the 11 patterns with 90% confidence and 88% of observations with 99% confidence. Unusually for cuttlefish, 8 of the 11 identified patterns contained at least one “traveling” component (i.e., traveling waves or blinking spots in which the colors on the skin appeared to travel on the animal’s mantle. In other species, these components are generally seen during hunting or aggression, but this population of M. pfefferi uses them frequently during a variety of contexts in their home aquarium. With few published data on the behavior of M. pfefferi in their natural environment, we cannot compare the behavior of the tank

  9. Warning signals are seductive: relative contributions of color and pattern to predator avoidance and mate attraction in Heliconius butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkbeiner, Susan D; Briscoe, Adriana D; Reed, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    Visual signaling in animals can serve many uses, including predator deterrence and mate attraction. In many cases, signals used to advertise unprofitability to predators are also used for intraspecific communication. Although aposematism and mate choice are significant forces driving the evolution of many animal phenotypes, the interplay between relevant visual signals remains little explored. Here, we address this question in the aposematic passion-vine butterfly Heliconius erato by using color- and pattern-manipulated models to test the contributions of different visual features to both mate choice and warning coloration. We found that the relative effectiveness of a model at escaping predation was correlated with its effectiveness at inducing mating behavior, and in both cases wing color was more predictive of presumptive fitness benefits than wing pattern. Overall, however, a combination of the natural (local) color and pattern was most successful for both predator deterrence and mate attraction. By exploring the relative contributions of color versus pattern composition in predation and mate preference studies, we have shown how both natural and sexual selection may work in parallel to drive the evolution of specific animal color patterns. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Innu food consumption patterns: traditional food and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atikessé, Laura; de Grosbois, Sylvie Boucher; St-Jean, Mélissa; Penashue, Basile Mashen; Benuen, Manipia

    2010-01-01

    Food consumption patterns of an Innu community were described and the benefits of traditional food (TF) were investigated in relation to body mass index (BMI). A cross-sectional study was conducted using food frequency and 24-hour recall questionnaires to evaluate consumption patterns (n=118) and to assess energy and nutrient intakes from TF and store-bought food (SBF) (n=161). Body mass index was calculated with a sub-sample of 45 participants. Mean yearly TF meal consumption was significantly related to age (p=0.05). Participants reporting high TF and low SBF consumption presented with a normal body weight (BMI=24.1) at the lower quartile and a slightly overweight status (BMI=25.8) at the median. Mean values for protein and carbohydrate intake were higher than the Dietary Reference Intakes, whereas dietary fibre intake was below these guidelines for both genders. Store-bought food provided higher levels of energy and nutrients, except for protein. Although Innu consume high amounts of TF and SBF, a lack of some essential nutrients was observed. Because TF intake was related to a tendency toward a lower BMI, a combined, targeted diet could be proposed. Health services could reinforce the importance of TF consumption and promote traditional dietary practices that offer advantages at many levels.

  11. Do Masculine Men Smell Better? An Association Between Skin Color Masculinity and Female Preferences for Body Odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrito, Mariana L; Santos, Isabel M; Alho, Laura; Ferreira, Jacqueline; Soares, Sandra C; Bem-Haja, Pedro; Silva, Carlos F; Perrett, David I

    2017-03-01

    A recent study claimed face skin color as a sexually dimorphic variable that influences attractiveness preferences in mate choice. Thereby, skin color may assume the role of a mate quality signal influencing attractiveness preferences. As body odor is linked to attractiveness, this study aimed to explore whether the odors of men with more masculine facial skin color would be evaluated more positively than odors from less masculine men. Female raters were presented with body odors of 18 men and were asked to rate them in various characteristics. Multilevel modeling revealed that the odors of the donors with more masculine color were rated not only as more attractive, more pleasant, and sexier, but also healthier. This indicates that odor associated with men with more masculine skin color is attractive, just as other sexually dimorphic traits. Furthermore, we found a negative relation between skin color masculinity and perceived odor maleness. Regarding this last finding, a new discussion is introduced with respect to the influence of cognitive stereotypes in odor judgments. Altogether, the study supports the possibility that chemosensory signals may be communicating signs of mate quality associated with masculinity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Colorful patterns indicate common ancestry in diverged tiger beetle taxa: Molecular phylogeny, biogeography, and evolution of elytral coloration of the genus Cicindela subgenus Sophiodela and its allies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kaoru; Hori, Michio; Phyu, Moe Hnin; Liang, Hongbin; Sota, Teiji

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the phylogenetic relationships among tiger beetles of the subtribe Cicindelina (=Cicindela s. lat.; Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) mainly from the Oriental and Sino-Japanese zoogeographic regions using one mitochondrial and three nuclear gene sequences to examine the position of the subgenus Sophiodela, currently classified in the genus Cicindela s. str., their biogeography, and the evolution of their brilliant coloration. The subgenus Sophiodela was not related to the other subgenera of Cicindela s. str. but was closely related to the genus Cosmodela. In addition, the Oriental genus Calochroa was polyphyletic with three lineages, one of which was closely related to Sophiodela and Cosmodela. The clade comprising Sophiodela, Cosmodela and two Calochroa species, referred to here as the Sophiodela group, was strongly supported, and most species in this clade had similar brilliant coloration. The Sophiodela group was related to the genera Calomera, Cicindela (excluding Sophiodela) and Cicindelidia, and these were related to Lophyra, Hipparidium and Calochroa, except species in the Sophiodela group. Divergence time estimation suggested that these worldwide Cicindelina groups diverged in the early Oligocene, and the Sophiodela group, which is found in the Oriental and Sino-Japanese zoogeographic regions, in the mid Miocene. Some components of the elytral pattern related to maculation and coloration in the Cicindelina taxa studied contained weak, but significant, phylogenetic signals and were partly associated with habitat types. Therefore, the brilliant coloration of the Sophiodela was related to both phylogeny and habitat adaptation, although the function of coloration needs to be studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Body dimensions and coloration of the winter pelage of a Moravian population of sika deer, Cervus nippon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Zejda, J.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 3 (2002), s. 253-256 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS6093003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : sika deer * body dimensions * coloration Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.234, year: 2002 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/51/3/253-256.pdf

  14. Black Layers of Decay and Color Patterns on Heritage Limestone as Markers of Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mercedes Perez-Monserrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution induces the development of black crusts on the surface of built heritage materials. Black layers on the limestone used on an emblematic Madrilenian building dating from the early twentieth century, mainly built up in the 20 years lapsing between two façade cleaning operations, was studied with POM and SEM-EDS. Particulate matter deposited on surfaces in the same period was analyzed with XRD and IC. Climate change in the environs was also studied and façade coloring patterns were compared. Since black crust and settled dust composition, as well as façade soling intensity, were found to be closely related to the surrounding environment, both are proposed as environment and climate change markers. These are considerations, moreover, that must be addressed when designing conservation strategies. Domestic heating systems and vehicle traffic were identified as the two main sources of pollution throughout the period studied in the target area, where the temperature steadily rose and relative humidity declined. The progressive replacement of coal with gas oil in domestic heating boilers and the proliferation of vehicles with diesel engines have mostly determined the evolution of the pollutants emitted. The color of façade soiling, in turn, has been primarily conditioned by the typology of the particles deposited on the limestone surface, declining humidity and the passage of time.

  15. Courtship display dynamics, iridescent structural color and nanostructural pattern formation in ocellated pheasants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Suzanne Amador; Dakin, Roslyn; Fang, Rui; Lu, Yabin

    Peacocks court females by tilting a fan-like array of feathers decorated with multicolored eyespots (ocelli). Previous research has shown that half of the variation in peacock mating success can be attributed to eyespot iridescence. Several closely-related pheasant species perform similar, but less complex, courtship displays using ocellated feathers with less complex coloration, patterns and underlying nanostructures. This study explores the relationship between the dynamics of male courtship behavior and optical properties and nanostructure of each species' iridescent feather ornaments. In particular, we examined videos of courting males and of individual feathers to measure how the angles used during displays compared to those corresponding to optimal eyespot reflected intensity and iridescent contrast. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy was used to measure how the spectrum of reflected light depends on the characteristic angles used during displays, and hence how displays stimulate the four classes of cones found in the color vision systems of these birds. This work reveals a close correlation between the complexity of the angular dependence of iridescent feather reflectance properties and that of the motions used by males of each species.

  16. Wingless is a positive regulator of eyespot color patterns in Bicyclus anynana butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsu, Nesibe; Chan, Qian Yi; Chen, Bin; Gupta, Mainak Das; Monteiro, Antónia

    2017-09-01

    Eyespot patterns of nymphalid butterflies are an example of a novel trait yet, the developmental origin of eyespots is still not well understood. Several genes have been associated with eyespot development but few have been tested for function. One of these genes is the signaling ligand, wingless, which is expressed in the eyespot centers during early pupation and may function in eyespot signaling and color ring differentiation. Here we tested the function of wingless in wing and eyespot development by down-regulating it in transgenic Bicyclus anynana butterflies via RNAi driven by an inducible heat-shock promoter. Heat-shocks applied during larval and early pupal development led to significant decreases in wingless mRNA levels and to decreases in eyespot size and wing size in adult butterflies. We conclude that wingless is a positive regulator of eyespot and wing development in B. anynana butterflies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human V4 Activity Patterns Predict Behavioral Performance in Imagery of Object Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannert, Michael M; Bartels, Andreas

    2018-04-11

    Color is special among basic visual features in that it can form a defining part of objects that are engrained in our memory. Whereas most neuroimaging research on human color vision has focused on responses related to external stimulation, the present study investigated how sensory-driven color vision is linked to subjective color perception induced by object imagery. We recorded fMRI activity in male and female volunteers during viewing of abstract color stimuli that were red, green, or yellow in half of the runs. In the other half we asked them to produce mental images of colored, meaningful objects (such as tomato, grapes, banana) corresponding to the same three color categories. Although physically presented color could be decoded from all retinotopically mapped visual areas, only hV4 allowed predicting colors of imagined objects when classifiers were trained on responses to physical colors. Importantly, only neural signal in hV4 was predictive of behavioral performance in the color judgment task on a trial-by-trial basis. The commonality between neural representations of sensory-driven and imagined object color and the behavioral link to neural representations in hV4 identifies area hV4 as a perceptual hub linking externally triggered color vision with color in self-generated object imagery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans experience color not only when visually exploring the outside world, but also in the absence of visual input, for example when remembering, dreaming, and during imagery. It is not known where neural codes for sensory-driven and internally generated hue converge. In the current study we evoked matching subjective color percepts, one driven by physically presented color stimuli, the other by internally generated color imagery. This allowed us to identify area hV4 as the only site where neural codes of corresponding subjective color perception converged regardless of its origin. Color codes in hV4 also predicted behavioral performance in an

  18. Color patterns of the hermit crab Calcinus tibicen (Herbst, 1791 fail to indicate high genetic variation within COI gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sayuri Mandai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apart from traditional characters, other data have been used for taxonomy, like color patterns. Based on the different colors (green and orange observed for some Calcinus tibicen (Herbst, 1761 specimens, we evaluated the genetic distance for cytochrome oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene of individuals collected in Pernambuco (northern Brazil and in São Paulo (southeast Brazil. We found low genetic variation (0.2-1.1%, and no evidence of isolation on our molecular tree based on genetic distance. We suggest high levels of gene flow between specimens with different color patterns, which are polymorphisms and might be related to the kind of nutrition as well different ecological and evolutionary predation characteristics.

  19. Usage patterns of blue flower color representation by Encyclopedia of Life content providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Chantal-Marie; Seltmann, Katja C

    2014-01-01

    Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a resource for community-driven biodiversity data, focusing on species information and images. Research into blue flowers to compare color ('blueness') at different elevations revealed that data content providers describe flowers as blue for any color hue in the range from blue to magenta. We propose methods for standardizing color values and color searching within EOL by means of an expanded color vocabulary and improved access to image metadata, in order to improve the research capacity of this valuable resource.

  20. Comparative analysis of the protein compositions between wild type and body color mutant of helicoverpa armigera adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Lihua; Chen Jin'e; Liu Yan; Wang Yongqiang; Liu Peigang; Meng Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the fineness and regulation mechanism of body color mutant of Helicoverpa armigera Hbner, the protein composition differences between adult of dominant mutant, recessive mutant and wild type were studied using the SDS-PAGE combined with MALDI-TOF-TOF/MS and bioinformatics analysis. The results indicated that the protein composition of the dominant mutant and wild type had little difference. However, there were obvious differences between the recessive mutant and wild-type. Three specific stripe were chosen for mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis, and two types of proteins related to energy metabolism and cytoskeleton were identified. These findings suggested that the two types of proteins may be associated with occurrence and regulation of body color mutant traits of H. armigera. (authors)

  1. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Sayoko; Kumagai, Gaku; Otaki, Yusuke; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Kohshima, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear), B-type (only the eye position is clear), and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear). A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  2. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  3. Long-term magnetic activity in close binary systems. I. Patterns of color variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, S.

    2008-03-01

    Aims:This is the first of a series of papers in which we present the results of a long-term photometric monitoring project carried out at Catania Astrophysical Observatory aimed at studying magnetic activity in late-type components of close binary systems, its dependence on global stellar parameters, and its evolution on different time scales from days to years. In this first paper, we present the complete observation dataset and new results of an investigation into the origin of brightness and color variations observed in the well-known magnetically active close binary stars: AR Psc, VY Ari, UX Ari, V711 Tau, EI Eri, V1149 Ori, DH Leo, HU Vir, RS CVn, V775 Her, AR Lac, SZ Psc, II Peg and BY Dra Methods: About 38 000 high-precision photoelectric nightly observations in the U, B and V filters are analysed. Correlation and regression analyses of the V magnitude vs. U-B and B-V color variations are carried out and a comparison with model variations for a grid of active region temperature and filling factor values is also performed. Results: We find the existence of two different patterns of color variation. Eight stars in our sample: BY Dra, VY Ari, V775 Her, II Peg, V1149 Ori, HU Vir, EI Eri and DH Leo become redder when they become fainter, as is expected from the presence of active regions consisting of cool spots. The other six stars show the opposite behaviour, i.e. they become bluer when they become fainter. For V711 Tau this behaviour could be explained by the increased relative U- and B-flux contribution by the earlier-type component of the binary system when the cooler component becomes fainter. On the other hand, for AR Psc, UX Ari, RS CVn, SZ Psc and AR Lac the existence of hot photospheric faculae must be invoked. We also found that in single-lined and double-lined binary stars in which the fainter component is inactive or much less active the V magnitude is correlated to B-V and U-B color variations in more than 60% of observation seasons. The correlation

  4. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Ribeiro‐Silva

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western‐like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern.

  5. The advertisement call, color patterns and distribution of Ischnocnema izecksohni (Caramaschi and Kisteumacher, 1989 (Anura, Brachycephalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. G. Taucce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema izecksohni inhabits the gallery forests from the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Southern Espinhaço range, state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, and it is considered endemic to this region. Its closest related species is I. nasuta according to the original description. We describe the advertisement call of I. izecksohni based on specimens recorded and collected at the municipality of Nova Lima, state of Minas Gerais, distant about 10 km straight line from its type locality. The advertisement call consists of a group of notes emitted sporadically without a regular interval between the calls. Call duration (n = 36 calls in four individuals ranged from 1.03 to 1.85 s (= 1.52 ± 0.21 s and the call rise time from 0.66 to 1.52 s (= 1.16 ± 0.25 s, with 34-57 notes per call (= 47.42 ± 6.03. Peak frequency ranged from 2250 to 2625 Hz, the dominant frequency from 1317.8 to 3128.0 Hz and interval between notes from 22.00 to 41.00 ms (= 28.63 ± 0.03 ms. From the examination of herpetological collections, morphological and bioacoustical data we extended the species known distribution ca. 200 km eastward, to ten new localities, all of them outside the Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, at the Mantiqueira mountain range. We analyzed color patterns and we find some dorsal patterns not described at the original description of I. izecksohni. We also make some comments concerning the taxonomic status of I. izecksohni and I. nasuta.

  6. Effects of body mass index on sleep patterns during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kennelly, M M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to profile sleep patterns during pregnancy according to body mass index (BMI) and to correlate labour outcomes with both BMI and hours sleep. Data were collected from 200 postpartum women detailing sleep characteristics before and during pregnancy. A validated sleep questionnaire was employed, which comprised of questions about sleep apnoea, snoring, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication and daytime dysfunction. Descriptive analyses were used. With advancing gestation, the mean (SD) number of hours sleep per night declined: pre-pregnancy 8.1 (SD 1.4); 1st trimester 8.3 (SD 1.8); 2nd trimester 7.7 (SD 1.7) and 3rd trimester 6.7 (SD 2.2). In the 18.5-24.9 BMI group, there was a marked difference in hours sleep per night from pre-pregnancy to 1st (8.6 h, p = 0.007), 2nd (7.9 h, p = 0.023) and 3rd (6.4 h, p = 0.000) trimesters in primiparous women. In the 25-29.9 BMI group, there was a difference from pre-pregnancy to 3rd trimester (p = 0.000). These changes were not reflected in a clinically significant difference in birth weight or mode of delivery.

  7. Utilization pattern of whole body computed tomography scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Chul Ho; Lee, Sang Suk

    1986-01-01

    Computed tomography scanner (CT scanner) is one of the most expensive and sophisticated diagnostic tool and has already been utilized in many hospitals in Korea. The price as well as operating costs of CT scanner is so expensive as to regulate its installment by government even in the United States. In order to identify the efficient utilization of the CT scanner, the utilization pattern for CT scanning was analyzed at three general hospital in seoul. The results are as follows: 1. Five out of one thousand outpatients and five out of one hundred inpatients were CT scanned. 2. Eighty percent of patients who were scanned were those of inpatients of the hospitals where the scanned are installed. 3. Head standings constitute 45.6 percent of examinations, internal medicine 63.8 percent, and 38.5 percent neurosurgery respectively. 4. The rate of indication for CT scanning showed no statistically significant difference between insured and non-insured groups. 5. Computed tomography scanner units were operated 5.5 days a week in average and full operation rate was 79.5% in average. 6. The major diagnoses mode by head scanning were: hematoma (56.7%), infarction (12.6%), tumor (8.2%), and hydrocephalus (4.4%). 7. Number of patients taken CT Scanning was 43 persons a week in average for each whole body scanner unit

  8. Mate choice and body pattern variations in the Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Levy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mate choice is an important ecological behavior in fish, and is often based on visual cues of body patterns. The Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae is a monogamist, territorial species; it swims in close proximity to its partner throughout most of its life. This species is characterized by a pattern of 6–8 vertical black stripes on a white background, on both sides of its body. Our aim was to define spatial features (variations in body patterns by evaluating the level of dissimilarity between both sides of each individual fish, and the level of dissimilarity between patterns of different individuals. In addition, we tested whether the fish are attracted to or reject specific features of the body patterns. Features were defined and counted using photographs of body patterns. Attraction to or rejection of specific features were tested behaviorally using a dual-choice experiment of video animations of individuals swimming over a coral-reef background. We found that the patterns of each fish and sides of the body were no less dissimilar, compared intraspecificly to other fish, and that each side pattern was unique and distinguishable. Variations in the patterns occurred mostly in the last three posterior stripes. Individuals were mainly attracted to conspecifics with multiple crossing patterns (two or more consecutive crossings, and rejected patterns with holes. Our results suggest that in this species the unique body pattern of each fish is used for conspecific identification of mates and intruders.

  9. Mate choice and body pattern variations in the Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Keren; Lerner, Amit; Shashar, Nadav

    2014-11-28

    Mate choice is an important ecological behavior in fish, and is often based on visual cues of body patterns. The Crown Butterfly fish Chaetodon paucifasciatus (Chaetodontidae) is a monogamist, territorial species; it swims in close proximity to its partner throughout most of its life. This species is characterized by a pattern of 6-8 vertical black stripes on a white background, on both sides of its body. Our aim was to define spatial features (variations) in body patterns by evaluating the level of dissimilarity between both sides of each individual fish, and the level of dissimilarity between patterns of different individuals. In addition, we tested whether the fish are attracted to or reject specific features of the body patterns. Features were defined and counted using photographs of body patterns. Attraction to or rejection of specific features were tested behaviorally using a dual-choice experiment of video animations of individuals swimming over a coral-reef background. We found that the patterns of each fish and sides of the body were no less dissimilar, compared intraspecificly to other fish, and that each side pattern was unique and distinguishable. Variations in the patterns occurred mostly in the last three posterior stripes. Individuals were mainly attracted to conspecifics with multiple crossing patterns (two or more consecutive crossings), and rejected patterns with holes. Our results suggest that in this species the unique body pattern of each fish is used for conspecific identification of mates and intruders. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Small-body Colors From the UV to the IR: Bringing Together all Space and Ground-based Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Paulo F.; Trilling, D.; Fuentes, C. I.

    2013-10-01

    The main current asteroid taxonomical systems are defined from ground-based observations, limited to 3100-10600 Å (Tholen, Zellner et al. (1985)), and 4400-9200 Å (SMASS, Bus and Binzel (2002))), which do not include several useful regions, such as: 1) the well-known spectral features in the near-IR (20000-50000 Å) that differentiate between common asteroid and meteorite minerals and indicate the presence of volatiles; 2) the far IR, which probes the bodies' emission, thermal inertia and albedo; 3) the UV, where the degree of darkening probes the surface grain properties and space weathering. The few existing studies using multiple instruments from the UV to the IR (ground, Earth-orbit and flyby observations) have been limited to targeted observations of special-interest bodies. We aim to obtain UV to IR colors of a large sample of bodies, to study how they are distributed and how these colors differentiate among bodies with similar spectra on the standard taxonomies. The data are being gathered from archives of multiple space- and ground-based instruments: GALEX, HST, SDSS, 2MASS, Spitzer, WISE and Herschel. Such a combined use of multiple archived observations is commonly done for fixed (non-Solar System) astronomical targets, which can be easily found by their RA and Dec. To obtain such data for Solar System bodies, we are building a database of all archive observations of each known body. We are using their orbits, integrated into the past, to build an index, which will be used to determine whether an observation contains a known body. We present a preliminary cluster analysis, using a small sample of objects identified in multiple instruments, as well as the magnitude distributions on different colors, for a larger sample of objects. In the future we will expand the database to include more observations (more instruments and more bodies), and the populations we identify will be compared to spacecraft UV to IR spectra of those few bodies observed in close

  11. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal ...

  12. Mining Co-location Pattern of Network Spatial Phenomenon Based on the Law of Additive Color Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI Tinghua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining co-location pattern is one of the hottest topics of current research in the spatial data mining community. The existing co-location mining methods belong to spatial statistics or data mining approaches, requiring much understanding of complex mathematical or statistical algorithms and parameters; and they consider events as taking place in a homogeneous and isotropic context in Euclidean space, whereas the physical movement in an urban space is usually constrained by a road network. This paper proposes a visualization method to mine co-location pattern along networks. The visual language is used to represent mutual influence between two geographic phenomena along networks. Firstly, taking Tobler's first law of geography into consideration, we use a network kernel density estimation method to express distribution pattern of geographic phenomena along networks, and construct a mapping between the distribution pattern of geographic phenomenon and color. Secondly, based on the law of additive color mixing, two colors representing two geographic phenomena are mixed to get cognition of the interaction between the two geographic phenomena. This method makes use of visual thinking, and it is intuitive and can be easily understood.

  13. The environmental plasticity of diverse body color caused by extremely long photoperiods and high temperature in Saccharosydne procerus (Homoptera: Delphacidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haichen Yin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanization reflects not only body color variation but also environmental plasticity. It is a strategy that helps insects adapt to environmental change. Different color morphs may have distinct life history traits, e.g., development time, growth rate, and body weight. The green slender planthopper Saccharosydne procerus (Matsumura is the main pest of water bamboo (Zizania latifolia. This insect has two color morphs. The present study explored the influence of photoperiod and its interaction with temperature in nymph stage on adult melanism. Additionally, the longevity, fecundity, mating rate, and hatching rate of S. procerus were examined to determine whether the fitness of the insect was influenced by melanism under different temperature and photoperiod. The results showed that a greater number of melanic morphs occurred if the photoperiod was extremely long. A two-factor ANOVA showed that temperature and photoperiod both have a significant influence on melanism. The percentages of variation explained by these factors were 45.53% and 48.71%, respectively. Moreover, melanic morphs had greater advantages than non-melanic morphs under an environmental regime of high temperatures and a long photoperiod, whereas non-melanic morphs were better adapted to cold temperatures and a short photoperiod. These results cannot be explained by the thermal melanism hypothesis. Thus, it may be unavailable to seek to explain melanism in terms of only one hypothesis.

  14. Associations between lifestyle patterns and body mass index in a sample of Greek children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontogianni, Meropi D; Farmaki, Anastasia-Eleni; Vidra, Nikoletta; Sofrona, Stavroula; Magkanari, Flora; Yannakoulia, Mary

    BACKGROUND: Although eating and physical activity behaviors have been previously individually investigated with regard to overweight in children, multidimensional lifestyle patterns, based on these behaviors, have not been explored. OBJECTIVE: To assess lifestyle patterns in relation to body mass

  15. Patterns of body condition use and its impact on fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Savietto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 nulliparous crossbred rabbit females were, a posteriori, divided into 2 experimental groups according to their natural “decision” to conceive or not at day 11 post first parturition (L: solely-lactating or LP: lactating-pregnant. This design allowed us to study the evolution of body reserves around first parturition and its influence on the future reproductive success of rabbit females. Primiparous rabbit females that failed to conceive when inseminated at day 11 post-partum (L seemed to have a higher perirenal fat thickness (PFT 12 d pre-partum (+0.25 mm; P=0.079 than females that conceived (LP. In the subsequent days, L females showed a significantly higher mobilisation rate than LP females (on av.–0.12 and –0.07 mm of PFT per day, respectively; P=0.007, reaching a lower PFT at partum (5.17 mm vs. 5.62 mm, respectively; P = 0.002. However, due to a greater recovery rate observed in L females (+0.15 vs. +0.08 mm of PFT per day for L and LP females, respectively; P=0.007, PFT at 10 d post-partum was similar (on av. 5.86 mm. These different patterns showed that PFT level at 12 d pre-partum and PFT mobilisation rate onwards seems to drive the start of a new pregnancy. It also seems to modify the energy metabolism of rabbit females, allowing does to recover perirenal fat tissue without compromising the production of milk necessary for the current litter.

  16. Dual-modality impairment of implicit learning of letter-strings versus color-patterns in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Ming-Jang; Liu, Kristina; Hsieh, Ming H; Hwu, Hai-Gwo

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Implicit learning was reported to be intact in schizophrenia using artificial grammar learning. However, emerging evidence indicates that artificial grammar learning is not a unitary process. The authors used dual coding stimuli and schizophrenia clinical symptom dimensions to re-evaluate the effect of schizophrenia on various components of artificial grammar learning. Methods Letter string and color pattern artificial grammar learning performances were compared between 63...

  17. Relationship between tail color pattern and reproductive success, mate acquisition and nest predation in Rufous Bush Chats

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Rufous Bush Chats (Cercotrichas galactotes) show a conspicuous tail color pattern consisting of terminal white and subterminal black patches which are shown in tail display during nest defense, aggression, and courtship. Multiple linear regression of visual tail features of males showed that in the two years of study, birds with higher bilateral symmetry in the black patches attained higher seasonal reproductive success, mated earlier in the season, and their nests were less likely to be depr...

  18. A new species of tree crickets Oecanthus (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Oecanthinae) in tobacco plantation from Southern Brazil, with body color variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milach, Elisa Machado; Martins, Luciano De P; Da Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti; Gottschalk, Marco Silva; De Oliveira, Gabriel Lobregat; Redü, Darlan Rutz; Neutzling, Alexandre Schneid; Dornelles, José Eduardo Figueiredo; Vasconcellos, Lucas Azevedo; Zefa, Edison

    2015-09-15

    We provide herein a description of a new species of Oecanthus collected from the tobacco plantation in southern Brazil, municipality of São Lourenço do Sul, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Description focused metanotal gland features, phallic sclerites, and calling song. A large sampling of individuals was distributed into four groups according to body and appendages color and dotted. We also rank all kind of marks present in the scape and pedicel. We compare linear morphometric variables of the metanotal glands and tegmina, as well as calling song parameters between groups in order do define all of them as the same species. Photographs and measurements are provided.

  19. Context-Aware Active Authentication using Touch Gestures, Typing Patterns and Body Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CONTEXT-AWARE ACTIVE AUTHENTICATION USING TOUCH GESTURES, TYPING PATTERNS, AND BODY MOVEMENT LOUISIANA TECH UNIVERSITY MARCH 2016...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Context-Aware Active Authentication using Touch Gestures, Typing Patterns, and Body Movement 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-13-2... authentication system using keystroke timing based biometric features. In addition, various analyses, such as solution scalability and stability

  20. 3D-shape of objects with straight line-motion by simultaneous projection of color coded patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Jorge L.; Ayubi, Gaston A.; Di Martino, J. Matías; Castillo, Oscar E.; Ferrari, Jose A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel technique to retrieve the 3D shape of dynamic objects by the simultaneous projection of a fringe pattern and a homogeneous light pattern which are both coded in two of the color channels of a RGB image. The fringe pattern, red channel, is used to retrieve the phase by phase-shift algorithms with arbitrary phase-step, while the homogeneous pattern, blue channel, is used to match pixels from the test object in consecutive images, which are acquired at different positions, and thus, to determine the speed of the object. The proposed method successfully overcomes the standard requirement of projecting fringes of two different frequencies; one frequency to extract object information and the other one to retrieve the phase. Validation experiments are presented.

  1. Are long-term widespread avian body size changes related to food availability? A test using contemporaneous changes in carotenoid-based color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Roellen; Gardner, Janet L; Amano, Tatsuya; Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne

    2017-05-01

    Recent changes in global climate have been linked with changes in animal body size. While declines in body size are commonly explained as an adaptive thermoregulatory response to climate warming, many species do not decline in size, and alternative explanations for size change exist. One possibility is that temporal changes in animal body size are driven by changes in environmental productivity and food availability. This hypothesis is difficult to test due to the lack of suitable estimates that go back in time. Here, we use an alternative, indirect, approach and assess whether continent-wide changes over the previous 100 years in body size in 15 species of Australian birds are associated with changes in their yellow carotenoid-based plumage coloration. This type of coloration is strongly affected by food availability because birds cannot synthesize carotenoids and need to ingest them, and because color expression depends on general body condition. We found significant continent-wide intraspecific temporal changes in body size (wing length) and yellow carotenoid-based color (plumage reflectance) for half the species. Direction and magnitude of changes were highly variable among species. Meta-analysis indicated that neither body size nor yellow plumage color showed a consistent temporal trend and that changes in color were not correlated with changes in size over the past 100 years. We conclude that our data provide no evidence that broad-scale variation in food availability is a general explanation for continent-wide changes in body size in this group of species. The interspecific variability in temporal changes in size as well as color suggests that it might be unlikely that a single factor drives these changes, and more detailed studies of museum specimens and long-term field studies are required to disentangle the processes involved.

  2. Body image dissatisfaction and dietary patterns according to nutritional status in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Silva, Rita de Cássia; Fiaccone, Rosemeire Leovigildo; Conceição-Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da; Ruiz, Ana Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Santana, Mônica Leila Portela

    There is a lack of data on the association between body self-perception and eating patterns in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to explore the relationship between body image dissatisfaction and eating patterns by the anthropometric status in adolescents. A cross-sectional study of 1496 adolescents was conducted. The participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric, and socioeconomic data were collected, as well as information regarding the pubertal development and dietary intake. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the associations of interest. Body image dissatisfaction was identified in 19.5% of the adolescents. Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) the Western pattern was composed of sweets and sugars, soft drinks, typical dishes, pastries, fast food, beef, milk, and dairy products; (2) the Traditional pattern was composed of oils, chicken, fish, eggs, processed meat products, cereals (rice, cassava flour, pasta, etc.), baked beans, and bread; and (3) the Restrictive pattern was composed of granola, roots, vegetables, and fruit. Among overweight/obese adolescents, the data indicated a negative association of slight body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.240 [0.100; 0.576]) and moderate body image dissatisfaction (OR: 0.235 [0.086; 0.645]) with the Western dietary pattern. Additionally, in this group, there was a positive association between high body image dissatisfaction and the Restrictive pattern (OR: 2.794 [1.178; 6.630]). Amongst overweight/obese adolescents, those with slight and moderate body image dissatisfaction were less likely to follow a Western-like dietary pattern when compared with those satisfied with their body image. Additionally, in this group, adolescents with high body image dissatisfaction was more likely to follow a restrictive pattern. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Body temperature patterns before, during, and after semi-natural hibernation in the European ground squirrel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, R.A.; Barnes, B.M.; Daan, S.; Heldmaier, G.

    Ground squirrels undergo extreme body temperature fluctuations during hibernation. The effect of low body temperatures on the mammalian circadian system is still under debate. Using implanted temperature loggers, we recorded body temperature patterns in European ground squirrels kept in an enclosure

  4. Patterns of diversity in soft-bodied meiofauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curini-Galletti, Marco; Artois, Tom; Delogu, Valentina

    2012-01-01

    Biogeographical and macroecological principles are derived from patterns of distribution in large organisms, whereas microscopic ones have often been considered uninteresting, because of their supposed wide distribution. Here, after reporting the results of an intensive faunistic survey of marine...

  5. Experimental study on blood flow patterns through the phantoms of the intracranial arterial aneurysms using color Doppler imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Tae Sub; Jeong, Eun Kee; Rhim, Yoon Chul; Kim, Sung Bin; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Dae In

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence, growth, thrombosis, and rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms can be directly related to the effect of hemodynamic forces. We developed the phantom flow models and compared with the computer simulation program to analyse the flow pattern and hemodynamics that might be responsible for the intracranial arterial aneurysms. We designed the arterial phantoms of three major sites of intracranial arterial aneurysm ; 1) basilar artery tip, 2) internal carotid artery bifurcation, 3) curved area of internal carotid artery. Flow patterns in the aneurysmal portion of phantoms were evaluated with color Doppler system on the connection with automatic closed type of circulation system. Then, we compared the results with computer simulation. The hemodynamic characteristics of the phantoms were identical with those obtained by computerisation's. Three distinct zones of flow were identified by color Doppler studies on the aneurysm of the curved area of an internal carotid artery : 1) an inflow zone entering the aneurysm at the distal aspect of its orifice, 2) an outflow zone exiting the aneurysm at the proximal aspect of its orifice, 3) a central slow vortex.However, the phantoms of basilar artery tip and artery bifurcation showed a direct inflow stream at the dome of an aneurysm. Flow dynamics in the various phantoms of the aneurysms can be successfully evaluated with color Doppler imaging, and were consistent with those predicted by computer simulations

  6. To be seen or to hide: visual characteristics of body patterns for camouflage and communication in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylinski, S; How, M J; Osorio, D; Hanlon, R T; Marshall, N J

    2011-05-01

    It might seem obvious that a camouflaged animal must generally match its background whereas to be conspicuous an organism must differ from the background. However, the image parameters (or statistics) that evaluate the conspicuousness of patterns and textures are seldom well defined, and animal coloration patterns are rarely compared quantitatively with their respective backgrounds. Here we examine this issue in the Australian giant cuttlefish Sepia apama. We confine our analysis to the best-known and simplest image statistic, the correlation in intensity between neighboring pixels. Sepia apama can rapidly change their body patterns from assumed conspicuous signaling to assumed camouflage, thus providing an excellent and unique opportunity to investigate how such patterns differ in a single visual habitat. We describe the intensity variance and spatial frequency power spectra of these differing body patterns and compare these patterns with the backgrounds against which they are viewed. The measured image statistics of camouflaged animals closely resemble their backgrounds, while signaling animals differ significantly from their backgrounds. Our findings may provide the basis for a set of general rules for crypsis and signals. Furthermore, our methods may be widely applicable to the quantitative study of animal coloration.

  7. Phage-Based Structural Color Sensors and Their Pattern Recognition Sensing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Hun; Fan, Benson; Samdin, Tuan D; Monteiro, David A; Desai, Malav S; Scheideler, Olivia; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Kim, Soyoun; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2017-04-25

    The mammalian olfactory system provides great inspiration for the design of intelligent sensors. To this end, we have developed a bioinspired phage nanostructure-based color sensor array and a smartphone-based sensing network system. Using a M13 bacteriophage (phage) as a basic building block, we created structural color matrices that are composed of liquid-crystalline bundled nanofibers from self-assembled phages. The phages were engineered to express cross-responsive receptors on their major coat protein (pVIII), leading to rapid, detectable color changes upon exposure to various target chemicals, resulting in chemical- and concentration-dependent color fingerprints. Using these sensors, we have successfully detected 5-90% relative humidity with 0.2% sensitivity. In addition, after modification with aromatic receptors, we were able to distinguish between various structurally similar toxic chemicals including benzene, toluene, xylene, and aniline. Furthermore, we have developed a method of interpreting and disseminating results from these sensors using smartphones to establish a wireless system. Our phage-based sensor system has the potential to be very useful in improving national security and monitoring the environment and human health.

  8. Patterns and Clinical Presentation of Foreign Bodies in ENT among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Presentation of Foreign Bodies in ENT among Sudanese Children in Khartoum State Hospitals,” Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences, vol. 12 ..... Production and Hosting by Knowledge E. Figure 4: Site of FB among all patients. Clinical Presentation Frequency. Percentage. Insertion of FB by them self. 31. 83.8%.

  9. Whole body vibration exposure patterns in Canadian prairie farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaoke; Kociolek, Aaron M; Khan, Muhammad Idrees; Milosavljevic, Stephan; Bath, Brenna; Trask, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Whole body vibration is a significant physical risk factor associated with low back pain. This study assessed farmers' exposure to whole body vibration on the Canadian prairies according to ISO 2631-1. Eighty-seven vibration measurements were collected with a triaxial accelerometer embedded in a rubber seat pad at the operator-seat interface of agricultural machinery, including tractors, combines, pickup trucks, grain trucks, sprayers, swathers, all-terrain vehicles, and skid steers. Whole body vibration was highest in the vertical axis, with a mean (range) frequency-weighted root mean squared acceleration of 0.43 m/s 2 (0.19-1.06 m/s 2 ). Mean crest factors exceeded 9 in all 3 axes, indicating high mechanical shock content. The vertical axis vibration dose value was 7.55 m/s 1.75 (2.18-37.59 m/s 1.75 ), with 41.4% of measurements within or above the health guidance caution zone. These high exposures in addition to an ageing agricultural workforce may increase health risks even further, particularly for the low back. Practitioner Summary: Agricultural workers are frequently exposed to whole body vibration while operating farm equipment, presenting a substantial risk to musculoskeletal health including the low back. Assessing vibration exposure is critical in promoting a safe occupational environment, and may inform interventions to reduce farmer's exposure to vibration.

  10. Patterns and Clinical Presentation of Foreign Bodies in ENT among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiography can be helpful in localizing coins, button batteries, and other radiopaque objects, but most pharyngeal F.Bs , including fish bones, are radiolucent. [12, 14]. Foreign Body aspiration by children in Sudan is not uncommon; especially those below the age of 5 years. Children are at risk because of their curious ...

  11. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  12. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breanna J Putman

    Full Text Available Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis, and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  13. Analyses of body weight patterns in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, A. H.; Dolecheck, K. A.; Kristensen, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    as a quadratic function of time. A diurnal pattern was incorporated into the model by a cosine wave with known length (24 h). The model included pig effect which was defined as a random autoregressive process with exponential correlation. Variance of within-pigs error was assumed to increase with time. Because...

  14. Modular Organization of Dynamic Camouflage Body Patterning in Cuttlefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-28

    cephalopods. It has been estimated that each of the paired optic lobes has a total of approximately 65x106 cells in Octopus vulgaris (Young, 1963). The...exact locations repeatedly in different animals. Although it is possible to insert the electrode directly through the skin and dorsal cranial ...body. In the oval squid preparation, the electrode was inserted directly through the skin and dorsal cranial cartilage into the optic lobe (e.g

  15. Body mass and antler development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Carlson, E.; Schmitt, S.M.; Haufler, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    We documented mean and maximum body mass, mass accretion patterns and ander development patterns of Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan. Mean body mass of bulls averaged 9-11% heavier, and maximum body mass 23-27% heavier, in Michigan than in other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Mean live body mass of cows averaged 11% heavier in Michigan, but mean eviscerated body mass did not differ. Maximum body mass of cows was 10-24% heavier in Michigan. Body mass peaked at age 7.5 for bulls and 8.5 for cows, similar to other Rocky Mountain elk populations despite the greater body mass achieved in Michigan. Sexual dimorphism in bull and cow body mass increased until peak body mass was attained, whereupon bulls were ???38% heavier than cows. Antler development of bull elk peaked at age 10.5, comparable to other Rocky Mountain elk populations. Relations between antler development and body mass within age classes were highly variable, but generally weak. Greater body mass seen in Michigan, and the peaking of antler development well after body mass in bulls, suggested a phenotypic response to nutritional conditions that allow Rocky Mountain elk in Michigan to maximize the species growth potential.

