WorldWideScience

Sample records for body area networks

  1. 77 FR 55715 - Medical Area Body Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 95 Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... (MedRadio) rules to permit the development of new Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) devices in the 2360... permit the development of new Medical Body Area Network (MBAN) devices in the 2360-2400 MHz band....

  2. 77 FR 43567 - Medical Area Body Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed electronically using the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 95 Medical Area Body Network AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Medical Body Area Network (``MBAN'') coordinator(s) for the 2360-2390 MHz band. Although the ]...

  3. Convergecast in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine, Wafa; Khernane, Nesrine; Potop-Butucaru, Maria; Chaudet, Claude

    2015-01-01

    —Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) is a recent challenging area in the domain of health monitoring. There are several concerns in this area ranging from energy efficient communication to designing delays efficient protocols that support nodes dynamicity induced by human body mobility. This paper focuses on the convergecast or data gathering protocols in WBAN. Our contribution is twofold. First, we extensively analyze the impact of postural body mobility on various classes of multi-hop conver...

  4. 78 FR 78769 - Medical Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...), 95.1217(a)(3), 95.1223 and 95.1225 published at 78 FR 55715, September 11, 2012 are effective... First Report and Order, FCC 12-54, published at 78 FR 55715, September 11, 2012. The OMB Control Number... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 95 Medical Body Area Networks AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  5. Cloud-assisted Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sana; Vasilakos, Athanasios; Chao, Han-Chieh; Suzuki, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a promising technology for medical and non-medical applications. WBANs consist of a number of miniaturized, portable, and autonomous sensor nodes that are used for long-term health monitoring of patients. These sensor nodes continuously collect information of patients, which are used for ubiquitous health monitoring. In addition, WBANs may be used for managing catastrophic events and increasing the effectiveness and performance of rescue for...

  6. Body Area Network Standardization, Analysis and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, Diamond

    2014-01-01

    WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network) on sisätiloissa tai ihmiskehon välittömässä läheisyydessä käytettävä lyhyen kantaman langaton tiedonsiirtotapa. Se soveltuu sekä lääketieteellisiin että ei-lääketieteellisiin sovelluksiin. Yleisimmin sitä käytetään lääketieteessä potilaan reaaliaikaisessa diagnosoinnissa. Olemassa olevat lyhyen kantaman tiedonsiirtoteknologiat, kuten Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), ZigBee ja Wi-Fi olisivat olleet soveltuvia teknologioita WBAN:lle. Ne ovat k...

  7. Mobile middleware for wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Waluyo, Agustinus Borgy; Pek, Isaac; Yeoh, Wee-Soon

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible, efficient and lightweight Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) Middleware. The Middleware is developed to bridge the communication between mobile device as a gateway and the sensor nodes, and therefore it shields the underlying sensor and OS/protocol stack away from the WBAN application layer. The middleware is coded in the form of lightweight dynamic link library, which allows the application developer to simply incorporate the middleware resource dynamic link library into their application and call the required functions (i.e. data acquisition, resource management and configurations). A showcase of the middleware deployment is exhibited at the end of the paper. PMID:21096294

  8. Channel models for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Aoyagi, Akahiro; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Katayama, Norihiko; Yekeh, Kamya; Takehiko, Yazdandoost; Kohno, Kobayashi Ryuji

    2008-01-01

    Wireless patient monitoring using wearable sensors is a promising application. This paper provides stochastic channel models for wireless body area network (WBAN) on the human body. Parameters of the channel models are extracted from measured channel transfer functions (CTFs) in a hospital room. Measured frequency bands are selected so as to include permissible bands for WBAN; ultra wideband (UWB), the industry, science and medical (ISM) bands, and wireless medical telemetry system (WMTS) bands. As channel models, both a path loss model and a power delay profile (PDP) model are considered. But, even though path loss models are derived for the all frequency bands, PDP model is only for the UWB band due to the highly frequency selectiveness of UWB channels. The parameters extracted from the measurement results are summarized for each channel model. PMID:19162968

  9. Ultra wideband wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Thotahewa, Kasun Maduranga Silva; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2014-01-01

    This book explores the design of ultra wideband (UWB) technology for wireless body-area networks (WBAN).  The authors describe a novel implementation of WBAN sensor nodes that use UWB for data transmission and narrow band for data reception, enabling low power sensor nodes, with high data rate capability.  The discussion also includes power efficient, medium access control (MAC) protocol design for UWB based WBAN applications and the authors present a MAC protocol in which a guaranteed delivery mechanism is utilized to transfer data with high priority.  Readers will also benefit from this book’s feasibility analysis of the UWB technology for human implant applications through the study of electromagnetic and thermal power absorption of human tissue that is exposed to UWB signals.   • Describes hardware platform development for IR-UWB based WBAN communication; • Discusses power efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol design for IR-UWB based WBAN applications; • Includes feasibility analy...

  10. Body Area Networks performance analysis using UWB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehy, Mohammed; Kohno, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    The successful realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) using Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology supports different medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications but stand in a need for an innovative solution to meet the different requirements of these applications. Previously, we proposed to use adaptive processing gain (PG) to fulfill the different QoS requirements of these WBAN applications. In this paper, interference occurred between two different BANs in a UWB-based system has been analyzed in terms of acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs' PG providing the required QoS for each BAN. The first BAN employed for a healthcare device (e.g. EEG, ECG, etc.) with a relatively longer spreading sequence is used and the second customized for entertainment application (e.g. wireless headset, wireless game pad, etc.) where a shorter spreading code is assigned. Considering bandwidth utilization and difference in the employed spreading sequence, the acceptable ratio of overlapping between these BANs should fall between 0.05 and 0.5 in order to optimize the used spreading sequence and in the meantime satisfying the required QoS for these applications. PMID:24109913

  11. Network Coding for Energy Efficiency in Wireless Body Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xiaomeng; Lucani, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A network coding scheme for practical implementations of wireless body area networks is presented, with the objective of providing reliability under low-energy constraints. We propose a simple network layer protocol, study the mean energy to complete in-cast transmissions of given packets from the sensors to the base station (BS), and show through numerical examples that this scheme can reduce the overall energy consumption. More specifically, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is used to allocate the wireless channel to individual nodes. Each node linearly combines its data packets before taking turns to send the ensuing mixtures to the BS. An acknowledgement message is broadcasted by the BS after each round of transmissions, indicating the number of coded packets to be transmitted in the next round. We parametrically study the optimal number of coded packets to send, in terms of completion energy, given the packet erasure probabilities, and the energy use for transmitting data packets as well as listening...

  12. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for Efficient Movement Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    António Pereira; Florentino Fdez-Riverola; Filipe Felisberto; Nuno Costa

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users’ quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge ...

  13. Directional MAC Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Asdaque Hussain; Md. Nasre Alam; Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer ...

  14. Antennas, Wave Propagation, and Localization in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    A network of communicating wireless devices that are implantable, wearable or within close proximity of a human body is called wireless body area network (WBAN). The propagation channels for the devices in the WBAN are either through the body or over the body. This results in the attenuation and the absorption of electromagnetic waves radiated by the antenna of these devices due to the lossy tissues of the body. With a proper antenna and knowledge of the signal loss between the devices in the...

  15. Opportunistic Relaying in Wireless Body Area Networks: Coexistence Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jie; SMITH, DAVID

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a cooperative two-hop communication scheme, together with opportunistic relaying (OR), is applied within a mobile wireless body area network (WBAN). Its effectiveness in interference mitigation is investigated in a scenario where there are multiple closely-located networks. Due to a typical WBAN's nature, no coordination is used among different WBANs. A suitable time-division-multiple-access (TDMA) is adopted as both an intra-network and also an inter-network access scheme. Ext...

  16. Improving the reliability of wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrobo, Gabriel E; Gitlin, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a highly reliable wireless body area network (WBAN) that provides increased throughput and avoids single points of failure. Such networks improve upon current WBANs by taking advantage of a new technology, Cooperative Network Coding (CNC). Using CNC in wireless body area network to support real-time applications is an attractive solution to combat packet loss, reduce latency due to retransmissions, avoid single points of failure, and improve the probability of successful recovery of the information at the destination. In this paper, we have extended Cooperative Network Coding, from its original configuration (one-to-one) to many-to-many as in multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Cooperative Network Coding results in increased throughput and network reliability because of the cooperation of the nodes in transmitting coded combination packets across spatially distinct paths to the information sinks. PMID:22254774

  17. A Biometric Key Establishment Protocol for Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Yao; Bing Liu; Guowei Wu; Kai Yao; Jia Wang

    2011-01-01

    Current advances in semiconductor technology have made it possible to implant a network of biosensors inside the human body for health monitoring. In the context of a body area network (BAN), the confidentiality and integrity of the sensitive health information is particularly important. In this paper, we present an ECG (electrocardiogram)-signal-based key establishment protocol to secure the communication between every sensor and the control unit before the physiological data are transferred...

  18. Performance Analysis of Traffic Sensitive Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    ÇALHAN, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The cooperation of micro-electronics, wireless communications, integrated circuits and sensor networks have led to rise of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). The aim of WBANs is to keep a human body under control by means of a set of small-size, lightweight, and low-power sensor nodes placed in, on, or around the human body. The WBANs are also used in a number of new applications namely health monitoring, entertainment, sports, and military applications. The sensor nodes in WBANs have limit...

  19. The Development & Implementation of Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Madhumita Dash

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The increasing use of wireless networks and the constant miniaturization of electrical devices has empowered the development of Wireless Body Area Net-works . Wireless Body Area Network is a system of devices in close proximity to a person’s body that cooperate for the benefit of the user where various sensors are attached on clothing or on the body or even implanted under the skin. This paper shows several uses of the BAN technology and the most obvious application of a BAN is in the medical sector, however there are also more recreational uses to BANs. Using a WBAN, the patient experiences a greater physical mobility and is no longer compelled to stay in the hospital. This paper offers a survey of the concept of Wireless Body Area Networks. As WBANs are placed on the human body and often transport private data, security is also considered. This paper will discuss the technologies surrounding BANs, as well as several common applications for BANs.

  20. Wireless Body Area Networks for Healthcare: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth V. Crosby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs are emerging as important networks, applicable in various fields. This paper surveys the WBANs that are designed for applications in healthcare. We present a comprehensive survey consisting of stand-alone sections focusing on important aspects of WBANs. We examine the following: monitoring and sensing, power efficient protocols, system architectures, routing and security. We conclude by discussing some open research issues, their potential solutions and future trends.

  1. Wireless Body Area Networks for Healthcare Applications: Protocol Stack Review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Filipe; Florentino Fdez-Riverola; Nuno Costa; António Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) supporting healthcare applications are in early development stage but offer valuable contributions at monitoring, diagnostic, or therapeutic levels. They cover real-time medical information gathering obtained from different sensors with secure data communication and low power consumption. As a consequence of the increasing interest in the application of this type of networks, several articles dealing with different aspects of such systems have been publishe...

  2. Semantic Interoperability in Body Area Sensor Networks and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, V.T.; Brandt, P.; Liu, H.; Basten, T.; Lukkien, J.

    2014-01-01

    Crucial to the success of Body Area Sensor Networks is the flexibility with which stakeholders can share, extend and adapt the system with respect to sensors, data and functionality. The first step is to develop an interoperable platform with explicit interfaces, which takes care of common managemen

  3. Emerging Trends in Healthcare Adoption of Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    Real-time personal health monitoring is gaining new ground with advances in wireless communications. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) provide a means for low-powered sensors, affixed either on the human body or in vivo, to communicate with each other and with external telecommunication networks. The healthcare benefits of WBANs include continuous monitoring of patient vitals, measuring postacute rehabilitation time, and improving quality of medical care provided in medical emergencies. This study sought to examine emerging trends in WBAN adoption in healthcare. To that end, a systematic literature survey was undertaken against the PubMed database. The search criteria focused on peer-reviewed articles that contained the keywords "wireless body area network" and "healthcare" or "wireless body area network" and "health care." A comprehensive review of these articles was performed to identify adoption dimensions, including underlying technology framework, healthcare subdomain, and applicable lessons-learned. This article benefits healthcare technology professionals by identifying gaps in implementation of current technology and highlighting opportunities for improving products and services. PMID:27413830

  4. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN for Efficient Movement Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN. These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users’ quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users’ daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN’s nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user.

  5. Unobstructive Body Area Networks (BAN) for efficient movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisberto, Filipe; Costa, Nuno; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Pereira, António

    2012-01-01

    The technological advances in medical sensors, low-power microelectronics and miniaturization, wireless communications and networks have enabled the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks: the so-called wireless body area networks (WBAN). These networks can be used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment. The data gathered by these networks contributes to improve users' quality of life and allows the creation of a knowledge database by using learning techniques, useful to infer abnormal behaviour. In this paper we present a wireless body area network architecture to recognize human movement, identify human postures and detect harmful activities in order to prevent risk situations. The WBAN was created using tiny, cheap and low-power nodes with inertial and physiological sensors, strategically placed on the human body. Doing so, in an as ubiquitous as possible way, ensures that its impact on the users' daily actions is minimum. The information collected by these sensors is transmitted to a central server capable of analysing and processing their data. The proposed system creates movement profiles based on the data sent by the WBAN's nodes, and is able to detect in real time any abnormal movement and allows for a monitored rehabilitation of the user. PMID:23112726

  6. Realistic Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D'Errico, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an accurate and realistic simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying realistic traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet delivery ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices. PMID:27104537

  7. Realistic Simulation for Body Area and Body-To-Body Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes; Ben Arbia, Dhafer; Maman, Mickael; Mani, Francesco; Denis, Benoit; D’Errico, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present an accurate and realistic simulation for body area networks (BAN) and body-to-body networks (BBN) using deterministic and semi-deterministic approaches. First, in the semi-deterministic approach, a real-time measurement campaign is performed, which is further characterized through statistical analysis. It is able to generate link-correlated and time-varying realistic traces (i.e., with consistent mobility patterns) for on-body and body-to-body shadowing and fading, including body orientations and rotations, by means of stochastic channel models. The full deterministic approach is particularly targeted to enhance IEEE 802.15.6 proposed channel models by introducing space and time variations (i.e., dynamic distances) through biomechanical modeling. In addition, it helps to accurately model the radio link by identifying the link types and corresponding path loss factors for line of sight (LOS) and non-line of sight (NLOS). This approach is particularly important for links that vary over time due to mobility. It is also important to add that the communication and protocol stack, including the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and networking models, is developed for BAN and BBN, and the IEEE 802.15.6 compliance standard is provided as a benchmark for future research works of the community. Finally, the two approaches are compared in terms of the successful packet delivery ratio, packet delay and energy efficiency. The results show that the semi-deterministic approach is the best option; however, for the diversity of the mobility patterns and scenarios applicable, biomechanical modeling and the deterministic approach are better choices. PMID:27104537

  8. A Review of Wireless Body Area Networks for Medical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Ullah, Niamat; Saleem, Shahnaz; Higgins, Henry; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.4236/ijcns.2009.28093

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, integrated circuits, and wire-less communication have allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WBANs promise unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring for a long period of time, and provide real-time updates of the patients status to the physician. They are widely used for ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, and military applications. This paper reviews the key aspects of WBANs for numerous applications. We present a WBAN infrastructure that provides solutions to on-demand, emergency, and normal traffic. We further discuss in-body antenna design and low-power MAC protocol for a WBAN. In addition, we briefly outline some of the WBAN applications with examples. Our discussion realizes a need for new power-efficient solutions towards in-body and on-body sensor networks.

  9. Directional MAC Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Asdaque Hussain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer two significant advantages: patient mobility due to their use of portable monitoring devices and a location independent monitoring facility. With its appealing dimensions, it brings about a new set of challenges, which we do not normally consider in such small sensor networks. It requires a scalable network in terms of heterogeneous data traffic, low power consumption of sensor nodes, integration in and around the body networking and coexistence. This work presents a medium access control protocol for WBAN which tries to overcome the aforementioned challenges. We consider the use of multiple beam adaptive arrays (MBAA at BAN Coordinator (BAN_C node. When used as a BAN_C, an MBAA can successfully receive two or more overlapping packets at the same time. Each beam captures a different packet by automatically pointing its pattern toward one packet while annulling other contending packets. This paper describes how an MBAA can be integrated into a single hope star topology as a BAN_C. Simulation results show the performance of our proposed protocol.

  10. Directional MAC approach for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Md Asdaque; Alam, Md Nasre; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) designed for medical, sports, and entertainment applications, have drawn the attention of academia and industry alike. A WBAN is a special purpose network, designed to operate autonomously to connect various medical sensors and appliances, located inside and/or outside of a human body. This network enables physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real time feedback for medical diagnosis and consultations. The WBAN system can offer two significant advantages: patient mobility due to their use of portable monitoring devices and a location independent monitoring facility. With its appealing dimensions, it brings about a new set of challenges, which we do not normally consider in such small sensor networks. It requires a scalable network in terms of heterogeneous data traffic, low power consumption of sensor nodes, integration in and around the body networking and coexistence. This work presents a medium access control protocol for WBAN which tries to overcome the aforementioned challenges. We consider the use of multiple beam adaptive arrays (MBAA) at BAN Coordinator (BAN_C) node. When used as a BAN_C, an MBAA can successfully receive two or more overlapping packets at the same time. Each beam captures a different packet by automatically pointing its pattern toward one packet while annulling other contending packets. This paper describes how an MBAA can be integrated into a single hope star topology as a BAN_C. Simulation results show the performance of our proposed protocol. PMID:22346602

  11. Experimental Characterization of a UWB Channel for Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Lingli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrawideband (UWB communication is a promising technology for wireless body area networks (BANs, especially for applications that require transmission of both low and high data rates with excellent energy efficiency. Therefore, understanding the unique UWB channel propagation characteristics around the human body is critical for a successful wireless system, especially for insuring the reliability of important vital sign data. Previous work has focused only on on-body channels, where both TX and RX antennas are located on the human body. In this paper, a 3–5 GHz UWB channel is measured and analyzed for human body wireless communications. Beyond the conventional on-body channel model, line-of-sight (LOS and non-line-of-sight (NLOS channel models are obtained using a TX antenna placed at various locations of the human body while the RX antenna is placed away from the human body. Measurement results indicate that the human body does not significantly degrade the impedance of a monopole omnidirectional antenna. The measured path loss and multipath analysis suggest that a LOS UWB channel is excellent for low-power, high-data-rate transmission, while NLOS and on-body channels need to be reconfigured to operate at a lower data rate due to high path loss.

  12. Performance Analysis of Traffic Sensitive Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Çalhan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation of micro-electronics, wireless communications, integrated circuits and sensor networks have led to rise of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. The aim of WBANs is to keep a human body under control by means of a set of small-size, lightweight, and low-power sensor nodes placed in, on, or around the human body. The WBANs are also used in a number of new applications namely health monitoring, entertainment, sports, and military applications. The sensor nodes in WBANs have limited energy resources as a result of communicating with each other wirelessly. Therefore, the medium access control protocols for WBANs must be energy efficient protocols. Also, WBAN’s importance of having the different data traffics has increased determination of operation sequence at the coordinator nodes. In this study, data traffic sensitive WBAN is proposed. End to end delay and throughput results are examined for performance evaluation.

  13. PROPOSED TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS SUITE FOR WIRELESS MEDICAL BODY AREA NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Sotirios Kontogiannis; George Kokkonis; Stavros Valsamidis

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) is the recent trend for localized and personalized medical services. For that purpose, several tele-medicine architectures and WBAN frameworks for patient monitoring have been proposed. This paper presents a new medical protocol MESETP (Medical Services Transport Protocol), that underlies data delivery for both real-time and non real-time medical services. Furthermore, performance tests of MESETP with existing real time protocols and non real-...

  14. A Review of Wireless Body Area Networks for Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology, integrated circuits, and wireless communication have allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). WBANs promise unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring for a long period of time and provide real-time updates of the patient's status to the physician. They are widely used for ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, and military applications. This paper reviews the key aspects of WBANs for numerous applicati...

  15. Adaptive Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, N.; Ahmad, A.; A. Rahim; Z.A. Khan; M. Ishfaq; Qasim, U.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are widely used for applications such as modern health-care systems, where wireless sensors (nodes) monitor the parameter(s) of interest. Nodes are provided with limited battery power and battery power is dependent on radio activity. MAC protocols play a key role in controlling the radio activity. Therefore, we present Adaptive Medium Access Control (A-MAC) protocol for WBANs supported by linear programming models for the minimization of energy consumption ...

  16. Ultra low power transceiver for wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Masuch, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks.  Since these applications have very limited energy resources, typically powered only by tiny batteries or through energy harvesting techniques, this book describes an architecture for a Bluetooth low energy transceiver to overcome these limitations. Coverage includes not only the main concepts for achieving low power consumption, but also the details of the circuit design and its implementation in a standard CMOS technology.     ·         Guides readers through the design of ultra low power transceivers for body area networks, from architecture to circuit-level implementation; ·         Describes 4 key strategies for ultra-low power transceiver design and specific, innovative techniques for circuit-level design; ·         Enables readers to design transceivers for body area networks that are 27% more energy efficient than those currently available; ·         Includes a review of the st...

  17. Wireless body area networks technology, implementation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yuce, Mehmet R

    2011-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive overview for the latest WBAN systems, technologies, and applications. The chapters of the book have been written by various specialists who are experts in their areas of research and practice. The book starts with the basic techniques involved in designing and building WBAN systems. It explains the deployment issues and then moves into the application areas of WBAN. The remaining chapters focus on the development of hardware, signal processing algorithms, and wireless communication and network design for wearable and implantable body sensors used in WBAN appli

  18. A security suite for wireless body area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sampangi, Raghav V; Urs, Shalini R; Sampalli, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have gained a lot of research attention in recent years since they offer tremendous benefits for remote health monitoring and continuous, real-time patient care. However, as with any wireless communication, data security in WBANs is a challenging design issue. Since such networks consist of small sensors placed on the human body, they impose resource and computational restrictions, thereby making the use of sophisticated and advanced encryption algorithms infeasible. This calls for the design of algorithms with a robust key generation / management scheme, which are reasonably resource optimal. This paper presents a security suite for WBANs, comprised of IAMKeys, an independent and adaptive key management scheme for improving the security of WBANs, and KEMESIS, a key management scheme for security in inter-sensor communication. The novelty of these schemes lies in the use of a randomly generated key for encrypting each data frame that is generated independently at both the s...

  19. Cooperative communications for sleep monitoring in wireless body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Shimly, Samiya; Movassaghi, Samaneh; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of cooperative receive diversity, for the wireless body area network (WBAN) radio channel, compliant with the IEEE 802.15.6 Standard, in the case of monitoring a sleeping person. Extensive WBAN measurements near the 2.4 GHz ISM band were used. Up to 7 dB and 20% improvement for two-hop communications with the use of relays are empirically demonstrated with respect to outage probability and outage duration, with 3-branch cooperative selection combining a...

  20. A SECURE KEY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham; Jothi Venkateswaran

    2012-01-01

    In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN), the key factors to be considered for transmission of confidential data are security and privacy as it is mostly having applications in emergency medical response systems. The lack of security may lead to loss of data privacy resulting in an adversary to bring in bogus data or altering the legal ones. Hence in this study, a secure key management technique for WBAN is proposed. The proposed architecture consists of a set of WBANs connected to the master se...

  1. PROPOSED TRANSPORT PROTOCOLS SUITE FOR WIRELESS MEDICAL BODY AREA NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Kontogiannis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN is the recent trend for localized and personalized medical services. For that purpose, several tele-medicine architectures and WBAN frameworks for patient monitoring have been proposed. This paper presents a new medical protocol MESETP (Medical Services Transport Protocol, that underlies data delivery for both real-time and non real-time medical services. Furthermore, performance tests of MESETP with existing real time protocols and non real-time protocols used by existing medical services are examined and comparison results are presented.

  2. Coexistence and Interference Mitigation for Wireless Body Area Networks: Improvements using On-Body Opportunistic Relaying

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Jie; SMITH, DAVID

    2013-01-01

    Coexistence, and hence interference mitigation, across multiple wireless body area networks (WBANs) is an important problem as WBANs become more pervasive. Here, two-hop relay-assisted cooperative communications using opportunistic relaying (OR) is proposed for enhancement of coexistence for WBANs. Suitable time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes are employed for both intra-WBAN and inter-WBANs access protocols. To emulate actual conditions of WBAN use, extensive on-body and inter-body "...

  3. Reliable and Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Latré, B.

    2008-01-01

    In a wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) various sensors are attached on clothing, on the body or are even implanted under the skin. The wireless nature of the network and the wide variety of sensors offers numerous new, practical and innovative applications. A motivating example can be found in the world of health monitoring. The sensors of the WBAN measure for example the heartbeat, the body temperature or record a prolonged electrocardiogram. Using a WBAN, the patient experiences a greater p...

  4. A Novel Human Body Area Network for Brain Diseases Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai; Xu, Tianlang

    2016-10-01

    Development of wireless sensor and mobile communication technology provide an unprecedented opportunity for realizing smart and interactive healthcare systems. Designing such systems aims to remotely monitor the health and diagnose the diseases for users. In this paper, we design a novel human body area network for brain diseases analysis, which is named BABDA. Considering the brain is one of the most complex organs in the human body, the BABDA system provides four function modules to ensure the high quality of the analysis result, which includes initial data collection, data correction, data transmission and comprehensive data analysis. The performance evaluation conducted in a realistic environment with several criteria shows the availability and practicability of the BABDA system. PMID:27526187

  5. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algimantas Venčkauskas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS. We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application.

  6. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application. PMID:27187394

  7. Model-Driven Approach for Body Area Network Application Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Štuikys, Vytautas; Jusas, Nerijus; Burbaitė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the sensor-networked IoT model as a prototype to support the design of Body Area Network (BAN) applications for healthcare. Using the model, we analyze the synergistic effect of the functional requirements (data collection from the human body and transferring it to the top level) and non-functional requirements (trade-offs between energy-security-environmental factors, treated as Quality-of-Service (QoS)). We use feature models to represent the requirements at the earliest stage for the analysis and describe a model-driven methodology to design the possible BAN applications. Firstly, we specify the requirements as the problem domain (PD) variability model for the BAN applications. Next, we introduce the generative technology (meta-programming as the solution domain (SD)) and the mapping procedure to map the PD feature-based variability model onto the SD feature model. Finally, we create an executable meta-specification that represents the BAN functionality to describe the variability of the problem domain though transformations. The meta-specification (along with the meta-language processor) is a software generator for multiple BAN-oriented applications. We validate the methodology with experiments and a case study to generate a family of programs for the BAN sensor controllers. This enables to obtain the adequate measure of QoS efficiently through the interactive adjustment of the meta-parameter values and re-generation process for the concrete BAN application. PMID:27187394

  8. Efficient and Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Libing; Zhang, Yubo; Li, Li; Shen, Jian

    2016-06-01

    As a significant part of the Internet of Things (IoT), Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has attract much attention in this years. In WBANs, sensors placed in or around the human body collect the sensitive data of the body and transmit it through an open wireless channel in which the messages may be intercepted, modified, etc. Recently, Wang et al. presented a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and claimed that their scheme can solve the security problems in the previous schemes. Unfortunately, we demonstrate that their scheme cannot withstand impersonation attack. Either an adversary or a malicious legal client could impersonate another legal client to the application provider. In this paper, we give the detailed weakness analysis of Wang et al.'s scheme at first. Then we present a novel anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs and prove that it's secure under a random oracle model. At last, we demonstrate that our presented anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs is more suitable for practical application than Wang et al.'s scheme due to better security and performance. Compared with Wang et al.'s scheme, the computation cost of our scheme in WBANs has reduced by about 31.58%. PMID:27091755

  9. A Graph Theoretical Approach for Network Coding in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Eimear; Manada, Akiko; Marinkovic, Stevan; Popovici, Emanuel

    2011-01-01

    Modern medical wireless systems, such as wireless body area networks (WBANs), are applications of wireless networks that can be used as a tool of data transmission between patients and doctors. Accuracy of data transmission is an important requirement for such systems. In this paper, we will propose a WBAN which is robust against erasures and describe its properties using graph theoretic techniques.

  10. Impact of the environment and the topology on the performance of hierarchical body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari Gianluigi; Dricot Jean-Michel; Van Roy Stéphane; Horlin François; De Doncker Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Personal area networks and, more specifically, body area networks (BANs) are key building blocks of future generation networks and of the Internet of Things as well. In this article, we present a novel analytical framework for network performance analysis of body sensor networks with hierarchical (tree) topologies. This framework takes into account the specificities of the on-body channel modeling and the impact of the surrounding environment. The obtained results clearly highlight t...

  11. A SECURE KEY MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN, the key factors to be considered for transmission of confidential data are security and privacy as it is mostly having applications in emergency medical response systems. The lack of security may lead to loss of data privacy resulting in an adversary to bring in bogus data or altering the legal ones. Hence in this study, a secure key management technique for WBAN is proposed. The proposed architecture consists of a set of WBANs connected to the master server via backend server using authentication channel. Initially, backend server and master server use a shared symmetric key. When a node wants to join a network, it forwards a request message protected by the Message Authentication Code (MAC to the master server via the backend server. The master server verifies the MAC and generates message key and master key for the node and sends it to backend server. The backend server encrypts the message key with the master key and sends it to the node that initiates the joining process. After all nodes receive key information from the master server, the Base Server (BS schedules a re-keying period to refresh the master key. By simulation results, it is shown that the proposed technique is more authenticated. The proposed approach offers data confidentiality and integrity in WBANs.

  12. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) design techniques and performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jamil Yusuf; Yuce, Mehmet R; Bulger, Garrick; Harding, Benjamin

    2012-06-01

    In recent years interest in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) for patient monitoring applications has grown significantly. A WBAN can be used to develop patient monitoring systems which offer flexibility to medical staff and mobility to patients. Patients monitoring could involve a range of activities including data collection from various body sensors for storage and diagnosis, transmitting data to remote medical databases, and controlling medical appliances, etc. Also, WBANs could operate in an interconnected mode to enable remote patient monitoring using telehealth/e-health applications. A WBAN can also be used to monitor athletes' performance and assist them in training activities. For such applications it is very important that a WBAN collects and transmits data reliably, and in a timely manner to a monitoring entity. In order to address these issues, this paper presents WBAN design techniques for medical applications. We examine the WBAN design issues with particular emphasis on the design of MAC protocols and power consumption profiles of WBAN. Some simulation results are presented to further illustrate the performances of various WBAN design techniques. PMID:20953680

  13. Interoperability and security in wireless body area network infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Steve; Lebak, Jeffrey; Yao, Jianchu; Creekmore, Jonathan; Milenkovic, Aleksandar; Jovanov, Emil

    2005-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) and their supporting information infrastructures offer unprecedented opportunities to monitor state of health without constraining the activities of a wearer. These mobile point-of-care systems are now realizable due to the convergence of technologies such as low-power wireless communication standards, plug-and-play device buses, off-the-shelf development kits for low-power microcontrollers, handheld computers, electronic medical records, and the Internet. To increase acceptance of personal monitoring technology while lowering equipment cost, advances must be made in interoperability (at both the system and device levels) and security. This paper presents an overview of WBAN infrastructure work in these areas currently underway in the Medical Component Design Laboratory at Kansas State University (KSU) and at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH). KSU efforts include the development of wearable health status monitoring systems that utilize ISO/IEEE 11073, Bluetooth, Health Level 7, and OpenEMed. WBAN efforts at UAH include the development of wearable activity and health monitors that incorporate ZigBee-compliant wireless sensor platforms with hardware-level encryption and the TinyOS development environment. WBAN infrastructures are complex, requiring many functional support elements. To realize these infrastructures through collaborative efforts, organizations such as KSU and UAH must define and utilize standard interfaces, nomenclature, and security approaches. PMID:17281067

  14. Wireless Body Area Networks and Its Emerging Technologies in Real Time Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Evangelin; Dahlia Sam

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid improvement of wireless communication and semiconductor technologies, the body area sensor network (BASN) is fast developing. The BASN which is also referred to as the WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network), is widely used in medical applications and comprises of Body Sensors attached to human body. These body sensors will help to monitor the interior functions of the body. The data generated by the sensors is transmitted via the internet and collected in external se...

  15. ASE-BAN, a Wireless Body Area Network Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Karstoft, Henrik; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg;

    2010-01-01

    /actuators attached to the body and a host server application. The gateway uses the BlackFin BF533 processor from Analog Devices, and uses Bluetooth for wireless communication. Two types of sensors are attached to the network: an electro-cardio-gram sensor and an oximeter sensor. The testbed has been successfully...

  16. Compressive-sampling-based positioning in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banitalebi-Dehkordi, Mehdi; Abouei, Jamshid; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N

    2014-01-01

    Recent achievements in wireless technologies have opened up enormous opportunities for the implementation of ubiquitous health care systems in providing rich contextual information and warning mechanisms against abnormal conditions. This helps with the automatic and remote monitoring/tracking of patients in hospitals and facilitates and with the supervision of fragile, elderly people in their own domestic environment through automatic systems to handle the remote drug delivery. This paper presents a new modeling and analysis framework for the multipatient positioning in a wireless body area network (WBAN) which exploits the spatial sparsity of patients and a sparse fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based feature extraction mechanism for monitoring of patients and for reporting the movement tracking to a central database server containing patient vital information. The main goal of this paper is to achieve a high degree of accuracy and resolution in the patient localization with less computational complexity in the implementation using the compressive sensing theory. We represent the patients' positions as a sparse vector obtained by the discrete segmentation of the patient movement space in a circular grid. To estimate this vector, a compressive-sampling-based two-level FFT (CS-2FFT) feature vector is synthesized for each received signal from the biosensors embedded on the patient's body at each grid point. This feature extraction process benefits in the combination of both short-time and long-time properties of the received signals. The robustness of the proposed CS-2FFT-based algorithm in terms of the average positioning error is numerically evaluated using the realistic parameters in the IEEE 802.15.6-WBAN standard in the presence of additive white Gaussian noise. Due to the circular grid pattern and the CS-2FFT feature extraction method, the proposed scheme represents a significant reduction in the computational complexity, while improving the level of the

  17. ECG-cryptography and authentication in body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Vasilakos, Athanasios V; Fang, Hua

    2012-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (BANs) have drawn much attention from research community and industry in recent years. Multimedia healthcare services provided by BANs can be available to anyone, anywhere, and anytime seamlessly. A critical issue in BANs is how to preserve the integrity and privacy of a person's medical data over wireless environments in a resource efficient manner. This paper presents a novel key agreement scheme that allows neighboring nodes in BANs to share a common key generated by electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. The improved Jules Sudan (IJS) algorithm is proposed to set up the key agreement for the message authentication. The proposed ECG-IJS key agreement can secure data communications over BANs in a plug-n-play manner without any key distribution overheads. Both the simulation and experimental results are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve better security performance in terms of serval performance metrics such as false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) than other existing approaches. In addition, the power consumption analysis also shows that the proposed ECG-IJS scheme can achieve energy efficiency for BANs. PMID:22752143

  18. Analyzing Medium Access Techniques in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Javaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparison of Access Techniques used in Medium Access Control (MAC protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. Comparison is performed between Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA, Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA, Pure ALOHA and Slotted ALOHA (S-ALOHA. Performance metrics used for comparison are Throughput (T, Delay (D and Offered Load (G. The main goal for comparison is to show which technique gives highest Throughput and lowest Delay with increase in Load. Energy efficiency is major issue in WBAN that is why there is need to know which technique performs best for energy conservation and also gives minimum delay. Simulations are performed for different scenarios and results are compared for all techniques. We suggest TDMA as best technique to be used in MAC protocol for WBANs due to its high throughput and minimum delay with increase in load. MATLAB is the tool that is used for simulation.

  19. Interference Mitigation for Cyber-Physical Wireless Body Area Network System Using Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; WANG, HONGGANG; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are cyber-physical systems (CPS) that have emerged as a key technology to provide real-time health monitoring and ubiquitous healthcare services. WBANs could operate in dense environments such as in a hospital and lead to a high mutual communication interference in many application scenarios. The excessive interferences will significantly degrade the network performance including depleting the energy of WBAN nodes more quickly, and even eventually jeopardiz...

  20. A comprehensive survey of wireless body area networks on PHY, MAC, and network layers solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sana; Higgins, Henry; Braem, Bart; Latré, Benoît; Blondia, Chris; Moerman, Ingrid; Saleem, Shahnaz; Rahman, Ziaur; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and integrated circuits, system-on-chip design, wireless communication and intelligent low-power sensors have allowed the realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN is a collection of low-power, miniaturized, invasive/non-invasive lightweight wireless sensor nodes that monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. In addition, it supports a number of innovative and interesting applications such as ubiquitous healthcare, e...

  1. Physical Monitoring in Daily Life by Remote Body Area Network System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To spend daily life in high QOL, it is important to keep our health condition. Physical diseases are caused by various body parameters. People must get body parameter in daily life. Therefore people need wearable body area network system for getting body parameter in daily life. Authors made wearable body area network system which can get heart rate, SpO2, body temperature, skin temperature, air temperature, impact and acceleration of waist, shoulder, both ankles and wrist. Moreover authors made some applications by using these parameters. This paper describes the wearable sensing network system, host system to monitor dynamic physical conditions of user at remote location and applications

  2. Technologies and Research Trends in Wireless Body Area Networks for Healthcare: A Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ilkyu Ha

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increasing interest in the integration of the medical technology and the information and communications technology, research on wireless body area networks (WBANs), which apply a sensor network to the human body, is being actively conducted. Existing sensor network technology has the potential to be used in a WBAN; however, it has some limitations. In particular, a WBAN has a very different network environment compared to a sensor network that uses free space, because wireless se...

  3. A comprehensive survey of Wireless Body Area Networks : on PHY, MAC, and Network layers solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Higgins, Henry; Braem, Bart; Latre, Benoit; Blondia, Chris; Moerman, Ingrid; Saleem, Shahnaz; Rahman, Ziaur; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Recent advances in microelectronics and integrated circuits, system-on-chip design, wireless communication and intelligent low-power sensors have allowed the realization of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN is a collection of low-power, miniaturized, invasive/non-invasive lightweight wireless sensor nodes that monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. In addition, it supports a number of innovative and interesting applications such as ubiquitous healthcare, entertainment, interactive gaming, and military applications. In this paper, the fundamental mechanisms of WBAN including architecture and topology, wireless implant communication, low-power Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols are reviewed. A comprehensive study of the proposed technologies for WBAN at Physical (PHY), MAC, and Network layers is presented and many useful solutions are discussed for each layer. Finally, numerous WBAN applications are highlighted. PMID:20721685

  4. Energy Efficient Model For Deploying Wireless Body Area Networks Using Multi-Hop Network Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C.Chepkwony

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBANs offers a lot of application opportunities in the area of health care. Recent developments in sensors and radio communication technologies have motivated many researchers to design WBAN systems for application in healthcare provision. Power consumption is still a limiting factor in realizing a WBAN with a very long lifetime. In order for wireless body area networks to ensure widespread use and adoption, some of the design constraints should be solved to promote uptake and meet social expectations. As a result, design of energy efficient WBANs is required to enhance battery life at the same time ensure that sensor nodes are small enough to be conveniently worn or implanted in the body. Energy consumption in WBANs happens during sensing, processing and communication. This research focused on designing an energy efficient model during communication between sensors. The parameters were simulated and implemented using MATLAB and Simulink simulation software. The sensors are randomly localized on a plane and distance between them calculated. The model uses a relay between the sensors and the coordinator to reduce power consumption by sensors during signal transmission. The relay is dedicated to retransmitting signals onl

  5. Optimizing Data Forwarding from Body Area Networks in the Presence of Body Shadowing with Dual Wireless Technology Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Argyriou, Antonios; Breva, Alberto Caballero; Aoun, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we are concerned with the problem of data forwarding from a wireless body area network (WBAN) to a gateway when body shadowing affects the ability of WBAN nodes to communicate with the gateway. To solve this problem we present a new WBAN architecture that uses two communication technologies. One network is formed between on-body nodes, and is realized with capacitive body-coupled communication (BCC), while an IEEE 802.15.4 radio frequency (RF) network is used for forwarding data...

  6. Requirements and System Architecture for a Healthcare Wireless Body Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Overgaard; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    Wireless body area networks enable new opportunities for personal healthcare monitoring and personal healthcare applications. This paper presents a comprehensive set of requirements and challenges for building a wireless body area network to support diverse user groups and a corresponding set of ...... of an ASE-BAN test bed. The major goal for this test bed is to be a platform for research and experiments with development of an ultra-low power body area network including sensor, communication nodes, communication protocols and a body gateway component.......Wireless body area networks enable new opportunities for personal healthcare monitoring and personal healthcare applications. This paper presents a comprehensive set of requirements and challenges for building a wireless body area network to support diverse user groups and a corresponding set...... of healthcare applications. Based on the identified requirements, the paper presents an architecture for a wireless body area network and describes how this architecture is connected to an existing it-infrastructure supporting healthcare at home. Finally the paper presents our on-going research with development...

  7. Weighted Energy-Balanced Efficient Routing Algorithm for Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuoming Li; Zhenyu Xu; Shengge Mao; Xing Tong; Xuejun Sha

    2016-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a small-scaled sensor network consisting of a series of medical devices attributed to, around, or implanted in a human body, providing continuous monitoring by different sensors to collect vital signals or motion and GPS. This paper proposes an effective routing algorithm to balance the energy consumption within a WBAN in order to prolong the overall lifetime of the network, called dynamic routing algorithm (DRA) and its improved version based on a multipa...

  8. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Cheol Bang; Md. Obaidur Rahman; Sungwon Lee; Choong Seon Hong

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the p...

  9. Development of a Lab Experiment for Intrusion Detection System in Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of sophisticated technology and associated indubitable benefits, the wireless network is gaining popularity day by day. Still there exists numerous security challenges and to overcome these, different researches are being carried on. This suggests that the wireless security is still in nascent stage and requires further development. The new wireless technologies like Wireless Body Area Network, thus provides tough challenges to security professionals. Wireless Body Area Networ...