  16. Differential Roles of the Fan-Shaped Body and the Ellipsoid Body in "Drosophila" Visual Pattern Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yufeng; Zhou, Yanqiong; Guo, Chao; Gong, Haiyun; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2009-01-01

    The central complex is a prominent structure in the "Drosophila" brain. Visual learning experiments in the flight simulator, with flies with genetically altered brains, revealed that two groups of horizontal neurons in one of its substructures, the fan-shaped body, were required for "Drosophila" visual pattern memory. However,…

  17. Exploring the Dietary Patterns of Young New Zealand Women and Associations with BMI and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna K. Schrijvers

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Examining dietary patterns provides an alternative approach to investigating dietary behaviors related to excess adiposity. The study aim was to investigate dietary patterns and body composition profiles of New Zealand European (NZE women, participating in the women’s EXPLORE (Examining the Predictors Linking Obesity Related Elements study. Post-menarche, pre-menopausal NZE women (16–45 years (n = 231 completed a validated 220-item, self-administrated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI was calculated using measured height (cm and weight (kg; body fat percentage (BF% was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BodPod. Dietary patterns were identified using principal component factor analysis. Associations between dietary patterns, age, BMI and BF% were investigated. Four dietary patterns were identified: snacking; energy-dense meat; fruit and vegetable; healthy, which explained 6.9%, 6.8%, 5.6% and 4.8% of food intake variation, respectively. Age (p = 0.012 and BMI (p = 0.016 were positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern. BF% (p = 0.016 was positively associated with the “energy-dense meat” pattern after adjusting for energy intake. The women following the identified dietary patterns had carbohydrate intakes below and saturated fat intakes above recommended guidelines. Dietary patterns in NZE women explain only some variations in body composition. Further research should examine other potential factors including physical activity and socioeconomic status.

  18. SEXUAL SELECTION AND SURVIVAL SELECTION ON WING COLORATION AND BODY SIZE IN THE RUBYSPOT DAMSELFLY HETAERINA AMERICANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Gregory F

    1996-10-01

    I review methodological problems that can lead to false evidence for selection on secondary sexual characters and present a study of selection in rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina americana) that avoids these pitfalls. Male rubyspots have a large red spot on each wing that grows to a terminal size after sexual maturity. Selection gradient analyses revealed evidence for positive sexual and survival selection on both terminal wing spot size and body size. Phenotype manipulations confirmed that wing spot size was subject to direct sexual selection, but showed that the positive slope of survival on wing spot size was an indirect effect of selection on unmeasured traits. This study provides the strongest evidence yet for sexual selection on coloration in Odonata, but also provides clear examples of why phenotypic selection statistics must be calculated and interpreted cautiously. © 1996 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Investigating body patterning in aquarium-raised flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi)

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Amber; MacDonald, Christy

    2016-01-01

    Cuttlefish are known for their ability to quickly alter their total appearance, or body pattern, to camouflage or to communicate with predators, prey and conspecifics. The body patterns of some species have been extensively documented to gain a better understanding of their behaviors. However, the flamboyant cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) is largely unstudied. Recently, aquarists have been able to breed, house and display M. pfefferi, giving researchers ample opportunities to study their beh...

  20. Infant feeding and growth trajectory patterns in childhood and body composition in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzehak, Peter; Oddy, Wendy H; Mearin, M Luisa; Grote, Veit; Mori, Trevor A; Szajewska, Hania; Shamir, Raanan; Koletzko, Sibylle; Weber, Martina; Beilin, Lawrence J; Huang, Rae-Chi; Koletzko, Berthold

    2017-08-01

    Background: Growth patterns of breastfed and formula-fed infants may differ, with formula-fed infants growing more rapidly than breastfed infants into childhood and adulthood. Objective: Our objectives were to identify growth patterns and investigate early nutritional programming potential on growth patterns at 6 y and on body composition at 20 y. Design: The West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study and 3 European cohort studies (European Childhood Obesity Trial, Norwegian Human Milk Study, and Prevention of Coeliac Disease) that collaborate in the European Union-funded Early Nutrition project combined, harmonized, and pooled data on full breastfeeding, anthropometry, and body composition. Latent growth mixture modeling was applied to identify growth patterns among the 6708 individual growth trajectories. The association of full breastfeeding for body composition at 20 y among the identified trajectory classes were tested by analysis of variance. Results: Three body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) trajectory patterns were identified and labeled as follows-class 1: persistent, accelerating, rapid growth (5%); class 2: early, nonpersistent, rapid growth (40%); and class 3: normative growth (55%). A shorter duration of full breastfeeding for body composition at 20 y ( P body composition in young adulthood. Rapid-growth patterns in early childhood could be a mediating link between infant feeding and long-term obesity risk. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Gender and Age Patterns in Emotional Expression, Body Image, and Self-Esteem: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kilmartin, Christopher T.; Forssmann-Falck, Renate; Kliewer, Wendy

    1998-01-01

    Used written narratives to examine gender and age patterns in body image, emotional expression, and self-esteem for 209 students in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results indicate that boys restrict emotional expression in adolescence, whereas girls increase emotional expression in the same period. Girls also are more influenced by body image. (SLD)

  2. Dietary Patterns and Body Mass Index in Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E. Whitney; Must, Aviva; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Bandini, Linda

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether dietary patterns (juice and sweetened non-dairy beverages, fruits, vegetables, fruits and vegetables, snack foods, and kid's meals) and associations between dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) differed between 53 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and 58 typically developing children, ages 3-11, multivariate…

  3. Is race erased? Decoding race from patterns of neural activity when skin color is not diagnostic of group boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, Kyle G; Kaul, Christian; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2013-10-01

    Several theories suggest that people do not represent race when it does not signify group boundaries. However, race is often associated with visually salient differences in skin tone and facial features. In this study, we investigated whether race could be decoded from distributed patterns of neural activity in the fusiform gyri and early visual cortex when visual features that often covary with race were orthogonal to group membership. To this end, we used multivariate pattern analysis to examine an fMRI dataset that was collected while participants assigned to mixed-race groups categorized own-race and other-race faces as belonging to their newly assigned group. Whereas conventional univariate analyses provided no evidence of race-based responses in the fusiform gyri or early visual cortex, multivariate pattern analysis suggested that race was represented within these regions. Moreover, race was represented in the fusiform gyri to a greater extent than early visual cortex, suggesting that the fusiform gyri results do not merely reflect low-level perceptual information (e.g. color, contrast) from early visual cortex. These findings indicate that patterns of activation within specific regions of the visual cortex may represent race even when overall activation in these regions is not driven by racial information.

  4. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2014-04-01

    The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships between dietary patterns and body composition changes in Korean elderly aged 65 years or older. The study subjects (n = 1,435) were individuals who participated in the Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) in 2011. THERE WERE THREE DIETARY PATTERNS DERIVED BY CLUSTER ANALYSIS IN THIS STUDY: 'Traditional Korean' (37.49% of total population), 'Meat and Alcohol' (19.65%) and 'Westernized Korean' (42.86%). The (1) 'Traditional Korean' pattern was characterized by high consumptions of white rice and low protein, low fat, and low milk products, while (2) 'Westernized Korean' pattern ate a Korean-style diet base with various foods such as noodles, bread, eggs and milk, (3) 'Meat and Alcohol' pattern had high consumptions of meat and alcohol. In body composition changes, compared with the 'Traditional Korean' pattern, the 'Meat & alcohol' pattern was associated with a 50% increased risk of having elevated BMI (kg/m(2)), 'Westernized Korean' pattern was associated with a 74% increased abnormality of ASM/Wt (kg) by logistics analysis. Most of the Korean adult population continues to follow ether a traditional Korean having beneficial effects for successful aging. However, the 'Traditional Korean' pattern showed low protein intake (0.7 g/kg), calcium intake, and vitamin D intake as well as low of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM (kg)) among 3 groups. Considering the low ASM, consumption of protein, calcium and vitamin D should be increased for Korean elderly health body composition.

  5. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E

    2017-08-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits ( Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of green, red, or white light at night. Birds advanced their onset of activity in the morning under all light colors but more under red and white light than under green light. Offset of activity was slightly delayed in all light colors. The total activity over a 24-h period did not change but birds moved a part of their daily activity into the night. Since the effect of red and white lights are comparable, we tested the influence of light intensity in a follow-up experiment, where we compared the activity of the birds under different intensities of green and white light only. While in the higher range of intensities, the effects of white and green light were comparable; at lower intensities, green light had a less disturbing effect as compared with white light on daily rhythms in blue tits. Our results show that the extent of this disturbance can be mitigated by modulating the spectral characteristics and intensity of outdoor lighting, which is now feasible through the use of LED lighting.

  6. Fossils and living taxa agree on patterns of body mass evolution: a case study with Afrotheria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttick, Mark N; Thomas, Gavin H

    2015-12-22

    Most of life is extinct, so incorporating some fossil evidence into analyses of macroevolution is typically seen as necessary to understand the diversification of life and patterns of morphological evolution. Here we test the effects of inclusion of fossils in a study of the body size evolution of afrotherian mammals, a clade that includes the elephants, sea cows and elephant shrews. We find that the inclusion of fossil tips has little impact on analyses of body mass evolution; from a small ancestral size (approx. 100 g), there is a shift in rate and an increase in mass leading to the larger-bodied Paenungulata and Tubulidentata, regardless of whether fossils are included or excluded from analyses. For Afrotheria, the inclusion of fossils and morphological character data affect phylogenetic topology, but these differences have little impact upon patterns of body mass evolution and these body mass evolutionary patterns are consistent with the fossil record. The largest differences between our analyses result from the evolutionary model, not the addition of fossils. For some clades, extant-only analyses may be reliable to reconstruct body mass evolution, but the addition of fossils and careful model selection is likely to increase confidence and accuracy of reconstructed macroevolutionary patterns. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Dual-modality impairment of implicit learning of letter-strings versus color-patterns in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwu Hai-Gwo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implicit learning was reported to be intact in schizophrenia using artificial grammar learning. However, emerging evidence indicates that artificial grammar learning is not a unitary process. The authors used dual coding stimuli and schizophrenia clinical symptom dimensions to re-evaluate the effect of schizophrenia on various components of artificial grammar learning. Methods Letter string and color pattern artificial grammar learning performances were compared between 63 schizophrenic patients and 27 comparison subjects. Four symptom dimensions derived from a Chinese Positive and Negative Symptom Scale ratings were correlated with patients' artificial grammar implicit learning performances along the two stimulus dimensions. Patients' explicit memory performances were assessed by verbal paired associates and visual reproduction subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scales Revised Version to provide a contrast to their implicit memory function. Results Schizophrenia severely hindered color pattern artificial grammar learning while the disease affected lexical string artificial grammar learning to a lesser degree after correcting the influences from age, education and the performance of explicit memory function of both verbal and visual modalities. Both learning performances correlated significantly with the severity of patients' schizophrenic clinical symptom dimensions that reflect poor abstract thinking, disorganized thinking, and stereotyped thinking. Conclusion The results of this study suggested that schizophrenia affects various mechanisms of artificial grammar learning differently. Implicit learning, knowledge acquisition in the absence of conscious awareness, is not entirely intact in patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia affects implicit learning through an impairment of the ability of making abstractions from rules and at least in part decreasing the capacity for perceptual learning.

  8. The social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in Denmark and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa; Lissau, Inge; Lahelma, Eero

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Relative body weight is typically inversely associated with social status in affluent societies but studies comparing the social patterning of relative body weight and obesity in different countries have only seldom been conducted. The aim of this study was to analyse and compare....... Relative weight was studied by using body mass index (BMI), and those with BMI > or =30 kg/m(2) were regarded as obese. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the social patterning of obesity in the pooled dataset. Two-variable interaction effects were tested separately. RESULTS: Compared...... the social patterning of relative weight and obesity by occupational status, educational attainment and marital status between Danish and Finnish women and men. METHODS: Data from the Finnish Survey on Living Conditions and the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, both collected in 1994, were compared...

  9. Closing the Loop: Integrating Body, Muscle and Environment with Locomotion Central Pattern Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-30

    between the neural circuitry, body, and fluid environment for swimming locomotion , where the lamprey serves as a model system1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8. Our...REPORT Final Report: Closing the Loop: Integrating Body, Muscle and Environment with Locomotion Central Pattern Generators 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...CLASSIFICATION OF: The role of sensory feedback is a central question in understanding vertebrate locomotion . Sensory feedback related to movement of

  10. Dietary pattern classifications with nutrient intake and body composition changes in Korean elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Chorong; No, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The body composition changes in aging increased the risk of metabolic disorder. Recent dietary studies have increasingly focused on the correlations between dietary patterns and chronic diseases to overcome the limitations of traditional single-nutrient studies because nutrients in food have complex relations that interact. SUBJECTS/METHODS This study was conducted to classify a dietary pattern among Korean elderly using cluster analysis and to explore the relationships ...

  11. Long-term patterns of body mass and stature evolution within the hominin lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Stock, Jay T.

    2017-01-01

    Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases. The observed trajectories could result from punctuated increases at speciation events, but also differential proliferation of large-bodied taxa or the extinction of small-bodied populations. Combined taxonomic and temporal analyses show that in relation to australopithecines, early Homo is characterized by significantly larger average body mass and stature but retains considerable diversity, including small body sizes. Within later Homo, stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5–0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. Selection against small-bodied individuals (less than 40 kg; less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. The isolated small-bodied individuals of Homo naledi (ca 0.3 Ma) and Homo floresiensis (ca 100–60 ka) constitute important exceptions to these general patterns, adding further layers of complexity to the evolution of body size within the genus Homo. At the end of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, body size in Homo sapiens declines on average, but also extends to lower limits not seen in

  12. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate...

  13. Color vision versus pattern visual evoked potentials in the assessment of subclinical optic pathway involvement in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih C Gundogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optic pathway involvement in multiple sclerosis is frequently the initial sign in the disease process. In most clinical applications, pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP is used in the assessment of optic pathway involvement. Objective: To question the value of PVEP against color vision assessment in the diagnosis of subclinical optic pathway involvement. Materials and Methods: This prospective, cross-sectional study included 20 multiple sclerosis patients without a history of optic neuritis, and 20 healthy control subjects. Farnsworth-Munsell (FM 100-Hue testing and PVEPs to 60-min arc and 15-min arc checks by using Roland-Consult RetiScan® system were performed. P 100 amplitude, P 100 latency in PVEP and total error scores (TES in FM 100-Hue test were assessed. Results: Expanded Disability Status Scale score and the time from diagnosis were 2.21 ± 2.53 (ranging from 0 to 7 and 4.1 ± 4.4 years. MS group showed significantly delayed P 100 latency for both checks (P 0.05 for all. 14 MS patients (70% had an increased TESs in FM-100 Hue, 11 (55% MS patients had delayed P 100 latency and 9 (45% had reduced P 100 amplitude. The areas under the ROC curves were 0.944 for FM-100 Hue test, 0.753 for P 100 latency, and 0.173 for P 100 amplitude. Conclusions: Color vision testing seems to be more sensitive than PVEP in detecting subclinical visual pathway involvement in MS.

  14. Food Consumption Patterns of Nigerian Adolescents and Effect on Body Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olumakaiye, M. F.; Atinmo, Tola; Olubayo-Fatiregun, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Association between nutritional status of adolescents and food consumption pattern. Design: Data on number of meals and snacks consumed daily were collected using structured questionnaires. Nutritional status was assessed as weight-for-age body mass index score less than fifth percentile of the National Center for Health…

  15. Association of dietary pattern and body weight with blood pressure in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Y.; Boonstra, A.; Pan, X.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, B.; Dai, Yue; Zhou, M.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Shi, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Background To identify risk factors, associations between dietary patterns, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension in a Chinese population. Methods Dietary intake was assessed in 2518 adults by a 3-day 24 h recall and a food frequency questionnaire. Salt and oil intake was assessed by weighing

  16. Pineal and pituitary involvement in the photoperiodic regulation of body weight, coat color and testicular size of the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklowitz, P; Hoffmann, K

    1988-09-01

    Hypophysectomy of 40-day-old male hamsters kept under long photoperiods resulted in a change in coat color from the brownish summer coat to the whitish winter coat, within 5 wk of the surgery, cessation of growth, and, most frequently, an additional loss in body weight. The testes of the hypophysectomized animals were involuted within 14 days after surgery. Continuous substitution of prolactin by implantation of two anterior pituitaries under the kidney capsule was able to reverse partly or totally the inhibitory effects of hypophysectomy on coat color and body weight, although there was no influence on testicular volume. The same effects could be achieved by daily s.c. injections of prolactin (100 micrograms ovine-PRL/day) into hypophysectomized hamsters, whereas the injection of adrenocorticopropic hormone (5 IU porcine-ACTH/day) or melanocyte-stimulating hormone (35 micrograms synthetic alpha-MSH/day) was ineffective. Additional pinealectomy influenced neither the inhibitory effects of hypophysectomy on coat pigmentation and body weight nor the stimulatory effects of prolactin substitution in hypophysectomized animals. Thus, the study provides evidence that the effects of the pineal gland on annual changes in body weight and coat color are mediated via the pituitary.

  17. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  18. Maternal Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy Are Associated with Newborn Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Anne P; Sauder, Katherine A; Kaar, Jill L; Shapiro, Allison Lb; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Dabelea, Dana

    2017-07-01

    Background: Maternal dietary intake during pregnancy may influence offspring growth and adiposity. Specific dietary patterns associated with newborn adiposity have not been identified. Objective: We aimed to identify patterns of maternal dietary intake associated with gestational weight gain (GWG) and fasting glucose during pregnancy and to evaluate whether adherence to these patterns is associated with newborn adiposity. Methods: In the Healthy Start prospective cohort, dietary intake during pregnancy was assessed via 24-h recalls. Reduced-rank regression identified dietary patterns predictive of GWG and fasting glucose. Associations between dietary patterns and newborn fat mass, fat-free mass, and adiposity were estimated by using linear regression models among 764 ethnically diverse mother-infant pairs. Results: Two dietary patterns were identified. Pattern 1, correlated with greater GWG ( r = 0.22, P pattern 1 (upper compared with lower tertile) predicted a greater newborn fat-free mass (61 g; 95% CI: 12, 110 g) but no difference in fat mass or adiposity. Pattern 2, correlated with greater maternal fasting glucose ( r = 0.16, P pattern 2 was associated with a greater newborn birth weight (80 g; 95% CI: 15, 145 g), fat mass (33 g; 95% CI: 8, 59 g), and adiposity (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 1.6%). Conclusions: Among pregnant women, adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by an intake of poultry, nuts, cheese, and whole grains was associated with greater GWG but not maternal fasting glucose or newborn adiposity. Adherence to a pattern characterized by an intake of eggs, starchy vegetables, and nonwhole grains was associated with higher maternal fasting glucose and greater newborn adiposity. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy may influence newborn body composition. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C.

    2001-01-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat image in the

  20. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects.

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    Eduardo Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata, two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda, and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S, with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N. Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1 in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single

  1. The Petrolisthes galathinus complex: species boundaries based on color pattern, morphology and molecules, and evolutionary interrelationships between this complex and other Porcellanidae (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Alexandra; Kraus, Holger; Almon, Marc; Werding, Bernd

    2006-08-01

    While the amphi-American porcellanid crab Petrolistes galathinus has been traditionally viewed as a highly variable species containing several different color forms, we consider it to be a complex of at least 6 morphologically similar species with similar ecological requirements, but diagnosable through coloration. Here we surveyed sequence variation of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, compared the morphology of adults and of the first larval stage (Zoea I), and explored shape variation of the sternal plate using geometric morphometric methods, to investigate boundaries among the species in the complex, and to confirm the validity of color and color pattern for distinguishing them. Sequences and larval morphological characters of other porcellanids were included to investigate the correspondence between genetic divergence and morphology of adults and larvae. The molecular and morphometric results support the validity of the species in the complex, and of color pattern for their distinction. The close relationship between the complex and the putative ancenstral porcellanid Parapetrolisthes tortugensis was indicated by the molecular and larval-morphology results. The adult morphology of this species is interpreted as a result of convergent evolution driven by a relatively rapid ecological adaptation to conditions in deeper waters. The nesting position in the phylogenetic trees of Petrocheles australiensis outside the Porcellanidae clade questions the monophyly of this family.

  2. Associations between adult perception of body weight, diet, preparing meals and dietary patterns

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    Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Guzek, Dominika

    The links between dietary patterns, the perception of one’s body weight and diet as well preparing meals are poorly recognised in the literature. In order to develop effective nutritional education and focused interventions, more of such information is thereby required to improve the nation’s health To identify dietary patterns based on declared food consumption rates and subject responses on whether dieting, perception of body weight and diet and preparing meals are linked to such dietary patterns The survey was conducted in 2016 on 344 consumers chosen for age (20-65 years) and their consent for study participation. Rates of eating the foods selected were measured using a 7-point scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify three dietary patterns of behaviour: ‘potentially beneficial to health’, ‘potentially unfavourable for health; deficient’ and ‘potentially unfavourable for health; excessive’. The analysis was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 23.0 There were significantly more subjects showing ‘potentially beneficial for health’ behaviour, normal body weight, those dieting (whether now or in the past) and those who evaluated their diet as being very good or good compared to other groups. They were also more involved in preparing their meals at home. Differences were found between the ‘unfavourable for health’ dietary patterns concerning subject’s involvement in meal preparation. The dietary pattern for ‘deficient’ behaviour found lower rates of those preparing their meals at home The pattern of potentially beneficial dietary habits was linked to weight control through a slimming diet and greater involvement in the preparation of food for consumption. The results show the need to develop food choice skills rather than just transferring knowledge in the nutrition education process

  3. Lethal body concentrations and accumulation patterns determine time-dependent toxicity of cadmium in soil arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crommentuijn, T.; Doodeman, C.J.A.M.; Doornekamp, A.; Pol, J.J.C. van der; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. van (Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands))

    1994-11-01

    Time-dependent toxicity in bioassays is usually explained in terms of uptake and elimination kinetics of the toxicant. By comparing different species with essentially different accumulation kinetics, a firm test of this concept may be made. This article compares the sensitivity of six soil arthropods, the collembolans Orchesella cincta and Tomocerus minor, the oribatid mite Platynothrus peltifer, the isopods Porcellio scaber and Oniscus asellus, and the diplopod Cylindroiulus britannicus, when exposed to cadmium in the food. Survival was determined at various time intervals; accumulation of cadmium in the animals was measured at one time interval. Kinetic-based toxicity models were fitted to the data, and estimates were obtained for lethal body concentration, uptake rate constant, elimination rate constant, and ultimate LC50. Two different accumulation patterns could be discerned; these were correlated with time-survival relationships. One, species that have the possibility to eliminate cadmium will reach an equilibrium for the internal concentration and also an ultimate LC50. Two, species that are unable to eliminate cadmium but store it in the body will have an ultimate LC50 equal to zero. For these species the time in which the lethal body concentration is reached is more important. Taxonomically related species appeared to have comparable accumulation patterns, but lethal body concentrations differed. It is concluded that knowledge of the accumulation pattern is indispensable for the evaluation of species' sensitivities to toxicants.

  4. Distinct evolutionary patterns of brain and body size during adaptive radiation.

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    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Winberg, Svante; Kolm, Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Morphological traits are often genetically and/or phenotypically correlated with each other and such covariation can have an important influence on the evolution of individual traits. The strong positive relationship between brain size and body size in vertebrates has attracted a lot of interest, and much debate has surrounded the study of the factors responsible for the allometric relationship between these two traits. Here, we use comparative analyses of the Tanganyikan cichlid adaptive radiation to investigate the patterns of evolution for brain size and body size separately. We found that body size exhibited recent bursts of rapid evolution, a pattern that is consistent with divergence linked to ecological specialization. Brain weight on the other hand, showed no bursts of divergence but rather evolved in a gradual manner. Our results thus show that even highly genetically correlated traits can present markedly different patterns of evolution, hence interpreting patterns of evolution of traits from correlations in extant taxa can be misleading. Furthermore, our results suggest, contrary to expectations from theory, that brain size does not play a key role during adaptive radiation.

  5. Did trichromatic color vision and red hair color coevolve in primates?

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    Kamilar, Jason M; Heesy, Christopher P; Bradley, Brenda J

    2013-07-01

    Reddish pelage and red hair ornaments have evolved many times, independently, during primate evolution. It is generally assumed that these red-coat phenotypes, like red skin phenotypes, play a role in sociosexual signaling and, thus evolved in tandem with conspecific color vision. This study examines the phylogenetic distribution of color vision and pelage coloration across the primate order to ask: (1) did red pelage and trichromacy coevolve; or (2) did trichromacy evolve first, and then subsequently red pelage evolved as an exaptation? We collected quantitative, color-corrected photographic color data for 142 museum research skins from 92 species representing 41 genera spanning all major primate lineages. For each species, we quantified the ratio of Red/Green values (from a RGB color model) at 20 anatomical landmarks. For these same species, we compiled data on color vision type (routine trichromatic, polymorphic, routine dichromatic, monochromatic) and data on variables that potentially covary with visual system (VS) and coloration, including activity pattern and body mass dimorphism (proxy for sexual selection). We also considered whether the long-term storage of research skins might influence coloration. Therefore, we included the time since the specimen was collected as an additional predictor. Analyzing the data with phylogenetic generalized least squares models, we found that the amount of red hair present in primates is associated with differences in VSs, but not in the direction expected. Surprisingly, trichromatic primate species generally exhibited less red hair compared to red-green colorblind species. Thus, our results do not support the general assumption that color vision and red pelage coloration are a coevolutionary product of sociosexual signaling in primates. In addition, we did not find an effect of activity pattern, body mass dimorphism, or time since collection on the redness of primate hair. Our results have important implications for the

  6. Rule reversal: Ecogeographical patterns of body size variation in the common treeshrew (Mammalia, Scandentia)

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    Sargis, Eric J.; Millien, Virginie; Woodman, Neal; Olson, Link E.

    2018-01-01

    There are a number of ecogeographical “rules” that describe patterns of geographical variation among organisms. The island rule predicts that populations of larger mammals on islands evolve smaller mean body size than their mainland counterparts, whereas smaller‐bodied mammals evolve larger size. Bergmann's rule predicts that populations of a species in colder climates (generally at higher latitudes) have larger mean body sizes than conspecifics in warmer climates (at lower latitudes). These two rules are rarely tested together and neither has been rigorously tested in treeshrews, a clade of small‐bodied mammals in their own order (Scandentia) broadly distributed in mainland Southeast Asia and on islands throughout much of the Sunda Shelf. The common treeshrew, Tupaia glis, is an excellent candidate for study and was used to test these two rules simultaneously for the first time in treeshrews. This species is distributed on the Malay Peninsula and several offshore islands east, west, and south of the mainland. Using craniodental dimensions as a proxy for body size, we investigated how island size, distance from the mainland, and maximum sea depth between the mainland and the islands relate to body size of 13 insular T. glis populations while also controlling for latitude and correlation among variables. We found a strong negative effect of latitude on body size in the common treeshrew, indicating the inverse of Bergmann's rule. We did not detect any overall difference in body size between the island and mainland populations. However, there was an effect of island area and maximum sea depth on body size among island populations. Although there is a strong latitudinal effect on body size, neither Bergmann's rule nor the island rule applies to the common treeshrew. The results of our analyses demonstrate the necessity of assessing multiple variables simultaneously in studies of ecogeographical rules.

  7. Harmonious colors: from alchemy to science

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    Beretta, Giordano B.; Moroney, Nathan M.

    2012-01-01

    There is a very long tradition in designing color palettes for various applications, going back to at least the Upanishad. Although color palettes have been influenced by the available colorants, starting with the advent of aniline dyes in the late 1850s there have been few physical limits on the choice of individual colors. This abundance of choices exacerbates the problem of limiting the number of colors in a palette, i.e., in keeping them into a manageable quantity. For example, it is not practical for a car company to offer each model in hundreds of colors. Instead, for each model year a small number of color palettes is offered, each containing the colors for the body, trim, interior, etc. Another example is the fashion industry, where in addition to solid colors there are also patterns, leading to a huge variety of combinations that would be impossible to stock. The traditional solution is that of "color forecasting." Color consultants assess the sentiment or affective state of a target customer class and compare it with new colorants offered by the industry. They assemble a limited color palette, name the colors according to the sentiment, and publish their result. Textile manufacturers will produce fabrics in these colors and fashion designers will design clothes, accessories, and furniture based on these fabrics. Eventually, the media will communicate these forecasts to the consumers, who will be admired by their cohorts when they choose colors from the forecast palette, which by then is widely diffused. The color forecasting business is very labor intensive and difficult, thus for years computer engineers have tried to come up with algorithms to design harmonious color palettes, alas with little commercial success. For example, Johannes Itten's color theory has been implemented many times, but despite Itten's success in the Bauhaus artifacts, the computer tools have been of little utility. Indeed, contrary to the auditory sense, there is no known

  8. The developmental pattern of stimulus and response interference in a color-object Stroop task: an ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongen Ellen MM

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown that Stroop interference is stronger in children than in adults. However, in a standard Stroop paradigm, stimulus interference and response interference are confounded. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether interference at the stimulus level and the response level are subject to distinct maturational patterns across childhood. Three groups of children (6–7 year-olds, 8–9 year-olds, and 10–12 year-olds and a group of adults performed a manual Color-Object Stroop designed to disentangle stimulus interference and response interference. This was accomplished by comparing three trial types. In congruent (C trials there was no interference. In stimulus incongruent (SI trials there was only stimulus interference. In response incongruent (RI trials there was stimulus interference and response interference. Stimulus interference and response interference were measured by a comparison of SI with C, and RI with SI trials, respectively. Event-related potentials (ERPs were measured to study the temporal dynamics of these processes of interference. Results There was no behavioral evidence for stimulus interference in any of the groups, but in 6–7 year-old children ERPs in the SI condition in comparison with the C condition showed an occipital P1-reduction (80–140 ms and a widely distributed amplitude enhancement of a negative component followed by an amplitude reduction of a positive component (400–560 ms. For response interference, all groups showed a comparable reaction time (RT delay, but children made more errors than adults. ERPs in the RI condition in comparison with the SI condition showed an amplitude reduction of a positive component over lateral parietal (-occipital sites in 10–12 year-olds and adults (300–540 ms, and a widely distributed amplitude enhancement of a positive component in all age groups (680–960 ms. The size of the enhancement correlated positively

  9. Density-body mass relationships: Inconsistent intercontinental patterns among termite feeding-groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsjö, Cecilia A. L.; Parr, Catherine L.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Meir, Patrick; Rahman, Homathevi; Eggleton, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Allometric relationships are useful for estimating and understanding resource distribution in assemblages with species of different masses. Damuth's law states that body mass scales with population density as M-0.75, where M is body mass and -0.75 is the slope. In this study we used Damuth's law (M-0.75) as a null hypothesis to examine the relationship between body mass and population density for termite feeding-groups in three different countries and regions (Cameroon, West Africa; Peru South America; and Malaysia SE Asia). We found that none of the feeding-groups had a relationship where M-0.75 while the data suggested that population density-body mass relationships for true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon (M2.7) and wood-feeding termites in Peru (M1.5) were significantly different from the expected values given by Damuth's law. The dominance of large-bodied true soil-feeding termites in Cameroon and the absence of fungus-growing termites from Peru suggest that these allometric patterns are due to heterogeneities in termite biogeographical evolution. Additionally, as these feeding-groups have higher population density than expected by their body masses it may be suggested that they also have a higher energy throughput than expected. The results presented here may be used to gain further understanding of resource distribution among termite feeding-groups across regions and an insight into the importance of evolutionary history and biogeography on allometric patterns. Further understanding of population density-body mass relationships in termite feeding-groups may also improve understanding of the role these feeding-groups play in ecosystem processes in different regions.

  10. Early Developmental and Evolutionary Origins of Gene Body DNA Methylation Patterns in Mammalian Placentas.

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    Diane I Schroeder

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20-80 million years the mammalian placenta has taken on a variety of morphologies through both divergent and convergent evolution. Recently we have shown that the human placenta genome has a unique epigenetic pattern of large partially methylated domains (PMDs and highly methylated domains (HMDs with gene body DNA methylation positively correlating with level of gene expression. In order to determine the evolutionary conservation of DNA methylation patterns and transcriptional regulatory programs in the placenta, we performed a genome-wide methylome (MethylC-seq analysis of human, rhesus macaque, squirrel monkey, mouse, dog, horse, and cow placentas as well as opossum extraembryonic membrane. We found that, similar to human placenta, mammalian placentas and opossum extraembryonic membrane have globally lower levels of methylation compared to somatic tissues. Higher relative gene body methylation was the conserved feature across all mammalian placentas, despite differences in PMD/HMDs and absolute methylation levels. Specifically, higher methylation over the bodies of genes involved in mitosis, vesicle-mediated transport, protein phosphorylation, and chromatin modification was observed compared with the rest of the genome. As in human placenta, higher methylation is associated with higher gene expression and is predictive of genic location across species. Analysis of DNA methylation in oocytes and preimplantation embryos shows a conserved pattern of gene body methylation similar to the placenta. Intriguingly, mouse and cow oocytes and mouse early embryos have PMD/HMDs but their placentas do not, suggesting that PMD/HMDs are a feature of early preimplantation methylation patterns that become lost during placental development in some species and following implantation of the embryo.

  11. Neurons Refine the Caenorhabditis elegans Body Plan by Directing Axial Patterning by Wnts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modzelewska, Katarzyna; Lauritzen, Amara; Hasenoeder, Stefan; Brown, Louise; Georgiou, John; Moghal, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    Metazoans display remarkable conservation of gene families, including growth factors, yet somehow these genes are used in different ways to generate tremendous morphological diversity. While variations in the magnitude and spatio-temporal aspects of signaling by a growth factor can generate different body patterns, how these signaling variations are organized and coordinated during development is unclear. Basic body plans are organized by the end of gastrulation and are refined as limbs, organs, and nervous systems co-develop. Despite their proximity to developing tissues, neurons are primarily thought to act after development, on behavior. Here, we show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, the axonal projections of neurons regulate tissue progenitor responses to Wnts so that certain organs develop with the correct morphology at the right axial positions. We find that foreshortening of the posteriorly directed axons of the two canal-associated neurons (CANs) disrupts mid-body vulval morphology, and produces ectopic vulval tissue in the posterior epidermis, in a Wnt-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that suggests that the posterior CAN axons modulate the location and strength of Wnt signaling along the anterior–posterior axis by employing a Ror family Wnt receptor to bind posteriorly derived Wnts, and hence, refine their distributions. Surprisingly, despite high levels of Ror expression in many other cells, these cells cannot substitute for the CAN axons in patterning the epidermis, nor can cells expressing a secreted Wnt inhibitor, SFRP-1. Thus, unmyelinated axon tracts are critical for patterning the C. elegans body. Our findings suggest that the evolution of neurons not only improved metazoans by increasing behavioral complexity, but also by expanding the diversity of developmental patterns generated by growth factors such as Wnts. PMID:23319891

  12. Neurons refine the Caenorhabditis elegans body plan by directing axial patterning by Wnts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Modzelewska

    Full Text Available Metazoans display remarkable conservation of gene families, including growth factors, yet somehow these genes are used in different ways to generate tremendous morphological diversity. While variations in the magnitude and spatio-temporal aspects of signaling by a growth factor can generate different body patterns, how these signaling variations are organized and coordinated during development is unclear. Basic body plans are organized by the end of gastrulation and are refined as limbs, organs, and nervous systems co-develop. Despite their proximity to developing tissues, neurons are primarily thought to act after development, on behavior. Here, we show that in Caenorhabditis elegans, the axonal projections of neurons regulate tissue progenitor responses to Wnts so that certain organs develop with the correct morphology at the right axial positions. We find that foreshortening of the posteriorly directed axons of the two canal-associated neurons (CANs disrupts mid-body vulval morphology, and produces ectopic vulval tissue in the posterior epidermis, in a Wnt-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that suggests that the posterior CAN axons modulate the location and strength of Wnt signaling along the anterior-posterior axis by employing a Ror family Wnt receptor to bind posteriorly derived Wnts, and hence, refine their distributions. Surprisingly, despite high levels of Ror expression in many other cells, these cells cannot substitute for the CAN axons in patterning the epidermis, nor can cells expressing a secreted Wnt inhibitor, SFRP-1. Thus, unmyelinated axon tracts are critical for patterning the C. elegans body. Our findings suggest that the evolution of neurons not only improved metazoans by increasing behavioral complexity, but also by expanding the diversity of developmental patterns generated by growth factors such as Wnts.

  13. Development and validation of parenting measures for body image and eating patterns in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiano, Stephanie R; Hart, Laura M; Paxton, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based parenting interventions are important in assisting parents to help their children develop healthy body image and eating patterns. To adequately assess the impact of parenting interventions, valid parent measures are required. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the validity and reliability of two new parent measures, the Parenting Intentions for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Parenting Intentions BEC) and the Knowledge Test for Body image and Eating patterns in Childhood (Knowledge Test BEC). Participants were 27 professionals working in research or clinical treatment of body dissatisfaction or eating disorders, and 75 parents of children aged 2-6 years, who completed the measures via an online questionnaire. Seven scenarios were developed for the Parenting Intentions BEC to describe common experiences about the body and food that parents might need to respond to in front of their child. Parents ranked four behavioural intentions, derived from the current literature on parenting risk factors for body dissatisfaction and unhealthy eating patterns in children. Two subscales were created, one representing positive behavioural intentions, the other negative behavioural intentions. After piloting a larger pool of items, 13 statements were used to construct the Knowledge Test BEC. These were designed to be factual statements about the influence of parent language, media, family meals, healthy eating, and self-esteem on child eating and body image. The validity of both measures was tested by comparing parent and professional scores, and reliability was assessed by comparing parent scores over two testing occasions. Compared with parents, professionals reported significantly higher scores on the Positive Intentions subscale and significantly lower on the Negative Intentions subscale of the Parenting Intentions BEC; confirming the discriminant validity of six out of the seven scenarios. Test-retest reliability was also confirmed as

  14. Irregular patterns in the daily weight chart at night predict body weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Misuzu; Itoh, Kazue; Abe, Shimako; Imai, Katsumi; Masuda, Takashi; Koga, Ririko; Itoh, Hitomi; Konomi, Yumiko; Kinukawa, Naoko; Sakata, Toshiie

    2004-10-01

    This study examined whether charting daily weight patterns can predict weight regain in obese patients. The subjects were 98 moderately obese Japanese women aged 23 to 66 years who were obliged to precisely record their daily weights during the initial 4-month education period, but not thereafter. The patients were followed up at 8, 12, and 16 months. Abdominal fat areas and blood samples were assessed in the outpatient clinic at 0, 4, and 16 months. The standard deviations (SDs) of the differences in body weight between "after waking up" and "after breakfast" (SDa), "after dinner" (SDb), and "before going to bed" (SDc) were calculated, which were parameters reflecting the fluctuations in the daily weight patterns during the first 4 months. SDc, but not SDa or SDb, was correlated positively with weight regain at 8, 12, and 16 months (P = 0.049, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively). There were significant differences in temporal change in body weight and abdominal visceral fat between the small SDc group (SDc 75th percentile), but not for subcutaneous abdominal fat or the serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, or lipids. The results indicate that fluctuation of body weight immediately before going to bed is useful for predicting the rebound in body weight.

  15. Mining Productive-Associated Periodic-Frequent Patterns in Body Sensor Data for Smart Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Walaa N; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi

    2017-04-26

    The understanding of various health-oriented vital sign data generated from body sensor networks (BSNs) and discovery of the associations between the generated parameters is an important task that may assist and promote important decision making in healthcare. For example, in a smart home scenario where occupants' health status is continuously monitored remotely, it is essential to provide the required assistance when an unusual or critical situation is detected in their vital sign data. In this paper, we present an efficient approach for mining the periodic patterns obtained from BSN data. In addition, we employ a correlation test on the generated patterns and introduce productive-associated periodic-frequent patterns as the set of correlated periodic-frequent items. The combination of these measures has the advantage of empowering healthcare providers and patients to raise the quality of diagnosis as well as improve treatment and smart care, especially for elderly people in smart homes. We develop an efficient algorithm named PPFP-growth (Productive Periodic-Frequent Pattern-growth) to discover all productive-associated periodic frequent patterns using these measures. PPFP-growth is efficient and the productiveness measure removes uncorrelated periodic items. An experimental evaluation on synthetic and real datasets shows the efficiency of the proposed PPFP-growth algorithm, which can filter a huge number of periodic patterns to reveal only the correlated ones.

  16. Mining Productive-Associated Periodic-Frequent Patterns in Body Sensor Data for Smart Home Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa N. Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of various health-oriented vital sign data generated from body sensor networks (BSNs and discovery of the associations between the generated parameters is an important task that may assist and promote important decision making in healthcare. For example, in a smart home scenario where occupants’ health status is continuously monitored remotely, it is essential to provide the required assistance when an unusual or critical situation is detected in their vital sign data. In this paper, we present an efficient approach for mining the periodic patterns obtained from BSN data. In addition, we employ a correlation test on the generated patterns and introduce productive-associated periodic-frequent patterns as the set of correlated periodic-frequent items. The combination of these measures has the advantage of empowering healthcare providers and patients to raise the quality of diagnosis as well as improve treatment and smart care, especially for elderly people in smart homes. We develop an efficient algorithm named PPFP-growth (Productive Periodic-Frequent Pattern-growth to discover all productive-associated periodic frequent patterns using these measures. PPFP-growth is efficient and the productiveness measure removes uncorrelated periodic items. An experimental evaluation on synthetic and real datasets shows the efficiency of the proposed PPFP-growth algorithm, which can filter a huge number of periodic patterns to reveal only the correlated ones.

  17. Lentic small water bodies: Variability of pesticide transport and transformation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Uta; Hörmann, Georg; Unger, Malte; Pfannerstill, Matthias; Steinmann, Frank; Fohrer, Nicola

    2018-03-15

    Lentic small water bodies have a high ecological potential as they fulfill several ecosystem services such as the retention of water and pollutants. They serve as a hot spot of biodiversity. Due to their location in or adjacent to agricultural fields, they can be influenced by inputs of pesticides and their transformation products. Since small water bodies have rarely been part of monitorings/campaigns up to now, their current exposure and processes guiding the pesticide input are not understood, yet. This study presents results of a sampling campaign of 10 lentic small water bodies from 2015 to 2016. They were sampled once after the spring application for a pesticide target screening, before autumn application and three times after rainfall events following the application. The autumn sampling focused on the herbicides metazachlor, flufenacet and their transformation products - oxalic acid and - sulfonic acid as representatives for common pesticides in the study region. The concentrations were associated with rainfall before and after application, characteristics of the site and the water bodies, physicochemical parameters and the applied amount of pesticides. The key results of the pesticide screening in spring indicate positive detections of pesticides which have not been applied for years to the single fields. The autumn sampling showed frequent occurrences of the transformation products, which are formed in soil, from 39% to 94% of all samples (n=71). Discharge patterns were observed for metazachlor with highest concentrations in the first sample after application and then decreasing, but not for flufenacet. The concentrations of the transformation products increased over time and revealed highest values mainly in the last sample. Besides rainfall patterns right after application, the spatial and temporal dissemination of the pesticides to the water bodies seems to play a major role to understand the exposure of lentic small water bodies. Copyright © 2017

  18. Patterns of activity and body temperature of Aldabra giant tortoises in relation to environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón, Wilfredo; Baxter, Rich P; Furrer, Samuel; Bauert, Martin; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Ozgul, Arpat; Bunbury, Nancy; Clauss, Marcus; Hansen, Dennis M

    2018-02-01

    We studied the temperature relations of wild and zoo Aldabra giant tortoises ( Aldabrachelys gigantea ) focusing on (1) the relationship between environmental temperature and tortoise activity patterns ( n  = 8 wild individuals) and (2) on tortoise body temperature fluctuations, including how their core and external body temperatures vary in relation to different environmental temperature ranges (seasons; n  = 4 wild and n  = 5 zoo individuals). In addition, we surveyed the literature to review the effect of body mass on core body temperature range in relation to environmental temperature in the Testudinidae. Diurnal activity of tortoises was bimodally distributed and influenced by environmental temperature and season. The mean air temperature at which activity is maximized was 27.9°C, with a range of 25.8-31.7°C. Furthermore, air temperature explained changes in the core body temperature better than did mass, and only during the coldest trial, did tortoises with higher mass show more stable temperatures. Our results, together with the overall Testudinidae overview, suggest that, once variation in environmental temperature has been taken into account, there is little effect of mass on the temperature stability of tortoises. Moreover, the presence of thermal inertia in an individual tortoise depends on the environmental temperatures, and we found no evidence for inertial homeothermy. Finally, patterns of core and external body temperatures in comparison with environmental temperatures suggest that Aldabra giant tortoises act as mixed conformer-regulators. Our study provides a baseline to manage the thermal environment of wild and rewilded populations of an important island ecosystem engineer species in an era of climate change.

  19. Color-induced graph colorings

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive treatment of color-induced graph colorings is presented in this book, emphasizing vertex colorings induced by edge colorings. The coloring concepts described in this book depend not only on the property required of the initial edge coloring and the kind of objects serving as colors, but also on the property demanded of the vertex coloring produced. For each edge coloring introduced, background for the concept is provided, followed by a presentation of results and open questions dealing with this topic. While the edge colorings discussed can be either proper or unrestricted, the resulting vertex colorings are either proper colorings or rainbow colorings. This gives rise to a discussion of irregular colorings, strong colorings, modular colorings, edge-graceful colorings, twin edge colorings and binomial colorings. Since many of the concepts described in this book are relatively recent, the audience for this book is primarily mathematicians interested in learning some new areas of graph colorings...

  20. Passive body heating improves sleep patterns in female patients with fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of passive body heating on the sleep patterns of patients with fibromyalgia. METHODS: Six menopausal women diagnosed with fibromyalgia according to the criteria determined by the American College of Rheumatology were included. All women underwent passive immersion in a warm bath at a temperature of 36 ±1 °C for 15 sessions of 30 minutes each over a period of three weeks. Their sleep patterns were assessed by polysomnography at the following time-points: pre-intervention (baseline, the first day of the intervention (acute, the last day of the intervention (chronic, and three weeks after the end of the intervention (follow-up. Core body temperature was evaluated by a thermistor pill during the baseline, acute, chronic, and follow-up periods. The impact of this treatment on fibromyalgia was assessed via a specific questionnaire termed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. RESULTS: Sleep latency, rapid eye movement sleep latency and slow wave sleep were significantly reduced in the chronic and acute conditions compared with baseline. Sleep efficiency was significantly increased during the chronic condition, and the awakening index was reduced at the chronic and follow-up time points relative to the baseline values. No significant differences were observed in total sleep time, time in sleep stages 1 or 2 or rapid eye movement sleep percentage. The core body temperature and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire responses did not significantly change over the course of the study. CONCLUSION: Passive body heating had a positive effect on the sleep patterns of women with fibromyalgia.

  1. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junhua; Xie, Feng; Li, Cheng; Jiang, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae) are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i) the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii) Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m) all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  2. Elevational patterns of species richness, range and body size for spiny frogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Hu

    Full Text Available Quantifying spatial patterns of species richness is a core problem in biodiversity theory. Spiny frogs of the subfamily Painae (Anura: Dicroglossidae are widespread, but endemic to Asia. Using spiny frog distribution and body size data, and a digital elevation model data set we explored altitudinal patterns of spiny frog richness and quantified the effect of area on the richness pattern over a large altitudinal gradient from 0-5000 m a.s.l. We also tested two hypotheses: (i the Rapoport's altitudinal effect is valid for the Painae, and (ii Bergmann's clines are present in spiny frogs. The species richness of Painae across four different altitudinal band widths (100 m, 200 m, 300 m and 400 m all showed hump-shaped patterns along altitudinal gradient. The altitudinal changes in species richness of the Paini and Quasipaini tribes further confirmed this finding, while the peak of Quasipaini species richness occurred at lower elevations than the maxima of Paini. The area did not explain a significant amount of variation in total, nor Paini species richness, but it did explain variation in Quasipaini. Five distinct groups across altitudinal gradient were found. Species altitudinal ranges did not expand with an increase in the midpoints of altitudinal ranges. A significant negative correlation between body size and elevation was exhibited. Our findings demonstrate that Rapoport's altitudinal rule is not a compulsory attribute of spiny frogs and also suggest that Bergmann's rule is not generally applicable to amphibians. The study highlights a need to explore the underlying mechanisms of species richness patterns, particularly for amphibians in macroecology.

  3. Fixation patterns, not clinical diagnosis, predict body size over-estimation in eating disordered women and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Katri K; Cornelissen, Piers L; Hancock, Peter J B; Tovée, Martin J

    2016-05-01

    A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over-estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye-movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over-estimating body size. To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (rAN) who had concerns about body shape and weight and who over-estimated body size, (ii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape and who estimated body size accurately (iii) 20 healthy controls who had normative levels of concern about body shape but who did over-estimate body size. Comparisons between the three groups showed that: (i) accurate body size estimators tended to look more in the waist region, and this was independent of clinical diagnosis; (ii) there is a pattern of looking at images of bodies, particularly viewing the upper parts of the torso and face, which is specific to participants with rAN but which is independent of accuracy in body size estimation. Since the over-estimating controls did not share the same body image concerns that women with rAN report, their over-estimation cannot be explained by attitudinal concerns about body shape and weight. These results suggest that a distributed fixation pattern is associated with over-estimation of body size and should be addressed in treatment programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:507-518). © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Eating Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  5. Multiple mating reveals complex patterns of assortative mating by personality and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiglio, Pierre-Olivier; Wey, Tina W; Chang, Ann T; Fogarty, Sean; Sih, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Understanding patterns of non-random mating is central to predicting the consequences of sexual selection. Most studies quantifying assortative mating focus on testing for correlations among partners' phenotypes in mated pairs. Few studies have distinguished between assortative mating arising from preferences for similar partners (expressed by all or a subset of the population) vs. from phenotypic segregation in the environment. Also, few studies have assessed the robustness of assortative mating against temporal changes in social conditions. We tracked multiple matings by stream water striders (Aquarius remigis) across variable social conditions to investigate mating patterns by both body size and behavioural type (personality). We documented temporal changes in partner availability and used a mixed model approach to analyse individual behaviours and changes in mating status recorded on an hourly basis. We assessed whether all or only a subset of individuals in the population expressed a tendency to mate with similar phenotypes. Our analyses took into account variation in the level of competition and in the phenotypes of available partners. Males and females exhibited significant assortative mating by body size: the largest males and females, and the smallest males and females mated together more often than random. However, individuals of intermediate size were equally likely to mate with small, intermediate or large partners. Individuals also displayed two contrasting patterns of assortative mating by personality (activity level). Individuals generally mated preferentially with partners of similar activity level. However, beyond that general trend, individuals with more extreme personalities tended to exhibit disassortative mating: the most active males mated disproportionately with less active females and the least active males tended to mate with more active females. Our analyses thus revealed multiple, distinct patterns of nonrandom mating. These mating

  6. Fixation patterns, not clinical diagnosis, predict body size over?estimation in eating disordered women and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Katri K.; Cornelissen, Piers L.; Hancock, Peter J. B.; Tov?e, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A core feature of anorexia nervosa (AN) is an over?estimation of body size. Women with AN have a different pattern of eye?movements when judging bodies, but it is unclear whether this is specific to their diagnosis or whether it is found in anyone over?estimating body size. Method To address this question, we compared the eye movement patterns from three participant groups while they carried out a body size estimation task: (i) 20 women with recovering/recovered anorexia (r...

  7. Modeling color preference using color space metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Karen B; Lessard, Laurent; Racey, Chris; Hurlbert, Anya C

    2017-07-27

    Studying color preferences provides a means to discover how perceptual experiences map onto cognitive and affective judgments. A challenge is finding a parsimonious way to describe and predict patterns of color preferences, which are complex with rich individual differences. One approach has been to model color preferences using factors from metric color spaces to establish direct correspondences between dimensions of color and preference. Prior work established that substantial, but not all, variance in color preferences could be captured by weights on color space dimensions using multiple linear regression. The question we address here is whether model fits may be improved by using different color metric specifications. We therefore conducted a large-scale analysis of color space models, and focused in-depth analysis on models that differed in color space (cone-contrast vs. CIELAB), coordinate system within the color space (Cartesian vs. cylindrical), and factor degrees (1st degree only, or 1st and 2nd degree). We used k-fold cross validation to avoid over-fitting the data and to ensure fair comparisons across models. The best model was the 2nd-harmonic Lch model ("LabC Cyl2"). Specified in CIELAB space, it included 1st and 2nd harmonics of hue (capturing opponency in hue preferences and simultaneous liking/disliking of both hues on an opponent axis, respectively), lightness, and chroma. These modeling approaches can be used to characterize and compare patterns for group averages and individuals in future datasets on color preference, or other measures in which correspondences between color appearance and cognitive or affective judgments may exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  9. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  10. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B. B.; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk...... markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229). Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA). Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo...... total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous...

  11. Acral melanocytic lesions in the United States: Prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madankumar, Reshmi; Gumaste, Priyanka V; Martires, Kathryn; Schaffer, Panta R; Choudhary, Sonal; Falto-Aizpurua, Leyre; Arora, Harleen; Kallis, Penelope J; Patel, Shailee; Damanpour, Shadi; Sanchez, Margaret I; Yin, Natalie; Chan, Aegean; Sanchez, Miguel; Polsky, David; Kanavy, Holly; Grichnik, James M; Stein, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma has increased mortality compared with other melanoma subtypes and disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Acral melanocytic lesions have not been well studied in diverse populations of the United States. We sought to assess the prevalence, awareness, and dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic lesions in skin-of-color and non-Hispanic white patients. We prospectively examined the palms and soles of 1052 patients presenting to dermatology clinics in New York, NY, and Miami, FL, from October 2013 to April 2015. Acral melanocytic lesions were observed in 36% of our cohort. Skin-of-color patients were more likely to have acral melanocytic lesions than non-Hispanic white patients (P white patients. The majority of lesions demonstrated benign dermoscopic patterns. We observed 2 lesions with the parallel ridge pattern in our cohort, both found to be atypical nevi on biopsy specimen. Patients often lacked awareness of the presence of their lesions. Interobserver variability in assessing dermoscopic patterns is a limitation. Melanocytic lesions of the palms and soles are common, particularly in a cohort of multiple ethnicities from the United States. Dermoscopy of acral lesions is an important clinical tool for diagnosis and management of these lesions. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Confident body, confident child: A randomized controlled trial evaluation of a parenting resource for promoting healthy body image and eating patterns in 2- to 6-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Laura M; Damiano, Stephanie R; Paxton, Susan J

    2016-05-01

    Body image and eating patterns develop in early childhood and are influenced by the family environment. This research evaluated Confident Body, Confident Child (CBCC), an intervention for parents of 2- to 6-year-old children, designed to promote body satisfaction, healthy eating, and weight management in early childhood. A randomized controlled trial compared four groups: (A) received the CBCC resource pack and a workshop, (B) received the CBCC resource pack only, (C) received a nutrition-only resource and (D) received no interventions until all questionnaires were completed (i.e., functioned as waitlist control). Measures of parenting variables relevant to child body image and eating patterns, parent-report of child weight, and evaluation questions about the resource, were implemented pre- and post-intervention. At 6-weeks post-intervention, the CBCC resource was associated with significant reductions in parents' intentions to use behaviors that increase the risk of negative body attitudes or unhealthy eating in their children, in parents' use of feeding practices associated with childhood overweight, and in television watching during family meals. Significant increases in parents' intentions to use positive behaviors and knowledge of child body image and healthy eating patterns were also found. Superior results were found for the CBCC resource + workshop condition, suggesting it is the preferred delivery method. CBCC positively impacts parenting variables associated with childhood risk for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy eating and weight. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:458-472). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. DNA methylation patterns in cord blood DNA and body size in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Relton

    Full Text Available Epigenetic markings acquired in early life may have phenotypic consequences later in development through their role in transcriptional regulation with relevance to the developmental origins of diseases including obesity. The goal of this study was to investigate whether DNA methylation levels at birth are associated with body size later in childhood.A study design involving two birth cohorts was used to conduct transcription profiling followed by DNA methylation analysis in peripheral blood. Gene expression analysis was undertaken in 24 individuals whose biological samples and clinical data were collected at a mean ± standard deviation (SD age of 12.35 (0.95 years, the upper and lower tertiles of body mass index (BMI were compared with a mean (SD BMI difference of 9.86 (2.37 kg/m(2. This generated a panel of differentially expressed genes for DNA methylation analysis which was then undertaken in cord blood DNA in 178 individuals with body composition data prospectively collected at a mean (SD age of 9.83 (0.23 years. Twenty-nine differentially expressed genes (>1.2-fold and p<10(-4 were analysed to determine DNA methylation levels at 1-3 sites per gene. Five genes were unmethylated and DNA methylation in the remaining 24 genes was analysed using linear regression with bootstrapping. Methylation in 9 of the 24 (37.5% genes studied was associated with at least one index of body composition (BMI, fat mass, lean mass, height at age 9 years, although only one of these associations remained after correction for multiple testing (ALPL with height, p(Corrected = 0.017.DNA methylation patterns in cord blood show some association with altered gene expression, body size and composition in childhood. The observed relationship is correlative and despite suggestion of a mechanistic epigenetic link between in utero life and later phenotype, further investigation is required to establish causality.

  14. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. A. C. Smith

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design: Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting: Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects: 3911 children with complete data. Results: There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions: There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies.

  15. Dietary patterns and changes in body composition in children between 9 and 11 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew D. A. C.; Emmett, Pauline M.; Newby, P. K.; Northstone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood obesity is rising and dietary intake is a potentially modifiable factor that plays an important role in its development. We aim to investigate the association between dietary patterns, obtained through principal components analysis and gains in fat and lean mass in childhood. Design Diet diaries at 10 years of age collected from children taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at 9 and 11. Setting Longitudinal birth cohort. Subjects 3911 children with complete data. Results There was an association between the Health Aware (positive loadings on high-fiber bread, and fruits and vegetables; negative loadings on chips, crisps, processed meat, and soft drinks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain in girls. After adjusting for confounders, an increase of 1 standard deviation (sd) in this score led to an estimated 1.2% decrease in fat mass gain in valid-reporters and 2.1% in under-reporters. A similar decrease was found only in under-reporting boys. There was also an association between the Packed Lunch (high consumption of white bread, sandwich fillings, and snacks) pattern score and decreased fat mass gain (1.1% per sd) in valid-reporting but not under-reporting girls. The main association with lean mass gain was an increase with Packed Lunch pattern score in valid-reporting boys only. Conclusions There is a small association between dietary patterns and change in fat mass in mid-childhood. Differences between under- and valid-reporters emphasize the need to consider valid-reporters separately in such studies. PMID:25018688

  16. Impact of ballistic body armour and load carriage on walking patterns and perceived comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Jacobson, Bert; Warren, Aric; Goad, Carla; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of weight magnitude and distribution of body armour and carrying loads on military personnel's walking patterns and comfort perceptions. Spatio-temporal parameters of walking, plantar pressure and contact area were measured while seven healthy male right-handed military students wore seven different garments of varying weight (0.06, 9, 18 and 27 kg) and load distribution (balanced and unbalanced, on the front and back torso). Higher weight increased the foot contact time with the floor. In particular, weight placement on the non-dominant side of the front torso resulted in the greatest stance phase and double support. Increased plantar pressure and contact area observed during heavier loads entail increased impact forces, which can cause overuse injuries and foot blisters. Participants reported increasingly disagreeable pressure and strain in the shoulder, neck and lower back during heavier weight conditions and unnatural walking while wearing unbalanced weight distributed loads. This study shows the potentially synergistic impact of wearing body armour vest with differential loads on body movement and comfort perception. This study found that soldiers should balance loads, avoiding load placement on the non-dominant side front torso, thus minimising mobility restriction and potential injury risk. Implications for armour vest design modifications can also be found in the results.

  17. Involvement patterns in myotilinopathy and desminopathy detected by a novel neuromuscular whole-body MRI protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Nicolai; Born, Christine; Weckbach, Sabine; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Reilich, Peter; Walter, Maggie C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Friedrich-Baur-Institute, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has been successfully applied for oncologic and cardiovascular diagnostics, whereas imaging in myopathies usually employs dedicated protocols restricted to areas of specific interest. In this study, we propose a comprehensive neuromuscular WB-MRI protocol. Eighteen patients with degenerative and inflammatory muscle diseases were included. Whole-body imaging was performed on a 1.5-T MR system using parallel imaging. Examination time was 41:26 min. Coronal and axial T1-weighted and coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences of the whole body were acquired. Images were analysed by two radiologists. With this protocol we could detect characteristic involvement patterns in different myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs): Patients with myotilinopathy showed frequent involvement of the rhomboid muscles (4/5), the erector spinae (5/5), the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus (5/5), while the semitendinosus was relatively spared (2/5). In contrast, in desminopathy patients the ilipsoas (3/4), the sartorius, (3/4), the gracilis (3/4) and the semitendinosus (3/4) were frequently involved, while the semimembranosus was spared (1/4). As shown for MFMs, WB-MRI is an appropriate modality to detect fatty infiltration and oedema in skeletal muscles. WB-MRI could be more useful than dedicated examinations for differential diagnosis, muscle biopsy planning and noninvasive follow-up examinations. (orig.)

  18. Involvement patterns in myotilinopathy and desminopathy detected by a novel neuromuscular whole-body MRI protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, Nicolai; Born, Christine; Weckbach, Sabine; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Reilich, Peter; Walter, Maggie C.

    2008-01-01

    Whole-body MRI (WB-MRI) has been successfully applied for oncologic and cardiovascular diagnostics, whereas imaging in myopathies usually employs dedicated protocols restricted to areas of specific interest. In this study, we propose a comprehensive neuromuscular WB-MRI protocol. Eighteen patients with degenerative and inflammatory muscle diseases were included. Whole-body imaging was performed on a 1.5-T MR system using parallel imaging. Examination time was 41:26 min. Coronal and axial T1-weighted and coronal short tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences of the whole body were acquired. Images were analysed by two radiologists. With this protocol we could detect characteristic involvement patterns in different myofibrillar myopathies (MFMs): Patients with myotilinopathy showed frequent involvement of the rhomboid muscles (4/5), the erector spinae (5/5), the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus (5/5), while the semitendinosus was relatively spared (2/5). In contrast, in desminopathy patients the ilipsoas (3/4), the sartorius, (3/4), the gracilis (3/4) and the semitendinosus (3/4) were frequently involved, while the semimembranosus was spared (1/4). As shown for MFMs, WB-MRI is an appropriate modality to detect fatty infiltration and oedema in skeletal muscles. WB-MRI could be more useful than dedicated examinations for differential diagnosis, muscle biopsy planning and noninvasive follow-up examinations. (orig.)

  19. Alternate pathways of body shape evolution translate into common patterns of locomotor evolution in two clades of lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Philip J; Irschick, Duncan J

    2010-06-01

    Body shape has a fundamental impact on organismal function, but it is unknown how functional morphology and locomotor performance and kinematics relate across a diverse array of body shapes. We showed that although patterns of body shape evolution differed considerably between lizards of the Phrynosomatinae and Lerista, patterns of locomotor evolution coincided between clades. Specifically, we found that the phrynosomatines evolved a stocky phenotype through body widening and limb shortening, whereas Lerista evolved elongation through body lengthening and limb shortening. In both clades, relative limb length played a key role in locomotor evolution and kinematic strategies, with long-limbed species moving faster and taking longer strides. In Lerista, the body axis also influenced locomotor evolution. Similar patterns of locomotor evolution were likely due to constraints on how the body can move. However, these common patterns of locomotor evolution between the two clades resulted in different kinematic strategies and levels of performance among species because of their morphological differences. Furthermore, we found no evidence that distinct body shapes are adaptations to different substrates, as locomotor kinematics did not change on loose or solid substrates. Our findings illustrate the importance of studying kinematics to understand the mechanisms of locomotor evolution and phenotype-function relationships.

  20. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. Quantitative Genetic Analyses of Male Color Pattern and Female Mate Choice in a Pair of Cichlid Fishes of Lake Malawi, East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoqing Ding

    Full Text Available The traits involved in sexual selection, such as male secondary sexual characteristics and female mate choice, often co-evolve which can promote population differentiation. However, the genetic architecture of these phenotypes can influence their evolvability and thereby affect the divergence of species. The extraordinary diversity of East African cichlid fishes is often attributed to strong sexual selection and thus this system provides an excellent model to test predictions regarding the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits that contribute to reproductive isolation. In particular, theory predicts that rapid speciation is facilitated when male sexual traits and female mating preferences are controlled by a limited number of linked genes. However, few studies have examined the genetic basis of male secondary sexual traits and female mating preferences in cichlids and none have investigated the genetic architecture of both jointly. In this study, we artificially hybridized a pair of behaviorally isolated cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi and quantified both melanistic color pattern and female mate choice. We investigated the genetic architecture of both phenotypes using quantitative genetic analyses. Our results suggest that 1 many non-additively acting genetic factors influence melanistic color patterns, 2 female mate choice may be controlled by a minimum of 1-2 non-additive genetic factors, and 3 F2 female mate choice is not influenced by male courting effort. Furthermore, a joint analysis of color pattern and female mate choice indicates that the genes underlying these two traits are unlikely to be physically linked. These results suggest that reproductive isolation may evolve rapidly owing to the few genetic factors underlying female mate choice. Hence, female mate choice likely played an important role in the unparalleled speciation of East African cichlid fish.

  2. Diffusion barriers for achieving controlled concentrations of luminescent dopants via diffusion for mask-less RGB color patterning of organic light emitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Yoshitaka; Kajiyama, Koichi; Aziz, Hany

    2015-11-30

    Using molecular diffusion as an approach to introduce organic luminescent dopants for making organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) of different colors on one substrate has the potential to overcome the yield and resolution limitations of the current OLED display technology. In this work, diffusion barriers made of MoO3 and a hole transport material mixture are introduced. The barriers effectively confine the diffusion of the dopants to only the desired depths. With the use of these barriers, OLEDs with highly controlled doping concentrations and performance are fabricated. The barriers thus allow utilizing simple diffusion methods for RGB patterning in OLEDs.

  3. SWS2 visual pigment evolution as a test of historically contingent patterns of plumage color evolution in warblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Natasha I; Morrow, James M; Chang, Belinda S W; Price, Trevor D

    2015-02-01

    Distantly related clades that occupy similar environments may differ due to the lasting imprint of their ancestors-historical contingency. The New World warblers (Parulidae) and Old World warblers (Phylloscopidae) are ecologically similar clades that differ strikingly in plumage coloration. We studied genetic and functional evolution of the short-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments (SWS2 and SWS1) to ask if altered color perception could contribute to the plumage color differences between clades. We show SWS2 is short-wavelength shifted in birds that occupy open environments, such as finches, compared to those in closed environments, including warblers. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate New World warblers were derived from a finch-like form that colonized from the Old World 15-20 Ma. During this process, the SWS2 gene accumulated six substitutions in branches leading to New World warblers, inviting the hypothesis that passage through a finch-like ancestor resulted in SWS2 evolution. In fact, we show spectral tuning remained similar across warblers as well as the finch ancestor. Results reject the hypothesis of historical contingency based on opsin spectral tuning, but point to evolution of other aspects of visual pigment function. Using the approach outlined here, historical contingency becomes a generally testable theory in systems where genotype and phenotype can be connected. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  4. Impact of Glucose Tolerance Status, Sex, and Body Size on Glucose Absorption Patterns During OGTTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pacini, G.; Nolan, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVEWe studied whether patterns of glucose absorption during oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were abnormal in individuals with impaired glucose regulation and whether they were related to sex and body size (height and fat-free mass). We also examined how well differences in insulin...... sensitivity and -cell function measured by gold-standard tests were reflected in the corresponding OGTT-derived estimates.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWith validated methods, various aspects of glucose absorption were estimated from 12-point, 3-h, 75-g OGTTs in 66 individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT......), isolated impaired fasting glucose (i-IFG), or isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT). Insulin sensitivity and -cell function were measured with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and intravenous glucose tolerance tests, respectively. Surrogate markers of both conditions were calculated from OGTTs...

  5. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a resultant force, the quantity, shape, and spatial distribution of water body affect the forming of temperature. We found that the quantity and spatial pattern of city water body could be allocated reasonably to maximize its cooling effect.

  6. Growth pattern and growth prediction of body height in children with mucopolysaccharidosis type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozdzynska, Agnieszka; Tylki-Szymanska, Anna; Jurecka, Agnieszka; Cieslik, Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Our goal was to evaluate the level, degree and direction of deviation in the ontogenesis of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) in comparison with the healthy population. The anthropometric data of a longitudinal study on 28 patients with MPS II, aged from 0.5 to 21 years, were used to analyse the general growth patterns in terms of height, weight and head circumference. The growth trend was assessed with the straight-line regression model. The mathematical structural growth model was used to evaluate the structure of body height growth. A statistically significant negative growth trend for all features was found. Analysis of development structure revealed an earlier onset of the adolescent growth spurt among healthy boys and a lower current velocity of growth than expected values. During the first 3 years of life, all observed anthropometric features grew faster than normal. They slowed down by the end of the third year and, in subsequent years, reached lower values when compared with the reference charts. The values obtained from the BTT model showed the structure of body height growth, with particular emphasis on the pubertal spurt, was significantly different from the reference charts. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Body and blubber relationships in antarctic pack ice seals: implications for blubber depth patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, M A; Trumble, S J; Mau, T L; Yochem, P K; Stewart, B S; Koski, M A

    2009-01-01

    Morphometrics and blubber depths from all four high Antarctic seals (Weddell, Ross, crabeater, and leopard) were obtained during a midsummer research cruise in the Ross Sea as the physiological ecology component of the U.S. Antarctic Pack Ice Seals project. These data are the only in vivo measurements of all four species from the same location and time of year and focused on variances in morphometrics and blubber depth related to species, sex, and age. By controlling for location and season, this cross-species design provided the means to differentiate how blubber mass might be influenced in these groups. We measured both absolute blubber depth and ratio of blubber depth to body core diameter. We found that adult and younger animals showed differences in blubber depth, but male versus female seals did not show differences within any given species. However, when compared across species, the ratio of blubber ring depth to body core diameter suggests that adult Weddell seals differ in their use of blubber compared with the other three species. We propose that this difference in blubber pattern is most likely related to Weddell nutritional requirements during the breeding season having a greater influence on blubber depth than thermal requirements when compared with the other three species.

  8. Distinct perfusion patterns in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnewijzend, Maja A.A.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Berckel, Bart N.M. van; Barkhof, Frederik; Kuijer, Joost P.A.; Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Benedictus, Marije R.; Moeller, Christiane M.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; Lemstra, Afina W.; Prins, Niels D.; Scheltens, Philip

    2014-01-01

    To compare pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labelled (PCASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, in a region of interest (ROI) and voxel-wise fashion. We analysed whole-brain 3D fast-spin-echo PCASL images of 20 FTD patients, 14 DLB patients, 48 AD patients and 50 controls from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. Regional CBF patterns were compared using analyses of variance for repeated measures. Permutation tests were used for voxel-wise comparisons. Analyses were performed using uncorrected and partial volume corrected (PVC) maps. All analyses were corrected for age and sex. There was an interaction between diagnosis and region (p < 0.001), implying differences in regional CBF changes between diagnostic groups. In AD patients, CBF was decreased in all supratentorial regions, most prominently so in the posterior regions. DLB patients showed lowest CBF values throughout the brain, but temporal CBF was preserved. Supratentorial PVC cortical CBF values were lowest in the frontal lobes in FTD patients, and in the temporal lobes in AD patients. Patients with AD, FTD and DLB display distinct patterns of quantitative regional CBF changes. 3D-PCASL may provide additional value in the workup of dementia patients. (orig.)

  9. Pattern of Brain Atrophy Rates in Autopsy-Confirmed Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelska, Zuzana; Ferman, Tanis J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Przybelski, Scott A.; Lesnick, Timothy L.; Murray, Melissa E.; Gunter, Jeffrey L.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Vemuri, Prashanti; Smith, Glenn E.; Geda, Yonas E.; Graff-Radford, Jonathan; Knopman, David S.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Kantarci, Kejal

    2014-01-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized by preserved whole brain and medial temporal lobe volumes compared to Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD) on MRI. However, frequently coexistent AD-type pathology may influence the pattern of regional brain atrophy rates in DLB patients. We investigated the pattern and magnitude of the atrophy rates from two serial MRIs in autopsy-confirmed DLB (n=20) and mixed DLB/AD patients (n=22), compared to AD (n=30) and elderly non-demented controls (n=15), followed antemortem. DLB patients without significant AD-type pathology were characterized by lower global and regional rates of atrophy, similar to controls. The mixed DLB/AD patients displayed greater rates in the whole brain, temporo-parietal cortices, hippocampus and amygdala, and ventricle expansion, similar to AD patients. In the DLB and DLB/AD patients, the atrophy rates correlated with Braak neurofibrillary tangle stage, cognitive decline and progression of motor symptoms. Global and regional atrophy rates are associated with AD-type pathology in DLB, and can be used as biomarkers of AD progression in patients with LB pathology. PMID:25128280

  10. Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Elisa; Kanoh, Hatsuho

    2016-01-01

    Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein–centrin2–labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering “floret” pattern to the linear “alignment.” This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport. PMID:27573463

  11. Distinct perfusion patterns in Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binnewijzend, Maja A.A.; Wattjes, Mike P.; Berckel, Bart N.M. van; Barkhof, Frederik [VU University Medical Center and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kuijer, Joost P.A. [VU University Medical Center and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Department of Physics and Medical Technology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der [VU University Medical Center and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Alzheimercenter and Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Benedictus, Marije R.; Moeller, Christiane M.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; Lemstra, Afina W.; Prins, Niels D.; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Alzheimercenter and Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    To compare pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labelled (PCASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measured quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and controls, in a region of interest (ROI) and voxel-wise fashion. We analysed whole-brain 3D fast-spin-echo PCASL images of 20 FTD patients, 14 DLB patients, 48 AD patients and 50 controls from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort. Regional CBF patterns were compared using analyses of variance for repeated measures. Permutation tests were used for voxel-wise comparisons. Analyses were performed using uncorrected and partial volume corrected (PVC) maps. All analyses were corrected for age and sex. There was an interaction between diagnosis and region (p < 0.001), implying differences in regional CBF changes between diagnostic groups. In AD patients, CBF was decreased in all supratentorial regions, most prominently so in the posterior regions. DLB patients showed lowest CBF values throughout the brain, but temporal CBF was preserved. Supratentorial PVC cortical CBF values were lowest in the frontal lobes in FTD patients, and in the temporal lobes in AD patients. Patients with AD, FTD and DLB display distinct patterns of quantitative regional CBF changes. 3D-PCASL may provide additional value in the workup of dementia patients. (orig.)

  12. Different Roles for Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies and Central Complex in Visual Learning of Colored Lights in an Aversive Conditioning Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plath, Jenny A; Entler, Brian V; Kirkerud, Nicholas H; Schlegel, Ulrike; Galizia, C Giovanni; Barron, Andrew B

    2017-01-01

    The honey bee is an excellent visual learner, but we know little about how and why it performs so well, or how visual information is learned by the bee brain. Here we examined the different roles of two key integrative regions of the brain in visual learning: the mushroom bodies and the central complex. We tested bees' learning performance in a new assay of color learning that used electric shock as punishment. In this assay a light field was paired with electric shock. The other half of the conditioning chamber was illuminated with light of a different wavelength and not paired with shocks. The unrestrained bee could run away from the light stimulus and thereby associate one wavelength with punishment, and the other with safety. We compared learning performance of bees in which either the central complex or mushroom bodies had been transiently inactivated by microinjection of the reversible anesthetic procaine. Control bees learned to escape the shock-paired light field and to spend more time in the safe light field after a few trials. When ventral lobe neurons of the mushroom bodies were silenced, bees were no longer able to associate one light field with shock. By contrast, silencing of one collar region of the mushroom body calyx did not alter behavior in the learning assay in comparison to control treatment. Bees with silenced central complex neurons did not leave the shock-paired light field in the middle trials of training, even after a few seconds of being shocked. We discussed how mushroom bodies and the central complex both contribute to aversive visual learning with an operant component.

  13. Different Roles for Honey Bee Mushroom Bodies and Central Complex in Visual Learning of Colored Lights in an Aversive Conditioning Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny A. Plath

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is an excellent visual learner, but we know little about how and why it performs so well, or how visual information is learned by the bee brain. Here we examined the different roles of two key integrative regions of the brain in visual learning: the mushroom bodies and the central complex. We tested bees' learning performance in a new assay of color learning that used electric shock as punishment. In this assay a light field was paired with electric shock. The other half of the conditioning chamber was illuminated with light of a different wavelength and not paired with shocks. The unrestrained bee could run away from the light stimulus and thereby associate one wavelength with punishment, and the other with safety. We compared learning performance of bees in which either the central complex or mushroom bodies had been transiently inactivated by microinjection of the reversible anesthetic procaine. Control bees learned to escape the shock-paired light field and to spend more time in the safe light field after a few trials. When ventral lobe neurons of the mushroom bodies were silenced, bees were no longer able to associate one light field with shock. By contrast, silencing of one collar region of the mushroom body calyx did not alter behavior in the learning assay in comparison to control treatment. Bees with silenced central complex neurons did not leave the shock-paired light field in the middle trials of training, even after a few seconds of being shocked. We discussed how mushroom bodies and the central complex both contribute to aversive visual learning with an operant component.

  14. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Richard; Polishchuk, Alexei; DuBois, Steven; Hawkins, Randall; Lee, Stephanie W.; Bagatell, Rochelle; Shusterman, Suzanne; Hill-Kayser, Christine; Al-Sayegh, Hasan; Diller, Lisa; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A.; Matthay, Katherine K.; London, Wendy B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  15. Patterns of Relapse in High-Risk Neuroblastoma Patients Treated With and Without Total Body Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Richard [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Polishchuk, Alexei [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); DuBois, Steven [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hawkins, Randall [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Lee, Stephanie W. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Bagatell, Rochelle [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Shusterman, Suzanne [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hill-Kayser, Christine [Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Al-Sayegh, Hasan [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Diller, Lisa [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Haas-Kogan, Daphne A. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Matthay, Katherine K. [School of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); London, Wendy B. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Dana-Farber/Boston Children' s Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); and others

    2017-02-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy to initial sites of disease may influence relapse patterns in high-risk neuroblastoma. However, the effect of systemic irradiation by use of total body irradiation (TBI) on anatomic patterns of relapse has not previously been investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed patients receiving definitive treatment of high-risk neuroblastoma with subsequent relapse in bony metastatic sites, with a date of relapse between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012. Anatomic sites of disease, defined by metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) avidity, were compared at diagnosis and at first relapse. The Fisher exact test was performed to compare relapse in initially involved sites between patients treated with and without TBI. Results: Seventy-four patients with a median age at diagnosis of 3.5 years (range, 0.3-15.3 years) had relapse in 227 sites of MIBG-avid metastatic disease, with a median time to relapse of 1.8 years. Of the 227 sites of first relapse, 154 sites (68%) were involved at diagnosis. When we compared relapse patterns in patients treated with and without TBI, 12 of 23 patients (52%) treated with TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease whereas 40 of 51 patients (78%) treated without TBI had relapse in ≥1 previously MIBG-avid site of disease (P=.03). Conclusions: Patients treated with systemic irradiation in the form of TBI were significantly less likely to have relapse in prior sites of disease. These findings support further investigation into the role of radiopharmaceutical therapies in curative multimodality therapy.

  16. HDRK-Woman: whole-body voxel model based on high-resolution color slice images of Korean adult female cadaver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Han, Min Cheol; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Ham, Bo Kyoung; Cho, Kun Woo; Hwang, Sung Bae

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, we constructed a male reference Korean phantom; HDRK-Man (High-Definition Reference Korean-Man), to represent Korean adult males for radiation protection purposes. In the present study, a female phantom; HDRK-Woman (High-Definition Reference Korean-Woman), was constructed to represent Korean adult females. High-resolution color photographic images obtained by serial sectioning of a 26 year-old Korean adult female cadaver were utilized. The body height and weight, the skeletal mass, and the dimensions of the individual organs and tissues were adjusted to the reference Korean data. The phantom was then compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) female reference phantom in terms of calculated organ doses and organ-depth distributions. Additionally, the effective doses were calculated using both the HDRK-Man and HDRK-Woman phantoms, and the values were compared with those of the ICRP reference phantoms. (paper)

  17. Glowing seashells: diversity of fossilized coloration patterns on coral reef-associated cone snail (Gastropoda: Conidae shells from the Neogene of the Dominican Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Hendricks

    Full Text Available The biology of modern Conidae (cone snails--which includes the hyperdiverse genus Conus--has been intensively studied, but the fossil record of the clade remains poorly understood, particularly within an evolutionary framework. Here, ultraviolet light is used to reveal and characterize the original shell coloration patterns of 28 species of cone snails from three Neogene coral reef-associated deposits from the Cibao Valley, northern Dominican Republic. These fossils come from the upper Miocene Cercado Fm. and lower Pliocene Gurabo Fm., and range in age from about 6.6-4.8 Ma. Comparison of the revealed coloration patterns with those of extant species allow the taxa to be assigned to three genera of cone snails (Profundiconus, Conasprella, and Conus and at least nine subgenera. Thirteen members of these phylogenetically diverse reef faunas are described as new species. These include: Profundiconus? hennigi, Conasprella (Ximeniconus ageri, Conus anningae, Conus lyelli, Conus (Atlanticonus? franklinae, Conus (Stephanoconus gouldi, Conus (Stephanoconus bellacoensis, Conus (Ductoconus cashi, Conus (Dauciconus garrisoni, Conus (Dauciconus? zambaensis, Conus (Spuriconus? kaesleri, Conus (Spuriconus? lombardii, and Conus (Lautoconus? carlottae. Each of the three reef deposits contain a minimum of 14-16 cone snail species, levels of diversity that are similar to modern Indo-Pacific reef systems. Finally, most of the 28 species can be assigned to modern clades and thus have important implications for understanding the biogeographic and temporal histories of these clades in tropical America.