  10. Energy Efficient Aggregation and Reliable Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN)

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham; Dr. Jothi venkateswaran; Dr. Hafidh Taher Ba Omar

    2014-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBAN), the data loss, security and reliability requirements are not handled in the existing literature works. This necessitates the technique that deals with slot allocation scheme, delay and other performance metrics. In order to overcome this issue, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient aggregation and reliable communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). Initially, the aggregator nodes are chosen based on the nodes connectivity. During the d...

  11. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val; Jones, V.M.

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  12. Impact of the environment and the topology on the performance of hierarchical body area networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Gianluigi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Personal area networks and, more specifically, body area networks (BANs are key building blocks of future generation networks and of the Internet of Things as well. In this article, we present a novel analytical framework for network performance analysis of body sensor networks with hierarchical (tree topologies. This framework takes into account the specificities of the on-body channel modeling and the impact of the surrounding environment. The obtained results clearly highlight the differences between indoor and outdoor scenarios, and provide several insights on BAN design and analysis. In particular, it will be shown that the BAN topology should be selected according to the foreseen medical application and the deployment environment.

  13. Design and implementation of a multi-purpose Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Virk, M. (Muhammad)

    2013-01-01

    A wireless body area network (WBAN) is a collection of miniaturized and energy efficient wireless sensor nodes which monitor human body functions and its surroundings. It has been observed that WBANs perform single application per network, computation and storage capacities are scarce and there is no or limited mobility support. Technically complex WBAN application solutions today, find refuge in processing computationally complex data external to WBANs, i.e., processing sensor data on a conv...

  14. Reliable Communication in Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Health Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bahanfar, Saeid; Kousha, Helia; Babaie, Shahram

    2011-01-01

    Now days, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) have grown considerably. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. In this paper we present hardware and software architecture for BAN and also we offer reliable communication and data aggregation.

  15. Indoor patient position estimation using particle filtering and wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Meng, Max Q H; Xu, Lisheng

    2007-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) has been recently promoted to monitor the physiological parameters of patient in an unobtrusive and natural way. This paper towards to make advantage of those ongoing wireless communication links between the body sensors to provide estimated position information of patients or particular body area networks, which make daily activity surveillance possible for further analysis. The proposed particle filtering based localization algorithm just picks up the received radio signal strength information from beacons or its neighbors to infer its own pose, which do not require additional hardware or instruments. Theoretical analysis and simulation experiments are presented to examine the performance of location estimating method. PMID:18002445

  16. Reliable Communication in Wireless Body Area Sensor Network for Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Bahanfar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Now days, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN have grown considerably. A number of tiny wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a wireless body area network that can monitor various vital signs, providing real-time feedback to the user and medical personnel. This communication needs to be energy efficient and highly reliable while keeping delays low. In this paper we present hardware and software architecture for BAN and also we offer reliable communication and data aggregation.

  17. LIGHT WEIGHT SECURITY AND AUTHENTICATION IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK

    OpenAIRE

    A.Siva Sangari; Martin Leo Manickam, J.

    2014-01-01

    In recent year, the increasing number of wearable sensors on human can serve for many purposes like emergency care, health care remote monitoring, personal entertainment and communication etc. The healthcare application is used for 24 hours constant monitoring without disturbing day to day activities. The WBAN enables the medical applications to be developed using electronic devices and sensors. The WBAN is created by wearing small sensors on the human body. In this paper we propose a low ...

  18. A Subject-Specificity Analysis of Radio Channels in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of subject-specific radio channels in wireless body area networks (WBANs using a simulation tool based on the parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. This technique is well suited to model radio propagations around complex, inhomogeneous objects such as the human body. The impacts of different subjects varying in size on on-body, inter-body, and off-body radio channels are studied. The analysis demonstrates that the characteristics of on-body radio channels are subject-specific and are associated with human gender, height, and body mass index. On the other hand, when waves propagate away from the body, such as in the inter-body and off-body cases, the impacts of different subjects on the channel characteristics are found to be negligible.

  19. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Peter; Bhanu Pratap Reddy; Farshad Momtaz; Tony Givargis

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same ...

  20. LIGHT WEIGHT SECURITY AND AUTHENTICATION IN WIRELESS BODY AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Siva Sangari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, the increasing number of wearable sensors on human can serve for many purposes like emergency care, health care remote monitoring, personal entertainment and communication etc. The healthcare application is used for 24 hours constant monitoring without disturbing day to day activities. The WBAN enables the medical applications to be developed using electronic devices and sensors. The WBAN is created by wearing small sensors on the human body. In this paper we propose a low cost and high quality electro cardiography and diagnostic system for healthcare applications . A major issue is how to preserve security and privacy of patient’s medical healthcare information over wireless communication. The energy consumption and data security are still major challenges in healthcare applications. This paper based on light weight security algorithm. Skipjack is the secret key encryption algorithm which provide the secure communication between sensor node and mobile node. The proposed algorithm protect the patient data against eavesdropping attack.

  1. Interference Mitigation for Cyber-Physical Wireless Body Area Network System Using Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Honggang; Wang, Chonggang; Fang, Hua

    2013-06-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) are cyber-physical systems (CPS) that have emerged as a key technology to provide real-time health monitoring and ubiquitous healthcare services. WBANs could operate in dense environments such as in a hospital and lead to a high mutual communication interference in many application scenarios. The excessive interferences will significantly degrade the network performance including depleting the energy of WBAN nodes more quickly, and even eventually jeopardize people's lives due to unreliable (caused by the interference) healthcare data collections. Therefore, It is critical to mitigate the interference among WBANs to increase the reliability of the WBAN system while minimizing the system power consumption. Many existing approaches can deal with communication interference mitigation in general wireless networks but are not suitable for WBANs due to their ignoring the social nature of WBANs. Unlike the previous research, we for the first time propose a power game based approach to mitigate the communication interferences for WBANs based on the people's social interaction information. Our major contributions include: (1) model the inter-WBANs interference, and determine the distance distribution of the interference through both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulations; (2) develop social interaction detection and prediction algorithms for people carrying WBANs; (3) develop a power control game based on the social interaction information to maximize the system's utility while minimize the energy consumption of WBANs system. The extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the power control game for inter-WBAN interference mitigation using social interaction information. Our research opens a new research vista of WBANs using social networks. PMID:25436180

  2. A comprehensive survey of energy-aware routing protocols in wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effatparvar, Mehdi; Dehghan, Mehdi; Rahmani, Amir Masoud

    2016-09-01

    Wireless body area sensor network is a special purpose wireless sensor network that, employing wireless sensor nodes in, on, or around the human body, makes it possible to measure biological parameters of a person for specific applications. One of the most fundamental concerns in wireless body sensor networks is accurate routing in order to send data promptly and properly, and therefore overcome some of the challenges. Routing protocols for such networks are affected by a large number of factors including energy, topology, temperature, posture, the radio range of sensors, and appropriate quality of service in sensor nodes. Since energy is highly important in wireless body area sensor networks, and increasing the network lifetime results in benefiting greatly from sensor capabilities, improving routing performance with reduced energy consumption presents a major challenge. This paper aims to study wireless body area sensor networks and the related routing methods. It also presents a thorough, comprehensive review of routing methods in wireless body area sensor networks from the perspective of energy. Furthermore, different routing methods affecting the parameter of energy will be classified and compared according to their advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, fundamental concepts of wireless body area sensor networks are provided, and then the advantages and disadvantages of these networks are investigated. Since one of the most fundamental issues in wireless body sensor networks is to perform routing so as to transmit data precisely and promptly, we discuss the same issue. As a result, we propose a classification of the available relevant literature with respect to the key challenge of energy in the routing process. With this end in view, all important papers published between 2000 and 2015 are classified under eight categories including 'Mobility-Aware', 'Thermal-Aware', 'Restriction of Location and Number of Relays', 'Link-aware', 'Cluster- and Tree

  3. Wireless Body Area Networks and Its Emerging Technologies in Real Time Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Evangelin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid improvement of wireless communication and semiconductor technologies, the body area sensor network (BASN is fast developing. The BASN which is also referred to as the WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network, is widely used in medical applications and comprises of Body Sensors attached to human body. These body sensors will help to monitor the interior functions of the body. The data generated by the sensors is transmitted via the internet and collected in external servers which are then used for analysis. The sensors being flexible and compact consume less power and provide a perfect environment for wireless sensing research. The main area of application of the WBAN is the medical field although it can also be extended to other areas like gaming, entertainment, road safety etc. These sensors will help to increase sensitivity and specificity. These days body sensors are emerging as wearable computers such as Computer clothing, Google glass, Smart watches etc which paves the way for using it in many more real time applications. In this paper we have discussed in detail about the architecture, application areas, and characteristics of the WBAN and how they are attached with the human body. WBAN is a sure platform that will dominate all the future wireless applications.

  4. Energy Efficient MAC for QoS Traffic in Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Anil K. Jacob; Lillykutty Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Lifetimes and latencies of devices in wireless body area networks (WBANs) that monitor the health conditions of patients largely determine their utility under such a setup. It is seen that the medium access method used in the body area network can play a significant role in determining the quality of service such medical devices can provide. IEEE 802.15.6 standard for WBAN includes different types of medium access, namely, CSMA/CA, scheduled, and polling access schemes, or a combination of th...

  5. From Wireless Sensor Networks to Wireless Body Area Networks: Formal Modeling and Verification on Security Using PAT

    OpenAIRE

    Tieming Chen; Zhenbo Yu; Shijian Li; Bo Chen

    2016-01-01

    Model checking has successfully been applied on verification of security protocols, but the modeling process is always tedious and proficient knowledge of formal method is also needed although the final verification could be automatic depending on specific tools. At the same time, due to the appearance of novel kind of networks, such as wireless sensor networks (WSN) and wireless body area networks (WBAN), formal modeling and verification for these domain-specific systems are quite challengin...

  6. Energy Efficient Aggregation and Reliable Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatasubramanian Sivaprasatham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBAN, the data loss, security and reliability requirements are not handled in the existing literature works. This necessitates the technique that deals with slot allocation scheme, delay and other performance metrics. In order to overcome this issue, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient aggregation and reliable communication for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN. Initially, the aggregator nodes are chosen based on the nodes connectivity. During the data aggregation, the encryption key and the verification key is assigned to the nodes while transmitting data to the data aggregator. In order to enhance the reliability of data during transmission, the network coding methodology is considered. By simulation results, we show that the proposed technique enhances the network performance.

  7. Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusens, Elisabeth; Joseph, Wout; Latré, Benoît; Braem, Bart; Vermeeren, Günter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Martens, Luc; Moerman, Ingrid; Blondia, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) offer many promising new applications in the area of remote health monitoring. An important element in the development of a WBAN is the characterization of the physical layer of the network, including an estimation of the delay spread and the path loss between two nodes on the body. This paper discusses the propagation channel between two half-wavelength dipoles at 2.45 GHz, placed near a human body and presents an application for cross-layer design in order to optimize the energy consumption of different topologies. Propagation measurements are performed on real humans in a multipath environment, considering different parts of the body separately. In addition, path loss has been numerically investigated with an anatomically correct model of the human body in free space using a 3-D electromagnetic solver. Path loss parameters and time-domain channel characteristics are extracted from the measurement and simulation data. A semi-empirical path loss model is presented for an antenna height above the body of 5 mm and antenna separations from 5 cm up to 40 cm. A time-domain analysis is performed and models are presented for the mean excess delay and the delay spread. As a cross-layer application, the proposed path loss models are used to evaluate the energy efficiency of single-hop and multihop network topologies. PMID:19789118

  8. An Overview of Applications, Standards and Challenges in Futuristic Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragesh G K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent technical advancements in low-power integrated circuits, ultra low-power RF (radio frequency technology, wireless communications and micro sensors allowed the realization of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. It is one of the latest technologies in health care diagnosis and management. A body area network wirelessly connects independent nodes (e.g. medical devices, earphones, sensors, actuators attached to the body surface, implanted into tissues/body, or dispersed in the clothing for applications in home/health care, sports, entertainment, defense, ambient intelligence, pervasive computing and many other areas. These sensors offer promising applications in areas such as real time health monitoring, interactive gaming and consumer electronics. WBAN does not compel the patient to stay in the hospital thereby giving much physical mobility. Thus it greatly increases the efficiency of a health care system. This paper presents an overview on the various aspects of WBAN including sensors used, applications, power efficiency, communication protocols, security requirements, existing projects in WBANs and challenges faced in wireless body area networks.

  9. AID: An Energy Efficient Decoding Scheme for LDPC Codes in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, N.; Rehman, O.; Alrajeh, N.; Khan, Z A; Manzoor, B.; Ahmed, S.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is to prolong the lifetime of network. Traditional research work focuses on minimizing transmit power, however, in the case of short range communication the consumption power in decoding is significantly larger than transmit power. This paper investigates the minimization of total power consumption by reducing the decoding power consumption. For achieving a desired Bit Error Rate (BER), we introduce some fundamental results on...

  10. A Beacon Interval Shifting Scheme for Interference Mitigation in Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Seungku Kim; Seokhwan Kim; Jin-Woo Kim; Doo-Seop Eom

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of interference avoidance in body area networks (BANs). IEEE 802.15 Task Group 6 presented several schemes to reduce such interference, but these schemes are still not proper solutions for BANs. We present a novel distributed TDMA-based beacon interval shifting scheme that reduces interference in the BANs. A design goal of the scheme is to avoid the wakeup period of each BAN coinciding with other networks by employing carrier sensing before a beacon transmiss...

  11. BARI+: A Biometric Based Distributed Key Management Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Muhammad Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi; Heejo Lee; Sungyoung Lee; Young-Koo Lee

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences...

  12. A Novel Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Body Area Network in Health Care Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    T.V.P.Sundararajan; Shanmugam, A

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Health monitoring, telemedicine, military, interactive entertainment and portable audio/video systems were most promising applications where WBANs can be used. However, designers of such systems face a number of challenging tasks, as they need to address often quite conflicting requirements for size, operating time, precision and reliability. Network security is very important in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) since the vital human life might be jeopardized, unless manag...

  13. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung Sup Kwak; Sana Ullah; Shahnaz Saleem

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent mal...

  14. Improved Successive Interference Cancellation for MIMO/UWB-Based Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasheela, M; Rajeswari, A.

    2012-01-01

    In body area networks, various sensors are attached to clothing or on the body or even implanted under the skin. The sensors measure such as heart beat, the record of prolonged electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and so on. In this paper, an improved Successive interference cancellation (SIC) scheme based on zero correlation zone sequences is proposed. Here ZCZ is used as a random code for TH PPM UWB system. Nodes in a WBAN are connected through wireless communication channel within a very clo...

  15. Game Theory Based Security in Wireless Body Area Network with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Somasundaram, M.; R. Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body fu...

  16. Impact of Indoor Environment on Path Loss in Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Hausman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of an example indoor environment on narrowband radio channel path loss for body area networks operating around 2.4 GHz is investigated using computer simulations and on-site measurements. In contrast to other similar studies, the simulation model included both a numerical human body phantom and its environment—room walls, floor and ceiling. As an example, radio signal attenuation between two different configurations of transceivers with dipole antennas placed in a direct vicinity of a human body (on-body scenario is analyzed by computer simulations for several types of reflecting environments. In the analyzed case the propagation environments comprised a human body and office room walls. As a reference environment for comparison, free space with only a conducting ground plane, modelling a steel mesh reinforced concrete floor, was chosen. The transmitting and receiving antennas were placed in two on-body configurations chest–back and chest–arm. Path loss vs. frequency simulation results obtained using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD method and a multi-tissue anthropomorphic phantom were compared to results of measurements taken with a vector network analyzer with a human subject located in an average-size empty cuboidal office room. A comparison of path loss values in different environments variants gives some qualitative and quantitative insight into the adequacy of simplified indoor environment model for the indoor body area network channel representation.

  17. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selimis, G.; Huang, L.; Massé, F.; Tsekoura, I.; Ashouei, M.; Catthoor, F.; Huisken, J.; Stuyt, J.; Dolmans, G.; Penders, J.; Groot, H. de

    2011-01-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating

  18. A Novel Intrusion Detection System for Wireless Body Area Network in Health Care Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V.P. Sundararajan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Health monitoring, telemedicine, military, interactive entertainment and portable audio/video systems were most promising applications where WBANs can be used. However, designers of such systems face a number of challenging tasks, as they need to address often quite conflicting requirements for size, operating time, precision and reliability. Network security is very important in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN since the vital human life might be jeopardized, unless managed properly. Approach: This article presented security architecture of a wireless body area network for ambulatory health status monitoring. A novel Intrusion Detection System (IDS inspired by the biological immune system that use Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA was proposed to enhance the performance of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN to operate despite the presence of compromised (misbehaving nodes. Results: The proposed IDS scheme had been implemented using network simulator Qualnet v5.2. The performances of IDS scheme had been analyzed using AODV, DSR and DSDV routing protocols for parameters such as average detection rate and false alarm rate. These negative selection detectors are capable of distinguishing well behaving nodes from compromised nodes with good degree of accuracy. The high false positives rate is also minimized. Conclusion/Recommendations: Wireless Body Area Networks are an enabling technology for mobile health care. The IDS can be implemented on today’s devices as it only requires minimal and low-cost hardware changes. The authors strongly believe that adding sufficient security mechanisms to WBAN will study as a trigger in the acceptance of this technology for health care purposes. Simulation results indicate the non-degradability of network performance when these IDS is incorporated in the routing algorithm for security enhancements.

  19. RE-ATTEMPT: A New Energy-Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Modern health care system is one of the most popular Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) applications and a hot area of research subject to present work. In this paper, we present Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT) for WBASNs. The proposed routing protocol uses fixed deployment of wireless sensors (nodes) such that these are placed according to energy levels. Moreover, we use direct communication for the deliver...

  20. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process. PMID:23853128

  1. Rapidly Deployable Internet-of-Things Body Area Network Platform for Medical Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, In Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Biomedical devices in the past provided limited capability for the data acquisition and presented the data in the form of user interface for a care provider to observe. Now, what is required for biomedical devices has fundamentally changed. Many devices must now support secure networking and include a network of sensors to enable machine learning-based sensor fusion for accurate inference of the subject’s state.This thesis introduces an Internet-of-Things (IoT) body area network (BAN) platfor...

  2. MAC Protocol in Wireless Body Area Network for Mobile Health: A Survey and an Architecture Design

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Qi; Kun Wang; AnPeng Huang; Haifeng Hu; Guangjie Han

    2015-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) have become a leading solution in mobile health (mHealth). Typically, a WBAN consists of in-body or around-body sensor nodes for collecting data of physiological feature. For a WBAN to provide high throughput and low delay in an energy-efficient way, designing an efficient medium access control (MAC) protocol is of paramount importance because the MAC layer coordinates nodes’ access to the shared wireless medium. To show the difference of MAC protocols betw...

  3. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Body Area Networks Using the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Mittra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous full-wave solution, via the Finite-Difference-Time-Domain (FDTD method, is performed in an attempt to obtain realistic communication channel models for on-body wireless transmission in Body-Area-Networks (BANs, which are local data networks using the human body as a propagation medium. The problem of modeling the coupling between body mounted antennas is often not amenable to attack by hybrid techniques owing to the complex nature of the human body. For instance, the time-domain Green’s function approach becomes more involved when the antennas are not conformal. Furthermore, the human body is irregular in shape and has dispersion properties that are unique. One consequence of this is that we must resort to modeling the antenna network mounted on the body in its entirety, and the number of degrees of freedom (DoFs can be on the order of billions. Even so, this type of problem can still be modeled by employing a parallel version of the FDTD algorithm running on a cluster. Lastly, we note that the results of rigorous simulation of BANs can serve as benchmarks for comparison with the abundance of measurement data.

  4. A human body model for efficient numerical characterization of UWB signal propagation in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hooi Been; Baumann, Dirk; Li, Er-Ping

    2011-03-01

    Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a new enabling system with promising applications in areas such as remote health monitoring and interpersonal communication. Reliable and optimum design of a WBAN system relies on a good understanding and in-depth studies of the wave propagation around a human body. However, the human body is a very complex structure and is computationally demanding to model. This paper aims to investigate the effects of the numerical model's structure complexity and feature details on the simulation results. Depending on the application, a simplified numerical model that meets desired simulation accuracy can be employed for efficient simulations. Measurements of ultra wideband (UWB) signal propagation along a human arm are performed and compared to the simulation results obtained with numerical arm models of different complexity levels. The influence of the arm shape and size, as well as tissue composition and complexity is investigated. PMID:21062677

  5. Improved Adaptive Routing for Multihop IEEE 802.15.6 Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariar Imtiaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Network has the ability to collect and send data on body measurement to the server through PDA or other device. Nodes (sensors collect vital signs from the body or environmental factor and check them. In IEEE 802.15.6 routing is discussed as a part of the link layer where multihop is not fully considered. Improving network performance, reducing energy consumption, thus extending the network lifetime is the main challenge in BANs. Several studies mention that multihop for BANs helps for achieving network performance, reducing energy consumption and extending network lifetime. One work presents the Adaptive multihop tree-based Routing (AMR protocol that is extensively evaluated in a real testbed deployment. They use fuzzy logic to combine all metrics they use. Another limitation is that they have used Prim's algorithm which is not a realistic approach. So in this work we have improved their multihop tree-based Routing (AMR protocol using Kruskal's algorithm instead of Prim's algorithm. The time complexity of Kruskal's algorithm is way less than prims's algorithm. We have used network simulator 3 (NS3 to simulate and found that our algorithm is better than AMR if many of nodes.

  6. Reconfigurable antenna options for 2.45/5 GHz wireless body area networks in healthcare applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Syed Muzahir; Ranga, Yogesh; Esselle, Karu P

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents electronically reconfigurable antenna options in healthcare applications. They are suitable for wireless body area network devices operating in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band at 2.45 GHz and IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) band at 5 GHz (5.15-5.35 GHz, 5.25-5.35 GHz). Two types of antennas are investigated: Antenna-I has a full ground plane and Antenna-II has a partial ground plane. The proposed antennas provide ISM operation in one mode while in another mode they support 5 GHz WLAN band. Their performance is assessed for body centric wireless communication using a simplified human body model. Antenna sensitivity to the gap between the antenna and the human body is investigated for both modes of each antenna. The proposed antennas exhibit a wide radiation pattern along the body surface to provide wide coverage and their small width (14 mm) makes them suitable for on-body communication in healthcare applications. PMID:26737528

  7. Design and Implementation of a Wearable Body Area Sensor Network for Distributed FES System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Yong-ji; LIU Xiao-xuan; QU Hong-en; LAN Ning

    2014-01-01

    A wearable body area sensor network (WBASN) was designed and implemented to monitor movement information of stroke patients in real time. The sensor system was combined with a previously developed distributed functional electrical stimulation (dFES) system, which is a promising technology for motor rehabilitation of stroke patients. Movement information could be useful in outcome assessment of rehabilitation, or for closed-loop adaptive stimulation during rehabilitation. In addition, a short-latency, low-power communication protocol was developed to meet the clinical requirements of energy efficiency and high rate of data feed-through. The prototype of the WBASN was tested in preliminary human experiments. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed wearable body area sensor network in monitoring arm movements on healthy subjects.

  8. An ECG Compressed Sensing Method of Low Power Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at low power problem in body area network, an ECG compressed sensing method of low power body area network based on the compressed sensing theory was proposed. Random binary matrices were used as the sensing matrix to measure ECG signals on the sensor nodes. After measured value is transmitted to remote monitoring center, ECG signal sparse representation under the discrete cosine transform and block sparse Bayesian learning reconstruction algorithm is used to reconstruct the ECG signals. The simulation results show that the 30% of overall signal can get reconstruction signal which’s SNR is more than 60dB, each numbers in each rank of sensing matrix can be controlled below 5, which reduces the power of sensor node sampling, calculation and transmission. The method has the advantages of low power, high accuracy of signal reconstruction and easy to hardware implementation.  

  9. A Light Weight Protocol to Provide Location Privacy in Wireless Body Area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mana, Mohammed; Bensaber, Boucif Amar; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3201

    2011-01-01

    Location privacy is one of the major security problems in a Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). An eavesdropper can keep track of the place and time devices are communicating. To make things even worse, the attacker does not have to be physically close to the communicating devices, he can use a device with a stronger antenna. The unique hardware address of a mobile device can often be linked to the identity of the user operating the device. This represents a violation of the user's privacy. The user should decide when his/her location is revealed and when not. In this paper, we first categorize the type of eavesdroppers for WBANs, and then we propose a new scheme to provide the location privacy in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs).

  10. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-01-01

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research. PMID:25903551

  11. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research.

  12. Towards using physiological signals as cryptographic keys in body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Karaoğlan, Duygu; Karaoglan, Duygu; Levi, Albert; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Body Area Networks (BANs) are the most important building stone of pervasive healthcare, which enables remote, continuous and real-time health monitoring. Biosensors, constituting the BANs, collect highly sensitive medical information from their hosts and communicate these data. Considering the nature of the wireless medium, the privacy requirements of the individuals and the extreme energy and storage limitations of the biosensors, BANs require a light-weight and secure key management infras...

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Python Telecare System Based on a Bluetooth Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Morón; A. Gómez-Jaime; J. R. Luque; Casilari, E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of a telemonitoring system, based on a BAN (Body Area Network) that is integrated by a Bluetooth (BT) pulse oximeter, a GPS (Global Positioning System) unit, and a smartphone. The smartphone is the hardware platform for running a Python software that manages the Bluetooth piconet formed by the sensors. Thus the smartphone forwards the data received from the Bluetooth devices, encoded into JSON (JavaScript Object Notation), to a central server. This server prov...

  14. Patient Data Prioritization in the Cross-Layer Designs of Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Fasee Ullah; Abdul Hanan Abdullah; Muhammad Qasim Jan; Kashif Naseer Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    In Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), various biomedical sensors (BMSs) are deployed to monitor various vital signs of a patient for detecting the abnormality of the vital signs. These BMSs inform the medical staff in advance before the patient’s life goes into a threatening situation. In WBAN, routing layer has the same challenges as generally seen in WSN, but the unique requirements of WBANs need to be addressed by the novel routing mechanisms quite differently from the routing mechanism in...

  15. A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Chris; Milenkovic Aleksandar; Jovanov Emil; de Groen Piet C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent technological advances in integrated circuits, wireless communications, and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices. A number of these devices can be integrated into a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), a new enabling technology for health monitoring. Methods Using off-the-shelf wireless sensors we designed a prototype WBAN which features a standard ZigBee compliant radio and a common set of physiological, ...

  16. A Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satis...

  17. Wireless Body Area Network in a Ubiquitous Healthcare System for Physiological Signal Monitoring and Health Consulting

    OpenAIRE

    Joonyoung Jung; Kiryong Ha; Jeonwoo Lee; Youngsung Kim; Daeyoung Kim

    2008-01-01

    We developed a ubiquitous healthcare system consisted of aphysiological signal devices, a mobile system, a device provider system, a healthcare service provider system, a physician system, and a healthcare personal system. In this system, wireless body area network (WBAN) such as ZigBee is used to communicate between physiological signal devices and the mobile system. WBAN device needs a specific function for ubiquitous healthcare application. We propose a scanning algorithm, dynamic discover...

  18. Ubiquitous HealthCare in Wireless Body Area Networks - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, N.; Khan, N. A.; Shakir, M.; Khan, M.A.; Bouk, S. H.; Khan, Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    Advances in wireless communication, system on chip and low power sensor nodes allowed realization of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). WBAN comprised of tiny sensors, which collect information of patient's vital signs and provide a real time feedback. In addition, WBAN also supports many applications including Ubiquitous HealthCare (UHC), entertainment, gaming, military, etc. UHC is required by elderly people to facilitate them with instant monitoring anywhere they move around. In this paper...

  19. Towards reliable communication in low-power wireless body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hauer, Jan-Hinrich

    2014-01-01

    Es wird zunehmend die Ansicht vertreten, dass tragbare Computer und Sensoren neue Anwendungen in den Bereichen Gesundheitswesen, personalisierte Fitness oder erweiterte Realität ermöglichen werden. Die am Körper getragenen Geräte sind dabei mithilfe eines Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) verbunden, d.h. es wird drahtlose Kommunikation statt eines drahtgebundenen Kanals eingesetzt. Der drahtlose Kanal ist jedoch typischerweise ein eher instabiles Kommunikationsmedium und die Einsatzbedingunge...

  20. Energy Harvesting-Aware Resource Management for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Ramirez, Ernesto Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The rationale for a telemedicine system is the use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) for the remote transmission of biomedical data and the remote control of biomedical equipment, in order to improve the provided health service. The integration of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) in telemedicine systems does not only achieve significant improvements in the patient’s healthcare, but also enhances their quality of life. However, the potential benefits provided by these netwo...

  1. Performance Study of Localization Techniques in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Obaid Ur; Javaid, Nadeem; Bibi, Ayesha; Khan, Zahoor Ali

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs) is efficient localization. There are various techniques for indoor and outdoor environments to locate a person. This study evaluating and compares performance of optimization schemes in indoor environments for optimal placement of wireless sensors, where patients can perform their daily activities. In indoor environments, the performance comparison between Distance Vector-Hop algorithm, Ring Overlapping Based on Comparison...

  2. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM) Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. T...

  3. BARI+: A Biometric Based Distributed Key Management Approach for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body area networks (WBAN consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain.

  4. BARI+: a biometric based distributed key management approach for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Khaliq-ur-Rahman Raazi Syed; Lee, Heejo; Lee, Sungyoung; Lee, Young-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBAN) consist of resource constrained sensing devices just like other wireless sensor networks (WSN). However, they differ from WSN in topology, scale and security requirements. Due to these differences, key management schemes designed for WSN are inefficient and unnecessarily complex when applied to WBAN. Considering the key management issue, WBAN are also different from WPAN because WBAN can use random biometric measurements as keys. We highlight the differences between WSN and WBAN and propose an efficient key management scheme, which makes use of biometrics and is specifically designed for WBAN domain. PMID:22319333

  5. Energy-efficient hybrid system for Wireless Body Area Network Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ghamari, Mohammad; Janko, Balazs; Sherratt, Simon; Harwin, William

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a number of miniaturized wearable or implanted sensor nodes that are employed to monitor vital parameters of a patient over long duration of time. These sensors capture physiological data and wirelessly transfer the collected data to a local base station in order to be further processed. Almost all of these body sensors are expected to have low data-rate and to run on a battery. Since recharging or replacing the battery is not a simple task speci...

  6. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Network

    CERN Document Server

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.3390/s110201383

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a sma...

  7. Analyzing Delay in Wireless Multi-hop Heterogeneous Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Javaid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increase in ageing population, health care market keeps growing. There is a need for monitoring of health issues. Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN consists of wireless sensors attached on or inside human body for monitoring vital health related problems e.g., Electro Cardiogram (ECG, Electro Encephalogram (EEG, Electrony Stagmography (ENG etc. Due to life threatening situations, timely sending of data is essential. For data to reach health care center, there must be a proper way of sending data through reliable connection and with minimum delay. In this study transmission delay of different paths, through which data is sent from sensor to health care center over heterogeneous multi-hop wireless channel is analyzed. Data of medical related diseases is sent through three different paths. In all three paths, data from sensors first reaches ZigBee, which is the common link in all three paths. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX, Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS are connected with ZigBee. Each network (WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS is setup according to environmental conditions, suitability of device and availability of structure for that device. Data from these networks is sent to IP-Cloud, which is further connected to health care center. Delay of data reaching each device is calculated and represented graphically. Main aim of this study is to calculate delay of each link in each path over multi-hop wireless channel.

  8. RACOON: a multiuser QoS design for mobile wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shihheng; Huang, Chingyao; Tu, Chun Chen

    2011-10-01

    In this study, Random Contention-based Resource Allocation (RACOON) medium access control (MAC) protocol is proposed to support the quality of service (QoS) for multi-user mobile wireless body area networks (WBANs). Different from existing QoS designs that focus on a single WBAN, a multiuser WBAN QoS should further consider both inter-WBAN interference and inter-WBAN priorities. Similar problems have been studied in both overlapped wireless local area networks (WLANs) and Bluetooth piconets that need QoS supports. However, these solutions are designed for non-medical transmissions that do not consider any priority scheme for medical applications. Most importantly, these studies focus on only static or low mobility networks. Network mobility of WBANs will introduce unnecessary inter-network collisions and energy waste, which are not considered by these solutions. The proposed multiuser-QoS protocol, RACOON, simultaneously satisfies the inter WBAN QoS requirements and overcomes the performance degradation caused by WBAN mobility. Simulation results verify that RACOON provides better latency and energy control, as compared with WBAN QoS protocols without considering the inter-WBAN requirements. PMID:21465185

  9. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Body area sensor networks (BANs utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system.

  10. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Reddy, Bhanu Pratap; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  11. Design of Secure ECG-Based Biometric Authentication in Body Area Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Steffen; Pratap Reddy, Bhanu; Momtaz, Farshad; Givargis, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Body area sensor networks (BANs) utilize wireless communicating sensor nodes attached to a human body for convenience, safety, and health applications. Physiological characteristics of the body, such as the heart rate or Electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, are promising means to simplify the setup process and to improve security of BANs. This paper describes the design and implementation steps required to realize an ECG-based authentication protocol to identify sensor nodes attached to the same human body. Therefore, the first part of the paper addresses the design of a body-area sensor system, including the hardware setup, analogue and digital signal processing, and required ECG feature detection techniques. A model-based design flow is applied, and strengths and limitations of each design step are discussed. Real-world measured data originating from the implemented sensor system are then used to set up and parametrize a novel physiological authentication protocol for BANs. The authentication protocol utilizes statistical properties of expected and detected deviations to limit the number of false positive and false negative authentication attempts. The result of the described holistic design effort is the first practical implementation of biometric authentication in BANs that reflects timing and data uncertainties in the physical and cyber parts of the system. PMID:27110785

  12. Narrowband interference mitigation in body surface to external communication in UWB body area networks using first-order Hermite pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Deepak Kumar; Das, Susmita

    2016-06-01

    Ultra wideband (UWB) is the most preferred candidate for body area networks (BAN). The higher data rate and lower multipath fading makes it highly suitable for the design of BAN. However, narrowband interference (NBI) may significantly degrade the performance of UWB. The paper presents an effective method of NBI mitigation for UWB BAN. The method uses modified Hermite pulse (MHP) in lieu of Gaussian and other pulse shapes. The spectral characteristics of the MHP make them immune to interference. The performance has been tested in various body postures in the CM4 channel model of the BAN, and further validated by transmitting medical signals like electrocardiography and MRI. The results show that MHP pulse is highly immune to NBI.

  13. ATLAS: a traffic load aware sensor MAC design for collaborative body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Bang, Young-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks (WBANs), each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor the health status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamic traffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation) data and high-rate traffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control (MAC) protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern during low-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand and efficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design a traffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploits the superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contention access period (CAP), contention free period (CFP) and inactive period (IP) of the superframe based on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic "wh" (whenever which is required) approach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation for network load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to prevent energy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated through extensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol. PMID:22247681

  14. Lightweight and confidential data discovery and dissemination for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Daojing; Chan, Sammy; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Haomiao

    2014-03-01

    As a special sensor network, a wireless body area network (WBAN) provides an economical solution to real-time monitoring and reporting of patients' physiological data. After a WBAN is deployed, it is sometimes necessary to disseminate data into the network through wireless links to adjust configuration parameters of body sensors or distribute management commands and queries to sensors. A number of such protocols have been proposed recently, but they all focus on how to ensure reliability and overlook security vulnerabilities. Taking into account the unique features and application requirements of a WBAN, this paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a secure, lightweight, confidential, and denial-of-service-resistant data discovery and dissemination protocol for WBANs to ensure the data items disseminated are not altered or tampered. Based on multiple one-way key hash chains, our protocol provides instantaneous authentication and can tolerate node compromise. Besides the theoretical analysis that demonstrates the security and performance of the proposed protocol, this paper also reports the experimental evaluation of our protocol in a network of resource-limited sensor nodes, which shows its efficiency in practice. In particular, extensive security analysis shows that our protocol is provably secure. PMID:24608049

  15. Game Theory Based Security in Wireless Body Area Network with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, M; Sivakumar, R

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is effectively used in healthcare to increase the value of the patient's life and also the value of healthcare services. The biosensor based approach in medical care system makes it difficult to respond to the patients with minimal response time. The medical care unit does not deploy the accessing of ubiquitous broadband connections full time and hence the level of security will not be high always. The security issue also arises in monitoring the user body function records. Most of the systems on the Wireless Body Area Network are not effective in facing the security deployment issues. To access the patient's information with higher security on WBAN, Game Theory with Stackelberg Security Equilibrium (GTSSE) is proposed in this paper. GTSSE mechanism takes all the players into account. The patients are monitored by placing the power position authority initially. The position authority in GTSSE is the organizer and all the other players react to the organizer decision. Based on our proposed approach, experiment has been conducted on factors such as security ratio based on patient's health information, system flexibility level, energy consumption rate, and information loss rate. Stackelberg Security considerably improves the strength of solution with higher security. PMID:26759829

  16. Visual Scheme Monitoring of Sensors for Fault Tolerance on Wireless Body Area Networks with Cloud Service Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Young-Sik Jeong; Hyun-Woo Kim; Jong Hyuk Park

    2014-01-01

    A wireless body area network (WBAN) refers to a topology of miniaturized embedded systems in and on a human body using wireless communication technology. Using the WBAN, human body data is collected to be used in various areas, including basic health information collection management, improvement of athletics capabilities, and systematic management of patients. To make use of the system in such areas efficiently, a fault or abnormal symptoms monitoring system for the sensors formed in the hum...

  17. Body area networks using IEEE 802156 implementing the ultra wide band physical layer

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, Marco; Mucchi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The market of wearable wireless medical sensors is experiencing a rapid growth and the associated telecommunications services for the healthcare sector are forecast to further increase in the next years. Medical body area networks (MBANs) allow the mobility of patients and medical personnel by facilitating the remote monitoring of patients suffering from chronic or risky diseases. Currently, MBANs are being introduced in unlicensed frequency bands, where the risk of mutual interference with other electronic devices radiating in the same band can be high. Thus, coexistence is an issue on which

  18. Wireless Body Area Network in a Ubiquitous Healthcare System for Physiological Signal Monitoring and Health Consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonyoung Jung

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a ubiquitous healthcare system consisted of aphysiological signal devices, a mobile system, a device provider system, a healthcare service provider system, a physician system, and a healthcare personal system. In this system, wireless body area network (WBAN such as ZigBee is used to communicate between physiological signal devices and the mobile system. WBAN device needs a specific function for ubiquitous healthcare application. We propose a scanning algorithm, dynamic discovery and installation, reliable data transmission, device access control, and a healthcare profile for ubiquitous healthcare system.

  19. A Distributed Multiagent System Architecture for Body Area Networks Applied to Healthcare Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Felisberto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years the area of health monitoring has grown significantly, attracting the attention of both academia and commercial sectors. At the same time, the availability of new biomedical sensors and suitable network protocols has led to the appearance of a new generation of wireless sensor networks, the so-called wireless body area networks. Nowadays, these networks are routinely used for continuous monitoring of vital parameters, movement, and the surrounding environment of people, but the large volume of data generated in different locations represents a major obstacle for the appropriate design, development, and deployment of more elaborated intelligent systems. In this context, we present an open and distributed architecture based on a multiagent system for recognizing human movements, identifying human postures, and detecting harmful activities. The proposed system evolved from a single node for fall detection to a multisensor hardware solution capable of identifying unhampered falls and analyzing the users’ movement. The experiments carried out contemplate two different scenarios and demonstrate the accuracy of our proposal as a real distributed movement monitoring and accident detection system. Moreover, we also characterize its performance, enabling future analyses and comparisons with similar approaches.

  20. Adaptive Real Time Data Mining Methodology for Wireless Body Area Network Based Healthcare Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Durgesh Patil

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the population is growing, the need for high quality and efficient healthcare, both at home and in hospital, is becoming more important. This paper presents the innovative wireless sensor network basedMobile Real-time Health care Monitoring (WMRHM framework which has the capacity of giving health predictions online based on continuously monitored real time vital body signals. Developments in sensors, miniaturization of low-power microelectronics, and wireless networks are becoming a significant opportunity for improving the quality of health care services. Physiological signals like ECG, EEG, SpO2, BP etc. can be monitor through wireless sensor networks and analyzed with the help of data mining techniques. These real-time signals are continuous in nature and abruptly changing hence there is a need to apply an efficient and concept adapting real-time data stream mining techniques for taking intelligent health care decisions online. Because of the high speed and huge volume data set in data streams, the traditional classification technologies are no longer applicable. The most important criteria are to solve the real-time data streams mining problem with ‘concept drift’ efficiently. This paper presents the state-of-the art in this field with growing vitality and introduces the methods for detecting concept drift in data stream, then gives a significant summary of existing approaches to the problem of concept drift. The work is focused on applying these real time stream mining algorithms on vital signals of human body in Wireless Body Area Network( WBAN based health care environment.

  1. An efficient anonymous authentication scheme for wireless body area networks using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-02-01

    With the development of wireless networks and medical sensors, wireless body area networks are playing more and more important role in the field of healthcare service. The data transmitted in WBANs is very sensitive since it will be used in clinical diagnoses or measurements. Therefore, security and privacy of communication in WBANs derive increasing attentions from the academia and industry. In this paper, we propose an identity (ID)-based efficient anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs using elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC). Due to the ID-based concept, there is no certificate is needed in the proposed scheme. Moreover, the proposed scheme not only provides mutual authentication between the client and the application provider but also provides client anonymity. Performance analysis shows that improvements of 50.58% and 3.87% in the client side and the application provider side separately. Then the proposed scheme is more suitable for WBANs. PMID:24481718

  2. Dynamic measurement of physical conditions in daily life by body area network sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, S.; Tanaka, T.; Takahashi, N.; Matsuda, Y.; Kariya, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper shows the measurement system to monitor physical conditions dynamically in dairy life. The measurement system for physical conditions in motion must be wearable and wireless connected. Body area network sensing system (BANSS) is a kind of the system to realize the conditions. BANSS is the system constructed with host system and plural sensing nodes. Sensing node is constructed with sensors, analogue/digital convertor(ADC), peripheral interface component(PIC), memory and near field communication device(NFCD). The NFCD in this system is Zigbee. Zigbee is the most suitable to construct wireless network system easily. BANSS is not only the system to measure physical parameters. BANSS informs current physical conditions and advises to keep suitable physical strength. As an application of BANSS, the system managing heart rate in walking is shown. By using this system, users can exercise in condition of a constant physical strength.

  3. Les Stratégies de Diffusion dans les Réseaux Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Badreddine, Wafa; Chaudet, Claude; Petruzzi, Federico; Potop-Butucaru, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Les progrés rapides des capteurs et de la communication sans fil à ultra-faible puissance ont permis a une nouvelle génération de réseaux de capteurs sans fil de voir le jour : Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). Nous commençons d'abord par l'analyse de plusieurs stratégies de diffusion inspirées des réseaux tolérants au délai (DTN : Delay Tolerant Networks). Les stratégies proposées sont ensuite évaluées via le simulateur OMNET++ auquel nous avons intégré un modèle de mobilité réaliste du co...

  4. Power allocation strategies to minimize energy consumption in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kailas, Aravind

    2011-01-01

    The wide scale deployment of wireless body area networks (WBANs) hinges on designing energy efficient communication protocols to support the reliable communication as well as to prolong the network lifetime. Cooperative communications, a relatively new idea in wireless communications, offers the benefits of multi-antenna systems, thereby improving the link reliability and boosting energy efficiency. In this short paper, the advantages of resorting to cooperative communications for WBANs in terms of minimized energy consumption are investigated. Adopting an energy model that encompasses energy consumptions in the transmitter and receiver circuits, and transmitting energy per bit, it is seen that cooperative transmission can improve energy efficiency of the wireless network. In particular, the problem of optimal power allocation is studied with the constraint of targeted outage probability. Two strategies of power allocation are considered: power allocation with and without posture state information. Using analysis and simulation-based results, two key points are demonstrated: (i) allocating power to the on-body sensors making use of the posture information can reduce the total energy consumption of the WBAN; and (ii) when the channel condition is good, it is better to recruit less relays for cooperation to enhance energy efficiency. PMID:22254777

  5. ATLAS: A Traffic Load Aware Sensor MAC Design for Collaborative Body Area Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Cheol Bang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In collaborative body sensor networks, namely wireless body area networks(WBANs, each of the physical sensor applications is used to collaboratively monitor thehealth status of the human body. The applications of WBANs comprise diverse and dynamictraffic loads such as very low-rate periodic monitoring (i.e., observation data and high-ratetraffic including event-triggered bursts. Therefore, in designing a medium access control(MAC protocol for WBANs, energy conservation should be the primary concern duringlow-traffic periods, whereas a balance between satisfying high-throughput demand andefficient energy usage is necessary during high-traffic times. In this paper, we design atraffic load-aware innovative MAC solution for WBANs, called ATLAS. The design exploitsthe superframe structure of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and it adaptively uses the contentionaccess period (CAP, contention free period (CFP and inactive period (IP of the superframebased on estimated traffic load, by applying a dynamic “wh” (whenever which is requiredapproach. Unlike earlier work, the proposed MAC design includes load estimation fornetwork load-status awareness and a multi-hop communication pattern in order to preventenergy loss associated with long range transmission. Finally, ATLAS is evaluated throughextensive simulations in ns-2 and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the protocol.

  6. Reliability Study of the Hitachi H34C Accelerometer in Wireless Body Area Networks for Fall Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Catteeuw, Wim; Hallez, Hans; Boydens, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    A WBAN (Wireless Body Area Network) allows connecting several sensor nodes into one sensor network. Each sensor node can be provided with a dedicated sensor. In case of fall detection, the physical movements of the body, which show characteristic patterns typical for a falling body, are used to generate a warning signal. Physical movements of the body can be measured by accelerometers. Today there is a lot of progress in the area of MEMS accelerometers. They are very small and hence can get i...

  7. Flexible quality of service model for wireless body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yangzhe; Leeson, Mark S; Higgins, Matthew D

    2016-03-01

    Wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs) are becoming an increasingly significant breakthrough technology for smart healthcare systems, enabling improved clinical decision-making in daily medical care. Recently, radio frequency ultra-wideband technology has developed substantially for physiological signal monitoring due to its advantages such as low-power consumption, high transmission data rate, and miniature antenna size. Applications of future ubiquitous healthcare systems offer the prospect of collecting human vital signs, early detection of abnormal medical conditions, real-time healthcare data transmission and remote telemedicine support. However, due to the technical constraints of sensor batteries, the supply of power is a major bottleneck for healthcare system design. Moreover, medium access control (MAC) needs to support reliable transmission links that allow sensors to transmit data safely and stably. In this Letter, the authors provide a flexible quality of service model for ad hoc networks that can support fast data transmission, adaptive schedule MAC control, and energy efficient ubiquitous WBASN networks. Results show that the proposed multi-hop communication ad hoc network model can balance information packet collisions and power consumption. Additionally, wireless communications link in WBASNs can effectively overcome multi-user interference and offer high transmission data rates for healthcare systems. PMID:27222727

  8. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given. PMID:21373804

  9. Link-state-estimation-based transmission power control in wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungku; Eom, Doo-Seop

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel transmission power control protocol to extend the lifetime of sensor nodes and to increase the link reliability in wireless body area networks (WBANs). We first experimentally investigate the properties of the link states using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI). We then propose a practical transmission power control protocol based on both short- and long-term link-state estimations. Both the short- and long-term link-state estimations enable the transceiver to adapt the transmission power level and target the RSSI threshold range, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the requirements of energy efficiency and link reliability. Finally, the performance of the proposed protocol is experimentally evaluated in two experimental scenarios-body posture change and dynamic body motion-and compared with the typical WBAN transmission power control protocols, a real-time reactive scheme, and a dynamic postural position inference mechanism. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed protocol increases the lifetime of the sensor nodes by a maximum of 9.86% and enhances the link reliability by reducing the packet loss by a maximum of 3.02%. PMID:24107988

  10. Wireless body area network node localization using small-scale spatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Geoffrey; Gonzalez-Valenzuela, Sergio; Leung, Victor C M

    2013-05-01

    We present a new scheme to automatically identify the locations of wearable sensor nodes in a wireless body area network (WBAN). Instantaneous atmospheric air pressure readings are compared to map nodes in physical space. This enhancement enables unassisted sensor node placement, providing a practical solution to obtain and continuously monitor node locations without anchor nodes or beacons. To validate this localization scheme, a statistical analysis is conducted on a set of air pressure sensors and a prototype WBAN to examine the performance and limitations. Based on a 60 cm separation between nodes, indicative of the expected separation between limbs and placement positions along a patient's body, the measurements consistently exceeded p -value reliability within a 95% confidence interval. We also present and experimentally demonstrate an enhancement aiming to reduce false-positive (Type I) errors in conventional accelerometer-based on-body fall detection schemes. Our statistical analysis has shown that by continuously monitoring the patient's limb positions, the WBAN would be better able to discriminate “fall-like” motions from actual falls. PMID:24592472

  11. A Wireless Body Area Network System for Monitoring Physical Activities and Health-Status via the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Jaff, Bestoon Hussain

    2009-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications, mobile computation, and sensor technologies have enabled the development of low-cost, miniature, lightweight,intelligent wireless sensor devices or “motes”. A collection of these devices can beplaced strategically on the key positions of the human body and connected by meansof a wireless network to form a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). WBAN has recently attracted a great deal of attention from researchers both inacademia as well as...

  12. An Evaluation Method of Research on Wearable Wireless Body Area Network in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwens Gervásio Sene Júnior

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WWBANs are an emergent technology enabling the gathering ofreal-time data, for instance, towards decision making by healthcare professionals in the case of remotemonitoring of vital signs of patients. Recent research, however, does not describe in a straightforward wayhow hardware, software and wireless communication platforms fit together in order to fully support aWWBAN-based healthcare application. In this paper we propose a maturity analysis method of research onWWBANs in healthcare. The goal is to analyze whether a paper contemplates features that a researchproject on WWBAN in healthcare should have to apply it in a real world scenario. As a result of ourmethod, features not addressed might indicate the lack of maturity of research papers, or even suggest openissues on that field

  13. A MAC Protocol for Medical Monitoring Applications of Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Minglei; Yuan, Dongfeng; Zhang, Chongqing; Wang, Yinglong; Chen, Changfang

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the medical monitoring applications of wireless body area networks (WBANs), a hybrid medium access control protocol using an interrupt mechanism (I-MAC) is proposed to improve the energy and time slot utilization efficiency and to meet the data delivery delay requirement at the same time. Unlike existing hybrid MAC protocols, a superframe structure with a longer length is adopted to avoid unnecessary beacons. The time slots are mostly allocated to nodes with periodic data sources. Short interruption slots are inserted into the superframe to convey the urgent data and to guarantee the real-time requirements of these data. During these interruption slots, the coordinator can break the running superframe and start a new superframe. A contention access period (CAP) is only activated when there are more data that need to be delivered. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed MAC protocol in WBANs with low urgent traffic. PMID:26046596

  14. Key Agreement Schemes in Wireless Body Area Networks: Taxonomy and State-of-the-Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aftab; Khan, Farrukh Aslam

    2015-10-01

    Advances in wearable and implantable biosensors have enabled the applicability and usability of wireless body area networks (WBANs). A WBAN allows biosensors to collect and communicate human physiological data using wireless communication. The communication security of the collected data in WBAN is a major concern. Because of the dependability of cryptographic schemes for key management, these have become an important aspect of this security. However, the extremely constrained nature of biosensors has made designing key management schemes a challenging task. For this reason, many lightweight key management schemes have been proposed to overcome these constraints. In this article, we present a review of the state of the art of these solutions. We classify the WBAN schemes into three classes and evaluate them based on adequate metrics for key management in WBAN. PMID:26280322

  15. Secure publish-subscribe protocols for heterogeneous medical wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Tapiador, Juan E; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Suarez-Tangil, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Security and privacy issues in medical wireless body area networks (WBANs) constitute a major unsolved concern because of the challenges posed by the scarcity of resources in WBAN devices and the usability restrictions imposed by the healthcare domain. In this paper, we describe a WBAN architecture based on the well-known publish-subscribe paradigm. We present two protocols for publishing data and sending commands to a sensor that guarantee confidentiality and fine-grained access control. Both protocols are based on a recently proposed ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE) scheme that is lightweight enough to be embedded into wearable sensors. We show how sensors can implement lattice-based access control (LBAC) policies using this scheme, which are highly appropriate for the eHealth domain. We report experimental results with a prototype implementation demonstrating the suitability of our proposed solution. PMID:25460814

  16. A TR-UWB Downconversion Autocorrelation Receiver for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam SMRiazul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power UWB receiver architecture is proposed for a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. This receiving technology is a synergy of existing downconversion-based narrowband rejection mechanism in RF front end and signal processing in frequency domain. Frequency components of converted and filtered UWB pulses are separated into real and imaginary parts, independently correlated and effectively combined to achieve an improved output Signal to noise ratio (SNR. An extensive mathematical analysis has been performed to formulate the close-form expressions for SNRs in order to compare system performances toward favorable BER under BPSK modulation scheme. Analysis shows that optimal rotation of coordination plays an important role for the enhancement of receiving SNR which is further confirmed by computer simulation. A wide range of link level simulation (LLS urges that the proposed system is more power efficient in higher-order modulation (HOM schemes. Transmitted Reference (TR scheme has been considered as the basis for wideband communication.

  17. Performance evaluation of a Wireless Body Area sensor network for remote patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jamil Y; Yuce, Mehmet R; Karami, Farbood

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, interests in the application of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) have grown considerably. A WBAN can be used to develop a patient monitoring system which offers flexibility and mobility to patients. Use of a WBAN will also allow the flexibility of setting up a remote monitoring system via either the internet or an intranet. For such medical systems it is very important that a WBAN can collect and transmit data reliably, and in a timely manner to the monitoring entity. In this paper we examine the performance of an IEEE802.15.4/Zigbee MAC based WBAN operating in different patient monitoring environment. We study the performance of a remote patient monitoring system using an OPNET based simulation model. PMID:19162897

  18. Secure Publish-Subscribe Protocols for Heterogeneous Medical Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Picazo-Sanchez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Security and privacy issues in medical wireless body area networks (WBANs constitute a major unsolved concern because of the challenges posed by the scarcity of resources in WBAN devices and the usability restrictions imposed by the healthcare domain. In this paper, we describe a WBAN architecture based on the well-known publish-subscribe paradigm. We present two protocols for publishing data and sending commands to a sensor that guarantee confidentiality and fine-grained access control. Both protocols are based on a recently proposed ciphertext policy attribute-based encryption (CP-ABE scheme that is lightweight enough to be embedded into wearable sensors. We show how sensors can implement lattice-based access control (LBAC policies using this scheme, which are highly appropriate for the eHealth domain. We report experimental results with a prototype implementation demonstrating the suitability of our proposed solution.

  19. Wireless Technology and System Integration in Body Area Networks for m-Health Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil

    2005-01-01

    m-Health integrates mobile computing, medical sensor, and communications technologies for mobile health-care applications. Wireless body area networks (WBANs) of intelligent sensors represent an emerging technology for system integration with great potentials for unobtrusive ambulatory health monitoring during extended periods of time. However, system designers will have to resolve a number of issues, such as severe limitations of sensor weight and size necessary to improve user's compliance, sensor resource constraints, intermittent availability of uplink connectivity, reliability of transmission, security, and interoperability of different platforms. We present current and emerging wireless technologies and developments in pervasive and mobile technologies that are vital for implementation of WBAN-based monitors and m-Health system integration. We emphasize the problem of reliable system operation with extremely low power consumption and discontinuous connectivity, which are typical for ambulatory monitoring. PMID:17281927

  20. Cluster Based Failure Detection and Recovery Technique for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.T. Meena Abarna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs, the extremely sensitive data transmission mainly requires fault tolerance and consistent data transmission. In this study, we propose a Cluster Based Failure Detection and Recovery Technique for WBAN which presents a hierarchical architecture. Here, local nodes are connected to their Cluster Heads (CHs. Each CH is interconnected and also connected with a Wireless Local Gateway (WLG. Finally, WLG is connected to Hospital Gateway (HG. Each local sensor collects the fault related information and each node is assigned with priority to measure the fault tolerant level of individual nodes. Nodes with high priority are processed first. Further, node and CH level faulty node detection and recovery schemes are also proposed. Our technique provides both reliability and fault tolerance. The efficiency of our technique is proved through simulation results.

  1. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead.

  2. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  3. Quality of Service Regulation in Secure Body Area Networks: System Modeling and Adaptation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui FrancisMinhthang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Body area network (BAN has recently emerged as a promising platform for future research and development. The applications are myriad and encompass a wide range of scenarios, including those in not only medicine but also in everyday activities. However, while the applicability and necessity of BAN have been firmly assured, the underlying technological platforms to practically realize these networks are still in the developmental stages, with many outstanding key problems to be addressed. Due to their envisioned domains of applicability, an important problem in BANs is security and user privacy. Providing security in a practical BAN configuration is challenging due to various conflicting resource constraints. In this paper, the focus is to study signal processing methods for delivering secure communications in BANs, particularly when using biometrics. An optimization framework is presented to aggregate various methods, enabling overall quality of service (QoS regulation in an integrated and flexible manner. In particular, this resource allocation approach is shown to be effective in managing security solutions for BANs.

  4. R2NA: Received Signal Strength (RSS Ratio-Based Node Authentication for Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The body area network (BAN is an emerging branch of wireless sensor networks for personalized applications. The services in BAN usually have a high requirement on security, especially for the medical diagnosis. One of the fundamental directions to ensure security in BAN is how to provide node authentication. Traditional research using cryptography relies on prior secrets shared among nodes, which leads to high resource cost. In addition, most existing non-cryptographic solutions exploit out-of-band (OOB channels, but they need the help of additional hardware support or significant modifications to the system software. To avoid the above problems, this paper presents a proximity-based node authentication scheme, which only uses wireless modules equipped on sensors. With only one sensor and one control unit (CU in BAN, we could detect a unique physical layer characteristic, namely, the difference between the received signal strength (RSS measured on different devices in BAN. Through the above-mentioned particular difference, we can tell whether the sender is close enough to be legitimate. We validate our scheme through both theoretical analysis and experiments, which are conducted on the real Shimmer nodes. The results demonstrate that our proposed scheme has a good security performance.

  5. New Authentication Scheme for Wireless Body Area Networks Using the Bilinear Pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunzhi; Zhang, Yanmei

    2015-11-01

    Due to the development of information technologies and network technologies, healthcare systems have been employed in many countries. As an important part of healthcare systems, the wireless body area network (WBAN) could bring convenience to both patients and physicians because it could help physicians to monitor patients' physiological values remotely. It is essential to ensure secure communication in WBANs because patients' physiological values are very sensitive. Recently, Liu et al. proposed an efficient authentication scheme for WBANs. Unfortunately, Zhao pointed out that their scheme suffered from the stolen verifier-table attack. To improve security and efficiency, Zhao proposed an anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs. However, Zhao's scheme cannot provide real anonymity because the users' pseudo identities are constant value and the attack could tract the users. In this paper, we propose a new anonymous authentication scheme for WBANs. Security analysis shows that the proposed scheme could overcome weaknesses in previous scheme. We also use the BAN logic to demonstrate the security of the proposed scheme. PMID:26324170

  6. 1-RAAP: An Efficient 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingwei; Zhang, Lihuan; Sun, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to the rapid technological convergence of wireless communications, medical sensors and cloud computing, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a novel networking paradigm enabling ubiquitous Internet services, allowing people to receive medical care, monitor health status in real-time, analyze sports data and even enjoy online entertainment remotely. However, because of the mobility and openness of wireless communications, WBANs are inevitably exposed to a large set of potential attacks, significantly undermining their utility and impeding their widespread deployment. To prevent attackers from threatening legitimate WBAN users or abusing WBAN services, an efficient and secure authentication protocol termed 1-Round Anonymous Authentication Protocol (1-RAAP) is proposed in this paper. In particular, 1-RAAP preserves anonymity, mutual authentication, non-repudiation and some other desirable security properties, while only requiring users to perform several low cost computational operations. More importantly, 1-RAAP is provably secure thanks to its design basis, which is resistant to the anonymous in the random oracle model. To validate the computational efficiency of 1-RAAP, a set of comprehensive comparative studies between 1-RAAP and other authentication protocols is conducted, and the results clearly show that 1-RAAP achieves the best performance in terms of computational overhead. PMID:27213384

  7. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  8. A Secure Cloud-Assisted Wireless Body Area Network in Mobile Emergency Medical Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Weng, Chi-Yao

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in medical treatment and emergency applications, the need of integrating wireless body area network (WBAN) with cloud computing can be motivated by providing useful and real time information about patients' health state to the doctors and emergency staffs. WBAN is a set of body sensors carried by the patient to collect and transmit numerous health items to medical clouds via wireless and public communication channels. Therefore, a cloud-assisted WBAN facilitates response in case of emergency which can save patients' lives. Since the patient's data is sensitive and private, it is important to provide strong security and protection on the patient's medical data over public and insecure communication channels. In this paper, we address the challenge of participant authentication in mobile emergency medical care systems for patients supervision and propose a secure cloud-assisted architecture for accessing and monitoring health items collected by WBAN. For ensuring a high level of security and providing a mutual authentication property, chaotic maps based authentication and key agreement mechanisms are designed according to the concept of Diffie-Hellman key exchange, which depends on the CMBDLP and CMBDHP problems. Security and performance analyses show how the proposed system guaranteed the patient privacy and the system confidentiality of sensitive medical data while preserving the low computation property in medical treatment and remote medical monitoring. PMID:27000778

  9. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabin Bhandari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In wireless body area networks (WBANs, various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio.

  10. Variable Scheduling to Mitigate Channel Losses in Energy-Efficient Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavy Libman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider a typical body area network (BAN setting in which sensor nodes send data to a common hub regularly on a TDMA basis, as defined by the emerging IEEE 802.15.6 BAN standard. To reduce transmission losses caused by the highly dynamic nature of the wireless channel around the human body, we explore variable TDMA scheduling techniques that allow the order of transmissions within each TDMA round to be decided on the fly, rather than being fixed in advance. Using a simple Markov model of the wireless links, we devise a number of scheduling algorithms that can be performed by the hub, which aim to maximize the expected number of successful transmissions in a TDMA round, and thereby significantly reduce transmission losses as compared with a static TDMA schedule. Importantly, these algorithms do not require a priori knowledge of the statistical properties of the wireless channels, and the reliability improvement is achieved entirely via shuffling the order of transmissions among devices, and does not involve any additional energy consumption (e.g., retransmissions. We evaluate these algorithms directly on an experimental set of traces obtained from devices strapped to human subjects performing regular daily activities, and confirm that the benefits of the proposed variable scheduling algorithms extend to this practical setup as well.

  11. A Study of IEEE 802.15.4 Security Framework for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC, Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP and Contention Free Period (CFP parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period. As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN.

  12. A study of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Shahnaz; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a collection of low-power and lightweight wireless sensor nodes that are used to monitor the human body functions and the surrounding environment. It supports a number of innovative and interesting applications, including ubiquitous healthcare and Consumer Electronics (CE) applications. Since WBAN nodes are used to collect sensitive (life-critical) information and may operate in hostile environments, they require strict security mechanisms to prevent malicious interaction with the system. In this paper, we first highlight major security requirements and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks in WBAN at Physical, Medium Access Control (MAC), Network, and Transport layers. Then we discuss the IEEE 802.15.4 security framework and identify the security vulnerabilities and major attacks in the context of WBAN. Different types of attacks on the Contention Access Period (CAP) and Contention Free Period (CFP) parts of the superframe are analyzed and discussed. It is observed that a smart attacker can successfully corrupt an increasing number of GTS slots in the CFP period and can considerably affect the Quality of Service (QoS) in WBAN (since most of the data is carried in CFP period). As we increase the number of smart attackers the corrupted GTS slots are eventually increased, which prevents the legitimate nodes to utilize the bandwidth efficiently. This means that the direct adaptation of IEEE 802.15.4 security framework for WBAN is not totally secure for certain WBAN applications. New solutions are required to integrate high level security in WBAN. PMID:22319358

  13. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Sidrah; Javaid, Nadeem; Qasim, Umar; Alrajeh, Nabil; Khan, Zahoor Ali; Ahmed, Mansoor

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption. PMID:26927104

  14. Towards Reliable and Energy-Efficient Incremental Cooperative Communication for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrah Yousaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE and the packet error rate (PER are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.

  15. An Overview of Research Issues in the Modern Healthcare Monitoring System Design using Wireless Body area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Healthcare is recognized various leading edge technologies and new scientific discoveries to enable better cures for diseases and better means to enable early detection of most life threatening diseases. The modern health care focused for optimally reducing the healthcare costs. Approach: The modern healthcare system enables medical professionals to remotely perform real-time monitoring, early diagnosis and treatment for potential risky disease. A mobile patient monitoring system, which integrates current Personal Digital Assistant (PDA technology and Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN technology are proposed in the recent year. In addition to this, the medical diagnosis and patient consultations can be delivered via wire/wireless communication networks. Results: This study reviews on the recent research in the field of wireless body area networks and modern health-care systems. Conclusion: This study analyses the design, architecture and implementation of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN based health care system.

  16. ASE-BAN, a Wireless Body Area Network Testbed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Karstoft, Henrik; Hansen, Finn Overgaard;

    2010-01-01

    /actuators attached to the body and a host server application. The gateway uses the BlackFin BF533 processor from Analog Devices, and uses Bluetooth for wireless communication. Two types of sensors are attached to the network: an electro-cardio-gram sensor and an oximeter sensor. The testbed has been successfully...

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Python Telecare System Based on a Bluetooth Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morón MJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype of a telemonitoring system, based on a BAN (Body Area Network that is integrated by a Bluetooth (BT pulse oximeter, a GPS (Global Positioning System unit, and a smartphone. The smartphone is the hardware platform for running a Python software that manages the Bluetooth piconet formed by the sensors. Thus the smartphone forwards the data received from the Bluetooth devices, encoded into JSON (JavaScript Object Notation, to a central server. This server provides universal access to the information of the patient's location and health status through a web application based on AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML technology. Additionally, for the described prototype, the study presents some performance analyses about several topics that are of great interest for the applicability of the prototype: (i the technique used to forward the patient's location and health status, (ii the power consumption of the smartphone (which is compared with the measurements of an equivalent software developed for Java Micro Edition platform, and (iii the web browser compatibility of the web application developed for the control and monitoring of the patients.

  18. Design of an Energy Efficient and Delay Tolerant Routing Protocol for Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms.Venkateswari.R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Body Area Network provide continuous health monitoring and real-time feedback to the medical personnel. The devices used for WBAN have limited energy resources. For most devices it is impossible to recharge or change the batteries. Low power is needed to provide long lifetime to the devices. All devices are equally important and devices are only added when they are needed for an application. The data mostly consists of medical information. Hence, high reliability and low delay is required. Cluster topology and Dynamic Source Routing Protocol provides high packet delivery ratio, low delay and low energy consumption. In this paper, a modification in the DSR routing protocol has been proposed. The modified DSR named as EDSR (Efficient Dynamic Source Routing, reduces the delay by reducing the average end to end delay for the node and reduces the number of packets dropped thereby increasing packet delivery ratio. Energy consumption in EDSR is decreased by 16.73% when compared to DSR. This protocol reduces the energy consumption and delay by reducing the time needed for route discovery process. EDSR achieves high residual battery capacity which eliminates the need for recharging the batteries thereby ensuring long lifetime of the devices.

  19. A Study of Medium Access Control Protocols for Wireless Body Area Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.3390/s100100128

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements.

  20. A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Chris

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent technological advances in integrated circuits, wireless communications, and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices. A number of these devices can be integrated into a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN, a new enabling technology for health monitoring. Methods Using off-the-shelf wireless sensors we designed a prototype WBAN which features a standard ZigBee compliant radio and a common set of physiological, kinetic, and environmental sensors. Results We introduce a multi-tier telemedicine system and describe how we optimized our prototype WBAN implementation for computer-assisted physical rehabilitation applications and ambulatory monitoring. The system performs real-time analysis of sensors' data, provides guidance and feedback to the user, and can generate warnings based on the user's state, level of activity, and environmental conditions. In addition, all recorded information can be transferred to medical servers via the Internet and seamlessly integrated into the user's electronic medical record and research databases. Conclusion WBANs promise inexpensive, unobtrusive, and unsupervised ambulatory monitoring during normal daily activities for prolonged periods of time. To make this technology ubiquitous and affordable, a number of challenging issues should be resolved, such as system design, configuration and customization, seamless integration, standardization, further utilization of common off-the-shelf components, security and privacy, and social issues.

  1. A wireless body area network of intelligent motion sensors for computer assisted physical rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil; Milenkovic, Aleksandar; Otto, Chris; de Groen, Piet C

    2005-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent technological advances in integrated circuits, wireless communications, and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices. A number of these devices can be integrated into a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), a new enabling technology for health monitoring. METHODS: Using off-the-shelf wireless sensors we designed a prototype WBAN which features a standard ZigBee compliant radio and a common set of physiological, kinetic, and environmental sensors. RESULTS: We introduce a multi-tier telemedicine system and describe how we optimized our prototype WBAN implementation for computer-assisted physical rehabilitation applications and ambulatory monitoring. The system performs real-time analysis of sensors' data, provides guidance and feedback to the user, and can generate warnings based on the user's state, level of activity, and environmental conditions. In addition, all recorded information can be transferred to medical servers via the Internet and seamlessly integrated into the user's electronic medical record and research databases. CONCLUSION: WBANs promise inexpensive, unobtrusive, and unsupervised ambulatory monitoring during normal daily activities for prolonged periods of time. To make this technology ubiquitous and affordable, a number of challenging issues should be resolved, such as system design, configuration and customization, seamless integration, standardization, further utilization of common off-the-shelf components, security and privacy, and social issues. PMID:15740621

  2. Securing While Sampling in Wireless Body Area Networks With Application to Electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautov, Ruslan; Tsouri, Gill R

    2016-01-01

    Stringent resource constraints and broadcast transmission in wireless body area network raise serious security concerns when employed in biomedical applications. Protecting data transmission where any minor alteration is potentially harmful is of significant importance in healthcare. Traditional security methods based on public or private key infrastructure require considerable memory and computational resources, and present an implementation obstacle in compact sensor nodes. This paper proposes a lightweight encryption framework augmenting compressed sensing with wireless physical layer security. Augmenting compressed sensing to secure information is based on the use of the measurement matrix as an encryption key, and allows for incorporating security in addition to compression at the time of sampling an analog signal. The proposed approach eliminates the need for a separate encryption algorithm, as well as the predeployment of a key thereby conserving sensor node's limited resources. The proposed framework is evaluated using analysis, simulation, and experimentation applied to a wireless electrocardiogram setup consisting of a sensor node, an access point, and an eavesdropper performing a proximity attack. Results show that legitimate communication is reliable and secure given that the eavesdropper is located at a reasonable distance from the sensor node and the access point. PMID:25373134

  3. A Novel Method of Inconsistent Collision Detection to Prevent Cloning Attacks in High-Security Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Govindharajan Uma Gowri; Rajagopal Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Remote monitoring of physiological data of patient is emerging as technology called Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). As WBAN devices are operated in hostile environments, providing security and privacy to patients are challenging tasks. Due to simple, low cost and resource constrained nature of the sensors of WBAN, adversary can easily compromise one or more nodes and make clones of compromised nodes to launch different insider attacks in the network. In this paper, we propose a clone dete...

  4. A broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aftab; Khan, Farrukh Aslam

    2014-05-01

    Information and communication technologies have thrived over the last few years. Healthcare systems have also benefited from this progression. A wireless body area network (WBAN) consists of small, low-power sensors used to monitor human physiological values remotely, which enables physicians to remotely monitor the health of patients. Communication security in WBANs is essential because it involves human physiological data. Key agreement and authentication are the primary issues in the security of WBANs. To agree upon a common key, the nodes exchange information with each other using wireless communication. This information exchange process must be secure enough or the information exchange should be minimized to a certain level so that if information leak occurs, it does not affect the overall system. Most of the existing solutions for this problem exchange too much information for the sake of key agreement; getting this information is sufficient for an attacker to reproduce the key. Set reconciliation is a technique used to reconcile two similar sets held by two different hosts with minimal communication complexity. This paper presents a broadcast-based key agreement scheme using set reconciliation for secure communication in WBANs. The proposed scheme allows the neighboring nodes to agree upon a common key with the personal server (PS), generated from the electrocardiogram (EKG) feature set of the host body. Minimal information is exchanged in a broadcast manner, and even if every node is missing a different subset, by reconciling these feature sets, the whole network will still agree upon a single common key. Because of the limited information exchange, if an attacker gets the information in any way, he/she will not be able to reproduce the key. The proposed scheme mitigates replay, selective forwarding, and denial of service attacks using a challenge-response authentication mechanism. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has a great deal of

  5. [Exploration of the design of media access control layer of wireless body area network for medical healthcare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuemei; Ge, Baofeng

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a media access control (MAC) layer design for wireless body area network (WBAN) systems. WBAN is a technology that targets for wireless networking of wearable and implantable body sensors which monitor vital body signs, such as heart-rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. It has been receiving attentions from international organizations, e. g. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), due to its capability of providing efficient healthcare services and clinical management. This paper reviews the standardization procedure of WBAN and summarizes the challenge of the MAC layer design. It also discusses the methods of improving power consumption performance, which is one of the major issues of WBAN systems. PMID:22616194

  6. Qualitative Analysis of RSSI Behavior in Cooperative Wireless Body Area Networks for Mobility Detection and Navigation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, B; Amiot, Nicolas; Uguen, Bernard; Guizar, A; Goursaud, Claire; Goursaud, C; Ouni, A; Chaudet, C

    2014-01-01

    —In this paper, we account for radio-location exper-iments aiming at both indoor navigation and mobility detection applications for Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). This measurement campaign involved IEEE 802.15.4-compliant inte-grated radio devices organized within a full mesh topology over on-body and off-body links. The latter devices produce peer-to-peer Received Signal Strength Indicators (RSSI) that could feed ranging, positioning or tracking algorithms. An in-depth behavioral analys...

  7. A very low power MAC (VLPM) protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient's movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient's status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node's ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms

  8. A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B

  9. Analysis of a multi-access scheme and asynchronous transmit-only UWB for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keong, Ho Chee; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2009-01-01

    Ultra Wideband (UWB) has many favorable factors for use in a wireless body area network application. The major drawback is the high power consumption of an UWB receiver. One solution to address this problem is to use a transmit-only UWB sensor node. In this paper, we propose a multi-access scheme that is suitable for asynchronous transmit-only UWB wireless body area networks (UWB-WBAN). Each sensor attached on the patient under monitoring is assigned a unique number of UWB pulses per data bit. The number of UWB pulses assigned to the sensors is optimized to improve the bit error rate and system reliability. Simulation shows that through careful selection of the number of pulses for the sensors, it is possible to maintain almost similar bit error probability, regardless of the distance from the receiver. PMID:19964453

  10. THE-FAME: THreshold based Energy-efficient FAtigue MEasurment for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks using Multiple Sinks

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, S.; Javaid, N.; Tauqir, A.; Rao, A; Mohammad, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is a technology employed mainly for patient health monitoring. New research is being done to take the technology to the next level i.e. player's fatigue monitoring in sports. Muscle fatigue is the main cause of player's performance degradation. This type of fatigue can be measured by sensing the accumulation of lactic acid in muscles. Excess of lactic acid makes muscles feel lethargic. Keeping this in mind we propose a protocol \\underline{TH}reshold b...

  11. A Review of Protocol Implementations and Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Tao Chen; Xinheng Wang; Laurie Hughes

    2012-01-01

    The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote managem...

  12. A Measurements Based Comparison of New and Classical Models Used to Characterize Fading in Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Simon L.; Yoo, Seong Ki; Scanlon, William G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compare a number of the classical models used to characterize fading in body area networks (BANs) with the recently proposed shadowed ț–ȝ fading model. In particular, we focus on BAN channels which are considered to be susceptible to shadowing by the human body. The measurements considered in this study were conducted at 2.45 GHz for hypothetical BAN channels operating in both anechoic and highly reverberant environments while the person was moving. Compared to the Rice, Naka...

  13. Study and Analysis of Scientific Scopes, Issues and Challenges towards Developing a Righteous Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Murtaza Rashid Al Masud,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The escalating applies of wireless networks and the constant tininess of electrical devices have empowered the development of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. In this network various sensors are attached on clothing or on the body or even implanted under the skin. This network enables medical doctor to distantly monitor essential signs and organs of patients and provide real time opinions for medical diagnosis. The numerous new, realistic and ground-breaking applications of WBAN facilitate to advance health care and the quality of life. By means of a WBAN, the patient experiences a superior and greater physical mobility and is no longer constrained to reside in the hospital. The amalgamation of low-power, miniaturized, lightweight sensors nodes lead to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN. A WBAN presents a long term health monitoring of a patient devoid of any restriction on his/her normal daily life activities. It is the easiest and fastest way to monitor patient’s health status effectively. Although WBAN is the efficient way to diagnose patients existing condition but the challenges related to developing an effective WBAN is not studied and analyzed significantly. The effectiveness of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used. In this paper, we discuss about the basic idea and key components of WBAN, basic difference between wireless sensor networks (WSN and WBAN, technical challenges, and its importance, quality of service (QoS and security, analysis of MAC features, various applications, different sensors; physiological signals, their frequency; different data rate, latency of WBANs, issues related to energy or power efficiency, and existing WBAN technologies.Finally, the open research issues and challenges are also pointed out.

  14. Prototype for Integrating Internet of Things and Emergency Service in an IP Multimedia Subsystem for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KaiDi Chang; JiannLiang Chen; HanChieh Chao

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) has become an emerging business. The most important concept of next-generation network for providing a common global IT platform is combining seamless networks and networked things, objects or sensors. Also, wireless body area networks (WBANs) are becoming mature with the widespread usage of the IoT. In order to support WBAN, the platform, scenario and emergency service are necessary due to the sensors in WBAN being related to wearer's life. The sensors on the body detect a lot of information about bioinformatics and medical signals, such as heartbeat and blood. Thus, the integration of IoT and network communication in daily life is important. However, there is not only a lack of common fabric for integrating IoT with current Internet and but also no emergency call process in the current network communication envi-ronment. To overcome such situations, the prototype of integrating IoT and emergency call process is discussed. A simulated boot-strap platform to provide the discussion of open challenges and solutions for deploying IoT in Internet and the emergency commu-nication system are analyzed by using a service of 3GPP IP multimedia subsystem. Finally, the prototype for supporting WBAN with emergence service is also addressed and the performance results are useful to service providers and network operators that they can estimate their migration to IoT by referring to this experience and experiment results. Furthermore, the queuing model used to achieve the performance of emergency service in IMS and the delay time of the proposed model is analyzed.

  15. An Adaptive Sampling System for Sensor Nodes in Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, R; Taylor, J

    2014-04-23

    The importance of body sensor networks to monitor patients over a prolonged period of time has increased with an advance in home healthcare applications. Sensor nodes need to operate with very low-power consumption and under the constraint of limited memory capacity. Therefore, it is wasteful to digitize the sensor signal at a constant sample rate, given that the frequency contents of the signals vary with time. Adaptive sampling is established as a practical method to reduce the sample data volume. In this paper a low-power analog system is proposed, which adjusts the converter clock rate to perform a peak-picking algorithm on the second derivative of the input signal. The presented implementation does not require an analog-to-digital converter or a digital processor in the sample selection process. The criteria for selecting a suitable detection threshold are discussed, so that the maximum sampling error can be limited. A circuit level implementation is presented. Measured results exhibit a significant reduction in the average sample frequency and data rate of over 50% and 38% respectively. PMID:24760918

  16. HealthFace: A web-based remote monitoring interface for medical healthcare systems based on a wireless body area sensor network

    OpenAIRE

    KIRBAŞ, İsmail; BAYILMIŞ, Cüneyt

    2012-01-01

    The wireless body area sensor network (WBASN) is a type of wireless sensor network. The wireless sensor nodes in a WBASN are placed on, near, or within a human body. In a medical healthcare system, WBASNs continuously provide healthcare monitoring, especially of elderly or ill people, wherever the patient goes. Wireless nodes sense and process human vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, and respiration. They then send collected data to a medical center v...

  17. A Novel Method of Inconsistent Collision Detection to Prevent Cloning Attacks in High-Security Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindharajan Uma Gowri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of physiological data of patient is emerging as technology called Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN. As WBAN devices are operated in hostile environments, providing security and privacy to patients are challenging tasks. Due to simple, low cost and resource constrained nature of the sensors of WBAN, adversary can easily compromise one or more nodes and make clones of compromised nodes to launch different insider attacks in the network. In this paper, we propose a clone detection and prevention strategy for WBAN by leveraging inconsistent collisions so that legitimate nodes of WBAN are alone allowed to participate in communication, while preventing the cloned nodes. Through simulation, we show that the proposed algorithm can detect cloning attack fairly fast and with required accuracy under various conditions.

  18. Performance evaluation of wearable wireless body area networks during walking motions in 444.5 MHz and 2450 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Kenichi; Watanabe, Katsuhiro; Kumazawa, Masaki; Hamada, Yusuke; Ikegami, Tetsushi; Hamaguchi, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives performance evaluation of wearable wireless body area networks (WBANs) during walking motion. In order to evaluate the performance, received signal strength (RSS), packet error rate (PER), and bit error rate (BER) are measured in an anechoic chamber and an office room. This measurement is conducted in the frequency band of 444.5 and 2450 MHz by using GFSK signal with symbol rate of 1 MHz. The results show that in the anechoic chamber the WBAN using the 444.5 MHz enables to provide error-free communication, on the other hand, the WBAN operated in the 2450 MHz faces packet errors. Measurement results in the office room give comparable performance between these frequencies. From these observations, the use of 2450 MHz for wearable WBANs needs reflection waves in order to compensate a shadowing effect caused by the human body using the WBAN. PMID:21097187

  19. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  20. A Review of Protocol Implementations and Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring.

  1. A review of protocol implementations and energy efficient cross-layer design for wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Laurie; Wang, Xinheng; Chen, Tao

    2012-01-01

    The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring. PMID:23202185

  2. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  3. Musculoskeletal disorders in construction: A review and a novel system for activity tracking with body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Sivanathan, Aparajithan; Bosché, Frédéric; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    Human body motions have been analysed for decades with a view on enhancing occupational well-being and performance of workers. On-going progresses in miniaturised wearable sensors are set to revolutionise biomechanical analysis by providing accurate and real-time quantitative motion data. The construction industry has a poor record of occupational health, in particular with regard to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). In this article, we therefore focus on the study of human body motions that could cause WMSDs in construction-related activities. We first present an in-depth review of existing assessment frameworks used in practice for the evaluation of human body motion. Subsequently different methods for measuring working postures and motions are reviewed and compared, pointing out the technological developments, limitations and gaps; Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are particularly investigated. Finally, we introduce a new system to detect and characterise unsafe postures of construction workers based on the measurement of motion data from wearable wireless IMUs integrated in a body area network. The potential of this system is demonstrated through experiments conducts in a laboratory as well as in a college with actual construction trade trainees. PMID:26851471

  4. Energy-Delay Tradeoff and Dynamic Sleep Switching for Bluetooth-Like Body-Area Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rebeiz, Eric; Molisch, Andreas F

    2012-01-01

    Wireless technology enables novel approaches to healthcare, in particular the remote monitoring of vital signs and other parameters indicative of people's health. This paper considers a system scenario relevant to such applications, where a smart-phone acts as a data-collecting hub, gathering data from a number of wireless-capable body sensors, and relaying them to a healthcare provider host through standard existing cellular networks. Delay of critical data and sensors' energy efficiency are both relevant and conflicting issues. Therefore, it is important to operate the wireless body-area sensor network at some desired point close to the optimal energy-delay tradeoff curve. This tradeoff curve is a function of the employed physical-layer protocol: in particular, it depends on the multiple-access scheme and on the coding and modulation schemes available. In this work, we consider a protocol closely inspired by the widely-used Bluetooth standard. First, we consider the calculation of the minimum energy functio...