  18. Adolescent dietary patterns in Fiji and their relationships with standardized body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wate, Jillian T; Snowdon, Wendy; Millar, Lynne; Nichols, Melanie; Mavoa, Helen; Goundar, Ramneek; Kama, Ateca; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-04-09

    Obesity has been increasing in adolescents in Fiji and obesogenic dietary patterns need to be assessed to inform health promotion. The objective of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of adolescents in peri-urban Fiji and determine their relationships with standardized body mass index (BMI-z). This study analysed baseline measurements from the Pacific Obesity Prevention In Communities (OPIC) Project. The sample comprised 6,871 adolescents aged 13-18 years from 18 secondary schools on the main island of Viti Levu, Fiji. Adolescents completed a questionnaire that included diet-related variables; height and weight were measured. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between dietary patterns and BMI-z, while controlling for confounders and cluster effect by school. Of the total sample, 24% of adolescents were overweight or obese, with a higher prevalence among Indigenous Fijians and females. Almost all adolescents reported frequent consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) (90%) and low intake of fruit and vegetables (74%). Over 25% of participants were frequent consumers of takeaways for dinner, and either high fat/salt snacks, or confectionery after school. Nearly one quarter reported irregular breakfast (24%) and lunch (24%) consumption on school days, while fewer adolescents (13%) ate fried foods after school. IndoFijians were more likely than Indigenous Fijians to regularly consume breakfast, but had a high unhealthy SSB and snack consumption.Regular breakfast (p<0.05), morning snack (p<0.05) and lunch (p<0.05) consumption were significantly associated with lower BMI-z. Consumption of high fat/salt snacks, fried foods and confectionery was lower among participants with higher BMI-z. This study provides important information about Fijian adolescents' dietary patterns and associations with BMI-z. Health promotion should target reducing SSB, increasing fruit and vegetables consumption, and

  19. Atypical performance patterns on Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Color-Word Interference Test: Cognitive switching and learning ability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Swan, Natasha M; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern. It is hypothesized that atypical patterns on CWIT will be associated with better performance on underlying cognitive measures of attention, working memory, and learning when compared to typical CWIT patterns. Records from 239 clinical referrals (age: M = 68.09 years, SD = 10.62; education: M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.73) seen for a neuropsychological evaluation as part of diagnostic work up in an outpatient dementia and movement disorders clinic were sampled. The standard battery of tests included measures of attention, learning, fluency, executive functioning, and working memory. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare the cognitive performance of those with typical versus atypical CWIT patterns. An atypical pattern of performance was confirmed in 23% of our sample. Analyses revealed a significant group difference in acquisition of information on both nonverbal (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, BVMT-R total recall), F(1, 213) = 16.61, p < .001, and verbal (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, HVLT-R total recall) learning tasks, F(1, 181) = 6.43, p < .01, and semantic fluency (Animal Naming), F(1, 232) = 7.57, p = .006, with the atypical group performing better on each task. Effect sizes were larger for nonverbal (Cohen's d = 0.66) than verbal learning (Cohen's d = 0.47) and semantic fluency (Cohen's d = 0.43). Individuals demonstrating an atypical pattern of performance on the CWIT inhibition/switching trial also demonstrated relative

  20. Differences in eye-movement patterns between anorexic and control observers when judging body size and attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, H R; Cornelissen, P L; Hancock, P J B; Kiviniemi, V V; Tovée, M J

    2011-08-01

    Attentional biases may influence the eye-movements made when judging bodies and so alter the visual information sampled when making a judgment. This may lead to an overestimation of body size. We measured the eye-movements made by 16 anorexic observers and 16 age-matched controls when judging body size and attractiveness. We combined behavioural data with a novel eye-movement analysis technique that allowed us to apply spatial statistical techniques to make fine spatial discriminations in the pattern of eye-movements between our observer groups. Our behavioural results show that anorexic observers overestimate body size relative to controls and find bodies with lower body mass indexes more attractive. For both judgments, the controls' fixations centre on the stomach, but the anorexic observers show a much wider fixation pattern extending to encompass additional features such as the prominence of the hip and collar bones. This additional visual information may serve to alter their behavioural judgments towards an overestimation of body size and shift their ideal body size towards a significantly lower value. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Distinguishing the effects of familiarity, relatedness, and color pattern rarity on attractiveness and measuring their effects on sexual selection in guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Brooks, Robert C

    2008-12-01

    Mate choice is often based on multiple signal traits and can be influenced by context-dependent factors. Understanding the importance of these signals and factors can be difficult because they are often correlated and might interact. Here, we experimentally disentangle the effects of familiarity, kinship, pattern rarity, and ornament patterns on mate choice in guppies. We estimate whether these factors alter sexual selection on six phenotypic traits known to influence male attractiveness. Rarity of the male's phenotype is the only context-dependent factor that significantly influenced female mating decisions, with common patterns being least attractive. This preference for rare male patterns is a source of negative frequency-dependent selection that may contribute to maintaining the extreme polymorphism in male guppy coloration. Neither visual familiarity nor relatedness between mating partners had any significant effect on mate choice decisions. There was significant linear and nonlinear sexual selection on ornamental traits, but this was not influenced by the context-dependent measures. Our approach highlights the complexity of female mate choice and sexual selection, as well as the value of combining multifactorial experiments with multivariate selection analyses. Our study shows that both negative frequency-dependent selection and disruptive selection contribute to the maintenance of extreme polymorphism in guppies.

  2. Development of Dietary Patterns Spanning Infancy and Toddlerhood: Relation to Body Size, Composition and Metabolic Risk Markers at Three Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise BB Andersen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the development of dietary patterns during toddlerhood and the relation to growth and health. The study objective was to characterise the development of dietary patterns from 9-36 mo of age and investigate the association to body size, body composition and metabolic risk markers at 36 mo. Food records were filled out at 9, 18 and 36 mo of age (n = 229. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis (PCA. Three dietary patterns were identified: Transition Food, Healthy Food and Traditional Food. The course of development in dietary patterns from 9-36 mo indicated tracking for a relatively large group of participants in the three patterns. Transition Food and Healthy Food were associated with some of the investigated outcomes. Children with lower adherence to the Transition Food pattern than average at 18 and 36 mo irrespectively of intake at 9 mo had higher BMI z-scores at 36 mo. Similar trend was identified for higher fat mass indices. Children with lower adherence to the Healthy Food pattern than average at all three ages compared to children with higher adherence to the Healthy Food pattern at the first two registrations, 9 and 18 mo had higher total cholesterol and LDL. Hence, this could represent undesirable development of dietary patterns in toddlers. In conclusion, development of dietary patterns can be exploratory characterised by PCA and related to potential cardiovascular risk markers in toddlers even within a relatively homogeneous population with a high socioeconomic status. The tracking of dietary patterns from 9 mo of age indicates a need for early and sustained promotion of healthy diets.

  3. Gait training assist system of a lower limb prosthetic visualizing muscle activation pattern using a color-depth sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Kunihiro; Mita, Tomoki; Tsuji, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshio

    2017-07-01

    Some unilateral lower-limb amputees load the intact limb more than the prosthetic limb. This can cause chronic pains, fatigue, lumbago, and joint diseases, including knee osteoarthritis. To avoid and counteract these symptoms it is necessary to improve their asymmetric gait. Increasing the function of the hip abductor muscle is important to maintaining symmetrical weight distribution. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to develop a training assist system, which estimates and visualizes an abductor muscle by using a color-depth sensor. To estimate the muscle activation, first, the floor reaction force is calculated using a simple dynamic model. Then, the hip torque is calculated using joint angles. The floor reaction force and, the muscle length are calculated based on a human musculoskeletal model. Muscle activity is estimated by these parameters. Evaluation experiments of this proposed method were performed on healthy persons and unilateral trans femoral amputees, and the effectiveness of this proposed algorithm has been confirmed.

  4. Meal patterns and frequencies: do they affect body weight in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletzko, Berthold; Toschke, Andre Michael

    2010-02-01

    Some previous studies reported a higher meal frequency associated with a lower body weight both in obese and in normal weight adults. We review recent studies addressing the relation between meal frequency and obesity risk in children and adolescents. In a Medline search, we identified 5 observational studies published between 2004 and 2009 that reviewed data on a total of 13,998 children and adolescents from the United States, Germany, and Portugal. Three of the five studies found a significant reduction of obesity risk with increasing number of meals, which persisted after adjustment for confounders, while the two other studies found a non-significant trend in the same direction. Given the consistent association of skipping meals with an increased obesity risk in children, it appears prudent to promote a regular meal pattern with 5 meals per day with adequate composition to children and their families. Prospective controlled trials to assess the protective potential of promoting regular and frequent meals in children and their families are highly desirable to strengthen the evidence base for such preventive approaches, which should explore the feasibility and effects of interventions.

  5. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Body Composition Changes in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Alvira, Juan Miguel; Bammann, Karin; Eiben, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe dietary patterns by applying cluster analysis and to describe the cluster memberships of European children over time and their association with body composition changes. Design: The analyses included k-means clustering based on the similarities between the relative......: Participants (n 8341) in the baseline (2–9 years old) and follow-up (4–11 years old) surveys of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) study. Results: Three persistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up. Children...... consistently allocated to the ‘processed’ cluster presented increased BMI (β=0·050; 95 % CI 0·006, 0·093), increased waist circumference (β=0·071; 95 % CI 0·001, 0·141) and increased fat mass gain (β=0·052; 95 % CI 0·014, 0·090) over time v. children allocated to the ‘healthy’ cluster. Being in the ‘processed...

  6. Nutritional counselling in disabled people: effects on dietary patterns, body composition and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoli, S; Spadafranca, A; Merati, G; Testolin, G; Veicsteinas, A; Battezzati, A

    2008-06-01

    Disabled persons are frequently affected by nutritional status impairment, consequent to quantitative and qualitative inadequacy of diet and physical inactivity, resulting in a significant reduction of fat-free mass and bone mineral density (BMD), and an over-expression of fat mass and an increased number of biochemical risk factors for chronic degenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to analyse the applicability and the efficacy of a nutritional counselling intervention in order to improve dietary intake and nutritional status in disabled people. Thirty-seven disabled subjects (24 with physical disability and 13 with both mental retardation and physical disability; age 33.5+/-9.2 years) underwent an assessment of nutritional status, and an intervention with nutritional counselling was proposed to each patient for one year. Anthropometric measurements, indirect calorimetry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and biochemical analysis at baseline (T0) and after one year (T1) of counselling intervention were performed. Sixty-five percent of patients dropped out. Overall, no significant improvement in cardiovascular risk factors, body composition and dietary patterns was reported at T1 in completer subjects. Six subjects who were obese or overweight at T0, reported significant weight and fat mass (FM) reduction at T1 (P=0.01 and P=0.00, respectively). Nutritional counselling seems to be ineffective and poorly applicable to disabled people. Further studies should be directed towards a treatment program associated with careful screening, motivation analysis, and follow-up in this patient population.

  7. Maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Marion; Leermakers, Elisabeth Tm; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Steegers, Eric Ap; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C

    2015-10-01

    Maternal diet during pregnancy may affect body composition of the offspring later in life, but evidence is still scarce. We aimed to examine whether maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy are associated with body composition of the child at age 6 y. This study was performed among 2695 Dutch mother-child pairs from a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onward. Maternal diet was assessed in early pregnancy by a 293-item semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Vegetable, fish, and oil; nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals; and margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis. We measured weight and height of the child at age 6 y at the research center. Total body fat and regional fat mass percentages of the child were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In the crude models, statistically significant associations were found for higher adherence to the vegetable, fish, and oil dietary pattern and the nuts, soy, and high-fiber cereals dietary pattern with lower body mass index, lower fat mass index, and lower risk of being overweight, but none of these associations remained significant after adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. We found no associations between the margarine, snacks, and sugar dietary pattern and any of the outcomes. Our results suggest that the associations between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and body composition of the child at age 6 y are to a large extent explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of mother and child. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. [Signal Patterns of Dual Color Dual Fusion Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization for Detection of Genetic Abnormality in Adult Patients with ALL and Their Clinical Application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Zhang-Lin; Xin, Yan-Hong; Liu, Shu-Yuan; Li, Xin; Wan, La-Gen

    2016-04-01

    To study the signal patterns of dual color dual fusion fluorescence in situ hybridization (DCDF-FISH) for detection of genetic abnormality in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and their diagnostic value and clinical application. The clinical data of 68 ALL patients confirmed in our hospital were analyzed retrospectively; The bone marrow samples were detected by DCDF-FISH, flow cytometry, conventional cytogenetics (CCG), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and the correlation of these results was compared. And the reaction of patients to treatment was dynamically observed by DCDF-FISH. Sixteen signal patterns were found in DCDF-FISH, including 14 kinds of atypical signal patterns (signal patterns of 1R2G, 2R3G, 2R4G and 3R3G as abnormal signal patterns without BCR/ABL fusion gene. Signal patterns of 1R1G1F, 1R1G3F, 1R1G4F, 1R2G1F, 1R2G2F, 1R2G3F, 1RnG2F (n ≥ 3), 2R2G1F, 1G4F, 1R4F corresponded to t (9;22) karyotype). Ph(+) ALL patients accounted for 17. All cases with Ph chromosome or BCR/ABL positive were B-ALL or My(+)-B-ALL. The Ph chromosome was detected in 12 cases (positive rate was 18%) by CCG. The positive rate was 25% (17/68) by DCDF-FISH and RT-PCR. The DCDF-FISH fluorescence pattern change before and after chemotherapy of the patients showed that the quantity and form of the signal pattern was changed after chemotherapy, and the common characteristics was the Ph chromosome in patients. The DCDF-FISH is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of BCR/ABL rearrangement. Analyzing the dynamical change of DCDF-FISH signal patterns has been comfirmed to have a important guiding significance in the diagnosis, and anlysis of response to therapy, drug resistance and the prognosis of ALL patients.

  9. Temperature and ontogenetic effects on color change in the larval salamander species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.S.; Straus, R.; Sih, A.

    2003-01-01

    Temperature has been shown to affect body color in several species of amphibians. The interaction between color and temperature may also change over larval ontogeny, perhaps because of age-related or seasonal changes in selection pressures on color. We quantified the effects of temperature on the color of the salamander sister species Ambystoma barbouri and Ambystoma texanum over larval ontogeny. We found that early-stage larvae responded to cold temperatures with a dark color relative to that of the warm temperature response. Both species then exhibited an ontogenetic shift in larval color, with larvae becoming lighter with age. Interestingly, older larvae showed decreased plasticity in color change to temperature when compared with younger stages. Older A. texanum larvae exhibited a reversal in the direction of color change, with cold temperatures inducing a lighter color relative to warm temperatures. We suggest that the overall pattern of color change (a plastic color response to temperature for young larvae, a progressive lightening of larvae over development, and an apparent loss of color plasticity to temperature over ontogeny) can be plausibly explained by seasonal changes in environmental factors (temperature, ultraviolet radiation) selecting for body color. (author)

  10. Early Birds by Light at Night: Effects of Light Color and Intensity on Daily Activity Patterns in Blue Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maaike; Caro, Samuel P.; Gienapp, Phillip; Spoelstra, Kamiel; Visser, Marcel E.

    2017-01-01

    Artificial light at night disturbs the daily rhythms of many organisms. To what extent this disturbance depends on the intensity and spectral composition of light remain obscure. Here, we measured daily activity patterns of captive blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) exposed to similar intensities of

  11. The Dominance of Spatial Memory over Color or Form in 3- to 5-Year-Olds' Pattern Reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.

    The relative importance of spatial-position as a memory aid in a block pattern reproduction task was investigated by analyzing the object-selection and object-placement strategies of 69 nursery school children. Subjects were given a task modeled on Piaget's assessment of Static Reproductive Images and Action that had been modified into a…

  12. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  13. The Effect of Dietary Pattern and Body Mass Index on the Academic Performance of In-School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsile, Seyi Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary pattern and body mass index on the academic performance of in-school adolescents in Ekiti State. One hundred and twenty eight students (10-19 years) selected from three senior secondary schools in Ekiti State Nigeria, formed the participants for this study. Questionnaire was…

  14. Patterns of Body Image Concerns and Disordered Weight- and Shape-Related Behaviors in Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzo, Jerel P.; Masyn, Katherine E.; Corliss, Heather L.; Scherer, Emily A.; Field, Alison E.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates body image concerns and disordered weight- and shape-related behaviors across adolescence and young adulthood in males and how patterns vary by sexual orientation. Participants were 5,388 males from the U.S. national Growing Up Today Study. In 2001, 2003, and 2005 (spanning ages 15-20 years), participants reported sexual…

  15. Low back pain in drivers exposed to whole body vibration: analysis of a dose-response pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, I. J. H.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a dose-response pattern between exposure to whole body vibration (WBV) and low back pain (LBP) in a group of drivers. This study assessed individual factors, work-related risk factors, various LBP outcome measures and LBP disability in a group of drivers (n = 571) approached at baseline

  16. The Pattern of Gestational Weight Gain is Associated with Changes in Maternal Body Composition and Neonatal Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Factor-Litvak, Pam R; Gallagher, Dympna; Paxton, Anne; Pierson, Richard N; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lederman, Sally A

    2015-10-01

    The pattern of gestational weight gain (GWG) reflects general nutrient availability to support growing fetal and maternal compartments and may contribute to later health, but how it relates to changes in maternal body composition is unknown. We evaluated how the pattern of GWG related to changes in maternal body composition during pregnancy and infant size at birth. A prospective, multi-ethnic cohort of 156 pregnant women and their infants was studied in New York City. Prenatal weights were used to estimate total and rate (kg/week) of GWG by trimester. Linear regression models evaluated the association between trimester-specific GWG group (low, medium, high GWG) [total (low ≤25, high ≥75 percentile) or rate (defined by tertiles)] and infant weight, length and maternal body composition changes from 14 to 37 weeks, adjusting for covariates. Compared to the low gain group, medium/high rate of GWG in the second trimester and high rate of GWG in the third trimester were associated with larger gains in maternal fat mass (β range for fat Δ = 2.86-5.29 kg, all p weight (β = 356 g, p = 0.001) and length (β = 0.85 cm, p = 0.002). First and third trimester GWG were not associated with neonatal size. The trimester specific pattern and rate of GWG reflect changes in maternal body fat and body water, and are associated with neonatal size, which supports the importance of monitoring trimester-specific GWG.

  17. Pattern Recognition in Numerical Data Sets and Color Images through the Typicality Based on the GKPFCM Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ojeda-Magaña

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We take the concept of typicality from the field of cognitive psychology, and we apply the meaning to the interpretation of numerical data sets and color images through fuzzy clustering algorithms, particularly the GKPFCM, looking to get better information from the processed data. The Gustafson Kessel Possibilistic Fuzzy c-means (GKPFCM is a hybrid algorithm that is based on a relative typicality (membership degree, Fuzzy c-means and an absolute typicality (typicality value, Possibilistic c-means. Thus, using both typicalities makes it possible to learn and analyze data as well as to relate the results with the theory of prototypes. In order to demonstrate these results we use a synthetic data set and a digitized image of a glass, in a first example, and images from the Berkley database, in a second example. The results clearly demonstrate the advantages of the information obtained about numerical data sets, taking into account the different meaning of typicalities and the availability of both values with the clustering algorithm used. This approach allows the identification of small homogeneous regions, which are difficult to find.

  18. Eye Movement Preferences As Individual Differences in Learning From Color and Non-Color Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban, Juan Pedro

    An experiment compared the effectiveness of color and non-color (black-and-white) pictures in a paired associate learning task. The study also used individual eye movement quantifications as a predictor of preference for color and non-color pictures. Specifically, eye movement fixation patterns were used as indices of preference for color and…

  19. In or out-of-Madagascar?--Colonization patterns for large-bodied diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Bukontaite

    Full Text Available High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1 How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2 Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3 Where did the colonizers come from--Africa or Asia--and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4 When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense

  20. In or out-of-Madagascar?--Colonization patterns for large-bodied diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from--Africa or Asia--and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon sampling

  1. Patterns of gray matter atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rosie; O'Brien, John T; Barber, Robert; Blamire, Andrew M

    2012-04-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common form of dementia characterized by visual hallucinations, cognitive fluctuation and parkinsonism. We aimed to compare the patterns of gray matter atrophy in DLB with those in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal aging, and to investigate the relationship between atrophy and cognitive measures. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate gray matter (GM) loss in DLB (n = 35; mean age = 78.4; MMSE = 20.3), AD (n = 36; mean age = 78.3; MMSE = 19.5) and similar aged controls (n = 35; mean age = 76.7; MMSE = 29.1). T1 weighted MRI scans were acquired at 3 Tesla from all subjects and analyzed using VBM-DARTEL in SPM8. Cognitive function was assessed using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG). We found reduced gray matter in temporal, parietal, occipital, and subcortical structures in DLB when compared to normal controls. The degree of atrophy was less than that observed in AD. There was significantly more medial temporal lobe atrophy in the AD group when compared with DLB. We did not find a correlation between total CAMCOG score and atrophy, but the CAMCOG memory subscale score correlated with temporal lobe atrophy in both the DLB and combined DLB/AD group. DLB is associated with less gray matter atrophy and relative preservation of the medial temporal lobe when compared to AD. Degree of medial temporal atrophy may be a useful imaging biomarker and our results provide support for its inclusion in the revised consensus criteria for DLB.

  2. Dietary pattern associated with selenoprotein P and MRI-derived body fat volumes, liver signal intensity, and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, Romina; Plachta-Danielzik, Sandra; Koch, Manja; Nöthlings, Ute; Schlesinger, Sabrina; Borggrefe, Jan; Both, Marcus; Müller, Hans-Peter; Kassubek, Jan; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang

    2018-02-14

    The association of complex dietary patterns with circulating selenoprotein P (SELENOP) levels in humans is unknown. In a general population sample, we aimed to identify a dietary pattern explaining inter-individual variation in circulating SELENOP concentrations and to study this pattern in relation to prevalent diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS), MRI-determined total volumes of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) abdominal adipose tissue, and liver signal intensity/fatty liver disease. In this cross-sectional study, serum SELENOP levels were measured in 853 individuals. In a subsample of 553 participants, whole-body MRI was performed to assess body fat distribution and liver fat. Dietary intake was assessed by a self-administered food frequency questionnaire and the dietary pattern identified using reduced-rank regression (RRR). Multivariable linear and logistic regressions were used to investigate associations between dietary pattern score and metabolic traits. Characterized by high intake of fruit, vegetables and antioxidant beverages, the RRR-derived dietary pattern displayed inverse associations with VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes in multivariable-adjusted restricted cubic splines. Each unit increase in dietary pattern score was associated with 31% higher SELENOP levels, 12% lower VAT (95% CI: - 19%; - 5%), 13% (95% CI: - 20%; - 6%) lower SAT values and 46% (95% CI: 27%; 60%) and 53% (95% CI: 22%; 72%) lower odds of having MetS or diabetes, respectively. No meaningful relations were observed between the dietary pattern and liver traits. Our observations propose diet-related regulation in SELENOP levels and that the identified dietary pattern is inversely related to VAT, SAT, MetS, and prevalent diabetes.

  3. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez I de Lanuza, G; Font, E

    2016-05-01

    Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis, we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long-wavelength-based) and lateral (short-wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Interspecific and intraspecific views of color signals in the strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Afsheen; Cronin, Thomas W; Loew, Ellis R; Vorobyev, Misha; Summers, Kyle

    2004-06-01

    Poison frogs in the anuran family Dendrobatidae use bright colors on their bodies to advertise toxicity. The species Dendrobates pumilio Schmidt 1858, the strawberry poison frog, shows extreme polymorphism in color and pattern in Panama. It is known that females of D. pumilio preferentially choose mates of their own color morph. Nevertheless, potential predators must clearly see and recognize all color morphs if the aposematic signaling system is to function effectively. We examined the ability of conspecifics and a model predator to discriminate a diverse selection of D. pumilio colors from each other and from background colors. Microspectrophotometry of isolated rod and cone photoreceptors of D. pumilio revealed the presence of a trichromatic photopic visual system. A typical tetrachromatic bird system was used for the model predator. Reflectance spectra of frog and background colors were obtained, and discrimination among spectra in natural illuminants was mathematically modeled. The results revealed that both D. pumilio and the model predator discriminate most colors quite well, both from each other and from typical backgrounds, with the predator generally performing somewhat better than the conspecifics. Each color morph displayed at least one color signal that is highly visible against backgrounds to both visual systems. Our results indicate that the colors displayed by the various color morphs of D. pumilio are effective signals both to conspecifics and to a model predator.

  5. Ontogenetic behavior and migration of Dabry's sturgeon, Acipenser dabryanus, from the Yangtze River, with notes on body color and development rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, L.

    2003-01-01

    We conducted laboratory experiments with Dabry's sturgeon, Acipenser dabryanus, from the upper Yangtze River to develop a conceptual model of early behavior. We daily observed fish from day-0 (embryo, first life interval after hatching) to day-30 feeding larva for preference of bright habitat and cover, swimming distance above the bottom, up- and down-stream movement, and diel activity. Hatchling to day-12 embryos and days 13-24 larvae were similar for ontogenetic behavior, i.e., neither initiated a dispersal migration, both swam within 15 cm of the bottom, both preferred bright habitat, and neither strongly preferred cover or open habitat. Embryos and larvae were weakly active day and night. Days 72-76 juveniles had a weak nocturnal downstream migration, indicating wild juveniles disperse from a spawning site. In other sturgeon species yet studied representing three genera on three continents, Dabry's sturgeon is the first that does not disperse as an embryo or larva. Development of Dabry's sturgeon is slow, requiring more cumulative temperature degree days per millimeter of larvae TL than is required for other sturgeons to develop into larvae. Thus, a dispersal migration that diverts energy from development may not be adaptive. The available information suggests the initial dispersal of early life intervals is likely done by females, which spawn in a dispersed spawning style, not the usual aggregated spawning style. Juvenile migrants had a black body and tail with a light line along the lateral scutes. The color of juvenile migrants shows that a dark body and tail is characteristic of Acipenser that migrate downstream as larvae or juveniles.

  6. Effects of body-color mutations on vitality: an attempt to establish easy-to-breed see-through medaka strains by outcrossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Ayaka; Morimura, Noriko; Matsumoto, Chizuru; Hiraga, Ami; Komine, Ritsuko; Kimura, Tetsuaki; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Fukamachi, Shoji

    2013-09-04

    "See-through" strains of medaka are unique tools for experiments: their skin is transparent, and their internal organs can be externally monitored throughout life. However, see-through fish are less vital than normally pigmented wild-type fish, which allows only skilled researchers to make the most of their advantages. Expecting that hybrid vigor (heterosis) would increase the vitality, we outcrossed two see-through strains (SK(2) and STIII) with a genetically distant wild-type strain (HNI). Fish with the see-through phenotypes were successfully restored in the F2 generation and maintained as closed colonies. We verified that genomes of these hybrid see-through strains actually consisted of approximately 50% HNI and approximately 50% SK(2) or STIII alleles, but we could not obtain evidence supporting improved survival of larvae or fecundity of adults, at least under our breeding conditions. We also found that four of the five see-through mutations (b(g8), i-3, gu, and il-1 but not lf) additively decrease viability. Given that heterosis could not overwhelm the viability-reducing effects of the see-through mutations, easy-to-breed see-through strains will only be established by other methods such as conditional gene targeting or screening of new body-color mutations that do not reduce viability.

  7. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography for visualization of signal Intensity distribution pattern within an unruptured cerebral aneurysm: preliminarily assessment with anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, T.; Ekino, C.; Ohsako, C.

    2004-01-01

    The natural history of unruptured cerebral aneurysm is not known; also unknown is the potential growth and rupture in any individual aneurysm. The authors have developed transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) obtained by a time-of-flight sequence to investigate the interaction between the intra-aneurysmal signal intensity distribution patterns and configuration of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Transluminal color-coded images were reconstructed from volume data of source magnetic resonance angiography by using a parallel volume-rendering algorithm with transluminal imaging technique. By selecting a numerical threshold range from a signal intensity opacity chart of the three-dimensional volume-rendering dataset several areas of signal intensity were depicted, assigned different colors, and visualized transparently through the walls of parent arteries and an aneurysm. Patterns of signal intensity distribution were analyzed with three operated cases of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm and compared with the actual configurations observed at microneurosurgery. A little difference in marginal features of an aneurysm was observed; however, transluminal color-coded images visualized the complex signal intensity distribution within an aneurysm in conjunction with aneurysmal geometry. Transluminal color-coded three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography can thus provide numerical analysis of the interaction between spatial signal intensity distribution patterns and aneurysmal configurations and may offer an alternative and practical method to investigate the patient-specific natural history of individual unruptured cerebral aneurysms. (orig.)

  9. 7 CFR 29.3025 - General color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General color. 29.3025 Section 29.3025 Agriculture... General color. The color of tobacco considered in relation to the type as a whole. General color is distinguished from the restricted use of the term “color” within a group. It is basically related to body and...

  10. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  11. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  12. Early visual ERPs show stable body-sensitive patterns over a 4-week test period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Katie; Kennett, Steffan; Gillmeister, Helge

    2018-01-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies feature among the most cited papers in the field of body representation, with recent research highlighting the potential of ERPs as neuropsychiatric biomarkers. Despite this, investigation into how reliable early visual ERPs and body-sensitive effects are over time has been overlooked. This study therefore aimed to assess the stability of early body-sensitive effects and visual P1, N1 and VPP responses. Participants were asked to identify pictures of their own bodies, other bodies and houses during an EEG test session that was completed at the same time, once a week, for four consecutive weeks. Results showed that amplitude and latency of early visual components and their associated body-sensitive effects were stable over the 4-week period. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed that VPP component amplitude might be more reliable than VPP latency and specific electrode sites might be more robust indicators of body-sensitive cortical activity than others. These findings suggest that visual P1, N1 and VPP responses, alongside body-sensitive N1/VPP effects, are robust indications of neuronal activity. We conclude that these components are eligible to be considered as electrophysiological biomarkers relevant to body representation. PMID:29438399

  13. Development of a Decision Support System of Mattress Patterns Based on Users' Body Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Toru; Matsui, Itsuo; Hamamura, Norihisa; Iwamura, Noriki

    This paper describes a mattress decision system based on users' characteristics. Generally, the comfortable bed means what sleeping habits and body pressure keep a good condition. The term “good condition” is that sleeping habits are close to the standing position and the wide body pressure. Therefore, the proposed system makes use of these as the evaluation indexes. In the past, they have been actually measuring that sleeping habits and body pressure. However, this way takes a lot of time and physical load. Consequently, we propose a way to predict users' sleeping habits and body pressures using neural networks.

  14. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  15. Fuzzy boundaries: color and gene flow patterns among parapatric lineages of the western shovel-nosed snake and taxonomic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Dustin A.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vandergast, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate delineation of lineage diversity is increasingly important, as species distributions are becoming more reduced and threatened. During the last century, the subspecies category was often used to denote phenotypic variation within a species range and to provide a framework for understanding lineage differentiation, often considered incipient speciation. While this category has largely fallen into disuse, previously recognized subspecies often serve as important units for conservation policy and management when other information is lacking. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic subspecies hypotheses within shovel-nosed snakes on the basis of genetic data and considered how evolutionary processes such as gene flow influenced possible incongruence between phenotypic and genetic patterns. We used both traditional phylogenetic and Bayesian clustering analyses to infer range-wide genetic structure and spatially explicit analyses to detect possible boundary locations of lineage contact. Multilocus analyses supported three historically isolated groups with low to moderate levels of contemporary gene exchange. Genetic data did not support phenotypic subspecies as exclusive groups, and we detected patterns of discordance in areas where three subspecies are presumed to be in contact. Based on genetic and phenotypic evidence, we suggested that species-level diversity is underestimated in this group and we proposed that two species be recognized, Chionactis occipitalis and C. annulata. In addition, we recommend retention of two subspecific designations within C. annulata (C. a. annulata and C. a. klauberi) that reflect regional shifts in both genetic and phenotypic variation within the species. Our results highlight the difficultly in validating taxonomic boundaries within lineages that are evolving under a time-dependent, continuous process.

  16. Impact of Thermal Plumes Generated by Occupant Simulators with Different Complexity of Body Geometry on Airflow Pattern in Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    The impact of thermal plumes generated by human body simulators with different geometry on the airflow pattern in a full scale room with displacement ventilation (supply air temperature 21.6°C, total flow rate 80 L/s) was studied when two seated occupants were simulated first by two thermal...... manikins resembling accurately human body shape and then by two heated cylinders. The manikins and the cylinders had the same surface area of 1.63 m2 and the same heat generation of 73 W. CO2 supplied from the top of the heat sources was used for simulating bio-effluents. CO2 concentration was measured...

  17. Dietary energy density and obesity: how consumption patterns differ by body weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernarelli, Jacqueline A; Mitchell, Diane C; Rolls, Barbara J; Hartman, Terryl J

    2018-02-01

    Recent public health messages have advised consumers to lower dietary energy density (ED) for weight management, but it is not known whether the proportion of the diet from low-ED foods is related to weight status. In a nationally representative sample of US adults, we evaluated whether the proportions of dietary energy intake contributed by low- and high-ED foods are associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Data were from a cross-sectional sample of 9551 adults ≥18 years in the 2005-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). ED (kcal/g) was calculated for each food item reported during a 24-h dietary recall; individual foods were divided into five ED categories: very low ED (4.0 kcal/g). The percentages of total energy and the food weight from each category were evaluated by BMI and WC after controlling for total energy intake and other covariates. Men classified as lean (BMI energy from very low- and low-ED foods (7.2 % very low and 23.3 % low ), compared to men considered obese ((BMI > 30 kg/m 2 ); 5.2 % very low and 20.1 low  %; p-trends energy and low-ED foods of 24.7 % (vs. 21.5 % for women with obesity) of total energy (p-trends 0.007 very low , 0.004 low ). Men and women with obesity reported greater proportions of energy from high-ED foods (45.9 % men with obesity vs. 42.4 % lean men , 44.2 % women with obesity vs. 39.9 % lean women ) with significant statistical trends (men = 0.008, women = 0.0005). Similar patterns were observed for intakes of proportions of very low-, low-, and high-ED foods and WC. Higher proportions of energy intake and food weight contributed by very low- and low-ED foods are associated with lower BMI (and WC).

  18. Pattern of Progression after Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Prostate Cancer Nodal Recurrences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, P; Jereczek-Fossa, B A; Van As, N; Zilli, T; Tree, A; Henderson, D; Orecchia, R; Casamassima, F; Surgo, A; Miralbell, R; De Meerleer, G

    2016-09-01

    To report the relapse pattern of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for oligorecurrent nodal prostate cancer (PCa). PCa patients with ≤3 lymph nodes (N1/M1a) at the time of recurrence were treated with SBRT. SBRT was defined as a radiotherapy dose of at least 5 Gy per fraction to a biological effective dose of at least 80 Gy to all metastatic sites. Distant progression-free survival was defined as the time interval between the first day of SBRT and appearance of new metastatic lesions, outside the high-dose region. Relapses after SBRT were recorded and compared with the initially treated site. Secondary end points were local control, time to palliative androgen deprivation therapy and toxicity scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.0. Overall, 89 metastases were treated in 72 patients. The median distant progression-free survival was 21 months (95% confidence interval 16-25 months) with 88% of patients having ≤3 metastases at the time of progression. The median time from first SBRT to the start of palliative androgen deprivation therapy was 44 months (95% confidence interval 17-70 months). Most relapses (68%) occurred in nodal regions. Relapses after pelvic nodal SBRT (n = 36) were located in the pelvis (n = 14), retroperitoneum (n = 1), pelvis and retroperitoneum (n = 8) or in non-nodal regions (n = 13). Relapses after SBRT for extrapelvic nodes (n = 5) were located in the pelvis (n = 1) or the pelvis and retroperitoneum (n = 4). Late grade 1 and 2 toxicity was observed in 17% (n = 12) and 4% of patients (n = 3). SBRT for oligometastatic PCa nodal recurrences is safe. Most subsequent relapses are again nodal and oligometastatic. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The traditional lunch pattern is inversely correlated with body mass index in a population-based study in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Oliveira Santos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of obesity and dietary patterns has been well documented in scientific literature; however, information on the impact of meal patterns on obesity is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of adherence to lunch patterns and body mass index (BMI in a representative sample of individuals aged 20 years or older in Sao Paulo. Methods Data for 933 participants were retrieved from the Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008, a cross-sectional population-based survey. The usual dietary intake of individuals with at least one 24-h recall was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. The definition of lunch was self-reported by the participant. Five lunch patterns were derived from twenty-two food groups by exploratory factor analysis: Traditional, Western, Sweetened juice, Salad, and Meats. To estimate the effect of lunch patterns on BMI, we used a generalized linear model with link identity and inverse Gaussian distribution. Analyses were adjusted by age, gender, household income per capita, physical activity levels, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, and misreporting status. Results The greater adherence to the traditional pattern at the lunch meal was associated with lower BMI, only in insufficiently active individuals (ß = −0.78; 95% CI -1.57; −0.02. Conclusions The traditional Brazilian lunch pattern might protect the insufficiently active individuals against obesity.

  20. The Influence of Maternal Dietary Patterns on Body Mass Index and Gestational Weight Gain in Urban Black South African Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie V. Wrottesley

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and subsequent gestational weight gain (GWG are strong predictors of maternal and infant outcomes; however the influence of dietary patterns on BMI-specific GWG is unclear. This study identifies patterns of habitual dietary intake in urban South African women and explores their associations with first trimester BMI and GWG. Habitual dietary intake of 538 pregnant women was assessed using a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were depicted via principle component analysis. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI-specific GWG were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, Traditional and Mixed. Western and Mixed diet patterns were associated with 35 g/week (p = 0.021 and 24 g/week (p = 0.041 higher GWG in normal weight and obese women respectively. Additionally, high intakes of a Traditional diet pattern were associated with a reduced odds of excessive weight gain in the total sample (OR: 0.81; p = 0.006 and in normal weight women (OR: 0.68; p = 0.003. Increased intake of a traditional diet pattern—high in whole grains, legumes, vegetables and traditional meats—and decreased intake of refined, high sugar and fat driven diets may reduce GWG (including risk of excessive weight gain in urban South African women.

  1. The traditional lunch pattern is inversely correlated with body mass index in a population-based study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Santos, Roberta; Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Miranda, Andreia Alexandra Machado; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Baltar, Valéria Troncoso

    2017-07-19

    The association of obesity and dietary patterns has been well documented in scientific literature; however, information on the impact of meal patterns on obesity is scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of adherence to lunch patterns and body mass index (BMI) in a representative sample of individuals aged 20 years or older in Sao Paulo. Data for 933 participants were retrieved from the Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital 2008), a cross-sectional population-based survey. The usual dietary intake of individuals with at least one 24-h recall was estimated by the Multiple Source Method. The definition of lunch was self-reported by the participant. Five lunch patterns were derived from twenty-two food groups by exploratory factor analysis: Traditional, Western, Sweetened juice, Salad, and Meats. To estimate the effect of lunch patterns on BMI, we used a generalized linear model with link identity and inverse Gaussian distribution. Analyses were adjusted by age, gender, household income per capita, physical activity levels, smoking status, alcohol consumption, total energy intake, and misreporting status. The greater adherence to the traditional pattern at the lunch meal was associated with lower BMI, only in insufficiently active individuals (ß = -0.78; 95% CI -1.57; -0.02). The traditional Brazilian lunch pattern might protect the insufficiently active individuals against obesity.