  5. Ultralow Power Energy Harvesting Body Area Network Design: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chenyu Zheng; Kuhn, William B.; Balasubramaniam Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an energy harvesting wireless sensor network (EHWSN) architecture designed for use within an astronaut’s space suit. The contribution of this work spans both physical (PHY) layer energy harvesting transceiver design and low power medium access control (MAC) solutions. The architecture consists of a star topology with two types of transceiver nodes: a powered gateway radio (GR) node and multiple energy harvesting biosensor radio (BSR) nodes. To demonstrate the feasibility o...

  6. Protecting E-healthcare Data Privacy for Internet of Things Based Wireless Body Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Anass Rghioui; Aziza L’aarje; Fatiha Elouaai; Mohammed Bouhorma

    2015-01-01

    This study aim to give an analysis of the threats to privacy in wireless sensors in the context of the Internet of things and we review the pros and cons of some of the proposed solutions in order to ensure privacy. We propose a solution for the management of security keys based on symmetric encryption, taking into account two important factors, the sensors resources constraints and their mobility being linked to the patient body that may move occasionally. Tests gave significant results conf...

  7. A Survey on Wireless Body Area Networks for eHealthcare Systems in Residential Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Mohammad; Janko, Balazs; Sherratt, R. Simon; Harwin, William; Piechockic, Robert; Soltanpur, Cinna

    2016-01-01

    Current progress in wearable and implanted health monitoring technologies has strong potential to alter the future of healthcare services by enabling ubiquitous monitoring of patients. A typical health monitoring system consists of a network of wearable or implanted sensors that constantly monitor physiological parameters. Collected data are relayed using existing wireless communication protocols to a base station for additional processing. This article provides researchers with information to compare the existing low-power communication technologies that can potentially support the rapid development and deployment of WBAN systems, and mainly focuses on remote monitoring of elderly or chronically ill patients in residential environments. PMID:27338377

  8. A Survey on Wireless Body Area Networks for eHealthcare Systems in Residential Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamari, Mohammad; Janko, Balazs; Sherratt, R Simon; Harwin, William; Piechockic, Robert; Soltanpur, Cinna

    2016-01-01

    Current progress in wearable and implanted health monitoring technologies has strong potential to alter the future of healthcare services by enabling ubiquitous monitoring of patients. A typical health monitoring system consists of a network of wearable or implanted sensors that constantly monitor physiological parameters. Collected data are relayed using existing wireless communication protocols to a base station for additional processing. This article provides researchers with information to compare the existing low-power communication technologies that can potentially support the rapid development and deployment of WBAN systems, and mainly focuses on remote monitoring of elderly or chronically ill patients in residential environments. PMID:27338377

  9. Protecting E-healthcare Data Privacy for Internet of Things Based Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass Rghioui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aim to give an analysis of the threats to privacy in wireless sensors in the context of the Internet of things and we review the pros and cons of some of the proposed solutions in order to ensure privacy. We propose a solution for the management of security keys based on symmetric encryption, taking into account two important factors, the sensors resources constraints and their mobility being linked to the patient body that may move occasionally. Tests gave significant results confirm that our proposed solution is secure, energy efficient and unable to deal with mobility. The field of healthcare knew an important development due to the evolution of the technology used in its applications, from sophisticated equipment in the operating rooms, to diagnostic and analysis equipment offering accurate and effective results. Among devices that have contributed to the development of the field of healthcare is the mobile monitoring sensors that are placed on the patient's body. By the emergence of the Internet of Things, it became possible to access to them remotely, so the possibility of offering patients a continuous and real-time monitoring and keep track of his health condition wherever he goes, from inside his home, in the street, in the workplace, etc. However, the main drawback of these applications is the lack of consideration of data security and privacy. The nature of these sensors from a wireless connection and limited capacities, making them vulnerable to a range of attacks aimed at eavesdrop or tamper patients’ personal information.

  10. A 2.4-GHz BAW-Based Transceiver for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaldo, M; Banerjee, B; Ruffieux, D; Chabloz, J; Le Roux, E; Enz, C C

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a BAW-based transceiver targeting wireless networks for biomedical applications. The use of high-Q microelectromechanical-systems resonators brings interesting benefits to the fundamental building blocks of the frequency synthesis, receiver, and transmitter and allows achieving at the same time low-power consumption, improved phase noise, and high selectivity in the receiver and transmitter paths. In the baseband, the power consumption is minimized thanks to the use of a phase analog-to-digital converter (ADC) which directly quantizes the phase of the received signal instead of using two separate amplitude ADCs. A complete wireless node composed of the transceiver integrated circuit (IC) and a microprocessing IC, both integrated in a standard digital 0.18-μm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology are described and validated by measurement results. The RF carrier phase noise is -136.2 dBc/Hz at 1-MHz offset. The transmitter demonstrates 1-Mb/s Gaussian frequency-shift keying modulation at an output power of 5.4 dBm with an overall current of 35 mA, in compliance with Bluetooth and Bluetooth low energy output spectrum requirements. At the receiver, further investigations are needed to find the origins of an unexpected sensitivity of -75 dBm at 200 kb/s. PMID:23850756

  11. Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack in cloud- assisted wireless body area networks: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rabia; Abbas, Haider; Assar, Saïd

    2014-11-01

    Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have emerged as a promising technology that has shown enormous potential in improving the quality of healthcare, and has thus found a broad range of medical applications from ubiquitous health monitoring to emergency medical response systems. The huge amount of highly sensitive data collected and generated by WBAN nodes requires an ascendable and secure storage and processing infrastructure. Given the limited resources of WBAN nodes for storage and processing, the integration of WBANs and cloud computing may provide a powerful solution. However, despite the benefits of cloud-assisted WBAN, several security issues and challenges remain. Among these, data availability is the most nagging security issue. The most serious threat to data availability is a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack that directly affects the all-time availability of a patient's data. The existing solutions for standalone WBANs and sensor networks are not applicable in the cloud. The purpose of this review paper is to identify the most threatening types of DDoS attacks affecting the availability of a cloud-assisted WBAN and review the state-of-the-art detection mechanisms for the identified DDoS attacks. PMID:25218122

  12. Design of QoS-Aware Multi-Level MAC-Layer for Wireless Body Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Long; Zhang, Yin; Feng, Dakui; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Alelaiwi, Abdulhameed; Alamri, Atif

    2015-12-01

    With the advances in wearable computing and various wireless technologies, there is an increasing trend to outsource body signals from wireless body area network (WBAN) to outside world including cyber space, healthcare big data clouds, etc. Since the environmental and physiological data collected by multimodal sensors have different importance, the provisioning of quality of service (QoS) for the sensory data in WBAN is a critical issue. This paper proposes multiple level-based QoS design at WBAN media access control layer in terms of user level, data level and time level. In the proposed QoS provisioning scheme, different users have different priorities, various sensory data collected by different sensor nodes have different importance, while data priority for the same sensor node varies over time. The experimental results show that the proposed multi-level based QoS provisioning solution in WBAN yields better performance for meeting QoS requirements of personalized healthcare applications while achieving energy saving. PMID:26490150

  13. Optimization and Implementation of Scaling-Free CORDIC-Based Direct Digital Frequency Synthesizer for Body Care Area Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shen Juang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC is an efficient algorithm for computations of trigonometric functions. Scaling-free-CORDIC is one of the famous CORDIC implementations with advantages of speed and area. In this paper, a novel direct digital frequency synthesizer (DDFS based on scaling-free CORDIC is presented. The proposed multiplier-less architecture with small ROM and pipeline data path has advantages of high data rate, high precision, high performance, and less hardware cost. The design procedure with performance and hardware analysis for optimization has also been given. It is verified by Matlab simulations and then implemented with field programmable gate array (FPGA by Verilog. The spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR is over 86.85 dBc, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is more than 81.12 dB. The scaling-free CORDIC-based architecture is suitable for VLSI implementations for the DDFS applications in terms of hardware cost, power consumption, SNR, and SFDR. The proposed DDFS is very suitable for medical instruments and body care area network systems.

  14. Low Energy Wireless Body-Area Networks for Fetal ECG Telemonitoring via the Framework of Block Sparse Bayesian Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhilin; Makeig, Scott; Rao, Bhaskar D

    2012-01-01

    Fetal ECG (FECG) telemonitoring is an important branch in telemedicine. The design of a telemonitoring system via a low-power wireless body-area network for ambulatory use is highly desirable. As an emerging technique, compressed sensing (CS) shows great promise in compressing data with low power consumption. However, due to some specific characteristics of FECG recordings such as non-sparsity and strong noise contamination, current CS algorithms generally fail in this application. In this work we utilize the block sparse Bayesian learning (bSBL) framework, a recently developed framework solving the CS problems. To illustrate the ability of the bSBL methods, we apply it to two representative FECG datasets. In one dataset the fetal heartbeat signals are visible, while in the other dataset are barely visible. The experiment results show that the bSBL framework is capable of compressing FECG raw recordings and successfully reconstructing them. These successes rely on two unique features of the bSBL framework; on...

  15. Development of a secure body area network for a wearable physiological monitoring system using a PSoC processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraam, N; Swathy, S; Vijayalakshmi, S

    2012-01-01

    Wearable physiological monitoring systems have gained popularity in the recent years due to their ability to continuously monitor physiological signals, thereby making them suitable for home-healthcare applications. The electrocardiogram (ECG), phonocardiogram (PCG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals have been studied and it has been observed that there is a correlation between the three signals. This paper proposes the development of a secure body area network (BAN), for a wearable physiological monitoring system. The BAN is composed of three nodes, for ECG, PPG and PCG signals. The peak-peak distances of these signals are calculated first, in the coordinator of BAN. The coordinator is designed in such a manner that signals from it are transmitted to a monitoring station, only if the difference between the peak-peak distances of both ECG-PPG signals and ECG-PCG signals fall below a threshold. The entire operation of the coordinator is implemented using a real-time processor, Cypress(™) Programmable System on Chip (PSoC). PMID:22188576

  16. A low-rank matrix recovery approach for energy efficient EEG acquisition for a wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Angshul; Gogna, Anupriya; Ward, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN) in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling), processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements) as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques. PMID:25157551

  17. A Low-Rank Matrix Recovery Approach for Energy Efficient EEG Acquisition for a Wireless Body Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angshul Majumdar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We address the problem of acquiring and transmitting EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN in an energy efficient fashion. In WBANs, the energy is consumed by three operations: sensing (sampling, processing and transmission. Previous studies only addressed the problem of reducing the transmission energy. For the first time, in this work, we propose a technique to reduce sensing and processing energy as well: this is achieved by randomly under-sampling the EEG signal. We depart from previous Compressed Sensing based approaches and formulate signal recovery (from under-sampled measurements as a matrix completion problem. A new algorithm to solve the matrix completion problem is derived here. We test our proposed method and find that the reconstruction accuracy of our method is significantly better than state-of-the-art techniques; and we achieve this while saving sensing, processing and transmission energy. Simple power analysis shows that our proposed methodology consumes considerably less power compared to previous CS based techniques.

  18. An ultra low-power and traffic-adaptive medium access control protocol for wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-06-01

    Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) consists of low-power, miniaturized, and autonomous wireless sensor nodes that enable physicians to remotely monitor vital signs of patients and provide real-time feedback with medical diagnosis and consultations. It is the most reliable and cheaper way to take care of patients suffering from chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Some of the most important attributes of WBAN is low-power consumption and delay. This can be achieved by introducing flexible duty cycling techniques on the energy constraint sensor nodes. Stated otherwise, low duty cycle nodes should not receive frequent synchronization and control packets if they have no data to send/receive. In this paper, we introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) by taking into account the traffic information of the sensor nodes. The protocol dynamically adjusts the duty cycle of the sensor nodes according to their traffic-patterns, thus solving the idle listening and overhearing problems. The traffic-patterns of all sensor nodes are organized and maintained by the coordinator. The TaMAC protocol is supported by a wakeup radio that is used to accommodate emergency and on-demand events in a reliable manner. The wakeup radio uses a separate control channel along with the data channel and therefore it has considerably low power consumption requirements. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze and compare the performance of the TaMAC protocol with the well-known beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC, WiseMAC, and SMAC protocols. The analytical derivations are further validated by simulation results. It is shown that the TaMAC protocol outperforms all other protocols in terms of power consumption and delay. PMID:20703634

  19. Accelerometer-based wireless body area network to estimate intensity of therapy in post-acute rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Mathieu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that there is a dose-response relationship between the amount of therapy and functional recovery in post-acute rehabilitation care. To this day, only the total time of therapy has been investigated as a potential determinant of this dose-response relationship because of methodological and measurement challenges. The primary objective of this study was to compare time and motion measures during real life physical therapy with estimates of active time (i.e. the time during which a patient is active physically obtained with a wireless body area network (WBAN of 3D accelerometer modules positioned at the hip, wrist and ankle. The secondary objective was to assess the differences in estimates of active time when using a single accelerometer module positioned at the hip. Methods Five patients (77.4 ± 5.2 y with 4 different admission diagnoses (stroke, lower limb fracture, amputation and immobilization syndrome were recruited in a post-acute rehabilitation center and observed during their physical therapy sessions throughout their stay. Active time was recorded by a trained observer using a continuous time and motion analysis program running on a Tablet-PC. Two WBAN configurations were used: 1 three accelerometer modules located at the hip, wrist and ankle (M3 and 2 one accelerometer located at the hip (M1. Acceleration signals from the WBANs were synchronized with the observations. Estimates of active time were computed based on the temporal density of the acceleration signals. Results A total of 62 physical therapy sessions were observed. Strong associations were found between WBANs estimates of active time and time and motion measures of active time. For the combined sessions, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.93 (P ≤ 0.001 for M3 and 0.79 (P ≤ 0.001 for M1. The mean percentage of differences between observation measures and estimates from the WBAN of active time was -8.7% ± 2.0% using

  20. BODY SENSOR NETWORKS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Piyush Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in wireless communications and electronics has enabled the development of low-cost sensor networks. The sensor networks can be used for various application areas. For different application areas, there are different technical issues that researchers are currently resolving. The use of sensor networks for healthcare is well established; it works even in extreme environments and has long roots in the engineering sector in medicine and biology community. With the maturity of wire...

  1. Local area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zafiropoulo, P

    1982-01-01

    Pitro Zafiropulo is a- staff member at the IBM Research Laboratories at Zurich. He joined IBM in 1968 and has worked on protocol validation, synthesis, integrated networks, network reliability, PABX's and speech recognition. Local Area Networks are intended to provide improved communication capabilities such as high data throughput rates, low error rates and ease of connection among terminal stations and comuters. These new types of networks operate within a limited geographical range like an establishment, campus or building and are owned by a single organization. The presentation introduces these networks and the main techniques are described. It then proceeds to evaluate the main switching techniques as they apply to LAN ring and bus configurations. The preferred technique of token-ring distributed switching is identified. The contents of Mr. Zafiropoulo's talk was somewhat similar to the paper of Mr. Kummerle, which is therefore included in these Proceedings.

  2. On Designing Thermal-Aware Localized QoS Routing Protocol for in-vivo Sensor Nodes in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mostafa Monowar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the thermal rise and Quality-of-Service (QoS provisioning issue for an intra-body Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN having in-vivo sensor nodes. We propose a thermal-aware QoS routing protocol, called TLQoS, that facilitates the system in achieving desired QoS in terms of delay and reliability for diverse traffic types, as well as avoids the formation of highly heated nodes known as hotspot(s, and keeps the temperature rise along the network to an acceptable level. TLQoS exploits modular architecture wherein different modules perform integrated operations in providing multiple QoS service with lower temperature rise. To address the challenges of highly dynamic wireless environment inside the human body. TLQoS implements potential-based localized routing that requires only local neighborhood information. TLQoS avoids routing loop formation as well as reduces the number of hop traversal exploiting hybrid potential, and tuning a configurable parameter. We perform extensive simulations of TLQoS, and the results show that TLQoS has significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art approaches.

  3. On Designing Thermal-Aware Localized QoS Routing Protocol for in-vivo Sensor Nodes in Wireless Body Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Bajaber, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address the thermal rise and Quality-of-Service (QoS) provisioning issue for an intra-body Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) having in-vivo sensor nodes. We propose a thermal-aware QoS routing protocol, called TLQoS, that facilitates the system in achieving desired QoS in terms of delay and reliability for diverse traffic types, as well as avoids the formation of highly heated nodes known as hotspot(s), and keeps the temperature rise along the network to an acceptable level. TLQoS exploits modular architecture wherein different modules perform integrated operations in providing multiple QoS service with lower temperature rise. To address the challenges of highly dynamic wireless environment inside the human body. TLQoS implements potential-based localized routing that requires only local neighborhood information. TLQoS avoids routing loop formation as well as reduces the number of hop traversal exploiting hybrid potential, and tuning a configurable parameter. We perform extensive simulations of TLQoS, and the results show that TLQoS has significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art approaches. PMID:26083228

  4. Network evolution of body plans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Fujimoto

    Full Text Available One of the major goals in evolutionary developmental biology is to understand the relationship between gene regulatory networks and the diverse morphologies and their functionalities. Are the diversities solely triggered by random events, or are they inevitable outcomes of an interplay between evolving gene networks and natural selection? Segmentation in arthropod embryogenesis represents a well-known example of body plan diversity. Striped patterns of gene expression that lead to the future body segments appear simultaneously or sequentially in long and short germ-band development, respectively. Moreover, a combination of both is found in intermediate germ-band development. Regulatory genes relevant for stripe formation are evolutionarily conserved among arthropods, therefore the differences in the observed traits are thought to have originated from how the genes are wired. To reveal the basic differences in the network structure, we have numerically evolved hundreds of gene regulatory networks that produce striped patterns of gene expression. By analyzing the topologies of the generated networks, we show that the characteristics of stripe formation in long and short germ-band development are determined by Feed-Forward Loops (FFLs and negative Feed-Back Loops (FBLs respectively, and those of intermediate germ-band development are determined by the interconnections between FFL and negative FBL. Network architectures, gene expression patterns and knockout responses exhibited by the artificially evolved networks agree with those reported in the fly Drosophila melanogaster and the beetle Tribolium castaneum. For other arthropod species, principal network architectures that remain largely unknown are predicted. Our results suggest that the emergence of the three modes of body segmentation in arthropods is an inherent property of the evolving networks.

  5. A Hybrid Distance Estimation for Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Kyung Kim; Won-Sung Sohn; Kyeong Hur

    2013-01-01

    Wireless body area networks become a new research issue in recent years. In this paper, we propose hibernation and distance estimation schemes for wireless USB (WUSB) over wireless body area networks (WBAN) hierarchical protocol for body sensor networks (BSNs). The proposed middleware platform is composed of hibernation and optimal short distance estimation solution. Firstly, this paper provides WUSB private channel allocation scheme at the m-periodic allocation hibernation of a WBAN superfra...

  6. Smart Body Sensor Object Networking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhumip Khasnabish

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses smart body sensor objects (BSOs), including their networking and internetworking. Smartness can be incorpo-rated into BSOs by embedding virtualization, predictive analytics, and proactive computing and communications capabilities. A few use cases including the relevant privacy and protocol requirements are also presented. General usage and deployment eti-quette along with the relevant regulatory implications are then discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Implant Communication with Polarisation and Unslotted CSMA/CA Protocol in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Sup Kwak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the implant inside a human body with polarisation, distance, and different power settings at the base-station is presented. In addition, the unslotted CSMA/CA protocol is studied for a heterogeneous WBAN.

  8. Wide area sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Nix, Tricia; Junker, Robert; Brentano, Josef; Khona, Dhiren

    2006-05-01

    The technical concept for this project has existed since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. A host of Eastern European nations have developed countrywide grid of sensors to monitor airborne radiation. The objective is to build a radiological sensor network for real-time monitoring of environmental radiation levels in order to provide data for warning, and consequentially the assessment of a nuclear event. A network of radiation measuring equipment consisting of gamma, neutron, alpha, and beta counters would be distributed over a large area (preferably on fire station roof tops) and connected by a wireless network to the emergency response center. The networks would be deployed in urban environments and would supply first responders and federal augmentation teams (including those from the U.S. Departments of Energy, Defense, Justice, and Homeland Security) with detailed, accurate information regarding the transport of radioactive environmental contaminants, so the agencies can provide a safe and effective response. A networked sensor capability would be developed, with fixed sensors deployed at key locations and in sufficient numbers, to provide adequate coverage for early warning, and input to post-event emergency response. An overall system description and specification will be provided, including detector characteristics, communication protocols, infrastructure and maintenance requirements, and operation procedures. The system/network can be designed for a specifically identified urban area, or for a general urban area scalable to cities of specified size. Data collected via the network will be transmitted directly to the appropriate emergency response center and shared with multiple agencies via the Internet or an Intranet. The data collected will be managed using commercial off - the - shelf Geographical Information System (GIS). The data will be stored in a database and the GIS software will aid in analysis and management of the data. Unique features of the

  9. Feasibility Study of a Wearable System Based on a Wireless Body Area Network for Gait Assessment in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cancela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD alters the motor performance of affected individuals. The dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, due to substantia nigra neuronal loss, compromises the speed, the automatism and smoothness of movements of PD patients. The development of a reliable tool for long-term monitoring of PD symptoms would allow the accurate assessment of the clinical status during the different PD stages and the evaluation of motor complications. Furthermore, it would be very useful both for routine clinical care as well as for testing novel therapies. Within this context we have validated the feasibility of using a Body Network Area (BAN of wireless accelerometers to perform continuous at home gait monitoring of PD patients. The analysis addresses the assessment of the system performance working in real environments.

  10. MPLS for metropolitan area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Nam-Kee

    2004-01-01

    METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS AND MPLSRequirements of Metropolitan Area Network ServicesMetropolitan Area Network OverviewThe Bandwidth DemandThe Metro Service Provider's Business ApproachesThe Emerging Metro Customer Expectations and NeedsSome Prevailing Metro Service OpportunitiesService Aspects and RequirementsRoles of MPLS in Metropolitan Area NetworksMPLS PrimerMPLS ApplicationsTRAFFIC ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKSTraffic Engineering ConceptsNetwork CongestionHyper Aggregation ProblemEasing CongestionNetwork ControlTactical versus Strategic Traffic EngineeringIP/ATM Overl

  11. Wearability Assessment of a Wearable System for Parkinson’s Disease Remote Monitoring Based on a Body Area Network of Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cancela

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wearable technologies for health monitoring have become a reality in the last few years. So far, most research studies have focused on assessments of the technical performance of these systems, as well as the validation of the clinical outcomes. Nevertheless, the success in the acceptance of these solutions depends not only on the technical and clinical effectiveness, but on the final user acceptance. In this work the compliance of a telehealth system for the remote monitoring of Parkinson’s disease (PD patients is presented with testing in 32 PD patients. This system, called PERFORM, is based on a Body Area Network (BAN of sensors which has already been validated both from the technical and clinical point for view. Diverse methodologies (REBA, Borg and CRS scales in combination with a body map are employed to study the comfort, biomechanical and physiological effects of the system. The test results allow us to conclude that the acceptance of this system is satisfactory with all the levels of effect on each component scoring in the lowest ranges. This study also provided useful insights and guidelines to lead to redesign of the system to improve patient compliance.

  12. RED TACTON HUMAN AREA NETWORKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kakade

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available All the user-friendly services require technologies that enable communication between people and objects in close proximity. This paper describes a model of human area networking technology that enables communication by touching, a technology we call Red Tacton. Human area networking technology for communication between mobile terminals and between terminals that are embedded in the environment has become important. When cables are used for communication between terminals, the routing of the cables is clearly inconvenient. When very weak radio signals are used for the communication, data speeds are reduced by packet collision and other such problems in crowded places such as exhibition sites and security risk from unwanted signal interception is another problem. Technology for solving such problems includes the use of the person body as a signal path for communication. A transmission path is formed automatically when a person comes into contact with a device and communication between mobile terminals begins. Here, the human body acts as a transmission medium supporting IEEE 802.3 half duplex communication at 10Mbit/s.

  13. Body Area Networks for Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, V.M.; Bults, R.G.A.; Konstantas, D.; Vierhout, P.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The subject of this research proposal is the design and development of novel applications and services targeting 4G wireless technologies. In previous papers [1, 2] we presented a vision of two future healthcare applications which we call Virtual Trauma Team and Virtual Homecare Team. These are two

  14. New ray tracing method to investigate the various effects on wave propagation in medical scenario: an application of wireless body area network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M J; Reza, A W; Kausar, A S M Z; Ramiah, H

    2014-01-01

    The advent of technology with the increasing use of wireless network has led to the development of Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) to continuously monitor the change of physiological data in a cost efficient manner. As numerous researches on wave propagation characterization have been done in intrabody communication, this study has given emphasis on the wave propagation characterization between the control units (CUs) and wireless access point (AP) in a hospital scenario. Ray tracing is a tool to predict the rays to characterize the wave propagation. It takes huge simulation time, especially when multiple transmitters are involved to transmit physiological data in a realistic hospital environment. Therefore, this study has developed an accelerated ray tracing method based on the nearest neighbor cell and prior knowledge of intersection techniques. Beside this, Red-Black tree is used to store and provide a faster retrieval mechanism of objects in the hospital environment. To prove the superiority, detailed complexity analysis and calculations of reflection and transmission coefficients are also presented in this paper. The results show that the proposed method is about 1.51, 2.1, and 2.9 times faster than the Object Distribution Technique (ODT), Space Volumetric Partitioning (SVP), and Angular Z-Buffer (AZB) methods, respectively. To show the various effects on received power in 60 GHz frequency, few comparisons are made and it is found that on average -9.44 dBm, -8.23 dBm, and -9.27 dBm received power attenuations should be considered when human, AP, and CU move in a given hospital scenario. PMID:25133220

  15. Body Surface Area Prediction in Odorrana grahami

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying CHEN; Jiongyu LIU; Qiang DAI; Jianping JIANG

    2014-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) was regarded as a more readily quantiifable parameter relative to body mass in the normalization of comparative biochemistry and physiology. The BSA prediction has attracted unceasing research back more than a century on animals, especially on humans and rats. Few studies in this area for anurans were reported, and the equation for body surface area (S) and body mass (W):S=9.9 W 0.56, which was concluded from toads of four species in 1969, was generally adopted to estimate the body surface areas for anurans until recent years. However, this equation was not applicable to Odorrana grahami. The relationship between body surface area and body mass for this species was established as:S=15.4 W 0.579. Our current results suggest estimation equations should be used cautiously across different species and body surface area predictions on more species need to be conducted.

  16. Priority-based time-slot allocation in wireless body area networks during medical emergency situations: an evolutionary game-theoretic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sudip; Sarkar, Subhadeep

    2015-03-01

    In critical medical emergency situations, wireless body area network (WBAN) equipped health monitoring systems treat data packets with critical information regarding patients' health in the same way as data packets bearing regular healthcare information. This snag results in a higher average waiting time for the local data processing units (LDPUs) transmitting data packets of higher importance. In this paper, we formulate an algorithm for Priority-based Allocation of Time Slots (PATS) that considers a fitness parameter characterizing the criticality of health data that a packet carries, energy consumption rate for a transmitting LDPU, and other crucial LDPU properties. Based on this fitness parameter, we design the constant model hawk-dove game that ensures prioritizing the LDPUs based on crucial properties. In comparison with the existing works on priority-based wireless transmission, we measure and take into consideration the urgency, seriousness, and criticality associated with an LDPU and, thus, allocate transmission time slots proportionately. We show that the number of transmitting LDPUs in medical emergency situations can be reduced by 25.97%, in comparison with the existing time-division-based techniques. PMID:24686307

  17. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC, a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands and introduces a novel superframe structure based on the “transmit-whenever-appropriate” principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposed to ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency. PMID:23202224

  18. Future Body-to-Body Networks for Ubiquitous Healthcare: A Survey, Taxonomy and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Meharouech, Amira; Elias, Jocelyne; Mehaoua, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    —Smart mobile people have a great potential to extend the existing Internet of Things infrastructures by implementing genuine ubiquitous healthcare (U-health) applications, ensuring anywhere and anytime patients connectivity. Through the forwarding of sensing data from person to person until reaching a connected medical server, concrete U-health becomes true with the emerging of future Body-to-Body Networks. Indeed, the coexistence of multiple WBANs (Wireless Body Area Networks), the communic...

  19. Body surface area determined by whole-body CT scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Primeau, Charlotte; Hesse, Ulrik;

    2016-01-01

    Calculation of the estimated body surface area (BSA) by body height and weight has been a challenge in the past centuries due to lack of a well-documented gold standard. More recently, available techniques such as 3D laser surface scanning and CT scanning may be expected to quantify the BSA...... in an easier and more accurate way. This study provides the first comparison between BSA obtained from post-mortem whole-body CT scans and BSA calculated by nine predictive formulae. The sample consisted of 54 male cadavers ranging from 20 to 87 years old. 3D reconstructions were generated from CT scans using...

  20. Wireless Networks for Body-Centric Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Martelli, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Progress in miniaturization of electronic components and design of wireless systems paved the way towards ubiquitous and pervasive communications, enabling anywhere and anytime connectivity. Wireless devices present on, inside, around the human body are becoming commonly used, leading to the class of body-centric communications. The presence of the body with all its peculiar characteristics has to be properly taken into account in the development and design of wireless networks in this con...

  1. A Game Theoretical Approach for Interference Mitigation in Body-to-Body Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Meharouech, Amira; Elias, Jocelyne; PARIS Stefano; Mehaoua, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    —In this paper, we consider a dynamic system composed of several Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) interacting with the surrounding environment, forming Body-to-Body Networks (BBNs). In this dynamic BBN system, we analyze the joint mutual and cross-technology interference problem due to the utilization of a limited number of channels by different transmission technologies (i.e., ZigBee and WiFi) sharing the same radio spectrum. To this end, we propose a game theoretical approach to address ...

  2. Technical Issues and Challenges in Building Human Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Garg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, an exploration is done for identification of critical technical issues, problems, challenges in area of wireless body network sensors, which are continuous emerging as integral part of health monitoring systems. All this is possible due to the concept of ‘Internet of Things’ [5], in which day to day consumer devices, equipment are connected onto the network enabling information gathering and management of many vital signals. The first section gives introduction to wireless network developments in recent context, and then it is followed by discussion on existing work done in context of physical, Media access control and other aspects like energy consumption and security of such systems. The tabular summary on the gaps, limitations of Wireless body area network is done and based on this work; future directions are also suggested. Care has been taken to solicit high impact general paper for conducting this systematic study.

  3. Guest editorial. Body sensor networks: from theory to emerging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Zhang, Y T

    2009-11-01

    The use of sensor networks for healthcare, well-being, and working in extreme environments has long roots in the engineering sector in medicine and biology community. With the maturity of wireless sensor networks, body area networks (BANs), and wireless BANs (WBANs), recent efforts in promoting the concept of body sensor networks (BSNs) aim to move beyond sensor connectivity to adopt a system-level approach to address issues related to biosensor design, interfacing, and embodiment, as well as ultralow-power processing/communication, power scavenging, autonomic sensing, data mining, inferencing, and integrated wireless sensor microsystems. As a result, the system architecture based on WBAN and BSN is becoming a widely accepted method of organization for ambulatory and ubiquitous monitoring systems. This editorial paper presents a snapshot of the current research and emerging applications and addresses some of the challenges and implementation issues. PMID:19887307

  4. Home area networks and IPTV

    CERN Document Server

    Rémy, Jean-Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The field of Home Area Networks (HAN), a dedicated residential subset of LAN technologies for home-based use, is fast becoming the next frontier for the communications industry.This book describes the various technologies involved in the implementation of a HAN: high-speed Internet connections, indoor implementations, services, software, and management packages. It also reviews multimedia applications (which are increasingly the most important and complex aspects of most HANs) with a detailed description of IPTV technology. It highlights the main technologies used for HANs: information tra

  5. Exploration of the Design of Media Access Control Layer of Wireless Body Area Network for Medical Healthcare%应用于医疗的无线人体传感网络媒体接入层设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪梅

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a media access control (MAC) layer design for wireless body area network (WBAN) systems. WBAN is a technology that targets (or wireless networking of wearable and implantable body sensors which monitor vital body signs, such as heart-rate, body temperature, blood pressure, etc. It has been receiving attentions from international organizations, e. g. the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)f due to its capability of providing efficient healthcare services and clinical management. This paper reviews the standardization procedure of WBAN and summarizes the challenge of the MAC layer design. It also discusses the methods of improving power consumption performance, which is one of the major issues of WBAN systems.%无线人体传感网络(WBAN)是一项正在受到广泛重视的新技术.通过在人体表面和内部放置一系列的传感器并使用无线通信网络技术,收集心跳、血压、温度等信息来帮助健康监控和疾病诊断.目前,包括美国电子电气工程师协会(IEEE)在内的标准化组织都在致力于这项技术的发展和推广.本文回顾了IEEE成立的IEEE 802.15.6工作组的标准化进程,总结了WBAN设计中关于媒体接人(MAC)层的难点,并在此基础上讨论了减少MAC层功率损耗的方法.

  6. Toward Sustainable Networking: Storage Area Networks with Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ferner, Ulric J; Soljanin, Emina

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript provides a model to characterize the energy savings of network coded storage (NCS) in storage area networks (SANs). We consider blocking probability of drives as our measure of performance. A mapping technique to analyze SANs as independent M/G/K/K queues is presented, and blocking probabilities for uncoded storage schemes and NCS are derived and compared. We show that coding operates differently than the amalgamation of file chunks and energy savings are shown to scale well with striping number. We illustrate that for enterprise-level SANs energy savings of 20-50% can be realized.

  7. A Study of Implanted and Wearable Body Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Siddiqui, M Arif; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.1007/978-3-540-78582-8_47

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in intelligent sensors, microelectronics and integrated circuit, system-on-chip design and low power wireless communication introduced the development of miniaturised and autonomous sensor nodes. These tiny sensor nodes can be deployed to develop a proactive Body Sensor Network (BSN). The rapid advancement in ultra low-power RF (radio frequency) technology enables invasive and non-invasive devices to communicate with a remote station. This communication revolutionizes healthcare system by enabling long term health monitoring of a patient and providing real time feedback to the medical experts. In this paper, we present In-body and On-body communication networks with a special focus on the methodologies of wireless communication between implanted medical devices with external monitoring equipment and recent technological growth in both areas. We also discuss open issues and challenges in a BSN.

  8. 一种体域网无线心电监护系统的研制与测试%Development and test of body area network system for wireless ECG monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洹千; 杜晓薇; 杨坚; 卞士平; 韩雪松; 李擎; 金庆辉; 赵建龙

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid increase of older people in China,the problem of elder people's chronic diseases and their health monitoring requirement outside hospital become more and more important. To face such challenge,the body area network sys-tem,a new kind of health care monitor,is needed to build up. This system is a small network based on IOT and sensor technol-ogies. A design scheme of body area network wireless electrocardiogram monitoring system is described in this paper. The patient system and pre-warning system are introduced emphatically. The portable electrocardiogram detecting blockis adopted in the pa-tient block to collect patient's electrocardiogram signal. The bluetooth short distance wireless communication technology is em-ployed to transmit the real-time electric signal to smartphone. The results of three iterms tested in the hospital environment are given in this paper.%随着中国老龄化和家庭空巢化的加剧,患有慢性疾病的老人在医院外的健康监护问题变得日益突出。这就需要人们能够设计出有别于传统医疗仪器的新系统,这样的新系统称为体域网系统。论述了体域网无线心电监护系统的设计方案,重点介绍了患者系统以及预警系统的构成。患者系统采用便携式心电检测模块来采集患者的心电信号;蓝牙短距无线通信技术用于将实时心电信号传输到智能手机;预警系统能接收患者系统发送的心电信号。最后给出了在医院环境中对系统进行的三项测试结果。

  9. A Survey of Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyi Han

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The technology of sensor, pervasive computing, and intelligent information processing is widely used in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs, which are a branch of wireless sensor networks (WSNs. BSNs are playing an increasingly important role in the fields of medical treatment, social welfare and sports, and are changing the way humans use computers. Existing surveys have placed emphasis on the concept and architecture of BSNs, signal acquisition, context-aware sensing, and system technology, while this paper will focus on sensor, data fusion, and network communication. And we will introduce the research status of BSNs, the analysis of hotspots, and future development trends, the discussion of major challenges and technical problems facing currently. The typical research projects and practical application of BSNs are introduced as well. BSNs are progressing along the direction of multi-technology integration and intelligence. Although there are still many problems, the future of BSNs is fundamentally promising, profoundly changing the human-machine relationships and improving the quality of people’s lives.

  10. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed

  11. Metropolitan area network support at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMar, Phil; Andrews, Chuck; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; Colon, Orlando; Fry, Steve; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Lamore, Donna; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    Advances in wide area network service offerings, coupled with comparable developments in local area network technology have enabled many research sites to keep their offsite network bandwidth ahead of demand. For most sites, the more difficult and costly aspect of increasing wide area network capacity is the local loop, which connects the facility LAN to the wide area service provider(s). Fermilab, in coordination with neighboring Argonne National Laboratory, has chosen to provide its own local loop access through leasing of dark fiber to nearby network exchange points, and procuring dense wave division multiplexing (DWDM) equipment to provide data channels across those fibers. Installing and managing such optical network infrastructure has broadened the Laboratory's network support responsibilities to include operating network equipment that is located off-site, and is technically much different than classic LAN network equipment. Effectively, the Laboratory has assumed the role of a local service provider. This paper will cover Fermilab's experiences with deploying and supporting a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) infrastructure to satisfy its offsite networking needs. The benefits and drawbacks of providing and supporting such a service will be discussed.

  12. A network analysis of body satisfaction of people with gender dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Grift, T C; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Elaut, E; De Cuypere, G; Richter-Appelt, H; Haraldsen, I R; Kreukels, B P C

    2016-06-01

    In gender dysphoria (GD), much of the experienced distress results from body dissatisfaction. The current study analyzed the configuration of body satisfaction in trans men and women using network analysis. In total, 485 individuals diagnosed with GD from four European countries, applying for medical treatment, filled out the Body Image Scale for Transsexuals. A six-factor model reflecting different body areas was confirmed via confirmatory factor analysis. A further configuration of body satisfaction was modelled using correlation network analysis techniques in R. Genital dissatisfaction showed limited connection with other body areas in comparison to other subscales. Body characteristics influencing social gender recognition were most centrally involved in body (dis)satisfaction in both natal sexes. In trans women these characteristics were related mostly to voice and hair, whereas in trans men these characteristics were related to muscularity and posture. Focusing on these socially influential body characteristics may provide important targets for transgender healthcare. PMID:27137814

  13. Wireless body sensor networks for health-monitoring applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current wireless technologies, such as wireless body area networks and wireless personal area networks, provide promising applications in medical monitoring systems to measure specified physiological data and also provide location-based information, if required. With the increasing sophistication of wearable and implantable medical devices and their integration with wireless sensors, an ever-expanding range of therapeutic and diagnostic applications is being pursued by research and commercial organizations. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent developments in wireless sensor technology for monitoring behaviour related to human physiological responses. It presents background information on the use of wireless technology and sensors to develop a wireless physiological measurement system. A generic miniature platform and other available technologies for wireless sensors have been studied in terms of hardware and software structural requirements for a low-cost, low-power, non-invasive and unobtrusive system. (topical review)

  14. Abstracting information on body area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Brand?o, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare is changing, correction...healthcare is in need of change. The population ageing, the increase in chronic and heart diseases and just the increase in population size will overwhelm the current hospital-centric healthcare. There is a growing interest by individuals to monitor their own physiology. Not only for sport activities, but also to control their own diseases. They are changing from the passive healthcare receiver to a proactive self-healthcare taker. The focus is shiftin...

  15. Local AREA networks in advanced nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses Local Area Network Communications with a view to their application in advanced nuclear reactor control and protection systems. Attention is focussed on commercially available techniques and systems for achieving the high reliability and availability required. A basis for evaluating network characteristics in terms of broadband or baseband type, medium, topology, node structure and access method is established. The reliability and availability of networks is then discussed. Several commercial networks are briefly assessed and a distinction made between general purpose networks and those suitable for process control. The communications requirements of nuclear reactor control and protection systems are compared with the facilities provided by current technology

  16. Protecting information on local area networks

    CERN Document Server

    Schweitzer, James A

    1988-01-01

    Protecting Information on Local Area Networks presents the various types of networks and explains why they are being expanded at such a rapid pace. This book considers how management can gain control of the valuable network-services information resources generally available.Organized into three parts encompassing seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various networks and their operations. This text then discusses the appropriate management actions to ensure some control over the use of networks and the business information resource. Other chapters consider the management rat

  17. Indexing aortic valve area by body surface area increases the prevalence of severe aortic stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jander, Nikolaus; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Bahlmann, Edda;

    2014-01-01

    To account for differences in body size in patients with aortic stenosis, aortic valve area (AVA) is divided by body surface area (BSA) to calculate indexed AVA (AVAindex). Cut-off values for severe stenosis are...

  18. Association of body surface area and body composition with heart structural characteristics of female swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    SHEIKHSARAF, BAHAREH; ALLAH, NIKBAKHT HOJAT; ALI, AZARBAYJANI MOHAMMAD

    2010-01-01

    In healthy nonathletic populations, some left ventricle (LV) parameters such as LV mass (LVM) and LV end diastolic dimension (LVEDD) can be predicted by some of body size parameters such as body surface area (BSA), fat-free mass (FFM), and height (H). These body size parameters use to remove covariate influence of body size from cardiac dimension variables and allow comparisons to be made between individuals and groups of different body size. Endurance exercise has been associated with change...

  19. A system and method for imaging body areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goethals, F.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a system for imaging one or more external human body areas comprising a photographic device configured to acquire, store and output an image or images of the one or more body areas. The invention also relates to a method for determining a probable disease state of an externa

  20. Wireless wearable network and wireless body-centric network for future wearable computer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The wireless wearable network and wireless body-centric network can assistant to the user anywhere at anytime communicating with wireless components seamlessly. In this paper, the wireless wearable network and wireless body-centric network have been discussed, and the frequency band and human body effect has been estimated. The bluetooth and UWB technology can be used to construct the narrow band and the broad band wireless wearable network and wireless body-centric network separately. Further, the narrow band wireless wearable network and wireless body-centric network based on bluetooth technology has been constructed by integrated planar inverted-F antenna and the communication channel character has been studied by measurement. The results can provide the possibility of producing a prototype radio system that can be integrated with the wearable computers by suitable wireless technologies developed and applied to facilitate a reliable and continuous connectivity between the system units.

  1. The Security of Wireless Local Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 李翠霞

    2007-01-01

    The Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is a new and developing technology and the security problem is always important in all networks; therefore, the security problems will be discussed in this article. The article firstly introduces the history of development of IEEE 802.11 and provides an overview of the Wireless LAN. The architecture of WLAN will be referred in next. Finally, the further of the wireless LAN will be prospected by this article.

  2. Wireless local area network. A new technology of network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), including the concept, history, characters and the foreground of its development, it also narrates in detail the several key techniques used to implement IEEE802.11 WLAN, and ideas on key technology of future progress in wireless LAN field have also been presented. (authors)

  3. 47 CFR 54.518 - Support for wide area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Support for wide area networks. 54.518 Section... area networks. To the extent that states, schools, or libraries build or purchase a wide area network to provide telecommunications services, the cost of such wide area networks shall not be eligible...

  4. Towards Secure and Practical MACs for Body Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Z.; Hartel, P.H.; Nikova, S.I.; Zhu, Bo

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) commonly requires lower level security for public information gathering, whilst body sensor network (BSN) must be secured with strong authenticity to protect personal health information. First in this paper, some practical problems with the Message Authentication Codes

  5. Cutaneous Anthrax in an Unestimated Area of Body

    OpenAIRE

    Guclu, Ertugrul; Tuna, Nazan; Karabay, Oguz

    2012-01-01

    Ertugrul Guclu, Nazan Tuna, Oguz Karabay Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. cutaneous anthrax is the most commonly seen form of anthrax. Skin lesions usually occur on the most exposed areas of the body, such as the face, neck, hand or upper extremity. The aim of this paper is to report a case of cutaneous anthrax form which was occurred on an unexpected area of the body of a slaughter-house worker.

  6. Local-area communication networks - An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local-area communication networks represent a new field of activity. In this paper we first describe three scenarios for the use of these networks, and then discuss various technical approaches. Particular emphasis is put on bus and ring systems with various media access control mechanisms. Specifically, we compare the delay-throughput characteristic of two access methods, carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection and token passing, and discuss some significant differences of bus and ring systems concerning wiring, media, transmission, and reliability. (orig.)

  7. CSMA Local Area Networking under Dynamic Altruism

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniadis, Panayotis; Fdida, Serge; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictit...

  8. Neural Network of Body Representation Differs between Transsexuals and Cissexuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Shu; Ku, Hsiao-Lun; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Tu, Pei-Chi; Li, Cheng-Ta; Cheng, Chou-Ming; Su, Tung-Ping; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    Body image is the internal representation of an individual’s own physical appearance. Individuals with gender identity disorder (GID), commonly referred to as transsexuals (TXs), are unable to form a satisfactory body image due to the dissonance between their biological sex and gender identity. We reasoned that changes in the resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) network would neurologically reflect such experiential incongruence in TXs. Using graph theory-based network analysis, we investigated the regional changes of the degree centrality of the rsFC network. The degree centrality is an index of the functional importance of a node in a neural network. We hypothesized that three key regions of the body representation network, i.e., the primary somatosensory cortex, the superior parietal lobule and the insula, would show a higher degree centrality in TXs. Twenty-three pre-treatment TXs (11 male-to-female and 12 female-to-male TXs) as one psychosocial group and 23 age-matched healthy cissexual control subjects (CISs, 11 males and 12 females) were recruited. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and binarized rsFC networks were constructed. The TXs demonstrated a significantly higher degree centrality in the bilateral superior parietal lobule and the primary somatosensory cortex. In addition, the connectivity between the right insula and the bilateral primary somatosensory cortices was negatively correlated with the selfness rating of their desired genders. These data indicate that the key components of body representation manifest in TXs as critical function hubs in the rsFC network. The negative association may imply a coping mechanism that dissociates bodily emotion from body image. The changes in the functional connectome may serve as representational markers for the dysphoric bodily self of TXs. PMID:24465785

  9. Towards Secure and Practical MACs for Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Z; Hartel, P.H.; Nikova, S.I.; Zhu, Bo

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor network (WSN) commonly requires lower level security for public information gathering, whilst body sensor network (BSN) must be secured with strong authenticity to protect personal health information. First in this paper, some practical problems with the Message Authentication Codes (MACs), which are suggested in the current security architectures for WSN, are reconsidered. The analysis exploits the fact that the recommended MACs for WSN, e.g., TinySec (CBC-MAC), MiniSec (OCB-...

  10. CSMA Local Area Networking under Dynamic Altruism

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Panayotis; Griffin, Christopher; Jin, Youngmi; Kesidis, George

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider medium access control of local area networks (LANs) under limited-information conditions as befits a distributed system. Rather than assuming "by rule" conformance to a protocol designed to regulate packet-flow rates (e.g., CSMA windowing), we begin with a non-cooperative game framework and build a dynamic altruism term into the net utility. The effects of altruism are analyzed at Nash equilibrium for both the ALOHA and CSMA frameworks in the quasistationary (fictitious play) regime. We consider either power or throughput based costs of networking, and the cases of identical or heterogeneous (independent) users/players. In a numerical study we consider diverse players, and we see that the effects of altruism for similar players can be beneficial in the presence of significant congestion, but excessive altruism may lead to underuse of the channel when demand is low.

  11. Home Area Networks and the Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clements, Samuel L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-04-01

    With the wide array of home area network (HAN) options being presented as solutions to smart grid challenges for the home, it is time to compare and contrast their strengths and weaknesses. This white paper examines leading and emerging HAN technologies. The emergence of the smart grid is bringing more networking players into the field. The need for low consistent bandwidth usage differs enough from the traditional information technology world to open the door to new technologies. The predominant players currently consist of a blend of the old and new. Within the wired world Ethernet and HomePlug Green PHY are leading the way with an advantage to HomePlug because it doesn't require installing new wires. In the wireless the realm there are many more competitors but WiFi and ZigBee seem to have the most momentum.

  12. Energy-efficient MAC Protocol for Patient Personal Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2005-01-01

    The formulation of a Personal Area Network (PAN), consisting of a wireless infrastructure of medical sensors, attached to patient's body, and a supervising device carried by them, lays the path for continuous and real-time monitoring of vital signs without discomforting the person in question. This infrastructure enhances the context of remote healthcare services by supporting flexible acquisition of crucial vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Aiming at the exploitation of the inherent features and requirements of wireless medical sensor networks, in this paper we focus on the main design guidelines of a low power Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, designated to support a patient PAN. The proposed protocol intends to improve energy efficiency in such applications and thus is oriented towards the prevention of main energy wastage sources, such as collision, idle listening and power outspending. PMID:17281057

  13. Neural network models: from biology to many - body phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current surge of research on practical side of neural networks and their utility in memory storage/recall, pattern recognition and classification is given in this article. The initial attraction of neural networks as dynamical and statistical system has been investigated. From the view of many-body theorist, the neurons may be thought of as particles, and the weighted connection between the units, as the interaction between these particles. Finally, the author has seen the impressive capabilities of artificial neural networks in pattern recognition and classification may be exploited to solve data management problems in experimental physics and the discovery of radically new theoretically description of physical problems and neural networks can be used in physics. (A.B.)

  14. AUTHENTICATED SYMMETRIC-KEY ESTABLISHMENT FOR MEDICAL BODY SENSOR NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Shudi; Poon Carmen C.Y.; Shen Lianfeng; Zhang Yuanting

    2007-01-01

    This study concerns security issues of the emerging Wireless Body Sensor Network(WBSN)formed by biomedical sensors worn on or implanted in the human body for mobile healthcare applications.A novel authenticated symmetric-key establishment scheme is proposed for WBSN,which fully exploits the physiological features obtained by network entities via the body channel available in WBSN but not other wireless networks.The self-defined Intrinsic Shared Secret(ISS)is used to replace the pre-deployment of secrets among network entities,which thus eliminates centralized services or authorities essential in existing protocols,and resolves the key transport problem in the pure symmetric-key cryptosystem for WBSN as well.The security properties of the proposed scheme are demonstrated in terms of its attack complexity and the types of attacks it can resist.Besides,the scheme can be implemented under a light-weight way in WBSN systems.Due to the importance of the ISS concept,the analysis on using false acceptance/false rejection method to evaluate the performance of ISS for its usage in the scheme is also demonstrated.

  15. Marine protected area networks in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsford, Louis W; White, J Wilson; Carr, Mark H; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    California responded to concerns about overfishing in the 1990s by implementing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) through two science-based decision-making processes. The first process focused on the Channel Islands, and the second addressed California's entire coastline, pursuant to the state's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). We review the interaction between science and policy in both processes, and lessons learned. For the Channel Islands, scientists controversially recommended setting aside 30-50% of coastline to protect marine ecosystems. For the MLPA, MPAs were intended to be ecologically connected in a network, so design guidelines included minimum size and maximum spacing of MPAs (based roughly on fish movement rates), an approach that also implicitly specified a minimum fraction of the coastline to be protected. As MPA science developed during the California processes, spatial population models were constructed to quantify how MPAs were affected by adult fish movement and larval dispersal, i.e., how population persistence within MPA networks depended on fishing outside the MPAs, and how fishery yields could either increase or decrease with MPA implementation, depending on fishery management. These newer quantitative methods added to, but did not supplant, the initial rule-of-thumb guidelines. In the future, similar spatial population models will allow more comprehensive evaluation of the integrated effects of MPAs and conventional fisheries management. By 2011, California had implemented 132 MPAs covering more than 15% of its coastline, and now stands on the threshold of the most challenging step in this effort: monitoring and adaptive management to ensure ecosystem sustainability. PMID:25358301

  16. Towards Power Efficient MAC Protocol for In-Body and On-Body Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup; 10.1007/978-3-642-01665-3_34

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical discussion on the design and implementation of a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for in-body and on-body sensor networks. We analyze the performance of a beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4, PB-TDMA, and S-MAC protocols for on-body sensor networks. We further present a Traffic Based Wakeup Mechanism that utilizes the traffic patterns of the BAN Nodes (BNs) to accommodate the entire BSN traffic. To enable a logical connection between different BNs working on different frequency bands, a method called Bridging function is proposed. The Bridging function integrates all BNs working on different bands into a complete BSN.

  17. Cutaneous anthrax on an unexpected area of body

    OpenAIRE

    Ertuğrul Güçlü; Nazan Tuna; Oğuz Karabay

    2012-01-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Cutaneous anthrax is the most commonly seen form of anthrax.Skin lesions usually occur on the most exposed areas of the body, such as the face, neck, hand or upper extremity.The aim of this paper is to report a case of cutaneous anthrax form which was occurred on an unexpected area of thebody of a slaughter-house worker. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2012;2(4): 163-164Key words: Anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, cutaneous

  18. Cascaded Network Body Channel Model for Intrabody Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Tang, Xian; Choy, Chiu Sing; Sobelman, Gerald E

    2016-07-01

    Intrabody communication has been of great research interest in recent years. This paper proposes a novel, compact but accurate body transmission channel model based on RC distribution networks and transmission line theory. The comparison between simulation and measurement results indicates that the proposed approach accurately models the body channel characteristics. In addition, the impedance-matching networks at the transmitter output and the receiver input further maximize the power transferred to the receiver, relax the receiver complexity, and increase the transmission performance. Based on the simulation results, the power gain can be increased by up to 16 dB after matching. A binary phase-shift keying modulation scheme is also used to evaluate the bit-error-rate improvement. PMID:26111404

  19. Exploring many-body physics with deep networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torlai, Giacomo; Carrasquilla, Juan; Schwab, David; Melko, Roger

    The introduction of neural networks with deep architecture has led to a revolution, giving rise to a new wave of technologies empowering our modern society. Although data science has been the main focus, the idea of generic algorithms which automatically extract features and representations from raw data is quite general and applicable in multiple scenarios. Motivated by the effectiveness of deep learning algorithms in revealing complex patterns and structures underlying data, we are interested in exploiting such tool in the context of many-body physics. In this talk we will focus on how to extract information about the physics of a many-body system from the generative training of a deep network, and ultimately consider discriminative tasks, such as phase diagrams estimation and critical points detection. We will discuss results for different classical spin systems, including models with quenched disorder.

  20. Recognizing Multi-user Activities using Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua;

    2011-01-01

    The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem of recogni......The advances of wireless networking and sensor technology open up an interesting opportunity to infer human activities in a smart home environment. Existing work in this paradigm focuses mainly on recognizing activities of a single user. In this work, we address the fundamental problem...... of recognizing activities of multiple users using a wireless body sensor network, and propose a scalable pattern mining approach to recognize both single- and multi-user activities in a unified framework. We exploit Emerging Pattern—a discriminative knowledge pattern which describes significant changes among...... activity classes of data—for building activity models and design a scalable, noise-resistant, Emerging Pattern based Multi-user Activity Recognizer (epMAR) to recognize both single- and multi-user activities. We develop a multi-modal, wireless body sensor network for collecting real-world traces in a smart...

  1. TIS process supervisory local area network (LAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TIS - the process supervisory LAN was installed at both the NPP V-1 twin-units of WWER-440/230 type and the NPP V-2 twin-units of WWER-440/213 type at Jaslovske Bohunice, Slovak Republic, in 1992. It represents a superstructure to the existing reactor unit process computers RPP-16S and IV 500 MA at the NPP V-1 and IVS Komplex Uran 2M and KVRK at the NPP V-2. The principal goal of TIS is to supply both the main control room staff and the NPP operation personnel and operation mode engineers with process information in a larger extent and on a higher level than the existing process computers do. TIS provides following process supervision functions: Taking over Data, Data Processing, Operative and Historical Data Collection, Active Alarm Management, Mimic Diagrams, REAL-time and Historical Trending, Horizontal Bargraphs, Data Tables, Report Generation, Shift Supervisor Support in case of Failure/Accident at NPP, User Database Applications, Computerized Operating Procedures, Programmable Prompts to Operator, ''Desk-top'' Calculator, Communication with Professional Departments, Auto-diagnostics. TIS is a PC local area network of QNX NET type, its data transmission rate being 2.5 Mbits/second. TIS is run under QNX operating system. Application software modules are written in QNX C and C-86 languages. Some functions were completed in OnCmd v.4.2 database environment. (author). 2 figs

  2. The body and objects represented in the ventral stream of the parieto-premotor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Akira; Wen, Wen; Asama, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    The network between the parietal cortex and premotor cortex has a pivotal role in sensory-motor control. Grasping-related neurons in the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and the ventral premotor cortex (F5) showed complementary properties each other. The object information for grasping is sent from the parietal cortex to the premotor cortex for sensory-motor transformation, and the backward signal from the premotor cortex to parietal cortex can be considered an efference copy/corollary discharge that is used to predict sensory outcome during motor behavior. Mirror neurons that represent both own action and other's action are involved in this system. This system also very well fits with body schema that reflects online state of the body during motor execution. We speculate that the parieto-premotor network, which includes the mirror neuron system, is key for mapping one's own body and the bodies of others. This means that the neuronal substrates that control one's own action and the mirror neuron system are shared with the "who" system, which is related to the recognition of action contribution, i.e., sense of agency. Representation of own and other's body in the parieto-premotor network is key to link between sensory-motor control and higher-order cognitive functions. PMID:26562332

  3. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz; Mari Carmen Domingo; Marco Antonio López-Trinidad; José Luis Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of...

  4. Integration of body sensor networks and vehicular ad-hoc networks for traffic safety

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Muñoz, María Angélica; Domingo Aladrén, Mari Carmen; López Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of...

  5. Madagascar's nascent locally managed marine area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Lee Mayol

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2004, the creation of locally managed marine areas (LMMAs in Madagascar has exponentially increased, highlighting the need for improved information sharing between communities and between support organizations. Until recently, however, these LMMAs operated in relative isolation, with little communication or coordination between LMMA community associations.Madagascar’s first national LMMA forum was held to address this need in June 2012 in the village of Andavadoaka. The forum brought together 55 community members from 18 LMMAs throughout Madagascar, representing a total of 134 villages. A principle outcome of this meeting was the formation of a national LMMA network named MIHARI, a Malagasy acronym that translates into ‘local marine resource management’. The nascent MIHARI network is an informal network that was inspired by the success of the LMMA Network in the Indo-Pacific region. MIHARI aims to facilitate peer-to-peer learning amongst coastal communities, improve communication, raise the profile and expand the use of the LMMA approach and serve as a unified lobbying platform for the interests of Madagascar’s traditional fishers.The creation of MIHARI represents a significant development towards uniting community-led approaches to conservation in Madagascar and highlights the significant role LMMAs can play in marine conservation on a national scale. This is of particular significance in Madagascar, a country with little capacity or financial resources to oversee large-scale marine conservation efforts, a problem compounded by both the vast coastline and geographical isolation of many fishing communities. Madagascar’s new LMMA network is leading the way for coastal community conservation in the western Indian Ocean and aims to serve as the basis for a wider regional LMMA network. RésuméDepuis 2004, la mise en place d’Aires Marines Gérées Localement (AMGL à Madagascar suit une augmentation exponentielle, mettant en lumi

  6. The network of brain areas involved in the motion aftereffect

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J. G.; Schmitz, N.; Ziemons, K.; Grosse-Ruyken, M. L.; Gruber, O; Müller-Gärtner, H. W.; Shah, J. N.

    2000-01-01

    A network of brain areas is expected to be involved in supporting the motion aftereffect. The most active components of this network were determined by means of an fMRI study of nine subjects exposed to a visual stimulus of moving bars producing the effect. Across the subjects, common areas were identified during various stages of the effect, as well as networks of areas specific to a single stage. In addition to the well-known motion-sensitive area MT the prefrontal brain areas BA44 and 47 a...

  7. Biometrics based novel key distribution solution for body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Fen; Jiang, Lei; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2009-01-01

    The security of wireless body sensor network (BSN) is very important to telemedicine and m-healthcare, and it still remains a critical challenge. This paper presents a novel key distribution solution which allows two sensors in one BSN to agree on a changeable cryptographic key. A previously published scheme, fuzzy vault, is firstly applied to secure the random cryptographic key generated from electrocardiographic (ECG) signals. Simulations based on ECG data from MIT PhysioBank database, produce a minimum half total error rate (HTER) of 0.65%, which demonstrates our key distribution solution is promising compared with previous method, with HTER of 4.26%. PMID:19964960

  8. A Synchronous Multi-Body Sensor Platform in a Wireless Body Sensor Network: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungtae Lee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human life can be further improved if diseases and disorders can be predicted before they become dangerous, by correctly recognizing signals from the human body, so in order to make disease detection more precise, various body-signals need to be measured simultaneously in a synchronized manner. Object: This research aims at developing an integrated system for measuring four signals (EEG, ECG, respiration, and PPG and simultaneously producing synchronous signals on a Wireless Body Sensor Network. Design: We designed and implemented a platform for multiple bio-signals using Bluetooth communication. Results: First, we developed a prototype board and verified the signals from the sensor platform using frequency responses and quantities. Next, we designed and implemented a lightweight, ultra-compact, low cost, low power-consumption Printed Circuit Board. Conclusion: A synchronous multi-body sensor platform is expected to be very useful in telemedicine and emergency rescue scenarios. Furthermore, this system is expected to be able to analyze the mutual effects among body signals.

  9. QoS-Aware Error Recovery in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Using Adaptive Network Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdur Razzaque

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS, in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network’s QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts.

  10. Data security in wireless local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever increasing demand for performance and data security improvement in wireless local area network (W LAN) has motivated increasing the difficulties to crack the system by man-in -the middle attacks. There are two primary and main objectives of this thesis to enhance data security in WLAN. The first objective is the enhancement of identities-exchange and key-exchange during authentication process. The second objective is the investigation of a proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm based on key-updating to enhance the performance of data-security in WLAN. The current asymmetrical encryption algorithms are used to authenticate the devices in WLAN to each other. They are used to exchange the identities and the keys in a secret channel during the authentication process. This thesis investigates the problems of identities- exchange. The enhancement of the identities-exchange and key-exchange stages during the authentication process has been suggested and studied in the thesis to solve the drawbacks of the traditional asymmetrical encryption algorithms.Next the investigation of a proposed symmetrical encryption to encrypt the data during the data exchange process gives a new approach to increase the difficulties to the man in the middle attacks to crack the system.The key updating with each packet is the new approach to solve the problem of the fixed key used to encrypt / decrypt the data with all packets in WLAN.A Comparative study between the proposed symmetrical encryption algorithms and the other algorithms is presented in the thesis. Proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm is applied on a text, voice, and image messages as practical applications of the proposed symmetrical encryption algorithm. Finally, the man-in-the middle attacks can broadcast noise signals in WLAN channels to prevent the data to reach correctly to the end-user. The quality of the received image is measured for the proposed and the traditional symmetrical encryption algorithms to

  11. Development of mechanism of packet capturing over local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today the Networks grow in the- scale along many dimensions, among those one of the dimensions is to analyze Network Traffic and to predict the traffic for future Networks. The fastest growth of DCN (Data Communication Networks) over the past decades has resulted in the development of various Network utilities, which perform Network evaluation in different domains. As more and more people are getting interested in the networking, more network monitoring application is being developed by the computer scientists and engineers. Usually, a network consist of different platforms and operating systems. On a Network packets of various types such as data packets, control packets, travel from PC to PC. In this paper we are going to present a network diagnostic Tool that captures all packets over local area network (LAN). The Network Diagnostic Tool captures packets under the platform windows NT/2000. The execution mode of the tool is absolutely at Run time. It tracks the packets as they move on from the lowest layer to the upper layer in the TCP/IP Protocol Stack. It efficiently decrypts all the incoming packets using the RFC (Request for Comments) standards. The results suggest that the Network Diagnostic tool successfully decrypts all the incoming network traffic accurately and efficiently. (author)

  12. Area laws and efficient descriptions of quantum many-body states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yimin; Eisert, Jens

    2016-08-01

    It is commonly believed that area laws for entanglement entropies imply that a quantum many-body state can be faithfully represented by efficient tensor network states—a conjecture frequently stated in the context of numerical simulations and analytical considerations. In this work, we show that this is in general not the case, except in one-dimension. We prove that the set of quantum many-body states that satisfy an area law for all Renyi entropies contains a subspace of exponential dimension. We then show that there are states satisfying area laws for all Renyi entropies but cannot be approximated by states with a classical description of small Kolmogorov complexity, including polynomial projected entangled pair states or states of multi-scale entanglement renormalisation. Not even a quantum computer with post-selection can efficiently prepare all quantum states fulfilling an area law, and we show that not all area law states can be eigenstates of local Hamiltonians. We also prove translationally and rotationally invariant instances of these results, and show a variation with decaying correlations using quantum error-correcting codes.

  13. Elements intake to the human body in contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Estimation of trace elements (including toxic ones) intake to human body is an extremely important problem because deficiency or toxic levels of these elements can cause diseases in humans. There are many studies in this field including the recommendation of International Commission on Radiological Protection [1] and Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives [2]. There are very averaged data. Actually each region may have quite different levels of elements intake [3]. In some cases foodstuff is produced in contaminated by industrial activity regions and is also contaminated. Foodstuffs from reference area and industrially contaminated area of Uzbekistan were collected and analysed using INAA. It has been shown that locally produced foodstuffs may contain significantly elevated levels of elements. For some elements was found that the total daily intake is tens times higher than levels given by recommended daily allowance (FAO/IAEA/WHO and ICRP). This study has been carried out within the framework of the IAEA CRP RC - 863 'Use of Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques in Studying Human Health Impacts of Toxic Elements Consumed Through Foodstuffs Contaminated by Industrial Activities', and STCU Project Uzb-109

  14. Large area controlled assembly of transparent conductive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ilia N.; Simpson, John T.

    2015-09-29

    A method of preparing a network comprises disposing a solution comprising particulate materials in a solvent onto a superhydrophobic surface comprising a plurality of superhydrophobic features and interfacial areas between the superhydrophobic features. The plurality of superhydrophobic features has a water contact angle of at least about 150.degree.. The method of preparing the network also comprises removing the solvent from the solution of the particulate materials, and forming a network of the particulate materials in the interfacial areas, the particulate materials receding to the interfacial areas as the solvent is removed.

  15. Storage Area Networks and The High Performance Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W

    2002-03-04

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.

  16. Split Architecture for Large Scale Wide Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    John, Wolfgang; Devlic, Alisa; Ding, Zhemin; Jocha, David; Kern, Andras; Kind, Mario; Köpsel, Andreas; Nordell, Viktor; Sharma, Sachin; Sköldström, Pontus; Staessens, Dimitri; Takacs, Attila; Topp, Steffen; Westphal, F. -Joachim; Woesner, Hagen

    2014-01-01

    This report defines a carrier-grade split architecture based on requirements identified during the SPARC project. It presents the SplitArchitecture proposal, the SPARC concept for Software Defined Networking (SDN) introduced for large-scale wide area networks such as access/aggregation networks, and evaluates technical issues against architectural trade-offs. First we present the control and management architecture of the proposed SplitArchitecture. Here, we discuss a recursive control archit...

  17. Simulation of Optical Packet—Switched Metropolitan Area Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱炳春; 贾潞华; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces architectures of two types optical packet-switched metropolitan area networks and their media access control protocols.We have designed ralated network simulation systems.With these simulation systems,the characteristics and performanceof the two MANs can be achieved.

  18. Usage of the cyclotron facility local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local area network of controllers at the Karlsruhe cyclotyron is shown. Experience after two years of usage is described. The system is applied controlling, data acquisition, management, databases usage

  19. The research of controller area network on hybrid electrical vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Hongxing; Song Liwei; Kou Baoquan; Cheng Shukang

    2006-01-01

    It is of increasing importance to design and implement vehicle networks for transferring information between electrical control units on Hybrid Electrical Vehicle (HEV). This paper presents a scheme of using Controller Area Network (CAN) technology to realize communication and datasharing between the electrical units on the HEV. The principle and communication protocol of Electrical Control Units (ECU) CAN node are introduced. By considering different sensitivity of the devices to the latency of data transportation, a new design procedure is proposed for the purpose of simplifying network codes and wiring harness, reducing assembly space and weight, improving assembly efficiency, and enhancing fault-diagnose in auto networks.

  20. Designing application software in wide area network settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makpangou, Mesaac; Birman, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Progress in methodologies for developing robust local area network software has not been matched by similar results for wide area settings. The design of application software spanning multiple local area environments is examined. For important classes of applications, simple design techniques are presented that yield fault tolerant wide area programs. An implementation of these techniques as a set of tools for use within the ISIS system is described.

  1. Dynamic Channel Allocation for Interference Mitigation in Relay-assisted Wireless Body Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mohamad Jaafar; Moungla, Hassine; Mehaoua, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    We focus on interference mitigation and energy conservation within a single wireless body area network (WBAN). We adopt two-hop communication scheme supported by the the IEEE 802.15.6 standard (2012). In this paper, we propose a dynamic channel allocation scheme, namely DCAIM to mitigate node-level interference amongst the coexisting regions of a WBAN. At the time, the sensors are in the radius communication of a relay, they form a relay region (RG) coordinated by that relay using time divisi...

  2. EMPLOYING SENSOR NETWORK TO GUIDE FIREFIGHTERS IN DANGEROUS AREA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koohi, Hamidreza; Nadernejad, Ehsan; Fathi, Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we intend to focus on the sensor network applications in firefighting. A distributed algorithm is developed for the sensor network to guide firefighters through a burning area. The sensor network models the danger of the area under coverage as obstacles, and has the property to adapt...... itself against possible changes. The protocol developed, will integrate the artificial potential field of the sensors with the information of the intended place of moving firefighter so that it guides the firefighter step by step through the sensor network by choosing the safest path in dangerous zones....... This protocol is simulated by Visual-Sense and the simulation results are available. Keyword: Firefighter, Sensor Network, Potential Field, Area’s Danger, Navigation...

  3. Determination of hand and palm area as a ratio of body surface area in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pawan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate estimation of body surface area (BSA burn is important. In small and patchy burns, the patient′s hand is used to estimate percentage of burn which is traditionally considered as 1%. There is discrepancy about what percentage of TBSA is constituted by the palm and hand. Therefore, this study was designed to determine correctly the TBSA represented by the palmar surface of the entire hand and palm in the Indian population. Material and Methods: 300 healthy adult (male and female and 300 healthy children (male and female were included in the study. TBSA was calculated using DuBois formula and hand and palm surface area was calculated using hand tracing on plain paper. The hand/palm percentage of BSA (ratio was determined by dividing hand/palm surface area by total BSA. Results: The mean hand and palm ratio for adults was 0.92% and 0.50%, respectively. The mean hand and palm ratio in children was 1.06% and 0.632%, respectively. Conclusion: The hand area (palm plus digits is more closely represented to 1% of TBSA in Indian population.

  4. Area Green Efficiency (AGE) of Two Tier Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    Small cell networks are becoming standard part of the future heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we consider a two tier heterogeneous network which promises energy savings by integrating the femto and macro cellular networks and thereby reducing CO2 emissions, operational and capital expenditures (OPEX and CAPEX) whilst enhancing the area spectral efficiency (ASE) of the network. In this context, we define a performance metric which characterize the aggregate energy savings per unit macrocell area and is referred to as area green efficiency (AGE) of the two tier heterogeneous network where the femto base stations are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell such that the configuration is referred to as femto-on-edge (FOE). The mobile users in macro and femto cellular networks are transmitting with the adaptive power while maintaining the desired link quality such that the energy aware FOE configuration mandates to (i) save energy, and (ii) reduce the co-channel interference. We present a mathematical analysis to incorporate the uplink power control mechanism adopted by the mobile users and calibrate the uplink ASE and AGE of the energy aware FOE configuration. Next, we derive analytical expressions to compute the bounds on the uplink ASE of energy aware FOE configuration and demonstrate that the derived bounds are useful in evaluating the ASE under worst and best case interference scenarios. Simulation results are produced to demonstrate the ASE and AGE improvements in comparison to macro-only and macro-femto configuration with uniformly distributed femtocells.

  5. RF Transceivers for Wireless Body Area Network Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshra, Islam; Allam, Mootaz; Sayed, Alhassan; Benabid, Sorore; Aboushady, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    This paper focuses on the system and circuit level consideration of radio frequency front-end transceivers dedicated to WBAN controllers. We show how highly digitized transceivers employing sigma-delta modulators can achieve the frequency agility required by WBAN controllers. The paper compares the performance and highlights the pros and cons of I/Q transmitters and polar transmitters. For the receiver, different sigma-delta based RF receiver architectures are presented. These architectures are compared with more conventional architectures in terms of their suitability to WBAN controllers.

  6. Decentralized Sensor Fusion for Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Ollero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we explain the architecture for the environment and sensors that has been built for the European project URUS (Ubiquitous Networking Robotics in Urban Sites, a project whose objective is to develop an adaptable network robot architecture for cooperation between network robots and human beings and/or the environment in urban areas. The project goal is to deploy a team of robots in an urban area to give a set of services to a user community. This paper addresses the sensor architecture devised for URUS and the type of robots and sensors used, including environment sensors and sensors onboard the robots. Furthermore, we also explain how sensor fusion takes place to achieve urban outdoor execution of robotic services. Finally some results of the project related to the sensor network are highlighted.

  7. Synchronizing computer clocks using a local area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Judah

    1990-01-01

    Researchers completed the first tests of a method to synchronize the clocks of networked computers to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) time scale. The method uses a server computer to disseminate the time to other clients on the same local-area network. The server is synchronized to NIST using the ACTS protocol over a dial-up telephone line. The software in both the server and the parameters of this model are used to adjust the time of the local clock and the interval between calibration requests in a statistically optimum way. The algorithm maximizes the time between calibrations while at the same time keeping the time of the local clock correct within a specific tolerance. The method can be extended to synchronize computers linked over wide-area networks, and an experiment to test the performance of the algorithms over such networks is being planned.

  8. Shareholding Network in the Euro Area Banking Market

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolò Pecora; Alessandro Spelta

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing the topological properties of the network of shareholding relationships among the Euro Area banks we evaluate the relevance of a bank in the ?nancial system respect to ownership and control of other banks. We ?nd that the degree distribution of the European banking network displays power laws in both the binary and the weighted case. We also ?nd that the exponents are linked by a scaling relation revealing a direct connection between an increase of control diversi?cation and an incr...

  9. Local area networks an introduction to the technology

    CERN Document Server

    McNamara, John E

    1985-01-01

    This concise book provides an objective introduction to local area networks - how they work, what they do, and how you can benefit from them. It outlines the pros and cons of the most common configurations so you can evaluate them in light of your own needs. You'll also learn about network software, with special emphasis on the ISO layered model of communications protocols.

  10. A trusted connection framework for multilevel secure Local Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jeffery Dwane.

    2000-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School is developing a Multilevel Secure Local Area Network (MLS LAN) that incorporates commercial-off-the-shelf client workstations to provide multiple users with simultaneous secure access to stored data of different sensitivity levels. The MLS LAN uses a Trusted Computing Base Extension (TCBE) in the LAN's client workstations to extend the TCB from the trusted server across the network to these workstations. Connections between elements of the LAN are under TCB contr...

  11. An access control architecture for metropolitan area wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Friday, Adrian; Wu, Maomao; Schmid, Stefan; Finney, Joseph; Cheverst, Keith; Davies, Nigel

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a novel wireless access point architecture designed to support the development of next generation mobile context-aware applications over metropolitan scale areas. In addition, once deployed, this network will allow ordinary citizens secure, accountable and convenient access to the Internet from their local city and campus environments. The proposed architecture is based on an approach utilising a modified Mobile IPv6 protocol stack that uses packet marking and network leve...

  12. Ecological Infrastructures on Road Networks in and around Forested Areas.

    OpenAIRE

    Gülci, Sercan; Akay, Abdullah E.

    2015-01-01

    The road networks are located in and around forested areas to ensure sustainable management of forest resources. However, it is crucial to improve roads due to their habitat fragmentation and the barrier effects on forest ecosystems. Especially the wild animals, as one of the important components of ecosystem, are detrimentally affected by road networks due to degradation, alteration, conversion, and loss of their habitats. In recent years, ecological infrastructures have been developed to pr...

  13. A local area computer network expert system framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominy, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Over the past years an expert system called LANES designed to detect and isolate faults in the Goddard-wide Hybrid Local Area Computer Network (LACN) was developed. As a result, the need for developing a more generic LACN fault isolation expert system has become apparent. An object oriented approach was explored to create a set of generic classes, objects, rules, and methods that would be necessary to meet this need. The object classes provide a convenient mechanism for separating high level information from low level network specific information. This approach yeilds a framework which can be applied to different network configurations and be easily expanded to meet new needs.

  14. Active system area networks for data intensive computations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-04-01

    The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.

  15. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  16. Simulator configuration management systems and local area networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed revisions to American Nuclear Society 3.5-1985 (Section 5) (Draft for American National Standards Institute-ANS-3.5-1990) require nuclear powered Utilities to establish a Simulator Configuration Management System (CMS). Solutions have been presented by S3 Technologies that use a relational database approach to establish a simulator design database. This database can be used as a powerful informational tool by many users, but only if the database supports multi-user capabilities. Local Area Networks (LANs) provide the means of inexpensive manner. Moreover, LANs can improve all types of communications, not just database sharing, through the use of E-mail and multi- user word processing packages. This paper provides an overview of commercially available local area networks. Topics covered will be LAN definitions, LAN applications (CMS, CAD/CAM, and data processing), the advantages and restrictions of local area networking, the specific technologies of the LAN (media, topologies, bridges, and gateways), and LAN standards

  17. Protocol of Magnetic Field Area Network and its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Yunjae; Kang, Shinjae; Lim, Seungok [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kahng, Hyunkook [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The social needs are increasing in the wireless communication technology based on sensors for the monitoring of natural disasters such as avalanche and storm, the management of underground conditions from ground sinking and landslide, the monitoring of pipes, wires buried under the ground, the management of building and bridge, and the monitoring of the pollutions such as soils and water. However, the conventional wireless communication systems based on EM (Electro Magnetic) waves have not supported reliable communication because of large signal strength attenuation around soil, water, and metals. In order to handle this problem, various efforts in the wireless communication area have been conducted. Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) supports the reliable communication service without large signal attenuation around water, soil, and metal. Therefore, Magnetic Field Area Network (MFAN) is expected to be one of promising solutions to the limit of the conventional technologies such as Radio Frequency Indentification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

  18. 基于枝节谐振器的体域网超宽带陷波天线优化设计%Optimization design of UWB band-notched antenna for wireless body area network based on T stub resonator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗志勇; 胡俊锋; 张彬; 庞宇; 吴建

    2015-01-01

    为满足无线体域网(wireless body area network,WBAN)应用中对超宽带天线的陷波要求,采用在槽孔型的辐射贴片上添加十字型枝节谐振器的方法优化设计了一款超宽带陷波天线.天线使用共面波导方式馈电,使天线获得较宽的带宽.通过嵌入十字型枝节谐振器调谐天线的阻抗,实现陷波特性.通过仿真分析确定谐振器横、竖枝节的尺寸范围.利用量子进化算法对谐振器的横、竖尺寸进行优化,获取使天线的陷波频带达到最佳要求的谐振器尺寸参数.根据优化结果制作实物天线,天线的带宽为3.4-9.9 GHz,陷波频段为5.2-5.8 GHz.由天线回波损耗及方向图的仿真和测试结果表明,该优化设计方法是有效的.

  19. Towards implantable body sensor networks - Performance of MICS band radio communication in animal tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramachandran, V.R.K.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Zhang, Kui; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable wireless communication inside the human body is crucial for the design of implantable body sensor networks (IBSN). The tissues in human body are heterogeneous and have dierent conductivity and permitivity, which make the modeling of the wireless channel challenging. The design of upper laye

  20. System Architecture of HatterHealthConnect: An Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Social Networks to Improve Health Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Hala ElAarag; David Bauschlicher; Steven Bauschlicher

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, the demand for efficient healthcare monitoring has increased and forced the health and wellness industry to embrace modern technological advances. Body Sensor Networks, or BSNs, can remotely collect users data and upload vital statistics to servers over the Internet. Advances in wireless technologies such as cellular devices and Bluetooth increase the mobility users experience while wearing a body sensor network. When connected by the proper framework, BSNs can efficient...

  1. INTERFERENCES BETWEEN THE ECOLOGICAL NETWORK AND URBANIZED AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IWONA ZWIERZCHOWSKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents spatial relations between Polish urban areas and valuable habitats and links between them composing the country’s ecological network. The quantitative analysis for 891 towns and cities was conducted using GIS techniques based on cartographic vector data and statistical data. Valuable habitats and links between them, such as national parks, landscape parks, CORINE biotopes sites, wildlife corridors linking NATURA 2000 sites and ECONET areas, can be found in 72% of Polish towns and cities. The proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas is different depending on the size of a town or city and its location. Urban areas with the highest index of presence of valuable habitats and links between them are concentrated in the south of Poland, where settlement network is most dense. However, in the case of those areas the proportion of artificial surfaces interfering with the ecological network is lower than Poland’s average, being 16%. The pressure of anthropogenic land cover extending onto the country’s ecological network is most conspicuous in urban areas with a population of at least several dozen thousand residents where the average developed area is 20.8% of their total area. The danger for the continuity of the nature system is best seen in the north westernPoland, where artificial surfaces interference in towns and cities is largest. The analysis performed identified 82 towns and cities, in which the preservation of the continuity of the ecological networkshould be a priority in spatial management because of a higher than average index of the presence of valuable habitats and links between them and large proportion of artificial surfaces in those areas.

  2. A multiscale network analysis of protected-area connectivity for mammals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Emily S; Lookingbill, Todd R

    2010-12-01

    Protected areas must be close, or connected, enough to allow for the preservation of large-scale ecological and evolutionary processes, such as gene flow, migration, and range shifts in response to climate change. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether the network of protected areas in the United States is connected in a way that will preserve biodiversity over large temporal and spatial scales. It is also unclear whether protected-area networks that function for larger species will function for smaller species. We assessed the connectivity of protected areas in the three largest biomes in the United States. With methods from graph theory--a branch of mathematics that deals with connectivity and flow--we identified and measured networks of protected areas for three different groups of mammals. We also examined the value of using umbrella species (typically large-bodied, far-ranging mammals) in designing large-scale networks of protected areas. Although the total amount of protected land varied greatly among biomes in the United States, overall connectivity did not. In general, protected-area networks were well connected for large mammals but not for smaller mammals. Additionally, it was not possible to predict connectivity for small mammals on the basis of connectivity for large mammals, which suggests the umbrella species approach may not be an appropriate design strategy for conservation networks intended to protect many species. Our findings indicate different strategies should be used to increase the likelihood of persistence for different groups of species. Strategic linkages of existing lands should be a conservation priority for smaller mammals, whereas conservation of larger mammals would benefit most from the protection of more land. PMID:20666801

  3. Compute and Storage Clouds Using Wide Area High Performance Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Robert L; Sabala, Michael; Zhang, Wanzhi

    2008-01-01

    We describe a cloud based infrastructure that we have developed that is optimized for wide area, high performance networks and designed to support data mining applications. The infrastructure consists of a storage cloud called Sector and a compute cloud called Sphere. We describe two applications that we have built using the cloud and some experimental studies.