  2. Made-to-measure pattern development based on 3D whole body scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein; Hong, Sung Ae

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - New techniques are required to link 3D whole body scans to manufacturing techniques to allow for the mass-customization of clothes. This study aims to compare two methods of producing skirts based on 3D whole body scans. Design/methodology/approach - Three females participated in the

  3. Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  4. Synthesis and Examination of Polymers to Improve Pattern Clarity and Resistance Properties of Phthalocyanine Color Pixels in Liquid Crystal Display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Chun; Choi, Jae Hong; Kim, Jae Pil

    2011-01-01

    The study was responding to several purposes for LCD that required the introduction of new binders. First, the traditional binder, widely used for a long time, was prepared from benzyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid, which is not suitable for the recent trend of blue pigment. The recent blue pigment (CI Pigment Blue 15:6) is a derivative of phthalocyanine, with smaller particle size to obtain a high contrast ratio. The pigments for a high contrast ratio usually have a particle size in the range of 40-60 nm, while conventional pigments have a particle size of around 90 nm. Figure 1 shows the chemical structure and an electron microscope image (TEM) of recent phthalocyanine blue pigment with very fine particle shape. The smaller sized pigment usually has a larger surface area, which should increase interactions among particles resulting in poor properties such as agglomeration, poor pattern clarity and resistance.10 To minimize the above drawbacks, which increase the influences of binders on pigment particles, monomers such as 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and hydroxybutyl methacrylate were introduced to produce a hydrogen bond between the binder and the pigment

  5. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Zoya Gridneva; Alethea Rea; Anna R. Hepworth; Leigh C. Ward; Ching T. Lai; Peter E. Hartmann; Donna T. Geddes

    2018-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC). A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20) and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound ...

  6. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  7. Numerical Prediction of Wave Patterns Due to Motion of 3D Bodies by Kelvin-Havelock Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemi Hassan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the numerical evaluation of the hydrodynamic characteristics of submerged and surface piercing moving bodies. Generally, two main classes of potential methods are used for hydrodynamic characteristic analysis of steady moving bodies which are Rankine and Kelvin-Havelock singularity distribution. In this paper, the Kelvin- Havelock sources are used for simulating the moving bodies and then free surface wave patterns are obtained. Numerical evaluation of potential distribution of a Kelvin-Havelock source is completely presented and discussed. Numerical results are calculated and presented for a 2D cylinder, single source, two parallel moving source, sphere, ellipsoid and standard Wigley hull in different situation that show acceptable agreement with results of other literatures or experiments.

  8. Cephalopod dynamic camouflage: bridging the continuum between background matching and disruptive coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, R.T.; Chiao, C.-C.; Mäthger, L.M.; Barbosa, A.; Buresch, K.C.; Chubb, C.

    2008-01-01

    Individual cuttlefish, octopus and squid have the versatile capability to use body patterns for background matching and disruptive coloration. We define—qualitatively and quantitatively—the chief characteristics of the three major body pattern types used for camouflage by cephalopods: uniform and mottle patterns for background matching, and disruptive patterns that primarily enhance disruptiveness but aid background matching as well. There is great variation within each of the three body pattern types, but by defining their chief characteristics we lay the groundwork to test camouflage concepts by correlating background statistics with those of the body pattern. We describe at least three ways in which background matching can be achieved in cephalopods. Disruptive patterns in cuttlefish possess all four of the basic components of ‘disruptiveness’, supporting Cott's hypotheses, and we provide field examples of disruptive coloration in which the body pattern contrast exceeds that of the immediate surrounds. Based upon laboratory testing as well as thousands of images of camouflaged cephalopods in the field (a sample is provided on a web archive), we note that size, contrast and edges of background objects are key visual cues that guide cephalopod camouflage patterning. Mottle and disruptive patterns are frequently mixed, suggesting that background matching and disruptive mechanisms are often used in the same pattern. PMID:19008200

  9. Evolution of large body size in abalones (Haliotis): Patterns and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J.A.; Lindberg, D.R.; Wray, C.

    2005-01-01

    Kelps and other fleshy macroalgae - dominant reef-inhabiting organisms in cool - seasmay have radiated extensively following late Cenozoic polar cooling, thus triggering a chain of evolutionary change in the trophic ecology of nearshore temperate ecosystems. We explore this hypothesis through an analysis of body size in the abalones (Gastropoda; Haliotidae), a widely distributed group in modern oceans that displays a broad range of body sizes and contains fossil representatives from the late Cretaceous (60-75 Ma). Geographic analysis of maximum shell length in living abalones showed that small-bodied species, while most common in the Tropics, have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas large-bodied species occur exclusively in cold-water ecosystems dominated by kelps and other macroalgae. The phylogeography of body size evolution in extant abalones was assessed by constructing a molecular phylogeny in a mix of large and small species obtained from different regions of the world. This analysis demonstrates that small body size is the plesiomorphic state and largeness has likely arisen at least twice. Finally, we compiled data on shell length from the fossil record to determine how (slowly or suddenly) and when large body size arose in the abalones. These data indicate that large body size appears suddenly at the Miocene/Pliocene boundary. Our findings support the view that fleshy-algal dominated ecosystems radiated rapidly in the coastal oceans with the onset of the most recent glacial age. We conclude with a discussion of the broader implications of this change. ?? 2005 The Paleontological Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  11. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  12. Cross Shelf Patterns in Habitat Selectivity of Hawkfish (Family: Cirrhitidae) in the Red Sea; with a Special Case of Varying Color Morphs in Paracirrhites forsteri.

    KAUST Repository

    Chaidez, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    Not much is known about hawkfish worldwide including those that occur in the understudied Red Sea reef system. Hawkfishes are small reef predators that perch in ambush-ready positions and shelter within or on various substrates including live and dead coral. The aim of this study was to look at the distribution and abundance patterns of Red Sea hawkfishes across an inshore and offshore gradient and to investigate the use of benthic habitats. This study was conducted on three inshore, four midshore, and two offshore reefs with surveys at 8 meters and along the reef crest. In total, three species were documented: Paracirrhites forsteri, Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus, and Cirrhitus spilotoceps. We found clear distinctions between depth zones and between continental shelf positions. Cirrhitichthys oxycephalus only occurs at the reef slope and Cirrhitus spilotoceps is only found on reef crests. Paracirrhites forsteri was the most abundant species across all reefs and was found in four varying color morphs. Morph 1 showed the most evidence of being a generalist as it utilized the greatest number of substrates. All three species were more abundant on midshore and offshore reefs which have healthier, intact coral communities. Coral cover is a good indicator of hawkfish abundance even when the species in question does not utilize live coral directly.

  13. Patterned postmortem ant abrasions outlining clothing and body position after death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W; Heath, Karen J

    2014-08-01

    Analysis of a series of cases where post mortem lesions had been caused by ant activity demonstrated two types of specific lesions, the first associated with clothing, and the second with the position of the body of the decedent. The first type of injury consisted of areas of abraded parchmented skin with well-defined straight edges that marked the perimeter of clothing. The second lesion consisted of circular abraded injuries that outlined the junction between the body and the surface that it was resting on, essentially tracing the outline of the point of contact. In both situations ants had been unable to gain access to skin beneath elasticized clothing or parts of the body pressed against the floor or ground. This had resulted in a visual record of the edge of clothing and the position of parts of the body after death. This information may be important if clothing has been removed prior to autopsy or if lividity is minimal. These unique lesions also show that not all insect predation on bodies obscures information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. Short and long-term energy intake patterns and their implications for human body weight regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Carson C; Hall, Kevin D

    2014-07-01

    Adults consume millions of kilocalories over the course of a few years, but the typical weight gain amounts to only a few thousand kilocalories of stored energy. Furthermore, food intake is highly variable from day to day and yet body weight is remarkably stable. These facts have been used as evidence to support the hypothesis that human body weight is regulated by active control of food intake operating on both short and long time scales. Here, we demonstrate that active control of human food intake on short time scales is not required for body weight stability and that the current evidence for long term control of food intake is equivocal. To provide more data on this issue, we emphasize the urgent need for developing new methods for accurately measuring energy intake changes over long time scales. We propose that repeated body weight measurements can be used along with mathematical modeling to calculate long-term changes in energy intake and thereby quantify adherence to a diet intervention and provide dynamic feedback to individuals that seek to control their body weight. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Protein restriction does not affect body temperature pattern in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Goro A; Shichijo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Shinohara, Akio; Morita, Tetsuo; Koshimoto, Chihiro

    2017-10-30

    Daily torpor is a physiological adaptation in mammals and birds characterized by a controlled reduction of metabolic rate and body temperature during the resting phase of circadian rhythms. In laboratory mice, daily torpor is induced by dietary caloric restriction. However, it is not known which nutrients are related to daily torpor expression. To determine whether dietary protein is a key factor in inducing daily torpor in mice, we fed mice a protein-restricted (PR) diet that included only one-quarter of the amount of protein but the same caloric level as a control (C) diet. We assigned six non-pregnant female ICR mice to each group and recorded their body weights and core body temperatures for 4 weeks. Body weights in the C group increased, but those in the PR group remained steady or decreased. Mice in both groups did not show daily torpor, but most mice in a food-restricted group (n=6) supplied with 80% of the calories given to the C group exhibited decreased body weights and frequently displayed daily torpor. This suggests that protein restriction is not a trigger of daily torpor; torpid animals can conserve their internal energy, but torpor may not play a significant role in conserving internal protein. Thus, opportunistic daily torpor in mice may function in energy conservation rather than protein saving.

  16. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  17. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  18. An unusual pattern of tattooing in the form of body designing: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxman Gangadhar Phad

    2016-12-01

    In the present case the patient was brought to our hospital for eliciting consumption of alcohol and any other injuries over the body. The person examined had decorated his left arm and forearm by fine designs by a blue ball point pen. He also had multiple fresh incised cuts on the forearms and wrist. Such a presentation with a somewhat risk taking, masochistic behavior and the chronic nature of drawing designs over the body by a ball point pen was very rare and not noted as per best of our knowledge.

  19. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  20. Discrimination of gender-, speed-, and shoe-dependent movement patterns in runners using full-body kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Christian; Federolf, Peter; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Stirling, Lisa; Nigg, Benno M

    2012-05-01

    Changes in gait kinematics have often been analyzed using pattern recognition methods such as principal component analysis (PCA). It is usually just the first few principal components that are analyzed, because they describe the main variability within a dataset and thus represent the main movement patterns. However, while subtle changes in gait pattern (for instance, due to different footwear) may not change main movement patterns, they may affect movements represented by higher principal components. This study was designed to test two hypotheses: (1) speed and gender differences can be observed in the first principal components, and (2) small interventions such as changing footwear change the gait characteristics of higher principal components. Kinematic changes due to different running conditions (speed - 3.1m/s and 4.9 m/s, gender, and footwear - control shoe and adidas MicroBounce shoe) were investigated by applying PCA and support vector machine (SVM) to a full-body reflective marker setup. Differences in speed changed the basic movement pattern, as was reflected by a change in the time-dependent coefficient derived from the first principal. Gender was differentiated by using the time-dependent coefficient derived from intermediate principal components. (Intermediate principal components are characterized by limb rotations of the thigh and shank.) Different shoe conditions were identified in higher principal components. This study showed that different interventions can be analyzed using a full-body kinematic approach. Within the well-defined vector space spanned by the data of all subjects, higher principal components should also be considered because these components show the differences that result from small interventions such as footwear changes. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Orthorexia nervosa: relationship with obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brytek-Matera, Anna; Fonte, Maria Luisa; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Cena, Hellas

    2017-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between ORTO-15 score and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among female and male university students and to examine the predictive model of ORTO-15 in both groups. One hundred and twenty students participated in the present study (mean age 22.74 years, SD 7.31). The ORTO-15 test, the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Questionnaire, the Eating Attitudes Test-26 and the Body Uneasiness Test were used for the present study. Our results revealed no gender differences in ORTO-15 score. Our results show, rather unexpectedly, that in female students lower scores, corresponding to greater severity, were related to less pathological body image discomfort and obsessive-compulsive signs, while in male students, lower ORTO-15 scores were related to less pathological eating patterns, as behaviors and symptoms. Further studies regarding the relationship between ON and anorexia nervosa, as well as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, are needed to better understand the causality. Level of Evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  2. Patterns of Body Temperature During Feeding in Rats Under Varying Ambient Temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jan; Strubbe, Jan H.; Wildering, Wic C.; Gorter, Jan A.; Prins, Ab J.A.

    Relationships between feeding and body temperature of rats were investigated at three ambient temperatures during the whole light/dark cycle. Basal liver temperature was negatively correlated with ambient temperature. Only at 29-degrees-C liver temperature indicated activation of autonomic and

  3. The relation between drinking pattern and body mass index and waist and hip circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Heitmann, B. L.; Tjønneland, A M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association between alcohol drinking pattern and obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population study with assessment of quantity and frequency of alcohol intake, waist and hip circumference, height, weight, and lifestyle factors including diet. SUBJECTS: In all, 25 325 men ...

  4. Identifying built environmental patterns using cluster analysis and GIS: relationships with walking, cycling and body mass index in French adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charreire, Hélène; Weber, Christiane; Chaix, Basile; Salze, Paul; Casey, Romain; Banos, Arnaud; Badariotti, Dominique; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge; Simon, Chantal; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2012-05-23

    facilities and by a high density of cycle paths were more likely to walk/cycle, after adjustment for individual and neighborhood sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 2.5 95%CI 1.4-4.6). Body mass index did not differ across patterns. Built environmental patterns were associated with walking and cycling among French adults. These analyses may be useful in determining urban and public health policies aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  5. Study on the Construction of a High-definition Whole-body Voxel Model based on Cadaver's Color Photographic Anatomical Slice Images and Monte Carlo Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Hyoun

    2007-08-01

    Ajou University School of Medicine made the serially sectioned anatomical images from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) Project in Korea. The VKH images, which are the high-resolution color photographic images, show the organs and tissues in the human body very clearly at 0.2 mm intervals. In this study, we constructed a high-quality voxel model (VKH-Man) with a total of 30 organs and tissues by manual and automatic segmentation method using the serially sectioned anatomical image data from the Visible Korean Human (VKH) project in Korea. The height and weight of VKH-Man voxel model is 164 cm and 57.6 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.875 x 1.875 x 2 mm 3 . However, this voxel phantom can be used to calculate the organ and tissue doses of only one person. Therefore, in this study, we adjusted the voxel phantom to the 'Reference Korean' data to construct the voxel phantom that represents the radiation workers in Korea. The height and weight of the voxel model (HDRK-Man) that is finally developed are 171 cm and 68 kg, respectively, and the voxel resolution is 1.981 x 1.981 x 2.0854 mm 3 . VKH-Man and HDRK-Man voxel model were implemented in a Monte Carlo particle transport simulation code for calculation of the organ and tissue doses in various irradiation geometries. The calculated values were compared with each other to see the effect of the adjustment and also compared with other computational models (KTMAN-2, ICRP-74 and VIP-Man). According to the results, the adjustment of the voxel model was found hardly affect the dose calculations and most of the organ and tissue equivalent doses showed some differences among the models. These results shows that the difference in figure, and organ topology affects the organ doses more than the organ size. The calculated values of the effective dose from VKH-Man and HDRK-Man according to the ICRP-60 and upcoming ICRP recommendation were compared. For the other radiation geometries (AP, LLAT, RLAT) except for PA

  6. Body composition, metabolism, sleep, psychological and eating patterns of overtraining syndrome: Results of the EROS study (EROS-PROFILE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadegiani, Flavio A; Kater, Claudio E

    2018-01-09

    Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0.004); increased duration of work or study (p sleep, and increased cognitive activity are likely OTS triggers. OTS appears to induce dehydration, increase body fat, decrease libido, and worsen mood.

  7. Differences in Dietary Patterns among College Students According to Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Ardith; Rhee, Yeong; Zhong, Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors surveyed 557 undergraduate students aged 18-56 years to assess weight status, health behaviors, and dietary variety. Methods: They used body mass index (BMI) to divide students into 4 weight categories: underweight (BMI less than 19 kg/m2), healthy weight (19 kg/m2 to 24.99 kg/m2), overweight (25 kg/m2 to…

  8. Body size and obesity patterns in Caboclo populations from Pará, Amazonia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hilton; Padez, Cristina

    2010-04-01

    In many developing countries overweight, obesity and obesity-related morbidity are becoming a problem of increasing public health importance. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in body size and body composition with age in adults of the Caboclo populations from the Brazilian Amazon as well as to examine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults aged 20-75 years, taking into account recent trends for the whole country. Caboclo are genetically and culturally admixed rural peasant groups that live along the Amazon River and its tributaries in Brazil, and there are few previous studies of their health and lifestyle. A total of 304 subjects (149 males and 155 females) from two socioecologically different areas were studied. Height, weight and skinfolds (tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac) were measured; international intervals (WHO) for overweight and obesity were used. Women showed significantly lower values than men for height, weight, upper arm circumference and fat-free mass and higher values for triceps, subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds and body fat (%). In the overall sample combined overweight and obesity was 47.8% in men and 50.8% in women. When compared to recent values published for the Northern region and for the whole of Brazil, 20.5% of Caboclo women aged 20-75 years were obese, which is higher than all other populations, including other rural samples. Caboclo men showed the highest rates of obesity (9.1%) and overweight (39.1%) of any rural population from the country, including Northern Brazil. The results suggest an effect of increased Western lifestyle influence on the body composition of these Caboclo populations. Considering that these are rural populations with limited access to education and health care, the high prevalence of overweight and obesity associated with low socio-economic status makes them a vulnerable group that deserves a higher level of attention by the country's public health authorities.

  9. Dichotomous Vesta - one more brilliant example of the universal shaping pattern of celestial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2011-10-01

    Expected detailed images of Vesta sent by DAWN spacecraft certainly will show a prominent tectonic (must be also compositional) d ichotomy of this large asteroid. The assuredness is based on some mainly the HST photos and the wave planetology fundamental conception: Theorem 1 - " Ce les tial bodies are dichotomous ". Availab le images confirm that Ves ta has two sides: one concave, another convex (Fig. 1-3). (4) Vesta, about 525 km across, has a deep dark depression from one side opposed to a bulging shining hemisphere [1] (Fig.1) The image of Fig. 1 hints that the dichotomy is complicated by s ectoring (Theorem 2: " Ce les tial bodies are s ectoral"). The principal dichotomous shape of (4) Vesta is characteristic also for (1) Ceres. The oblong body of Ceres (major/minor axes of 898/788 km [3] and 970/ 930 km,[Parker & Stern]) according to HST (J.Parker & Stern) has a prominent dusky dark spot (Piazzi) from one side. It occupies a significant part of the asteroid (about 250 km, more than a quarter the size of Ce res) and probably might be assigned to a depression. Tectonically one may compare this depression with the Pacific basin hollow on Earth. One may state that the wave planetology is a science that can predict

  10. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  11. Coarse-scale movement patterns of a small-bodied fish inhabiting a desert stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul, M.C.; Quist, M.C.; Dinsmore, S.J.; Gaines, D.B.; Bower, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Located on the floor of Death Valley (CA, USA), Salt Creek harbors a single fish species, the Salt Creek pupfish, Cyprinodon salinus salinus, which has adapted to this extremely harsh environment. Salt Creek is fed by an underground spring and is comprised of numerous pools, runs, and marshes that exhibit substantial variability in temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen concentrations. In addition, the wetted area of Salt Creek is reduced throughout the summer months due to high rates of evaporation, with some reaches drying completely. Therefore, it seems logical that short- and long-term movement patterns may play an important role in Salt Creek pupfish population dynamics. The objective of this study was to describe coarse-scale movements of Salt Creek pupfish in Salt Creek during their breeding season from March to May. Sex ratios and length–frequency distributions varied spatially within Salt Creek, suggesting population segregation during the breeding season. Long-distance movements were generally rare, although two fish moved more than 1.2 km. Movement in upstream reaches was rare or absent, in contrast to the greater movement observed in downstream reaches (29% of recaptures). Temporal trends and demographic patterns in movement were not observed. Because the two most downstream habitats dry up in the summer, our results indicate that coarse-scale movements that re-populate downstream reaches likely occur during other times of year. Consequently, the importance of small- and large-scale movements is influenced by season. Further assessment of Salt Creek movement patterns conducted during other times of year may better illuminate long-distance movement patterns and source-sink dynamics.

  12. Polaris, a Protein Involved in Left-Right Axis Patterning, Localizes to Basal Bodies and Cilia

    OpenAIRE

    Taulman, Patrick D.; Haycraft, Courtney J.; Balkovetz, Daniel F.; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in Tg737 cause a wide spectrum of phenotypes, including random left-right axis specification, polycystic kidney disease, liver and pancreatic defects, hydrocephalus, and skeletal patterning abnormalities. To further assess the biological function of Tg737 and its role in the mutant pathology, we identified the cell population expressing Tg737 and determined the subcellular localization of its protein product called Polaris. Tg737 expression is associated ...

  13. Association between eating patterns and body mass index in a sample of children and adolescents in Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Helena Alves dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between eating patterns and body mass index (BMI in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 1,247 male and female students, aged between 6 and 12, from public elementary schools in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia State, Brasil. BMI was used to analyze the children’s nutritional status. Food consumption frequencies, in addition to demographic and socioeconomic information, were collected for each participant. Dietary patterns were identified through a factor analysis. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 17.3% (10.2% overweight and 7.1% obese. Two eating patterns, “obesogenic” and “prudent”, were identified. The former is characterized by sweets and sugars, typical Brazilian dishes, pastries, fast food, oils, milk, cereals, cakes, and sauces, and was positively associated with increased BMI (ßi = 0.244; p = 0.018. An “obesogenic” dietary pattern was associated with increased BMI.

  14. The variability of tumor motion and respiration pattern in Stereotactic Body RadioTherapy(SBRT) for Lung cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Joon; Bae, Sun Myeong; Baek, Geum Mun; Kang, Tae Young; Seo, Dong Rin [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, ASAN Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the variability of tumor motion and respiration pattern in lung cancer patients undergoing Stereotactic Body RadioTherapy(SBRT) by using On-Board imager (OBI) system and Real-time Position Management (RPM) System. This study population consisted of 60 lung cancer patient treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (48 Gy / 4 fractions). Of these, 30 were treated with gating (group 1) and 30 without gating(group2): typically the patients whose tumors showed three-dimensional respiratory motion > 10 mm were selected for gating. 4-dimensional Computed Tomography (4DCT). Cone Beam CT (CBCT) and Fluoroscopy images were used to measure the tumor motion. RPM system was used to evaluate the variability of respiration pattern on SBRT for group1. The mean difference of tumor motion among 4DCT, CBCT and Fluoroscopy images in the cranio-caudal direction was 2.3 mm in group 1, 2. The maximum difference was 12.5 mm in the group 1 and 8.5 mm in group 2. The number of treatment fractions that patient's respiration pattern was within Upper-Lower threshold on SBRT in group 2 was 31 fractions. A patient who exhibited the most unstable pattern exceeded 108 times in a fraction. Although many patients in group 1 and 2 kept the reproducibility of tumor motion within 5 mm during their treatment, some patients exhibited variability of tumor motion in the CBCT and Fluoroscopy images. It was possible to improve the accuracy of dose delivery in SBRT without gating for lung cancer patient by using RPM system.

  15. Structural and interpersonal characteristics of family meals: associations with adolescent body mass index and dietary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-06-01

    The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The combined effect of two mutations that alter serially homologous color pattern elements on the fore and hindwings of a butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedder Lindsey

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability for serially homologous structures to acquire a separate identity has been primarily investigated for structures dependent on Hox gene input but is still incompletely understood in other systems. The fore and hindwings of butterflies are serially homologous structures as are the serially homologous eyespots that can decorate each of these wings. Eyespots can vary in number between fore and hindwings of the same individual and mutations of large effect can control the total number of eyespots that each of the wings displays. Here we investigate the genetics of a new spontaneous color pattern mutation, Missing, that alters eyespot number in the nymphalid butterfly, Bicyclus anynana. We further test the interaction of Missing with a previously described mutation, Spotty, describe the developmental stage affected by Missing, and test whether Missing is a mutant variant of the gene Distal-less via a linkage association study. Results Missing removes or greatly reduces the size of two of the hindwing eyespots from the row of seven eyespots, with no detectable effect on the rest of the wing pattern. Offspring carrying a single Missing allele display intermediate sized eyespots at these positions. Spotty has the opposite effect of Missing, i.e., it introduces two extra eyespots in homologous wing positions to those affected by Missing, but on the forewing. When Missing is combined with Spotty the size of the two forewing eyespots decreases but the size of the hindwing spots stays the same, suggesting that these two mutations have a combined effect on the forewing such that Missing reduces eyespot size when in the presence of a Spotty mutant allele, but that Spotty has no effect on the hindwing. Missing prevents the complete differentiation of two of the eyespot foci on the hindwing. We found no evidence for any linkage between the Distal-less and Missing genes. Conclusion The spontaneous mutation Missing controls the

  17. A new species of Homalocerus Schoenherr from the Atlantic coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Coleoptera, Belidae, Belinae, with notes on color pattern and on the sclerites of the internal sac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Vanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Homalocerus Schoenherr from the Atlantic coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (Coleoptera, Belidae, Belinae, with notes on color pattern and on the sclerites of the internal sac. Homalocerus bimaculatus sp. nov. (type locality: Brazil, São Paulo is described and illustrated, and comments on the sclerites of the internal sac of aedeagus and on color pattern are provided. The new species is compared to other similar species of the genus, being distinguished by having three clusters of carmine pubescence on pronotum and two lateral whitish oval spots located slightly before the middle of each elytron. Six species of Homalocerus, including the new one, are known from the State of São Paulo. The previously published identification key for species of Homalocerus is updated to include H. bimaculatus.

  18. Hidden keys to survival: the type, density, pattern and functional role of emperor penguin body feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cassondra L; Hagelin, Julie C; Kooyman, Gerald L

    2015-10-22

    Antarctic penguins survive some of the harshest conditions on the planet. Emperor penguins breed on the sea ice where temperatures drop below -40°C and forage in -1.8°C waters. Their ability to maintain 38°C body temperature in these conditions is due in large part to their feathered coat. Penguins have been reported to have the highest contour feather density of any bird, and both filoplumes and plumules (downy feathers) are reported absent in penguins. In studies modelling the heat transfer properties and the potential biomimetic applications of penguin plumage design, the insulative properties of penguin plumage have been attributed to the single afterfeather attached to contour feathers. This attribution of the afterfeather as the sole insulation component has been repeated in subsequent studies. Our results demonstrate the presence of both plumules and filoplumes in the penguin body plumage. The downy plumules are four times denser than afterfeathers and play a key, previously overlooked role in penguin survival. Our study also does not support the report that emperor penguins have the highest contour feather density. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Influences of weight, body fat patterning and nutrition on the management of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, P; Bringer, J; Renard, E; Boulet, F; Clouet, S; Jaffiol, C

    1997-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is defined as the association of hyperandrogenism with chronic anovulation in women without specific underlying diseases of the adrenal or pituitary glands. PCOS is also associated with a metabolic disturbance (insulin resistance). The nature of the complex interrelation of obesity, insulin resistance and endocrine abnormalities in PCOS remains unresolved. However, several studies link obesity, body fat distribution and nutritional habitus with the hormonal and metabolic profiles of PCOS. Moreover, intervention studies have suggested that reducing weight and/or hyperinsulinaemia either by diet alone or by a combination of diet and drugs improves hirsutism, fertility and the hormonal and metabolic profiles of PCOS. In fact, the evaluation of nutritional factors in PCOS is helpful for the screening of metabolic abnormalities and the management of women with PCOS. A point of particular interest in the management of PCOS is that the choice of contraception remains difficult in these high cardiovascular risk women. The impact of pills with ethinyl oestradiol on weight, body fat distribution and carbohydrate metabolism in women with PCOS has not been thoroughly evaluated. The lack of prospective studies to evaluate long-term metabolic and cardiovascular tolerance necessitates care and the assessment of other hormonal possibilities.

  20. Motor patterns associated with crawling in a soft-bodied arthropod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Michael A; Fusillo, Steven J; Colman, Kara; Trimmer, Barry A

    2010-07-01

    Soft-bodied animals lack distinct joints and levers, and so their locomotion is expected to be controlled differently from that of animals with stiff skeletons. Some invertebrates, such as the annelids, use functionally antagonistic muscles (circumferential and longitudinal) acting on constant-volume hydrostatics to produce extension and contraction. These processes form the basis for most theoretical considerations of hydrostatic locomotion in organisms including larval insects. However, caterpillars do not move in this way, and their powerful appendages provide grip independent of their dimensional changes. Here, we show that the anterograde wave of movement seen in the crawling tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, is mediated by co-activation of dorsal and ventral muscles within a body segment, rather than by antiphasic activation, as previously believed. Furthermore, two or three abdominal segments are in swing phase simultaneously, and the activities of motor neurons controlling major longitudinal muscles overlap in more than four segments. Recordings of muscle activity during natural crawling show that some are activated during both their shortening and elongation. These results do not support the typical peristaltic model of crawling, but they do support a tension-based model of crawling, in which the substrate is utilized as an anchor to generate propulsion.

  1. Centrin diversity and basal body patterning across evolution: new insights from Paramecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Aubusson-Fleury

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available First discovered in unicellular eukaryotes, centrins play crucial roles in basal body duplication and anchoring mechanisms. While the evolutionary status of the founding members of the family, Centrin2/Vfl2 and Centrin3/cdc31 has long been investigated, the evolutionary origin of other members of the family has received less attention. Using a phylogeny of ciliate centrins, we identify two other centrin families, the ciliary centrins and the centrins present in the contractile filaments (ICL centrins. In this paper, we carry on the functional analysis of still not well-known centrins, the ICL1e subfamily identified in Paramecium, and show their requirement for correct basal body anchoring through interactions with Centrin2 and Centrin3. Using Paramecium as well as a eukaryote-wide sampling of centrins from completely sequenced genomes, we revisited the evolutionary story of centrins. Their phylogeny shows that the centrins associated with the ciliate contractile filaments are widespread in eukaryotic lineages and could be as ancient as Centrin2 and Centrin3.

  2. Patterns of body image concerns in adolescence and early adulthood: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Svenja; Warschburger, Petra

    2018-02-08

    The present study aimed at identifying latent profiles of body image concerns in adolescents and young adults. Subsequently, associations between these profiles and potentially harmful behaviors are examined. Self-report data of 758 male and female adolescents, aged 14 to 22 years, were analyzed. Participants provided demographic and anthropometric data and completed surveys on weight/shape and muscularity concern as well as on disturbed eating behaviors and dysfunctional exercise. Latent profile analyses of weight/shape concern and muscularity concern were performed separately for each gender. The analyses indicated three-class solutions in men and women. In both genders, the inconspicuous class, characterized by small amounts of weight/shape and muscularity concerns, was the largest one (86% in men, 68% in women). Whereas 10% of the men and 23% of the women were assigned to the borderline class, 4% of the men and 8% of the women formed the conspicuous class (marked weight/shape and muscularity concerns). Between genders, the degrees of muscularity concern differed in the borderline and inconspicuous classes, while the degrees of weight/shape concern differed in the inconspicuous class only. The comparable degrees of weight/shape and muscularity concerns in men and women in the affected classes underline the relevance of both aspects in both genders. Classes could be distinguished by harmful behaviors, like restrained eating or emotional exercise, proving the clinical significance of body image concerns. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biology, not environment, drives major patterns in maximum tetrapod body size through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookias, Roland B.; Benson, Roger B. J.; Butler, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic and biological factors have been hypothesized as controlling maximum body size of tetrapods and other animals through geological time. We analyse the effects of three abiotic factors—oxygen, temperature and land area—on maximum size of Permian–Jurassic archosauromorphs and therapsids, and Cenozoic mammals, using time series generalized least-squares regression models. We also examine maximum size growth curves for the Permian–Jurassic data by comparing fits of Gompertz and logistic models. When serial correlation is removed, we find no robust correlations, indicating that these environmental factors did not consistently control tetrapod maximum size. Gompertz models—i.e. exponentially decreasing rate of size increase at larger sizes—fit maximum size curves far better than logistic models. This suggests that biological limits such as reduced fecundity and niche space availability become increasingly limiting as larger sizes are reached. Environmental factors analysed may still have imposed an upper limit on tetrapod body size, but any environmentally imposed limit did not vary substantially during the intervals examined despite variation in these environmental factors. PMID:22513278

  4. Development and embryonic pattern of body wall musculature in the crassiclitellate Eisenia andrei (Annelida, Clitellata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Bergter, Annette; Purschke, Günter; Paululat, Achim

    2009-09-01

    During early development of Eisenia andrei (Crassiclitellata), a loose arrangement of primary circular and longitudinal muscles encloses the whole embryo. Circular muscles differentiate in an anterior-posterior progression creating a segmental pattern. Primary circular muscles emerge at the segmental borders while later in development the central part of each segment is filled with circular strands. Longitudinal muscles develop in an anterio-posterior manner as well, but by continuous lengthening. Muscle growth is not restricted by segmental boundaries. The development begins with one pair of prominent longitudinal muscles differentiating ventrally along the right and the left germ band. These first muscles provide a guiding structure for the parallel organization of the afterwards differentiating longitudinal musculature. Additional primary longitudinal muscles emerge and form, together with the initial circular muscles, the primary muscle grid of the embryo. During the following development, secondary longitudinal muscle strands develop and integrate themselves into the primary grid. Meanwhile the primary circular muscles split into thin strands in a ventral to dorsal progression. Thus, a fine structured mesh of circular and longitudinal muscles is generated. Compared to other "Oligochaeta", embryonic muscle patterns in E. andrei are adapted to the development of a lecithotrophic embryo. Nevertheless, two general characteristics of annelid muscle development become evident. The first is the segmental development of the circular muscles from a set of initial muscles situated at the segment borders. Second, there is a continuous development of primary longitudinal muscles starting at the anterior pole. At least one pair of main primary longitudinal strands is characteristic in Annelida. The space between all primary strands is filled with secondary longitudinal strands during further development. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  6. Origin of Petrified Wood Color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mustoe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fossil forests have world-wide distribution, commonly preserving mineralized wood that displays vivid hues and complex color patterns. However, the origin of petrified color has received little scientific attention. Color of silicified wood may be influenced by the presence of relict organic matter, but the most significant contribution comes from trace metals. This study reports quantitative analysis of trace metals in 35 silicified wood samples, determined using LA-ICP-MS spectrometry. The most important of these metals is Fe, which can produce a rainbow of hues depending on its abundance and oxidation state. Cr is the dominant colorant for bright green fossil wood from Arizona, USA and Zimbabwe, Africa. Complex color patterns result from the progressive nature of the fossilization process, which causes wood to have varying degrees of permeability during successive episodes of permineralization. These processes include simple diffusion, chromatographic separation, infiltration of groundwater along fractures and void spaces, and oxidation/reduction.

  7. How Do Tracking and Changes in Dietary Pattern during Adolescence Relate to the Amount of Body Fat in Early Adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Few studies have addressed the influence of dietary patterns (DP during adolescence on the amount of body fat in early adulthood.To analyze the associations between DP tracking and changes in the period between 15 and 18 years of age and the percentage of body fat (%BF at age 18 years.We used data from 3,823 members of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort. Body density was measured at age 18 years by air displacement plethysmograph (BOD POD and the %BF was calculated applying the Siri equation. Based on the estimates from the FFQ, we identified DP at ages 15 ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Processed meats" and 18 years ("Varied", "Traditional", "Dieting" and "Fish, fast food and alcohol". The DP tracking was defined as the individual's adherence to the same DP at both ages. Associations were tested using multiple linear regression models stratified by sex.The mean %BF was 25.0% (95% CI: 24.7 to 25.4, significantly greater for girls than boys (p<0.001. The adherence to any DP at age 15 years was not associated with the %BF at age 18 years. However, individuals who adhered to a "Dieting" DP at age 18 years showed greater %BF (1.30 and 1.91 percentage points in boys and girls, respectively in comparison with those who adhered to a "Varied" DP. Boys who presented tracking of a "Dieting" DP presented greater average %BF in comparison with others DP, as well as girls who changed from the "Traditional" or "Processed meats" DP to a "Dieting" DP.These results may support public health policies and strategies focused on improving dietary habits of adolescents and young adults and preventing accumulation of body fat, especially among the adolescents with restrictive dietary habits.

  8. Whole-body vibration induces distinct reflex patterns in human soleus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Ilhan; Cidem, Muharrem; Cidem, Mehmet; Türker, Kemal S

    2017-06-01

    The neuronal mechanisms underlying whole body vibration (WBV)-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) are not well understood. To define a possible pathway for WBV-IMR, this study investigated the effects of WBV amplitude on WBV-IMR latency by surface electromyography analysis of the soleus muscle in human adult volunteers. The tendon (T) reflex was also induced to evaluate the level of presynaptic Ia inhibition during WBV. WBV-IMR latency was shorter when induced by low- as compared to medium- or high-amplitude WBV (33.9±5.3msvs. 43.8±3.6 and 44.1±4.2ms, respectively). There was no difference in latencies between T-reflex elicited before WBV (33.8±2.4ms) and WBV-IMR induced by low-amplitude WBV. Presynaptic Ia inhibition was absent during low-amplitude WBV but was present during medium- and high-amplitude WBV. Consequently, WBV induces short- or long-latency reflexes depending on the vibration amplitude. During low-amplitude WBV, muscle spindle activation may induce the short- but not the long-latency WBV-IMR. Furthermore, unlike the higher amplitude WBV, low-amplitude WBV does not induce presynaptic inhibition at the Ia synaptic terminals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Whole-body MRI of juvenile spondyloarthritis: protocols and pictorial review of characteristic patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Michael R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tse, Shirley M.L.; Rachlis, Alisa C. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Rheumatology, Toronto (Canada); Gupta, Sumeet; Stimec, Jennifer [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2015-05-01

    Spondyloarthritides are a group of inflammatory rheumatological diseases that cause arthritis with a predilection for spinal or sacroiliac involvement in addition to a high association with HLA-B27. Juvenile spondyloarthritis is distinct from adult spondyloarthritis and manifests more frequently as peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. Consequently juvenile spondyloarthritis is often referred to as enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) subtype under the juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) classification criteria. The American College of Rheumatology Treatment Recommendations for JIA, including ERA, are based on the following clinical parameters: current treatment, disease activity and the presence of poor prognostic features. The MRI features of juvenile spondyloarthritis include marrow edema, peri-enthesal soft-tissue swelling and edema, synovitis and joint or bursal fluid. Marrow edema is nonspecific and can be seen with other pathologies as well as in healthy subjects, and this is an important pitfall to consider. With further longitudinal study and validation, however, whole-body MRI with dedicated images of the more commonly affected areas such as the spine, sacroiliac joints, hips, knees, ankles and feet can serve as a more objective tool compared to clinical exam for early detection and monitoring of disease activity and ultimately direct therapeutic management. (orig.)

  10. Color Charts, Esthetics, and Subjective Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Yasmine B.

    2012-01-01

    Color charts, or grids of evenly spaced multicolored dots or squares, appear in the work of modern artists and designers. Often the artist/designer distributes the many colors in a way that could be described as "random," that is, without an obvious pattern. We conduct a statistical analysis of 125 "random-looking" art and design color charts and…

  11. [FOOD PATTERNS ASSOCIATED WITH A HEALTY BODY WEIGHT IN CHILEAN STUDENTS OF NUTRITION AND DIETETICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Fernández Godoy, Eloina; Fuentes Fuentes, Jessica; Hidalgo Fernández, Andrea; Quintana Muñoz, Carol; Yunge Hidalgo, Wilma; Fehrman Rosas, Pamela; Delgado Sánchez, Claudia

    2015-10-01

    to determine food patterns and its association with the consumption of various foods with nutritional status of Chilean university students of Nutrition and Dietetics. cross-sectional study, 634 students were evaluated Nutrition and Dietetics at the Universidad San Sebastián, of Santiago, Concepción, Valdivia and Puerto Montt. Each student a food survey was applied and an anthropometric assessment. 68% of students eat breakfast daily, 36.1% and 37.1% consume the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables, 64.9% consume soft drinks frequently. A positive association was observed between an adecuated weight and the fact of eat vegetables (≥ 2 servings/day) OR = 0.662 (0.440 to 0.996), whole grains OR = 0.474 (0.224 to 1.002), low consumption of fried and sweet snack OR = 0.643 (0.406 to 1.019) and OR = 0.545 (0.360 to 0.825) respectively. students have an insufficient intake of healthy foods and a high intake of unhealthy foods, also shows that the intake of vegetables, whole grains, low consumption of fried foods and sweet snacks are associated with a normal nutritional status among students evaluated. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  12. Single color and single flavor color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Cheyne, Jack M.; Cowan, Greig A.; Bowers, Jeffrey A.