  4. Species interactions–area relationships: biological invasions and network structure in relation to island area

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Shinji

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between species number and island area is a fundamental rule in ecology. However, the extent to which interactions with exotic species and how the structure of species interactions is related to island area remain unexplored. Here, I document the relationship between island area and (i) interactions with exotic species and (ii) network structure of species interactions in the context of mutualistic interactions between ants and extrafloral nectary-bearing plants on the oceani...

  5. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  6. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Muñoz, Angelica; Domingo, Mari Carmen; López-Trinidad, Marco Antonio; Delgado, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs) a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1) an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving) that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2) A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3) as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels. PMID:26784204

  7. Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks for Traffic Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Reyes-Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs constitutes a new and fast growing trend for the development of daily routine applications. However, in the case of heterogeneous BSNs integration with Vehicular ad hoc Networks (VANETs a large number of difficulties remain, that must be solved, especially when talking about the detection of human state factors that impair the driving of motor vehicles. The main contributions of this investigation are principally three: (1 an exhaustive review of the current mechanisms to detect four basic physiological behavior states (drowsy, drunk, driving under emotional state disorders and distracted driving that may cause traffic accidents is presented; (2 A middleware architecture is proposed. This architecture can communicate with the car dashboard, emergency services, vehicles belonging to the VANET and road or street facilities. This architecture seeks on the one hand to improve the car driving experience of the driver and on the other hand to extend security mechanisms for the surrounding individuals; and (3 as a proof of concept, an Android real-time attention low level detection application that runs in a next-generation smartphone is developed. The application features mechanisms that allow one to measure the degree of attention of a driver on the base of her/his EEG signals, establish wireless communication links via various standard wireless means, GPRS, Bluetooth and WiFi and issue alarms of critical low driver attention levels.

  8. Metro Cebu: A Metropolitan Area in Need of Coordinative Body

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Glenda R.

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization and rapid increase in population in Metro Cebu brought about increased demand for basic services and infrastructure. The creation of the Metro Cebu Development Council comprising of the four (4) cities and six (6) municipalities in the eastern part of the Cebu Province, as an organizational structure, attempts to address these problems. However, services that require areas larger than a local jurisdiction for cost-effective provisioning like water supply, garbage disposal and sol...

  9. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Pirbhulal; Heye Zhang; Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay; Chunyue Li; Yumei Wang; Guanglin Li; Wanqing Wu; Yuan-Ting Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resour...

  10. Multiplex networks in metropolitan areas: generic features and local effects

    CERN Document Server

    Strano, Emanuele; Dobson, Simon; Barthelemy, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most large cities are spanned by more than one transportation system. These different modes of transport have usually been studied separately: it is however important to understand the impact on urban systems of the coupling between them and we report in this paper an empirical analysis of the coupling between the street network and the subway for the two large metropolitan areas of London and New York. We observe a similar behaviour for network quantities related to quickest paths suggesting the existence of generic mechanisms operating beyond the local peculiarities of the specific cities studied. An analysis of the betweenness centrality distribution shows that the introduction of underground networks operate as a decentralising force creating congestions in places located at the end of underground lines. Also, we find that increasing the speed of subways is not always beneficial and may lead to unwanted uneven spatial distributions of accessibility. In fact, for London -- but not for New York -- there is ...

  11. Indexing Glomerular Filtration Rate to Body Surface Area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redal-Baigorri, Belén; Rasmussen, Knud; Heaf, James Goya

    2014-01-01

    -indexed GFR vs. mean absolute GFR were analyzed with a t-test for paired data. Bland-Altman plot was used to analyze agreement between the indexed and absolute GFR values. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: BSA-GFR in patients with a BSA <1.60 m(2) overestimated GFR with a bias of 10.08 ml/min (11.46%) and....... We investigated the impact of indexing GFR to BSA in cancer patients, as this BSA indexation might affect the reported individual kidney function. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 895 adults who had their kidney function measured with (51) chrome ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. Mean values of BSA...... underestimated GFR in those with a BSA >2 m(2) with a bias up to -20.76 ml/min (-23.59%). BSA is not a good normalization index (NI) in patients with extreme body sizes. Therefore, until a better NI is found, we recommend clinicians to use the absolute GFR to calculate individual drug chemotherapy dosage as well...

  12. Decentralized Inter-User Interference Suppression in Body Sensor Networks with Non-cooperative Game

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Guowei; Xia, Feng; Yao, Lin; Xu, Zichuan

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) provide continuous health monitoring and analysis of physiological parameters. A high degree of Quality-of-Service (QoS) for BSN is extremely required. Inter-user interference is introduced by the simultaneous communication of BSNs congregating in the same area. In this paper, a decentralized inter-user interference suppression algorithm for BSN, namely DISG, is proposed. Each BSN measures the SINR from other BSNs and then adaptively selects the suitable channel and transmission power. By utilizing non-cooperative game theory and no regret learning algorithm, DISG provides an adaptive inter-user interference suppression strategy. The correctness and effectiveness of DISG is theoretically proved, and the experimental results show that DISG can reduce the effect of inter-user interference effectively.

  13. Perfect Match: Biometrics and Body Patterning in a Networked World

    OpenAIRE

    Gillian Fuller

    2003-01-01

    Bodies are increasingly becoming collectively integrated into informational processes which are open to biotechnical forms of regulation. Biometrics, the use of body measurements such as retina scanning, face recognition and fingerprinting is now being uncontroversially introduced throughout the world under the aegis of security and efficient traffic management. Fields that once molded the individual through bodily confinement and observation are dispersing and converging into the regimes of ...

  14. Network Architecture, Security Issues, and Hardware Implementation of a Home Area Network for Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Saponara; Tony Bacchillone

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses aims, architecture, and security issues of Smart Grid, taking care of the lesson learned at University of Pisa in research projects on smart energy and grid. A key element of Smart Grid is the energy home area network (HAN), for which an implementation is proposed, dealing with its security aspects and showing some solutions for realizing a wireless network based on ZigBee. Possible hardware-software architectures and implementations using COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf) ...

  15. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Nord, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness aspects in both uniform and unbalanced traffic scenarios, for both Poisson and bursty input traffic. Simulations show a trade-off between performance and complexity. Whilst the static wavelength route...

  16. Analytical model of human body in area influenced by superhigh voltage overhead lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustafaev, R.I.; Krutko, E.G.

    1985-05-01

    A new model for the human body is proposed that makes it possible, employing the smallest possible number of fictitious charges, to perform biomedical research, by establishing the current distribution in the human body analytically, and also to determine the induced leakage potentials and currents in the system consisting of a superhigh voltage overhead line, a human body, and grounded or ungrounded objects. The proposed model reflects the real shape and surface area of the human body with sufficient accuracy, and can be used to calculate the total leakage current through the legs of grounded body to within 5%. The displacement current can be found to within 15%.

  17. REAL TIME ANALYSIS OF WIRELESS CONTROLLER AREA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardine Immaculate Mary

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that Control Area Networks (CAN are used in real-time, distributed and parallel processing which cover manufacture plants, humanoid robots, networking fields, etc., In applications where wireless conditions are encountered it is convenient to continue the exchange of CAN frames within the Wireless CAN (WCAN. The WCAN considered in this research is based on wireless token ring protocol (WTRP; a MAC protocol for wireless networks to reduce the number of retransmissions due to collision and the wired counterpart CAN attribute on message based communication. WCAN uses token frame method to provide channel access to the nodes in the system. This method allow all the nodes to share common broadcast channel by taken turns in transmitting upon receiving the token frame which is circulating within the network for specified amount of time. This method provides high throughput in bounded latency environment, consistent and predictable delays and good packet delivery ratio. The most important factor to consider when evaluating a control network is the end-to-end time delay between sensors, controllers, and actuators. The correct operation of a control system depends on the timeliness of the data coming over the network, and thus, a control network should be able to guarantee message delivery within a bounded transmission time. The proposed WCAN is modeled and simulated using QualNet, and its average end to end delay and packet delivery ratio (PDR are calculated. The parameters boundaries of WCAN are evaluated to guarantee a maximum throughput and a minimum latency time, in the case of wireless communications, precisely WCAN.

  18. Hybrid Wavelength Routed and Optical Packet Switched Ring Networks for the Metropolitan Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nord, Martin

    Increased data traffic in the metropolitan area network calls for new network architectures. This paper evaluates optical ring architectures based on optical packet switching, wavelength routing, and hybrid combinations of the two concepts. The evaluation includes overall throughput and fairness...... aspects in both uniform and unbalanced traffic scenarios, for both Poisson and bursty input traffic. Simulations show a trade-off between performance and complexity. Whilst the static wavelength routed optical network is a good solutions for uniform traffic, the proposed hybrid architectures are more...

  19. An Algorithm for Technology Choice in Local Area Network Design

    OpenAIRE

    Ann S. Marucheck; Joanne M. Sulek

    1987-01-01

    Technological advances in both the manufacturing and office sectors have emphasized the need to link processors and communications equipment into Local Area Networks (LANs) to facilitate communication and promote resource sharing. Interviews with designers and users of LANs revealed that a primary problem in the acquisition of a LAN is making technology choices in a cost effective manner when the available technologies and their costs are constantly changing. Since no standards for technology...

  20. An Overview of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)

    OpenAIRE

    AlShourbaji, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Communication is an application of science and technology that has come to be vital for modern existence. From the early radio and telephone to current devices such as mobile phones and laptops, accessing the global network has become the most essential and indispensable part of our lifestyle. Wireless communication is an ever developing field, and the future holds many possibilities in this area. One expectation for the future in this field is that, the devices can be developed to s...

  1. A Large Area Fiber Optic Gyroscope on multiplexed fiber network

    OpenAIRE

    Costanzo, Giovanni Antonio; Pizzocaro, Marco; Clivati, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    We describe a fiber optical gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect realized on a multiplexed telecom fiber network. Our loop encloses an area of 20 km2 and coexists with Internet data traffic. This Sagnac interferometer achieves a sensitivity of about (10-8 rad/s)/sqrt(Hz), thus approaching ring laser gyroscopes without using narrow linewidth laser nor sophisticated optics. The proposed gyroscope is sensitive enough for seismic applications, opening new possibilities for this kind of optical fi...

  2. A Large Area Fiber Optic Gyroscope on multiplexed fiber network

    OpenAIRE

    Clivati, Cecilia; Calonico, Davide; Giovanni A. Costanzo; Mura, Alberto; Pizzocaro, Marco; Levi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    We describe a fiber optical gyroscope based on the Sagnac effect realized on a multiplexed telecom fiber network. Our loop encloses an area of 20 km^2 and coexists with Internet data traffic. This Sagnac interferometer achieves a sensitivity of about 1e-8 (rad/s)/sqrt(Hz), thus approaching ring laser gyroscopes without using narrow-linewidth laser nor sophisticated optics. The proposed gyroscope is sensitive enough for seismic applications, opening new possibilities for this kind of optical f...

  3. Wireless Local Area Networks with Multiple-Packet Reception Capability

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying Jun; Zheng, Peng Xuan; Liew, Soung Chang

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to its simplicity and cost efficiency, wireless local area network (WLAN) enjoys unique advantages in providing high-speed and low-cost wireless services in hot spots and indoor environments. Traditional WLAN medium-access-control (MAC) protocols assume that only one station can transmit at a time: simultaneous transmissions of more than one station causes the destruction of all packets involved. By exploiting recent advances in PHY-layer multiuser detection (MUD) techniques, it is pos...

  4. On the Interaction between a Nanoparticulate System and the Human Body in Body Area Nanonetworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Loscrí

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the interaction of a nanoparticulate system for nanomedicine applications with the biological environment, i.e., the human body. Following the molecular communication paradigm, we assess how our nanoparticulate system model is suitable for coexistence in a biological environment. Specifically, we assume the presence of the human immune system that can affect the optimal behavior of nanoparticles, aiming to locally deliver drug inside the human body. When a flow of nanoparticles is injected into the blood, the interference due to the immune system can provide a strong decrease of the nanoparticle concentration, by means of “humoral immunity”, the phagocytosis process, etc. As a consequence, the correct drug delivery will occur with a lower probability. Since the mechanism behind the biological immune system is very complicated, in this paper, we start from a simplistic nanoparticulate model, where the nanoparticles and the cells of the immune system are subject to the diffusion laws. Finally, we derive the end-to-end physical model of our nanoparticulate nanomedicine system with the presence of the human immune system cells. The error analysis is then investigated in terms of how these errors can affect the performance of the system, i.e., nanoparticle survival probability.

  5. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. A.; Blake-James, M.; Green, S.; Beddoe, A. H.

    2002-03-01

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing.

  6. Investigation into the relationship between body surface area and total body potassium using Monte Carlo and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of body surface area (BSA) as a means of indexing chemotherapy doses is widespread even though the value of this practice is uncertain. In principle, the body cell mass (BCM) more closely represents the body's metabolic size and this is investigated here as an alternative to BSA; since 98% of body potassium is intracellular the derivation of total body potassium (TBK) via the measurement of 40K in a whole body counter (WBC) will provide a useful normalizing index for metabolic size, potentially avoiding toxicity and underdosing. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital WBC has been used in this study, initially involving single geometrical phantoms and then combinations of these to simulate human body habitus. Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP) codes were constructed to model the phantoms and simulate the measurements made in the WBC. Efficiency corrections were derived by comparing measurement and modelled data for each detector separately. A method of modelling a person in the WBC as a series of ellipsoids was developed. Twenty-four normal males and 24 females were measured for their 40K emissions. Individual MCNP codes were constructed for each volunteer and the results used in conjunction with the measurements to derive TBK, correcting for body habitus effects and detector efficiencies. An estimate of the component of error arising from sources other than counting statistics was included by analysing data from the measurement of phantoms. The total residual errors (expressed as coefficients of variation) for males and females were 10.1% and 8.5% respectively. The measurement components were determined to be 2.4% and 2.5%, implying that the biological components were 9.8% and 8.1% respectively. These results suggest that the use of BSA for indexing chemotherapy doses is likely to give rise to clinically significant under- or overdosing. (author)

  7. Effects of Body Mass Index and Body Fat Percent on Default Mode, Executive Control, and Salience Network Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figley, Chase R; Asem, Judith S A; Levenbaum, Erica L; Courtney, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that obesity decreases overall life expectancy and increases the risk of several adverse health conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that body fat is likely also associated with structural and functional brain changes, reduced cognitive function, and greater impulsivity. However, previously reported differences in brain structure and function have been variable across studies and difficult to reconcile due to sample population and methodological differences. To clarify these issues, we correlated two independent measures of body composition-i.e., body mass index (BMI) and body fat percent (BFP)-with structural and functional neuroimaging data obtained from a cohort of 32 neurologically healthy adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analyses indicated that higher BMI and BFP were associated with widespread decreases in gray matter volume, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure (including several regions, such as the striatum and orbitofrontal cortex, which may influence value assessment, habit formation, and decision-making). Moreover, closer examination of resting state functional connectivity, white matter volume, and white matter microstructure throughout the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and salience network (SN) revealed that higher BMI and BFP were associated with increased SN functional connectivity and decreased white matter volumes throughout all three networks (i.e., the DMN, ECN, and SN). Taken together, these findings: (1) offer a biologically plausible explanation for reduced cognitive performance, greater impulsivity, and altered reward processing among overweight individuals, and (2) suggest neurobiological mechanisms (i.e., altered functional and structural brain connectivity) that may affect overweight individuals' ability to establish and maintain healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:27378831

  8. A hybrid 802.16/802.11 network architecture for a United States coastal area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Jack L.; Kasch, William T.; Andrusenko, Julia; Haberman, Brian K.; Nichols, Robert; Zheng, Harold

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a concept for a United States Coastal Area Network (U-SCAN) that is comprised of IEEE 802.11, 802.16, and satellite communications technologies. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) on behalf of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) has tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to perform an architectural study into the establishment of a United States Coastal Area Network (U-SCAN). The goal of this study is to define a wireless network architecture that can be deployed to enable contiguous coastal area network coverage for scientific, commercial, and homeland security (e.g. Coast Guard) applications within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), in a manner that is flexible, manageable, and affordable. The JHU/APL study will ultimately provide recommendations to NOPP regarding potential network architectures and technologies that could provide the desired capability, with a particular focus on commercial (both existing and emerging) technologies. This paper presents the envisioned U-SCAN architecture, and presents the envisioned technical capabilities and shortcomings of the component candidate technologies.

  9. Terabit Optical Local Area Networks for Multiprocessing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Ted H.; Au, Albert; Lafrenière-Roula, Myriam; Tyan, Victor; Supmonchai, Boonchuay; Wong, James; Zerrouk, Belkacem; Obenaus, Stefan Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The design of a scalable optical local area network for multiprocessing systems is described. Each workstation has a parallel-fiber-ribbon optical link to a centralized complementary metal-oxide silicon (CMOS) switch core, implemented on a single compact printed circuit board (PCB). When the Motorola Optobus fiber technology is used, each workstation has a data bandwidth of 6.4 Gbits /s to the core. A centralized switch core interconnecting 32 workstations supports a 204-Gbit /s aggregate data bandwidth. The switch core is based on a conventional broadcast-and-select architecture, implemented with parallel CMOS integrated circuits (IC s). The switch core scales well; by incorporation of the CMOS optoelectronic IC s with optical input -output, the electrical core can be reduced to a single-chip optoelectronic IC with terabit capacities. A prototype of an optoelectronic switch core has been fabricated and is described. The appeal of the architecture includes its reliance on commercially available parallel-fiber technology, its reliance on the well-developed markets of local area networks and networks of workstations, and its smooth scalability from the electrical to optical domains as technology matures.

  10. Interdependence between body surface area and ultraviolet B dose in vitamin D production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, M K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, P A;

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation.......Ultraviolet (UV) B radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) [25(OH)D], but the relationship to body surface area and UVB dose needs investigation....

  11. Space, place and body: temporary coalitions, nodes in a network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerith Power

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this collection share a concern for place, space and bodies as frameworks for thinking about and conducting educational research. The authors range in experience from senior academics, independent educators, beginning and emerging new researchers spanning a range of educational sectors. The articles originate from connections forged within and between Australia and northern countries with visits back and forth between 2004 and 2010. Some of the writers have met each other in these travels and others have not. All have encountered and participated in some way in the work of the space place and body research group, which originated in 2007 as a named research ‘node’ at Monash University.   The space place and body group formed as a result of a process designed to re-imagine research in the Faculty of Education at Monash University in order to address ‘the big questions of our time’. As a leading global university with campuses in Asia and Europe as well as several in Australia, the Dean of the Faculty cited recent evidence that the field of educational research had become too narrowly focused and that new approaches were needed to enliven the field and move it forward. Individualistic research was no longer supported and groups were formed organically around coalitions of interest. The purpose of the space place and body group was to come together to generate new conceptual, theoretical and methodological resources within the core concepts of space, place and body by collaborating across our differences. In the early phase of our development we focused on linked identity (ontological and knowledge (epistemological work, at the intersection of postcolonial and poststructural approaches to place in educational research. A specific interest in alternative and creative methodologies emerged from these onto-epistemological activities.   As part of our process we initiated temporary definitions of space, place and body, to

  12. On achieving network throughput demand in cognitive radio-based home area networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarijari, M.A.B.; Abdullah, M.S.; Janssen, G.J.M.; Van der Veen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of wireless devices for in-house use is causing a more intense use of the spectrum to satisfy the required quality-of-service such as throughput. This has contributed to spectrum scarcity and interference problems particularly in home area networks (HAN). Cognitive radio (CR) has

  13. Modbus based smart radiation monitoring network of area gamma monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of Low cost microprocessors/micro controllers and VLSI based ASIPs, the field of instrumentation is undergoing a rapid change. Connectivity of a remote computer to the instruments for accessing the data and other diagnostic information has become one of the important requirements of all modern instruments, in addition to providing accurate measurement data. This is more so, in case of those instruments, which are located in some hostile environments such as radioactive zones of nuclear power reactor. The details of a network of Area Gamma Monitors (AGM) using the modbus protocol, are presented in this paper. The paper highlights the details of the AGM, protocol implementation and the windows based graphical user interface, implemented on a PC that can act as a master node, for interacting with various AGMs on the network. (author)

  14. Adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Rebecca; Jupiter, Stacy D

    2013-12-01

    Adaptive management of natural resources is an iterative process of decision making whereby management strategies are progressively changed or adjusted in response to new information. Despite an increasing focus on the need for adaptive conservation strategies, there remain few applied examples. We describe the 9-year process of adaptive comanagement of a marine protected area network in Kubulau District, Fiji. In 2011, a review of protected area boundaries and management rules was motivated by the need to enhance management effectiveness and the desire to improve resilience to climate change. Through a series of consultations, with the Wildlife Conservation Society providing scientific input to community decision making, the network of marine protected areas was reconfigured so as to maximize resilience and compliance. Factors identified as contributing to this outcome include well-defined resource-access rights; community respect for a flexible system of customary governance; long-term commitment and presence of comanagement partners; supportive policy environment for comanagement; synthesis of traditional management approaches with systematic monitoring; and district-wide coordination, which provided a broader spatial context for adaptive-management decision making. Co-Manejo Adaptativo de una Red de Áreas Marinas Protegidas en Fiyi. PMID:24112643

  15. Shared "core" areas between the pain and other task-related networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cauda

    Full Text Available The idea of a 'pain matrix' specifically devoted to the processing of nociceptive inputs has been challenged. Alternative views now propose that the activity of the primary and secondary somatosensory cortices (SI, SII, the insula and cingulate cortex may be related to a basic defensive system through which significant potentially dangerous events for the body's integrity are detected. By reviewing the role of the SI, SII, the cingulate and the insular cortices in the perception of nociceptive and tactile stimuli, in attentional, emotional and reward tasks, and in interoception and memory, we found that all these task-related networks overlap in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the anterior insula and the dorsal medial thalamus. A thorough analysis revealed that the 'pain-related' network shares important functional similarities with both somatomotor-somatosensory networks and emotional-interoceptive ones. We suggest that these shared areas constitute the central part of an adaptive control system involved in the processing and integration of salient information coming both from external and internal sources. These areas are activated in almost all fMRI tasks and have been indicated to play a pivotal role in switching between externally directed and internally directed brain networks.

  16. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  17. Scaling of Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate in Kidney Donor Candidates by Anthropometric Estimates of Body Surface Area, Body Water, Metabolic Rate, or Liver Size

    OpenAIRE

    Daugirdas, John T.; Meyer, Kathryn; Greene, Tom; Butler, Robert S.; Poggio, Emilio D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and objectives: GFR is scaled to body surface area (S), whereas hemodialysis dosage is scaled to total body water (V). Scaling to metabolic rate (M) or liver size (L) has also been proposed.

  18. An area-efficient network interface for a TDM-based Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Kasapaki, Evangelia; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Network interfaces (NIs) are used in multi-core systems where they connect processors, memories, and other IP-cores to a packet switched Network-on-Chip (NOC). The functionality of a NI is to bridge between the read/write transaction interfaces used by the cores and the packet-streaming interface...... used by the routers and links in the NOC. The paper addresses the design of a NI for a NOC that uses time division multiplexing (TDM). By keeping the essence of TDM in mind, we have developed a new area-efficient NI micro-architecture. The new design completely eliminates the need for FIFO buffers...... and credit based flow control - resources which are reported to account for 50–85% of the area in existing NI designs. The paper discusses the design considerations, presents the new NI micro-architecture, and reports area figures for a range of implementations....

  19. Wireless local area network in a prehospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimes Gary J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wireless local area networks (WLANs are considered the next generation of clinical data network. They open the possibility for capturing clinical data in a prehospital setting (e.g., a patient's home using various devices, such as personal digital assistants, laptops, digital electrocardiogram (EKG machines, and even cellular phones, and transmitting the captured data to a physician or hospital. The transmission rate is crucial to the applicability of the technology in the prehospital setting. Methods We created two separate WLANs to simulate a virtual local are network environment such as in a patient's home or an emergency room (ER. The effects of different methods of data transmission, number of clients, and roaming among different access points on the file transfer rate were determined. Results The present results suggest that it is feasible to transfer small files such as patient demographics and EKG data from the patient's home to the ER at a reasonable speed. Encryption, user control, and access control were implemented and results discussed. Conclusions Implementing a WLAN in a centrally managed and multiple-layer-controlled access control server is the key to ensuring its security and accessibility. Future studies should focus on product capacity, speed, compatibility, interoperability, and security management.

  20. Collecting and distributing wearable sensor data: an embedded personal area network to local area network gateway server.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaeuser, Jakob; D'Angelo, Lorenzo T

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the concept and of the device presented in this contribution is to be able to collect sensor data from wearable sensors directly, automatically and wirelessly and to make them available over a wired local area network. Several concepts in e-health and telemedicine make use of portable and wearable sensors to collect movement or activity data. Usually these data are either collected via a wireless personal area network or using a connection to the user's smartphone. However, users might not carry smartphones on them while inside a residential building such as a nursing home or a hospital, but also within their home. Also, in such areas the use of other wireless communication technologies might be limited. The presented system is an embedded server which can be deployed in several rooms in order to ensure live data collection in bigger buildings. Also, the collection of data batches recorded out of range, as soon as a connection is established, is also possible. Both, the system concept and the realization are presented. PMID:24110771

  1. A systematic review of the impact of the use of social networking sites on body image and disordered eating outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Grace; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-06-01

    A large body of literature has demonstrated mass media effects on body image and disordered eating. More recently, research in this area has turned to 'new' forms of media, such as the Internet, and particularly Social Networking Sites (SNSs). A systematic search for peer-reviewed articles on SNS use and body image and eating disorders resulted in 20 studies meeting specific inclusion criteria. As a whole, these articles demonstrated that use of SNSs is associated with body image and disordered eating. Specific SNS activities, such as viewing and uploading photos and seeking negative feedback via status updates, were identified as particularly problematic. A small number of studies also addressed underlying processes and found that appearance-based social comparison mediated the relationship between SNS use and body image and eating concerns. Gender was not found to be a moderating factor. It was concluded that, although there is a good deal of correlational research supporting the maladaptive effect of SNS use on body image and disordered eating, more longitudinal and experimental studies are needed. PMID:26995158

  2. Low-Power Platform and Communications for the Development of Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    David Naranjo-Hernández; Laura M. Roa; Javier Reina-Tosina; Miguel A. Estudillo-Valderrama; Gerardo Barbarov

    2015-01-01

    Although the roles of body sensor networks (BSNs) are similar to those carried out by the generic wireless sensor networks (WSNs), new solutions must be established to optimize communications for true pervasive biomedical monitoring transparent to the user. In this paper, a proposal of a hardware and software platform for biomedical sensors is performed, which is specially designed to minimize energy consumption in BSNs through a modular processing scheme based on the detection of events and ...

  3. Joint Minimization of Uplink and Downlink Whole-Body Exposure Dose in Indoor Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The total whole-body exposure dose in indoor wireless networks is minimized. For the first time, indoor wireless networks are designed and simulated for a minimal exposure dose, where both uplink and downlink are considered. The impact of the minimization is numerically assessed for four scenarios: two WiFi configurations with different throughputs, a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) configuration for phone call traffic, and a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) configuration with a hi...

  4. Storage Area Network Implementation on an Educational Institute Network Computer Networking and Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Osama, Safarini

    2011-01-01

    the storage infrastructure is the foundation on which information relies and therefore must support a company's business objectives and business model. In this environment, simply deploying more and faster storage devices is not enough; a new kind of infrastructure is needed, one that provides more enhanced network availability, data accessibility, and system manageability than is provided by today's infrastructure. The SAN meets this challenge. The SAN liberates the storage device, so it is not on a particular server bus, and attaches it directly to the network. In other words, storage is externalized and functionally distributed across the organization. The SAN also enables the centralizing of storage devices and the clustering of servers, which makes for easier and less expensive administration. So the idea is to create an intelligent SAN infrastructure that stretches to meet increased demands, allows highly available and heterogeneous access to expanding information.

  5. Stimulating and Sensing Network Inside the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Schulman

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The Alfred Mann Foundation is developing a network of up to 850 injectable devices that have stimulating, sensing and communication capabilities. Each of the devices is coordinated via radio signals a hundred times a second by an external small module. All the devices are powered by lithium-ion rechargeable batteries. The stimulating, sensing, and communication circuits are designed to be highly power efficient to maximize battery life. The stimulator can be programmed to deliver pulses in the range: 5 µA to 20 mA, 7 µs to 2000 µs, and frequencies up to 4000 Hz. Bursting, ramping, and other stimulation features are included. The voltage sensor covers the range 10 µV to 1.0 V with bandpass filtering and data analysis. The implant also contains sensors for pressure, temperature, DC magnetic field, and distances between implants.

  6. BLIG: A New Approach for Sensor Identification, Grouping,and Authorisation in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob; Bardram, Jakob Eyvind

    Using body sensor networks (BSN) in critical clinical settings like emergency units in hospitals or in accidents requires that such a network can be deployed, configured, and started in a fast and easy way, while maintaining trust in the network. In this paper we present a novel approach called...... BLIG (Blinking Led Indicated Grouping) for easy deployment of BSNs on patients in critical situations, including mechanisms for uniquely identifying and grouping sensor nodes belonging to a patient in a secure and trusted way. This approach has been designed in close cooperation with users, and easy...

  7. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sangman Moh; Christian Henry Wijaya Oey

    2013-01-01

    The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing proto...

  8. Acting bodies and social networks a bridge between technology and working memory

    CERN Document Server

    Pirani, Bianca Maria

    2009-01-01

    Acting Bodies and Social Networks analyzes the complex interactions of body, mind and microelectronic technologies. Internationally renowned scholars look into the nature of the mind - a combination of thought, perception, emotion, will and imagination - as well as the ever-increasing impact and complexity of microelectronic technologies. The proliferation of these technologies facilitates a profound change in the boundaries between bodies and technologies. These technologies expand the temporal and spatial existence of humans; today, people can instantly communicate all over the world and ove

  9. To Study the Mathematical Analysis for Human area Networking using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakade Priyanka, Khobragade S V

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human area network(HAN makes use of human body as a medium for transmission of signal. This is also known as RED TACTON. Because of its unique characters, this technology can be said as a novel and promising technology many applications in the fields such as personal area network (PAN, computer network access, implant biomedical monitoring, human energy transmission, etc. In this paper, work has been carried out for analyzing the electrostatic coupling for the RED TACTON technology by performing computer simulation using the developed finite-element models, in which (1 we have the incidence and reflection of electronic signal in the upper arm model which were analyzed by using the theory of electromagnetic wave, (2 the finite-element models of electrostatic coupling were developed by using the electromagnetic analysis package of ANSYS software, (3 the signal attenuation of electrostatic coupling were simulated under the conditions of different signal frequency, electrodes direction, electrodes size & transmission distance. Finally, important conclusions are deduced on the basis of simulation results.

  10. To Study the Mathematical Analysis for Human area Networking using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakade Priyanka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human area network (HAN makes use of human body as a medium for transmission of signal. This is also known as RED TACTON. Because of its unique characters, this technology can be said as a novel and promising technology many applications in the fields such as personal area network (PAN, computer network access, implant biomedical monitoring, human energy transmission, etc. In this paper, work has been carried out for analyzing the electrostatic coupling for the RED TACTON technology by performing computer simulation using the developed finite-element models, in which (1 we have the incidence and reflection of electronic signal in the upper arm model which were analyzed by using the theory of electromagnetic wave, (2 the finite-element models of electrostatic coupling were developed by using the electromagnetic analysis package of ANSYS software, (3 the signal attenuation of electrostatic coupling were simulated under the conditions of different signal frequency, electrodes direction, electrodes size & transmission distance. Finally, important conclusions are deduced on the basis of simulation results.

  11. Multi-area layered multicast scheme for MPLS networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yajie; Yang, Zongkai; Wang, Yuming; Chen, Jingwen

    2005-02-01

    Multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) is multiprotocols both at layer 2 and layer 3. It is suggested to overcome the shortcomings of performing complex longest prefix matching in layer 3 routing by using short, fixed length labels. The MPLS community has put more effort into the label switching of unicast IP traffic, but less in the MPLS multicast mechanism. The reasons are the higher label consumption, the dynamical mapping of L3 multicast tree to L2 LSPs and the 20-bit shim header which is much fewer than the IPv4 IP header. On the other hand, heterogeneity of node capability degrades total performance of a multicast group. In order to achieve the scalability as well as the heterogeneity in MPLS networks, a novel scheme of MPLS-based Multi-area Layered Multicast Scheme (MALM) is proposed. Unlike the existing schemes which focus on aggregating the multicast stream, we construct the multicast tree based on the virtual topology aggregation. The MPLS area is divided into different sub-areas to form the hierarchical virtual topology and the multicast group is reconstructed into multiple layers according to the node capability. At the same time, the label stack is used to save the label space. For stability of the MALM protocol, a multi-layer protection scheme is also discussed. The experiment results show that the proposed scheme saves label space and decrease the Multicast Forwarding Table in much degree.

  12. Microcontroller Protocol for Secure Broadcast in Controller Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Vijayalakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Controller Area Network is a bus commonly used by controllers inside vehicles and in various industrial control applications. In the past controllers were assumed to operate in secure perimeters, but today these environments are well connected to the outside world and recent incidents showed them extremely vulnerable to cyber-attacks. To withstand such threats, one can implement security in the application layer of CAN. Here we design, refine and implement a broadcast authentication protocol based on the well known paradigm of using key-chains and time synchronization, a commonly used Mechanism in wireless sensor networks, which allows us to take advantage from the use of symmetric primitives without the need of secret shared keys during broadcast. But, as process control is a time critical operation we make several refinements in order to improve on the authentication delay. For this we study several trade-offs to alleviate shortcomings on computational speed, memory and bandwidth up to the point of using reduced versions of hash functions that can assure ad hoc security. To prove the efficiency of the protocol

  13. Networked Estimation with an Area-Triggered Transmission Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Soo Suh

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the networked estimation problem in which sensordata are transmitted over the network. In the event-driven sampling scheme known aslevel-crossing or send-on-delta, sensor data are transmitted to the estimator node if thedifference between the current sensor value and the last transmitted one is greater than agiven threshold. The event-driven sampling generally requires less transmission than thetime-driven one. However, the transmission rate of the send-on-delta method becomeslarge when the sensor noise is large since sensor data variation becomes large due to thesensor noise. Motivated by this issue, we propose another event-driven sampling methodcalled area-triggered in which sensor data are sent only when the integral of differencesbetween the current sensor value and the last transmitted one is greater than a giventhreshold. Through theoretical analysis and simulation results, we show that in the certaincases the proposed method not only reduces data transmission rate but also improvesestimation performance in comparison with the conventional event-driven method.

  14. Terabit optical local area networks for multiprocessing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, T H; Au, A; Lafrenière-Roula, M; Tyan, V; Supmonchai, B; Wong, J; Zerrouk, B; Obenaus, S T

    1998-01-10

    The design of a scalable optical local area network formultiprocessing systems is described. Each workstation has aparallel-fiber-ribbon optical link to a centralized complementarymetal-oxide silicon (CMOS) switch core, implemented on a singlecompact printed circuit board (PCB). When the Motorola Optobusfiber technology is used, each workstation has a data bandwidth of 6.4Gbits/s to the core. A centralized switch core interconnecting 32workstations supports a 204-Gbit/s aggregate data bandwidth. Theswitch core is based on a conventional broadcast-and-selectarchitecture, implemented with parallel CMOS integrated circuits(IC's). The switch core scales well; by incorporation of theCMOS optoelectronic IC's with optical input-output, the electricalcore can be reduced to a single-chip optoelectronic IC with terabitcapacities. A prototype of an optoelectronic switch core has been fabricated and is described. The appeal of the architectureincludes its reliance on commercially available parallel-fibertechnology, its reliance on the well-developed markets of local areanetworks and networks of workstations, and its smooth scalability from the electrical to optical domains as technology matures. PMID:18268582

  15. Efficient controller area network data compression for automobile applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-jing WU; Jin-Gyun CHUNG

    2015-01-01

    Controller area networks (CANs) have been designed for multiplexing communication between electronic control units (ECUs) in vehicles and many high-level industrial control applications. When a CAN bus is overloaded by a large number of ECUs connected to it, both the waiting time and the error probability of the data transmission are increased. Thus, it is desirable to reduce the CAN frame length, since the duration of data transmission is proportional to the frame length. In this paper, we present a CAN message compression method to reduce the CAN frame length. Experimental results indicate that CAN transmission data can be compressed by up to 81.06%with the proposed method. By using an embedded test board, we show that 64-bit engine management system (EMS) CAN data compression can be performed within 0.16 ms;consequently, the proposed algorithm can be successfully used in automobile applications.

  16. Sharing waste management data over a wide area computer network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors envision a time when waste management professionals from any institution will be able to access high quality data, regardless of where this data may actually be archived. They will not have to know anything about where the data actually resides or what format it is stored in. They will only have to specify the type of data and the workstation software will handle the rest of the details of finding them and accessing them. A method - now in use at the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University and several other institutions - of achieving this vision is described in this paper. Institutions make views of their databases publicly available to users of the wide-area network (e.g. Internet), using database serving software that runs on one of their computers. This software completely automates the process of finding out what kind of data are available and of retrieving them

  17. Use of local area networks in radioisotopic monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the spring of 1988, Canberra's Nuclear Data Systems Division introduced a device that performed the basic data acquisition functions of a multichannel analyzer (MCA) but was interfaced to an Institute of electrical and Electronics Engineers standard 802.2/802.3 Ethernet local area network1,2 (LAN). The device, known as the 556 acquisition interface module (AIM), includes 64K channels of spectral memory and can handle two analog-to-digital converter (ADC) modules running an aggregate acquisition rate of up to 1 MHz. The AIM can transfer data and accept commands over the 10M bit/s LAN, making it suitable for real-time applications. Subsequent advancements in software and hardware display technology have expanded the capabilities of spectroscopy analysis systems by providing remote real-time spectral displays. The paper presents a system architecture review and discusses applicability for radiation monitoring

  18. Implementation and performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc network for Emergency Telemedicine System in disaster areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J C; Kim, D Y; Jung, S M; Lee, M H; Kim, K S; Lee, C K; Nah, J Y; Lee, S H; Kim, J H; Choi, W J; Yoo, S K

    2009-01-01

    So far we have developed Emergency Telemedicine System (ETS) which is a robust system using heterogeneous networks. In disaster areas, however, ETS cannot be used if the primary network channel is disabled due to damages on the network infrastructures. Thus we designed network management software for disaster communication network by combination of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) and Wireless LAN (WLAN). This software maintains routes to a Backbone Gateway Node in dynamic network topologies. In this paper, we introduce the proposed disaster communication network with management software, and evaluate its performance using ETS between Medical Center and simulated disaster areas. We also present the results of network performance analysis which identifies the possibility of actual Telemedicine Service in disaster areas via MANET and mobile network (e.g. HSDPA, WiBro). PMID:19964544

  19. Synchronous wearable wireless body sensor network composed of autonomous textile nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanveerdeghem, Peter; Van Torre, Patrick; Stevens, Christiaan; Knockaert, Jos; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    A novel, fully-autonomous, wearable, wireless sensor network is presented, where each flexible textile node performs cooperative synchronous acquisition and distributed event detection. Computationally efficient situational-awareness algorithms are implemented on the low-power microcontroller present on each flexible node. The detected events are wirelessly transmitted to a base station, directly, as well as forwarded by other on-body nodes. For each node, a dual-polarized textile patch antenna serves as a platform for the flexible electronic circuitry. Therefore, the system is particularly suitable for comfortable and unobtrusive integration into garments. In the meantime, polarization diversity can be exploited to improve the reliability and energy-efficiency of the wireless transmission. Extensive experiments in realistic conditions have demonstrated that this new autonomous, body-centric, textile-antenna, wireless sensor network is able to correctly detect different operating conditions of a firefighter during an intervention. By relying on four network nodes integrated into the protective garment, this functionality is implemented locally, on the body, and in real time. In addition, the received sensor data are reliably transferred to a central access point at the command post, for more detailed and more comprehensive real-time visualization. This information provides coordinators and commanders with situational awareness of the entire rescue operation. A statistical analysis of measured on-body node-to-node, as well as off-body person-to-person channels is included, confirming the reliability of the communication system. PMID:25302808

  20. Synchronous Wearable Wireless Body Sensor Network Composed of Autonomous Textile Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vanveerdeghem

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel, fully-autonomous, wearable, wireless sensor network is presented, where each flexible textile node performs cooperative synchronous acquisition and distributed event detection. Computationally efficient situational-awareness algorithms are implemented on the low-power microcontroller present on each flexible node. The detected events are wirelessly transmitted to a base station, directly, as well as forwarded by other on-body nodes. For each node, a dual-polarized textile patch antenna serves as a platform for the flexible electronic circuitry. Therefore, the system is particularly suitable for comfortable and unobtrusive integration into garments. In the meantime, polarization diversity can be exploited to improve the reliability and energy-efficiency of the wireless transmission. Extensive experiments in realistic conditions have demonstrated that this new autonomous, body-centric, textile-antenna, wireless sensor network is able to correctly detect different operating conditions of a firefighter during an intervention. By relying on four network nodes integrated into the protective garment, this functionality is implemented locally, on the body, and in real time. In addition, the received sensor data are reliably transferred to a central access point at the command post, for more detailed and more comprehensive real-time visualization. This information provides coordinators and commanders with situational awareness of the entire rescue operation. A statistical analysis of measured on-body node-to-node, as well as off-body person-to-person channels is included, confirming the reliability of the communication system.