    2003-01-01

    We survey the nonlocked color-flavor-spin channels for quark-quark (color superconducting) condensates in QCD, using a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We also study isotropic quark-antiquark (mesonic) condensates. We make mean-field estimates of the strength and sign of the self-interaction of each condensate, using four-fermion interaction vertices based on known QCD interactions. For the attractive quark pairing channels, we solve the mean-field gap equations to obtain the size of the gap as a function of quark density. We also calculate the dispersion relations for the quasiquarks, in order to see how fully gapped the spectrum of fermionic excitations will be. We use our results to specify the likely pairing patterns in neutral quark matter, and comment on possible phenomenological consequences

  13. Generation, language, body mass index, and activity patterns in Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno, Sharon E; Rollins, Brandi Y; Francis, Lori A

    2010-02-01

    The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children's relative weight and activity patterns. To investigate associations among generation and language with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (i.e., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Participants included 2012 Hispanic children aged 6-11 years from the cross-sectional 2003 National Survey of Children's Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (first, second, or third), and the primary language spoken in the home (English versus non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Compared to third-generation, English speakers, first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were more than two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, first-generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both first- and second-generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to second- and third-generation, English speakers. Overall, non-English-speaking groups reported less screen time compared to third-generation, English speakers. The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. Copyright 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Educational Differences in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer - Quantifying Indirect Effects through Health Behaviors, Body Mass Index and Reproductive Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2013-01-01

    Studying mechanisms underlying social inequality in postmenopausal breast cancer is important in order to develop prevention strategies. Standard methods for investigating indirect effects, by comparing crude models to adjusted, are often biased. We applied a new method enabling the decomposition...... of the effect of educational level on breast cancer incidence into indirect effects through reproductive patterns (parity and age at first birth), body mass index and health behavior (alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and hormone therapy use). The study was based on a pooled cohort of 6 studies from...... the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 breast cancer cases) aged 50-70 years at baseline. The crude absolute rate of breast cancer was 399 cases per 100,000 person-years. A high educational level compared to low was associated with 74 (95% CI 22-125) extra breast cancer cases per 100,000 person...

  15. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  16. Incidence of visceral leishmaniasis in the Vaishali district of Bihar, India: spatial patterns and role of inland water bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Sankar Bhunia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of the distribution of inland water bodies with respect to the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL and its dominant vector, Phlebotomous argentipes, has been studied at the regional scale in Bihar, eastern India. The Landsat TM sensor multispectral scanning radiometer, with a spatial resolution of 30 m in the visible, reflective-infrared and shortwave- infrared (SWIR bands, was used to identify water bodies using the normalized differential pond index (NDPI calculated as follows: (Green – SWIR I/(Green + SWIR I. Nearest neighbour and grid square statistics were used to delineate spatial patterns and distribution of the sandfly vector and the disease it transmits. The female P. argentipes sandfly was found to be associated with the distance from open water and particularly abundant near non-perennial river banks (68.4%; P <0.001, while its association with rivers was focused further away from the water source (X2 = 26.3; P <0.001. The results also reveal that the distribution of VL is clustered around non-perennial riverbanks, while the pattern is slightly random around the perennial river banks. The grid square technique illustrate that the spatial distribution of the disease has a much stronger correlation with lower density of open waters surfaces as well as with sandfly densities (X2 = 26.0; P <0.001. The results of our study suggest that inland water presence poses a risk for VL by offering suitable breeding sites for P. argentipes, a fact that should be taken into account when attempting to control disease transmission.

  17. Changes in body temperature pattern in vertebrates do not influence the codon usages of alpha-globin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Kazuo; Horiike, Tokumasa; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Ota, Hidetoshi; Yatogo, Takayuki; Okada, Kazuhisa; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shinozawa, Takao

    2002-06-01

    Codon usages are known to vary among vertebrates chiefly due to variations in isochore structure. Under the assumption that marked differences exist in isochore structure between warm-blooded and cold-blooded animals, the variations among vertebrates were previously attributed to an adaptation to homeothermy. However, based on data from a turtle species and a crocodile (Archosauromorpha), it was recently proposed that the common ancestors of mammals, birds and extent reptiles already had the "warm-blooded" isochore structure. We determined the nucleotide sequences of alpha-globin genes from two species of heterotherms, cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) and bat (Pipistrellus abramus), and three species of snakes (Lepidosauromorpha), Naja kaouthia from a tropical terrestrial habitat, Elaphe climacophora from a temperate terrestrial habitat, and Hydrophis melanocephalus from a tropical marine habitat. Our purposes were to assess the influence of differential body temperature patterns on codon usage and GC content at the third position of a codon (GC3), and to test the hypothesis concerning the phylogenetic position at which GC contents had increased in vertebrates. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) using the present data and data for other taxa from GenBank indicate that the primary difference in codon usage in globin genes among amniotes and other vertebrates lies in GC3. The codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes from two heterotherms and three snakes are similar to those in alpha-globin genes from warm-blooded vertebrates. These results refute the influence of body temperature pattern upon codon usages (and GC3) in alpha-globin genes, and support the hypothesis that the increase in GC content in the genome occurred in the common ancestor of amniotes.

  18. DNATagger, colors for codons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, N M; Basso, D M

    2008-09-16

    DNATagger is a web-based tool for coloring and editing DNA, RNA and protein sequences and alignments. It is dedicated to the visualization of protein coding sequences and also protein sequence alignments to facilitate the comprehension of evolutionary processes in sequence analysis. The distinctive feature of DNATagger is the use of codons as informative units for coloring DNA and RNA sequences. The codons are colored according to their corresponding amino acids. It is the first program that colors codons in DNA sequences without being affected by "out-of-frame" gaps of alignments. It can handle single gaps and gaps inside the triplets. The program also provides the possibility to edit the alignments and change color patterns and translation tables. DNATagger is a JavaScript application, following the W3C guidelines, designed to work on standards-compliant web browsers. It therefore requires no installation and is platform independent. The web-based DNATagger is available as free and open source software at http://www.inf.ufrgs.br/~dmbasso/dnatagger/.

  19. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  20. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  1. Wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies of Sandhill Crane: Correlations between body size, site fidelity, and movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Gary L.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Herziger, Caroline P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Body size is known to correlate with many aspects of life history in birds, and this knowledge can be used to manage and conserve bird species. However, few studies have compared the wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies that vary significantly in body size. We used radiotelemetry to examine the relationship between body size and site fidelity, movements, and home range in 2 subspecies of Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) wintering in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Both subspecies showed high interannual return rates to the Delta study area, but Greater Sandhill Cranes (G. c. tabida) showed stronger within-winter fidelity to landscapes in our study region and to roost complexes within landscapes than did Lesser Sandhill Cranes (G. c. canadensis). Foraging flights from roost sites were shorter for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.01 km vs. 4.5 ± 0.01 km, respectively) and, consequently, the mean size of 95% fixed-kernel winter home ranges was an order of magnitude smaller for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.4 km2 vs. 21.9 ± 1.9 km2, respectively). Strong site fidelity indicates that conservation planning to manage for adequate food resources around traditional roost sites can be effective for meeting the habitat needs of these cranes, but the scale of conservation efforts should differ by subspecies. Analysis of movement patterns suggests that conservation planners and managers should consider all habitats within 5 km of a known G. c. tabida roost and within 10 km of a G. c. canadensis roost when planning for habitat management, mitigation, acquisition, and easements.

  2. Sperm motility patterns in Andalusian donkey (Equus asinus) semen: effects of body weight, age, and semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Gálvez, M J; Ortiz, I; Carrasco, J J; Díaz, B; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2013-04-15

    The aims of this study were to (1) identify sperm subpopulations with specific motion characteristics in fresh Andalusian donkey ejaculates; (2) evaluate the effects of individual donkey and ejaculates within the same donkey on the distribution of the subpopulations found; and (3) explore the relationship between the age and the body weight of donkey donors, the sperm quality parameters, and the sperm subpopulations structure. Sixty ejaculates from 12 Andalusian donkeys (five ejaculates per donkey), ranging in age from 4 to 15 years, were collected. Immediately after collection, sperm characteristics (volume, sperm concentration, objective sperm motility, and sperm morphology) were assessed. Donkeys were evaluated for body weight. Significant (P 0.05). A multivariate clustering procedure separated 65,342 motile spermatozoa into four subpopulations: subpopulation 1, consisting of slow and nonprogressive spermatozoa (15.4%), subpopulation 2, consisting of moderately slow but progressive spermatozoa (35.9%), subpopulation 3, consisting of highly active but nonprogressive spermatozoa (18.5%), and subpopulation 4, consisting of highly active and progressive spermatozoa (30.2%). The distribution of these subpopulations varied significantly (P < 0.05) according to several parameters such as the individual donkey, the ejaculate of the same donkey, the total motility, and the overall sperm concentration. Our results show the existence of four well-defined motile sperm subpopulations in Andalusian donkey ejaculates, and suggest a high heterogeneity in the ejaculate structure in donkey. The relationship between the distribution of the sperm subpopulations and individual donkey, total motility, and sperm concentration shows that the spermatozoa of each have different motility patterns. However, the proportions of sperm subpopulations in the ejaculates did not vary with age and body weight. Finally, the study of discrete subpopulations of motile spermatozoa could lead to a

  3. A comparative study of pattern recognition classifiers to predict physical activities using smartphones and wearable body sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Ioannis; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a wireless body area network platform that performs physical activities recognition using accelerometers, biosignals and smartphones. Multiple classifiers and sensor combinations were examined to identify the classifier with the best recognition performance for the static and dynamic activities. The Functional Trees classifier proved to provide the best results among the classifiers evaluated (Naive Bayes, Bayesian Networks, Support Vector Machines and Decision Trees [C4.5, Random Forest]) and was used to train the model which was implemented for the real time activity recognition on the smartphone. The identified patterns of daily physical activities were used to examine conformance with medical advice, regarding physical activity guidelines. An algorithm based on Skip Chain Conditional Random Fields, received as inputs the recognized activities and data retrieved from the GPS receiver of the smartphone to develop dynamic daily patterns that enhance prediction results. The presented platform can be extended to be used in the prevention of short-term complications of metabolic diseases such as diabetes.

  4. Body fat, physical activity, and dietary patterns of adolescents in a mountainous region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Lopes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the body fat, physical activity, and dietary patterns of male adolescents in a mountainous region of Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The subjects were 1,024 adolescents, 10 to 17 years old, from public and private schools. The sample was selected by a three-stage cluster sampling method, where the laststage sampling units were entire classes. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined considering body fat level estimated using predictive equations. Physical activity and food intake were assessed using a questionnaire. Statistical analyses included: descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA with Scheffé post hoc multiple comparisons. It was observed that 25.6% of the adolescents were overweight or obese and 29.4% were physically inactive. Regardingdietary patterns, subjects reported the following consumption levels of sugars and fats: soft drinks (36.9%, sweets (41.3%, and fries (29.1%. In general, there were no differences in activity patterns, diet, or body fatness between age groups (10-17years. Adolescents enrolled at private schools exhibited higher body fatness (p RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar a gordura corporal, o nível de atividade física e hábitos alimentares de adolescentes do Município de Lages, Região Serrana do Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. A amostra, constituída de 1024 adolescentes do sexo masculino (10 a 17 anos, foi selecionada de forma aleatória simples quanto às escolas, conglomerada por sala de aula e estratifi cada por rede de ensino. A gordura corporal foi estimada por meio de equações preditivas do percentual de gordura. O nível de atividade física e os hábitos alimentares foram coletados por meio de umquestionário. Na análise dos dados, utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, teste do Qui-quadrado, análise de variância (ANOVA one-way e o teste de Scheffé (p0,05. Os escolares da rede particular

  5. Cave microbial community composition in oceanic islands: disentangling the effect of different colored mats in diversity patterns of Azorean lava caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Cristina; Rigal, François; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Northup, Diana E; Spilde, Michael N; Borges, Paulo A V; Gabriel, Rosalina; Amorim, Isabel R; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N E

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining diversity and composition of bacterial communities in island volcanic caves are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized colored microbial mats in 14 volcanic caves from two oceanic islands of the Azores using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Factors determining community diversity (α) and composition (β) were explored, namely colored mats, caves and islands, as well as environmental and chemical characteristics of caves. Additive partitioning of diversity using OTU occurrence showed a greater influence of β-diversity between islands and caves that may relate to differences in rare OTUs (singletons and doubletons) across scales. In contrast, Shannon diversity partitioning revealed the importance of the lowest hierarchical level (α diversity, colored mat), suggesting a dominance of cosmopolitan OTUs (>1%) in most samples. Cosmopolitan OTUs included members involved in nitrogen cycling, supporting the importance of this process in Azorean caves. Environmental and chemical conditions in caves did not show any significant relationship to OTU diversity and composition. The absence of clear differences between mat colors and across scales may be explained by (1) the geological youth of the cave system (cave communities have not had enough time to diverge) or/and (2) community convergence, as the result of selection pressure in extreme environments. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  7. SU-E-J-227: Breathing Pattern Consistency and Reproducibility: Comparative Analysis for Supine and Prone Body Positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laugeman, E; Weiss, E; Chen, S; Hugo, G; Rosu, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluate and compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of breathing patterns and their reproducibility over the course of treatment, for supine and prone positioning. Methods: Respiratory traces from 25 patients were recorded for sequential supine/prone 4DCT scans acquired prior to treatment, and during the course of the treatment (weekly or bi-weekly). For each breathing cycle, the average(AVE), end-of-exhale(EoE) and end-of-inhale( EoI) locations were identified using in-house developed software. In addition, the mean values and variations for the above quantities were computed for each breathing trace. F-tests were used to compare the cycle-to-cycle consistency of all pairs of sequential supine and prone scans. Analysis of variances was also performed using population means for AVE, EoE and EoI to quantify differences between the reproducibility of prone and supine respiration traces over the treatment course. Results: Consistency: Cycle-to-cycle variations are less in prone than supine in the pre-treatment and during-treatment scans for AVE, EoE and EoI points, for the majority of patients (differences significant at p<0.05). The few cases where the respiratory pattern had more variability in prone appeared to be random events. Reproducibility: The reproducibility of breathing patterns (supine and prone) improved as treatment progressed, perhaps due to patients becoming more comfortable with the procedure. However, variability in supine position continued to remain significantly larger than in prone (p<0.05), as indicated by the variance analysis of population means for the pretreatment and subsequent during-treatment scans. Conclusions: Prone positioning stabilizes breathing patterns in most subjects investigated in this study. Importantly, a parallel analysis of the same group of patients revealed a tendency towards increasing motion amplitude of tumor targets in prone position regardless of their size or location; thus, the choice for body positioning

  8. An Analysis of Predator Selection to Affect Aposematic Coloration in a Poison Frog Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna E Dreher

    Full Text Available Natural selection is widely noted to drive divergence of phenotypic traits. Predation pressure can facilitate morphological divergence, for example the evolution of both cryptic and conspicuous coloration in animals. In this context Dendrobatid frogs have been used to study evolutionary forces inducing diversity in protective coloration. The polytypic strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio shows strong divergence in aposematic coloration among populations. To investigate whether predation pressure is important for color divergence among populations of O. pumilio we selected four mainland populations and two island populations from Costa Rica and Panama. Spectrometric measurements of body coloration were used to calculate color and brightness contrasts of frogs as an indicator of conspicuousness for the visual systems of several potential predators (avian, crab and snake and a conspecific observer. Additionally, we conducted experiments using clay model frogs of different coloration to investigate whether the local coloration of frogs is better protected than non-local color morphs, and if predator communities vary among populations. Overall predation risk differed strongly among populations and interestingly was higher on the two island populations. Imprints on clay models indicated that birds are the main predators while attacks of other predators were rare. Furthermore, clay models of local coloration were equally likely to be attacked as those of non-local coloration. Overall conspicuousness (and brightness contrast of local frogs was positively correlated with attack rates by birds across populations. Together with results from earlier studies we conclude that conspicuousness honestly indicates toxicity to avian predators. The different coloration patterns among populations of strawberry poison frogs in combination with behavior and toxicity might integrate into equally efficient anti-predator strategies depending on local predation and

  9. An Analysis of Predator Selection to Affect Aposematic Coloration in a Poison Frog Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Corinna E; Cummings, Molly E; Pröhl, Heike

    2015-01-01

    Natural selection is widely noted to drive divergence of phenotypic traits. Predation pressure can facilitate morphological divergence, for example the evolution of both cryptic and conspicuous coloration in animals. In this context Dendrobatid frogs have been used to study evolutionary forces inducing diversity in protective coloration. The polytypic strawberry poison frog (Oophaga pumilio) shows strong divergence in aposematic coloration among populations. To investigate whether predation pressure is important for color divergence among populations of O. pumilio we selected four mainland populations and two island populations from Costa Rica and Panama. Spectrometric measurements of body coloration were used to calculate color and brightness contrasts of frogs as an indicator of conspicuousness for the visual systems of several potential predators (avian, crab and snake) and a conspecific observer. Additionally, we conducted experiments using clay model frogs of different coloration to investigate whether the local coloration of frogs is better protected than non-local color morphs, and if predator communities vary among populations. Overall predation risk differed strongly among populations and interestingly was higher on the two island populations. Imprints on clay models indicated that birds are the main predators while attacks of other predators were rare. Furthermore, clay models of local coloration were equally likely to be attacked as those of non-local coloration. Overall conspicuousness (and brightness contrast) of local frogs was positively correlated with attack rates by birds across populations. Together with results from earlier studies we conclude that conspicuousness honestly indicates toxicity to avian predators. The different coloration patterns among populations of strawberry poison frogs in combination with behavior and toxicity might integrate into equally efficient anti-predator strategies depending on local predation and other ecological

  10. Mapping alpine soils using color positive and color infrared photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S.

    1980-01-01

    During a soil survey of the Indian Peaks area of the Colorado Front Range, it was found that large scale color positive photographs taken in the autumn were extremely useful for mapping alpine soils. Smaller scale color infrared photos were also helpful for delineation of mapping units. The soil mapping units were deduced on the basis of landforms and snow accumulation which is reflected in patterns of vegetational communities.

  11. Transmission of phototherapy through human skin: dosimetry adjustment for effects of skin color, body composition, wavelength, and light coupling to skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Ethne L.; Van Zuylen, Jeff

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To examine factors that affect penetration of phototherapy. Methods: Age, sex, height, and weight were recorded; skin color, skinfold thickness, and light transmission through a skinfold were measured over biceps and triceps muscles, and at the anterior waistline. Light was generated using two 23-diode LED arrays at 840 nm and 660 nm with surface area of 7 cm2. Photon irradiation was measured using an Optical Power Meter consisting of a 1x1-cm2 light detector placed in the centre of the illuminated 7 cm2 spot. Transmission was measured using three skin-diode coupling conditions. Results: Penetration of LED irradiation increased when diodes were coupled to skin with pressure. Red light attenuated more rapidly than infrared light and the attenuation of red light increased as skin color darkened. Penetration of red and infrared light decreased as the amount of subcutaneous fat increased. There were gender effects on penetration of infrared light at normal and low BMI values. Conclusions: When using divergent light sources for phototherapy, radiant exposure should take into account individual physical characteristics, irradiation wavelength and diode configuration of the laser therapy system.

  12. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  13. Color naming across languages reflects color use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Edward; Futrell, Richard; Jara-Ettinger, Julian; Mahowald, Kyle; Bergen, Leon; Ratnasingam, Sivalogeswaran; Gibson, Mitchell; Piantadosi, Steven T; Conway, Bevil R

    2017-10-03

    What determines how languages categorize colors? We analyzed results of the World Color Survey (WCS) of 110 languages to show that despite gross differences across languages, communication of chromatic chips is always better for warm colors (yellows/reds) than cool colors (blues/greens). We present an analysis of color statistics in a large databank of natural images curated by human observers for salient objects and show that objects tend to have warm rather than cool colors. These results suggest that the cross-linguistic similarity in color-naming efficiency reflects colors of universal usefulness and provide an account of a principle (color use) that governs how color categories come about. We show that potential methodological issues with the WCS do not corrupt information-theoretic analyses, by collecting original data using two extreme versions of the color-naming task, in three groups: the Tsimane', a remote Amazonian hunter-gatherer isolate; Bolivian-Spanish speakers; and English speakers. These data also enabled us to test another prediction of the color-usefulness hypothesis: that differences in color categorization between languages are caused by differences in overall usefulness of color to a culture. In support, we found that color naming among Tsimane' had relatively low communicative efficiency, and the Tsimane' were less likely to use color terms when describing familiar objects. Color-naming among Tsimane' was boosted when naming artificially colored objects compared with natural objects, suggesting that industrialization promotes color usefulness.

  14. Association of Body Mass Index With the Pattern of Surgically Treated Ankle Fractures Using Two Different Classification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavem, Knut; Naumann, Markus G; Sigurdsen, Ulf; Utvåg, Stein Erik

    The present retrospective cohort study assessed the association of body mass index (BMI) with the pattern of ankle fractures using 2 classifications systems. Of the 1011 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for ankle fractures in 2 hospitals from January 2009 to December 2011, 837 had a classifiable fracture according to 1 of 2 classification systems and complete information available for covariates. The association of BMI, adjusted for age, sex, corticosteroid use, diabetes, and smoking status with having a more proximal fibula fracture (Weber class A to C) and an increasing number of malleoli involved (uni-, bi-, or trimalleolar) was assessed using multivariable ordered logistic regression analysis. The mean age of the patients was 50.9 ± 16.9 years, and 461 (55%) were female. On multivariable analysis, BMI and male sex were associated with having a more proximal fibula fracture using the Weber classification, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04 to 1.11; p classification. In an analysis of uni-, bi-, and trimalleolar fractures, age per 10 years showed higher odds (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.36; p pattern of the ankle fractures using either classification system. In conclusion, an increasing BMI and male sex were risk factors for proximal fibula fractures, and female sex and age were risk factors for bi- and trimalleolar fractures. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of the interaction between mental stress and eating pattern on body mass index gain in healthy Japanese male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Hideaki; Masuoka, Nobutaka; Hashimoto, Shuji; Otsuka, Rei; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the interaction between long-term mental stress and eating habits on weight gain has not been confirmed in humans. A population of 1080 healthy Japanese male local government employees without lifestyle-related diseases at baseline were studied [corrected]. Height and weight were measured and perception of mental stress and the frequency of eating to satiety, drinking, smoking, and exercise were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in both 1997 and 2002. Exposure patterns during this 5-year period were classified as low or high. Information on daily food and energy intake was collected in 2002. The effect of the interaction between stress and the frequency of eating to satiety on change in BMI (DeltaBMI) during this 5-year period was examined by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for age, BMI at baseline, and other lifestyle habits. The association between satiation eating and DeltaBMI was compared between participants with high and low levels of stress. Stress and satiation eating were not significantly mutually correlated. Two-way ANCOVA showed a significant interaction (F = 4.90, P = 0.03) between mental stress and satiation eating. Among participants with a high level of stress, BMI gain was significantly larger in those who ate to satiety than in those who ate moderately, when DeltaBMI was unadjusted or adjusted for covariates (adjusted mean [SE]: 0.34 +/- 0.06 kg/m(2) vs. 0.12 +/- 0.07 kg/m(2), P = 0.002). Among participants with a low level of stress no such difference was observed. These results were unchanged after further adjustment for energy intake in 2002. In this population, eating pattern interacted with long-term mental stress to produce a larger body mass gain in satiation eaters than in moderate eaters among participants with a high level of stress, independent of energy intake or other lifestyle habits.

  16. Patterns of phenotypic plasticity in common and rare environments: a study of host use and color learning in the cabbage white butterfly Pieris rapae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C; Papaj, Daniel R

    2009-05-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is adaptive in variable environments but, given its costs, may be disfavored if only one environment is commonly encountered. Yet species in relatively constant environments often adjust phenotypes successfully in rare or novel environments. Developmental biases may reduce the costs of plasticity in common environments, favoring the maintenance of plasticity. We explored this proposition by studying the flexibility of visually guided host-selection behavior in cabbage white butterflies (Pieris rapae), wherein common and rare environments consisted of green and red host types, respectively. We demonstrated in greenhouse assays that adult females display an innate bias toward green color during host search but alter that bias through learning in red-host assemblages such that, after several hours of experience, red hosts are located as efficiently as green hosts. Full-sib analyses suggested there was genetic variation in host and color choice that was more pronounced in the red-host environment. We found no evidence of genetic correlations in behavior across host environments or of fitness costs of plasticity in color choice. Our results support the idea that learning may persist in less variable environments through the evolution of innate biases that reduce operating costs in common environments.

  17. Force direction patterns promote whole body stability even in hip-flexed walking, but not upper body stability in human upright walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Roy; Rode, Christian; Aminiaghdam, Soran; Vielemeyer, Johanna; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2017-11-01

    Directing the ground reaction forces to a focal point above the centre of mass of the whole body promotes whole body stability in human and animal gaits similar to a physical pendulum. Here we show that this is the case in human hip-flexed walking as well. For all upper body orientations (upright, 25°, 50°, maximum), the focal point was well above the centre of mass of the whole body, suggesting its general relevance for walking. Deviations of the forces' lines of action from the focal point increased with upper body inclination from 25 to 43 mm root mean square deviation (RMSD). With respect to the upper body in upright gait, the resulting force also passed near a focal point (17 mm RMSD between the net forces' lines of action and focal point), but this point was 18 cm below its centre of mass. While this behaviour mimics an unstable inverted pendulum, it leads to resulting torques of alternating sign in accordance with periodic upper body motion and probably provides for low metabolic cost of upright gait by keeping hip torques small. Stabilization of the upper body is a consequence of other mechanisms, e.g. hip reflexes or muscle preflexes.

  18. Habitual sleep patterns and the distribution of body mass index: cross-sectional findings among Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, Anna; Bottai, Matteo; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bellocco, Rino; Nyrén, Olof; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2014-10-01

    To compare distributions of body mass index (BMI) between individuals with different habitual sleep patterns. We performed cross-sectional analyses of 40,197 Swedish adults (64% women), who reported sleep duration and quality, weight, height, and possible confounding factors in 1997. Using quantile regression, we estimated associations between sleep patterns and selected percentiles of the distribution of BMI. While the medians were similar, larger adjusted values of BMI were estimated in the upper part of the distribution among men and women with short sleep (≤5 h) compared with medium-length sleep (6-8 h). For example, in men, the 90th percentile of BMI was 0.80 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval: 0.17-1.43 kg/m(2)) higher among short sleepers. In women, long sleepers (≥9 h) also showed larger values in the upper part of the BMI distribution; the 90th percentile was 1.23 kg/m(2) (0.42-2.04 kg/m(2)) higher than in medium-length sleepers. In male long sleepers, smaller values were estimated in the lower part of the BMI distribution; the 10th percentile was 0.84 kg/m(2) lower (0.35-1.32 kg/m(2)) than in medium-length sleepers. The 90th percentile of BMI in women with poor-quality compared with good-quality sleep was larger by 0.82 kg/m(2) (0.47-1.16 kg/m(2)); the 10th percentile was smaller by 0.17 kg/m(2) (0.02-0.32 kg/m(2)). Short, long or poor-quality sleepers showed larger, or smaller, values at the tails of the BMI distribution, but similar medians. Hence, unfavorable sleep patterns and BMI were associated only in a subset of this study population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Impact Analysis of Water Body Landscape Pattern on Urban Heat Island: A Case Study of Wuhan City

    OpenAIRE

    Bohan Yang; Fen Meng; Xinli Ke; Caixue Ma

    2015-01-01

    Based on the LST and the landscape metrics of water body with remote sensing technique and spatial analysis, the relationship between the mean LST and the attributes of water body was revealed via Pearson’s correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Result showed that, in 32 class-based metrics we selected, the proportion of water body, average water body size, the isolation and fragmentation of water body, and other eight metrics have high correlation with the LST. As a ...

  20. The expression pattern of small nucleolar and small Cajal body-specific RNAs characterizes distinct molecular subtypes of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, D; Todoerti, K; Tuana, G; Agnelli, L; Mosca, L; Lionetti, M; Fabris, S; Colapietro, P; Miozzo, M; Ferrarini, M; Tassone, P; Neri, A

    2012-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and small Cajal body-specific RNAs (scaRNAs) are non-coding RNAs involved in the maturation of other RNA molecules and generally located in the introns of host genes. It is now emerging that altered sno/scaRNAs expression may have a pathological role in cancer. This study elucidates the patterns of sno/scaRNAs expression in multiple myeloma (MM) by profiling purified malignant plasma cells from 55 MMs, 8 secondary plasma cell leukemias (sPCLs) and 4 normal controls. Overall, a global sno/scaRNAs downregulation was found in MMs and, even more, in sPCLs compared with normal plasma cells. Whereas SCARNA22 resulted the only sno/scaRNA characterizing the translocation/cyclin D4 (TC4) MM, TC2 group displayed a distinct sno/scaRNA signature overexpressing members of SNORD115 and SNORD116 families located in a region finely regulated by an imprinting center at 15q11, which, however, resulted overall hypomethylated in MMs independently of the SNORD115 and SNORD116 expression levels. Finally, integrative analyses with available gene expression and genome-wide data revealed the occurrence of significant sno/scaRNAs/host genes co-expression and the putative influence of allelic imbalances on specific snoRNAs expression. Our data extend the current view of sno/scaRNAs deregulation in cancer and add novel information to the bio-molecular complexity of plasma cell dyscrasias

  1. Relationships between Breastfeeding Patterns and Maternal and Infant Body Composition over the First 12 Months of Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Gridneva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding has been implicated in the establishment of infant appetite regulation, feeding patterns and body composition (BC. A holistic approach is required to elucidate relationships between infant and maternal BC and contributing factors, such as breastfeeding parameters. Associations between maternal and breastfed term infant BC (n = 20 and feeding parameters during first 12 months of lactation were investigated. BC was measured at 2, 5, 9 and/or 12 months postpartum with ultrasound skinfolds (US; infants only and bioimpedance spectroscopy (infants and mothers. 24-h milk intake (MI and feeding frequency (FFQ were measured. Higher FFQ was associated with larger 24-h MI (p ≤ 0.003. Higher 24-h MI was associated with larger infant fat mass (FM (US: p ≤ 0.002, greater percentage FM (US: p ≤ 0.008, greater FM index (FMI (US: p ≤ 0.001 and lower fat-free mass index (FFMI (US: p = 0.015. Lower FFQ was associated with both larger FFM (US: p ≤ 0.001 and FFMI (US: p < 0.001. Greater maternal adiposity was associated with smaller infant FFM measured with US (BMI: p < 0.010; %FM: p = 0.004; FMI: p < 0.011. Maternal BC was not associated with FFQ or 24-h MI. These results reinforce that early life is a critical window for infant programming and that breastfeeding may influence risk of later disease via modulation of BC.

  2. Patterns of neuroendocrine coupling in 9-year-old children: Effects of sex, body-mass index, and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sarah R; Lerner, Matthew D; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Klein, Daniel N

    2018-02-01

    Previous investigations have explored stress and pubertal hormones in parallel; it has been a recent development, however, to explore the relationships between different hormones during puberty, and how this hormonal cross-talk may be influenced by the environment. The current study investigated neuroendocrine coupling, or the extent to which hormones are correlated within the individual, and also investigated early life stressors that may influence coupling. Participants were 405 adrenarcheal children (mean Tanner stage=1.73 for girls and 1.38 for boys) from a longitudinal study who provided saliva samples for analysis of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and testosterone. Saliva was collected when children were 9-years-old, while early life stressors were assessed at each longitudinal assessment (ages 3, 6, and 9). Results from multi-level modeling (MLM) analyses provided evidence of positive cortisol-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol-testosterone coupling in middle childhood, and identified body mass index as a predictor of the strength of hormone coordination. While exposure to stressful life events did not impact cortisol-DHEA coupling patterns, stress interacted with sex to predict looser cortisol-testosterone coupling in girls, but not boys. The current study adds to the existing literature on the development of neuroendocrine coupling, and provided further evidence of sex differences in the impact of stress. Furthermore, hormone coupling may be investigated in the future as a mechanism by which puberty is associated with negative behavioral outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Transition pattern and mechanism of B-lymphocyte precursors in regenerated mouse bone marrow after subtotal body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deping Han

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effects of ionizing radiation on the transition and the related signal transduction of progenitor B cells in the bone marrow. Thus, using an NIH Swiss mouse model, we explored the impact of ionizing radiation on the early stage of B-cell development via an examination of the transition of CLP to pro-B to pre-B cells within bone marrow as a function of radiation doses and times. Our results showed that while the total number of bone marrow lymphoid cells at different stages were greatly reduced by subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI, the surviving cells continued to transition from common lymphoid progenitors to pro-B and then to pre-B in a reproducible temporal pattern. The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain increased significantly 1-2 weeks after irradiation, but no change occurred after 3-4 weeks. The rearrangement of the immunoglobulin light chain decreased significantly 1-2 weeks after sub-TBI but increased dramatically after 3-4 weeks. In addition, several key transcription factors and signaling pathways were involved in B-precursor transitions after sub-TBI. The data indicate that week 2 after irradiation is a critical time for the transition from pro-B cells to pre-B cells, reflecting that the functional processes for different B-cell stages are well preserved even after high-dose irradiation.

  4. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  6. A Cross-sectional Study of the Pattern of Body Image Perception among Female Students of BBM College in Vijayapur, North Karnataka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, B M; Patil, Shailaja S; Angadi, Mahabaleshwar Mahantappa; Pattankar, Tanuja P

    2016-07-01

    Body image is an essential aspect of young girls' self-definition and individual identity which is influenced by various biological, psychological and social factors. Excessive concern about body image, body image misconception are leading to dissatisfaction, disturbed eating patterns, affecting the nutritional status and also leading to depression and anxiety disorders. This concept of body image has been less explored in Indian context, especially among young girls. The objectives of the study were to assess the body image perception among young college going girls, using a visual analog scale and to compare body image perception and satisfaction with their BMI levels and weight changing methods adopted. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted among 63 female students studying BBM course at a private commerce institution in Vijayapur city. Data was collected using a self administered questionnaire containing details of basic socio-demographic information and a validated visual analogue scale. Height was measured by Seca Stadiometer, weight was measured using Digital weighing machine and Body Mass Index levels were calculated. Percentages were calculated for descriptive variables. Chi-square test was applied for analysing categorical variables. Spearman Rank correlation test was applied for analysing ordinal data. A 39.7% of participants were underweight and 15.9% were overweight/obese. Majority of underweight and overweight girls (72% and 89%, respectively) perceived themselves as normal weight. Body image satisfaction of participants was found to be significantly associated with their body image perception, mothers' educational status and also with relatives' and peer group's opinions about their body weight. Unhealthy weight changing patterns like skipping meals (13%), increasing quantity and frequency of meals (17%) were reported among study participants. This exploratory study highlights the gap between young girls' body image perception and their

  7. Dietary patterns in Canadian men and women ages 25 and older: relationship to demographics, body mass index, and bone mineral density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Towheed Tanveer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that underlying dietary patterns are related to the risk of many different adverse health outcomes, but the relationship of these underlying patterns to skeletal fragility is not well understood. The objective of the study was to determine whether dietary patterns in men (ages 25-49, 50+ and women (pre-menopause, post-menopause are related to femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD independently of other lifestyle variables, and whether this relationship is mediated by body mass index. Methods We performed an analysis of 1928 men and 4611 women participants in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, a randomly selected population-based longitudinal cohort. We determined dietary patterns based on the self-administered food frequency questionnaires in year 2 of the study (1997-99. Our primary outcome was BMD as measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry in year 5 of the study (2000-02. Results We identified two underlying dietary patterns using factor analysis and then derived factor scores. The first factor (nutrient dense was most strongly associated with intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. The second factor (energy dense was most strongly associated with intake of soft drinks, potato chips and French fries, certain meats (hamburger, hot dog, lunch meat, bacon, and sausage, and certain desserts (doughnuts, chocolate, ice cream. The energy dense factor was associated with higher body mass index independent of other demographic and lifestyle factors, and body mass index was a strong independent predictor of BMD. Surprisingly, we did not find a similar positive association between diet and BMD. In fact, when adjusted for body mass index, each standard deviation increase in the energy dense score was associated with a BMD decrease of 0.009 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.016 g/cm2 for men 50+ years old and 0.004 (95% CI: 0.000, 0.008 g/cm2 for postmenopausal women. In contrast, for men 25-49 years old

  8. Focal colors across languages are representative members of color categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Joshua T; Griffiths, Thomas L; Regier, Terry

    2016-10-04

    Focal colors, or best examples of color terms, have traditionally been viewed as either the underlying source of cross-language color-naming universals or derived from category boundaries that vary widely across languages. Existing data partially support and partially challenge each of these views. Here, we advance a position that synthesizes aspects of these two traditionally opposed positions and accounts for existing data. We do so by linking this debate to more general principles. We show that best examples of named color categories across 112 languages are well-predicted from category extensions by a statistical model of how representative a sample is of a distribution, independently shown to account for patterns of human inference. This model accounts for both universal tendencies and variation in focal colors across languages. We conclude that categorization in the contested semantic domain of color may be governed by principles that apply more broadly in cognition and that these principles clarify the interplay of universal and language-specific forces in color naming.

  9. Role of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in the patterning of vestibular system influences on sympathetic nervous system outflow to the upper and lower body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yates, Bill J

    2011-05-01

    Research on animal models as well as human subjects has demonstrated that the vestibular system contributes to regulating the distribution of blood in the body through effects on the sympathetic nervous system. Elimination of vestibular inputs results in increased blood flow to the hindlimbs during vestibular stimulation, because it attenuates the increase in vascular resistance that ordinarily occurs in the lower body during head-up tilts. Additionally, the changes in vascular resistance produced by vestibular stimulation differ between body regions. Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferents produces an inhibition of most hindlimb vasoconstrictor fibers and a decrease in hindlimb vascular resistance, but an initial excitation of most upper body vasoconstrictor fibers accompanied by an increase in upper body vascular resistance. The present study tested the hypothesis that neurons in the principal vasomotor region of the brainstem, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), whose projections extended past the T10 segment, to spinal levels containing sympathetic preganglionic neurons regulating lower body blood flow, respond differently to electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve than RVLM neurons whose axons terminate rostral to T10. Contrary to our hypothesis, the majority of RVLM neurons were excited by vestibular stimulation, despite their level of projection in the spinal cord. These findings indicate that the RVLM is not solely responsible for establishing the patterning of vestibular-sympathetic responses. This patterning apparently requires the integration by spinal circuitry of labyrinthine signals transmitted from the brainstem, likely from regions in addition to the RVLM.

  10. Bioinspired Heterogeneous Structural Color Stripes from Capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ze; Wang, Huan; Shang, Luoran; Yu, Yunru; Fu, Fanfan; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2017-12-01

    As an important characteristic of many creatures, structural colors play a crucial role in the survival of organisms. Inspired by these features, an intelligent structural color material with a heterogeneous striped pattern and stimuli-responsivity by fast self-assembly of colloidal nanoparticles in capillaries with a certain diameter range are presented here. The width, spacing, color, and even combination of the structural color stripe patterns can be precisely tailored by adjusting the self-assembly parameters. Attractively, with the integration of a near-infrared (NIR) light responsive graphene hydrogel into the structural color stripe pattern, the materials are endowed with light-controlled reversible bending behavior with self-reporting color indication. It is demonstrated that the striped structural color materials can be used as NIR-light-triggered dynamic barcode labels for the anti-counterfeiting of different products. These features of the bioinspired structural color stripe pattern materials indicate their potential values for mimicking structural color organisms, which will find important applications in constructing intelligent sensors, anti-counterfeiting devices, and so on. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  12. In or Out-of-Madagascar?—Colonization Patterns for Large-Bodied Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukontaite, Rasa; Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra; Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala; Bergsten, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from—Africa or Asia—and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon

  13. Computational detection of genomic cis-regulatory modules applied to body patterning in the early Drosophila embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaul Ulrike

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene transcription is crucial for the function and development of all organisms. While gene prediction programs that identify protein coding sequence are used with remarkable success in the annotation of genomes, the development of computational methods to analyze noncoding regions and to delineate transcriptional control elements is still in its infancy. Results Here we present novel algorithms to detect cis-regulatory modules through genome wide scans for clusters of transcription factor binding sites using three levels of prior information. When binding sites for the factors are known, our statistical segmentation algorithm, Ahab, yields about 150 putative gap gene regulated modules, with no adjustable parameters other than a window size. If one or more related modules are known, but no binding sites, repeated motifs can be found by a customized Gibbs sampler and input to Ahab, to predict genes with similar regulation. Finally using only the genome, we developed a third algorithm, Argos, that counts and scores clusters of overrepresented motifs in a window of sequence. Argos recovers many of the known modules, upstream of the segmentation genes, with no training data. Conclusions We have demonstrated, in the case of body patterning in the Drosophila embryo, that our algorithms allow the genome-wide identification of regulatory modules. We believe that Ahab overcomes many problems of recent approaches and we estimated the false positive rate to be about 50%. Argos is the first successful attempt to predict regulatory modules using only the genome without training data. Complete results and module predictions across the Drosophila genome are available at http://uqbar.rockefeller.edu/~siggia/.