  1. Securing Local Area Networks with OpenFlow

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Fahad

    2015-01-01

    In the traditional network architecture, the data flow is controlled by switches and routers which make it difficult to meet the ever growing requirements of the present network environment. The popularity of network virtualization and cloud services, and a rapid growth of mobile devices and contents have made the control of the network challenging and complicated. Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm offers a suitable solution by separating the forwarding hardware from the control deci...

  2. Modeling of Radiation Pneumonitis after Lung Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: A Bayesian Network Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sangkyu; Jeyaseelan, Krishinima; Faria, Sergio; Kopek, Neil; Brisebois, Pascale; Vu, Toni; Filion, Edith; Campeau, Marie-Pierre; Lambert, Louise; Del Vecchio, Pierre; Trudel, Diane; El-Sokhn, Nidale; Roach, Michael; Robinson, Clifford; Naqa, Issam El

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung cancer accompanies a non-negligible risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP). This study presents a Bayesian network (BN) model that connects biological, dosimetric, and clinical RP risk factors. Material and Methods: 43 non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with SBRT with 5 fractions or less were studied. Candidate RP risk factors included dose-volume parameters, previously reported clinical RP factors, 6 protein biomarkers at baseline and 6 weeks post-treatment. A BN ensemble model was built from a subset of the variables in a training cohort (N=32), and further tested in an independent validation cohort (N=11). Results: Key factors identified in the BN ensemble for predicting RP risk were ipsilateral V5, lung volume receiving more than 105% of prescription, and decrease in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) from baseline to 6 weeks. External validation of the BN ensemble model yielded an area under the curve of 0.8. Conclusions: The BN...

  3. A Hierarchical Approach to Real-time Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Tao, Xianping;

    2012-01-01

    algorithm to detect gestures at the sensor node level, and then propose a pattern based real-time algorithm to recognize complex, high-level activities at the portable device level. We evaluate our algorithms over a real-world dataset. The results show that the proposed system not only achieves good......Real-time activity recognition in body sensor networks is an important and challenging task. In this paper, we propose a real-time, hierarchical model to recognize both simple gestures and complex activities using a wireless body sensor network. In this model, we rst use a fast and lightweight...... performance (an average utility of 0.81, an average accuracy of 82.87%, and an average real-time delay of 5.7 seconds), but also signicantly reduces the network communication cost by 60.2%....

  4. Real-time Human Activity Recognition using a Body Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Liang; Gu, Tao; Chen, Hanhua;

    2010-01-01

    . In this model, we first use a fast, lightweight template matching algorithm to detect gestures at the sensor node level, and then use a discriminative pattern based real-time algorithm to recognize high-level activities at the portable device level. We evaluate our algorithms over a real-world dataset......Real-time activity recognition using body sensor networks is an important and challenging task and it has many potential applications. In this paper, we propose a realtime, hierarchical model to recognize both simple gestures and complex activities using a wireless body sensor network....... The results show that the proposed system not only achieves good performance (an average precision of 94.9%, an average recall of 82.5%, and an average real-time delay of 5.7 seconds), but also significantly reduces the network communication cost by 60.2%....

  5. BSK-WBSN: BIOMETRIC SYMMETRIC KEYS TO SECURE WIRELESS BODY SENSORS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mesmoudi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Wireless Sensors Network (WSN is an emergent technology resulting from progress of variousfields. Many applications of networks WSN are born. One of the applications which have an operationaleffectiveness relates to the field of health and allows a medical remote support. Miniature wirelesssensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN whichallows supervising various essential biological signals (rate of heartbeat, pressure, etc. The sensitivityof medical information requires mechanisms of safety. This performance constitutes a challenge forWBSN because of their limitation in resources energy and data-processing. In this paper we propose anew approach to symmetric cryptographic key establishment, based on biometrics physiology. Thisapproach takes into account WBSN constraints and its topology.

  6. BSK-WBSN: Biometric Symmetric Keys to Secure Wireless Body Sensors Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mesmoudi, Samira

    2011-01-01

    The Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) is an emergent technology resulting from progress of various fields. Many applications of networks WSN are born. One of the applications which have an operational effectiveness relates to the field of health and allows a medical remote support. Miniature wireless sensors, strategically placed on the human body, create a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) which allows supervising various essential biological signals (rate of heartbeat, pressure, etc). The sensitivity of medical information requires mechanisms of safety. This performance constitutes a challenge for WBSN because of their limitation in resources energy and data-processing. In this paper we propose a new approach to symmetric cryptographic key establishment, based on biometrics physiology. This approach takes into account WBSN constraints and its topology.

  7. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations

  8. Application of local area networks to accelerator control systems at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.D.; Linstadt, E.; Melen, R.

    1983-03-01

    The history and current status of SLAC's SDLC networks for distributed accelerator control systems are discussed. These local area networks have been used for instrumentation and control of the linear accelerator. Network topologies, protocols, physical links, and logical interconnections are discussed for specific applications in distributed data acquisition and control system, computer networks and accelerator operations.

  9. Migrated foreign body granulomas on mammography after injection in the cervicofacial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to describe the mammographic findings of localized foreign body granulomas in women who were injected with a foreign body in the cervicofacial area to flatten wrinkles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The teaching files of our institutions were searched, and nine mammograms of migrated foreign body granulomas located. The mammograms were analysed, including the location, shape, size, distribution and depth of the high-density nodules. All these cases had undergone sonography. RESULTS: The migrated foreign body granulomas appeared bilateral (n=6), or unilateral (n=3), as oval or round high-density nodules, in the upper inner and/or upper central locations. The average size of the lesions was less than 5 mm in all cases. All nine sonograms showed multiple, round cystic nodules, less than 5 mm in size, with strong posterior shadowing from far upper central to the upper inner breast. Sonography of the lower neck revealed the anatomy could not be visualized due to the strong posterior shadowing in the skin and subcutaneous fat layer. CONCLUSION: Migrated foreign body granulomas appeared on mammograms as localized, multiple oval or round high-density nodules, less than 0.5 cm in size, in the upper inner and/or upper central breast. Breast sonography, including the sonography of the suspected cervicofacial area, is helpful in verifying migrated foreign body granulomas

  10. Radiofrequency Field Distribution Assessment in Indoor Areas Covered by Wireless Local Area Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELBET, R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic environment becomes day by day more congested. Radio communication systems in the short range are now part of everyday life, and there is a need to also assess the pollution level due to their emission if we take into account human health and protection. There is consistent scientific evidence that environmental electromagnetic field may cause undesirable biological effects or even health hazards. Present paper aims at giving a view on exposure level due to wireless local area networks (WLAN emission solely, as part of environmental radiofrequency pollution. Highly accurate measurements were made indoor by using a frequency-selective measurement system and identifying the correct settings for an error-minimum assessment. We focused on analysis of the electric flux density distribution inside a room, in the far field of the emitting antennas, in case of a single network communication channel. We analyze the influence the network configuration parameters have on the field level. Distance from the source and traffic rate are also important parameters that affect the exposure level. Our measurements indicate that in the immediate vicinity of the WLAN stations the average field may reach as much as 13% from the present accepted reference levels given in the human exposure standards.

  11. Air Transport Network Specialization in a Multi-Hub Area : A Case Study of the Baltic Sea Area

    OpenAIRE

    PyyhtiÀ, Markus

    2010-01-01

    This master s thesis is concerned with the airline network geography of the Baltic Sea Area. The developments in economical liberties in the area and new liberties in air transport give special interest in researching this matter. Also the requirements of airlines to consolidate their activities give a reason to predict the possible outcomes of the geography of airlines in the area. Airlines networks organize themselves according to economic principles, most often attempting to reconcil...

  12. Larval connectivity in an effective network of marine protected areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Christie

    Full Text Available Acceptance of marine protected areas (MPAs as fishery and conservation tools has been hampered by lack of direct evidence that MPAs successfully seed unprotected areas with larvae of targeted species. For the first time, we present direct evidence of large-scale population connectivity within an existing and effective network of MPAs. A new parentage analysis identified four parent-offspring pairs from a large, exploited population of the coral-reef fish Zebrasoma flavescens in Hawai'i, revealing larval dispersal distances ranging from 15 to 184 km. In two cases, successful dispersal was from an MPA to unprotected sites. Given high adult abundances, the documentation of any parent-offspring pairs demonstrates that ecologically-relevant larval connectivity between reefs is substantial. All offspring settled at sites to the north of where they were spawned. Satellite altimetry and oceanographic models from relevant time periods indicated a cyclonic eddy that created prevailing northward currents between sites where parents and offspring were found. These findings empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of MPAs as useful conservation and management tools and further highlight the importance of coupling oceanographic, genetic, and ecological data to predict, validate and quantify larval connectivity among marine populations.

  13. Network Architecture, Security Issues, and Hardware Implementation of a Home Area Network for Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses aims, architecture, and security issues of Smart Grid, taking care of the lesson learned at University of Pisa in research projects on smart energy and grid. A key element of Smart Grid is the energy home area network (HAN, for which an implementation is proposed, dealing with its security aspects and showing some solutions for realizing a wireless network based on ZigBee. Possible hardware-software architectures and implementations using COTS (Commercial Off The Shelf components are presented for key building blocks of the energy HAN such as smart power meters and plugs and a home smart information box providing energy management policy and supporting user's energy awareness.

  14. Escaping the correction for body surface area when calculating glomerular filtration rate in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, Amy; Tondeur, Marianne [CHU St. Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, Hamphrey [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-09-15

    {sup 51}Cr ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr EDTA) clearance is nowadays considered as an accurate and reproducible method for measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. Normal values in function of age, corrected for body surface area, have been recently updated. However, much criticism has been expressed about the validity of body surface area correction. The aim of the present paper was to present the normal GFR values, not corrected for body surface area, with the associated percentile curves. For that purpose, the same patients as in the previous paper were selected, namely those with no recent urinary tract infection, having a normal left to right {sup 99m}Tc MAG3 uptake ratio and a normal kidney morphology on the early parenchymal images. A single blood sample method was used for {sup 51}Cr EDTA clearance measurement. Clearance values, not corrected for body surface area, increased progressively up to the adolescence. The percentile curves were determined and allow, for a single patient, to estimate accurately the level of non-corrected clearance and the evolution with time, whatever the age. (orig.)

  15. Axioms for SNABOK, a System and Network Administration Body of Knowledge : missing link stage of ontology process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    SNABOK, a system an network administration body of knowledge, is coined as an attempt to complement the well-known and quite influential SWEBOK (software engineering body of knowledge) for the less prominent but equally critical profession of system and network administration. General remarks concer

  16. Evolutionary food web model based on body masses gives realistic networks with permanent species turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, K. T.; Ritterskamp, D.; Rall, B. C.; Drossel, B.; Guill, C.

    2015-06-01

    The networks of predator-prey interactions in ecological systems are remarkably complex, but nevertheless surprisingly stable in terms of long term persistence of the system as a whole. In order to understand the mechanism driving the complexity and stability of such food webs, we developed an eco-evolutionary model in which new species emerge as modifications of existing ones and dynamic ecological interactions determine which species are viable. The food-web structure thereby emerges from the dynamical interplay between speciation and trophic interactions. The proposed model is less abstract than earlier evolutionary food web models in the sense that all three evolving traits have a clear biological meaning, namely the average body mass of the individuals, the preferred prey body mass, and the width of their potential prey body mass spectrum. We observed networks with a wide range of sizes and structures and high similarity to natural food webs. The model networks exhibit a continuous species turnover, but massive extinction waves that affect more than 50% of the network are not observed.

  17. Trends in Area of Safety Communications within Industrial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Franekova; Ales Janota; Karol Rastocny

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with the problems of safety communication in industrial networks for purpose of assurance of functional safety. It is intents on analysis of treats on industry networks and there is described recommended safety protections and their location into layer communication protocol applicable in fieldbus network, which they are used within safety critical processes control.

  18. Simulated Annealing for Location Area Planning in Cellular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Prajapati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available LA planning in cellular network is useful for minimizing location management cost in GSM network. Infact, size of LA can be optimized to create a balance between the LA update rate and expected pagingrate within LA. To get optimal result for LA planning in cellular network simulated annealing algorithmis used. Simulated annealing give optimal results in acceptable run-time.

  19. Simulated Annealing for Location Area Planning in Cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Prajapati, N. B.; R. R. Agravat; Hasan, M I

    2010-01-01

    LA planning in cellular network is useful for minimizing location management cost in GSM network. In fact, size of LA can be optimized to create a balance between the LA update rate and expected paging rate within LA. To get optimal result for LA planning in cellular network simulated annealing algorithm is used. Simulated annealing give optimal results in acceptable run-time.

  20. System Architecture of HatterHealthConnect: An Integration of Body Sensor Networks and Social Networks to Improve Health Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala ElAarag

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the demand for efficient healthcare monitoring has increased and forced the healthand wellness industry to embrace modern technological advances. Body Sensor Networks, or BSNs, canremotely collect users data and upload vital statistics to servers over the Internet. Advances in wirelesstechnologies such as cellular devices and Bluetooth increase the mobility users experience while wearing abody sensor network. When connected by the proper framework, BSNs can efficiently monitor and recorddata while minimizing the energy expenditure of nodes in the BSN. Social networking sites play a large rolein the aggregation and sharing of data between many users. Connecting a BSN to a social network createsthe unique ability to share health related data with other users through social interaction. In this research,we present an integration of BSNs and social networks to establish a community promoting well being andgreat social awareness. We present the system architecture; both hardware and software, of a prototypeimplementation using Zephyr HxM heart monitor, Intel-Shimmer EMG senor and a Samsung Captivatesmart phone. We provide implementation details for the design on the base station, the database server andthe Facebook application. We illustrate how the Android application was designed with both functionalityand user perspective in mind that resulted in an easy to use system. This prototype can be used in multiplehealth related applications based on the type of sensors used.

  1. Policy-based Traffic Management in Home Area Network – An Elementary Testbed Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Rana, Annie; Ó Foghlú, Mícheál

    2009-01-01

    Traffic management in home area network (HAN) is different from the traditional traffic management in access and core networks. Traditionally network traffic works in best effort fashion and the HAN services are usually accommodated on the basis of first-in first-out rule. However quality can deteriorate when high number of users is connected to the HAN. Moreover the bursty traffic can also impact the quality by chocking the network traffic and blocking the network resources for a...

  2. Signal Transmission in a Human Body Medium-Based Body Sensor Network Using a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Song; Qun Hao; Kai Zhang; Jingwen Wang; Xuefeng Jin; He Sun

    2012-01-01

    The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO) sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiv...

  3. Multiple contexts and adolescent body mass index: Schools, neighborhoods, and social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Clare R; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Williams, David R; Subramanian, S V

    2016-08-01

    Adolescent health and behaviors are influenced by multiple contexts, including schools, neighborhoods, and social networks, yet these contexts are rarely considered simultaneously. In this study we combine social network community detection analysis and cross-classified multilevel modeling in order to compare the contributions of each of these three contexts to the total variation in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is used, and for robustness we conduct the analysis in both the core sample (122 schools; N = 14,144) and a sub-set of the sample (16 schools; N = 3335), known as the saturated sample due to its completeness of neighborhood data. After adjusting for relevant covariates, we find that the school-level and neighborhood-level contributions to the variance are modest compared with the network community-level (σ(2)school = 0.069, σ(2)neighborhood = 0.144, σ(2)network = 0.463). These results are robust to two alternative algorithms for specifying network communities, and to analysis in the saturated sample. While this study does not determine whether network effects are attributable to social influence or selection, it does highlight the salience of adolescent social networks and indicates that they may be a promising context to address in the design of health promotion programs. PMID:27322912

  4. Evaluation of a 433 MHz band body sensor network for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saim; Brendle, Christian; Lee, Hyun-Young; Walter, Marian; Gloeggler, Sigrid; Krueger, Stefan; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Body sensor networks (BSN) are an important research topic due to various advantages over conventional measurement equipment. One main advantage is the feasibility to deploy a BSN system for 24/7 health monitoring applications. The requirements for such an application are miniaturization of the network nodes and the use of wireless data transmission technologies to ensure wearability and ease of use. Therefore, the reliability of such a system depends on the quality of the wireless data transmission. At present, most BSNs use ZigBee or other IEEE 802.15.4 based transmission technologies. Here, we evaluated the performance of a wireless transmission system of a novel BSN for biomedical applications in the 433MHz ISM band, called Integrated Posture and Activity NEtwork by Medit Aachen (IPANEMA) BSN. The 433MHz ISM band is used mostly by implanted sensors and thus allows easy integration of such into the BSN. Multiple measurement scenarios have been assessed, including varying antenna orientations, transmission distances and the number of network participants. The mean packet loss rate (PLR) was 0.63% for a single slave, which is comparable to IEEE 802.15.4 BSNs in the proximity of Bluetooth or WiFi networks. Secondly, an enhanced version is evaluated during on-body measurements with five slaves. The mean PLR results show a comparable good performance for measurements on a treadmill (2.5%), an outdoor track (3.4%) and in a climate chamber (1.5%). PMID:23344383

  5. Near-Field Coupling Communication Technology For Human-Area Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Nagai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses near-field coupling TRXs. This technology aims to achieve a "touch and connect" form of communication and a new concept of "touch the world" by using a quasi-electrostatic field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body. This paper explains the principles underlying near-field coupling communication. Special attention has been paid to common-mode noise since our communication system is strongly susceptible to this. We designed and made a common-mode choke coil and a transformer to act as common-mode noise filters to suppress common-mode noise. Moreover, we describe how we evaluated the quality of communication using a phantom model with the same electrical properties as the human body and present the experimental results for the packet error rate (PER as a function of the signal to noise ratio (SNR both with the common-mode choke coil or the transformer and without them. Finally, we found that our system achieved a PER of less than 10-2 in general office rooms using raised floors, which corresponded to the quality of communication demanded by communication services in ordinary office spaces.

  6. Area Efficient Design of Routing Node for Network-on-Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Rehan Maroofi; Vilas Nitnaware; Shyam Limaye

    2011-01-01

    Network-on-Chip (NoC) is a paradigm proposed to satisfy the communication demands of future Systems-on-Chip (SoC). The main components of an NoC are the network adapters, routing nodes, and network interconnect links. Reducing area and power consumption has higher priority in the case of on-chip networks compared to conventional off-chip networks. This paper presents an area efficient design for the routing node component of an NoC. The area efficiency is obtained by applying the concept of a...

  7. Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-09-01

    A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective integration between point-to-point QKD techniques and networking schemes. PMID:25321550

  8. Wireless Local Area Networks with Multiple-Packet Reception Capability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Ying Jun; Liew, Soung Chang

    2007-01-01

    Thanks to its simplicity and cost efficiency, wireless local area network (WLAN) enjoys unique advantages in providing high-speed and low-cost wireless services in hot spots and indoor environments. Traditional WLAN medium-access-control (MAC) protocols assume that only one station can transmit at a time: simultaneous transmissions of more than one station causes the destruction of all packets involved. By exploiting recent advances in PHY-layer multiuser detection (MUD) techniques, it is possible for a receiver to receive multiple packets simultaneously. This paper argues that such multipacket reception (MPR) capability can greatly enhance the capacity of future WLANs. In addition, it provides the MAC-layer and PHY-layer designs needed to achieve the improved capacity. First, to demonstrate MUD/MPR as a powerful capacity-enhancement technique, we prove a "super-linearity" result, which states that the system throughput per unit cost increases as the MPR capability increases. Second, we show that the commonly...

  9. Brain functional network changes following Prelimbic area inactivation in a spatial memory extinction task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Couz, Marta; Conejo, Nélida M; Vallejo, Guillermo; Arias, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest a prefrontal cortex involvement during the acquisition and consolidation of spatial memory, suggesting an active modulating role at late stages of acquisition processes. Recently, we have reported that the prelimbic and infralimbic areas of the prefrontal cortex, among other structures, are also specifically involved in the late phases of spatial memory extinction. This study aimed to evaluate whether the inactivation of the prelimbic area of the prefrontal cortex impaired spatial memory extinction. For this purpose, male Wistar rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae into the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex. Animals were trained during 5 consecutive days in a hidden platform task and tested for reference spatial memory immediately after the last training session. One day after completing the training task, bilateral infusion of the GABAA receptor agonist Muscimol was performed before the extinction protocol was carried out. Additionally, cytochrome c oxidase histochemistry was applied to map the metabolic brain activity related to the spatial memory extinction under prelimbic cortex inactivation. Results show that animals acquired the reference memory task in the water maze, and the extinction task was successfully completed without significant impairment. However, analysis of the functional brain networks involved by cytochrome oxidase activity interregional correlations showed changes in brain networks between the group treated with Muscimol as compared to the saline-treated group, supporting the involvement of the mammillary bodies at a the late stage in the memory extinction process. PMID:25813749

  10. On the area spectral efficiency improvement of heterogeneous network by exploiting the integration of macro-femto cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Shakir, Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Heterogeneous networks are an attractive means of expanding mobile network capacity. A heterogeneous network is typically composed of multiple radio access technologies (RATs) where the base stations are transmitting with variable power. In this paper, we consider a Heterogeneous network where we complement the macrocell network with low-power low-cost user deployed nodes, such as femtocell base stations to increase the mean achievable capacity of the system. In this context, we integrate macro-femto cellular networks and derive the area spectral efficiency of the proposed two tier Heterogeneous network. We consider the deployment of femtocell base stations around the edge of the macrocell such that this configuration is referred to as femto-on-edge (FOE) configuration. Moreover, FOE configuration mandates reduction in intercell interference due to the mobile users which are located around the edge of the macrocell since these femtocell base stations are low-power nodes which has significantly lower transmission power than macrocell base stations. We present a mathematical analysis to calculate the instantaneous carrier to interference ratio (CIR) of the desired mobile user in macro and femto cellular networks and determine the total area spectral efficiency of the Heterogeneous network. Details of the simulation processes are included to support the analysis and show the efficacy of the proposed deployment. It has been shown that the proposed setup of the Heterogeneous network offers higher area spectral efficiency which aims to fulfill the expected demand of the future mobile users. © 2012 IEEE.

  11. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health techn...

  12. A Wearable Respiratory Biofeedback System Based on Generalized Body Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guan-zheng; Huang, Bang-Yu; Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Wearable medical devices have enabled unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. This article describes a wearable respiratory biofeedback system based on a generalized body sensor network (BSN) platform. The compact BSN platform was tailored for the strong requirements of overall system optimizations. A waist-worn biofeedback device was designed using the BSN. Extensive bench tests have shown that the generalized BSN worked as intended. In-...

  13. Transforming Health Care: Body Sensor Networks, Wearables, and the Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Benny P L; Ip, Henry; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Despite the myriad assistive technologies that have been developed over the years, high installation costs and limited functionalities have prevented their widespread adoption. To overcome these barriers, the concept of body sensor networks (BSNs) was introduced, which proposes the development of miniaturized wireless sensing systems to continuously capture physiological signals and context information. Many novel sensing platforms have since been introduced, enabling pervasive monitoring of blood pressure, Galvanic skin response, electrocardiogram (EKG), gait, photoplethysmogram (PPG), and other vital signs. PMID:26799719

  14. Forecasting PM10 in metropolitan areas: Efficacy of neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deterministic photochemical air quality models are commonly used for regulatory management and planning of urban airsheds. These models are complex, computer intensive, and hence are prohibitively expensive for routine air quality predictions. Stochastic methods are becoming increasingly popular as an alternative, which relegate decision making to artificial intelligence based on Neural Networks that are made of artificial neurons or ‘nodes’ capable of ‘learning through training’ via historic data. A Neural Network was used to predict particulate matter concentration at a regulatory monitoring site in Phoenix, Arizona; its development, efficacy as a predictive tool and performance vis-à-vis a commonly used regulatory photochemical model are described in this paper. It is concluded that Neural Networks are much easier, quicker and economical to implement without compromising the accuracy of predictions. Neural Networks can be used to develop rapid air quality warning systems based on a network of automated monitoring stations.Highlights: ► Neural Network is an alternative technique to photochemical modelling. ► Neutral Networks can be as effective as traditional air photochemical modelling. ► Neural Networks are much easier and quicker to implement in health warning system. - Neutral networks are as effective as photochemical modelling for air quality predictions, but are much easier, quicker and economical to implement in air pollution (or health) warning systems.

  15. Field and long-term demonstration of a wide area quantum key distribution network

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; He, De-Yong; Li, Yu-Hu; Zhou, Zheng; Song, Xiao-Tian; Li, Fang-Yi; Wang, Dong; Chen, Hua; Han, Yun-Guang; Huang, Jing-Zheng; Guo, Jun-Fu; Hao, Peng-Lei; Li, Mo; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Liu, Dong; Liang, Wen-Ye; Miao, Chun-Hua; Wu, Ping; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    A wide area quantum key distribution (QKD) network deployed on communication infrastructures provided by China Mobile Ltd. is demonstrated. Three cities and two metropolitan area QKD networks were linked up to form the Hefei-Chaohu-Wuhu wide area QKD network with over 150 kilometers coverage area, in which Hefei metropolitan area QKD network was a typical full-mesh core network to offer all-to-all interconnections, and Wuhu metropolitan area QKD network was a representative quantum access network with point-to-multipoint configuration. The whole wide area QKD network ran for more than 5000 hours, from 21 December 2011 to 19 July 2012, and part of the network stopped until last December. To adapt to the complex and volatile field environment, the Faraday-Michelson QKD system with several stability measures was adopted when we designed QKD devices. Through standardized design of QKD devices, resolution of symmetry problem of QKD devices, and seamless switching in dynamic QKD network, we realized the effective i...

  16. The influence of body weight on social network ties among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Rizzo, John A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of negative stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination towards obese individuals has been widely documented. However, the effect of a larger body size on social network ties or friendship formations is less well understood. In this paper, we explore the extent to which higher body weight results in social marginalization of adolescents. Using data from a nationally representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects that account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders to ascertain the effect of body weight on social network ties. We find that obese adolescents have fewer friends and are less socially integrated than their non-obese counterparts. We also find that such penalties in friendship networks are present among whites but not African-Americans or Hispanics, with the largest effect among white females. These results are robust to common environmental influences at the school-level and to controls for preferences, risk attitudes, low self-esteem and objective measures of physical attractiveness. PMID:22056235

  17. THE MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER BODIES (RIVERS FROM TISA CATCHMENT AREA - MARAMUREŞ COUNTY IN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in the Tisa catchment area. The results have shown the actual ecological and chemical state of those water bodies, in relation with the standard values mentioned through the Water Framework Directive.

  18. The Average Body Surface Area of Adult Cancer Patients in the UK: A Multicentre Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Joseph J.; Joanne Botten; Fergus Macbeth; Adrian Bagust; Peter Clark

    2010-01-01

    The majority of chemotherapy drugs are dosed based on body surface area (BSA). No standard BSA values for patients being treated in the United Kingdom are available on which to base dose and cost calculations. We therefore retrospectively assessed the BSA of patients receiving chemotherapy treatment at three oncology centres in the UK between 1(st) January 2005 and 31(st) December 2005.A total of 3613 patients receiving chemotherapy for head and neck, ovarian, lung, upper GI/pancreas, breast ...

  19. Geology, alteration, age dating and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in Halak Abad prospect area, NE Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maliheh Ghourchi; Mohammad Hassan Karimpour; J. Lang Farmer; Charles Stern

    2014-01-01

    The Halak Abad prospect occurs in the northeastern part of Central Iran zone (Sabzevar structural zone). In this investigation, geochemical evolution, age and source of part of northeastern Iran magmatic arc (intrusive bodies) in Halak Abad area in the Khorasan Razavi province has been studied. The exposed rocks consist of volcanic rocks with andesite and dacite nature, limestone, plutonic rocks mostly diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite and sedim...

  20. Implementation of Zero Proof Algorithm for Extended Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghna Garg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research work we have proposed a machine to machine model of authentication. This model is applicable where multiple electronic devices are working continuously 24 hours for monitoring and periodically need to have authentication proving their identity and to remain the member of the network . The proposed work is implemented on health care devices. These devices form the “internet of medical devices “or simply body sensor networks connected with internet backbone. The proposed security measures include implementation of Zero proof Key based authentication scheme to protect the network from getting compromised. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm shows that the algorithm proposed is better in terms of Hardening measures

  1. Channel-Based Key Generation for Encrypted Body-Worn Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Torre, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Body-worn sensor networks are important for rescue-workers, medical and many other applications. Sensitive data are often transmitted over such a network, motivating the need for encryption. Body-worn sensor networks are deployed in conditions where the wireless communication channel varies dramatically due to fading and shadowing, which is considered a disadvantage for communication. Interestingly, these channel variations can be employed to extract a common encryption key at both sides of the link. Legitimate users share a unique physical channel and the variations thereof provide data series on both sides of the link, with highly correlated values. An eavesdropper, however, does not share this physical channel and cannot extract the same information when intercepting the signals. This paper documents a practical wearable communication system implementing channel-based key generation, including an implementation and a measurement campaign comprising indoor as well as outdoor measurements. The results provide insight into the performance of channel-based key generation in realistic practical conditions. Employing a process known as key reconciliation, error free keys are generated in all tested scenarios. The key-generation system is computationally simple and therefore compatible with the low-power micro controllers and low-data rate transmissions commonly used in wireless sensor networks. PMID:27618051

  2. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  3. Positive Tensor Network Approach for Simulating Open Quantum Many-Body Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, A H; Jaschke, D; Silvi, P; Kliesch, M; Calarco, T; Eisert, J; Montangero, S

    2016-06-10

    Open quantum many-body systems play an important role in quantum optics and condensed matter physics, and capture phenomena like transport, the interplay between Hamiltonian and incoherent dynamics, and topological order generated by dissipation. We introduce a versatile and practical method to numerically simulate one-dimensional open quantum many-body dynamics using tensor networks. It is based on representing mixed quantum states in a locally purified form, which guarantees that positivity is preserved at all times. Moreover, the approximation error is controlled with respect to the trace norm. Hence, this scheme overcomes various obstacles of the known numerical open-system evolution schemes. To exemplify the functioning of the approach, we study both stationary states and transient dissipative behavior, for various open quantum systems ranging from few to many bodies. PMID:27341253

  4. A Survey on Temperature-Aware Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangman Moh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of the elderly population in the world and the rising cost of healthcare impose big issues for healthcare and medical monitoring. A Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN is comprised of small sensor nodes attached inside, on or around a human body, the main purpose of which is to monitor the functions and surroundings of the human body. However, the heat generated by the node’s circuitry and antenna could cause damage to the human tissue. Therefore, in designing a routing protocol for WBSNs, it is important to reduce the heat by incorporating temperature into the routing metric. The main contribution of this paper is to survey existing temperature-aware routing protocols that have been proposed for WBSNs. In this paper, we present a brief overview of WBSNs, review the existing routing protocols comparatively and discuss challenging open issues in the design of routing protocols.

  5. Infrastructure Assisted Data Dissemination for Vehicular Sensor Networks in Metropolitan Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erman-Tüysüz, Aysegül; Schwartz, Ramon S.; Dilo, Arta; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul; Daher, Robil; Vinel, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Sensor Networks (VSNs) are an emerging area of research that combines technologies developed in the domains of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) and Wireless Sensor Networks. Data dissemination is an important aspect of these networks. It enables vehicles to share relevant sensor data ab

  6. IP Connected Low Power Wireless Personal Area Networks in the Future Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg; Kjærgaard, Jens Kristian

    2012-01-01

    , and available energy and will suffer a high data loss rate when integrated into a network infrastructure. This poses significant challenges in the network design. This chapter describes the assumptions, technologies, and challenges for transmitting IPv6 over low power wireless personal area networks (Lo...

  7. Establishment of national 80 GPS surveying control network of Xiangshan uranium mine area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of Beijing 1954 surveying control network of Xiangshan uranium mine area is analyzed. With the national guidance of verification of mineral rights,the GPS tool is used to rebuild the national 1980 surveying control network of the uranium mine area. The general idea of establishing a network, construction program,and the accuracy evaluation are introduced. The practice shows that the accuracy of the surveying control network accords with the requirements of urban survey specifications, and this network can meet the requirements of the future mine development. (authors)

  8. Economic benefits of broadened local area networks for electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses economic benefits which influenced the choice of a broadband local area network for a power plant instead of an alternative multi-cable communication network. Broadband communication networks can offer significant economies over alternative technologies. One-time, cost avoidance savings and recurring annual savings are estimated to total $5.1 million in the first year. The cost/benefit analysis presented here can be used as a guide by other utilities to analyze communication networking alternatives. The paper also includes a discussion of local area network attributes relevant to the power plant installation

  9. The role of body surface area in quantity discrimination in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although some fish species have been shown to be able to discriminate between two groups (shoals) of conspecifics differing in the number of members, most studies have not controlled for continuous variables that covary with number. Previously, using angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) we started the systematic analysis of the potential influence of such continuous variables, and found that they play different roles in shoal discrimination depending on whether large (≥ 4 fish) or small (<4 fish) shoals were contrasted. Here, we examine the potential role of the overall body surface area of stimulus fish in shoal preference, a prominent variable not yet examined in angelfish. We report that both when numerically large (5 versus 10 fish) and when small (2 versus 3 fish) shoals were contrasted, angelfish were unable to discriminate the numerically different shoals as long as the surface area of the contrasted shoals was equated. Thus, we conclude that body surface may be an important continuous variable in shoal discrimination. This conclusion was further supported by the analysis of preference when shoals of the same numerical size but different body surface area were contrasted. We found subjects to spend significantly more time close to the shoals with the greater overall surface area. Last, we conducted an experiment in which we simultaneously controlled a set of continuous variables, including overall surface area, and found angelfish to use the number of shoal members as a cue only in large shoal contrasts but not in small shoal contrasts. This result suggests the potential existence of different processing systems for large and small numbers in fish. PMID:24386299

  10. The role of body surface area in quantity discrimination in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M Gómez-Laplaza

    Full Text Available Although some fish species have been shown to be able to discriminate between two groups (shoals of conspecifics differing in the number of members, most studies have not controlled for continuous variables that covary with number. Previously, using angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare we started the systematic analysis of the potential influence of such continuous variables, and found that they play different roles in shoal discrimination depending on whether large (≥ 4 fish or small (<4 fish shoals were contrasted. Here, we examine the potential role of the overall body surface area of stimulus fish in shoal preference, a prominent variable not yet examined in angelfish. We report that both when numerically large (5 versus 10 fish and when small (2 versus 3 fish shoals were contrasted, angelfish were unable to discriminate the numerically different shoals as long as the surface area of the contrasted shoals was equated. Thus, we conclude that body surface may be an important continuous variable in shoal discrimination. This conclusion was further supported by the analysis of preference when shoals of the same numerical size but different body surface area were contrasted. We found subjects to spend significantly more time close to the shoals with the greater overall surface area. Last, we conducted an experiment in which we simultaneously controlled a set of continuous variables, including overall surface area, and found angelfish to use the number of shoal members as a cue only in large shoal contrasts but not in small shoal contrasts. This result suggests the potential existence of different processing systems for large and small numbers in fish.

  11. Area Spectral and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Cellular Networks with Cell DTX

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Peiliang; Miao, Guowang

    2015-01-01

    Cell discontinuous transmission (DTX) has been proposed as an effective solution to reduce energy consumption of cellular networks. In this paper, we investigate the impact of network traffic load on area spectral efficiency (ASE) and energy efficiency (EE) of cellular networks with cell DTX. Closedform expressions of ASE and EE as functions of traffic load for cellular networks with cell DTX are derived. It is shown that ASE increases monotonically in traffic load, while EE depends on the po...

  12. Locating Users to Develop Location-Based Services in Wireless Local Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Royo, José Alberto; Mena Nieto, Eduardo; Gallego, Luis Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays the proliferation of mobile computing devices and local-area wireless networks has fostered a growing interest in location aware systems and services. The challenges of theses services are: 1) to discover the location of the user (or his device), 2) to minimize the network connections, due to the high communication cost, 3) to deal with continuous change of location, 4) to consider network disconnections, and 5) to adjust its behavior to low bandwidth networks. In this paper we descr...

  13. The application of iterative equalisation to high data rate wireless personal area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Lillie, AG; Nix, AR; Fletcher, PN; McGeehan, JP

    2002-01-01

    There is increasing demand for broadband wireless personal area networking devices, mainly fuelled by mobile multimedia applications such as wireless home networks. This paper investigates the suitability of iterative equalisation as a means of achieving low bit and packet error rates in a future high data rate personal area network standard. Baseband simulation results demonstrate the powerful ISI mitigation and error correcting performance of such receivers when operating in representative ...

  14. Catchments network on badlands around Mediterranean area (RESOBAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copard, Yoann; Lebouteiller, Caroline; Regues-Munoz, David; Latron, Jerome; Solé-Benet, Albert; Canton, Yolanda; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Della Seta, Marta; Rossi, Mauro; Capolongo, Domenico; Maquaire, Olivier; Forey, Estelle; Di-Giovanni, Christian; Gallart, Francesc; Delmonte, Maurizio; Vergari, Francesca; Massei, Nicolas; Torri, Dino

    2016-04-01

    Between 2013 and 2014, a network funded by MISTRALS-ENVIMED institution, was born around some instrumented catchments developing a badland-type morphology. This network has grouped 3 countries (France, Spain and Italy) with 12 scientific labs. RESOBAM has concerned two sites in France (Draix-Bléone and Vaches Noires), three in Spain (Vallcebre, Araguas and El Cautivo) and some sites in Italy (Tuscany, Basilicata). Main goal of this network was to federate the research around badlands at the European scale, by proposing some scientific topics as: sediment and water transports / budget, (bio)geochemical cycles, agricultural (farming), education, restoration, cultural heritage, soil conservation / biodiversity, climatic change etc. Other main interests were also to propose some common scientific projects and the development of students exchanges. This communication presents the synthesis of our four meetings held at Draix, Zaragoza, Almeriá and Rouen and some perspectives to continue this network.

  15. Complex network models reveal correlations among network metrics, exercise intensity and role of body changes in the fatigue process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Vanessa Helena; Gama, Maria Carolina Traina; Sousa, Filipe Antônio Barros; Lewis, Theodore Gyle; Gobatto, Claudio Alexandre; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia Barros

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were analyze the fatigue process at distinct intensity efforts and to investigate its occurrence as interactions at distinct body changes during exercise, using complex network models. For this, participants were submitted to four different running intensities until exhaustion, accomplished in a non-motorized treadmill using a tethered system. The intensities were selected according to critical power model. Mechanical (force, peak power, mean power, velocity and work) and physiological related parameters (heart rate, blood lactate, time until peak blood lactate concentration (lactate time), lean mass, anaerobic and aerobic capacities) and IPAQ score were obtained during exercises and it was used to construction of four complex network models. Such models have both, theoretical and mathematical value, and enables us to perceive new insights that go beyond conventional analysis. From these, we ranked the influences of each node at the fatigue process. Our results shows that nodes, links and network metrics are sensibility according to increase of efforts intensities, been the velocity a key factor to exercise maintenance at models/intensities 1 and 2 (higher time efforts) and force and power at models 3 and 4, highlighting mechanical variables in the exhaustion occurrence and even training prescription applications.

  16. Hash-area-based data dissemination protocol in wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tian; WANG Guo-jun; GUO Min-yi; JIA Wei-jia

    2008-01-01

    HashQuery, a Hash-area-based data dissemination protocol, was designed in wireless sensor networks. Using a Hash function which uses time as the key, both mobile sinks and sensors can determine the same Hash area. The sensors can send the information about the events that they monitor to the Hash area and the mobile sinks need only to query that area instead of flooding among the whole network, and thus much energy can be saved. In addition, the location of the Hash area changes over time so as to balance the energy consumption in the whole network. Theoretical analysis shows that the proposed protocol can be energy-efficient and simulation studies further show that when there are 5 sources and 5 sinks in the network, it can save at least 50% energy compared with the existing two-tier data dissemination(TTDD) protocol, especially in large-scale wireless sensor networks.

  17. Nuclear warhead verification system based on local area network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors built up a nuclear warhead verification system based on Local Area Network (LAN). The hardware of the system consists of an Intranet server, two personnel computers and a portable high pure germanium gamma-ray spectrometer. The software, Blanking-out, is made of two modules designed for the inspecting and inspected parties respectively. Both of the two modules are interactive and communicate through the Intranet. When the system operates, any sensitive information carried by the high energy resolved gamma-ray spectrum collected by the detector will be meddled by the inspected module before the package of spectral data is sent to the inspecting module to prevent a disclosure of sensitive information. After receiving of the spectral data, the inspecting module will display on the screen of the inspecting PC terminal the verification results in a from of blanked spectrum (spectral blanking-out form) or a form of a piece of phrase (phrase form). The guideline to the spectral blanking-out is that: for those ranges of energy obligated to be inspected, the inspected module should ensure that the inspecting module can display their truly and subjective spectrum; and for the other ranges of energy, the inspected module can blank-out certain parts of the spectra based on the knowledge of sensitive information. Phrase form is rather straight-forward, answering the question whether the inspected warhead is a 'uranium-type', or 'Plutonium-type' or 'non-nuclear type'. The authors conducted a demonstration on some surrogates for nuclear warheads to see whether the nuclear warhead verification system possesses that capability of identifying the type of a warhead and blanking sensitive spectral information. The demonstration was carried out successfully. Phrase form is especially recommendable due to its stronger capability to prevent sensitive information from disclosure and its higher verification credibility. The demonstration also disclosed some deficiencies of the

  18. Low Maintenance Wireless Network Architecture and Strategies For Mitigating Challenges In Implementing Wireless Networks and Wireless Sensor Networks in Dense Forests and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Samrat Pravin Patel; Sumeet S. Deshmukh; Anil R. Rajbhar

    2013-01-01

    An innovative ,cost effective and eco friendly approach for the implementation of wide area wireless network coverage forsurveillance, remote wireless sensing , monitoring and other usage in dense forest and rural areas in developing countries like India andAfrica .The paper gives an simplified layout for the network implementation for bridging the digital divide and the knowledge flowbetween the urban areas and the remote locations where telecom companies cannot reach easily or deploy networ...

  19. Efficient security mechanisms for mHealth applications using wireless body sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  20. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  1. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area north Greater Cairo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area.Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  2. Axioms for SNABOK, a System and Network Administration Body of Knowledge : missing link stage of ontology process

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    SNABOK, a system an network administration body of knowledge, is coined as an attempt to complement the well-known and quite influential SWEBOK (software engineering body of knowledge) for the less prominent but equally critical profession of system and network administration. General remarks concerning the scope and limits of a SNABOK are discussed and cast in terms of ‘axioms’. Preliminary to a Stoneman, Ironman or Steelman version which should eventually emerge, Missing Link work expresses...

  3. Management and development of local area network upgrade prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouser, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Given the situation of having management and development users accessing a central computing facility and given the fact that these same users have the need for local computation and storage, the utilization of a commercially available networking system such as CP/NET from Digital Research provides the building blocks for communicating intelligent microsystems to file and print services. The major problems to be overcome in the implementation of such a network are the dearth of intelligent communication front-ends for the microcomputers and the lack of a rich set of management and software development tools.

  4. Prediction of body mass index in mice using dense molecular markers and a regularized neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okut, Hayrettin; Gianola, Daniel; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Weigel, Kent A

    2011-06-01

    Bayesian regularization of artificial neural networks (BRANNs) were used to predict body mass index (BMI) in mice using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Data from 1896 animals with both phenotypic and genotypic (12 320 loci) information were used for the analysis. Missing genotypes were imputed based on estimated allelic frequencies, with no attempt to reconstruct haplotypes based on family information or linkage disequilibrium between markers. A feed-forward multilayer perceptron network consisting of a single output layer and one hidden layer was used. Training of the neural network was done using the Bayesian regularized backpropagation algorithm. When the number of neurons in the hidden layer was increased, the number of effective parameters, γ, increased up to a point and stabilized thereafter. A model with five neurons in the hidden layer produced a value of γ that saturated the data. In terms of predictive ability, a network with five neurons in the hidden layer attained the smallest error and highest correlation in the test data although differences among networks were negligible. Using inherent weight information of BRANN with different number of neurons in the hidden layer, it was observed that 17 SNPs had a larger impact on the network, indicating their possible relevance in prediction of BMI. It is concluded that BRANN may be at least as useful as other methods for high-dimensional genome-enabled prediction, with the advantage of its potential ability of capturing non-linear relationships, which may be useful in the study of quantitative traits under complex gene action. PMID:21481292

  5. THE MONITORING OF SURFACE WATER BODIES (RIVERS) FROM TISA CATCHMENT AREA - MARAMUREŞ COUNTY IN 2014

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA ANDREEA DESPESCU; S. NACU; BĂTINAŞ R

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on the monitoring and evaluation of river’s water bodies from Maramureş County, using the methodology associated with the EU Water Framework Directive 60/2000. Thus, in the first part are defined the theoretical terms of monitoring activities related to the water bodies’ quality and the specific features of those we can find in the studied area. There are presented the water bodies’ features, quality indicators and the monitoring frequencies for the rivers situated in th...

  6. Summary of the first meeting of ASEAN Network of Regulatory Bodies on Atomic Energy (ASEANTOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1st Meeting of ASEAN Network of Regulatory Bodies on Atomic Energy (ASEANTOM) was organized in Phuket, Thailand on 3 - 4 September, 2013. The meeting was held on annually basis following the Meeting to Finalize the Term of Reference (TOR) in Bangkok, Thailand on 29 August, 2012. The objective of the meeting is to review and finalize TOR, and to set up the action plan of ASEANTOM. The action plan is an expected outcome of the meeting. The Meeting consisted of 41 participants from IAEA and ASEAN Member States (AMS), namely, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Vietnam and Thailand. Only Brunei Darussalam could not attend the Meeting. Participant's organizations were regulatory body or relevant authorities, and Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

  7. An Adaptive Fault-Tolerant Communication Scheme for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zichuan Xu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A high degree of reliability for critical data transmission is required in body sensor networks (BSNs. However, BSNs are usually vulnerable to channel impairments due to body fading effect and RF interference, which may potentially cause data transmission to be unreliable. In this paper, an adaptive and flexible fault-tolerant communication scheme for BSNs, namely AFTCS, is proposed. AFTCS adopts a channel bandwidth reservation strategy to provide reliable data transmission when channel impairments occur. In order to fulfill the reliability requirements of critical sensors, fault-tolerant priority and queue are employed to adaptively adjust the channel bandwidth allocation. Simulation results show that AFTCS can alleviate the effect of channel impairments, while yielding lower packet loss rate and latency for critical sensors at runtime.

  8. Towards Interactive Medical Content Delivery Between Simulated Body Sensor Networks and Practical Data Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaobo; Li, Wei; Song, Jeungeun; Hossain, M Shamim; Mizanur Rahman, Sk Md; Alelaiwi, Abdulhameed

    2016-10-01

    With the development of IoT (Internet of Thing), big data analysis and cloud computing, traditional medical information system integrates with these new technologies. The establishment of cloud-based smart healthcare application gets more and more attention. In this paper, semi-physical simulation technology is applied to cloud-based smart healthcare system. The Body sensor network (BSN) of system transmit has two ways of data collection and transmission. The one is using practical BSN to collect data and transmitting it to the data center. The other is transmitting real medical data to practical data center by simulating BSN. In order to transmit real medical data to practical data center by simulating BSN under semi-physical simulation environment, this paper designs an OPNET packet structure, defines a gateway node model between simulating BSN and practical data center and builds a custom protocol stack. Moreover, this paper conducts a large amount of simulation on the real data transmission through simulation network connecting with practical network. The simulation result can provides a reference for parameter settings of fully practical network and reduces the cost of devices and personnel involved. PMID:27562482

  9. Secure and Efficient Data Transmission over Body Sensor and Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Challa Narasimha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the transmission of medical and context-aware data from mobile patients to healthcare centers over heterogeneous wireless networks. A handheld device, called personal wireless hub (PWH, of each mobile patient first gathers and aggregates the vital sign and context-aware data for various telemedicine applications. PWH transmits the aggregated data to the remote healthcare center over multiple wireless interfaces such as cellular, WLAN, and WiMAX. The aggregated data contain both periodic data and those nonperiodic unpredictable emergency messages that are sporadic and delayintolerant. This paper addresses the problem of providing QoS (e.g., minimum delay, sufficient data rate, acceptable blocking, and/or dropping rate by designing a packet scheduling and channel/network allocation algorithm over wireless networks. The proposed resource-efficient QoS mechanism is simple and collaborates with an adaptive security algorithm. The QoS and security are achieved mainly with the collaboration of differentiator, delay monitor, data classifier, and scheduler modules within the PWH. This paper also discusses secure data transmission over body sensor networks by introducing key establishment and management algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed framework achieves low-blocking probability, meets delay requirements, and provides energy-efficient secure communication for the combination of vital signs and context-aware data.

  10. Secure and Efficient Data Transmission over Body Sensor and Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhur Sikri

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the transmission of medical and context-aware data from mobile patients to healthcare centers over heterogeneous wireless networks. A handheld device, called personal wireless hub (PWH, of each mobile patient first gathers and aggregates the vital sign and context-aware data for various telemedicine applications. PWH transmits the aggregated data to the remote healthcare center over multiple wireless interfaces such as cellular, WLAN, and WiMAX. The aggregated data contain both periodic data and those nonperiodic unpredictable emergency messages that are sporadic and delayintolerant. This paper addresses the problem of providing QoS (e.g., minimum delay, sufficient data rate, acceptable blocking, and/or dropping rate by designing a packet scheduling and channel/network allocation algorithm over wireless networks. The proposed resource-efficient QoS mechanism is simple and collaborates with an adaptive security algorithm. The QoS and security are achieved mainly with the collaboration of differentiator, delay monitor, data classifier, and scheduler modules within the PWH. This paper also discusses secure data transmission over body sensor networks by introducing key establishment and management algorithms. Simulation results show that the proposed framework achieves low-blocking probability, meets delay requirements, and provides energy-efficient secure communication for the combination of vital signs and context-aware data.

  11. Mining Emerging Sequential Patterns for Activity Recognition in Body Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Chen, Hanhua;

    2010-01-01

    Body Sensor Networks oer many applications in healthcare, well-being and entertainment. One of the emerging applications is recognizing activities of daily living. In this paper, we introduce a novel knowledge pattern named Emerging Sequential Pattern (ESP)|a sequential pattern that discovers...... signicant class dierences|to recognize both simple (i.e., sequential) and complex (i.e., interleaved and concurrent) activities. Based on ESPs, we build our complex activity models directly upon the sequential model to recognize both activity types. We conduct comprehensive empirical studies to evaluate and...

  12. Implementation of SNS Model for Intrusion Prevention in Wireless Local Area Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isah, Abdullahi

    The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria.......The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria....

  13. The study of real security of WiFi networks in selected area

    OpenAIRE

    Kühnel, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the real security of WiFi networks in selected areas. The main objective is to determine what knowledge users have about the security of WiFi networks using a questionnaire and to find out what is the real security of access points in the monitoring area WiFi networks. At the beginning, the work provides information on WiFi technology, security, possible attacks on WiFi networks and basic configuration of the wireless access point. The second part of this work is to evalu...

  14. Integration of quantum key distribution in metropolitan area networks

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, Andreas; Schrenk, Bernhard; Hipp, Florian; Peev, Momtchil; Aleksic, Slavisa; Franzl, Gerald; Ciurana Aguilar, Alex; Martín Ayuso, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The deployment of Quantum Key Distribution forces the development of QKD-links to be operated in current and next-generation photonic metro-access networks. These highly heterogeneous architectures determine the conditions QKD-links need to be optimized for.

  15. The provosion of wide-area networking facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The academic community in the United Kingdom is currently engaged in an extensive programme to provide comprehensive networking facilities within and among the 47 universities and numerous research institutions in the British Isles. The programme is described and the possible provision of similar facilities on an international scale discussed. (orig.)

  16. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation

    OpenAIRE

    Andam, Kwaw S.; Ferraro, Paul J.; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G. Arturo; Robalino, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighbo...

  17. Area law and vacuum reordering in harmonic networks

    OpenAIRE

    Riera, A.; Latorre, J I

    2006-01-01

    We review a number of ideas related to area law scaling of the geometric entropy from the point of view of condensed matter, quantum field theory and quantum information. An explicit computation in arbitrary dimensions of the geometric entropy of the ground state of a discretized scalar free field theory shows the expected area law result. In this case, area law scaling is a manifestation of a deeper reordering of the vacuum produced by majorization relations. Furthermore, the explicit contro...

  18. Dense wavelength division multiplexing devices for metropolitan-area datacom and telecom networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCusatis, Casimer M.; Priest, David G.

    2000-12-01

    Large data processing environments in use today can require multi-gigabyte or terabyte capacity in the data communication infrastructure; these requirements are being driven by storage area networks with access to petabyte data bases, new architecture for parallel processing which require high bandwidth optical links, and rapidly growing network applications such as electronic commerce over the Internet or virtual private networks. These datacom applications require high availability, fault tolerance, security, and the capacity to recover from any single point of failure without relying on traditional SONET-based networking. These requirements, coupled with fiber exhaust in metropolitan areas, are driving the introduction of dense optical wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) in data communication systems, particularly for large enterprise servers or mainframes. In this paper, we examine the technical requirements for emerging nextgeneration DWDM systems. Protocols for storage area networks and computer architectures such as Parallel Sysplex are presented, including their fiber bandwidth requirements. We then describe two commercially available DWDM solutions, a first generation 10 channel system and a recently announced next generation 32 channel system. Technical requirements, network management and security, fault tolerant network designs, new network topologies enabled by DWDM, and the role of time division multiplexing in the network are all discussed. Finally, we present a description of testing conducted on these networks and future directions for this technology.

  19. An evaluation of Access Tier local area network switches.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, John M.; Olsberg, Ronald R.

    2004-06-01

    This reports tabulates the Test and Evaluation results of the Access Class Switch tests conducted by members of Department 9336. About 15 switches were reviewed for use in the enterprise network as access tier switches as defined in a three tier architecture. The Access Switch Tier has several functions including: aggregate customer desktop ports, preserve and apply QoS tags, provide switched LAN access, provide VLAN assignment, as well as others. The typical switch size is 48 or less user ports. The evaluation team reviewed network switch evaluation reports from the Tolly Group as well as other sources. We then used these reports as a starting point to identify particular switches for evaluation. In general we reviewed the products of dominant equipment manufacturers. Also, based on architectural design requirements, the majority of the switches tested were of relatively small monolithic unit variety.

  20. Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, William W.; Labov, Simon E.

    2009-06-09

    A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

  1. LHCNet: Wide Area Networking and Collaborative Systems for HEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, H.B,

    2007-08-20

    This proposal presents the status and progress in 2006-7, and the technical and financial plans for 2008-2010 for the US LHCNet transatlantic network supporting U.S. participation in the LHC physics program. US LHCNet provides transatlantic connections of the Tier1 computing facilities at Fermilab and Brookhaven with the Tier0 and Tier1 facilities at CERN as well as Tier1s elsewhere in Europe and Asia. Together with ESnet, Internet2, the GEANT pan-European network, and NSF’s UltraLight project, US LHCNet also supports connections between the Tier2 centers (where most of the analysis of the data will take place, starting this year) and the Tier1s as needed.See report

  2. Overview of HEP wide area networking: Producer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prime role of HEP network producers is to understand user requirements and to translate them into policies and solutions; the next stage is to manage in a collaborative way the resulting services. Close coordination is essential, and concrete steps have been taken by HEP in Europe and the USA to set up the appropriate management structures. External constraints also exist (PTTs, policies on standards, ...) and the HEP network provider has to accomodate all these components in the planning of future services. This paper mainly discusses what has been achieved worldwide by HEP in this context - a set of coordinated conventional services using multivendor and proprietary protocols and mainly based on leased lines - and what can be expected in the coming years: advanced services consistent with the Supercomputer-Workstation era, based on high (megabit) to very high (hundred megabit) links. This is required to actually achieve collaborative and distributed processing of HEP data. (orig.)

  3. LHCNet: Wide Area Networking and Collaborative Systems for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal presents the status and progress in 2006-7, and the technical and financial plans for 2008-2010 for the US LHCNet transatlantic network supporting U.S. participation in the LHC physics program. US LHCNet provides transatlantic connections of the Tier1 computing facilities at Fermilab and Brookhaven with the Tier0 and Tier1 facilities at CERN as well as Tier1s elsewhere in Europe and Asia. Together with ESnet, Internet2, the GEANT pan-European network, and NSF's UltraLight project, US LHCNet also supports connections between the Tier2 centers (where most of the analysis of the data will take place, starting this year) and the Tier1s as needed.See report

  4. Associations between Area-Level Unemployment, Body Mass Index, and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in an Urban Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Gauvin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD has been linked to "neighbourhood" socioeconomic status (nSES, often operationalized as a composite index of aggregate income, occupation and education within predefined administrative boundaries. The role of specific, non-composite socioeconomic markers has not been clearly explained. It is also unclear whether the relationship between nSES and CVD varies according to sex. We sought to determine whether area-level unemployment (ALU was associated with CVD risk, and whether this association differed by sex. Methods: 342 individuals from the Montreal Neighbourhood Survey of Lifestyle and Health provided self-reported behavioural and socioeconomic information. A nurse collected biochemical and anthropometric data. ALU, a weighted average of the proportion of persons 15-years and older available for but without work, was measured using a Geographic Information System for a 250 m buffer centred on individual residence. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate the associations between ALU, body mass index (BMI and a cumulative score for total cardiometabolic risk (TCR. Results: After confounder adjustments, the mean 4th minus 1st quartile difference in BMI was 3.19 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.39, 3.99, while the prevalence ratio for the 4th relative to 1st quartile for TCR was 2.20 (95 % CI: 1.53, 3.17. Sex interacted with ALU; women relative to men had greater mean 3.97 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.08, 5.85 BMI and greater mean TCR 1.51 (95% CI: 0.78, 2.90, contrasted at mean ALU. Conclusions: Area-level unemployment is associated with greater CVD risk, and this association is stronger for women.

  5. Router deployment of Streetside Parking Sensor Networks in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Trista; Rivano, Hervé; Le Mouël, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    International audience The deployment of urban infrastructure is very important for urban sensor applications. In this paper, we studied and introduced the deployment strategy of wireless on-street parking sensor networks. We defined a multiple-objective problem with four objectives, and solved them with real street parking map. The results show two sets of Pareto Front with the minimum energy consumption, sensing information delay and the amount of deployed routers and gateways. The resul...

  6. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Pirbhulal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Body Sensor Network (BSN is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG, Photoplethysmography (PPG, Electrocardiogram (ECG, etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA, Data Encryption Standard (DES and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA. Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption.

  7. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption. PMID:26131666

  8. An Efficient Biometric-Based Algorithm Using Heart Rate Variability for Securing Body Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirbhulal, Sandeep; Zhang, Heye; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra; Li, Chunyue; Wang, Yumei; Li, Guanglin; Wu, Wanqing; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Body Sensor Network (BSN) is a network of several associated sensor nodes on, inside or around the human body to monitor vital signals, such as, Electroencephalogram (EEG), Photoplethysmography (PPG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), etc. Each sensor node in BSN delivers major information; therefore, it is very significant to provide data confidentiality and security. All existing approaches to secure BSN are based on complex cryptographic key generation procedures, which not only demands high resource utilization and computation time, but also consumes large amount of energy, power and memory during data transmission. However, it is indispensable to put forward energy efficient and computationally less complex authentication technique for BSN. In this paper, a novel biometric-based algorithm is proposed, which utilizes Heart Rate Variability (HRV) for simple key generation process to secure BSN. Our proposed algorithm is compared with three data authentication techniques, namely Physiological Signal based Key Agreement (PSKA), Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA). Simulation is performed in Matlab and results suggest that proposed algorithm is quite efficient in terms of transmission time utilization, average remaining energy and total power consumption. PMID:26131666

  9. Combinatorial analysis of body sensor networks subject to probabilistic competing failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) have been developed to provide wearable, real-time health monitoring systems for many life-critical applications that require a high level of reliability. Therefore it is significant to analyze the reliability attribute of BSNs, contributing to their reliable designs and operations. This paper models reliability of BSNs subject to probabilistic competing failures. Specifically, in a BSN system, biomedical sensors sense physiological information that is then transmitted through a relay node to a sink device used by decision makers. When the relay fails, these sensors may be isolated in transmission with certain probabilities, depending on whether the remaining power can enable a long-range, direct transmission to the sink. This isolation effect prevents the system from being compromised by further failures of those sensors. However, biomedical sensors may experience propagated failures. If any of the propagated failures occurs before the relay failure, the entire system can fail. Therefore, there exists a competition in time domain between probabilistic failure isolation and propagation effects. This paper considers such probabilistic competing effects and different statistical relationships between local and propagated failures of sensors in reliability analysis of BSNs. A case study is given to illustrate application and advantages of the proposed combinatorial method. - Highlights: • Reliability of body sensor networks subject to probabilistic competing failures is modeled. • Different statistical relationships between local and propagated failures of biomedical sensors are considered. • A combinatorial method is suggested

  10. Adenylate Kinase and AMP Signaling Networks: Metabolic Monitoring, Signal Communication and Body Energy Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Terzic

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7 are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. Metabolomic analyses indicate that cellular, interstitial and blood AMP levels are potential metabolic signals associated with vital functions including body energy sensing, sleep, hibernation and food intake. Either low or excess AMP signaling has been linked to human disease such as diabetes, obesity and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. Moreover, hormonal, food and antidiabetic drug actions are frequently coupled to alterations of cellular AMP levels and associated signaling. Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network.

  11. Selecting/realization of Virtual Private Networks with Multiprotocol Label Switching or Virtual Local Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ögren, Niklas

    2002-01-01

    Many reports have been written about the techniques behind Virtual Private Networks (VPN) and Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS). They usually deal with the low level design of the software implementing a specific technique. The initial products are usually not mature enough to run in a large network or have to be adjusted in some way to fit. This report investigates the different ways of implementing strict layer 2 Virtual Private Networks in an existing nation-wide Gigabit Ethernet. The ...

  12. WAVNet: Wide-Area Network virtualization technique for Virtual Private Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Di, S; Zhang, W.; Cheng, L.; Xu, Z.; Wang, CL

    2011-01-01

    A Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) is a secure collection of computing, storage and network resources spanning multiple sites over Wide Area Network (WAN). With VPC, computation and services are no longer restricted to a fixed site but can be relocated dynamically across geographical sites to improve manageability, performance and fault tolerance. We propose WAVNet, a layer 2 virtual private network (VPN) which supports virtual machine live migration over WAN to realize mobility of execution envir...

  13. Policy Refinement for Traffic Management in Home Area Networks: Problem Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, Annie Ibrahim; O Foghlu, Micheal

    2009-01-01

    Traditional home area network (HAN) equipment is usually unmanaged and network traffic is served in best effort fashion. This type of unmanaged network sometimes causes quality-of-service issues in the HAN, for example loss of quality in streamed video or audio content. Traffic management rules using policies to prioritise certain types of traffic according to user requirements and to assign bandwidth limits to other traffic types. However very little work has been done yet addressing the ...

  14. Area law and vacuum reordering in harmonic networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review a number of ideas related to area-law scaling of the geometric entropy from the point of view of condensed matter, quantum field theory, and quantum information. An explicit computation in arbitrary dimensions of the geometric entropy of the ground state of a discretized scalar free field theory shows the expected area law result. In this case, area-law scaling is a manifestation of a deeper reordering of the vacuum produced by majorization relations. Furthermore, the explicit control on all the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix allows for a verification of entropy loss along the renormalization group trajectory driven by the mass term. A further result of our computation shows that single-copy entanglement also obeys area law scaling, majorization relations, and decreases along renormalization group flows

  15. Augmentation of blood circulation to the fingers by warming distant body areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Paul, S.; Tranchida, D.; Linder, I. V.

    2000-01-01

    Future activities in space will require greater periods of time in extreme environments in which the body periphery will be vulnerable to chilling. Maintaining the hands and fingers in comfortable conditions enhances finger flexibility and dexterity, and thus effects better work performance. We have evaluated the efficacy of promoting heat transfer and release by the extremities by increasing the blood flow to the periphery from more distant parts of the body. The experimental garment paradigm developed by the investigators was used to manipulate the temperature of different body areas. Six subjects, two females and four males, were evaluated in a stage-1 baseline condition, with the inlet temperature of the circulating water in the liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) at 33 degrees C. At stage 2 the total LCWG water inlet temperature was cooled to 8 degrees C, and at stage 3 the inlet water temperature in specific segments of the LCWG was warmed (according to protocol) to 45 degrees C, while the inlet temperature in the rest of the LCWG was maintained at 8 degrees C. The following four body-area-warming conditions were studied in separate sessions: (1) head, (2) upper torso/arm, (3) upper torso/arm/head, and (4) legs/feet. Skin temperature, heat flux and blood perfusion of the fingers, and subjective perception of thermal sensations and overall physical comfort were assessed. Finger temperature (T(fing)) analyses showed a statistically significant condition x stage interaction. Post-hoc comparisons (T(fing)) indicated that at stage 3, the upper torso/arm/head warming condition was significantly different from the head, upper torso/arm and legs/feet conditions, showing an increase in T(fing). There was a significant increase in blood perfusion in the fingers at stage 3 in all conditions. Subjective perception of hand warmth, and overall physical comfort level significantly increased in the stage 3 upper torso/arm/head condition. The findings indicate that

  16. Area γ radiation monitoring network systems based on totally integrated automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It introduces a kind of Area γ Radiation Monitoring Network Systems based on Totally Integrated Automation. It features simple and safe process control, easy integration of information network, field bus and field instrumentation, modular design and powerful system expansion, implements management and control integration, is positive importance for localization of Radiation Monitoring System. (authors)

  17. Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN 802.15.4 standard)

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzoev, Dr. Timur

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript will provide a brief overview on Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPAN) for 802.15.4 protocol standard which was approved by IEEE Computer Society in May 2003. 802.15.4 standard presents some advantages for structuring sensor networks and other types of applications that require low rate communications. Some security considerations will also be presented.

  18. Implementation of SNS Model for Intrusion Prevention in Wireless Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Isah, Abdullahi

    2015-01-01

    The thesis has proposed and implemented a so-called SNS (Social network security) model for intrusion prevention in the Wireless Local Area Network of an organization. An experimental design was used to implement and test the model at a university in Nigeria.

  19. Modern Agricultural Digital Management Network Information System of Heilongjiang Reclamation Area Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Chun; Zhuang, Wei Dong; Yang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    To meet the need of agriculture management modernization of Heilongjiang reclamation area, further boost large-scale integration level of modern agriculture production and boost management level of agriculture production.On Red Farm, we have established the digital management network information system with the remote sensor technology, GIS technology, GPS technology, database technology, network technology, agriculture intelligent technology, multimedia technology, information auto acquired ...

  20. Metropolitian area network services comprised of virtual local area networks running over hybrid fiber-coax and asynchronous transfer mode technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, William S.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1990 there has been a rapid increase in the demand for communication services, especially local and wide area network (LAN/WAN) oriented services. With the introduction of the DFB laser transmitter, hybrid-fiber-coax (HFC) cable plant designs, ATM transport technologies and rf modems, new LAN/WAN services can now be defined and marketed to residential and business customers over existing cable TV systems. The term metropolitan area network (MAN) can be used to describe this overall network. This paper discusses the technical components needed to provision these services as well as provides some perspectives on integration issues. Architecture at the headend and in the backbone is discussed, as well as specific service definitions and the technology issues associated with each. The TCP/IP protocol is suggested as a primary protocol to be used throughout the MAN.

  1. Scalable Spectrum Sharing Mechanism for Local Area Networks Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Costa, Gustavo Wagner Oliveira; Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt;

    2010-01-01

    The availability on the market of powerful and lightweight mobile devices has led to a fast diffusion of mobile services for end users and the trend is shifting from voice based services to multimedia contents distribution. The current access networks are, however, able to support relatively low...... data rates and with limited Quality of Service (QoS). In order to extend the access to high data rate services to wireless users, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) established new requirements for future wireless communication technologies of up to 1Gbps in low mobility and up to 100Mbps...

  2. Modeling the bacterial flagellum by an elastic network of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speier, C.; Vogel, R.; Stark, H.

    2011-08-01

    Bacteria such as Escherichia coli propel themselves by rotating a bundle of helical filaments, each driven by a rotary motor embedded in the cell membrane. Each filament is an assembly of thousands of copies of the protein flagellin which assumes two different states. We model the filament by an elastic network of rigid bodies that form bonds with one another according to a scheme suggested by Namba and Vondervistz (1997 Q. Rev. Biophys. 30 1-65) and add additional binding sites at the inner part of the rigid body. Our model reproduces the helical parameters of the 12 possible polymorphic configurations very well. We demonstrate that its energetical ground state corresponds to the normal helical form, usually observed in nature, only when inner and outer binding sites of the rigid body have a large axial displacement. This finding correlates directly to the elongated shape of the flagellin molecule. An Ising Hamiltonian in our model directly addresses the two states of the flagellin protein. It contains an external field that represents external parameters which allow us to alter the ground state of the filament.

  3. STIMULUS: End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh-Ha, Payman [University of New Mexico

    2014-09-12

    The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.

  4. Scale-dependent effects of habitat area on species interaction networks: invasive species alter relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiura Shinji

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The positive relationship between habitat area and species number is considered a fundamental rule in ecology. This relationship predicts that the link number of species interactions increases with habitat area, and structure is related to habitat area. Biological invasions can affect species interactions and area relationships. However, how these relationships change at different spatial scales has remained unexplored. We analysed understory plant–pollinator networks in seven temperate forest sites at 20 spatial scales (radius 120–2020 m to clarify scale-associated relationships between forest area and plant–pollinator networks. Results The pooled data described interactions between 18 plant (including an exotic and 89 pollinator (including an exotic species. The total number of species and the number of interaction links between plant and pollinator species were negatively correlated with forest area, with the highest correlation coefficient at radii of 1520 and 1620 m, respectively. These results are not concordant with the pattern predicted by species–area relationships. However, when associations with exotic species were excluded, the total number of species and the number of interaction links were positively correlated with forest area (the highest correlation coefficient at a radius of 820 m. The network structure, i.e., connectance and nestedness, was also related to forest area (the highest correlation coefficients at radii of 720–820 m, when associations with exotics were excluded. In the study area, the exotic plant species Alliaria petiolata, which has invaded relatively small forest patches surrounded by agricultural fields, may have supported more native pollinator species than initially expected. Therefore, this invasive plant may have altered the original relationships between forest area and plant–pollinator networks. Conclusions Our results demonstrate scale-dependent effects of forest

  5. Signal Transmission in a Human Body Medium-Based Body Sensor Network Using a Mach-Zehnder Electro-Optical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The signal transmission technology based on the human body medium offers significant advantages in Body Sensor Networks (BSNs used for healthcare and the other related fields. In previous works we have proposed a novel signal transmission method based on the human body medium using a Mach-Zehnder electro-optical (EO sensor. In this paper, we present a signal transmission system based on the proposed method, which consists of a transmitter, a Mach-Zehnder EO sensor and a corresponding receiving circuit. Meanwhile, in order to verify the frequency response properties and determine the suitable parameters of the developed system, in-vivo measurements have been implemented under conditions of different carrier frequencies, baseband frequencies and signal transmission paths. Results indicate that the proposed system will help to achieve reliable and high speed signal transmission of BSN based on the human body medium.

  6. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment.

  7. Geotechnology-Based Modeling to Optimize Conservation of Forest Network in Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Mingjun; Zhou, Zhixiang; Wang, Pengcheng; Xiao, Wenfa; Wu, Changguang; Lord, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Forest network development in urban areas faces the challenge from forest fragmentation, human-induced disturbances, and scarce land resources. Here, we proposed a geotechnology-based modeling to optimize conservation of forest network by a case study of Wuhan, China. The potential forest network and their priorities were assessed using an improved least-cost path model and potential utilization efficiency estimation. The modeling process consists of four steps: (i) developing species assemblages, (ii) identifying core forest patches, (iii) identifying potential linkages among core forest patches, and (iv) demarcating forest networks. As a result, three species assemblages, including mammals, pheasants, and other birds, were identified as the conservation targets of urban forest network (UFN) in Wuhan, China. Based on the geotechnology-based model, a forest network proposal was proposed to fulfill the connectivity requirements of selected species assemblages. The proposal consists of seven forest networks at three levels of connectivity, named ideal networks, backbone networks, and comprehensive network. The action priorities of UFN plans were suggested to optimize forest network in the study area. Additionally, a total of 45 forest patches with important conservation significance were identified as prioritized stepping-stone patches in the forest network development. Urban forest conserve was also suggested for preserving woodlands with priority conservation significance. The presented geotechnology-based modeling is fit for planning and optimizing UFNs, because of the inclusion of the stepping-stone effects, human-induced pressures, and priorities. The framework can also be applied to other areas after a sensitivity test of the model and the modification of the parameters to fit the local environment. PMID:26661451

  8. Canalization and control in automata networks: body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Marques-Pita

    Full Text Available We present schema redescription as a methodology to characterize canalization in automata networks used to model biochemical regulation and signalling. In our formulation, canalization becomes synonymous with redundancy present in the logic of automata. This results in straightforward measures to quantify canalization in an automaton (micro-level, which is in turn integrated into a highly scalable framework to characterize the collective dynamics of large-scale automata networks (macro-level. This way, our approach provides a method to link micro- to macro-level dynamics--a crux of complexity. Several new results ensue from this methodology: uncovering of dynamical modularity (modules in the dynamics rather than in the structure of networks, identification of minimal conditions and critical nodes to control the convergence to attractors, simulation of dynamical behaviour from incomplete information about initial conditions, and measures of macro-level canalization and robustness to perturbations. We exemplify our methodology with a well-known model of the intra- and inter cellular genetic regulation of body segmentation in Drosophila melanogaster. We use this model to show that our analysis does not contradict any previous findings. But we also obtain new knowledge about its behaviour: a better understanding of the size of its wild-type attractor basin (larger than previously thought, the identification of novel minimal conditions and critical nodes that control wild-type behaviour, and the resilience of these to stochastic interventions. Our methodology is applicable to any complex network that can be modelled using automata, but we focus on biochemical regulation and signalling, towards a better understanding of the (decentralized control that orchestrates cellular activity--with the ultimate goal of explaining how do cells and tissues 'compute'.

  9. Left extrastriate body area is sensitive to the meaning of symbolic gesture: evidence from fMRI repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Agnieszka; Króliczak, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation (a.k.a. repetition suppression) paradigm was used to test if semantic information contained in object-related (transitive) pantomimes and communicative (intransitive) gestures is represented differently in the occipito-temporal cortex. Participants watched 2.75 s back-to-back videos where the meaning of gesture was either repeated or changed. The just observed (typically second) gesture was then imitated. To maintain participants' attention, some trials contained a single video. fMRI adaptation -signal decreases- for watching both movement categories were observed particularly in the lateral occipital cortex, including the extrastriate body area (EBA). Yet, intransitive (vs. transitive) gesture specific repetition suppression was found mainly in the left rostral EBA and caudal middle temporal gyrus- the rEBA/cMTG complex. Repetition enhancement (signal increase) was revealed in the precuneus. While the whole brain and region-of-interest analyses indicate that the precuneus is involved only in visuospatial action processing for later imitation, the common EBA repetition suppression discloses sensitivity to the meaning of symbolic gesture, namely the "semantic what" of actions. Moreover, the rEBA/cMTG suppression reveals greater selectivity for conventionalized communicative gesture. Thus, fMRI adaptation shows higher-order functions of EBA, its role in the semantic network, and indicates that its functional repertoire is wider than previously thought. PMID:27528007

  10. Autonomous Management of a Recursive Area Hierarchy for Large Scale Wireless Sensor Networks using Multiple Parents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Delgado-Frias, Jose

    2016-03-15

    Large scale wireless sensor networks have been proposed for applications ranging from anomaly detection in an environment to vehicle tracking. Many of these applications require the networks to be distributed across a large geographic area while supporting three to five year network lifetimes. In order to support these requirements large scale wireless sensor networks of duty-cycled devices need a method of efficient and effective autonomous configuration/maintenance. This method should gracefully handle the synchronization tasks duty-cycled networks. Further, an effective configuration solution needs to recognize that in-network data aggregation and analysis presents significant benefits to wireless sensor network and should configure the network in a way such that said higher level functions benefit from the logically imposed structure. NOA, the proposed configuration and maintenance protocol, provides a multi-parent hierarchical logical structure for the network that reduces the synchronization workload. It also provides higher level functions with significant inherent benefits such as but not limited to: removing network divisions that are created by single-parent hierarchies, guarantees for when data will be compared in the hierarchy, and redundancies for communication as well as in-network data aggregation/analysis/storage.

  11. Geology, alteration, age dating and petrogenesis of intrusive bodies in Halak Abad prospect area, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Ghourchi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Halak Abad prospect occurs in the northeastern part of Central Iran zone (Sabzevar structural zone. In this investigation, geochemical evolution, age and source of part of northeastern Iran magmatic arc (intrusive bodies in Halak Abad area in the Khorasan Razavi province has been studied. The exposed rocks consist of volcanic rocks with andesite and dacite nature, limestone, plutonic rocks mostly diorite, quartz diorite, monzodiorite, quartz monzonite, granodiorite and granite and sedimentary rocks such as limestone, sandstone and conglomerate. Magnetic susceptibility of intrusive rocks is >100 × 10-5 SI, so they belong to the magnetite-series (oxidized. This magmatism is mainly low-K (tholeiite series and meta-aluminous. The amounts of Zr, Th, Nb and Ti show depletion compared to N-MORB. Trace elements behavior shows a nearly flat pattern. Age of granodiorite body based on U-Pb zircon dating is 99.7±1.8 Ma (Mid-Cretaceous and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio is 0.7047. The geochemical signature and 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio in the area suggest volcanic arc magmatism in subduction zone. This magmatism has characteristic such as high Na2O (3-7 %, low K2O (0.12-1 %, high CaO (4-5.7%, low Rb (1-20 ppm, low total REE (<40 ppm, high Ba/Nb, Sm/Yb<2, (La/YbN<5, 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio < 0.7045 and εNd: +4.5 show differences with normal granitoids in subduction zones. Geochemical and petrological characteristics indicate melting in relatively low pressure (shallow depth. The lines of evidence demonstrate that formation of this granitoid needs a suprasubduction zone.

  12. The Effects of Profile Pictures and Friends' Comments on Social Network Site Users' Body Image and Adherence to the Norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to explore the effects of exposure to Facebook body ideal profile pictures and norm conforming comments on users' body image. In addition, the social identity and self-categorization theoretical frameworks were used to explore users' endorsement of a body ideal norm. A mock Facebook page was used to conduct a pretest posttest 2 × 2 between-group web-based experiment that featured body ideal profile pictures (body ideal vs. no body) and body ideal comments (conforming vs. nonconforming). Five hundred and one participants completed the experiment and passed all manipulation checks. Participants viewed pictures and comments on the status page and were able to leave their own comment before exiting. Results demonstrated no significant main effects. However, predispositional body satisfaction significantly moderated the relationship between body ideal pictures and body satisfaction. Most comments supported the body ideal norm. However, in support of self-categorization theory, participants exposed to nonconforming comments made nonconforming comments themselves significantly more than those exposed to conforming comments. The findings demonstrated the importance of continued body image research in social network sites, as well as the potential for self-categorization theory to guide such research. PMID:26991764

  13. Scale-dependent effects of habitat area on species interaction networks: invasive species alter relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura Shinji; Taki Hisatomo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The positive relationship between habitat area and species number is considered a fundamental rule in ecology. This relationship predicts that the link number of species interactions increases with habitat area, and structure is related to habitat area. Biological invasions can affect species interactions and area relationships. However, how these relationships change at different spatial scales has remained unexplored. We analysed understory plant–pollinator networks in s...

  14. Reconfigurable hardware applications on NetFPGA for network monitoring in large area sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A valuable functionality for sensor networks, distributed in large volumes is the capability to characterize and analyze the data traffic at wire speed and monitor the data prior to committing to permanent storage. As a demonstrator we use a reconfigurable hardware router for real-time monitoring of data before their transmission to further processing and storage. The reconfigurable hardware router is based on the NetFPGA platform. In this study we report on the hardware implementation to monitor web-based network applications and compare our results with a software based network analyzer

  15. Communications protocols for a fault tolerant, integrated local area network for Space Station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the Space Station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated,local area networks capable of supporting data, voice and video communications. In addition, fault tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard Space Station of day-to-day data system repair tasks. An experimental, local area network is being developed which will serve as a testbed for investigating candidate algorithms and technologies for a fault tolerant, integrated network. The establishment of a set of rules or protocols which govern communications on the net is essential to obtain orderly and reliable operation. A hierarchy of protocols for the experimental network is presented and procedures for data and control communications are described.

  16. Main concept of local area network protection on the basis of the SAAM 'TRAFFIC'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our previous paper we developed a system for acquisition, analysis and management of the network traffic (SAAM 'Traffic') for a segment of the JINR local area computer network (JINR LAN). In our present work we consider well-known scenarios of attacks on local area networks and propose protection methods based on the SAAM 'Traffic'. Although the system for LAN protection is installed on a router computer, it is not analogous to the firewall scheme and, thus, it does not hinder the performance of distributed network applications. This provides a possibility to apply such an approach to GRID-technologies, where network protection on the firewall basis can not be basically used. (author)

  17. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. PMID:26109476

  18. Determination of the chromospheric quiet network element area index and its variation between 2008 and 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jagdev Singh; Ravindra Belur; Selvendran Raju; Kumaravel Pichaimani; Muthu Priyal; Thambaje Gopalan Priya; Amareswari Kotikalapudi

    2012-01-01

    In general,it is believed that plages and sunspots are the main contributors to solar irradiance.There are small-scale structures on the Sun with intermediate magnetic fields that could also contribute to solar irradiance,but it has not yet been quantified how many of these small scale structures contribute and how much this varies over the solar cycle.We used Ca Ⅱ K images obtained from the telescope at the Kodaikanal observatory.We report a method to separate the network elements from the background structure and plage regions,and compute the changes in the network element area index during the minimum phase of the solar cycle and part of the ascending phase of cycle 24.The measured area occupied by the network elements is about 30% and the plages cover less than 1% of the solar disk during the observation period from February 2008 to 2011.During the extended period of minimum activity,it is observed that the network element area index decreases by about 7% compared to the area occupied by the network elements in 2008.A long term study of the network element area index is required to understand the variations over the solar cycle.

  19. Wireless power delivery for wearable sensors and implants in Body Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Hackwoth, Steve A; Liu, Xiaoyu; Li, Chengliu; Sun, Mingui

    2010-01-01

    A recent study on witricity (wireless electricity) has demonstrated that wireless energy can be delivered over a moderate distance using strongly coupled magnetic resonance. The objective of this work is to apply the witricity technology to the problem of powering a wireless Body Sensor Network (wBSN). The theory of witricity is investigated using coupled mode theory. Compact witricity resonators are designed, and a working prototype of witricity powered wBSN is built and evaluated. An energy transfer efficiency of about 80 % over a distance of 15 cm is achieved. Besides the high efficiency, it has been observed that a certain misalignment between the transmitter and receiver has little effect on the power transfer. Our experimental results indicate that witricity provides a powerful solution to the energy supply problem of wBSN. PMID:21095665

  20. An Active Cooperation-Aware Spectrum Allocation Mechanism for Body Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cognitive radio-based spectrum allocation scheme using an active cooperative-aware mechanism is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures that the primary user and secondary users cooperate actively for their own benefits. The primary user releases some spectrum resources to secondary users to actively stimulate them to actively join the cooperative transmission of the primary user, and secondary users help the primary user to relay data in return, as well as its self-data transmission at the same time. The Stackelberg game is used to evenly and jointly optimize the utilities of both the primary and secondary users. Simulation results show that the proposed active cooperation-aware mechanism could improve the body sensor network performance.