  14. Color doppler sonography in thickened gallbladder wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Seok Jin; Seo, Chang Hae; Eun, Choong Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    The thickening of the gallbladder wall is a valuable finding for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, but may be seen in non-cholecystic disease as well as in acute or chronic cholecystitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the value of color Doppler sonography in differentiating the causes of thickened gallbladder wall. Ninety eight patients with thickened gallbladder wall(more than 3mm) which was not due to gallbladder cancer were prospectively evaluated with color Doppler sonography. Sixty-six cases, confirmed by pathologic reports and clinical records, were analyzed for correlation between thickened gallbladder wall and color flow signal according to the underlying causes. Of the 66 patients, 28 cases were cholecystitis and 38 cases had non-cholecystic causes such as liver cirrhosis, ascites, hepatitis, pancreatitis, renal failure, and hypoalbuminemia. Of the 28 patients with cholecystitis(12 acute, 16 chronic), 23(82%) had color Doppler flow signals in the thickened gallbladder wall. Of the 38 patients with non-cholecystic causes, eight(21%) had color Doppler flow signals. There was a statistically significant difference of color Doppler flow signals between the cholecystitis and non-cholecystic groups(p=0.0001). No significant difference of color Doppler flow signals was found between cases of acute and chronic cholecystitis. Of the 23 patients with color Doppler flow signals in 28 cases of cholecystitis, 18(78.3%) showed a linear pattern and five(21.7%) showed a spotty pattern. Of the eight patients with color Doppler flow signals in the 38 non-cholecystic cases, four(50%) showed a linear pattern and four(50%) showed a spotty pattern. In cholecystitis, a linear color Doppler flow signal pattern is a much more frequent finding than a spotty pattern. Color Doppler sonography is a useful and adequate method for determining whether a thickened gallbladder wall is the result of cholecystitis or has non-cholecystic causes.

  15. Water Detection Based on Color Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.

    2012-01-01

    This software has been designed to detect water bodies that are out in the open on cross-country terrain at close range (out to 30 meters), using imagery acquired from a stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This detector exploits the fact that the color variation across water bodies is generally larger and more uniform than that of other naturally occurring types of terrain, such as soil and vegetation. Non-traversable water bodies, such as large puddles, ponds, and lakes, are detected based on color variation, image intensity variance, image intensity gradient, size, and shape. At ranges beyond 20 meters, water bodies out in the open can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. But at closer range, the color coming out of a water body dominates sky reflections, and the water cue from sky reflections is of marginal use. Since there may be times during UGV autonomous navigation when a water body does not come into a perception system s field of view until it is at close range, the ability to detect water bodies at close range is critical. Factors that influence the perceived color of a water body at close range are the amount and type of sediment in the water, the water s depth, and the angle of incidence to the water body. Developing a single model of the mixture ratio of light reflected off the water surface (to the camera) to light coming out of the water body (to the camera) for all water bodies would be fairly difficult. Instead, this software detects close water bodies based on local terrain features and the natural, uniform change in color that occurs across the surface from the leading edge to the trailing edge.

  16. OBTENTION OF CARAMEL COLOR FOR CARBONATED BEVERAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnel Benítez Cortés

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work is done in order to evaluate a process for the preparation of caramel color to produce carbonated soft drinks. The effect of the concentration of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide in caramel color properties such as density, pH, color and Brix is evaluated and it is compared with a color pattern caramel color which was imported. The results indicate that the prepared sample with 3.6 mL of phosphoric acid and 46 mL of ammonium hydroxide has similar characteristics to the sample pattern. With this sample, iromber and cola syrup is prepared, showing very good results for the case of the cola, not so for iromber syrup. Durability studies are favorable, keeping the pH constant and color stability.

  17. Color preferences change after experience with liked/disliked colored objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Eli D; Schloss, Karen B; Palmer, Stephen E

    2013-10-01

    How are color preferences formed, and can they be changed by affective experiences with correspondingly colored objects? We examined these questions by testing whether affectively polarized experiences with images of colored objects would cause changes in color preferences. Such changes are implied by the ecological valence theory (EVT), which posits that color preferences are determined by people's average affective responses to correspondingly colored objects (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 8877-8882, 2010). Seeing images of strongly liked (and disliked) red and green objects, therefore, should lead to increased (and decreased) preferences for correspondingly colored red and green color patches. Experiment 1 showed that this crossover interaction did occur, but only if participants were required to evaluate their preferences for the colored objects when they saw them. Experiment 2 showed that these overall changes decreased substantially over a 24-h delay, but the degree to which the effect lasted for individuals covaried with the magnitude of the effects immediately after object exposure. Experiment 3 demonstrated a similar, but weaker, effect of affectively biased changes in color preferences when participants did not see, but only imagined, the colored objects. The overall pattern of results indicated that color preferences are not fixed, but rather are shaped by affective experiences with colored objects. Possible explanations for the observed changes in color preferences were considered in terms of associative learning through evaluative conditioning and/or priming of prior knowledge in memory.

  18. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  19. Melanic variation underlies aposematic color variation in two hymenopteran mimicry systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Hines

    Full Text Available The stinging hymenopteran velvet ants (Mutillidae and bumble bees (Apidae: Bombus spp. have both undergone extensive diversification in aposematic color patterns, including yellow-red hues and contrasting dark-light body coloration, as a result of Müllerian mimicry. Understanding the genetic and developmental mechanisms underlying shifts in these mimetic colors requires characterization of their pigmentation. In this study, a combination of solubility, spectrophotometry, and melanin degradation analysis are applied to several color forms and species of these lineages to determine that orange-red colors in both lineages are comprised of primarily dopamine-derived pheomelanins. Until a few recent studies, pheomelanins were thought not to occur in insects. These results support their potential to occur across insects and particularly among the Hymenoptera. Shifts between black and orange-red colors, such as between mimetic color forms of bumble bee Bombus melanopygus, are inferred to involve modification of the ratios of dark eumelanins to red pheomelanins, thus implicating the melanin pathway in mimetic diversification. This discovery highlights the need to focus on how pheomelanins are synthesized in the insect melanin pathway and the potential for new pigments to be found even in some of our most well-known insect systems.

  20. Rates and patterns in the evolution of snake-like body form in squamate reptiles: evidence for repeated re-evolution of lost digits and long-term persistence of intermediate body forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandley, Matthew C; Huelsenbeck, John P; Wiens, John J

    2008-08-01

    An important challenge in evolutionary biology is to understand how major changes in body form arise. The dramatic transition from a lizard-like to snake-like body form in squamate reptiles offers an exciting system for such research because this change is replicated dozens of times. Here, we use morphometric data for 258 species and a time-calibrated phylogeny to explore rates and patterns of body-form evolution across squamates. We also demonstrate how time-calibrated phylogenies may be used to make inferences about the time frame over which major morphological transitions occur. Using the morphometric data, we find that the transition from lizard-like to snake-like body form involves concerted evolution of limb reduction, digit loss, and body elongation. These correlations are similar across squamate clades, despite very different ecologies and >180 million years (My) of divergence. Using the time-calibrated phylogeny and ancestral reconstructions, we find that the dramatic transition between these body forms can occur in 20 My or less, but that seemingly intermediate morphologies can also persist for tens of millions of years. Finally, although loss of digits is common, we find statistically significant support for at least six examples of the re-evolution of lost digits in the forelimb and hind limb.

  1. Cross-cultural color-odor associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel A Levitan

    Full Text Available Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor, statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience, and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language. The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents, using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.

  2. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  3. Food intake affects state body image: impact of restrained eating patterns and concerns about eating, weight and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vocks, Silja; Legenbauer, Tanja; Heil, Andrea

    2007-09-01

    Body image disturbances play a significant role in the development of eating disorders. Since body image can vary in diverse contexts, the aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether it is affected by recent food intake. Fifty-seven females without clinically relevant eating disorders were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG, n=28) that consumed a milkshake while watching a neutral film and a control group (CG, n=29) that only viewed the movie. Before and after the tasks, participants filled in the "Body Image States Scale" and the "Mood Questionnaire" and indicated their own "actual", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions with a digital distortion technique based on a photograph of themselves. It was shown that after milkshake consumption, state body dissatisfaction as well as the discrepancy between "actual-ideal" and "felt-ideal" body size estimations was higher in the EG than in the CG. Judgements of the "actual", "felt" and "ideal" body dimensions and of mood were not affected. Further analyses revealed that the effect of milkshake consumption on body image and mood was higher the more the participants displayed restrained eating or eating, weight and shape concerns in general. Clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  5. Concentric Polycyclic Regrowth Pattern in Alopecia Areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorenze, Lilian Mathias; Gavazzoni-Dias, Maria Fernanada Reis; Teixeira, Marcelo S; Aide, Marcia Kalil

    2016-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is a common form of autoimmune nonscarring hair loss of scalp and/or body. Atypical hair regrowth in AA is considered a rare phenomenon. It includes atypical pattern of hair growth (sudden graying, perinevoid alopecia, Renbok phenomenon, castling phenomenon, and concentric or targetoid regrowth) and atypical dark color hair regrowth. We report a case of AA that resulted in a concentric targetoid hair regrowth and discuss the possible related theories regarding the significance of this phenomenon.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  10. Dietary patterns differ between urban and rural older, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer and are associated with body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paige E; Morey, Miriam C; Hartman, Terry J; Snyder, Denise C; Sloane, Richard; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2012-06-01

    Older adult cancer survivors are at greater risk of cancer recurrence and other comorbidities that can be prevented through improved diet and weight management. The tertiary prevention needs of rural-dwelling survivors can be even greater, yet little is known about rural and urban differences in lifestyle factors among this high-risk population. To compare dietary patterns of urban and rural cancer survivors and to examine associations of dietary patterns with body mass index (BMI). A secondary analysis was performed of baseline data from the Reach Out to Enhance Wellness (RENEW) trial, a diet and exercise intervention among overweight, long-term (≥5 years), older survivors of colorectal, breast, and prostate cancer. Survivors in the present analysis (n=729) underwent two 45- to 60-minute telephone surveys, which included two 24-hour dietary recalls. Principal components analysis and multivariable general linear models were used to derive dietary patterns and to evaluate associations between dietary patterns and BMI, respectively. Principal components analysis identified three primary dietary patterns among rural dwellers (high sweets and starches, high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits, and mixed) and three among urban dwellers (high fruits and vegetables, high meat and refined grains, and high sugar-sweetened beverages). Among rural survivors, greater adherence to the high reduced-fat dairy, cereal, nuts, and fruits pattern was positively associated with lower BMI (P trend pattern was associated with greater BMI (P trend pattern among urban survivors was inversely associated with BMI (P trend dietary intake behavior should be considered in designing public health interventions among the increasing population of older cancer survivors. In addition, targeting overall dietary patterns might be one approach to help reduce the burden of obesity among this population. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. First report of nonpsychotic self-cannibalism (autophagy), tongue splitting, and scar patterns (scarification) as an extreme form of cultural body modification in a western civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benecke, M

    1999-09-01

    As part of her current lifestyle, a 28-year-old Caucasian woman routinely injures and allows subsequent healing of her skin and other tissues. Her body modifications include a "split tongue" (a tongue split to the base), which does not interfere with speaking and eating. Other modifications include large scarification patterns produced by branding and cutting. This woman has been known to eat parts of her skin that were previously cut out of her body. She also performs "needle play" by allowing medical syringe needles to be lodged temporarily under her skin. The patient had a normal childhood, is currently employed full-time as an office manager, and is psychologically stable. Although one other case of self-induced penoscrotal hypospadias is known, this is the only report of extensive, nonpsychotic, autodestructive behavior. However, this may not be the case in the future as an increasing number of young individuals have become interested in body modifications.

  12. Evidence for the higher importance of signal size over body size in aposematic signaling in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmel, Triinu; Tammarub, Toomas

    2011-01-01

    To understand the evolution of warning coloration, it is important to distinguish between different aspects of conspicuous color patterns. As an example, both pattern element size and body size of prey have been shown to enhance the effectiveness of warning signals. However, it is unclear whether the effect of body size is merely a side effect of proportionally increasing pattern elements, or if there is an effect of body size per se. These possibilities were evaluated by offering different sized artificial caterpillars with either fixed or proportionally increasing aposematic color signal elements to wild great tits, Parus major L. (Passeriformes: Paridae). The birds' hesitation time to attack each "caterpillar" was used as a measure of the warning effect. The hesitation time showed a significant, positive size-dependence with the caterpillars whose pattern elements increased proportionally with their body size. In contrast, no size dependence was found in the larvae with fixed-size signal elements. Such a difference in mortality curves is consistent with the idea that pattern element size is a more important aspect than body size in enhancing a warning signal. Since no evidence of an effect of body size per se on signal efficiency was found, this study does not support the hypothesis that aposematic insects gain more from large size than cryptic ones.

  13. Locomotor Activity and Body Temperature Patterns over a Temperature Gradient in the Highveld Mole-Rat (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, Meghan; Bennett, Nigel C; Oosthuizen, Maria K

    2017-01-01

    African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation. Here we test the effect of ambient temperature on locomotor activity and body temperature, and the relationship between the two parameters, in the highveld mole-rat. We exposed mole-rats to a 12L:12D and a DD light cycle at ambient temperatures of 30°C, 25°C and 20°C while locomotor activity and body temperature were measured simultaneously. In addition, we investigated the endogenous rhythms of locomotor activity and body temperature at different ambient temperatures. Mole-rats displayed nocturnal activity at all three ambient temperatures and were most active at 20°C, but least active at 30°C. Body temperature was highest at 30°C and lowest at 20°C, and the daily cycle was highly correlated with locomotor activity. We show that the mole-rats have endogenous rhythms for both locomotor activity and body temperature. However, the endogenous body temperature rhythm appears to be less robust compared to the locomotor activity rhythm. Female mole-rats appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes than males, increased heterothermy is evident at lower ambient temperatures, whilst males show smaller variation in their body temperatures with changing ambient temperatures. Mole-rats may rely more heavily on behavioural thermoregulation as it is more energy efficient in an already challenging environment.

  14. Unique Patterns of Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements During Maturation in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Neonates: Opportunities for Modifying Nutritional Therapy and Influencing Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algotar, Anushree; Shaikhkhalil, Ala K; Siler-Wurst, Kim; Sitaram, Swetha; Gulati, Ish; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2018-01-01

    Body composition is an important predictor of long-term outcomes in neonates and may be altered by several factors. Innovative methods like air displacement plethysmography (ADP) can safely and reliably measure body composition, potentially assisting in individualization of nutrition therapy. 1) To characterize patterns of body composition change in convalescing neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and examine factors leading to variation. 2) To evaluate if the time interval between 2 measurements via ADP can detect significant changes. NICU infants underwent anthropometry and body composition measurements by ADP at 37.5±0.7 weeks (Time 1) and 41.0±0.7 weeks (Time 2) postmenstrual age. Nutrition data were recorded. Data were analyzed using paired t-tests and linear regression models, presented as mean±SE, median (IQR), or %. Twenty-two neonates (54% males, 32.2±0.9 weeks gestation) were evaluated with a median interval of 3.6 (2.9-4.0) weeks between studies. Mean weight and % body fat increased significantly. There was no significant difference between mean weight and mean % body fat compared with normal references. Abdominal girth increased and mid-arm circumference decreased (pcomposition can effectively assess nutrition status of fragile NICU infants. Although, an interval of 2.9-4.0 weeks between consecutive measurements detected significant changes in body composition, more frequent measurements are needed to determine nutrition factors responsible for body composition changes. © 2017 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Taxonomic status of the three color variants in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus): evidence from mitochondrial phylogenomic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Cao, Zhengfei; Li, Yuchun; Zhao, Hong; Huang, Jianjun; Liang, Zhenlin; Huang, Luqi

    2016-07-01

    Color variation in sea cucumber is one of the most crucial traits affecting price and taste in East Asian countries. However, the relationship and taxonomic status of the three color variants are still unclear. We used 14 samples that covered all three color variants and their geographic distributions, to construct the first phylogeny for the color variants based on the complete mitochondrial genome sequence and a number of tree-building methods (maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML), and Bayesian inference (BI)). The divergence times within color variants were estimated by the Bayesian molecular clock approach using the BEAST program. Our results showed that the color variants were not monophyletic in the well-resolved phylogenetic tree, which strongly refuted their separate species status. The molecular dating estimate revealed that the sea cucumber was a young group, which originated in the early Miocene period (22.03 mya) and rapidly diverged after the late Miocene period. It is interesting that individuals within each variant or geographic distribution were not always closely related and thus did not share a common origin. We propose that although they differ in body color, the three color morphs all belong to a single species of Apostichopus japonicus and the historical marine climate and the hydrographic complexity of the ocean currents could be responsible for their present distribution patterns.

  16. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  17. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children's Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera E. Hassan

    2016-09-01

    CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children.

  18. Color relations increase the capacity of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanocki, Thomas; Sulman, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Do color relations such as similarity or harmony influence the ease with which colored patterns can be perceived and held in mind? We tested the influence of a relation supported in research on color harmony--similarity of hue--on the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) for colors in patterns. Palettes of 4 similar-hue colors were rated as more pleasant (harmonious) than dissimilar-color palettes. The palettes were used in a VSTM color task. Patterns of 9 to 15 colored squares were presented, and accuracy of color change detection was measured. Memory performance was higher overall for similar-color palettes than for dissimilar-color palettes (experiments 1 and 3). Is this due to color similarity per se, or due to the harmony between colors in similar palettes? A final experiment provided strong support for the importance of color similarity as opposed to harmony. Overall, the advantages for color similarity, in terms of number of color squares held in memory (memory capacity) were 26% to 45% over dissimilar colors. The results indicate that color relations can have a strong impact on the capacity for perceiving and retaining color patterns.

  19. Pigmentary and photonic coloration mechanisms reveal taxonomic relationships of the Cattlehearts (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae: Parides)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Ijbema, Natasja; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The colorful wing patterns of butterflies, a prime example of biodiversity, can change dramatically within closely related species. Wing pattern diversity is specifically present among papilionid butterflies. Whether a correlation between color and the evolution of these butterflies

  20. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  1. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  2. Comparing para-rowing set-ups on an ergometer using kinematic movement patterns of able-bodied rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B; Eger, T; Merritt, T; Godwin, A

    2017-04-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the biomechanics of able-bodied rowing, few studies have been completed with para-rowing set-ups. The purpose of this research was to provide benchmark data for handle kinetics and joint kinematics for able-bodied athletes rowing in para- rowing set-ups on an indoor ergometer. Able-bodied varsity rowers performed maximal trials in three para-rowing set-ups; Legs, Trunk and Arms (LTA), Trunk and Arms (TA) and Arms and Shoulders (AS) rowing. The handle force kinetics of the LTA stroke were comparable to the values for able-bodied literature. Lumbar flexion at the catch, extension at the finish and total range of motion were, however, greater than values in the literature for able-bodied athletes in the LTA set-up. Additionally, rowers in TA and AS set-ups utilised more extreme ranges of motion for lumbar flexion, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction than the LTA set-up. This study provides the first biomechanical values of the para-rowing strokes for researchers, coaches and athletes to use while promoting the safest training programmes possible for para-rowing.

  3. Bold colors in a cryptic lineage: do Eastern Indigo Snakes exhibit color dimorphism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitloff, Jennifer; Johnson, Valerie M; Guyer, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Many species exhibit variation in the color of their scales, feathers, or fur. Various forms of natural selection, such as mimicry, crypsis, and species recognition, as well as sexual selection, can influence the evolution of color. Eastern Indigo Snakes (Drymarchon couperi), a federally threatened species, have coloration on the sides of the head and the chin that can vary from black to red or cream. Despite significant conservations efforts for this species, little is known about its biology in the field. Past researchers have proposed that the color variation on the head and chin is associated with the sex of the individual. Alternatively, color might vary among individuals because it is controlled by genes that are under natural selection or neutral evolution. We tested these alternative hypotheses by examining whether coloration of the sublabial, submaxillary, and ventral scales of this species differed by sex or among clutches. We used color spectrometry to characterize important aspects of color in two ways: by examining overall color differences across the entire color spectrum and by comparing differences within the ultraviolet, yellow, and red colorbands. We found that Eastern Indigo Snakes do not exhibit sexual dichromatism, but their coloration does vary among clutches; therefore, the pattern of sexual selection leading to sexual dichromatism observed in many squamates does not appear to play a role in the evolution and maintenance of color variation in Eastern Indigo Snakes. We suggest that future studies should focus on determining whether color variation in these snakes is determined by maternal effects or genetic components and if color is influenced by natural selection or neutral evolutionary processes. Studying species that exhibit bright colors within lineages that are not known for such coloration will contribute greatly to our understanding of the evolutionary and ecological factors that drive these differences.

  4. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Kline

    Full Text Available Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  5. Behavior, color change and time for sexual inversion in the protogynous grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Richard J; Khan, Izhar A; Holt, G Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific "tuxedo" pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process.

  6. Impact of low-dose chronic exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) on adult male zebrafish adaption to the environmental complexity: Disturbing the color preference patterns and reliving the anxiety behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Li, Xu; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Dai, Liang-Ti; Liu, Xing-Yu; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Dong-Yan; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2017-11-01

    The extensive usage of xenobiotic endocrine disrupting chemicals (XEDCs), such as Bisphenol A (BPA), has created obvious threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Although a comprehensive understanding of the adverse effect of BPA on behaviors and physiology have been proven, the potential impact of low-dose BPA on altering the basic ability of aquatic organism in adapting to the surrounded complex environment still remains elusive. In this research, we report that treatment of adult male zebrafish with chronic (7 weeks) low-dose (0.22 nM-2.2 nM) BPA, altered the ability in adapting the complex environment by disturbing the natural color preference patterns. In addition, chronic 50 ng/L (0.22 nM) BPA exposure alleviated the anxiety behavior of male zebrafish confronted with the novel environment by enhancing the preference towards light in the light/dark preference test. This phenotype was associated with less expression of serotonin (5-TH) in the hypothalamus and the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in brain tissues. As such, our results show that low-dose BPA remnant in surface waters altered zebrafish behavior that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences. Here we reported that the impact of chronic low-dose BPA exposure on the basic capability of zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. Specifically, BPA at low concentration, under the environmental safety level and 3000-fold lower than the accepted human daily exposure, interfered with the ability to discriminate color and alleviate anxiety induced by the novel environment, which finally altered the capability of male zebrafish to adapt to the environmental complexity. These findings revealed the ecological effect of low-dose BPA and regular BPA concentration standard are not necessarily safe. The result also provided the consideration of retuning the hazard concentration level of BPA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Texture affects color emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, M.P.; Gevers, T.; Gijsenij, A.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have recorded color emotions in subjects viewing uniform color (UC) samples. We conduct an experiment to measure and model how these color emotions change when texture is added to the color samples. Using a computer monitor, our subjects arrange samples along four scales: warm-cool,

  8. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Color Blindness Sections What Is Color Blindness? What Are ... Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? ...

  9. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  10. Use of Data Mining to Reveal Body Mass Index (BMI): Patterns among Pennsylvania Schoolchildren, Pre-K to Grade 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    YoussefAgha, Ahmed H.; Lohrmann, David K.; Jayawardene, Wasantha P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health eTools for Schools was developed to assist school nurses with routine entries, including height and weight, on student health records, thus providing a readily accessible data base. Data-mining techniques were applied to this database to determine if clinically signi?cant results could be generated. Methods: Body mass index…

  11. Where the Solar system meets the solar neighbourhood: patterns in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic minor bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente Marcos, Carlos; de la Fuente Marcos, Raúl; Aarseth, Sverre J.

    2018-05-01

    Observed hyperbolic minor bodies might have an interstellar origin, but they can be natives of the Solar system as well. Fly-bys with the known planets or the Sun may result in the hyperbolic ejection of an originally bound minor body; in addition, members of the Oort cloud could be forced to follow inbound hyperbolic paths as a result of secular perturbations induced by the Galactic disc or, less frequently, due to impulsive interactions with passing stars. These four processes must leave distinctive signatures in the distribution of radiants of observed hyperbolic objects, both in terms of coordinates and velocity. Here, we perform a systematic numerical exploration of the past orbital evolution of known hyperbolic minor bodies using a full N-body approach and statistical analyses to study their radiants. Our results confirm the theoretical expectations that strong anisotropies are present in the data. We also identify a statistically significant overdensity of high-speed radiants towards the constellation of Gemini that could be due to the closest and most recent known fly-by of a star to the Solar system, that of the so-called Scholz's star. In addition to and besides 1I/2017 U1 (`Oumuamua), we single out eight candidate interstellar comets based on their radiants' velocities.

  12. Habitat heterogeneity as a driver of ungulate diversity and distribution patterns : interaction of body mass and digestive strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromsigt, Joris P. G. M.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Olff, Han; Patterson, Bruce

    Classic island biogeographical theory predicts that reserves have to be large to conserve high biodiversity. Recent literature, however, suggests that habitat heterogeneity can counterbalance the effect of small reserve size. For savanna ungulates, body mass is said to drive habitat selection and

  13. Habitat heterogeneity as a driver of ungulate diversity and distribution patterns: interaction of body mass and digestive strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromsigt, J.P.G.M.; Prins, H.H.T.; Olff, H.

    2009-01-01

    Aim Classic island biogeographical theory predicts that reserves have to be large to conserve high biodiversity. Recent literature, however, suggests that habitat heterogeneity can counterbalance the effect of small reserve size. For savanna ungulates, body mass is said to drive habitat selection

  14. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  15. Color constancy in a scene with bright colors that do not have a fully natural surface appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Kazuho; Uchikawa, Keiji

    2014-04-01

    Theoretical and experimental approaches have proposed that color constancy involves a correction related to some average of stimulation over the scene, and some of the studies showed that the average gives greater weight to surrounding bright colors. However, in a natural scene, high-luminance elements do not necessarily carry information about the scene illuminant when the luminance is too high for it to appear as a natural object color. The question is how a surrounding color's appearance mode influences its contribution to the degree of color constancy. Here the stimuli were simple geometric patterns, and the luminance of surrounding colors was tested over the range beyond the luminosity threshold. Observers performed perceptual achromatic setting on the test patch in order to measure the degree of color constancy and evaluated the surrounding bright colors' appearance mode. Broadly, our results support the assumption that the visual system counts only the colors in the object-color appearance for color constancy. However, detailed analysis indicated that surrounding colors without a fully natural object-color appearance had some sort of influence on color constancy. Consideration of this contribution of unnatural object color might be important for precise modeling of human color constancy.

  16. Self-organized Pattern Formation of Whole-body Action-perception Coordination: A Study of Street Dancers and Non-dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakazawa Kimitaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether whole-body action-perception coordination is governed by dynamical principles using basic street dance movement. Six skilled street dancers and 8 novice controls performed 2 movement patterns: knee-flexion-on-the-beat (down movement and knee-extension-on-the-beat (up movement in the standing position, and they did not intervene in the pattern change. The beat rate increased/decreased between 60 and 220 beats per minute (bpm in steps of 20 bpm. The relative phase between knee movements (as measured by twin-axis electrogoniometer and the beat were calculated. In the ascending beat rate condition of the up movement, phase transition from knee-extension-on-the-beat to knee-flexion-on-the-beat occurred at averages of 125 bpm in non-dancers and 164 bpm in dancers. Critical fluctuation and hysteresis were also observed. These results suggest that whole-body action-perception pattern formation is governed by general dynamical principles and that critical frequency could be a parameter of proficiency in street dance.

  17. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  18. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  19. Establishing Standards on Colors from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, James E; Decker, Eric A; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Giusti, M Monica; Mejia, Carla D; Goldschmidt, Mark; Talcott, Stephen T

    2017-11-01

    Color additives are applied to many food, drug, and cosmetic products. With up to 85% of consumer buying decisions potentially influenced by color, appropriate application of color additives and their safety is critical. Color additives are defined by the U.S. Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&C Act) as any dye, pigment, or substance that can impart color to a food, drug, or cosmetic or to the human body. Under current U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, colors fall into 2 categories as those subject to an FDA certification process and those that are exempt from certification often referred to as "natural" colors by consumers because they are sourced from plants, minerals, and animals. Certified colors have been used for decades in food and beverage products, but consumer interest in natural colors is leading market applications. However, the popularity of natural colors has also opened a door for both unintentional and intentional economic adulteration. Whereas FDA certifications for synthetic dyes and lakes involve strict quality control, natural colors are not evaluated by the FDA and often lack clear definitions and industry accepted quality and safety specifications. A significant risk of adulteration of natural colors exists, ranging from simple misbranding or misuse of the term "natural" on a product label to potentially serious cases of physical, chemical, and/or microbial contamination from raw material sources, improper processing methods, or intentional postproduction adulteration. Consistent industry-wide safety standards are needed to address the manufacturing, processing, application, and international trade of colors from natural sources to ensure quality and safety throughout the supply chain. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Coloring local feature extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Van De Weijer, Joost; Schmid, Cordelia

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Although color is commonly experienced as an indispensable quality in describing the world around us, state-of-the art local feature-based representations are mostly based on shape description, and ignore color information. The description of color is hampered by the large amount of variations which causes the measured color values to vary significantly. In this paper we aim to extend the description of local features with color information. To accomplish a wide applic...

  1. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  2. The impact of early growth patterns and infant feeding on body composition at 3 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Katrine Tschentscher; Christensen, Line Brinch; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    on body composition at 3 years, and whether infant feeding modified the relationship between early growth and body composition at 3 years. We studied 233 children from the prospective cohort study, SKOT (in Danish: Småbørns Kost og Trivsel). Birth weight z-scores (BWZ) and change in weight-for-age z......Early excessive weight gain is positively associated with later obesity, and yet the effect of weight gain during specific periods and the impact of infant feeding practices are debated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of weight gain in periods of early childhood...... of infant feeding was found for FFMI. In conclusion, high birth weight and rapid growth from 0 to 5 months were associated with increased FMI and FFMI at 3 years. Longer duration of full breastfeeding reduced the effect of birth weight and early weight gain on fat mass....

  3. Serving capacity of crossbred yearling beef bulls. II. Summer grazing activity and body temperature patterns during average and heavy mating loads at pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, G W; Lunstra, D D; Corah, L R; Cochran, R C; Hahn, G L

    1989-01-01

    Ten low (LSC) and 10 high (HSC) serving capacity yearling bulls were exposed individually to 25 naturally cyclic (N) cows for 3 d (average mating load) and subsequently to 9 estrus-synchronized (S) cows for 1 d (heavy mating load) in a randomized complete block design consisting of 10, 4-d blocks. Bulls were fitted with vibracorders and temperature acquisition modules to record grazing activity and body temperature (BT), respectively. During the N cow treatment, LSC bulls had fewer (P less than .05) services per cow and a higher mount to service ratio than HSC bulls, and LSC bulls tended (P = .12) to graze less total time than HSC bulls (7.8 vs 9.0 h/d, respectively). However, both groups of bulls exhibited similar diurnal grazing patterns with two major daily grazing periods; the first (0400 to 1300) peaked early in the morning (0600) and the second (1700 to 2200) occurred in late afternoon and evening. During the S cow treatment, LSC and HSC bulls did not differ (P = .60) in grazing time or pattern, but similar mating activity was exhibited by both SC groups while exposed to S cows. Bulls grazed little during the hottest part of the day (1300 to 1700), and LSC and HSC bulls spent only 2.2 and 2.4 h, respectively, grazing during dark, cooler periods near midnight. Body temperature did not differ between SC groups and averaged 39.3 degrees C during N cow treatment and 39.4 degrees C during S cow treatment. Body temperature had a distinct, monophasic diurnal pattern in bulls exposed to an average mating load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Gender-specific growth patterns of transversal body dimensions in Croatian children and youth (2 to 18 years of age).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivicnjak, Miroslav; Smolej Narancić, Nina; Szirovicza, Lajos; Franke, Doris; Hrenović, Jasna; Bisof, Vesna; Tomas, Zeljka; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana

    2008-06-01

    In a cross-sectional study of growth, 5,260 healthy children of both sexes from Zagreb (Croatia) aged 2 to 18 years were measured. Six transversal body dimensions were studied: biacromial, transverse chest, antero-posterior chest, biiliocristal, bicondylar humerus and bicondylar femur diamters. A significant increase in body diameters has been observed until the age of 14 to 15 in girls and until the age of 16 in boys, showing that girls have a 1 to 2 years shorter period of growth. Compared to boys of the same age, they achieved larger amounts of final transversal bone size throughout the whole growth period. The most pronounced example was the knee diameter that in girls attained 95% of adult size as early as the age of 10. In both genders, the adult size is achieved earlier in widths of the extremities than in those of the trunk. The studied transversal body segments showed different growth dynamics, which is gender-specific. While sexual dimorphism in pelvic and shoulder diameters emerged with pubertal spurt, gender differences in chest and extremities' diameters started early in life. In all ages, boys had larger chest, elbow and knee diameters. In pubertal age boys gained a significantly larger biacromial diameter (from the age of 13 onwards), while girls exceeded them in biiliocristal diameter (from 10 to 14 years). The findings of gender differences were compared to those reported for other European populations and their growth patters were discussed comparing viewpoints.

  5. The Application of SILAC Mouse in Human Body Fluid Proteomics Analysis Reveals Protein Patterns Associated with IgA Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shilin; Li, Rongxia; Cai, Xiaofan; Chen, Wanjia; Li, Qingrun; Xing, Tao; Zhu, Wenjie; Chen, Y Eugene; Zeng, Rong; Deng, Yueyi

    2013-01-01

    Body fluid proteome is the most informative proteome from a medical viewpoint. But the lack of accurate quantitation method for complicated body fluid limited its application in disease research and biomarker discovery. To address this problem, we introduced a novel strategy, in which SILAC-labeled mouse serum was used as internal standard for human serum and urine proteome analysis. The SILAC-labeled mouse serum was mixed with human serum and urine, and multidimensional separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (IEF-LC-MS/MS) analysis was performed. The shared peptides between two species were quantified by their SILAC pairs, and the human-only peptides were quantified by mouse peptides with coelution. The comparison for the results from two replicate experiments indicated the high repeatability of our strategy. Then the urine from Immunoglobulin A nephropathy patients treated and untreated was compared by this quantitation strategy. Fifty-three peptides were found to be significantly changed between two groups, including both known diagnostic markers for IgAN and novel candidates, such as Complement C3, Albumin, VDBP, ApoA,1 and IGFBP7. In conclusion, we have developed a practical and accurate quantitation strategy for comparison of complicated human body fluid proteome. The results from such strategy could provide potential disease-related biomarkers for evaluation of treatment.

  6. Effect of the Interaction between Mental Stress and Eating Pattern on Body Mass Index Gain in Healthy Japanese Male Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Toyoshima, Hideaki; Masuoka, Nobutaka; Hashimoto, Shuji; Otsuka, Rei; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tamakoshi, Koji; Yatsuya, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background The effect of the interaction between long-term mental stress and eating habits on weight gain has not been confirmed in humans. Methods A population of 1080 healthy Japanese male local government employees without lifestyle-related diseases were studied. Height and weight were measured and perception of mental stress and the frequency of eating to satiety, drinking, smoking, and exercise were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in both 1997 and 2002. Exposure patterns during this...

  7. The impact of body mass index on severity, patterns and outcomes after traumatic brain injuries caused by low level falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, M; Brazinova, A; Wilbacher, I; Rusnak, M; Mauritz, W

    2015-12-01

    Low level falls are a common cause of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and are associated with significant mortality and disability. The aim of this study was to analyse whether BMI, height and weight of patients were related to severity, patterns and outcomes of TBI caused by low level falls. Data on patients with TBI where cause of injury was a low level fall (fall falls. More detailed data and further studies are needed to fully elucidate these complex relationships.

  8. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Keiko; Inoue, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions). The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1) reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2) examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3) explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP). Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance) as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth ratings in

  9. Perception of color emotions for single colors in red-green defective observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Sato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that inherited red-green color deficiency, which involves both the protan and deutan deficiency types, is common in men. For red-green defective observers, some reddish colors appear desaturated and brownish, unlike those seen by normal observers. Despite its prevalence, few studies have investigated the effects that red-green color deficiency has on the psychological properties of colors (color emotions. The current study investigated the influence of red-green color deficiency on the following six color emotions: cleanliness, freshness, hardness, preference, warmth, and weight. Specifically, this study aimed to: (1 reveal differences between normal and red-green defective observers in rating patterns of six color emotions; (2 examine differences in color emotions related to the three cardinal channels in human color vision; and (3 explore relationships between color emotions and color naming behavior. Thirteen men and 10 women with normal vision and 13 men who were red-green defective performed both a color naming task and an emotion rating task with 32 colors from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP. Results revealed noticeable differences in the cleanliness and hardness ratings between the normal vision observers, particularly in women, and red-green defective observers, which appeared mainly for colors in the orange to cyan range, and in the preference and warmth ratings for colors with cyan and purple hues. Similarly, naming errors also mainly occurred in the cyan colors. A regression analysis that included the three cone-contrasts (i.e., red-green, blue-yellow, and luminance as predictors significantly accounted for variability in color emotion ratings for the red-green defective observers as much as the normal individuals. Expressly, for warmth ratings, the weight of the red-green opponent channel was significantly lower in color defective observers than in normal participants. In addition, the analyses for individual warmth

  10. Color-avoiding percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Zlatić, Vinko

    2017-08-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  11. Melanin deposition ruled out as cause of color changes in the red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dainan; Gong, Shiping; Yang, Jiangbo; Li, Weiye; Ge, Yan; Wei, Yufeng

    2018-03-01

    Animal coloration primarily depends on the presence of pigments and the mixing ratio of eumelanin and pheomelanin. The color of red-eared slider's carapace varies with age, from an olive green to a yellow green, and then to a yellow brown in juveniles, generally. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether this color change is related to the difference in melanin expression. Melanin deposition levels were examined in the carapace, skin, eye and muscle of the three color-types using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Moreover, the full-length coding sequence (CDS) of red-eared slider turtle melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes TYR, TYRP1, MITF and SLC24A5 were cloned, sequenced and quantitatively analyzed. Both histological view of melanin deposition and quantitative real-time PCR test of melanin-regulated gene expressions showed that there are significant differences among different tissues of red-eared slider, but no significant difference among different color-types, indicating that melanin deposition is not associated with ontogenetic color change in the carapace of red-eared slider. This study initially explore the melanin deposition and the mRNA expression of melanin biosynthesis regulatory genes in red-eared slider, which serve as a foundation for further insight into the pigmentation patterns and the mechanism of body color change in turtles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  13. Body temperature patterns as a predictor of hospital-acquired sepsis in afebrile adult intensive care unit patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewry, Anne M; Fuller, Brian M; Bailey, Thomas C; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2013-09-12

    Early treatment of sepsis improves survival, but early diagnosis of hospital-acquired sepsis, especially in critically ill patients, is challenging. Evidence suggests that subtle changes in body temperature patterns may be an early indicator of sepsis, but data is limited. The aim of this study was to examine whether abnormal body temperature patterns, as identified by visual examination, could predict the subsequent diagnosis of sepsis in afebrile critically ill patients. Retrospective case-control study of 32 septic and 29 non-septic patients in an adult medical and surgical ICU. Temperature curves for the period starting 72 hours and ending 8 hours prior to the clinical suspicion of sepsis (for septic patients) and for the 72-hour period prior to discharge from the ICU (for non-septic patients) were rated as normal or abnormal by seven blinded physicians. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare groups in regard to maximum temperature, minimum temperature, greatest change in temperature in any 24-hour period, and whether the majority of evaluators rated the curve to be abnormal. Baseline characteristics of the groups were similar except the septic group had more trauma patients (31.3% vs. 6.9%, p = .02) and more patients requiring mechanical ventilation (75.0% vs. 41.4%, p = .008). Multivariable logistic regression to control for baseline differences demonstrated that septic patients had significantly larger temperature deviations in any 24-hour period compared to control patients (1.5°C vs. 1.1°C, p = .02). An abnormal temperature pattern was noted by a majority of the evaluators in 22 (68.8%) septic patients and 7 (24.1%) control patients (adjusted OR 4.43, p = .017). This resulted in a sensitivity of 0.69 (95% CI [confidence interval] 0.50, 0.83) and specificity of 0.76 (95% CI 0.56, 0.89) of abnormal temperature curves to predict sepsis. The median time from the temperature plot to the first culture was 9.40 hours (IQR [inter-quartile range] 8

  14. Quasinuclear colored quark model for hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1978-09-01

    Lectures are presented in which a quasinuclear constituent quark model in which constituent quarks are assumed to be made of constituent interacting with a two-body color-exchange logarithmic potential is considered. The color degree of freedom is discussed in detail. Some properties of the logarithmic potential and the definition of the quasinuclear model and its validity, and a comparison of some of its predictions with experiment are described. 31 references

  15. Minimum daily core body temperature in western grey kangaroos decreases as summer advances: a seasonal pattern, or a direct response to water, heat or energy supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Meyer, Leith C R; Kamerman, Peter R; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2011-06-01

    Using implanted temperature loggers, we measured core body temperature in nine western grey kangaroos every 5 min for 24 to 98 days in spring and summer. Body temperature was highest at night and decreased rapidly early in the morning, reaching a nadir at 10:00 h, after ambient temperature and solar radiation had begun to increase. On hotter days, the minimum morning body temperature was lower than on cooler days, decreasing from a mean of 36.2°C in the spring to 34.0°C in the summer. This effect correlated better with the time of the year than with proximate thermal stressors, suggesting that either season itself or some factor correlated with season, such as food availability, caused the change. Water saving has been proposed as a selective advantage of heterothermy in other large mammals, but in kangaroos the water savings would have been small and not required in a reserve with permanent standing water. We calculate that the lower core temperature could provide energy savings of nearly 7%. It is likely that the heterothermy that we observed on hot days results either from decreased energy intake during the dry season or from a seasonal pattern entrained in the kangaroos that presumably has been selected for because of decreased energy availability during the dry season.

  16. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alison L; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    Physiological stress responses are proposed as a pathway through which stress can "get under the skin" and lead to health problems, specifically obesity. We tested associations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) diurnal patterns and stress responses with body mass index (BMI) in young, low-income children (51% male; 54% non-Hispanic white). Diurnal saliva samples were collected three times per day across three days for 269 children (M age 50.8 months, SD 6.3). Individual sAA intercept and slope values were calculated using random effect models to represent morning sAA levels and rate of sAA change across the day. A subset of children (n=195; M age 56.6 months, SD 6.9) participated in a lab-based behavioral stress protocol. Area under the curve increase (AUCI) across four timepoints was calculated to represent increase in sAA output during stress elicitation. Children were weighed and height measured and BMI z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate associations of sAA intercept, sAA slope, and sAA AUCI with BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity; maternal weight status; and family income-to-needs ratio. Diurnal and stress-response sAA patterns were related to child adiposity: for each 1-standard deviation unit (SDU) decrease in morning sAA level, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.11 (SE 0.05) SDU's (pstress elicitation, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.14 (SE 0.06) SDU's (pstress responses and atypical diurnal patterns of sAA have been found following exposure to chronic life stressors such as poverty. Findings suggest that associations of stress, sAA, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non-Prescription Contact Lens Laura: Vision ... Robyn: Blurry Vision and Daily Eye Drops After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  1. Antibacterial Structural Color Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Mo, Min; Fu, Fanfan; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Liu, Cihui; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-11-08

    Structural color hydrogels with lasting survivability are important for many applications, but they still lack anti-biodegradation capability. Thus, we herein present novel antibacterial structural color hydrogels by simply integrating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in situ into the hydrogel materials. Because the integrated AgNPs possessed wide and excellent antibacterial abilities, the structural color hydrogels could prevent bacterial adhesion, avoid hydrogel damage, and maintain their vivid structural colors during their application and storage. It was demonstrated that the AgNP-tagged poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) structural color hydrogels could retain their original thermal-responsive color transition even when the AgNP-free hydrogels were degraded by bacteria and that the AgNP-integrated self-healing structural color protein hydrogels could save their self-repairing property instead of being degraded by bacteria. These features indicated that the antibacterial structural color hydrogels could be amenable to a variety of practical biomedical applications.

  2. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanching of the fingers; Fingers - pale; Toes that change color; Toes - pale ... These conditions can cause fingers or toes to change color: Buerger disease. Chilblains. Painful inflammation of small ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... an ophthalmologist — an eye medical doctor — who will measure each eye and talk to you about proper ...

  4. Sexual selection on wing interference patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Natsu; Abbott, Jessica K; Kjærandsen, Jostein; Takahashi, Yuma; Svensson, Erik I

    2014-10-21

    Animals with color vision use color information in intra- and interspecific communication, which in turn may drive the evolution of conspicuous colored body traits via natural and sexual selection. A recent study found that the transparent wings of small flies and wasps in lower-reflectance light environments display vivid and stable structural color patterns, called "wing interference patterns" (WIPs). Such WIPs were hypothesized to function in sexual selection among small insects with wing displays, but this has not been experimentally verified. Here, to our knowledge we present the first experimental evidence that WIPs in males of Drosophila melanogaster are targets of mate choice from females, and that two different color traits--saturation and hue--experience directional and stabilizing sexual selection, respectively. Using isogenic lines from the D. melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel, we compare attractiveness of different male WIPs against black and white visual backgrounds. We show that males with more vivid wings are more attractive to females than are males with dull wings. Wings with a large magenta area (i.e., intermediate trait values) were also preferred over those with a large blue or yellow area. These experimental results add a visual element to the Drosophila mating array, integrating sexual selection with elements of genetics and evo-devo, potentially applicable to a wide array of small insects with hyaline wings. Our results further underscore that the mode of sexual selection on such visual signals can differ profoundly between different color components, in this case hue and saturation.

  5. Motor skills related to body movement and dance. t-patterns detection Habilidades motrices en expresión corporal y danza. Detección de t-patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dinušová

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In the learning processes that promotes the generation of motor actions, teachers usually propose instructions based on kinetic models. The aim of this study is to observe what type of motor answers the subjects generate from kinesic models offered by the teachers. The motor answers to observe refer to the patterns of motor skills of stability, locomotion and manipulation, variations of body-space, time and interaction between participants. 12 Phsysical Activity and Sports Science students without experience in dance participated in the study. 8 sessions were observed focused on space, time, energy and body contact. A specific instrument was created, the observational system of motor skills OSMOS (Castañer, Torrents, Anguera y Dinusôva, 2008,. It was codified with ThemeCoder  (Pattern Vision, 2001 and SDIS-GSEQ   (Bakeman &  Quera, 1996 and THEME (Magnusson, 2000 were used for the reliability and detection of T-patterns .
    Key Words:  Motor Skills, Field Format, Body expression and dance, Motor T-Patterns detection, Kinesic's Model.

    En todo proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje que promueva la generación de acciones motrices, la elección de los modelos que usan los docentes es una decisión pedagógica de mayor importancia de la que se le suele otorgar.  El objetivo de la investigación es el de observar y constatar qué tipo de respuestas motrices generan los discentes a partir de los modelos de tipo cinésico ofrecidos por los docentes. Las respuestas motrices a observar se refieren a los patrones de habilidades motrices, las variaciones de cuerpo-espacio y tiempo así como de interacción entre los participantes. Han participado en el estudio 12 estudiantes de primer ciclo en Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el deporte con alto bagaje deportivo pero sin experiencia en danza y expresión corporal (EC. Se observaron 8 sesiones

  6. Color and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests are discussed. Colored states are assumed not to have been produced at present energies and the only experimental tests discussed apply below the color threshold, when color is a 'hidden symmetry'. Some of these tests offer the posibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges

  7. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  8. Progress in digital color workflow understanding in the International Color Consortium (ICC) Workflow WG

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Ann

    2006-01-01

    The ICC Workflow WG serves as the bridge between ICC color management technologies and use of those technologies in real world color production applications. ICC color management is applicable to and is used in a wide range of color systems, from highly specialized digital cinema color special effects to high volume publications printing to home photography. The ICC Workflow WG works to align ICC technologies so that the color management needs of these diverse use case systems are addressed in an open, platform independent manner. This report provides a high level summary of the ICC Workflow WG objectives and work to date, focusing on the ways in which workflow can impact image quality and color systems performance. The 'ICC Workflow Primitives' and 'ICC Workflow Patterns and Dimensions' workflow models are covered in some detail. Consider the questions, "How much of dissatisfaction with color management today is the result of 'the wrong color transformation at the wrong time' and 'I can't get to the right conversion at the right point in my work process'?" Put another way, consider how image quality through a workflow can be negatively affected when the coordination and control level of the color management system is not sufficient.

  9. Plasmonic Colors: Toward Mass Production of Metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mäkela, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    in terms of master fabrication, replication, metallization, and protection coating for large-scale production of sub-wavelength metasurfaces are discussed. Most notably, it is demonstrated that plasmonic metasurface colors are compatible with fi lm insert molding. The results indicate a promising future......Plasmonic metasurface coloration has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to its industrial potential. So far, demonstrations have been limited to small patterned areas fabricated using expensive techniques with limited scalability. This study elevates the technology beyond...

  10. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  12. Age-related methylation patterning of housekeeping genes and tissue-specific genes is distinct between the stomach antrum and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Jin; Lee, Hwa-Jeong; Oh, Jung-Hwan; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Min, Ki-Ouk; Choi, Sang-Wook; Rhyu, Mun-Gan

    2013-06-01

    The methylation-variable sites around CpG islands are frequently overmethylated in Helicobacter pylori-infected stomachs. Age-related patterns of the overmethylation changes were compared between the fast-growing antrum cells and the slow-growing body cells. A total of 316 H. pylori-positive tissues and 380 H. pylori-negative tissues were obtained by endoscopic biopsy. The methylation-variable sites of ten housekeeping genes and nine tissue-specific genes were semiquantitatively analyzed, based on the ten-level classification of methylation-specific PCR intensity. The overmethylated genes were scored when their methylation levels were higher than an intermediate level of each gene common in the H. pylori-negative mucosa. The age-dependent methylation level of the inactive APC gene observed similarly in the antrum and the body was used as an age standard of methylation variation in a biopsy tissue. The overmethylation of housekeeping genes and stomach-specific genes rapidly increased to a high plateau frequency in the young-aged APC methylation cases (mean age: 43 years) in the H. pylori-positive antrum. In the H. pylori-positive body, most of the overmethylated housekeeping genes slowly increased to a peak frequency in the middle-aged APC methylation cases (mean age: 53 years). The housekeeping gene pairs showed high correlations (Spearman's correlation coefficient > 0.4) in both the antrum and the body. The overmethylation of housekeeping genes rapidly and slowly increased to a high frequency in concordance with a rapid and slow growth of epithelial cells in the H. pylori-infected stomach.

  13. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin; Li Rongwu; Lue Zhirong; Li Guoxia

    2008-01-01

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper

  14. Uniform color spaces and natural image statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kyle C; Webster, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Many aspects of visual coding have been successfully predicted by starting from the statistics of natural scenes and then asking how the stimulus could be efficiently represented. We started from the representation of color characterized by uniform color spaces, and then asked what type of color environment they implied. These spaces are designed to represent equal perceptual differences in color discrimination or appearance by equal distances in the space. The relative sensitivity to different axes within the space might therefore reflect the gamut of colors in natural scenes. To examine this, we projected perceptually uniform distributions within the Munsell, CIE L(*)u(*)v(*) or CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) spaces into cone-opponent space. All were elongated along a bluish-yellowish axis reflecting covarying signals along the L-M and S-(L+M) cardinal axes, a pattern typical (though not identical) to many natural environments. In turn, color distributions from environments were more uniform when projected into the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) perceptual space than when represented in a normalized cone-opponent space. These analyses suggest the bluish-yellowish bias in environmental colors might be an important factor shaping chromatic sensitivity, and also suggest that perceptually uniform color metrics could be derived from natural scene statistics and potentially tailored to specific environments. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  15. Does an increased body mass index affect endometrial gene expression patterns in infertile patients? A functional genomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Ioanna A; Diaz-Gimeno, Patricia; Cabanillas, Sergio; Bellver, Jose; Sebastian-Leon, Patricia; Shah, Meera; Schutt, Amy; Valdes, Cecilia T; Ruiz-Alonso, Maria; Valbuena, Diana; Simon, Carlos; Lathi, Ruth B

    2017-03-01

    To analyze the transcriptomic profile of endometrial gene alterations during the window of implantation in infertile obese patients. Multicenter, prospective, case-control study. Three academic medical centers for reproductive medicine. Infertile patients, stratified into body mass index (BMI) categories according to the World Health Organization guidelines, were included in the study. Endometrial samples were obtained from women undergoing standardized estrogen and P replacement cycles after 5 days of vaginal P supplementation. To identify endometrial gene expression alterations that occur during the window of implantation in infertile obese patients as compared with infertile normal-weight controls using a microarray analysis. XCL1, XCL2, HMHA1, S100A1, KLRC1, COTL1, COL16A1, KRT7, and MFAP5 are significantly dysregulated during the window of implantation in the receptive endometrium of obese patients. COL16A1, COTL1, HMHA1, KRCL1, XCL1, and XCL2 were down-regulated and KRT7, MFAP5, and S100A1 were up-regulated in the endometrium of obese patients. These genes are mainly involved in chemokine, cytokine, and immune system activity and in the structural extracellular matrix and protein-binding molecular functions. Obesity is associated with significant endometrial transcriptomic differences as compared with non-obese subjects. Altered endometrial gene expression in obese patients may contribute to the lower implantation rates and increased miscarriage rates seen in obese infertile patients. NCT02205866. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  17. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of TIR lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Shang-Ping; Fu, Han-Kuei

    2017-09-01

    Due to the advantages, such as high efficiency, power consumption reduction, no mercury, pure saturated color, high reliability and long lifetime, the solid-state lighting based on light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has become very popular at this stage. In the lighting applications such as spot lighting, downlighting, architectural and show lighting, the colortunable properties with collimating beam of LEDs are highly demanded. The color-tunable lighting is easily achieved using multi-colored LEDs instead of inefficient color filters. However, the applications of multi-colored LEDs usually appear the undesirable light patterns such as color separation or color fringes. At the meantime, the use of TIR (total internal reflection) lens for multi-colored LEDs to collimate the light from the LEDs with different color will introduce seriously undesirable artifacts. Thus, a periodic microstructure surface on the top surface of the TIR lens would be used to reshape the light from the different colored LED chips in the multi-colored LEDs, and then decrease the color separation and color nonuniformity. In this study, the TIR lens with periodic microstructure surface on the top surface would be used to collimate the light from multi-colored LEDs with low color separation or color fringes. The analysis of color enhancement and collimation features of the multi-colored LEDs with different periodic microstructure on the top surface of the TIR lens is presented.

  19. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  20. WHY COLOR-FLAVOR LOCKING IS JUST LIKE CHIRAL SYMMETRY BREAKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PISARSKI, R.D.; RISCHKE, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review how a classification into representations of color and flavor can be used to understand the possible patterns of symmetry breaking for color superconductivity in dense quark matter. In particular, the authors show how for three flavors, color-flavor locking is precisely analogous to the usual pattern of chiral symmetry breaking in the QCD vacuum

  1. Eating patterns may mediate the association between marital status, body mass index, and blood cholesterol levels in apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannakoulia, Mary; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Pitsavos, Christos; Skoumas, Yannis; Stafanadis, Christodoulos

    2008-06-01

    Marital status has been recognized as a significant health-influencing factor, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate whether eating habits mediate the relationship between marital status and levels of CVD risk factors among apparently healthy men and women from the ATTICA Study. During 2001-2002, we randomly enrolled 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) from the Attica area, Greece; the sampling was stratified by the age-gender distribution of the region. Participants underwent clinical, anthropometric and psychological assessment. Food consumption was assessed through a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Participants were classified as never married, married, divorced and widowed. Discriminant analysis revealed that vegetable consumption, followed by red meat, potatoes, poultry, and soft drinks were the factors with the higher discriminating ability among the food groups studied. In particular, dietary patterns of never married participants were characterized by the consumption of potatoes and red meat, those of married participants by nuts, legumes and fish, those of divorced participants by fruits, cereals and soft drinks, whereas those of widowed participants by dairy, vegetables, sweets and poultry. In addition, never married and divorced participants reported eating fast-foods more frequently and drink less alcohol compared to married or widowed participants. After controlling for potential confounders (i.e., age, gender, physical activity, anxiety score and smoking habits), the reported marital status of the participants was associated only with body mass index and total serum cholesterol levels. When the analysis was repeated after taking into account the information on dietary habits by creating four "new" dietary-adjusted marital status groups, no significant association was revealed between marital status and body mass index and blood cholesterol levels. This finding

  2. 1998 Annual Study Report. Standardization of color reproduction management; 1998 nendo seika hokokusho. Iro saigen kanri (color management) no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Standardization of color reproduction management is aimed at realization of the most urgently needed areas of the color reproduction management for international standardization. This R and D program is aimed at drafting the standards for color information devices and their characteristics, and proposing the drafts. Factors which deteriorate color reproduction stability of input and output devices are classified and analyzed, devices for evaluation are selected, and extents of the deterioration are measured and evaluated, in order to extract the problems involved in the color reproduction models for the current input and output devices. Standardization of color management on the multi-spectrum color images is attempted for business printing, where effectiveness of a fluorescent ink containing a fluorescent material is noted for expansion of the color reproduction range for printing color images with the conventional YMCK inks. Basic aspects of the fluorescent colors are measured, to verify the methods for measuring fluorescent body colors. As a result, new knowledge is obtained. The standard images for flesh color evaluation are produced, and the methods for analyzing the data obtained by the tests, including the subjective tests, are established. These lead to establishment of the standards for preferred flesh color of the yellow races. (NEDO)

  3. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  4. Patterns of ectoparasitism in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus: Sex-biases, seasonality, age, and effects on male body condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse E.H. Patterson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Within many species, males are often more heavily parasitised than females. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including immunocompetence handicaps, sexual size dimorphism and behavioural differences. Here we set out to test the latter two hypotheses and make inferences about the former by assessing patterns of ectoparasitism across various life-history stages in a population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. We also conducted an ectoparasite removal experiment to investigate the effects of ectoparasites on male body condition. We found that males were more intensely parasitized than females, but only during the mating period. There was no difference in ectoparasite intensity between male and female juveniles at birth or at emergence, suggesting that ectoparasites do not exploit male red squirrels for longer-range natal dispersal. Male red squirrels in our population were slightly heavier than females, however we did not find any evidence that this dimorphism drives male-biased ectoparasitism. Finally, we could not detect an effect of ectoparasite removal on male body mass. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that ectoparasites exploit their male hosts for transmission and that male red squirrels are important for the transmission dynamics of ectoparasites in this population; however, the mechanisms (i.e., immunocompetence, testosterone are not known.

  5. Effect of core body temperature, time of day, and climate conditions on behavioral patterns of lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J D; Hall, L W; Collier, R J; Smith, J F

    2015-01-01

    Cattle show several responses to heat load, including spending more time standing. Little is known about what benefit this may provide for the animals. Data from 3 separate cooling management trials were analyzed to investigate the relationship between behavioral patterns in lactating dairy cows experiencing mild to moderate heat stress and their body temperature. Cows (n=157) were each fitted with a leg data logger that measured position and an intravaginal data logger that measures core body temperature (CBT). Ambient conditions were also collected. All data were standardized to 5-min intervals, and information was divided into several categories: when standing and lying bouts were initiated and the continuance of each bout (7,963 lying and 6,276 standing bouts). In one location, cows were continuously subjected to heat-stress levels according to temperature-humidity index (THI) range (THI≥72). The THI range for the other 2 locations was below and above a heat-stress threshold of 72 THI. Overall and regardless of period of day, cows stood up at greater CBT compared with continuing to stand or switching to a lying position. In contrast, cows lay down at lower CBT compared with continuing to lie or switching to a standing position, and lying bouts lasted longer when cows had lower CBT. Standing bouts also lasted longer when cattle had greater CBT, and they were less likely to lie down (less than 50% of lying bouts initiated) when their body temperature was over 38.8°C. Also, cow standing behavior was affected once THI reached 68. Increasing CBT decreased lying duration and increased standing duration. A CBT of 38.93°C marked a 50% likelihood a cow would be standing. This is the first physiological evidence that standing may help cool cows and provides insight into a communally observed behavioral response to heat. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Beverage Consumption Patterns at Age 13 to 17 Years Are Associated with Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index at Age 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Teresa A; Van Buren, John M; Warren, John J; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Levy, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been associated with obesity in children and adults; however, associations between beverage patterns and obesity are not understood. Our aim was to describe beverage patterns during adolescence and associations between adolescent beverage patterns and anthropometric measures at age 17 years. We conducted a cross-sectional analyses of longitudinally collected data. Data from participants in the longitudinal Iowa Fluoride Study having at least one beverage questionnaire completed between ages 13.0 and 14.0 years, having a second questionnaire completed between 16.0 and 17.0 years, and attending clinic examination for weight and height measurements at age 17 years (n=369) were included. Beverages were collapsed into four categories (ie, 100% juice, milk, water and other sugar-free beverages, and SSBs) for the purpose of clustering. Five beverage clusters were identified from standardized age 13 to 17 years mean daily beverage intakes and named by the authors for the dominant beverage: juice, milk, water/sugar-free beverages, neutral, and SSB. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI; calculated as kg/m 2 ) at age 17 years were analyzed. We used Ward's method for clustering of beverage variables, one-way analysis of variance and χ 2 tests for bivariable associations, and γ-regression for associations of weight or BMI (outcomes) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Linear regression was used for associations of height (outcome) with beverage clusters and demographic variables. Participants with family incomes beverage cluster membership. For example, on average, male and female members of the neutral cluster were 4.5 cm (P=0.010) and 4.2 cm (P=0.034) shorter, respectively, than members of the milk cluster. For members of the juice cluster, mean BMI was lower than for members of the milk cluster (by 2.4 units), water/sugar-free beverage cluster (3.5 units), neutral cluster (2.2 units), and SSB cluster (3.2 units) (all

  7. Color balancing in CCD color cameras using analog signal processors made by Kodak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegundla, Ram

    1995-03-01

    The green, red, and blue color filters used for CCD sensors generally have different responses. It is often necessary to balance these three colors for displaying a high-quality image on the monitor. The color filter arrays on sensors have different architectures. A CCD with standard G R G B pattern is considered for the present discussion. A simple method of separating the colors using CDS/H that is a part of KASPs (Analog Signal Processors made by Kodak) and using the gain control, which is also a part of KASPs for color balance, is presented. The colors are separated from the video output of sensor by using three KASPs, one each for green, red, and blue colors and by using alternate sample pulses for green and 1 in 4 pulses for red and blue. The separated colors gain is adjusted either automatically or manually and sent to the monitor for direct display in the analog mode or through an A/D converter digitally to the memory. This method of color balancing demands high-quality ASPs. Kodak has designed four different chips with varying levels of power consumption and speed for analog signal processing of video output of CCD sensors. The analog ASICs have been characterized for noise, clock feedthrough, acquisition time, linearity, variable gain, line rate clamp, black muxing, affect of temperature variations on chip performance, and droop. The ASP chips have met their design specifications.

  8. Colorant plants used by Guaranis of Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study about natural resources used by Guaranis of Misiones Province as colorants is presented here. These resources are considered according to different aims of applications and classified in handicraft colorants, corporal dyes and tints for cloths. Several kinds of plants applications registered here at present are unusual. Techniques of acquire colorants and species employed are detailed, moreover some common designers used for body paint and baskets are described.

  9. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  10. Online color monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massen, Robert C.

    1999-09-01

    Monitoring color in the production line requires to remotely observe moving and not-aligned objects with in general complex surface features: multicolored, textured, non-flat, showing highlights and shadows. We discuss the use of color cameras and associated color image processing technologies for what we call 'imaging colorimetry.' This is a 2-step procedure which first uses color for segmentation and for finding Regions-of- Interest on the moving objects and then uses cluster-based color image processing for computing color deviations relative to previously trained references. This colorimetry is much more a measurement of aesthetic consistency of the visual appearance of a product then the traditional measurement of a more physically defined mean color vector difference. We show how traditional non-imaging colorimetry looses most of this aesthetic information due to the computation of a mean color vector or mean color vector difference, by averaging over the sensor's field-of-view. A large number of industrial applications are presented where complex inspection tasks have been solved based on this approach. The expansion to a higher feature space dimensions based on the 'multisensorial camera' concept gives an outlook to future developments.

  11. Colors in kindergarten software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montell, Ireivys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to address elements related to the use of color in educational software for early ages. The meaning of colors in pre-school age is presented from a theoretical perspective. A psychoeducational assessment of the influence of colors in educational software as a teaching aid to develop general intellectual abilities is explained. Likewise, the paper explains how achieving a balance between colors and software design leads to a proper interaction of children with new technology, a new resource for achieving objectives in educations and stimulating cognitive process development, both in institutions and in non-institutional channels.

  12. Advanced technology development multi-color holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, Chandra S.

    1994-01-01

    Several key aspects of multi-color holography and some non-conventional ways to study the holographic reconstructions are considered. The error analysis of three-color holography is considered in detail with particular example of a typical triglycine sulfate crystal growth situation. For the numerical analysis of the fringe patterns, a new algorithm is introduced with experimental verification using sugar-water solution. The role of the phase difference among component holograms is also critically considered with examples of several two- and three-color situations. The status of experimentation on two-color holography and fabrication of a small breadboard system is also reported. Finally, some successful demonstrations of unconventional ways to study holographic reconstructions are described. These methods are deflectometry and confocal optical processing using some Spacelab III holograms.

  13. Color coherence in W + jet events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.

    1997-11-01

    We report on preliminary studies of color coherence effects in p anti p collisions, based on data collected by the D0 detector during the 1994-1995 run of the Fermilab Tevatron collider, at a center of mass energy √s = 1.8 TeV. Color interference effects are studied by examining particle distribution patterns in W + Jet events. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations with different color coherence implementations and to a recent analytic Modified-Leading-Log perturbative calculation based on the Local Parton-Hadron Duality hypothesis. Soft particle radiation is enhanced in the event plane relative to the transverse plane, in agreement with calculations in which the effects of color coherence are fully included

  14. Fillers in the skin of color population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Candrice R; Taylor, Susan C

    2011-05-01

    The skin of color population in the United States is rapidly growing and the cosmetic industry is responding to the demand for skin of color targeted treatments. The aging face in skin of color patients has a unique pattern that can be successfully augmented by dermal fillers. Though many subjects with skin of color were not included in the pre-market dermal filler clinical trials, some post-market studies have examined the safety and risks of adverse events in this population. The safety data from a selection of these studies was examined. Though pigmentary changes occurred, there have been no reports of keloid development. Developing a patient-specific care plan and instituting close follow up is emphasized.

  15. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  16. Two-color double exposure photographic recording technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Josef

    1989-01-01

    A two-color double exposure technique is proposed for recording two close states of an object on the same photographic film. The idea is to use a two-color laser for illumination, one color for each state of the object, and a single photographic plate. After being developed, the image of each state may be observed separately. The technique is demonstrated for the deferred moire deflectometry where two closely displaced fringe patterns have to be recorded and resolved.

  17. Color change and camouflage in juvenile shore crabs Carcinus maenas

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Martin; Lown, Alice E.; Wood, Louisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Camouflage is perhaps the most widespread anti-predator defense in nature, with many different types thought to exist. Of these, resembling the general color and pattern of the background (background matching) is likely to be the most common. Background matching can be achieved by adaptation of individual appearance to different habitats or substrates, behavioral choice, and color change. Although the ability to change coloration for camouflage over a period of hours or days is likely to be w...

  18. Anthocyanins as Functional Food Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Noboru; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    Anthocyanins, a proanthocyanidin-type of flavonoid, contain an abundance of functional phytochemicals and occur in fruits such as cranberry, blueberry, orange, apple and in vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepper, spinach, and radishes. Functional and essential diets have been ingested in daily life since the primitive era of history. When anthocyanins are coupled with some water-soluble sugar molecules, their color becomes red, yellow, violet, or blue. It is very intriguing that anthocyanins provide the colorful variety of pigments for pansies, petunias, plums, and other diverse flowers. Chlorophyll in various fruits and vegetables is the main green phyto-component, while anthocyanins are probably the most important visible plant pigments in the natural kingdom having specific colors. Anthocyanins have been clinically used in many folklore medicines worldwide. Anthocyanins could provide health benefits for age-related diseases as well as other diseases. Anthocyanins have higher antioxidant capacity against oxidative stress induced by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide, and thus the human body might be protected from oxidative injury by anthocyanins. On the basis of these facts, we review the synthesis of plant flavonoids and their ability to scavenge oxidants, inhibit or activate enzymes, and the safety of proanthocyanidins and anthocyanidins present in common foods.

  19. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  20. Color polymorphism and predation in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Eshuis, Brechtje; Haesler, Marcel P.; Schneider, Maria Victoria; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Haplochromine cichlid fish have radiated into hundreds of species in East-African lakes, possibly driven by divergent sexual selection on body coloration. We studied the color polymorphic Lake Victoria cichlid Neochromis omnicaeruleus, in which a presumably ancestral phenotype with blue males and

  1. MicroRNA expression patterns in human anterior cingulate and motor cortex: A study of dementia with Lewy bodies cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter T; Wang, Wang-Xia; Janse, Sarah A; Thompson, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD + DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n = 52 cases initially included (n  = 23 with DLB), all with low (matter of MO, AC, primary somatosensory (BA 3), and dorsolateral prefrontal (BA 9) cortical regions. The miRNA expression patterns differed substantially according to anatomic location: of the relatively highly-expressed miRNAs, 150/481 (31%) showed expression that was different between AC versus MO (at p < .05 following correction for multiple comparisons), most (79%) with higher expression in MO. A subset of these results were confirmed in qPCR validation focusing on miR-7, miR-153, miR-133b, miR-137, and miR-34a. No significant variation in miRNA expression was detected in association with either neuropathology or sex after correction for multiple comparisons. A subset of miRNAs (some previously associated with α-synucleinopathy and/or directly targeting α-synuclein mRNA) were differentially expressed in AC and MO, which may help explain why these brain regions show differences in vulnerability to Lewy body pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Summer effects on body mass index (BMI gain and growth patterns of American Indian children from kindergarten to first grade: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jianduan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are highly prevalent among American Indian children, especially those living on reservations. There is little scientific evidence about the effects of summer vacation on obesity development in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of summer vacation between kindergarten and first grade on growth in height, weight, and body mass index (BMI for a sample of American Indian children. Methods Children had their height and weight measured in four rounds of data collection (yielded three intervals: kindergarten, summer vacation, and first grade as part of a school-based obesity prevention trial (Bright Start in a Northern Plains Indian Reservation. Demographic variables were collected at baseline from parent surveys. Growth velocities (Z-score units/year for BMI, weight, and height were estimated and compared for each interval using generalized linear mixed models. Results The children were taller and heavier than median of same age counterparts. Height Z-scores were positively associated with increasing weight status category. The mean weight velocity during summer was significantly less than during the school year. More rapid growth velocity in height during summer than during school year was observed. Obese children gained less adjusted-BMI in the first grade after gaining more than their counterparts during the previous two intervals. No statistically significant interval effects were found for height and BMI velocities. Conclusions There was no indication of a significant summer effect on children's BMI. Rather than seasonal or school-related patterns, the predominant pattern indicated by weight-Z and BMI-Z velocities might be related to age or maturation. Trial registration Bright Start: Obesity Prevention in American Indian Children Clinical Trial Govt ID# NCT00123032

  3. Measurement of Color Texture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, M.A.; Geusebroek, J.M.; Deprettere, E.F.; Belloum, A.; Heijnsdijk, J.W.J.; van der Stappen, F.

    2002-01-01

    In computer vision, measurement of image properties such as color or texture is essential. However, existing methods for measuring color and texture in combination are not well-defined neither from a measurement theoretical basis nor from a physical point of view. We propose a solid framework for

  4. Quorum Colorings of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Heditniemi (Sandra); R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLet $G = (V,E)$ be a graph. A partition $\\pi = \\{V_1, V_2, \\ldots, V_k \\}$ of the vertices $V$ of $G$ into $k$ {\\it color classes} $V_i$, with $1 \\leq i \\leq k$, is called a {\\it quorum coloring} if for every vertex $v \\in V$, at least half of the vertices in the closed neighborhood

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact ... After One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter ...

  8. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  9. Millennial Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    "Millennial Teachers of Color" explores the opportunities and challenges for creating and sustaining a healthy teaching force in the United States. Millennials are the largest generational cohort in American history, with approximately ninety million members and, of these, roughly 43 percent are people of color. This book, edited by…

  10. On dominator colorings in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A dominator coloring of a graph is a proper coloring of in which every vertex dominates every vertex of at least one color class. The minimum number of colors required for a dominator coloring of is called the dominator chromatic number of and is denoted by d ( G ) . In this paper we present several results on ...

  11. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  12. Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method. (paper)

  13. Color Orchestra: Ordering Color Palettes for Interpolation and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Phan, Huy Q.; Fu, Hongbo; Chan, Antoni B.

    2017-01-01

    Color theme or color palette can deeply influence the quality and the feeling of a photograph or a graphical design. Although color palettes may come from different sources such as online crowd-sourcing, photographs and graphical designs, in this paper, we consider color palettes extracted from fine art collections, which we believe to be an abundant source of stylistic and unique color themes. We aim to capture color styles embedded in these collections by means of statistical models and to ...

  14. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  15. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romke eRouw

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days. The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457 of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes and participants who do not (non-synesthetes. We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for A, red for Monday, and white for Sunday. We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences shown by Simner et al (2005. While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups.

  16. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  17. Neural representation of form-contingent color filling-in in the early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Wook; Tong, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Perceptual filling-in exemplifies the constructive nature of visual processing. Color, a prominent surface property of visual objects, can appear to spread to neighboring areas that lack any color. We investigated cortical responses to a color filling-in illusion that effectively dissociates perceived color from the retinal input (van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009). Observers adapted to a star-shaped stimulus with alternating red- and cyan-colored points to elicit a complementary afterimage. By presenting an achromatic outline that enclosed one of the two afterimage colors, perceptual filling-in of that color was induced in the unadapted central region. Visual cortical activity was monitored with fMRI, and analyzed using multivariate pattern analysis. Activity patterns in early visual areas (V1-V4) reliably distinguished between the two color-induced filled-in conditions, but only higher extrastriate visual areas showed the predicted correspondence with color perception. Activity patterns allowed for reliable generalization between filled-in colors and physical presentations of perceptually matched colors in areas V3 and V4, but not in earlier visual areas. These findings suggest that the perception of filled-in surface color likely requires more extensive processing by extrastriate visual areas, in order for the neural representation of surface color to become aligned with perceptually matched real colors.

  18. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  19. Body Disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sea, Jonghan; Beauregard, Eric

    2017-02-01

    This study explores the body disposal patterns in a sample of 54 Korean homicides that occurred between 2006 and 2012. Based on information collected by the police during their investigation, factors that could influence body disposal patterns were examined, such as homicide classification, intention, whether an accomplice was present, and offender mental disorder. Bivariate analyses showed that the majority of the victims who were disposed of were acquaintances of the offenders. Moreover, several offenders were more likely to dispose of the dead body "within hours" of killing the victim. Dead bodies were usually recovered in agricultural areas, forest/wooded areas, as well as residential areas. It was also noteworthy that, in 47 cases, the offender had knowledge of the geographic area where the body was dumped. In cases of "expressive" homicide, victims were more likely to be disposed of somewhere far away (e.g., over 40 km) from the crime scene, whereas "instrumental" homicide victims appeared to be disposed of somewhere closer (e.g., within 30 km) to the crime scene. Results are discussed in light of their practical implications for homicide investigations.

  20. Combinatorial color arrays based on optical micro-resonators in monolithic architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Ho; Lee, Sin-Hyung; Keum, Chang-Min; Kim, Se-Um; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2014-06-16

    We demonstrate two types of combinatorial color arrays based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) micro-resonators in monolithic architecture. Optical micro-resonators corresponding to color elements are constructed using a soluble dielectric material between two transreflective layers by transfer-printing in either a pattern-by-pattern or a pattern-on-pattern fashion. The color palette depends primarily on the thickness and the refractive index of a dielectric material embedded in the micro-resonator. A self-defined lateral gap between two adjacent color elements provides the functionality of light-blocking by the underlying background layer. A prototype of a liquid crystal display incorporated with our combinatorial color array is also demonstrated. This monolithic integration of different FP micro-resonators leads to a versatile platform to build up a new class of color arrays for a variety of visual applications including displays and coloration devices.

  1. Changes of Dietary Pattern, Food Choice, Food Consumption, Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Korean American College Students with Different Length of Residence in the Los Angeles Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam; Tam, Chick F.; Poon, George; Lew, Polong; Kim, Samuel Saychang; Kim, James C.; Kim, Rachel Byungsook

    2010-01-01

    This study was to investigate how dietary pattern, food choice, food consumption, nutrient intake and body mass index (BMI) vary with length of residence for Korean American college students. The respondents were 60 Korean American residents living in the Los Angeles Area. They were divided into two groups based on the length of stay in the U.S.:…

  2. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  3. Anthropometric parameters: weight height, body mass index and mammary volume in relationship with the mammographic pattern; Parametros antropmetricos: peso, talla, indice de masa corporal y volumen mamario, en relacion con el patron mamografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Candela, V.; Busto, C.; Avila, R.; Marrero, M. G.; Liminana, J. M.; Orengo, J. C. [Hospital Universitario Maternoinfantil de Canarias. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    A prospective study to attempt to relate the anthropometric parameters of height, weight, body mass index as well as age with the mammographic patterns obtained for the patients and obtain an anthropometric profile was carried out. The study was performed in 1.000 women who underwent a mammography in cranial-caudal and medial lateral oblique projection of both breasts, independently of whether they were screened or diagnosed. Prior to the performance of the mammography, weight and height were obtained, and this was also performed by the same technicians, and the patient were asked their bra size to deduce breast volume. With the weight, the body mass index of Quetelet was calculated (weight [kg]/height''2 (ml)). After reading the mammography, the patient was assigned to one of the four mammographic patterns considered in the BIRADS (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System) established by the ACR (American College of Radiology): type I (fat). type II (disperse fibroglandular densities), type III (fibroglandular densities distributed heterogeneously), type 4 (dense). The results were introduced into a computer database and the SPSS 8.0 statistical program was applied, using the statistical model of multivariant logistic regression. In women under 40 years, with normal weight, the dense breast pattern accounted for 67.8% and as the body mass index (BMI) increased, this pattern decreased to 25.1%. The fat pattern is 20% and as the BMI increases, this increased to 80%. In 40-60 year old women with normal weight, the dense pattern accounts for 44% and decreases to 20.9% in the grades II, III and IV obese. The fat pattern is 11.1% and increases to 53.7% in the grade II, III and IV obese. In women over 60 with normal, the dense pattern accounts for 19.3% and and decreases to 13% in the grade III obese. The fat pattern is 5.3% and increases to 20.2% in the grade iii of obesity. As age increases, the probability of presenting a mammographic pattern with a fat

  4. Body weight and composition dynamics of fall migrating canvasbacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serie, J.R.; Sharp, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    We studied body weights and composition of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) during fall migration 1975-77 on stopover sites along the upper Mississippi River near La Crosse, Wisconsin (Navigational Pools 7 and 8) and Keokuk, Iowa (Navigational Pool 19). Body weights varied (P Weights varied by year (P weights increased (P weight for each age and sex. Live weight was a good predictor of total body fat. Mean estimated total body fat ranged from 200 to 300 g and comprised 15-20% of live weights among age and sex classes. Temporal weight patterns were less variable for adults than immatures, but generally increased during migration. Length of stopover varied inversely with fat reserves among color-marked adult males. Variation in fat condition of canvasbacks during fall may explain the mechanism regulating population ingress and egress on stopover sites. Fat reserves attained by canvasbacks during fall stopover may have adaptive significance in improving survival by conditioning for winter.

  5. Colorful displays signal male quality in a tropical anole lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellee G.; Murphy, Troy G.; Johnson, Michele A.

    2013-10-01

    Parasites influence colorful ornaments and their behavioral display in many animal hosts. Because coloration and display behavior are often critical components of communication, variation in these traits may have important implications for individual fitness, yet it remains unclear whether such traits are signals of quality in many taxa. We investigated the association between ectoparasitic mite load and the color and behavioral use of the throat fan (dewlap) by male Anolis brevirostris lizards. We found that heavily parasitized lizards exhibited lower body condition, duller dewlaps, and less frequent dewlap displays than less parasitized individuals. Our results thus suggest that highly parasitized individuals invest less in both ornamental color and behavioral display of that color. Because the two components of the signal simultaneously provide information on male quality, this study provides novel support for the long-standing hypothesis that colorful traits may function as social or sexual signals in reptiles.

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  7. Food Coloring and Behavior